WorldWideScience

Sample records for included studies include

  1. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bruntsch

    2017-04-01

    criticism. Generating unique variance in irony detection, ironic praise can be postulated as worthwhile to include in future studies—especially when studying the role of mental ability, personality, and humor in irony detection.

  2. Study on 'Tannix' an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasuo

    1997-01-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ''Tannix'' was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ''Tannix'' was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  3. Study on `Tannix` an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yasuo [Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ``Tannix`` was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ``Tannix`` was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  4. A study of helicopter stability and control including blade dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A linearized model of rotorcraft dynamics has been developed through the use of symbolic automatic equation generating techniques. The dynamic model has been formulated in a unique way such that it can be used to analyze a variety of rotor/body coupling problems including a rotor mounted on a flexible shaft with a number of modes as well as free-flight stability and control characteristics. Direct comparison of the time response to longitudinal, lateral and directional control inputs at various trim conditions shows that the linear model yields good to very good correlation with flight test. In particular it is shown that a dynamic inflow model is essential to obtain good time response correlation, especially for the hover trim condition. It also is shown that the main rotor wake interaction with the tail rotor and fixed tail surfaces is a significant contributor to the response at translational flight trim conditions. A relatively simple model for the downwash and sidewash at the tail surfaces based on flat vortex wake theory is shown to produce good agreement. Then, the influence of rotor flap and lag dynamics on automatic control systems feedback gain limitations is investigated with the model. It is shown that the blade dynamics, especially lagging dynamics, can severly limit the useable values of the feedback gain for simple feedback control and that multivariable optimal control theory is a powerful tool to design high gain augmentation control system. The frequency-shaped optimal control design can offer much better flight dynamic characteristics and a stable margin for the feedback system without need to model the lagging dynamics.

  5. Peace psychology should include the study of peaceful individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Linden L

    2014-09-01

    The selection of topics for the special issue on peace psychology (October 2013) probably gave readers the impression that peace psychology should be defined as the study of conflict and peace at intergroup, societal, and global levels. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  7. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  8. [Characteristics and cardiovascular events in a general population included in the RICARTO (RIesgo CARdiovascular TOledo) study: Data from the first 1,500 individuals included in the study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Roca, G C; Segura-Fragoso, A; Villarín-Castro, A; Alonso-Moreno, F J; Rodríguez-Padial, L; Rodríguez-García, M L; Fernández-Conde, J A; Rojas-Martelo, G A; Menchén-Herreros, A; Escobar-Cervantes, C; Fernández-Martín, J; Artigao-Rodenas, L M; Carbayo-Herencia, J A; Hernández-Moreno, J

    2017-08-28

    The aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular risk (CVR) by investigating the prevalence of CVR factors (CVRF), target organ damage (TOD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general population of the health area of Toledo, Spain. Epidemiological and observational study that analysed a sample from the general population aged 18years or older, randomly selected from a database of health cards stratified by age and gender. Clinical history, physical examination, and complementary tests were performed. Total blood and serum samples were frozen at -85°C to evaluate genetic studies in the future. Standard statistical analysis was performed. CVR was assessed by the SCORE scale calibrated for the Spanish population, and the Framingham Heart Study scale. A total of 1,500 individuals (mean age 49.1±15.8years, 55.6% women) were included. Prevalences: dyslipidaemia 56.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 54.3-59.4), hypertension 33.0% (95%CI: 30.6-35.4), diabetes mellitus 8.6% (95%CI: 7.17-10.1), smoking 24.2% (95%CI; 122.0-26.4), obesity 25.3% (95%CI; 23.1-27.5), and sedentary life-style 39.4% (95%CI; 36.9-41.8). No CVRF was reported in 21.1% of cases, and 18.6% had 3-5 CVRF. TOD: electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, 4.3%, peripheral artery disease, 10.1% (Doppler ultrasound), and 15.3% (oscillometric device), microalbuminuria, 4.3%, sub-clinical renal disease, 3.2%, and nephropathy in 3.8% (CKD-EPI). At least one CVD was reported in 9.2% of cases. A low CVR (SCORE) was present in 44.6% of individuals. Dyslipidaemia was found in 60% of individuals, 40% had a sedentary life-style, 30% with hypertension, 20% smoked, 20% obesity, and almost 10% with diabetes. More than a half of individuals have a moderate-high-very high risk. The prevalence of TOD and CVD are significant. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Including non-public data and studies in systematic reviews and systematic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal R; Collins, Alexandra M; Coughlin, Deborah; Kohl, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Systematic reviews and maps should be based on the best available evidence, and reviewers should make all reasonable efforts to source and include potentially relevant studies. However, reviewers may not be able to consider all existing evidence, since some data and studies may not be publicly available. Including non-public studies in reviews provides a valuable opportunity to increase systematic review/map comprehensiveness, potentially mitigating negative impacts of publication bias. Studies may be non-public for many reasons: some may still be in the process of being published (publication can take a long time); some may not be published due to author/publisher restrictions; publication bias may make it difficult to publish non-significant or negative results. Here, we consider what forms these non-public studies may take and the implications of including them in systematic reviews and maps. Reviewers should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of including non-public studies, weighing risks of bias against benefits of increased comprehensiveness. As with all systematic reviews and maps, reviewers must be transparent about methods used to obtain data and avoid risks of bias in their synthesis. We make tentative suggestions for reviewers in situations where non-public data may be present in an evidence base. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis: including visually impaired participants in validation design studies of diabetes technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslan, Mark; Blubaugh, Morgan

    2010-09-01

    In an article in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Sherwyn Schwartz, M.D., presents a study to validate the design of the ClikSTAR® insulin pen from sanofi-aventis and demonstrates that the device can be used correctly by participants with diabetes. Concern with this article lies with the selection of participants, which was meant to reflect the intended audience for the insulin pen device but does not address the inclusion of visually impaired individuals, who comprise over 20% of the adult diabetes population. Visually impaired individuals need to be included as part of the intended audience for insulin administration technology, and manufacturers of these devices need to design their products for safe use by all people, including those who are visually impaired. The study demonstrated successful use of the ClikSTAR insulin pen in a population that did not include subjects with severe visual impairment. We believe that future validation studies for insulin administration technology should also include samples of visually impaired users and that visually impaired patients will embrace the use of insulin pens designed with their needs in mind. © 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  11. Conducting Accessible Research: Including People With Disabilities in Public Health, Epidemiological, and Outcomes Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Dianne; Magasi, Susan; Novak, Catherine; Harniss, Mark

    2016-12-01

    People with disabilities are largely absent from mainstream health research. Exclusion of people with disabilities may be explicit, attributable to poorly justified exclusion criteria, or implicit, attributable to inaccessible study documents, interventions, or research measures. Meanwhile, people with disabilities experience poorer health, greater incidence of chronic conditions, and higher health care expenditure than people without disabilities. We outline our approach to "accessible research design"-research accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. We describe a model that includes 3 tiers: universal design, accommodations, and modifications. Through our work on several large-scale research studies, we provide pragmatic examples of accessible research design. Making efforts to include people with disabilities in public health, epidemiological, and outcomes studies will enhance the interpretability of findings for a significant patient population.

  12. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  13. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  14. A pre-feasibility case study on integrated resource planning including renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Pelin; Hakan Hocaoglu, M.; Konukman, Alp Er S.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, economical and environmental constraints force governments and energy policy decision-makers to change the prominent characteristics of the electricity markets. Accordingly, depending on local conditions on the demand side, usage of integrated resource planning approaches in conjunction with renewable technologies has gained more importance. In this respect, an integrated resource planning option, which includes the design and optimization of grid-connected renewable energy plants, should be evaluated to facilitate a cost-effective and green solution to a sustainable future. In this paper, an integrated resource planning case is studied for an educational campus, located in Gebze, Turkey. It is found that for the considered campus, the integrated resource planning scenario that includes renewables as a supply-side option with existing time-of-use tariff may provide a cost-effective energy production, particularly for the high penetration level of the renewables. (author)

  15. Consumption of peptide-included and free tryptophan induced by peroxyl radicals: A kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, E; López-Alarcón, C

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that tryptophan residues are efficiently oxidized by peroxyl radicals, generating kynurenine, and N-formyl kynurenine as well as hydroperoxide derivatives as products. In the present work we studied the kinetic of such reaction employing free and peptide-included tryptophan. Two azocompounds were used to produce peroxyl radicals: AAPH (2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride) and ABCVA (4,4'-Azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid)), which generate cationic and anionic peroxyl radicals, respectively. Tryptophan consumption was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy and the reactions were carried out in phosphate buffer (75mM, pH 7.4) at 45°C. Only a slight effect of the peroxyl radical charge was evidenced on the consumption of free tryptophan and the dipeptide Gly-Trp. Employing AAPH as peroxyl radical source, at low free tryptophan concentrations (1-10µM) near 0.3 mol of tryptophan were consumed per each mol of peroxyl radicals introduced into the system. However, at high free tryptophan concentrations (100µM-1mM) such stoichiometry increased in a tryptophan concentration-way. At 1mM three moles of tryptophan were consumed per mol of AAPH-derived peroxyl radicals, evidencing the presence of chain reactions. A similar behavior was observed when di and tri-peptides (Gly-Trp, Trp-Gly, Gly-Trp-Gly, Trp-Ala, Ala-Trp-Ala) were studied. Nonetheless, at low initial concentration (5µM), the initial consumption rate of tryptophan included in the peptides was two times higher than free tryptophan. In contrast, at high concentration (1mM) free and peptide-included tryptophan showed similar initial consumption rates. These results could be explained considering a disproportionation process of tryptophanyl radicals at low free tryptophan concentrations, a process that would be inhibited when tryptophan is included in peptides. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  17. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  18. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  19. [Histopathological characteristics of genital and breast cancer included in epidemiologic study cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Mioara; Azoicăi, Doina

    2009-01-01

    The correct management of genitals and breast cancers and the improving of the preventional and therapeutical successes ratio involve the knowledge of the histopathological features of these nosological entities which have different origins, different risk factors, different simptomatology and also different prognosis. The descriptive evaluation of the histopathological features of the genitals and breast cancers to women from North-Eastern region of Romania. We have been included in the study 96 women (age range 23-77 years, mean 54,49) diagnosed with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer and cervical cancer at the hospital admission, residency in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics within 23 months. The following main parameters were assessed: histological types, stage at diagnosis, Pap test. After data collection, these have been codified and included in a MS Excel Database, in order to be processed with SPSS 16 and EpiInfo 3.5.1. (2008) Softwares. The following cases' repartition on diagnostic types was observed: breast cancer (44 cases), cervical cancer (24 cases), endometrial cancer (16 cases) and ovarian cancer (12 cases). In our study, the most affected range of age was 40-69 years for breast cancer, 30-59 years for cervical cancer, over 6 years for endometrial cancer and 50-59 years for ovarian cancer. For the cervical neoplasia, 40% of analyzed cases were in incipient stages (in situ to IB stage lessions). More than 50% of breast cancer cases have been diagnosed in advances stages (IIB to IIIC stages). For the endometrium carcinoma, 45% of cases have been identified in incipient stages (in situ to IC). The ovarian neoplasia cases have been detected, most frequently, in advanced stages (III and IV). 25% of women which participated in our study had showed cervical changes. From a histopathological point of view, for cervical neoplasia, squamous carcinoma was the most frequent type (87%), for breast neoplasia--invasive ductal carcinoma (80

  20. The value of including spirometry in health checks - a randomized controlled study in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Ottesen, Anders Løkke; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise

    Background Lung diseases are among the most frequent and most serious ailments in Denmark. Preventive health checks including spirometry can be used to detect lung diseases earlier. Over time the attendance at preventive health checks has decreased and at present the response rate is approximately...... 50%. Little is known about initiatives that can influence the attendance rate. Objectives To examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation material will influence the attendance in preventive health checks. Materiel/Methods Design: A randomized controlled study on information...... on spirometry embedded in “Check your health Prevention Program, CHPP” from 2015-16. CHPP is a house-hold cluster randomized controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30-49 year olds in a Danish municipality during the years 2012 through to 2017 (n= 26,216), carried out in collaboration between...

  1. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  2. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-01

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries

  3. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L.; Rollo, Megan E.; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G.; Garg, Manohar L.; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E.

    2017-01-01

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers. PMID:28216582

  4. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E

    2017-02-14

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design ( n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records ( n = 7), 24-h diet recalls ( n = 5), food frequency questionnaires ( n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener ( n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority ( n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers ( r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  5. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Burrows

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9. Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7, 24-h diet recalls (n = 5, food frequency questionnaires (n = 3 and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1. Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11 automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25. This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  6. Adult exposures from MDCT including multiphase studies: first Italian nationwide survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palorini, Federica; Origgi, Daniela [Fisica Sanitaria Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan (Italy); Granata, Claudio [UOC di Radiologia Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa (Italy); Matranga, Domenica [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze per la Promozione della Salute e Materno-infantile ' ' G. D' Alessandro' ' , Palermo (Italy); Salerno, Sergio [Policlinico Universita di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Palermo (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the radiation dose in routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations in Italian population. This was a retrospective multicentre study included 5,668 patients from 65 radiology departments who had undergone common CT protocols: head, chest, abdomen, chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP), spine and cardiac. Data included patient characteristics, CT parameters, volumetric CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose length product (DLP) for each CT acquisition phase. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and a multi-regression analysis was used to outline the main factors affecting exposure. The 75th percentiles of CTDI{sub vol} (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for whole head were 69 mGy and 1,312 mGy cm, respectively; for chest, 15 mGy and 569 mGy cm; spine, 42 mGy and 888 mGy cm; cardiac, 7 mGy and 131 mGy cm for calcium score, and 61 mGy and 1,208 mGy cm for angiographic CT studies. High variability was present in the DLP of abdomen and CAP protocols, where multiphase examinations dominated (71 % and 73 % respectively): for abdomen, 18 mGy, with 555 and 920 mGy cm in abdomen and abdomen-pelvis acquisitions respectively; for CAP, 17 mGy, with 508, 850 and 1,200 mGy cm in abdomen, abdomen-pelvis and CAP acquisitions respectively. The results of this survey could help in the definition of updated diagnostic reference levels (DRL). (orig.)

  7. Adult exposures from MDCT including multiphase studies: first Italian nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palorini, Federica; Origgi, Daniela; Granata, Claudio; Matranga, Domenica; Salerno, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the radiation dose in routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations in Italian population. This was a retrospective multicentre study included 5,668 patients from 65 radiology departments who had undergone common CT protocols: head, chest, abdomen, chest–abdomen–pelvis (CAP), spine and cardiac. Data included patient characteristics, CT parameters, volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) for each CT acquisition phase. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and a multi-regression analysis was used to outline the main factors affecting exposure. The 75th percentiles of CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for whole head were 69 mGy and 1,312 mGy cm, respectively; for chest, 15 mGy and 569 mGy cm; spine, 42 mGy and 888 mGy cm; cardiac, 7 mGy and 131 mGy cm for calcium score, and 61 mGy and 1,208 mGy cm for angiographic CT studies. High variability was present in the DLP of abdomen and CAP protocols, where multiphase examinations dominated (71 % and 73 % respectively): for abdomen, 18 mGy, with 555 and 920 mGy cm in abdomen and abdomen–pelvis acquisitions respectively; for CAP, 17 mGy, with 508, 850 and 1,200 mGy cm in abdomen, abdomen–pelvis and CAP acquisitions respectively. The results of this survey could help in the definition of updated diagnostic reference levels (DRL). • Radiation dose associated with multidetector CT (MDCT) is an important health issue. • This national survey assessed dose exposures of 5,668 patients undergoing MDCT. • Dose indices correlate with BMI, voltage, rotation time, pitch and tube current. • These results may contribute to an update of national diagnostic reference levels.

  8. Neuroendocrine tumours of the pancreas: a clinicopathological study of nine cases including six insulinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaiem, F; Arfa, N; Ben Hassen, E; Lahmar, A; Bouraoui, S

    2014-06-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNET) are relatively uncommon, accounting for 1-2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. They are characterised by varying clinical presentation, tumour biology and prognosis. To provide an updated overview on clinicopathological features, treatment and outcome of pNET. In our retrospective study, we reviewed 9 cases of pNET that were diagnosed at the Pathology Department of Mongi Slim Hospital over an 11-year period (2003- 2013). Relevant clinical information and microscopic slides were available in all cases and were retrospectively reviewed. The latest WHO classification (2010) was adopted. Our study group included 3 men and 6 women (M/F ratio 0.5) with an age between 20 and 75 years (mean = 52 years). Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours ranged in size from 0.5 to 10 cm (mean 4 cm). The sites of pNET were the head of the pancreas (n = 4), the body of the pancreas (n = 3) and the tail of the pancreas (n = 2). Enucleation of the tumour was performed in five cases, Three patients underwent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, whereas only one patient had central pancreatectomy. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen coupled with immunohistochemical study established a diagnosis of pNET grade 1 (G1) in seven cases and grade 2 (G2) in two cases. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with distinct tumour genetics, biology and clinicopathological features. Accurate clinical and pathologic diagnosis is an important first step in developing an appropriate management plan.

  9. [Baseline clinical characteristics and management of patients included in IBERICAN study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, V; Escobar, C; Llisterri, J L; Rodríguez Roca, G; Badimón, J J; Vergara, J; Prieto, M Á; Serrano, A; Cinza, S; Murillo, C

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular events in Spain, as well as the quality of the follow-up in clinical practice. In this study the baseline data of the first interim analysis of IBERICAN are shown (n=830). IBERICAN is a multicenter, longitudinal and observational population-based study of patients daily attended in primary care setting according to clinical practice in Spain. Subjects between 18 and 85 years daily attended in primary care setting are being included consecutively. Treatment of patients will be performed according only to clinical criteria of investigators. Blood pressure control was defined according to 2013 European guidelines of hypertension; LDL-cholesterol control was defined according to 2012 European guidelines of cardiovascular prevention; diabetes control was defined as HbA1ccardiovascular risk factors with a poor control. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Periictal and interictal headache including migraine in Dutch patients with epilepsy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, W A; Hageman, G; de Weerd, A W

    2015-03-01

    As early as in 1898, it was noted that there was a need to find "a plausible explanation of the long recognized affinities of migraine and epilepsy". However, results of recent studies are clearly conflicting on this matter. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to define the prevalence and characteristics of both seizure-related and interictal headaches in patients with epilepsy (5-75years) seeking help in the tertiary epilepsy clinic SEIN in Zwolle. Using a questionnaire, subjects were surveyed on the existence of headaches including characteristics, duration, severity, and accompanying symptoms. Furthermore, details on epilepsy were retrieved from medical records (e.g., syndrome, seizure frequency, and use of drugs). Diagnoses of migraine, tension-type headache, or unclassifiable headache were made based on criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Between March and December 2013, 29 children and 226 adults were evaluated, 73% of whom indicated having current headaches, which is significantly more often when compared with the general population (pheadache, while 29% had solely seizure-related headaches and 22% had both. Migraine occurs significantly more often in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population (pheadaches conforms to results in the general population. These results show that current headaches are a significantly more frequent problem amongst people with epilepsy than in people without epilepsy. When comparing migraine prevalence, this is significantly higher in the population of patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Including the online feedback site, Patient Opinion, in the nursing curriculum: Exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ray; Young, Kim; Munro, James; Miller, Heather; Brelsford, Stephanie; Aronsson, Jennie; Goodman, Benny; Peters, Jane

    2017-10-01

    Globally, universities aim to involve people who use health services to enrich the nursing curriculum for students, but there can be barriers to this involvement. Many also want students to contribute to local communities. Online communication can help connect students to service users to achieve these aims. The online British patient feedback site, Patient Opinion, gathers comments from service users about services and encourages service responses to the comments. To explore the feasibility and acceptability of five ways of including Patient Opinion in the undergraduate nursing curriculum. Five case studies using mixed data collection methods. British University with nursing students across two campuses, accustomed to using webinars, video presentations and social media. Students from different years participated in the five approaches of making use of Patient Opinion in the curriculum; 18 students took part in an online forum to discuss Patient Opinion in the curriculum. We trialled timetabled webinars, video-linked lectures, optional enhanced access for self-study, optional audit of service user comments for two local hospitals, and optional Twitter and Tweetchat. Students discussed the aims and approaches in an online forum. Of the five approaches trialled, webinars seemed effective in ensuring that all nursing students engaged with the topic. Video-linked lectures provided an alternative when timetabling did not allow webinars, but were less interactive. The three optional approaches (Tweetchats, audit exercise, self-directed study) provided opportunities for some students to enhance their learning but students needed guidance. Sending a summary of student reviews of patients' feedback to local hospitals illustrated how students might be agents of change in local health services. Experience from these case studies suggests that webinars followed by use of Patient Opinion preparing for placements may be a sustainable way of embedding feedback sites in the

  12. Including an Autistic Middle School Child in General Physical Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristen J.; Block, Martin E.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a brain disorder that affects a person's social, communication, and behavioral skills. Social deficits are noted by the child's lack of interest or inability to interact with peers and family members. This article highlights some of the successful methods and techniques used to include an autistic middle school child in a general…

  13. Should abdominal sequences be included in prostate cancer MR staging studies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, S.H., E-mail: sineadhmcevoy@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Lavelle, L.P.; Purcell, Y.M. [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Quinlan, D.M. [Department of Urology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Skehan, S.J.; Collins, C.D.; McMahon, C.J. [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • ESUR guideline that abdominal MR sequences are reserved for high-risk prostate cancer is tested. • Routine abdominal sequences are of low yield in prostate cancer MR staging. • Routine abdominal staging sequences frequently result in incidental findings. • Abdominal staging sequences should be reserved for high-risk prostate cancer cases. - Abstract: Objectives: Prostate cancer staging MR examinations commonly include abdominal sequences to assess for non-regional (common iliac or para-aortic) nodal metastasis. In our experience the diagnostic yield of this is limited, but incidental findings are frequent, often necessitating further investigations. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic utility of abdominal sequences in routine prostate cancer MR staging studies. Methods: Findings on abdominal sequences of consecutive MRI prostate studies performed for staging newly diagnosed prostate cancer between September 2011 and September 2013 were reviewed with respect to adenopathy and additional incidental findings. Results were correlated with Gleason grade and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in each case. Results: 355 MRI prostate examinations were reviewed. 4 (1.1%) showed enlarged non-regional lymph nodes. Incidental findings were found in 82(23.1%) cases, neccessitating further investigation in 45 (12.7%) cases. Enlarged non-regional nodes were associated with higher PSA level and Gleason grade (p = 0.007, p = 0.005 respectively). With a combined threshold of PSA > 20 ng/mL and/or Gleason grade ≥8 the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 100, 60, 3 and 100% respectively for predicting the presence of non-regional adenopathy. Conclusions: Routine abdominal sequences are of very low yield in routine prostate cancer MR staging, frequently resulting in incidental findings requiring further work-up and should be reserved for high-risk cases. Our experience supports the use of an abdominal staging sequence in high

  14. A Study of the Radiotherapy Techniques for the Breast Including Internal Mammary Lymph Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyoung Keun; Shim, Su Jung; You, Sei Hwan; Kim, Yong Bae; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Jong Dae; Suh, Chang Ok [Yonsei Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    This study was designed to determine the optimum radiotherapy technique for internal mammary node (IMN) irradiation after breast-conserving surgery. We selected ten cases of early stage partial mastectomy for plan comparison. Five of the patients were treated to the right-side breast and the rest of the patients were treated to the left-side breast. For each case, four different treatment plans were made to irradiate the entire breast, IMNs and supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCLs). The four planning techniques include a standard tangential field (STF), wide tangential field (WTF), partially wide tangential field (PWT) and a photon-electron mixed field (PEM). We prescribed a dose of 50.4 Gy to the SCL field at a 3 cm depth and isocenter of the breast field. The dose distribution showed clear characteristics depending on the technique used. All of the techniques covered the breast tissue well. IMN coverage was also good, except for the STF, which was not intended to cover IMNs. For the cases of the left-side breasts, the volume of the heart that received more than 30 Gy was larger (in order) for the WTF, PWT, PEM and STF. For radiation pneumonitis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the PWT showed the best results followed by the STF. Despite the variety of patient body shapes, the PWT technique showed the best results for coverage of IMNs and for reducing the lung and heart dose.

  15. A Study of the Radiotherapy Techniques for the Breast Including Internal Mammary Lymph Nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kyoung Keun; Shim, Su Jung; You, Sei Hwan; Kim, Yong Bae; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Jong Dae; Suh, Chang Ok

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the optimum radiotherapy technique for internal mammary node (IMN) irradiation after breast-conserving surgery. We selected ten cases of early stage partial mastectomy for plan comparison. Five of the patients were treated to the right-side breast and the rest of the patients were treated to the left-side breast. For each case, four different treatment plans were made to irradiate the entire breast, IMNs and supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCLs). The four planning techniques include a standard tangential field (STF), wide tangential field (WTF), partially wide tangential field (PWT) and a photon-electron mixed field (PEM). We prescribed a dose of 50.4 Gy to the SCL field at a 3 cm depth and isocenter of the breast field. The dose distribution showed clear characteristics depending on the technique used. All of the techniques covered the breast tissue well. IMN coverage was also good, except for the STF, which was not intended to cover IMNs. For the cases of the left-side breasts, the volume of the heart that received more than 30 Gy was larger (in order) for the WTF, PWT, PEM and STF. For radiation pneumonitis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the PWT showed the best results followed by the STF. Despite the variety of patient body shapes, the PWT technique showed the best results for coverage of IMNs and for reducing the lung and heart dose

  16. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2016-11-01

    When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

  17. United Kingdom nationwide study of avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S N; Palmer, N O A; Lowe, D; Randall, C

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to record all new patients who presented to departments of oral surgery, oral medicine, and oral and maxillofacial surgery, and to dental hospitals in the UK, with avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis (BRONJ) over a 2-year period (1 June 2009-31 May 2011). They were eligible irrespective of age, cause, or coexisting conditions. Data on incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, and coexisting conditions were collected. A total of 383 cases were registered: 369 were described as BRONJ, 5 as avascular necrosis, and 9 were unknown. Bisphosphonates had been given orally in 207 (56%), intravenously in 125 (34%), both orally and intravenously in 27 (7%), and was unknown in 9 (2%); one had been given denosumab. The main risk factor was dental extraction, and the mandible was commonly affected. The median duration of administration until onset of BRONJ was 3 years in those treated intravenously and 4 years in those treated orally. Levels of engagement with the study varied between regions, and extrapolation from the 2 most involved (Merseyside and Northern Ireland) found around 8.2-12.8 cases/million/year, which is 508-793 patients/year across the UK. To our knowledge this is one of the first studies to estimate national rates of BRONJ. It confirms that the risk and incidence are low. With changes in trends for antiresorptive bone medication, and increasing numbers of elderly people, it would be useful to repeat the registration in the future. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Resu...

  19. Slowly progressive fluent aphasia; Clinical features and an imaging study including MRI, SPECT and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Momose, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Iwata, Makoto (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Bando, Mitsuaki

    1991-05-01

    Three patients with slowly progressive fluent aphasia are reported. One of the patients presented with memory disturbance. They were characterized clinically by having selective deficits in vocabulary, which resulted in impairment of confrontation naming, and auditory comprehension. MRI showed an atrophy not only in the left temporal lobe (including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri), hippocampus, parahippocampual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, but also in the left parietal lobe. I-123 IMP SPECT and F-18 FDG PET were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral metabolic rate, respectively. In addition to the decreased tracer uptake in the left temporal and/or parietal lobe, a decreased uptake was seen in the bilateral basal ganglia, the inner side of the temporal lobe (including the bilateral hippocampus), the right anterior temporal lobe, and the left thalamus. These findings may deny the previous thought that lesions are localized in slowly progressive fluent aphasia. Furthermore, noticeable difficulty in naming, i.e., patients unable to recognize the right answer, are considered attributable to widespread lesions from the whole left temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, to the right temporal lobe. (N.K.).

  20. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Underrepresented communities: including the Portuguese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research article emanates from a doctoral study which investigated the potential inclusion of the records generated by South African Portuguese community-based organisations into a workable archival collecting initiative of the community. The specific purpose of this article is to report on the current status of ...

  2. Configuration interaction studies on the spectroscopic properties of PbO including spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luo; Rui, Li; Zhiqiang, Gai; RuiBo, Ai; Hongmin, Zhang; Xiaomei, Zhang; Bing, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Lead oxide (PbO), which plays the key roles in a range of research fields, has received a great deal of attention. Owing to the large density of electronic states and heavy atom Pb including in PbO, the excited states of the molecule have not been well studied. In this work, high level multireference configuration interaction calculations on the low-lying states of PbO have been carried out by utilizing the relativistic effective core potential. The effects of the core-valence correlation correction, the Davidson modification, and the spin-orbital coupling on the electronic structure of the PbO molecule are estimated. The potential energy curves of 18 Λ-S states correlated to the lowest dissociation limit (Pb (3Pg) + O(3Pg)) are reported. The calculated spectroscopic parameters of the electronic states below 30000 cm-1, for instance, X1Σ+, 13Σ+, and 13Σ-, and their spin-orbit coupling interaction, are compared with the experimental results, and good agreements are derived. The dipole moments of the 18 Λ-S states are computed with the configuration interaction method, and the calculated dipole moments of X1Σ+ and 13Σ+ are consistent with the previous experimental results. The transition dipole moments from 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ to X1Σ+ and other singlet excited states are estimated. The radiative lifetime of several low-lying vibrational levels of 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ states are evaluated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404180 and 11574114), the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. A2015010), the University Nursing Program for Young Scholars with Creative Talents in Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. UNPYSCT-2015095), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20150101003JC).

  3. Elaboration of a guide including relevant project and logistic information: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)

  4. [Links between life events, traumatism and dementia; an open study including 565 patients with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, E; Bouby-Serieys, V; Thomas, P; Clément, J-P

    2006-10-01

    Ageing is due to a progressive loss of the person's adaptation capability, whereas during this period environmental aggression increases. In the elderly, life events re-present a psychological traumatism that overwhelms the old person and related family, disrupting and fragilising homeostatic balance. A number of authors have suggested a possible link between life traumatisms and the dementia processes. The aim of this study is to reveal the presence of life traumatisms preceding the apparition of the dementia syndrome. This is a retrospective and comparative work based on the PIXEL study on complaints and demands from the principle informal caregivers of Alzheimer patients. It includes 565 patients presenting the criterion of dementia as defined by the DSM IV, and questionnaires filled out by the principle caregivers. One item of the questionnaire referred to life events which could have played a part in the development of the disorder. In a second stage, the reported events were classified into 4 distinct categories: loss, repeated or prolonged stress, psychotraumatism and depression-inducing events. The statistics were produced using SAS and Stat 10 software. Student's test, ANOVA and chi2-test were used. 372 caregivers answered the first item (65%); 76 of them believed there was no event while 296 related the disorder to one or several life events (79% of responders, 52% of the sample). These results confirm Persson and Clement's study which evidenced a higher frequency of stressing life events for subjects afflicted with dementia as compared with older people without any psychic disorder. Reported events and their respective frequency: spouse death (15.39%), parents' death (15%), familial difficulty (10.08%), anaesthesia (8.49%), child's death (4.42%), somatic disturbance (4%), depression (3.89%), retirement (3.89%), financial problems (2.65%), loneliness (2.65%), removal (1.76%), fall (1%), alcohol (0.8%), traumatism (0.53%), spouse care (0.35%), leaving for

  5. THERMOHALINE INSTABILITIES INSIDE STARS: A SYNTHETIC STUDY INCLUDING EXTERNAL TURBULENCE AND RADIATIVE LEVITATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vauclair, Sylvie; Theado, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.vauclair@irap.omp.eu [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP and CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2012-07-01

    We have derived a new expression for the thermohaline mixing coefficient in stars, including the effects of radiative levitation and external turbulence, by solving Boussinesq equations in a nearly incompressible stratified fluid with a linear approximation. It is well known that radiative levitation of individual elements can lead to their accumulation in specific stellar layers. In some cases, it can induce important effects on the stellar structure. Here we confirm that this accumulation is moderated by thermohaline convection due to the resulting inverse {mu}-gradient. The new coefficient that we have derived shows that the effect of radiative accelerations on the thermohaline instability itself is small. This effect must however be checked in all computations. We also confirm that the presence of large horizontal turbulence can reduce or even suppress the thermohaline convection. These results are important as they concern all the cases of heavy element accumulation in stars. Computations of radiative diffusion must be revisited to include thermohaline convection and its consequences. It may be one of the basic reasons for the fact that the observed abundances are always smaller than those predicted by pure atomic diffusion. In any case, these processes have to compete with rotation-induced mixing, but this competition is more complex than previously thought due to their mutual interaction.

  6. HRTEM study of α-AlMnSi crystals including non-crystallographic projection axes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, G.L.; Bursill, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of α-AlMnSi is examined by atomic resolution high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and computer-based image matching techniques. Six distinct zone axes are examined; including both normal crystallographic and non-crystallographic zones axes of the structural motifs, which have m3-bar 5 icosahedral symmetry. The results provide a sound basis for understanding HRTEM images of the quasicrystalline alloy i-AlMnSi; thus it was examined to what extent the requirements for obtaining so-called structure images of complex alloy structures may be met experimentally and define when the images may be reliably interpreted on the basis of computer simulation and image-matching at about 0.17nm resolution. Most difficulty was experienced in obtaining the experimental images, especially for the non-crystallographic zones, which are very sensitive to slight changes in orientation off the desired zone axis or projection, the rate at which the crystal thickness is increasing (wedge-angle) and the orientation of the surfaces of the specimen. Surface amorphous layers due to oxidation and/or electron-induced irradiation damage also limit the efficiency of the HRTEM analysis. For the thin specimens used for HRTEM, both the electron diffraction patterns and the HRTEM images are characteristic of Im3-bar space group symmetry. It is suggested that this Im3-bar symmetry may be an example of a statistical symmetry, where the local symmetry is close to Pm3-bar but the average symmetry is Im3-bar. The transition from Pm3-bar to Im3-bar may be understood in terms of an analysis of small changes in the outer shells of the large icosahedral structural elements which are located at the corners and body-centers of the cubic unit cell. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  7. White matter microstructural changes in adolescent anorexia nervosa including an exploratory longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Katja; Timmers, Inge; Kumar, Vinod; Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Bastiani, Matteo; Roebroek, Alard; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Goebel, Rainer; Seitz, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) often begins in adolescence, however, the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology at this developmentally important age is scarce, impeding early interventions. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate microstructural white matter (WM) brain changes including an experimental longitudinal follow-up. Methods We acquired whole brain diffusion-weighted brain scans of 22 adolescent female hospitalized patients with AN at admission and nine patients longitudinally at discharge after weight rehabilitation. Patients (10–18 years) were compared to 21 typically developing controls (TD). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were applied to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) across groups and time points. Associations between average FA values of the global WM skeleton and weight as well as illness duration parameters were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results We observed increased FA in bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal areas in AN patients at admission compared to TD. Higher FA of the global WM skeleton at admission was associated with faster weight loss prior to admission. Exploratory longitudinal analysis showed this FA increase to be partially normalized after weight rehabilitation. Conclusions Our findings reveal a markedly different pattern of WM microstructural changes in adolescent AN compared to most previous results in adult AN. This could signify a different susceptibility and reaction to semi-starvation in the still developing brain of adolescents or a time-dependent pathomechanism differing with extend of chronicity. Higher FA at admission in adolescents with AN could point to WM fibers being packed together more closely. PMID:27182488

  8. Evidence Clearinghouses and Registries: Methods for Locating and Including Studies in Evidence Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Lisa; LaSota, Robin; Yeide, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to report about study identification practices across evidence-based registries and clearinghouses in social policy fields, which serve as a resource for scientific, evidence-based decision-making about practices about desired outcomes in these social policy fields. The information retrieval procedures of the…

  9. Public Participation UK Case Studies -Schemes and Strategies including costs of partcipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarises the main issues arising from a review of approaches to engaging stakeholders in flood risk management undertaken as part of the ComCoast project. The UK Environment Agency selected a sample of six experiences for review from the east of England. The detailed case studies are

  10. Including Visually Impaired Students in Physical Education Lessons: A Case Study of Teacher and Pupil Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Dandolo, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Following recent education policy and curriculum changes in England, the notion of inclusion of children with special educational needs in physical education has increasingly become a topic of research interest and concern. It was the aim of this study to explore personal experiences and perspectives of inclusion in physical education. To this end…

  11. Two phase formation of massive elliptical galaxies: study through cross-correlation including spatial effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Soumita; Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Area of study is the formation mechanism of the present-day population of elliptical galaxies, in the context of hierarchical cosmological models accompanied by accretion and minor mergers. The present work investigates the formation and evolution of several components of the nearby massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) through cross-correlation function (CCF), using the spatial parameters right ascension (RA) and declination (DEC), and the intrinsic parameters mass (M_{*}) and size. According to the astrophysical terminology, here these variables, namely mass, size, RA and DEC are termed as parameters, whereas the unknown constants involved in the kernel function are called hyperparameters. Throughout this paper, the parameter size is used to represent the effective radius (Re). Following Huang et al. (2013a), each nearby ETG is divided into three parts on the basis of its Re value. We study the CCF between each of these three components of nearby massive ETGs and the ETGs in the high redshift range, 0.5work (De et al. 2014) suggesting other possibilities for the formation of the outermost part. A probable cause of this improvement is the inclusion of the spatial effects in addition to the other parameters in the study.

  12. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer-a comparative study including radical prostatectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Liam; Papa, Nathan; Perera, Marlon; Katelaris, Nikolas; Weerakoon, Mahesha; Chin, Kwang; Harewood, Laurence; Bolton, Damien M; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic and staging ability of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) compared to radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens after dissemination of this technology to several centres. mpMRI is an evolving technique aiming to improve upon the diagnostic sensitivity of prostate biopsy for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Differences in interpretation, expertise and application of mpMRI are responsible for the range of reported results. This retrospective clinical study was conducted with consecutive patients through an electronic database of tertiary hospitals and adjacent private urology practices in Australia. Patients having undergone RP were assessed for the presence of a pre-operative mpMRI performed between 2013 and 2015 which was evaluated against the reference standard of the RP whole-mount specimen. MRI reports were evaluated using the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS). In our cohort of 152 patients, the sensitivity and specificity of mpMRI (PI-RADS ≥ 4) for prostate cancer (Gleason ≥ 4 + 3) detection were 83 and 47%, respectively. For the identification of extraprostatic disease, the sensitivity and specificity were 29 and 94%, respectively. These results represent a 'real-world' approach to mpMRI and appear comparable to other single-centre studies. MRI staging information should be interpreted in context with other risk factors for extraprostatic disease. mpMRI has a useful role as an adjunct for prostate cancer diagnosis and directing management towards improving patient outcomes.

  13. Effect of neurosteroids on a model lipid bilayer including cholesterol: An Atomic Force Microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Mattia; Balleza, Daniel; Vena, Giulia; Puia, Giulia; Facci, Paolo; Alessandrini, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Amphiphilic molecules which have a biological effect on specific membrane proteins, could also affect lipid bilayer properties possibly resulting in a modulation of the overall membrane behavior. In light of this consideration, it is important to study the possible effects of amphiphilic molecule of pharmacological interest on model systems which recapitulate some of the main properties of the biological plasma membranes. In this work we studied the effect of a neurosteroid, Allopregnanolone (3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or Allo), on a model bilayer composed by the ternary lipid mixture DOPC/bSM/chol. We chose ternary mixtures which present, at room temperature, a phase coexistence of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains and which reside near to a critical point. We found that Allo, which is able to strongly partition in the lipid bilayer, induces a marked increase in the bilayer area and modifies the relative proportion of the two phases favoring the Ld phase. We also found that the neurosteroid shifts the miscibility temperature to higher values in a way similarly to what happens when the cholesterol concentration is decreased. Interestingly, an isoform of Allo, isoAllopregnanolone (3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or isoAllo), known to inhibit the effects of Allo on GABAA receptors, has an opposite effect on the bilayer properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comprehensive study in the inhibitory effect of berberine on gene transcription, including TATA box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yugang; Kheir, Michael M; Chai, Yushuang; Hu, Jun; Xing, Dongming; Lei, Fan; Du, Lijun

    2011-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) is an established natural DNA intercalator with numerous pharmacological functions. However, currently there are neither detailed reports concerning the distribution of this alkaloid in living cells nor reports concerning the relationship between BBR's association with DNA and the function of DNA. Here we report that the distribution of BBR within the nucleus can be observed 30 minutes after drug administration, and that the content of berberine in the nucleus peaks at around 4 µmol, which is twelve hours after drug administration. The spatial conformation of DNA and chromatin was altered immediately after their association with BBR. Moreover, this association can effectively suppress the transcription of DNA in living cell systems and cell-free systems. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) demonstrated further that BBR can inhibit the association between the TATA binding protein (TBP) and the TATA box in the promoter, and this finding was also attained in living cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Based on results from this study, we hypothesize that berberine can suppress the transcription of DNA in living cell systems, especially suppressing the association between TBP and the TATA box by binding with DNA and, thus, inhibiting TATA box-dependent gene expression in a non-specific way. This novel study has significantly expanded the sphere of knowledge concerning berberine's pharmacological effects, beginning at its paramount initial interaction with the TATA box.

  15. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Harju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A saxitoxin (STX proficiency test (PT was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses.

  16. Immunization of cattle against Schistosome bovis (including pathophysiological studies on schistosome infection in bovines)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.F.

    1978-12-01

    Bovine schistosomiasis caused by S. bovis constitutes a serious veterinary problem in the Sudan, yet very little is known about the epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunology of the disease. Over the past 5 years, work on these aspects has been conducted at Khartoum and several outlying areas of the White Nile Province in Sudan. In studies involving over 1,000 cattle, it was found that almost 100% of animals are infected by 2 years of age but that the prevalence falls to less than 60% over the following 7 years. There was also a marked reduction in the intensity of infection with increasing age, indicating the development of a high degree of acquired resistance. This was confirmed experimentally by challenging animals from an endemic area with massive numbers of cercariae. These animals completely resisted the challenge whereas animals never previously exposed either died or became moribund due to the severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea resulting from the passage of schistosome eggs through the gut wall. Attempts were made to vaccinate calves using irradiated organisms. These gave 70-80% protection against a challenge infection and this was sufficient to allow these animals to gain weight and remain clinically healthy. Animals not given the vaccine deteriorated. The efficacy of the vaccine was then tested under field conditions and found to give a high level of protection against S. bovis. These animals were also less susceptible to intercurrent infections

  17. Risk Factor Analysis for AKI Including Laboratory Indicators: a Nationwide Multicenter Study of Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa Nie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Risk factor studies for acute kidney injury (AKI in China are lacking, especially those regarding non-traditional risk factors, such as laboratory indicators. Methods: All adult patients admitted to 38 tertiary and 22 secondary hospitals in China in any one month between July and December 2014 were surveyed. AKI patients were screened according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes’ definition of AKI. Logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors for AKI, and Cox regression was used to analyze the risk of in-hospital mortality for AKI patients; additionally, a propensity score analysis was used to reconfirm the risk factors among laboratory indicators for mortality. Results: The morbidity of AKI was 0.97%. Independent risk factors for AKI were advancing age, male gender, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. All-cause mortality was 16.5%. The predictors of mortality in AKI patients were advancing age, tumor, higher uric acid level and increases in Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. The hazard ratio (HR for mortality with uric acid levels > 9.1 mg/dl compared with ≤ 5.2 mg/dl was 1.78 (95% CI: 1.23 to 2.58 for the AKI patients as a group, and was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.24 to 2.42 for a propensity score-matched set. Conclusion: In addition to traditional risk factors, uric acid level is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality after AKI.

  18. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  19. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  20. Nonrandomized studies are not always found even when selection criteria for health systems intervention reviews include them: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Mayhew, Alain; Scheel, Inger; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Systematic reviews within the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) can include both randomized and nonrandomized study designs. We explored how many EPOC reviews consider and identify nonrandomized studies, and whether the proportion of nonrandomized studies identified is linked to the review topic. We recorded the study designs considered in 65 EPOC reviews. For reviews that considered nonrandomized studies, we calculated the proportion of identified studies that were nonrandomized and explored whether there were differences in the proportion of nonrandomized studies according to the review topic. Fifty-one (78.5%) reviews considered nonrandomized studies. Forty-six of these reviews found nonrandomized studies, but the proportion varied a great deal (median, 33%; interquartile range, 25--50%). Reviews of health care delivery interventions had lower proportions of nonrandomized studies than those of financial and governance interventions. Most EPOC reviews consider nonrandomized studies, but the degree to which they find them varies. As nonrandomized studies are believed to be at higher risk of bias and their inclusion entails a considerable effort, review authors should consider whether the benefits justify the inclusion of these designs. Research should explore whether it is more useful to consider nonrandomized studies in reviews of some intervention types than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  2. Including health economic analysis in pilot studies: lessons learned from a cost-utility analysis within the PROSPECTIV pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richéal M. Burns

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo assess feasibility and health economic benefits and costs as part of a pilot study for a nurse-led, psychoeducational intervention (NPLI for prostate cancer in order to understand the potential for cost effectiveness as well as contribute to the design of a larger scale trial.MethodsMen with stable prostate cancer post-treatment were recruited from two cancer centres in the UK. Eighty-three men were randomised to the NLPI plus usual care or usual care alone (UCA (42 NLPI and 41 UCA; the NLPI plus usual care was delivered in the primary-care setting (the intervention and included an initial face-to-face consultation with a trained nurse, with follow-up tailored to individual needs. The study afforded the opportunity to undertake a short-term within pilot analysis. The primary outcome measure for the economic evaluation was quality of life, as measured by the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L instrument. Costs (£2014 assessed included health-service resource use, out-of-pocket expenses and losses from inability to undertake usual activities.ResultsTotal and incremental costs varied across the different scenarios assessed, with mean cost differences ranging from £173 to £346; incremental effect, as measured by the change in utility scores over the duration of follow-up, exhibited wide confidence intervals highlighting inconclusive effectiveness (95% CI: -0.0226; 0.0438. The cost per patient of delivery of the intervention would be reduced if rolled out to a larger patient cohort.ConclusionsThe NLPI is potentially cost saving depending on the scale of delivery; however, the results presented are not considered generalisable.

  3. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 38-40: Optical Instruments; Diffraction; and Alternating Current Circuits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  4. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 24-26: Electric Potential; Ohm's Law; and Capacitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  5. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 41 and 42: Lenses and Mirrors; Relativity; and Appendix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  6. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 6 and 7: Work and Energy; Applications of Newton's Laws].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  7. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 3-5: Planar Motion; Newton's Laws; and Vector Multiplication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  8. A Case Study of Tack Tiles[R] Literacy Instruction for a Student with Multiple Disabilities Including Congenital Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Jessicia A.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Research on literacy instruction for students with multiple disabilities is limited. Empirical research on braille instruction for students with multiple disabilities that include congenital blindness is virtually nonexistent. This case study offers initial insight into possible methods of early braille literacy instruction for a student with…

  9. Experiences of Students with Specific Learning Disorder (Including ADHD) in Online College Degree Programs: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Seleta LeAnn

    2016-01-01

    Enrollment in online degree programs is rapidly expanding due to the convenience and affordability offered to students and improvements in technology. The purpose of this hermeneutical phenomenological study was to understand the shared experiences of students with documented specific learning disorders (including Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity…

  10. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  11. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  12. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  13. Including Organizational Cultural Parameters in Work Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handley, Holly A; Heacox, Nancy J

    2004-01-01

    .... In order to represent the organizational impact on the work process, five organizational cultural parameters were identified and included in an algorithm for modeling and simulation of cultural...

  14. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Global Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis ... Haemophilus influenzae , including H. influenzae type b or Hib, can cause many different kinds of infections . Symptoms depend on ...

  15. Implementation considerations when expanding health worker roles to include safe abortion care: a five-country case study synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Glenton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allowing a broader range of trained health workers to deliver services can be an important way of improving access to safe abortion care. However, the expansion of health worker roles may be challenging to implement. This study aimed to explore factors influencing the implementation of role expansion strategies for non-physician providers to include the delivery of abortion care. Methods We conducted a multi-country case study synthesis in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal, South Africa and Uruguay, where the roles of non-physician providers have been formally expanded to include the provision of abortion care. We searched for documentation from each country related to non-physician providers, abortion care services and role expansion through general internet searches, Google Scholar and PubMed, and gathered feedback from 12 key informants. We carried out a thematic analysis of the data, drawing on categories from the SURE Framework of factors affecting the implementation of policy options. Results Several factors appeared to affect the successful implementation of including non-physician providers to provide abortion care services. These included health workers’ knowledge about abortion legislation and services; and health workers’ willingness to provide abortion care. Health workers’ willingness appeared to be influenced by their personal views about abortion, the method of abortion and stage of pregnancy and their perceptions of their professional roles. While managers’ and co-workers’ attitudes towards the use of non-physician providers varied, the synthesis suggests that female clients focused less on the type of health worker and more on factors such as trust, privacy, cost, and closeness to home. Health systems factors also played a role, including workloads and incentives, training, supervision and support, supplies, referral systems, and monitoring and evaluation. Strategies used, with varying success, to address

  16. Implementation considerations when expanding health worker roles to include safe abortion care: a five-country case study synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenton, Claire; Sorhaindo, Annik M; Ganatra, Bela; Lewin, Simon

    2017-09-21

    Allowing a broader range of trained health workers to deliver services can be an important way of improving access to safe abortion care. However, the expansion of health worker roles may be challenging to implement. This study aimed to explore factors influencing the implementation of role expansion strategies for non-physician providers to include the delivery of abortion care. We conducted a multi-country case study synthesis in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal, South Africa and Uruguay, where the roles of non-physician providers have been formally expanded to include the provision of abortion care. We searched for documentation from each country related to non-physician providers, abortion care services and role expansion through general internet searches, Google Scholar and PubMed, and gathered feedback from 12 key informants. We carried out a thematic analysis of the data, drawing on categories from the SURE Framework of factors affecting the implementation of policy options. Several factors appeared to affect the successful implementation of including non-physician providers to provide abortion care services. These included health workers' knowledge about abortion legislation and services; and health workers' willingness to provide abortion care. Health workers' willingness appeared to be influenced by their personal views about abortion, the method of abortion and stage of pregnancy and their perceptions of their professional roles. While managers' and co-workers' attitudes towards the use of non-physician providers varied, the synthesis suggests that female clients focused less on the type of health worker and more on factors such as trust, privacy, cost, and closeness to home. Health systems factors also played a role, including workloads and incentives, training, supervision and support, supplies, referral systems, and monitoring and evaluation. Strategies used, with varying success, to address some of these issues in the study countries included values

  17. A Literature Study on Usage of and Satisfaction Levels with Combined Treatment Including Oriental and Western Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Jung-Hun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to summarize and analyze the usage of and the satisfaction levels with combined treatment including Oriental and Western medicine. Methods: We searched studies on the usage of and the satisfaction levels with combined treatment including Oriental and Western medicine over the past 10 yrs (2001-2011 from 3 Korean databases (National Assembly Library, Research Information Service System, and National Discovery for Science Leaders. The reviewers also conducted a summarizing analysis by sampling the literature according to the type of study, study period, region, study subjects, sample size, type of sampling, research method, data analysis, study instruments, main results, etc. Results: When the main results of six studies on combined treatment usage and satisfaction levels were considered together, the most important decisive factor in determining the usage of combined treatment was the illness of the patient, followed by the patient’s occupation, sex, age, education, marital status, religion, treatment cost, and treatment results. In addition, the most important factor that determined satisfaction levels with combined treatment was age, followed by education, religion, income, health status, treatment procedures, staff attitude, and cleanliness. Conclusions: Elderly patients with musculoskeletal, cerebro-vascular, and circulatory system illnesses are more likely to prefer combined treatment over independent Oriental or Western treatment and are more likely to request specialized, adjusted medical care.

  18. Patient experienced continuity of care in the psychiatric healthcare system-a study including immigrants, refugees and ethnic danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch; Johansen, Katrine Schepelern; Kastrup, Marianne; Krasnik, Allan; Norredam, Marie

    2014-09-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate continuity of care in the psychiatric healthcare system from the perspective of patients, including vulnerable groups such as immigrants and refugees. The study is based on 19 narrative interviews conducted with 15 patients with diverse migration backgrounds (immigrants, descendents, refugees, and ethnic Danes). Patients were recruited from a community psychiatric centre situated in an area with a high proportion of immigrants and refugees. Data were analysed through the lens of a theoretical framework of continuity of care in psychiatry, developed in 2004 by Joyce et al., which encompasses four domains: accessibility, individualised care, relationship base and service delivery. Investigating continuity of care, we found issues of specific concern to immigrants and refugees, but also commonalities across the groups. For accessibility, areas pertinent to immigrants and refugees include lack of knowledge concerning mental illness and obligations towards children. In terms of individualised care, trauma, additional vulnerability, and taboo concerning mental illness were of specific concern. In the domain of service delivery, social services included assistance with immigration papers for immigrants and refugees. In the relationship base domain, no differences were identified. Implications for priority area: The treatment courses of patients in the psychiatric field are complex and diverse and the patient perspective of continuity of care provides important insight into the delivery of care. The study highlights the importance of person-centred care irrespective of migration background though it may be beneficial to have an awareness of areas that may be of more specific concern to immigrants and refugees. The study sheds light on concerns specific to immigrants and refugees in a framework of continuity of care, but also commonalities across the patient groups.

  19. Patient Experienced Continuity of Care in the Psychiatric Healthcare System—A Study Including Immigrants, Refugees and Ethnic Danes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasja Koitzsch Jensen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate continuity of care in the psychiatric healthcare system from the perspective of patients, including vulnerable groups such as immigrants and refugees. Method: The study is based on 19 narrative interviews conducted with 15 patients with diverse migration backgrounds (immigrants, descendents, refugees, and ethnic Danes. Patients were recruited from a community psychiatric centre situated in an area with a high proportion of immigrants and refugees. Data were analysed through the lens of a theoretical framework of continuity of care in psychiatry, developed in 2004 by Joyce et al., which encompasses four domains: accessibility, individualised care, relationship base and service delivery. Results: Investigating continuity of care, we found issues of specific concern to immigrants and refugees, but also commonalities across the groups. For accessibility, areas pertinent to immigrants and refugees include lack of knowledge concerning mental illness and obligations towards children. In terms of individualised care, trauma, additional vulnerability, and taboo concerning mental illness were of specific concern. In the domain of service delivery, social services included assistance with immigration papers for immigrants and refugees. In the relationship base domain, no differences were identified. Implications for priority area: The treatment courses of patients in the psychiatric field are complex and diverse and the patient perspective of continuity of care provides important insight into the delivery of care. The study highlights the importance of person-centred care irrespective of migration background though it may be beneficial to have an awareness of areas that may be of more specific concern to immigrants and refugees. Conclusions: The study sheds light on concerns specific to immigrants and refugees in a framework of continuity of care, but also commonalities across the patient groups.

  20. Sexual Health questions included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study: an international methodological pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Honor; Költő, András; Reis, Marta; Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Moreau, Nathalie; Burke, Lorraine; Cosma, Alina; Windlin, Béat; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2016-12-05

    This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people's sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed. An international pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of these proposed changes. Questionnaires and classroom discussion groups were conducted in five pilot countries in 2012/2013 (France, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania) with a total of 612 school-aged children (age M = 15.55 years, SD = 0.95). The majority of participants in each country provided positive feedback about the appropriateness of the questions. Some small cross-national differences were found in the self-reported quantitative data relating to the appropriateness of the questions (χ 2  = 22.831, df = 9, p = .007, V = .117). Qualitative feedback suggests that for the vast majority of students the phrasing and age-targeting of the questions were considered appropriate. With the exception of a small number of respondents who commented on the clarity and/or personal nature of the content, no specific issues with the questions were identified. These findings provide guidance on the answerability (including the extent of missing and inconsistent data), understandability, acceptability (including in different cultures) and relevance of questions to potential participants. The findings from the pilot study suggest that in general, the questions are understandable, acceptable, and of a high priority to the target population, and that the simplification has significantly reduced the proportion of missing data

  1. Sexual Health questions included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC Study: an international methodological pilot investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honor Young

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people’s sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed. Methods An international pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of these proposed changes. Questionnaires and classroom discussion groups were conducted in five pilot countries in 2012/2013 (France, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania with a total of 612 school-aged children (age M = 15.55 years, SD = 0.95. Results The majority of participants in each country provided positive feedback about the appropriateness of the questions. Some small cross-national differences were found in the self-reported quantitative data relating to the appropriateness of the questions (χ2 = 22.831, df = 9, p = .007, V = .117. Qualitative feedback suggests that for the vast majority of students the phrasing and age-targeting of the questions were considered appropriate. With the exception of a small number of respondents who commented on the clarity and/or personal nature of the content, no specific issues with the questions were identified. Conclusions These findings provide guidance on the answerability (including the extent of missing and inconsistent data, understandability, acceptability (including in different cultures and relevance of questions to potential participants. The findings from the pilot study suggest that in general, the questions are understandable, acceptable, and of a high priority to the target population, and that the

  2. Study protocol: Rehabilitation including Social and Physical activity and Education in Children and Teenagers with Cancer (RESPECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Hasle, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis; Wehner, Peder Skov; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard

    2013-11-14

    During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n=120) and a matched control group in western Denmark (n=120). RESPECT includes Danish-speaking children diagnosed with cancer and treated at pediatric oncology units in Denmark. Primary endpoints are the level of educational achievement one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy, and the value of VO2max one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy. Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational intervention includes an educational program aimed at the child with cancer, the child's schoolteachers and classmates, and the child's parents. Children with cancer will each have two ambassadors assigned from their class. The ambassadors visit the child with cancer at the hospital at alternating 2-week intervals and participate in the intervention program. The physical and social intervention examines the effect of early, structured, individualized, and continuous physical activity from diagnosis throughout the treatment period. The patients are tested at diagnosis, at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the

  3. Advanced theoretical and experimental studies in automatic control and information systems. [including mathematical programming and game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoer, C. A.; Polak, E.; Zadeh, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    A series of research projects is briefly summarized which includes investigations in the following areas: (1) mathematical programming problems for large system and infinite-dimensional spaces, (2) bounded-input bounded-output stability, (3) non-parametric approximations, and (4) differential games. A list of reports and papers which were published over the ten year period of research is included.

  4. Retrospective cohort study shows that the risks for retinopathy of prematurity included birth age and weight, medical conditions and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aliaa A; Gomaa, Nancy A S; Awadein, Ahmed R; Al-Hayouti, Huda H; Hegazy, Ahmed I

    2017-12-01

    This study described the characteristics and risk factors of neonates who developed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and severe treatable ROP in two Egyptian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This retrospective cohort study comprised 108 preterm neonates who were screened for ROP after being admitted to the two NICUs run by Cairo University Hospital from June 2014 to May 2015. Patients were examined using digital fundus photography and indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed if ROP was detected. Retinopathy of prematurity occurred in 75 patients. Late-onset sepsis, ventilation and hypercapnia were independently associated with ROP. Patients who developed severe treatable ROP had a younger gestational age (GA) than patients who did not develop ROP or developed mild or moderate ROP (29 weeks, range 27-33 weeks versus 32 weeks, range 28-36 weeks, p = 0.002) and a lower birthweight (1200 g, range 980-1590 g versus 1460 g, range 770-2475 g, p = 0.029). The risk factors associated with severe treatable ROP included the duration of admission, the duration of incubator oxygen, late-onset sepsis, intraventricular haemorrhage, total parenteral nutrition and the duration of caffeine citrate therapy. This study showed that the risks for ROP were wide-ranging and included GA and weight, medical conditions and treatment. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...

  6. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Resources Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  7. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  8. Current status of hyphenated mass spectrometry in studies of the metabolism of drugs of abuse, including doping agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews scientific contributions on the identification and/or quantification of metabolites of drugs of abuse in in vitro assays or various body samples using hyphenated mass spectrometry. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approaches are considered and discussed if they have been reported in the last five years and are relevant to clinical and forensic toxicology or doping control. Workup and artifact formation are discussed, and typical examples of studies of the metabolism of designer drugs, doping agents, herbal drugs, and synthetic cannabinoids are provided. Procedures for quantifying metabolites in body samples for pharmacokinetic studies or in enzyme incubations for enzyme kinetic studies are also reviewed. In conclusion, the reviewed papers showed that both GC-MS and LC-MS still have important roles to play in research into the metabolism of drugs of abuse, including doping agents.

  9. Combining Antidepressants in Acute Treatment of Depression: A Meta-Analysis of 38 Studies Including 4511 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henssler, Jonathan; Bschor, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Combining antidepressants (ADs) for therapy of acute depression is frequently employed, but randomized studies have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at determining efficacy and tolerability of combination therapy. Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL databases were systematically searched through March 2014 for controlled studies comparing combinations of ADs with AD monotherapy in adult patients suffering from acute depression. The prespecified primary outcome was standardized mean difference (SMD), secondary outcomes were response, remission, and dropouts. Results: Among 8688 articles screened, 38 studies were eligible, including 4511 patients. Combination treatment was statistically, significantly superior to monotherapy (SMD 0.29; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.42). During monotherapy, slightly fewer patients dropped out due to adverse events (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.53). Studies were heterogeneous (I2 = 63%), and there was indication of moderate publication bias (fail-safe N for an effect of 0.1:44), but results remained robust across prespecified secondary outcomes and subgroups, including analyses restricted to randomized controlled trials and low risk of bias studies. Meta-regression revealed an association of SMD with difference in imipramine-equivalent dose. Combining a reuptake inhibitor with an antagonist of presynaptic α2-autoreceptors was superior to other combinations. Conclusion: Combining ADs seems to be superior to monotherapy with only slightly more patients dropping out. Combining a reuptake inhibitor with an antagonist of presynaptic α2-autoreceptors seems to be significantly more effective than other combinations. Overall, our search revealed a dearth of well-designed studies. PMID:27582451

  10. Combining Antidepressants in Acute Treatment of Depression: A Meta-Analysis of 38 Studies Including 4511 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henssler, Jonathan; Bschor, Tom; Baethge, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Combining antidepressants (ADs) for therapy of acute depression is frequently employed, but randomized studies have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at determining efficacy and tolerability of combination therapy. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL databases were systematically searched through March 2014 for controlled studies comparing combinations of ADs with AD monotherapy in adult patients suffering from acute depression. The prespecified primary outcome was standardized mean difference (SMD), secondary outcomes were response, remission, and dropouts. Among 8688 articles screened, 38 studies were eligible, including 4511 patients. Combination treatment was statistically, significantly superior to monotherapy (SMD 0.29; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.42). During monotherapy, slightly fewer patients dropped out due to adverse events (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.53). Studies were heterogeneous (I(2) = 63%), and there was indication of moderate publication bias (fail-safe N for an effect of 0.1:44), but results remained robust across prespecified secondary outcomes and subgroups, including analyses restricted to randomized controlled trials and low risk of bias studies. Meta-regression revealed an association of SMD with difference in imipramine-equivalent dose. Combining a reuptake inhibitor with an antagonist of presynaptic α2-autoreceptors was superior to other combinations. Combining ADs seems to be superior to monotherapy with only slightly more patients dropping out. Combining a reuptake inhibitor with an antagonist of presynaptic α2-autoreceptors seems to be significantly more effective than other combinations. Overall, our search revealed a dearth of well-designed studies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  12. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  13. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; King, S.J.; Day, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of 26 Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 59 Ni and 129 I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs

  14. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  15. Genome-wide association study for the interaction between BMR and BMI in obese Korean women including overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoungsook; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Choi, Chong Ran; Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Ae-Jung

    2016-02-01

    This is the first study to identify common genetic factors associated with the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass index (BMI) in obese Korean women including overweight. This will be a basic study for future research of obese gene-BMR interaction. The experimental design was 2 by 2 with variables of BMR and BMI. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was conducted in the overweight and obesity (BMI > 23 kg/m(2)) compared to the normality, and in women with low BMR (BMR. A total of 140 SNPs reached formal genome-wide statistical significance in this study (P BMR (rs10786764; P = 8.0 × 10(-7), rs1040675; 2.3 × 10(-6)) and BMI (rs10786764; P = 2.5 × 10(-5), rs10786764; 6.57 × 10(-5)). The other genes related to BMI (HSD52, TMA16, MARCH1, NRG1, NRXN3, and STK4) yielded P BMR and BMI, including NRG3, OR8U8, BCL2L2-PABPN1, PABPN1, and SLC22A17 were identified in obese Korean women (P BMR- and BMI-related genes using GWAS. Although most of these newly established loci were not previously associated with obesity, they may provide new insights into body weight regulation. Our findings of five common genes associated with BMR and BMI in Koreans will serve as a reference for replication and validation of future studies on the metabolic rate.

  16. Integrated wastewater management reporting at tourist areas for recycling purposes, including the case study of Hersonissos, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borboudaki, K E; Paranychianakis, N V; Tsagarakis, K P

    2005-10-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities in tourist areas, in comparison to other municipal facilities, require specific configurations and additional management actions in order to achieve a reliable and cost-effective treatment. For example, the same facility operates during winter with minimum flows and in summer with peak flows. Moreover, careful effluent management is required to minimize environmental impact and health effects on tourists. In this study, effluent management data, including quantitative and qualitative effluent characteristics, reuse, and economic aspects of the Hersonissos Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) in Greece, are discussed. It has been designed to treat both municipal wastewater from the Hersonissos Municipality and septage from the wider area. Analysis of effluent quantitative data showed two flow peaks in the summer period and only one in winter. The WTP was found to provide a reliable level of treatment in terms of biochemical oxygen demand (95.9%), total suspended solids (97.2%), and total nitrogen (87.7%) removal, but increased numbers of fecal coliforms were measured at some peak flow periods, suggesting the need for additional management strategies. Effluent is reused mainly for agricultural irrigation; secondary uses include fire protection and landscape irrigation. Economic analysis showed that for each cubic meter treated, the total annual economic cost for treatment, filtration, and reuse infrastructure was 1.07 euro, 0.05 euro, and 0.08 euro, respectively.

  17. A study on the quantitative evaluation for the software included in digital systems of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. K.; Sung, T. Y.; Eom, H. S.; Jeong, H. S.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    In general, probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) has been used as one of the most important methods to evaluate the safety of NPPs. The PSA, because most of NPPs have been installed and used analog I and C systems, has been performed based on the hardware perspectives. In addition, since the tendency to use digital I and C systems including software instead of analog I and C systems is increasing, the needs of quantitative evaluation methods so as to perform PSA are also increasing. Nevertheless, several reasons such as software did not aged and it is very perplexed to estimate software failure rate due to its non-linearity, make the performance of PSA difficult. In this study, in order to perform PSA including software more efficiently, test-based software reliability estimation methods are reviewed to suggest a preliminary procedure that can provide reasonable guidances to quantify software failure rate. In addition, requisite activities to enhance applicability of the suggested procedure are also discussed. 67 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  18. Numerical and experimental study of a radiotherapy treatment planning system including Monte Carlo calculations: heterogeneities and small beams applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, Bouchra

    2009-09-01

    Improvements relative to the MC dose calculation speed have been made within the European project MAESTRO by the development of the fast MC code PENFAST and within the TELEDOS project by the parallelization of this code. This PhD work, based on these two projects, focuses on the evaluation of the technical and dosimetric performances of the MC code. These issues are crucial before the use of the MC code in clinical applications. First, variance reduction techniques included in the MC code as well as the parallelization of the calculation have been validated and evaluated in terms of gain in the computing time. The second part of this work has exposed a new, fast and accurate method to determine the initial energy spectrum of the accelerator. This spectrum is required for the MC dose calculation. Afterwards, dose calculations with the fast MC code PENFAST have been evaluated under metrological and clinical conditions. The results showed the ability of the MC code to quickly calculate an accurate dose in both photon and electron modes, even in electronic disequilibrium situations. However, this study revealed an uncertainty, in the TPS-MC, in the conversion of the CT image to voxelized geometry which is used for MC dose calculation. The quality of this voxelization may be improved through an artefacts correction software and by including additional materials in the database of the code. (author)

  19. A 1H NMR spectroscopic study on the tryptophan residues of lysozyme included by glucosyl-β-cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki; Kobayashi, Teruya; Yoshikiyo, Keisuke; Matsui, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Aso, Yuji

    2009-02-01

    A 1H NMR spectroscopic study showed that the side chains of Trp residues of chicken egg white lysozyme in an aqueous solution are included by Glucosyl-β-cyclodextrin (G1-β-CD). The 1H NMR signals due to Trp residues shifted with the addition of G1-β-CD. The addition of methyl α- D-glucopyranoside, which has no inclusion ability, gave different effect on the shift of 1H NMR signals. The 1H NMR signals due to Cys64 and Ile98 were also influenced to a considerable extent with the addition of G1-β-CD, suggesting that these hydrophobic amino acid residues are also included by the CD. The chemical shift values of 1H NMR signals, due to indole rings of tryptophan residues, changed more with the addition of G1-β-CD. The magnitudes of the chemical shift change were different depending on their locations in the protein. The chemical shift values of 1H NMR signals, due to those Trp residues in the active site of the lysozyme were smaller than those locating at relatively near the surface of the protein.

  20. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

  1. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael

    2017-06-20

    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  2. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  3. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane index most primary studies but not abstracts included in orthopedic meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobogean, Gerard P; Verma, Ashim; Giustini, Dean; Slobogean, Bronwyn L; Mulpuri, Kishore

    2009-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that all primary studies used in orthopedic meta-analyses are indexed in MEDLINE or EMBASE. Using MEDLINE from 1995 to 2005, we retrieved all published meta-analyses of orthopedic surgical interventions. The primary studies in each meta-analysis were defined as the "gold standard" set. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for each primary study, and a recall rate was calculated. Secondary searches were performed using Web of Science (WoS), the Cochrane databases, and CINAHL. High recall rates were achieved searching MEDLINE (90%) and EMBASE (81%) for the gold standard set, and the combined search retrieved 91%. Titles not indexed by MEDLINE or EMBASE included 45 abstracts, eight journal articles, and three unpublished studies. Searching the Cochrane databases yielded 36 titles not in MEDLINE or EMBASE. Using all three databases produced 97% recall of the primary studies; WoS and CINAHL did not increase the recall rate. These results suggest that a very high percentage of primary research in orthopedics can be found using the major databases. Additional database searches are unlikely to increase the yield of published manuscripts; however, conference proceedings and journal supplements should still be searched to ensure that relevant remaining reports are identified.

  4. Synthetic, 119Sn NMR spectroscopic, electrochemical, and reactivity study of organotin A3 corrolates including chiral and ferrocenyl derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Olga G; Kim, Byung-Kwon; Luu, Tuong Loan; Kwak, Juhyoun; Churchill, David G

    2013-02-18

    Various R/Ar-functionalized tin 5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)corrolate derivatives are reported herein including the first ferrocenyltin corrolate species. The isopropyl, sec-butyl-, 2-methyl-n-butyl-, phenyl-, 2-thienyl-, and ferrocenyltin species have been prepared and characterized through (1)H, (13)C, and (119)Sn HMQC NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, UV-vis and photoluminescent spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry studies. J(C/H-Sn) NMR spectroscopic couplings and ring-current effects (upfield shifting) were determined for the R-Sn axial hydrogen and carbon atoms. This report adds to older conceptually similar reports, by, i.e., Janson et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1969, 91, 5210) and Walker et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc.1983, 105, 6923-6929), as discussed herein. Such NMR spectroscopic aspects are discussed for these model systems. Compound Sn-Ph bond cleavage was achieved by treatment with I(2).

  5. Diversification of Smallholder Tobacco Systems to include ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco is the mainstay of the economy of Malawi, accounting for over 70% of export earnings. Of the 100 000 members of the National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi (NASFAM), 60% rely on tobacco for their sole source of income. Like their counterparts elsewhere, they face many difficulties, including: ...

  6. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  7. Extending flood damage assessment methodology to include ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal and sustainable flood plain management, including flood control, can only be achieved when the impacts of flood control measures are considered for both the man-made and natural environments, and the sociological aspects are fully considered. Until now, methods/models developed to determine the influences ...

  8. Including Children Dependent on Ventilators in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jack M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for including ventilator-dependent children in school are offered, based on experience with six such students at a New York State school. Guidelines stress adherence to the medical management plan, the school-family partnership, roles of the social worker and psychologist, orientation, transportation, classroom issues, and steps toward…

  9. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joint...

  10. Modernizing Agrifood Markets : Including Small Producers in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Against this baseline data, they will endeavor to identify success stories or examples of interventions that ensure small farmers' access to modernizing agrifood markets. The research will inform a set of policy recommendations to be promoted through policy platforms in a large number of developing countries, including but ...

  11. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  12. Numerical simulation of spark ignition including ionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, M; Selle, S; Riedel, U; Warnatz, J; Maas, U

    2000-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the processes associated Midi spark ignition, as a first step during combustion, is of great importance fur clean operation of spark ignition engines. In the past 10 years. a growing concern for environmental protection, including low emission of pollutants, has increased

  13. The albino chick as a model for studying ocular developmental anomalies, including refractive errors, associated with albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, Jodi; Choh, Vivian; Bharadwaj, Shrikant; Padmanabhan, Varuna; Modilevsky, Laura; Jovanovich, Elizabeth; Yeh, Brenda; Zhang, Zhan; Guan, Huanxian; Payne, W; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2007-10-01

    Albinism is associated with a variety of ocular anomalies including refractive errors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ocular development of an albino chick line. The ocular development of both albino and normally pigmented chicks was monitored using retinoscopy to measure refractive errors and high frequency A-scan ultrasonography to measure axial ocular dimensions. Functional tests included an optokinetic nystagmus paradigm to assess visual acuity, and flash ERGs to assess retinal function. The underlying genetic abnormality was characterized using a gene microarray, PCR and a tyrosinase assay. The ultrastructure of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was examined using transmission electron microscopy. PCR confirmed that the genetic abnormality in this line is a deletion in exon 1 of the tyrosinase gene. Tyrosinase gene expression in isolated RPE cells was minimally detectable, and there was minimal enzyme activity in albino feather bulbs. The albino chicks had pink eyes and their eyes transilluminated, reflecting the lack of melanin in all ocular tissues. All three main components, anterior chamber, crystalline lens and vitreous chamber, showed axial expansion over time in both normal and albino animals, but the anterior chambers of albino chicks were consistently shallower than those of normal chicks, while in contrast, their vitreous chambers were longer. Albino chicks remained relatively myopic, with higher astigmatism than the normally pigmented chicks, even though both groups underwent developmental emmetropization. Albino chicks had reduced visual acuity yet the ERG a- and b-wave components had larger amplitudes and shorter than normal implicit times. Developmental emmetropization occurs in the albino chick but is impaired, likely because of functional abnormalities in the RPE and/or retina as well as optical factors. In very young chicks the underlying genetic mutation may also contribute to refractive error and eye shape abnormalities.

  14. Developing the FARSEEING Taxonomy of Technologies: Classification and description of technology use (including ICT) in falls prevention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Elisabeth; Hawley-Hague, Helen; Vereijken, Beatrix; Clifford, Amanda; Guldemond, Nick; Pfeiffer, Klaus; Hall, Alex; Chesani, Federico; Mellone, Sabato; Bourke, Alan; Todd, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Recent Cochrane reviews on falls and fall prevention have shown that it is possible to prevent falls in older adults living in the community and in care facilities. Technologies aimed at fall detection, assessment, prediction and prevention are emerging, yet there has been no consistency in describing or reporting on interventions using technologies. With the growth of eHealth and data driven interventions, a common language and classification is required. The FARSEEING Taxonomy of Technologies was developed as a tool for those in the field of biomedical informatics to classify and characterise components of studies and interventions. The Taxonomy Development Group (TDG) comprised experts from across Europe. Through face-to-face meetings and contributions via email, five domains were developed, modified and agreed: Approach; Base; Components of outcome measures; Descriptors of technologies; and Evaluation. Each domain included sub-domains and categories with accompanying definitions. The classification system was tested against published papers and further amendments undertaken, including development of an online tool. Six papers were classified by the TDG with levels of consensus recorded. Testing the taxonomy with papers highlighted difficulties in definitions across international healthcare systems, together with differences of TDG members' backgrounds. Definitions were clarified and amended accordingly, but some difficulties remained. The taxonomy and manual were large documents leading to a lengthy classification process. The development of the online application enabled a much simpler classification process, as categories and definitions appeared only when relevant. Overall consensus for the classified papers was 70.66%. Consensus scores increased as modifications were made to the taxonomy. The FARSEEING Taxonomy of Technologies presents a common language, which should now be adopted in the field of biomedical informatics. In developing the taxonomy as an

  15. Robust Unit Commitment Including Frequency Stability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pérez-Illanes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An increased use of variable generation technologies such as wind power and photovoltaic generation can have important effects on system frequency performance during normal operation as well as contingencies. The main reasons are the operational principles and inherent characteristics of these power plants like operation at maximum power point and no inertial response during power system imbalances. This has led to new challenges for Transmission System Operators in terms of ensuring system security during contingencies. In this context, this paper proposes a Robust Unit Commitment including a set of additional frequency stability constraints. To do this, a simplified dynamic model of the initial system frequency response is used in combination with historical frequency nadir data during contingencies. The proposed approach is especially suitable for power systems with cost-based economic dispatch like those in most Latin American countries. The study is done considering the Northern Interconnected System of Chile, a 50-Hz medium size isolated power system. The results obtained were validated by means of dynamic simulations of different system contingencies.

  16. Electron spin resonance studies of radiation effects. Final report, 1964-1979 (including annual progress reports for 1978 and 1979)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, M.T.

    1979-07-01

    The discovery of new free radicals, largely in irradiated single crystals of nonmetallic solids, and the determination of the molecular and electronic structures of these paramagnetic species by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, have been carried out using a wide variety of organic and inorganic materials. The mechanisms of production of radicals in solids, their motions, and their reactions have been investigated and some applicable general principles deduced. Emphasis has been on aliphatic free radicals from irradiated carboxylic acids and amides and their halogen-substituted derivatives, organometallic radicals and substituted cyclic hydrocarbon radicals; inorganic radicals studied include V centers, hypervalent radicals and electron adducts. Extensive investigations of paramagnetic transition metal complexes, particularly cyanides and fluorides, have been made. In all cases quantum mechanical calculations have been employed as far as possible in interpreting the data. An improved method for analyzing experimental ESR spectra of single crystals has been developed and a number of crystal structures have been determined to supplement the ESR studies. Applications of nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy to the study of structure and bonding in inorganic solids have been made and a method for using nuclear magnetic relaxation data for estimating quadrupole coupling constants in liquids has been developed.

  17. Types of coeliac trunk branching including accessory hepatic arteries: a new point of view based on cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olewnik, Łukasz; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Polguj, Michał; Waśniewska, Anna; Jankowski, Mateusz; Topol, Mirosław

    2017-06-14

    The coeliac trunk is major visceral branch of the abdominal aorta. Familiarity with anatomic variations of the coeliac trunk is relevant for planning radiological and surgical procedures. The aim of our research was determining variations of the coeliac trunk, including the occurrence of accessory hepatic arteries. 40 cadavers were studied. Six patterns of coeliac trunk branching were observed in this study. Accessory hepatic arteries were observed in seven specimens (17.5%). The most prevalent variation was normal trifurcation, accounting for 62.5% of cases. The rarest variation was absence of the coeliac trunk, with an incidence of 2.5%. In this variant the left gastric artery, the common hepatic artery, and the splenic artery branched directly off the abdominal aorta. The study material allowed to distinguish two coeliac tunk branching patterns which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported before. It was a type with four branches originating from the coeliac trunk: the left gastric artery, the common hepatic artery, the splenic artery, and right accessory hepatic artery. The other previously unreported pattern variant was also a coeliac trunk which gave off the coeliac trunk gave off three branches: the common hepatic artery, the splenic artery and right accessory hepatic artery. The average distance between the aortic hiatus and the coeliac trunk calculated for all the cadavers amounted to 54 mm (SD = 11.85 mm). The average distance between the coeliac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery was 11.1 mm (SD = 7.7 mm).

  18. Effect on attendance by including focused information on spirometry in preventive health checks: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Løkke, Anders; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2016-12-01

    Early detection of lung diseases can help to reduce their severity. Lung diseases are among the most frequently occurring and serious diseases worldwide; nonetheless, many patients remain undiagnosed. Preventive health checks including spirometry can detect lung diseases at early stages; however, recruitment for health checks remains a challenge, and little is known about what motivates the attendance. The aim of the study is to examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation compared to general information will impact the attendance rate in preventive health checks. This randomized, controlled trial tests the effect of information on spirometry embedded in the Check your Health Preventive Program (CHPP). The CHPP is an open-label, household cluster-randomized, controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30- to -49-year-olds in a Danish municipality from 2012 to 2017 (n = 26,216). During 2015-2016, 4356 citizens aged 30-49 years will be randomized into two groups. The intervention group receives an invitation which highlights the value and contents of spirometry as part of a health check and information about lung diseases. The comparison group receives a standard invitation containing practical information and specifies the contents of the general health check. Outcomes are (1) differences in attendance rates measured by the proportion of citizens attending each of the two study groups and (2) proportion of persons at risk defined by smoking status and self-reported lung symptoms in the study groups. The proportion of participants with abnormal spirometry assessed at the preventive health check will be compared between the two study groups. The results from the present study will inform future recruitment strategies to health checks. The developed material on content, value, and information about lung disease is feasible and transferable to other populations, making it easy to implement if effective. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT

  19. Is Serum Hypovitaminosis D Associated with Chronic Widespread Pain Including Fibromyalgia? A Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Hung, Chen-Yu; Chang, Ke-Vin; Han, Der-Sheng; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2015-01-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a global musculoskeletal disorder leading to disability and a reduced quality of life. Low levels of serum vitamin D has long been proposed to be associated with CWP, but previous research remains inconclusive. To determine whether hypovitaminosis D was independently associated with CWP. Meta-analysis of observational study. Electronic databases were searched for studies published up to November 2014 comparing the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and serum vitamin D levels between participants with and without CWP. The crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of hypovitaminosis D with CWP were calculated. Subgroup analysis according to gender, threshold of hypovitaminosis, and definition of patients was performed, as well as meta-regression to test the linear relationship between crude ORs and the latitude of study locations. Twelve studies were included, comprising 1,854 patients with CWP. The patient group showed a significantly higher risk of hypovitaminosis D than the control group (crude OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.20-2.23). The association was slightly attenuated after adjusting confounders, with a pooled adjusted OR of 1.41 (95% CI, 1.00-2.00). There was an increase in ORs of hypovitaminosis D using a lower diagnostic value of serum vitamin D (8 and 10 ng/mL). The subgroup analysis according to gender and definition of CWP did not reveal significant between-group differences. The meta-regression showed no linear relationship between latitude and the crude ORs. There was a positive crude association between hypovitaminosis D and CWP, and the association was likely to remain after adjusting confounding factors. Use of a cut-off value of hypovitaminosis D (8-10 ng/mL) could better define the population with and without CWP. Further prospective follow-up studies are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between hypovitaminosis D and CWP.

  20. Laboratory Studies of the Reactive Chemistry and Changing CCN Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Including Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scot Martin

    2013-01-31

    The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.

  1. Study on the seismic response of reactor vessel of pool type LMFBR including fluid-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, K.; Ito, T.; Fujita, K.; Kurihara, C.; Sawada, Y.; Sakurai, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the seismic response of reactor vessel of pool type LMFBR with fluid-structure interaction. The reactor vessel has bottom support arrangement, the same core support system as Super-Phenix in France. Due to the bottom support arrangement, the level of core support is lower than that of the side support arrangement. So, in this reactor vessel, the displacement of the core top tends to increase because of the core's rocking. In this study, we investigated the vibration and seismic response characteristics of the reactor vessel. Therefore, the seismic experiments were carried out using one-eighth scale model and the seismic response including FSI and sloshing were investigated. From this study, the effect of liquid on the vibration characteristics and the seismic response characteristics of reactor vessel were clarified and sloshing characteristics were also clarified. It was confirmed that FEM analysis with FSI can reproduce the seismic behavior of the reactor vessel and is applicable to seismic design of the pool type LMFBR with bottom support arrangement. (author). 5 refs, 14 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  3. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  4. Power generation method including membrane separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  5. Should Trade Agreements Include Environmental Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which environmental and trade policies should be treated equally, or symmetrically, in international negotiations. It reviews the recent economics literature on trade and the environment to address two questions. First, should trade negotiations include negotiations over environmental policies and the setting of binding environmental standards? Second, if there are grounds for international environmental negotiations, should environmental agreements b...

  6. Jet-calculus approach including coherence effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Migneron, R.; Narayanan, K.S.S.

    1987-01-01

    We show how integrodifferential equations typical of jet calculus can be combined with an averaging procedure to obtain jet-calculus-based results including the Mueller interference graphs. Results in longitudinal-momentum fraction x for physical quantities are higher at intermediate x and lower at large x than with the conventional ''incoherent'' jet calculus. These results resemble those of Marchesini and Webber, who used a Monte Carlo approach based on the same dynamics

  7. Revisiting Hansen Solubility Parameters by Including Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Manuel J; Maldonado, Ana; Rousseau, Simon; Moreau-Masselon, Chloe; Roux, Bernard; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2017-11-03

    The Hansen solubility parameter approach is revisited by implementing the thermodynamics of dissolution and mixing. Hansen's pragmatic approach has earned its spurs in predicting solvents for polymer solutions, but for molecular solutes improvements are needed. By going into the details of entropy and enthalpy, several corrections are suggested that make the methodology thermodynamically sound without losing its ease of use. The most important corrections include accounting for the solvent molecules' size, the destruction of the solid's crystal structure, and the specificity of hydrogen-bonding interactions, as well as opportunities to predict the solubility at extrapolated temperatures. Testing the original and the improved methods on a large industrial dataset including solvent blends, fit qualities improved from 0.89 to 0.97 and the percentage of correct predictions rose from 54 % to 78 %. Full Matlab scripts are included in the Supporting Information, allowing readers to implement these improvements on their own datasets. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Applicability of bioanalysis of multiple analytes in drug discovery and development: review of select case studies including assay development considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2006-05-01

    The development of sound bioanalytical method(s) is of paramount importance during the process of drug discovery and development culminating in a marketing approval. Although the bioanalytical procedure(s) originally developed during the discovery stage may not necessarily be fit to support the drug development scenario, they may be suitably modified and validated, as deemed necessary. Several reviews have appeared over the years describing analytical approaches including various techniques, detection systems, automation tools that are available for an effective separation, enhanced selectivity and sensitivity for quantitation of many analytes. The intention of this review is to cover various key areas where analytical method development becomes necessary during different stages of drug discovery research and development process. The key areas covered in this article with relevant case studies include: (a) simultaneous assay for parent compound and metabolites that are purported to display pharmacological activity; (b) bioanalytical procedures for determination of multiple drugs in combating a disease; (c) analytical measurement of chirality aspects in the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and biotransformation investigations; (d) drug monitoring for therapeutic benefits and/or occupational hazard; (e) analysis of drugs from complex and/or less frequently used matrices; (f) analytical determination during in vitro experiments (metabolism and permeability related) and in situ intestinal perfusion experiments; (g) determination of a major metabolite as a surrogate for the parent molecule; (h) analytical approaches for universal determination of CYP450 probe substrates and metabolites; (i) analytical applicability to prodrug evaluations-simultaneous determination of prodrug, parent and metabolites; (j) quantitative determination of parent compound and/or phase II metabolite(s) via direct or indirect approaches; (k) applicability in analysis of multiple compounds in select

  9. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  10. [Contracts including performance and management of uncertainty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, G; Garassus, P; Auray, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Since many decades in France, the most important part of ambulatory health care expenditure is represented by drug consumption. By the fact, French patient is indeed the greatest world consumer of pharmaceuticals treatments. Therefore, the regulation authorities by successive strategies, attempt to limit or even restrict market access for new drugs in the health care sector secured by public social insurance coverage. Common objectives are to assess the reimbursement to scientific studies and to fix the price of therapeutics at an acceptable level for both industries and government. New trends try then to determine recently the drug price in a dual approach, as a component of global and effective contract, including performance and outcome. The first diffusion authorization is diffusion concerned, but this concept takes into account the eventual success of new produces in long-term survey. Signed for a fixed period as reciprocal partnership between regulation authorities and pharmaceutics industries, the contract integrates two dimensions of incertitude. The first one is represented by the strategy of new treatments development according to efficacy and adapted price, and the second one is linked to the result of diffusion and determines adapted rules if eventual non-respects of the previous engagement are registered. This paper discusses problems related to this new dimension of incertitude affected by conditional drug prices in market access strategy and the adapted follow-up of new treatment diffusion fixed by "outcome" contract between French regulation administration and pharmaceutics industries in our recent economic context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Resection of thymoma should include nodal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weksler, Benny; Pennathur, Arjun; Sullivan, Jennifer L; Nason, Katie S

    2015-03-01

    Thymoma is best treated by surgical resection; however, no clear guidelines have been created regarding lymph node sampling at the time of resection. Additionally, the prognostic implications of nodal metastases are unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic implications of nodal metastases in thymoma. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for patients who underwent surgical resection of thymoma with documented pathologic examination of lymph nodes. The impact of nodal status on survival and thymoma staging was examined. We identified 442 patients who underwent thymoma resection with pathologic evaluation of 1 or more lymph nodes. A median of 2 nodes were sampled per patient. Fifty-nine patients (59 of 442, 13.3%) had ≥ 1 positive node. Patients with positive nodes were younger and had smaller tumors than node-negative patients. Median survival in the node-positive patients was 98 months, compared with 144 months in node-negative patients (P = .013). In multivariable analysis, the presence of positive nodes had a significant, independent, adverse impact on survival (hazard ratio 1.945, 95% confidence interval 1.296-2.919, P = .001). The presence of nodal metastases resulted in a change in classification to a higher stage in 80% of patients, the majority from Masaoka-Koga stage III to stage IV. Nodal status seems to be an important prognostic factor in patients with thymoma. Until the prognostic significance of nodal metastases is better understood, surgical therapy for thymoma should include sampling of regional lymph nodes. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms and Risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Evidence from an updated meta-analysis including 35 studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haigang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR variants, C677T and A1298C, have been reported to be associated with decreased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. However, results derived from individually underpowered studies are conflicting. We carried out an updated meta-analysis on the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and ALL risk. Methods Relevant publications were searched through PUBMED and EMBASE databases. The associations between MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of ALL were evaluated by odds ratios (ORs. The heterogeneity and publication bias were estimated. Meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential sources of heterogeneity. Results C677T polymorphism was associated with a reduced risk of ALL (allele contrast: ORRE = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-0.99. Subgroup analysis showed MTHFR C677T variant was associated with decreased susceptibility to ALL in children and Caucasians. Meta-regression showed the logOR for the association between T allele and ALL increased as sex ratio (M/F in the case group increased (P = 0.01. Regarding A1298C polymorphism, no significant association was observed (allele contrast: ORRE = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.91-1.11. There was no publication bias for C677T or A1298C polymorphism. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggests that the C677T polymorphism, not A1298C, in MTHFR gene is associated with a decreased risk of ALL, particularly among children and Caucasians subjects. Our findings suggest that the influence of the C677T polymorphism on ALL susceptibility is modified by sex ratio in cases (M/F. Since folate intake may be a possible confounding factor, including this factor in future prospective studies is warranted. Further meta-analysis studies should be at least stratified for folate levels and gender to give more powerful and informative results.

  13. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms and Risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Evidence from an updated meta-analysis including 35 studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) variants, C677T and A1298C, have been reported to be associated with decreased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, results derived from individually underpowered studies are conflicting. We carried out an updated meta-analysis on the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and ALL risk. Methods Relevant publications were searched through PUBMED and EMBASE databases. The associations between MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of ALL were evaluated by odds ratios (ORs). The heterogeneity and publication bias were estimated. Meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential sources of heterogeneity. Results C677T polymorphism was associated with a reduced risk of ALL (allele contrast: ORRE = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-0.99). Subgroup analysis showed MTHFR C677T variant was associated with decreased susceptibility to ALL in children and Caucasians. Meta-regression showed the logOR for the association between T allele and ALL increased as sex ratio (M/F) in the case group increased (P = 0.01). Regarding A1298C polymorphism, no significant association was observed (allele contrast: ORRE = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.91-1.11). There was no publication bias for C677T or A1298C polymorphism. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggests that the C677T polymorphism, not A1298C, in MTHFR gene is associated with a decreased risk of ALL, particularly among children and Caucasians subjects. Our findings suggest that the influence of the C677T polymorphism on ALL susceptibility is modified by sex ratio in cases (M/F). Since folate intake may be a possible confounding factor, including this factor in future prospective studies is warranted. Further meta-analysis studies should be at least stratified for folate levels and gender to give more powerful and informative results. PMID:22943282

  14. [Hernia recurrence long term follow-up after open procedures of abdominal wall plasty-prospective study including 142 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureşan, Mircea; Mureşan, Simona; Bara, Tivadar; Neagoe, Radu; Sala, Daniela; Suciu, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The incisional hernia continues to be a frequent complication of laparotomies. The purpose of study is the analysis of hernia disease relapse after one year after different open plasties methods of the abdominal wall. A prospective longitudinal study was performed that included 142 patients. An analysis was performed on the individual data, the level of obesity, intra-surgical variations in intra-abdominal pressure, the intensity of post-surgical pain, the post-surgical complications, and the types of plasties of abdominal wall, simple and with polypropylene mesh. The analysis of studied group showed a general rate of relapse of 16.9%, and within the 4 procedures, 40.74% in the case of simple plasties, of 16.07% after the only plasties, 6.97% after the retro-muscular plasties, and 6.25% after the full substitution of parietal defect. On analysing the collected, hernia relapse was statistically significantly related to the level of obesity, variations in intra-abdominal pressure, post-surgical pain, and the type of procedure performed. Hernia is a frequent complication of laparotomies. Hernia relapse was more frequent in the case of simple plasties. Among the mesh procedures, the onlay plasty showed a higher rate of relapse and post-surgical complications. Hernia relapse was more frequent in the case of variations of intra-abdominal pressure, and with increased post-surgical pain. The use of an echography examination may increase the accuracy of the presence of hernia disease. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. All rights reserved.

  15. Microdeletions Including FMR1 in Three Female Patients with Intellectual Disability – Further Delineation of the Phenotype and Expression Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, A.M.; Wohlleber, E.; Engels, H.; Rødningen, O.K.; Ravn, K.; Heilmann, S.; Rehnitz, J.; Katzorke, N.; Kraus, C.; Blichfeldt, S.; Hoffmann, P.; Reutter, H.; Brockschmidt, F.F.; Kreiß-Nachtsheim, M.; Vogt, P.H.; Prescott, T.E.; Tümer, Z.; Lee, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is one of the most common causes of intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD), especially in males. It is caused most often by CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions, and less frequently by point mutations and partial or full deletions of the FMR1 gene. The wide clinical spectrum of affected females partly depends on their X-inactivation status. Only few female ID/DD patients with microdeletions including FMR1 have been reported. We describe 3 female patients with 3.5-, 4.2- and 9.2-Mb de novo microdeletions in Xq27.3-q28 containing FMR1. X-inactivation was random in all patients, yet they presented with ID/DD as well as speech delay, macrocephaly and other features attributable to FXS. No signs of autism were present. Here, we further delineate the clinical spectrum of female patients with microdeletions. FMR1 expression studies gave no evidence for an absolute threshold below which signs of FXS present. Since FMR1 expression is known to be highly variable between unrelated females, and since FMR1 mRNA levels have been suggested to be more similar among family members, we further explored the possibility of an intrafamilial effect. Interestingly, FMR1 mRNA levels in all 3 patients were significantly lower than in their respective mothers, which was shown to be specific for patients with microdeletions containing FMR1. PMID:24715853

  16. Relationship between Urinary N-Desmethyl-Acetamiprid and Typical Symptoms including Neurological Findings: A Prevalence Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemima Tiwaa Marfo

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists used worldwide. Their environmental health effects including neurotoxicity are of concern. We previously determined a metabolite of acetamiprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid in the urine of a patient, who exhibited some typical symptoms including neurological findings. We sought to investigate the association between urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and the symptoms by a prevalence case-control study. Spot urine samples were collected from 35 symptomatic patients of unknown origin and 50 non-symptomatic volunteers (non-symptomatic group, NSG, 4-87 year-old. Patients with recent memory loss, finger tremor, and more than five of six symptoms (headache, general fatigue, palpitation/chest pain, abdominal pain, muscle pain/weakness/spasm, and cough were in the typical symptomatic group (TSG, n = 19, 5-69 year-old; the rest were in the atypical symptomatic group (ASG, n = 16, 5-78 year-old. N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and six neonicotinoids in the urine were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was the most frequent and highest in TSG (47.4%, 6.0 ppb (frequency, maximum, followed by in ASG (12.5%, 4.4 ppb and in NSG (6.0%, 2.2 ppb, however acetamiprid was not detected. Thiamethoxam was detected in TSG (31.6%, 1.4 ppb, in ASG (6.3%, 1.9 ppb, but not in NSG. Nitenpyram was detected in TSG (10.5%, 1.2 ppb, in ASG (6.3%, not quantified and in NSG (2.0%, not quantified. Clothianidin was only detected in ASG (6.3%, not quantified, and in NSG (2.0%, 1.6 ppb. Thiacloprid was detected in ASG (6.3%, 0.1 ppb. The cases in TSG with detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were aged 5 to 62 years and 13 to 62 years, respectively. Detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was associated with increased prevalence of the symptoms (odds ratio: 14, 95% confidence interval: 3.5-57. Urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid can be used as a

  17. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  19. Studies and analyses of the management of scientific research and development, including implementation and application at NASA centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    Summary results obtained through the Program of Research on the Management of Research and Development (POMRAD) were presented. The nature of the overall program and the specific projects undertaken were described. Statistical data is also given concerning the papers, publications, people, and major program areas associated with the program. The actual list of papers, names of doctoral and masters theses, and other details of the program are included as appendices.

  20. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs

  1. Vegetation response to invasive Tamarix control in southwestern U.S. rivers: a collaborative study including 416 sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Sher, Anna A; Anderson, Robert M; Bay, Robin F; Bean, Daniel W; Bissonnete, Gabriel J; Bourgeois, Bérenger; Cooper, David J; Dohrenwend, Kara; Eichhorst, Kim D; El Waer, Hisham; Kennard, Deborah K; Harms-Weissinger, Rebecca; Henry, Annie L; Makarick, Lori J; Ostoja, Steven M; Reynolds, Lindsay V; Robinson, W Wright; Shafroth, Patrick B

    2017-09-01

    Most studies assessing vegetation response following control of invasive Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers have been small in scale (e.g., river reach), or at a regional scale but with poor spatial-temporal replication, and most have not included testing the effects of a now widely used biological control. We monitored plant composition following Tamarix control along hydrologic, soil, and climatic gradients in 244 treated and 172 reference sites across six U.S. states. This represents the largest comprehensive assessment to date on the vegetation response to the four most common Tamarix control treatments. Biocontrol by a defoliating beetle (treatment 1) reduced the abundance of Tamarix less than active removal by mechanically using hand and chain-saws (2), heavy machinery (3) or burning (4). Tamarix abundance also decreased with lower temperatures, higher precipitation, and follow-up treatments for Tamarix resprouting. Native cover generally increased over time in active Tamarix removal sites, however, the increases observed were small and was not consistently increased by active revegetation. Overall, native cover was correlated to permanent stream flow, lower grazing pressure, lower soil salinity and temperatures, and higher precipitation. Species diversity also increased where Tamarix was removed. However, Tamarix treatments, especially those generating the highest disturbance (burning and heavy machinery), also often promoted secondary invasions of exotic forbs. The abundance of hydrophytic species was much lower in treated than in reference sites, suggesting that management of southwestern U.S. rivers has focused too much on weed control, overlooking restoration of fluvial processes that provide habitat for hydrophytic and floodplain vegetation. These results can help inform future management of Tamarix-infested rivers to restore hydrogeomorphic processes, increase native biodiversity and reduce abundance of noxious species. © 2017 by the

  2. Clinical situation of the coronal part of the teeth including restorations types placed prior to endodontic treatment - a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekyatan, H; Willershausen, B; Kasaj, A; Briseño, B

    2005-10-18

    In the present retrospektive study the situation of the natural crown as well as the restoration types placed prior to endodontic treatment was examined. A total of 782 teeth from 545 patients (54.3% men; 45.7% women; mean age: 49.9 +/- 12.1 years) were investigated. In addition to the evaluation of the medical history of the patients, x-rays and a clinical investigation were carried out in order to assess the clinical condition of the crown as well as the restoration types. Of special interest were: carious lesions, composite fillings, amalgam, ceramic or gold crowns and/or bridge restorations. 305 of the examined teeth were located in the mandible and 477 in the maxilla. 26.3% of the teeth were anteriors, 31.2% were premolars and 42.5% were molars. 24.2% of the teeth were restored with metal ceramic crowns, 15.1% were restored with gold cast crowns or served as abutment teeth for bridgework; untreated caries was found in 21.1%, and composite fillings were found in 13.7% of the cases. 23.8% of the front teeth, 26.6% of the premolars and 22.6% of the molars showed a metal ceramic restoration. 21% of all carious defects were found in the maxilla as well as in the mandible. In addition to the high number of untreated carious lesions, the presence of metal ceramics restorations was significantly higher than other restorations types. Carious lesions are main aetiological factors for endodontic measures, but also ceramic restorations including premature contacts have to be considered as causal factors for pulpal irritations.

  3. Including sustainability issues in nurse education: A comparative study of first year student nurses' attitudes in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Janet; Heidenreich, Thomas; Álvarez-Nieto, Carmen; Fasseur, Fabienne; Grose, Jane; Huss, Norma; Huynen, Maud; López-Medina, Isabel M; Schweizer, Angélick

    2016-02-01

    Education in sustainable development is a goal recognised by a large number of countries and a vital concept in healthcare. It is therefore important that nurse education incorporates elements of sustainable development into nursing education curricula. However, there is limited research on student nurses' attitudes towards sustainability and no comparison of attitudes towards sustainability and its inclusion in the nursing curriculum across Europe. This project aims to assess student nurses' attitudes towards sustainability, its relevance to nursing and its inclusion in the nursing curricula. 1. To assess base-line attitudes at the start of nursing and midwifery training; 2. To compare sustainability awareness between students participating in training in a number of European universities. A comparative survey design using the Sustainability Attitudes in Nursing Survey (SANS_2) questionnaire. Nursing classes of Universities and Nursing Schools in four European countries were investigated using a questionnaire consisting of five sustainability-related items. 916 nursing students (UK: 450, Germany: 196, Spain: 124, Switzerland: 146). Standard descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to establish psychometric quality (Principal Components Analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Pearson correlations) and compare student nurses from the four countries. The reliability of SANS_2 was good (Cronbach's alpha=.82) and the five items loaded on a single factor which explained 58% of variance. ANOVA of the SANS_2 total score showed significant differences between countries with German nursing students showing more sustainability awareness than students from the UK and Spain. SANS_2 is a reliable instrument to assess nursing students' sustainability awareness; there are significant differences in sustainability awareness of students of different European countries. Limitations of the study include non-random sampling, possible method effects and social desirability effects

  4. Including gauge corrections to thermal leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huetig, Janine

    2013-01-01

    This thesis provides the first approach of a systematic inclusion of gauge corrections to leading order to the ansatz of thermal leptogenesis. We have derived a complete expression for the integrated lepton number matrix including all resummations needed. For this purpose, a new class of diagram has been invented, namely the cylindrical diagram, which allows diverse investigations into the topic of leptogenesis such as the case of resonant leptogenesis. After a brief introduction of the topic of the baryon asymmetry in the universe and a discussion of its most promising solutions as well as their advantages and disadvantages, we have presented our framework of thermal leptogenesis. An effective model was described as well as the associated Feynman rules. The basis for using nonequilibrium quantum field theory has been built in chapter 3. At first, the main definitions have been presented for equilibrium thermal field theory, afterwards we have discussed the Kadanoff-Baym equations for systems out of equilibrium using the example of the Majorana neutrino. The equations have also been solved in the context of leptogenesis in chapter 4. Since gauge corrections play a crucial role throughout this thesis, we have also repeated the naive ansatz by replacing the free equilibrium propagator by propagators including thermal damping rates due to the Standard Model damping widths for lepton and Higgs fields. It is shown that this leads to a comparable result to the solutions of the Boltzmann equations for thermal leptogenesis. Thus it becomes obvious that Standard Model corrections are not negligible for thermal leptogenesis and therefore need to be included systematically from first principles. In order to achieve this we have started discussing the calculation of ladder rung diagrams for Majorana neutrinos using the HTL and the CTL approach in chapter 5. All gauge corrections are included in this framework and thus it has become the basis for the following considerations

  5. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-01-01

    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  6. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  7. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  8. Pulmonary disorders, including vocal cord dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Paul A; Grammer, Leslie C

    2010-02-01

    The lung is a very complex immunologic organ and responds in a variety of ways to inhaled antigens, organic or inorganic materials, infectious or saprophytic agents, fumes, and irritants. There might be airways obstruction, restriction, neither, or both accompanied by inflammatory destruction of the pulmonary interstitium, alveoli, or bronchioles. This review focuses on diseases organized by their predominant immunologic responses, either innate or acquired. Pulmonary innate immune conditions include transfusion-related acute lung injury, World Trade Center cough, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Adaptive immunity responses involve the systemic and mucosal immune systems, activated lymphocytes, cytokines, and antibodies that produce CD4(+) T(H)1 phenotypes, such as for tuberculosis or acute forms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and CD4(+) T(H)2 phenotypes, such as for asthma, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  10. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" trainings have been recently changed to include, respectively, an introduction and an expert training on the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to develop expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepare...

  11. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepares participants to develop test and measurement, da...

  12. How novice, skilled and advanced clinical researchers include variables in a case report form for clinical research: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hongling; Zeng, Lin; Fetters, Micheal D; Li, Nan; Tao, Liyuan; Shi, Yanyan; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Fengwei; Zhao, Yiming

    2017-09-18

    Despite varying degrees in research training, most academic clinicians are expected to conduct clinical research. The objective of this research was to understand how clinical researchers of different skill levels include variables in a case report form for their clinical research. The setting for this research was a major academic institution in Beijing, China. The target population was clinical researchers with three levels of experience, namely, limited clinical research experience, clinicians with rich clinical research experience and clinical research experts. Using a qualitative approach, we conducted 13 individual interviews (face to face) and one group interview (n=4) with clinical researchers from June to September 2016. Based on maximum variation sampling to identify researchers with three levels of research experience: eight clinicians with limited clinical research experience, five clinicians with rich clinical research experience and four clinical research experts. These 17 researchers had diverse hospital-based medical specialties and or specialisation in clinical research. Our analysis yields a typology of three processes developing a case report form that varies according to research experience level. Novice clinician researchers often have an incomplete protocol or none at all, and conduct data collection and publication based on a general framework. Experienced clinician researchers include variables in the case report form based on previous experience with attention to including domains or items at risk for omission and by eliminating unnecessary variables. Expert researchers consider comprehensively in advance data collection and implementation needs and plan accordingly. These results illustrate increasing levels of sophistication in research planning that increase sophistication in selection for variables in the case report form. These findings suggest that novice and intermediate-level researchers could benefit by emulating the comprehensive

  13. A systematic study on Endotribelos Grodhaus (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Brazil including DNA barcoding to link males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivinho-Strixino, Susana; Pepinelli, Mateus

    2015-03-18

    Six new species of Endotribelos from Brazil are described and illustrated as male, female, pupa and larva: E. bicolor sp. n., E. fulvidus sp. n., E. jaragua sp. n., E. jiboia sp. n., E. semibruneus sp. n. and E. sublettei sp. n. The female of E. calophylli Roque & Trivinho-Strixino and the larvae of four unknown morphotypes are also described. Keys including males and larvae of all known species of Endotribelos are provided. Adults' males and females from five species were linked using DNA Barcoding mtCOI sequences.

  14. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  15. A micromanipulation cell including a tool changer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clévy, Cédric; Hubert, Arnaud; Agnus, Joël; Chaillet, Nicolas

    2005-10-01

    This paper deals with the design, fabrication and characterization of a tool changer for micromanipulation cells. This tool changer is part of a manipulation cell including a three linear axes robot and a piezoelectric microgripper. All these parts are designed to perform micromanipulation tasks in confined spaces such as a microfactory or in the chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tool changer principle is to fix a pair of tools (i.e. the gripper tips) either on the tips of the microgripper actuator (piezoceramic bulk) or on a tool magazine. The temperature control of a thermal glue enables one to fix or release this pair of tools. Liquefaction and solidification are generated by surface mounted device (SMD) resistances fixed on the surface of the actuator or magazine. Based on this principle, the tool changer can be adapted to other kinds of micromanipulation cells. Hundreds of automatic tool exchanges were performed with a maximum positioning error between two consecutive tool exchanges of 3.2 µm, 2.3 µm and 2.8 µm on the X, Y and Z axes respectively (Z refers to the vertical axis). Finally, temperature measurements achieved under atmospheric pressure and in a vacuum environment and pressure measurements confirm the possibility of using this device in the air as well as in a SEM.

  16. Unifying all elementary particle forces including gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, H.

    1979-01-01

    It is a final goal in physics to unify all four basic forces, strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational. First, the unified gauge theories of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed. There are two standard models, the model of Pati and Salam in which leptons have the fourth color, and the model of Georgi and Glashow in which a simple group SU (5) is assumed for grand unification. Two mass relations for leptons and quarks were derived, and the extension of the Georgi-Glashow model to a grand unified model of SU (6) gauge group has been made. The quantization of the electric charge of elementary particles is one of the most satisfactory features in grand unified gauge theories. The constraint relations between the gauge couplings, the weak mixing angle and the mass scale of symmetry breaking owing to the renormalization effect are not so severe as those in the grand unified models. However, the mass scale becomes far above the Planck mass in some cases. The baryon number non-conservation is one of the most intriguing features common to grand unified gauge theories. The unified models of all elementary particle forces including gravity are discussed. The discovery of weak vector bosons and the production of subquark pairs are anticipated. (Kako, I.)

  17. What should be included in the assessment of laypersons' paediatric basic life support skills? Results from a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Lauritsen, Torsten; Kristensen, Tim; Bohnstedt, Cathrine; Sønderskov, Claus; Østergaard, Doris; Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk

    2018-01-18

    Assessment of laypersons' Paediatric Basic Life Support (PBLS) skills is important to ensure acquisition of effective PBLS competencies. However limited evidence exists on which PBLS skills are essential for laypersons. The same challenges exist with respect to the assessment of foreign body airway obstruction management (FBAOM) skills. We aimed to establish international consensus on how to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. A Delphi consensus survey was conducted. Out of a total of 84 invited experts, 28 agreed to participate. During the first Delphi round experts suggested items to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. In the second round, the suggested items received comments from and were rated by 26 experts (93%) on a 5-point scale (1 = not relevant to 5 = essential). Revised items were anonymously presented in a third round for comments and 23 (82%) experts completed a re-rating. Items with a score above 3 by more than 80% of the experts in the third round were included in an assessment instrument. In the first round, 19 and 15 items were identified to assess PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The ratings and comments from the last two rounds resulted in nine and eight essential assessment items for PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The PBLS items included: "Responsiveness"," Call for help", "Open airway"," Check breathing", "Rescue breaths", "Compressions", "Ventilations", "Time factor" and "Use of AED". The FBAOM items included: "Identify different stages of foreign body airway obstruction", "Identify consciousness", "Call for help", "Back blows", "Chest thrusts/abdominal thrusts according to age", "Identify loss of consciousness and change to CPR", "Assessment of breathing" and "Ventilation". For assessment of laypersons some PBLS and FBAOM skills described in guidelines are more important than others. Four out of nine of PBLS skills focus on airway and breathing skills, supporting the major importance of these skills for

  18. Parents' views of including young boys in the Swedish national school-based HPV vaccination programme: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottvall, Maria; Stenhammar, Christina; Grandahl, Maria

    2017-02-28

    To explore parents' views of extending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme to also include boys. Explorative qualitative design using individual, face-to-face, interviews and inductive thematic analysis. 11 strategically chosen municipalities in central Sweden. Parents (n=42) who were offered HPV vaccination for their 11-12 years old daughter in the national school-based vaccination programme. The key themes were: equality from a public health perspective and perception of risk for disease . Parents expressed low knowledge and awareness about the health benefits of male HPV vaccination, and they perceived low risk for boys to get HPV. Some parents could not see any reason for vaccinating boys. However, many parents preferred gender-neutral vaccination, and some of the parents who had not accepted HPV vaccination for their daughter expressed that they would be willing to accept vaccination for their son, if it was offered. It was evident that there was both trust and distrust in authorities' decision to only vaccinate girls. Parents expressed a preference for increased sexual and reproductive health promotion such as more information about condom use. Some parents shared that it was more important to vaccinate girls than boys since they believed girls face a higher risk of deadly diseases associated with HPV, but some also believed girls might be more vulnerable to side effects of the vaccine. A vaccine offered only to girls may cause parents to be hesitant to vaccinate, while also including boys in the national vaccination programme might improve parents' trust in the vaccine. More information about the health benefits of HPV vaccination for males is necessary to increase HPV vaccination among boys. This may eventually lead to increased HPV vaccine coverage among both girls and boys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Detailed NMR, including 1,1-ADEQUATE, and anticancer studies of compounds from the echinoderm Colobometra perspinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony D; Nielson, Jonathan L; Tapiolas, Dianne M; Motti, Cherie A; Ovenden, Simon P B; Kearns, Philip S; Liptrot, Catherine H

    2009-11-12

    From the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the crinoid Colobometra perspinosa, collected south east of Richards Island (Bedara), Family Islands, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 3-(1'-hydroxypropyl)-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone [one of the two stereoisomers of rhodoptilometrin, (1)], 3-propyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3), 2-[(phenylacetyl)amino]ethanesulfonic acid (4), and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (5) were isolated. Comparison of (1)H- and (13)C-NMR data for rhodoptilometrin (1) with those reported in the literature showed significant differences for some resonances associated with rings A and C. In an attempt to provide accurately assigned (1)H- and (13)C-NMR data, as well as to confirm the structure of 1, a thorough NMR investigation of this compound was undertaken. Measurements included: concentration dependent (13)C, 1D selective NOE, HSQC, HMBC and 1,1-ADEQUATE. The NMR data for 4 and 5 are reported here for the first time, as is their occurrence from the marine environment. The in vitro anticancer activity of the original extract was found to be associated with 1, 3 and 5.

  20. Detailed NMR, Including 1,1-ADEQUATE, and Anticancer Studies of Compounds from the Echinoderm Colobometra perspinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine H. Liptrot

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available From the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the crinoid Colobometra perspinosa, collected south east of Richards Island (Bedara, Family Islands, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 3-(1'-hydroxypropyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone [one of the two stereoisomers of rhodoptilometrin, (1], 3-propyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3, 2-[(phenylacetylamino]ethanesulfonic acid (4, and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (5 were isolated. Comparison of 1H- and 13C-NMR data for rhodoptilometrin (1 with those reported in the literature showed significant differences for some resonances associated with rings A and C. In an attempt to provide accurately assigned 1H- and 13C-NMR data, as well as to confirm the structure of 1, a thorough NMR investigation of this compound was undertaken. Measurements included: concentration dependent 13C, 1D selective NOE, HSQC, HMBC and 1,1-ADEQUATE. The NMR data for 4 and 5 are reported here for the first time, as is their occurrence from the marine environment. The in vitro anticancer activity of the original extract was found to be associated with 1, 3 and 5.

  1. Technical Note: Monte Carlo study of106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic plaques including the106Rh gamma spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida-López, Marcelino; Brualla, Lorenzo

    2017-06-01

    To assess the influence of the 106 Rh gamma spectrum on the Monte Carlo simulation of 106 Ru/ 106 Rh ophthalmic plaques, which has been neglected without a quantitative estimation in all previous publications. Simulations were run with the penelope 2014 Monte Carlo code for radiation transport. Depth-dose distributions in water were simulated for the plaque models CCA, CCC, CCX and CIA. In addition to the 106 Rh beta spectrum, all gamma components from the 106 Rh gamma spectrum were included in the simulations. Depth-dose curves were compared with those obtained without considering the 106 Rh gamma spectrum. Moreover, half-value (HVL) and tenth-value layers (TVL) were estimated for the 106 Rh gamma spectrum in water, PMMA, stainless steel and lead. Some practical radiation protection applications were discussed. Parallel computing was implemented to reduce computing time. The contribution of the 106 Rh gamma spectrum on the depth-dose curves is negligible at depths of clinical interest. The HVL and TVL of the 106 Rh gamma spectrum were found to be similar to those of 137 Cs. The air-kerma rate at 1 m for a CCA plaque in typical clinical conditions was about 0.4μGym2h-1, resulting in equivalent doses at that point elow 0.05 mSv during a treatment. The air-kerma rate would be underestimated by a factor of 5 if the 106 Rh gamma spectrum were not considered. Also, a freely available software tool was developed to ease parallelization of penelope 2014 simulations that use penmain as steering main program. The influence of the 106 Rh gamma spectrum is not relevant for clinical purposes, thus validating the common assumption from the literature. However, for simulations at large distances from the plaques, such as for radiation shielding assessment and estimation of dose to personnel, the gamma spectrum from 106 Rh must be taken into account to obtain accurate results. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Comparison of a 'freeze-all' strategy including GnRH agonist trigger versus a 'fresh transfer' strategy including hCG trigger in assisted reproductive technology (ART): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormlund, Sacha; Løssl, Kristine; Zedeler, Anne; Bogstad, Jeanette; Prætorius, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Bungum, Mona; Skouby, Sven O; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Bergh, Christina; Humaidan, Peter; Pinborg, Anja

    2017-07-31

    Pregnancy rates after frozen embryo transfer (FET) have improved in recent years and are now approaching or even exceeding those obtained after fresh embryo transfer. This is partly due to improved laboratory techniques, but may also be caused by a more physiological hormonal and endometrial environment in FET cycles. Furthermore, the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is practically eliminated in segmentation cycles followed by FET and the use of natural cycles in FETs may be beneficial for the postimplantational conditions of fetal development. However, a freeze-all strategy is not yet implemented as standard care due to limitations of large randomised trials showing a benefit of such a strategy. Thus, there is a need to test the concept against standard care in a randomised controlled design. This study aims to compare ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates between a freeze-all strategy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triggering versus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger and fresh embryo transfer in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Multicentre randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment including 424 normo-ovulatory women aged 18-39 years from Denmark and Sweden. Participants will be randomised (1:1) to either (1) GnRH agonist trigger and single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer in a subsequent hCG triggered natural menstrual cycle or (2) hCG trigger and single blastocyst transfer in the fresh (stimulated) cycle. The primary endpoint is to compare ongoing pregnancy rates per randomised patient in the two treatment groups after the first single blastocyst transfer. The study will be performed in accordance with the ethical principles in the Helsinki Declaration. The study is approved by the Scientific Ethical Committees in Denmark and Sweden. The results of the study will be publically disseminated. NCT02746562; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their

  3. Including virtual photons in strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusetsky, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the perturbative field-theoretical models we investigate the inclusion of the electromagnetic interactions into the purely strong theory that describes hadronic processes. In particular, we study the convention for splitting electromagnetic and strong interactions and the ambiguity of such a splitting. The issue of the interpretation of the parameters of the low-energy effective field theory in the presence of electromagnetic interactions is addressed, as well as the scale and gauge dependence of the effective theory couplings. We hope, that the results of these studies are relevant for the electromagnetic sector of ChPT. (orig.)

  4. Soil-structure interaction including nonlinear soil

    OpenAIRE

    Gicev, Vlado

    2008-01-01

    There are two types of models of soil-structure system depending upon the rigidity of foundation: models with rigid and models with flexible foundation. Main features of the soil-structure interaction phenomenon: -wave scattering, -radiation damping, -reduction of the system frequencies. In this presentation, the influence of interaction on the development of nonlinear zones in the soil is studied.

  5. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Cash working capital. The average amount of investor-supplied capital needed to provide funds for a carrier's day-to-day interstate operations. Class A carriers may calculate a cash working capital... study or using the formula in paragraph (e) of this section, may calculate the cash working capital...

  6. Exercises in experimental physics including complete solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, R.; Loos, G.

    1978-01-01

    This collection of exercises is not only addressed to students of physics but also to scientists of other branches and to engineers. Possibilities are offered to the student to gain control on his growing knowledge from the beginning of his studies until the examination. The individual exercises are linked thematically and are mostly composed by several single tasks. Complete and detailed numerical solutions are presented. The topics covered are: (1) Mechanics, (2) thermodynamics, (3) oscillations and their propagation, (4) electricity and magnetism, (5) atomic physics, and (6) nuclear physics. (KBE)

  7. Including subjectivity in the teaching of Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Domont de Serpa Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current psychopathology studies have often been presented in their descriptive dimension. This perspective is important for teaching because it helps the students to recognize and identify the symptomatology of each psychopathology case. However, subjectivity, the experience of suffering and interpersonal aspects are all lost in this perspective. Coming from another psychopathology tradition - existential anthropology - this paper presents practical psychopathology teaching experience which considers such dimensions as being relevant to the understanding of mental suffering. The features and limitations of such traditions are briefly reviewed to support this teaching experience. Two new modalities of practical teaching, used in the discipline of "Special Psychopathology I" offered by the Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine at the medical school of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro for students of psychology, will be presented according to descriptive case study methodology. With these activities we also expect to change the practice of teaching. Traditionally, interviewing of in-patients by a large group of students who observe passively what is happening is the center of this kind of education. We intend to develop a model of teaching which is closer to the proposal of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform which views mental illness as a complex phenomenon, always involving the relationship that the subject establishes with the world.

  8. Broadening Industry Governance to Include Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen; Seward, Amy M.

    2008-11-11

    As industry is the first line of defense in detecting and thwarting illicit trade networks, the engagement of the private sector is critical to any government effort to strengthen existing mechanisms to protect goods and services throughout the supply chain. This study builds on previous PNNL work to continue to evaluate means for greater industry engagement to complement and strengthen existing governmental efforts to detect and stem the trade of illicit goods and to protect and secure goods that could be used in making a weapon of mass destruction. Specifically, the study evaluates the concept of Industry Self Regulation, defined as a systematic voluntary program undertaken by an industry or by individual companies to anticipate, implement, supplement, or substitute for regulatory requirements in a given field, generally through the adoption of best practices. Through a series of interviews with companies with a past history of non-compliance, trade associations and NGOs, the authors identify gaps in the existing regulatory infrastructure, drivers for a self regulation approach and the form such an approach might take, as well as obstacles to be overcome. The authors conclude that it is at the intersection of industry, government, and security that—through collaborative means—the effectiveness of the international nonproliferation system—can be most effectively strengthened to the mutual benefit of both government and the private sector. Industry has a critical stake in the success of this regime, and has the potential to act as an integrating force that brings together the existing mechanisms of the global nonproliferation regime: export controls, physical protection, and safeguards. The authors conclude that industry compliance is not enough; rather, nonproliferation must become a central tenant of a company’s corporate culture and be viewed as an integral component of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

  9. Nonlinear Progressive Collapse Analysis Including Distributed Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Osama Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the effect of incorporating distributed plasticity in nonlinear analytical models used to assess the potential for progressive collapse of steel framed regular building structures. Emphasis on this paper is on the deformation response under the notionally removed column, in a typical Alternate Path (AP method. The AP method employed in this paper is based on the provisions of the Unified Facilities Criteria – Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse, developed and updated by the U.S. Department of Defense [1]. The AP method is often used for to assess the potential for progressive collapse of building structures that fall under Occupancy Category III or IV. A case study steel building is used to examine the effect of incorporating distributed plasticity, where moment frames were used on perimeter as well as the interior of the three dimensional structural system. It is concluded that the use of moment resisting frames within the structural system will enhance resistance to progressive collapse through ductile deformation response and that it is conserative to ignore the effects of distributed plasticity in determining peak displacement response under the notionally removed column.

  10. Conceptual design studies of a V/STOL civil lift fan transport including effect of size and fan pressure ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of V/STOL Lift Fan Commercial short-haul transport aircraft for the 1980-85 time period were studied to determine their technical and economic feasibility. The remote lift fan configurations with a variation in fan pressure ratio from 1.2 to 1.5 were investigated. Also studied were variation in stage length from 200 nautical miles to 800 nautical miles and cruise Mach numbers of 0.75 and 0.85. These results indicate a four engine configuration was feasible. The 95 PNdb noise footprint would be approximately 45 acres and the DOC's would be about 60% greater than conventional transports.

  11. Including Remote Participants and Artifacts: Visual, Audio, and Tactile Modalities in an Ethnographic Study of Globally Distributed Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Pederson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study how globally distributed Danish and Indian engineers co-construct and reconfigure a shared socio-technical collaborative place for global collaborative interaction: War Room meetings. We investigate the empirical case of War Room meetings based on three modalities in which ...

  12. Microdeletions including FMR1 in three female patients with intellectual disability - further delineation of the phenotype and expression studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, A M; Wohlleber, E; Engels, H

    2014-01-01

    in all patients, yet they presented with ID/DD as well as speech delay, macrocephaly and other features attributable to FXS. No signs of autism were present. Here, we further delineate the clinical spectrum of female patients with microdeletions. FMR1 expression studies gave no evidence for an absolute...

  13. Students’ Learning Experiences from Didactic Teaching Sessions Including Patient Case Examples as Either Text or Video: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla; Holdgaard, Martin Møller; Paltved, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore medical students' learning experiences from the didactic teaching formats using either text-based patient cases or video-based patient cases with similar content. The authors explored how the two different patient case formats influenced students' ...... unintended stigma and influence an authoritative approach in medical students towards managing patients in clinical psychiatry....

  14. Nine Loci for Ocular Axial Length Identified through Genome-wide Association Studies, Including Shared Loci with Refractive Error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Schache, Maria; Ikram, M. Kamran; Young, Terri L.; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Vitart, Veronique; Macgregor, Stuart; Verhoeven, Virginie J. M.; Barathi, Veluchamy A.; Liao, Jiemin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; St Pourcain, Beate; Kemp, John P.; McMahon, George; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Evans, David M.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mishra, Aniket; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Polasek, Ozren; Wright, Alan F.; Amin, Najaf; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Wilson, James F.; Pennell, Craig E.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Tay, Wan-Ting; Zheng, Yingfeng; Chew, Merwyn; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Craig, Jamie E.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Chew, Emily Y.; Haller, Toomas; Mihailov, Evelin; Metspalu, Andres; Wedenoja, Juho; Simpson, Claire L.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Höhn, René; Mirshahi, Alireza; Zeller, Tanja; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Lackner, Karl J.; Bettecken, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Pirastu, Mario; Portas, Laura; Nag, Abhishek; Williams, Katie M.; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Paterson, Andrew D.; Makela, Kari-Matti; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kahonen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Chen, Li Jia; Pang, Chi Pui; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K. H.; Meguro, Akira; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Foster, Paul J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Vithana, Eranga; Tai, E.-Shyong; Fan, Qiao; Xu, Liang; Campbell, Harry; Fleck, Brian; Rudan, Igor; Aung, Tin; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Bencic, Goran; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Forward, Hannah; Pärssinen, Olavi; Mitchell, Paul; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hewitt, Alex W.; Williams, Cathy; Oostra, Ben A.; teo, Yik-Ying; Hammond, Christopher J.; Stambolian, Dwight; Mackey, David A.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Wong, Tien-Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei; Baird, Paul N.; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Yamashiro, Kenji; Miyake, Masahiro; Delcourt, Cécile; Maubaret, Cecilia; Northstone, Kate; Ring, Susan M.; Davey-Smith, George; Fogarty, Rhys D.; Chew, Emily; Janmahasathian, Sarayut; Bailey Wilson, Joan E.; Lu, Yi; Jonas, Jost B.; Nangia, Vinay; Hayward, Caroline; Vatavuk, Zoran; Mohsen Hosseini, S.; Fondran, Jeremy R.; Feng, Sheng; Klaver, Caroline C.; Wegner, Aharon; Ho, Daniel W. H.; Murgia, Federico; Biino, Genevra; Ang, Wei; Kamran Ikram, M.; Deangelis, Margaret M.; Morrison, Margaux; Zhou, Xiangtian; Chen, Wei; D Paterson, Andrew; Lehtimäki, Terho; Mäkelä, Kari-Matti; Kähönen, Mika; Reinhart, William; Belin, Michael W.; Schultze, Robert L.; Morason, Todd; Sugar, Alan; Mian, Shahzad; Soong, Hunson Kaz; Colby, Kathryn; Jurkunas, Ula; Yee, Richard; Vital, Mark; Alfonso, Eduardo; Karp, Carol; Lee, Yunhee; Yoo, Sonia; Hammersmith, Kristin; Cohen, Elisabeth; Laibson, Peter; Rapuano, Christopher; Ayres, Brandon; Croasdale, Christopher; Caudill, James; Patel, Sanjay; Baratz, Keith; Bourne, William; Maguire, Leo; Sugar, Joel; Tu, Elmer; Djalilian, Ali; Mootha, Vinod; McCulley, James; Bowman, Wayne; Cavanaugh, H. Dwight; Verity, Steven; Verdier, David; Renucci, Ann; Oliva, Matt; Rotkis, Walter; Hardten, David R.; Fahmy, Ahmad; Brown, Marlene; Reeves, Sherman; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Lindstrom, Richard; Hauswirth, Scott; Hamilton, Stephen; Lee, W. Barry; Price, Francis; Price, Marianne; Kelly, Kathleen; Peters, Faye; Shaughnessy, Michael; Steinemann, Thomas; Dupps, B. J.; Meisler, David M.; Mifflin, Mark; Olson, Randal; Aldave, Anthony; Holland, Gary; Mondino, Bartly J.; Rosenwasser, George; Gorovoy, Mark; Dunn, Steven P.; Heidemann, David G.; Terry, Mark; Shamie, Neda; Rosenfeld, Steven I.; Suedekum, Brandon; Hwang, David; Stone, Donald; Chodosh, James; Galentine, Paul G.; Bardenstein, David; Goddard, Katrina; Chin, Hemin; Mannis, Mark; Varma, Rohit; Borecki, Ingrid; Donnelly, Peter; Barroso, Ines; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A.; Casas, Juan P.; Corvin, Aiden; Deloukas, Panos; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Band, Gavin; Bellenguez, Céline; Freeman, Colin; Hellenthal, Garrett; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Pirinen, Matti; Pearson, Richard; Strange, Amy; Su, Zhan; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Hunt, Sarah E.; Edkins, Sarah; Gwilliam, Rhian; Blackburn, Hannah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Dronov, Serge; Gillman, Matthew; Gray, Emma; Hammond, Naomi; Jayakumar, Alagurevathi; McCann, Owen T.; Liddle, Jennifer; Potter, Simon C.; Ravindrarajah, Radhi; Ricketts, Michelle; Waller, Matthew; Weston, Paul; Widaa, Sara; Whittaker, Pamela; Genuth, S.; Nathan, D. M.; Zinman, B.; Crofford, O.; Crandall, J.; Reid, M.; Brown-Friday, J.; Engel, S.; Sheindlin, J.; Martinez, H.; Shamoon, H.; Engel, H.; Phillips, M.; Gubitosi-Klug, R.; Mayer, L.; Pendegast, S.; Zegarra, H.; Miller, D.; Singerman, L.; Smith-Brewer, S.; Novak, M.; Quin, J.; Dahms, W.; Genuth, Saul; Palmert, M.; Brillon, D.; Lackaye, M. E.; Kiss, S.; Chan, R.; Reppucci, V.; Lee, T.; Heinemann, M.; Whitehouse, F.; Kruger, D.; Jones, J. K.; McLellan, M.; Carey, J. D.; Angus, E.; Thomas, A.; Galprin, A.; Bergenstal, R.; Johnson, M.; Spencer, M.; Morgan, K.; Etzwiler, D.; Kendall, D.; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Golden, E.; Jacobson, A.; Beaser, R.; Ganda, O.; Hamdy, O.; Wolpert, H.; Sharuk, G.; Arrigg, P.; Schlossman, D.; Rosenzwieg, J.; Rand, L.; Larkin, M.; Ong, M.; Godine, J.; Cagliero, E.; Lou, P.; Folino, K.; Fritz, S.; Crowell, S.; Hansen, K.; Gauthier-Kelly, C.; Service, J.; Ziegler, G.; Luttrell, L.; Caulder, S.; Lopes-Virella, M.; Colwell, J.; Soule, J.; Fernandes, J.; Hermayer, K.; Kwon, S.; Brabham, M.; Blevins, A.; Parker, J.; Lee, D.; Patel, N.; Pittman, C.; Lindsey, P.; Bracey, M.; Lee, K.; Nutaitis, M.; Farr, A.; Elsing, S.; Thompson, T.; Selby, J.; Lyons, T.; Yacoub-Wasef, S.; Szpiech, M.; Wood, D.; Mayfield, R.; Molitch, M.; Schaefer, B.; Jampol, L.; Lyon, A.; Gill, M.; Strugula, Z.; Kaminski, L.; Mirza, R.; Simjanoski, E.; Ryan, D.; Kolterman, O.; Lorenzi, G.; Goldbaum, M.; Sivitz, W.; Bayless, M.; Counts, D.; Johnsonbaugh, S.; Hebdon, M.; Salemi, P.; Liss, R.; Donner, T.; Gordon, J.; Hemady, R.; Kowarski, A.; Ostrowski, D.; Steidl, S.; Jones, B.; Herman, W. H.; Martin, C. L.; Pop-Busui, R.; Sarma, A.; Albers, J.; Feldman, E.; Kim, K.; Elner, S.; Comer, G.; Gardner, T.; Hackel, R.; Prusak, R.; Goings, L.; Smith, A.; Gothrup, J.; Titus, P.; Lee, J.; Brandle, M.; Prosser, L.; Greene, D. A.; Stevens, M. J.; Vine, A. K.; Bantle, J.; Wimmergren, N.; Cochrane, A.; Olsen, T.; Steuer, E.; Rath, P.; Rogness, B.; Hainsworth, D.; Goldstein, D.; Hitt, S.; Giangiacomo, J.; Schade, D. S.; Canady, J. L.; Chapin, J. E.; Ketai C, L. H.; Braunstein, S.; Bourne, P. A.; Schwartz, S.; Brucker, A.; Maschak-Carey, B. J.; Baker, L.; Orchard, T.; Silvers, N.; Ryan, C.; Songer, T.; Doft, B.; Olson, S.; Bergren, R. L.; Lobes, L.; Paczan Rath, P.; Becker, D.; Rubinstein, D.; Conrad, P. W.; Yalamanchi, S.; Drash, A.; Morrison, A.; Bernal, M. L.; Vaccaro-Kish, J.; Malone, J.; Pavan, P. R.; Grove, N.; Iyer, M. N.; Burrows, A. F.; Tanaka, E. A.; Gstalder, R.; Dagogo-Jack, S.; Wigley, C.; Ricks, H.; Kitabchi, A.; Murphy, M. B.; Moser, S.; Meyer, D.; Iannacone, A.; Chaum, E.; Yoser, S.; Bryer-Ash, M.; Schussler, S.; Lambeth, H.; Raskin, P.; Strowig, S.; Barnie, A.; Devenyi, R.; Mandelcorn, M.; Brent, M.; Rogers, S.; Gordon, A.; Palmer, J.; Catton, S.; Brunzell, J.; Wessells, H.; de Boer, I. H.; Hokanson, J.; Purnell, J.; Ginsberg, J.; Kinyoun, J.; Deeb, S.; Weiss, M.; Meekins, G.; Distad, J.; van Ottingham, L.; Dupre, J.; Harth, J.; Nicolle, D.; Driscoll, M.; Mahon, J.; Canny, C.; May, M.; Lipps, J.; Agarwal, A.; Adkins, T.; Survant, L.; Pate, R. L.; Munn, G. E.; Lorenz, R.; Feman, S.; White, N.; Levandoski, L.; Boniuk, I.; Grand, G.; Thomas, M.; Joseph, D. D.; Blinder, K.; Shah, G.; Burgess, I.; Santiago, J.; Tamborlane, W.; Gatcomb, P.; Stoessel, K.; Taylor, K.; Goldstein, J.; Novella, S.; Mojibian, H.; Cornfeld, D.; Lima, J.; Bluemke, D.; Turkbey, E.; van der Geest, R. J.; Liu, C.; Malayeri, A.; Jain, A.; Miao, C.; Chahal, H.; Jarboe, R.; Maynard, J.; Gaston, P.; Trail, R.; Lachin, J.; Cleary, P.; Backlund, J.; Sun, W.; Braffett, B.; Klumpp, K.; Chan, K.; Diminick, L.; Rosenberg, D.; Petty, B.; Determan, A.; Kenny, D.; Rutledge, B.; Younes, Naji; Dews, L.; Hawkins, M.; Cowie, C.; Fradkin, J.; Siebert, C.; Eastman, R.; Danis, R.; Gangaputra, S.; Neill, S.; Davis, M.; Hubbard, L.; Wabers, H.; Burger, M.; Dingledine, J.; Gama, V.; Sussman, R.; Steffes, M.; Bucksa, J.; Nowicki, M.; Chavers, B.; O'Leary, D.; Polak, J.; Harrington, A.; Funk, L.; Crow, R.; Gloeb, B.; Thomas, S.; O'Donnell, C.; Soliman, E.; Zhang, Z. M.; Prineas, R.; Campbell, C.; Sandstrom, D.; Williams, T.; Geckle, M.; Cupelli, E.; Thoma, F.; Burzuk, B.; Woodfill, T.; Low, P.; Sommer, C.; Nickander, K.; Budoff, M.; Detrano, R.; Wong, N.; Fox, M.; Kim, L.; Oudiz, R.; Weir, G.; Espeland, M.; Manolio, T.; Singer, D.; Stern, M.; Boulton, A. E.; Clark, C.; D'Agostino, R.; Garvey, W. T.; Lyons, T. J.; Jenkins, A.; Virella, G.; Jaffa, A.; Carter, Rickey; Lackland, D.; McGee, D.; Zheng, D.; Mayfield, R. K.; Boright, A.; Bull, S.; Sun, L.; Scherer, S.; Natarajan, R.; Miao, F.; Zhang, L.; Chen, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Refractive errors are common eye disorders of public health importance worldwide. Ocular axial length (AL) is the major determinant of refraction and thus of myopia and hyperopia. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for AL, combining 12,531 Europeans and 8,216 Asians. We

  15. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  16. A prospective observational study of machine translation software to overcome the challenge of including ethnic diversity in healthcare research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel M; Crichton, Nicola; Moult, Beki; Gibson, Faith

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates whether machine translation could help with the challenge of enabling the inclusion of ethnic diversity in healthcare research. A two phase, prospective observational study. Two machine translators, Google Translate and Babylon 9, were tested. Translation of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) from 24 languages into English and translation of an English information sheet into Spanish and Chinese were quality scored. Quality was assessed using the Translation Assessment Quality Tool. Only six of the 48 translations of the SDQ were rated as acceptable, all from Google Translate. The mean number of acceptably translated sentences was higher ( P  = 0·001) for Google Translate 17·1 (sd 7·2) than for Babylon 9 11 (sd 7·9). Translation by Google Translate was better for Spanish and Chinese, although no score was in the acceptable range. Machine translation is not currently sufficiently accurate without editing to provide translation of materials for use in healthcare research.

  17. Predictors of driving outcomes including both crash involvement and driving cessation in a prospective study of Japanese older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuge, Ritsu; Okamura, Kazuko; Kihira, Makoto; Nakano, Yukako; Fujita, Goro

    2017-09-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate predictors of future traffic crash involvement, taking into account bias in the handling of data for former drivers. The second aim was to compare characteristics of former drivers and crash-involved drivers in order to gain an understanding of appropriate driving cessation among older drivers. In all, 154 drivers aged 70 years or older participated in the baseline interview and the follow-up survey conducted two years later. In the baseline interview, participants were asked to respond to a questionnaire, take the Useful Field of View test ® (UFOV), and complete the Mini-Mental State Examination. In the follow-up survey, participants were asked by mail or telephone whether they had stopped driving. Participants reporting that they still drove were invited to participate in a subsequent interview. Based on the information obtained in the follow-up survey, participants were classified as follows: driving cessation group (n=26); crash-involved group (n=18); and crash-free group (n=110). A multinomial logistic regression was then used to analyse the data. Contrary to the results of previous studies, we found older age to be associated with crash involvement but not with driving cessation. The cessation group had more decreased cognitive processing speed than the crash-involved and crash-free groups. Crash history was also predictive of crash involvement. Participants who were subject to license renewal between baseline and follow-up had a greater tendency to continue driving. Results suggested that age and crash history could potentially identify high-risk older drivers. The predictive power of cognitive processing speed is reduced under certain conditions. License-renewal procedures may induce Japanese older adults to continue driving. Future studies should use a large national sample to confirm the results of the present study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mineralogical and Geochemical Studies of Bone Detritus of Pleistocene Mammals, Including the Earliest in Northern Eurasia Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Silaev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the preliminary results of mineralogical and geochemical studies of the primary and epigenetic properties of the bio-mineral and protein components in the fossil bone detritus as an example of first step of continued interdisciplinary research program. During the further implementation of this program, it is expected not only to solve a set of interrelated mineralogical, paleontological, paleoecological, paleoclimatic, and archaeological problems, but also to obtain new knowledge about the coevolution of organic, organo-mineral and inorganic substances in the geological history. The main objects of study are the fossil remains of the large Pleistocene mammals (mammoths, woolly rhinoceroses, deer, elk, horses, bison, cave and brown bear found on the territory of the Pechora Urals (62-67 ° N , South Pri-Irtyshie in Western Siberia (57-58 ° N, and Northern Taymyr (75-77 ° N. The oldest bone of Homo sapiens (Ust-Ishim human found in Northern Eurasia and remains of medieval Tobol and Irtysh Turk will be investigated as well. The results of previous studies of skin and hair of biological material from today's wild fisheries (analogues Pleistocene mammals, wild and domestic animals are considered as the reliable prerequisites for planned isotopic and geochemical studies. Use of cutting-edge research techniques will allow determining the chemical composition of bones; the elemental composition of bone collagen and bone proteins; the degree of crystallinity of bone bioapatite, and phase composition of xenomineral impurities; the isotopic composition of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen in bioapatite and collagen; the actual molecular and crystal structure of the protein biomineral, and bone substance; the concentration of trace elements; the conditions and duration of burial and reburial of bone detritus; bone collagen bacterial degradation at an early stage of fossilization. It is expected that the implementation of the proposed project

  19. A technical investigation of an oil painting on copper support, including a study on consolidants for treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Maria Leonor Brito do Nascimento e

    2015-01-01

    Paper submitted to e-conservation Journal: Maria Leonor Oliveira, Leslie Carlyle, Sara Fragoso, Isabel Pombo Cardoso and João Coroado, “Investigations into paint delamination and consolidation of an oil painting on copper support”. This thesis is divided into two parts. Part 1 focuses on the technical study of an undated oil painting on copper. The painting, which depicts the Biblical scene ‘The Visitation’, arrived at the laboratory in poor condition, with severe active flaking which has ...

  20. A clinical study of motor imagery BCI performance in stroke by including calibration data from passive movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kai Keng; Guan, Cuntai; Chua, Karen Sui Geok; Phua, Kok Soon; Wang, Chuanchu; Chin, Zheng Yang; Zhou, Longjiang; Tang, Ka Yin; Joseph, Gopal Joseph Ephraim; Kuah, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) data from performing motor imagery are usually used to calibrate a subject-specific model in Motor Imagery Brain-Computer Interface (MI-BCI). However, the performance of MI is not directly observable by another person. Studies that attempted to address this issue in order to improve subjects with low MI performance had shown that it is feasible to use calibration data from Passive Movement (PM) to detect MI in healthy subjects. This study investigates the feasibility of using calibration data from PM of stroke patients to detect MI. EEG data from 2 calibration runs of MI and PM by a robotic haptic knob, and 1 evaluation run of MI were collected in one session of recording from 34 hemiparetic stroke patients recruited in the clinical study. In each run, 40 trials of MI or PM and 40 trials of the background rest were collected. The off-line run-to-run transfer kappa values from the calibration runs of MI, PM, and combined MI and PM, to the evaluation run of MI were then evaluated and compared. The results showed that calibration using PM (0.392) yielded significantly lower kappa value than the calibration using MI (0.457, p=4.40e-14). The results may be due to a significant disparity between the EEG data from PM and MI in stroke subjects. Nevertheless, the results showed that the calibration using both MI and PM (0.506) yielded significantly higher kappa value than the calibration using MI (0.457, p=9.54e-14). Hence, the results of this study suggest a promising direction to combine calibration data from PM and MI to improve MI detection on stroke.

  1. Power flow modeling of Back-to-Back STATCOM: Comprehensive simulation studies including PV curves and PQ circles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Mete Vural

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Power flow study in a power network embedded with FACTS device requires effort in program coding. Moreover, Newton-Raphson method should be modified by embedding injected power components into the algorithm. In this study, we have proposed a method for modeling of one of the newest FACTS concepts in power flow study without program coding or modification of existing Newton-Raphson algorithm. Real and reactive power injections for each voltage source converter of Back-to-Back Static Synchronous Compensator (BtB-STATCOM are PI regulated to their desired steady-state values. With this respect, reactive power injection of each voltage source converter as well as real power transfer among them can be assigned as control constraint. Operating losses are also taken into account in the proposed modeling approach. Furthermore, proposed model can be easily modified for the modeling of conventional STATCOM having only one voltage source converter or two STATCOMs operating independently. The proposed modeling approach is verified in PSCAD through a number of simulation scenarios in BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM embedded power systems, namely 1-Machine 4-Bus system and 3-Machine 7-Bus system. PV curves of local buses compensated by BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM are presented and compared. Steady-state performance of BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM is also compared in power flow handling.

  2. Experimental studies of ion flow near the sheath edge in multiple ion species plasma including argon, xenon and neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severn, Greg; Yip, Chi-Shung; Hershkowitz, Noah; Baalrud, Scott D.

    2017-05-01

    The Bohm sheath criterion was studied with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in three ion species plasmas using two tunable diode lasers. It was found in the first LIF studies of three ion species plasma (Yip et al 2016 Phys. Plasmas 23 050703) in which krypton was added to a mixture of argon and xenon plasma confined in a multidipole, dc hot filament discharge, that the addition of krypton served to turn off instability enhanced collisional friction (IEF) found in two ion species plasma (Yip et al 2010 Phys. Plasmas). In this study, neon, a less massive atomic gas than argon was added. Argon and xenon ion velocity distribution functions (IVDFs) were measured at the sheath-presheath boundary near a negatively biased boundary plate, and the Ne+ density was systematically increased. We found in both cases that once the added ion density significantly exceeded the density of the other two ions, IVDF measurements consistent with the absence of the instability were obtained, and the measured ion sheath edge speeds tended toward their individual Bohm velocities. For all other relative concentrations, the ions reached the sheath edge neither at their Bohm speeds nor the ion sound speed of the system, consistent, qualitatively, with the action of the IEF.

  3. Neutron Scattering Studies of Liquid on or Confined in Nano- and Mesoporous Carbons, Including Carbide-Derived Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, David J [ORNL

    2014-07-01

    This project involved the synthesis of microporous graphitic-carbon powders with subnanometer average pore size, and very narrow pore size distributions, and the use of these materials in experimental studies of pore-fluid structure and dynamics. Samples of carbide-derived carbon powder, synthesized by extraction of the metal cations from TiC by a high temperature chlorination process, followed by high temperature vacuum annealing, were prepared by Ranjan Dash and his associates at CRADA partner Y-Carbon, Inc. The resulting material had average pore sizes ranging from 5 to 8 . These powders were used in two experiments conducted by researchers involved in the Energy Frontier Research Center Directed by David J. Wesolowski at ORNL, the Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport (FIRST) Center. FIRST-funded researchers at Drexel University collaborated with scientists at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, to measure the expansion and contraction of the microporous carbon particles during charging and discharging of supercapactor electrodes composed of these particles (Hantell et al., 2011, Electrochemistry Communications, v. 13, pp. 1221-1224.) in an electrolyte composed of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate dissolved in acetonitrile. In the second experiment, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Drexel University conducted quasielastic neutron scattering studies of the diffusional dynamics of water imbibed into the micropores of the same material (Chathoth et al., 2011, EuroPhysics Journal, v. 95, pp. 56001/1-6). These studies helped to establish the role of pores approaching the size of the solvent and dissolved ions in altering diffusional dynamics, ion transport and physical response of conducting substrates to ion desolvation and entry into subnamometer pores.

  4. A comprehensive study including monitoring, assessment of health effects and development of a remediation method for chromium pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Al Hossain, M M Aeorangajeb; Sudo, Makoto; Akhand, Anwarul Azim; Ahsan, Nazmul; Alim, Md Abdul; Khalequzzaman, Md; Iida, Machiko; Yajima, Ichiro; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kato, Masashi

    2018-06-01

    Chromium (Cr) pollution caused by wastewater from tanneries is a worldwide environmental problem. To develop a countermeasure, we performed a comprehensive study using Hazaribagh, the tannery area in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, as a model. Our environmental monitoring indicated that the soluble form of Cr, but not barium or arsenic, in Buriganga River is derived from Hazaribagh. Our chemical analysis next showed that Cr, the primary pollutant in canal water at Hazaribagh, consisted of ≤0.7 μM hexavalent Cr [Cr(VI)] and ≤1705 μM trivalent Cr [Cr(III)]. Our biological study then showed that coexposure to Cr(VI) and Cr(III) at possible ratios in canal water at Hazaribagh synergistically promotes transforming activity of human non-tumorigenic HaCaT keratinocytes with activated MEK/ERK and AKT. Our environmental engineering study finally indicated that a magnesium and iron-based hydrotalcite-like compound (MF-HT), our original depurative, can maximally adsorb 9.0 mg/g Cr(VI) and 1041 mg/g Cr(III). Our results suggested the importance of removal of Cr(III) as well as Cr(VI) by showing that Cr(III), which is generally recognized as a chemical with low toxicity, synergistically promoted carcinogenicity of a low level of Cr(VI). Therefore, we propose the use of our original high-efficient and low-cost depurative as a countermeasure to address the worldwide problem of environmental Cr pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparative study of mouse embryo freeze-preservation including the examination of a thermoelectric freezing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiewe, M C; Schmidt, P M; Wildt, D E

    1987-06-01

    In Study 1 over 2000 4- to 8-cell mouse embryos were randomly pooled and assigned to 1 of 12 treatment groups. A 2 X 2 X 3 factorial design was used to analyze two types of cryoprotectant/post-thaw (PT) dilutions (dimethyl sulfoxide [Me2SO]/stepwise dilution versus glycerol/sucrose dilution), two storage containers (glass ampoules versus plastic straws), and three cooling treatments. Two commercial, controlled-rate freezing machines were examined, employing either nitrogen gas (Planer) or thermoelectric (Glacier) cooling. Embryos were cooled slowly (0.5 degrees C/min) to -35 or -80 degrees C and then cooled rapidly by transfer into liquid nitrogen (LN2). Thawed embryos were cultured for 24 hr after which developmental stage, post-thaw survival (PTS), embryo degeneration rate (EDR), quality grade (QG), and fluorescein diacetate viability grade (VG) were assessed. Overall, PTS and EDR were similar (P greater than 0.05) among the three freezing unit/plunge temperature treatments. Cumulative results of container and cryoprotectant/PT dilution treatments consistently demonstrated greater PTS, QG, and VG ratings and lower EDR values when embryos were frozen in ampoules using glycerol/sucrose dilution. Embryos treated with Me2SO/stepwise dilution were particularly sensitive to freezing damage when stored in plastic straws and plunged into LN2 at -35 degrees C. Study 2 was directed at determining whether Study 1 methods for diluting Me2SO-protected embryos markedly affected PTS rates. Post-thaw culture percentages were no different (P greater than 0.05) for four- to eight-cell Me2SO-treated embryos frozen in ampoules (using the forced-LN2 device), thawed, and diluted either conventionally in reduced concentrations of Me2SO or in the sucrose treatment normally accorded glycerolated embryos.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Social exclusion predicts impaired self-regulation: a 2-year longitudinal panel study including the transition from preschool to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenseng, Frode; Belsky, Jay; Skalicka, Vera; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-04-01

    The need-to-belong theory stipulates that social exclusion (i.e., being rejected by peers) impairs the ability to self-regulate, and experimental studies with adults support this contention, at least on a short-term basis. Few studies have investigated whether social exclusion affects the development of self-regulation of children in a more enduring manner. By using data from a community sample of 762 children, we investigated reciprocal relations between social exclusion and self-regulation from age 4 to age 6. Social exclusion was reported by teachers, whereas self-regulation was reported by parents. Autoregressive latent cross-lagged analyses showed that social exclusion predicted impaired development of dispositional self-regulation and, reciprocally, that poor self-regulation predicted enhanced social exclusion. In other words, social exclusion undermines children's development of self-regulation, whereas poor self-regulation increases the likelihood of exclusion. Results illuminate the applied relevance of the need-to-belong theory. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Vulnerability assessment including tangible and intangible components in the index composition: An Amazon case study of flooding and flash flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Milena Marília Nogueira de; Szlafsztein, Claudio Fabian

    2018-02-27

    The vulnerability of cities and communities in the Amazon to flooding and flash flooding is increasing. The effects of extreme events on populations vary across landscapes, causing vulnerability to differ spatially. Traditional vulnerability studies in Brazil and across the world have used the vulnerability index for the country and, more recently, municipality scales. The vulnerability dimensions are exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. For each of these dimensions, there is a group of indicators that constitutes a vulnerability index using quantitative data. Several vulnerability assessments have used sensitivity and exposure analyses and, recently, adaptive capacity has been considered. The Geographical Information Systems (GIS) analysis allows spatial regional modeling using quantitative vulnerability indicators. This paper presents a local-scale vulnerability assessment in an urban Amazonian area, Santarém City, using interdisciplinary methods. Data for exposure and sensitivity were gathered by remote sensing and census data, respectively. However, adaptive capacity refers to local capacities, whether infrastructural or not, and the latter were gathered by qualitative participatory methods. For the mixed data used to study adaptive capacity, we consider tangible components for countable infrastructure that can cope with hazards, and intangible components that reflect social activities based on risk perceptions and collective action. The results indicate that over 80% of the area is highly or moderately vulnerable to flooding and flash flooding. Exposure and adaptive capacity were determinants of the results. Lower values of adaptive capacity play a significant role in vulnerability enhancement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Including the people with disabilities at work: a case study of the job of bricklayer in civil construction in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, L B; Barkokébas Junior, B; Guimarães, B M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of the evaluation of the job of bricklayer in the construction industry to determine the profile of workers with disabilities who could perform this function and what adjustments are needed. The methods and techniques used in the field study were: direct observation of the activities and the environment, interviews with bricklayers on building sites, a video and photographic record of tasks being carried out to analyze the job of bricklayer, software resources were used. This study set out the disabilities most commonly caused by work accidents in the civil construction industry and simulated the conditions of the individuals to determine whether they could perform the activities of this function and what adaptations are needed. It was observed that workers with hearing impairments could perform activities without any change in the workplace and individuals who had had a leg or foot amputated need to use appropriate prostheses to perform the activities of the function. Thus, it was shown that the activity of professionals with experience in Ergonomics is essential since, by the activity of gathering data and analysing the physical, cognitive and organizational requirements of jobs and by collecting data on and analysing the functional capabilities of the worker with a disability, adaptations to jobs can be adequately defined.

  9. Comorbid subjective health complaints in patients with sciatica: a prospective study including comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne J; Ihlebaek, Camilla M; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens I; Grotle, Margreth

    2011-06-01

    Chronic nonspecific low back pain is accompanied by high rates of comorbid mental and physical conditions. The aims of this study were to investigate if patients with specific back pain, that is, sciatica caused by lumbar herniation, report higher rates of subjective health complaints (SHCs) than the general population and if there is an association between change in sciatica symptoms and change in SHCs over a 12-month period. A multicenter cohort study of 466 sciatica patients was conducted with follow-up at 3 months and 1 year. Comorbid SHCs were measured by 27 items of the SHC inventory. Odds ratios (ORs) for each SHC were calculated with comparison to a general population sample (n=928) by logistic regression. The SHC number was calculated by summing all complaints present. At baseline, the ORs for reporting SHCs for the sciatica patients were significantly elevated in 15 of the 27 items with a mean (S.D.) SHC number of 7.5 (4.4), compared to 5.2 (4.4) in the general population (Psciatica, the SHC number was reduced to normal levels. Among those with persisting or worsening sciatica, the number increased to a level almost double that of the general population. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of subjective health complaints in sciatica is increased. During follow-up, the number of health complaints increased in patients with persisting or worsening sciatica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Phase 2 study of the JAK kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib in patients with refractory leukemias, including postmyeloproliferative neoplasm acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghtedar, Alireza; Verstovsek, Srdan; Estrov, Zeev; Burger, Jan; Cortes, Jorge; Bivins, Carol; Faderl, Stefan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Borthakur, Gautam; George, Solly; Scherle, Peggy A; Newton, Robert C; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Ravandi, Farhad

    2012-05-17

    We conducted a phase 2 study of ruxolitinib in patients with relapsed/refractory leukemias. Patients with acceptable performance status (0-2), adequate organ function, and no active infection, received ruxolitinib 25 mg orally twice a day for 4 weeks (1 cycle). Response was assessed after every 2 cycles of treatment, and patients who completed 2 cycles were allowed to continue treatment until disease progression. Dose escalation to 50 mg twice daily was permitted in patients demonstrating a benefit. Thirty-eight patients, with a median age of 69 years (range, 45-88), were treated. The median number of prior therapies was 2 (range, 1-6). Twelve patients had JAK2V617F mutation. Patients received a median of 2 cycles of therapy (range, 1-22). Three of 18 patients with postmyeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) showed a significant response; 2 achieved complete remission (CR) and one achieved a CR with insufficient recovery of blood counts (CRi). The responding patients with palpable spleens also had significant reductions in spleen size. Overall, ruxolitinib was very well tolerated with only 4 patients having grade 3 or higher toxicity. Ruxolitinib has modest antileukemic activity as a single agent, particularly in patients with post-MPN AML. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00674479.

  11. Trichoderma virens β-glucosidase I (BGLI) gene; expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae including docking and molecular dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Gammadde Hewa Ishan Maduka; Rathnayake, Pilimathalawe Panditharathna Attanayake Mudiyanselage Samith Indika; Chandrasekharan, Naduviladath Vishvanath; Weerasinghe, Mahindagoda Siril Samantha; Wijesundera, Ravindra Lakshman Chundananda; Wijesundera, Wijepurage Sandhya Sulochana

    2017-06-21

    Cellulose, a linear polymer of β 1-4, linked glucose, is the most abundant renewable fraction of plant biomass (lignocellulose). It is synergistically converted to glucose by endoglucanase (EG) cellobiohydrolase (CBH) and β-glucosidase (BGL) of the cellulase complex. BGL plays a major role in the conversion of randomly cleaved cellooligosaccharides into glucose. As it is well known, Saccharomyces cerevisiae can efficiently convert glucose into ethanol under anaerobic conditions. Therefore, S.cerevisiae was genetically modified with the objective of heterologous extracellular expression of the BGLI gene of Trichoderma virens making it capable of utilizing cellobiose to produce ethanol. The cDNA and a genomic sequence of the BGLI gene of Trichoderma virens was cloned in the yeast expression vector pGAPZα and separately transformed to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The size of the BGLI cDNA clone was 1363 bp and the genomic DNA clone contained an additional 76 bp single intron following the first exon. The gene was 90% similar to the DNA sequence and 99% similar to the deduced amino acid sequence of 1,4-β-D-glucosidase of T. atroviride (AC237343.1). The BGLI activity expressed by the recombinant genomic clone was 3.4 times greater (1.7 x 10 -3  IU ml -1 ) than that observed for the cDNA clone (5 x 10 -4  IU ml -1 ). Furthermore, the activity was similar to the activity of locally isolated Trichoderma virens (1.5 x 10 -3  IU ml -1 ). The estimated size of the protein was 52 kDA. In fermentation studies, the maximum ethanol production by the genomic and the cDNA clones were 0.36 g and 0.06 g /g of cellobiose respectively. Molecular docking results indicated that the bare protein and cellobiose-protein complex behave in a similar manner with considerable stability in aqueous medium. The deduced binding site and the binding affinity of the constructed homology model appeared to be reasonable. Moreover, it was identified that the five hydrogen bonds formed

  12. Global Studies of the Sulfur Cycle Including the Influence of DMS and Fossil Fuel Sulfur on Climate and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Joyce E.

    1998-01-01

    The indirect effect of anthropogenic aerosols, wherein aerosol particles are thought to increase cloud droplet concentrations and cloud lifetime, is the most uncertain component of climate forcing over the past 100 years. Here, for the first time, we use a mechanistic treatment of droplet nucleation and a prognostic treatment of the number of cloud droplets to study the indirect aerosol effect from changes in carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols. Cloud droplet nucleation is parameterized as a function of total aerosol number concentration, updraft velocity and a shape parameter, which takes into account the mechanism, of sulfate aerosol formation, while cloud droplet number depends on the nucleation as well as on droplet sinks. Whereas previous treatments have predicted annual average indirect effects between -1 and -2 W/sq m, we obtain an indirect aerosol effect between -0.14 W/sq m and -0.42 W/sq m in the global mean.

  13. Polyphasic taxonomic study of the genera Gordona and Tsukamurella including the description of Tsukamurella wratislaviensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, M; Zakrzewska-Czerwinska, J; Thomas, E G; Mordarski, M; Ward, A C; James, A L

    1991-06-01

    Representatives of the genera Gordona and Tsukamurella together with related actinomycetes were the subject of chemotaxonomic, numerical taxonomic and DNA homology studies. In the numerical analysis the organisms were examined for 116 unit characters and the data sorted using the simple matching, Jaccard and pattern coefficients; clustering was achieved using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages algorithm. The numerical groupings were not affected by the statistics used or by test error, estimated at 1.9%. The numerical taxonomic data supported the integrity of the four validly described species of Gordona but indicated that the genus Tsukamurella might encompass a species in addition to Tsukamurella paurometabola. The putative new strains had chemical, enzymic, nutritional and tolerance properties consistent with their assignment to the genus Tsukamurella and formed a DNA homology group corresponding to the one formed by the Tsukamurella paurometabola strains. It is proposed that the new taxon be assigned to the genus Tsukamurella as Tsukamurella wratislaviensis.

  14. Including the urban heat island in spatial heat health risk assessment strategies: a case study for Birmingham, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornes John E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heatwaves present a significant health risk and the hazard is likely to escalate with the increased future temperatures presently predicted by climate change models. The impact of heatwaves is often felt strongest in towns and cities where populations are concentrated and where the climate is often unintentionally modified to produce an urban heat island effect; where urban areas can be significantly warmer than surrounding rural areas. The purpose of this interdisciplinary study is to integrate remotely sensed urban heat island data alongside commercial social segmentation data via a spatial risk assessment methodology in order to highlight potential heat health risk areas and build the foundations for a climate change risk assessment. This paper uses the city of Birmingham, UK as a case study area. Results When looking at vulnerable sections of the population, the analysis identifies a concentration of "very high" risk areas within the city centre, and a number of pockets of "high risk" areas scattered throughout the conurbation. Further analysis looks at household level data which yields a complicated picture with a considerable range of vulnerabilities at a neighbourhood scale. Conclusions The results illustrate that a concentration of "very high" risk people live within the urban heat island, and this should be taken into account by urban planners and city centre environmental managers when considering climate change adaptation strategies or heatwave alert schemes. The methodology has been designed to be transparent and to make use of powerful and readily available datasets so that it can be easily replicated in other urban areas.

  15. Brain CT scans and clinical study in very-low-birth-weight infants, including eight cases of cerebellar porencephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shime, Hideaki

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-nine brain CT scans taken in very-low-birth-weight infants ( < 1500 g) during the past three years were studied retrospectively. Eighty-nine cases of very-low-birth-weight infants were admitted to our premature nursery during the period from Jan. 1, 1982 to Dec. 31, 1984. We obtained brain CT scans in 59 of them, and studied them retrospectively. a) Normal CT in 25 cases, b) enlargement of the extracerebral space in 17, c) megacisterna magna in four, d) unilateral ventriculomegaly in six, e) hydrocephalus in seven, f) cerebral porencephaly in two, g) brain stem atrophy in seven, and h) low density area in the posterior fossa in eight, were observed. The clinical courses of patients a) to f) above were almost similar to those previously reported. g) brain stem atrophy was found on CT scans in seven cases. Five of them developed infantile spasms later. This suggests that one of the main sites of lesions in infantile spasms is the tegmentum of the brain stem. h) Low density area in the posterior fossa was found on CT in eight cases. Three of them showed cerebellar defective lesions on metrizamide CT or RI cisternography. Four of them showed no defective lesion in the posterior fossa on ultrasonography at the early neonatal stage. These lesions in the posterior fossa are believed to be cerebellar porencephaly, which occurred after birth. Seven cases of cerebellar porencephaly, except for one with SFD, had respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, such as neonatal asphyxia, RDS, PDA, and/or apnea. The cerebral lesions such as intracranial hemorrhage, hydrocephalus and cerebral porencephaly, which had been observed in all cases of cerebellar porencephaly, finally resulted in cerebral palsy, mental retardation and infantile spasms. (J.P.N.)

  16. Tennessee Valley region study: potential year 2000 radiological dose to population resulting from nuclear facility operations. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A companion report, DOE/ET-0064/1, presents a geographic, cultural, and demographic profile of the Tennessee Valley Region study area. This report describes the calculations of radionuclide release and transport and of the resultant dose to the regional population, assuming a projected installed capacity of 220,000 MW in the year 2000, of which 144,000 MW would be nuclear. All elements of the fuel cycle were assumed to be in operation. The radiological dose was calculated as a one-year dose based on ingestion of 35 different food types as well as for nine non-food pathways, and was reported as dose to the total body and for six specific organs for each of four age groups (infant, child, teen, and adult). Results indicate that the average individual would receive an incremental dose of 7 x 10/sup -4/ millirems in the year 2000 from the operation of nuclear facilities within and adjacent to the region, five orders of magnitude smaller than the dose from naturally occurring radiation in the area. The major contributor to dose was found to be tritium, and the most significant pathways were immersion in air, inhalation of air, transpiration of tritium (absorption through the skin), and exposure radionuclide-containing soil. 60 references.

  17. Electronic structures and spectroscopic properties of CdI: MRCI+Q study including spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Shutao; Liu, Yadong; Yan, Bing

    2018-01-01

    Cadmium iodide (CdI), which is a candidate for laser material in chemical lasing, has attracted considerable scientific interest. While the complete picture for electronic structure of CdI is still unclear, particularly for the interactions of excited states. In this paper, high-level configuration interaction method is applied to compute the low-lying electronic states of the lowest two dissociation limits (Cd(1S) + I(2P) and Cd(3P) + I(2P)). To ensure the accuracy, the Davidson correction, core-valence electronic correlations and spin-orbit coupling effects are also taken into account. The potential energy curves of the 14 Λ-S states and 30 Ω states obtained from those Λ-S states are calculated. On the basis of the computed potential energy curves, the spectroscopic constants of bound and quasibound states are determined, most of which have not been reported in existing studies. The calculated values of spin-orbit coupling matrix elements demonstrate that the B2Σ+1/2 state imposes a strong perturbation on ν‧> 0 vibrational level of C2Π1/2, which can explain the weak spectral intensity of C2Π1/2-X2Σ+1/2 observed in previous experiment. The transition dipole moments as well as the lifetimes are evaluated to predict the transition properties of B2Σ+1/2, C2Π1/2 and 22Π3/2 states.

  18. Plasmonic modes in nanowire dimers: A study based on the hydrodynamic Drude model including nonlocal and nonlinear effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeferdt, Matthias; Kiel, Thomas; Sproll, Tobias; Intravaia, Francesco; Busch, Kurt

    2018-02-01

    A combined analytical and numerical study of the modes in two distinct plasmonic nanowire systems is presented. The computations are based on a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain approach, and a fully nonlinear and nonlocal hydrodynamic Drude model for the metal is utilized. In the linear regime, these computations demonstrate the strong influence of nonlocality on the field distributions as well as on the scattering and absorption spectra. Based on these results, second-harmonic-generation efficiencies are computed over a frequency range that covers all relevant modes of the linear spectra. In order to interpret the physical mechanisms that lead to corresponding field distributions, the associated linear quasielectrostatic problem is solved analytically via conformal transformation techniques. This provides an intuitive classification of the linear excitations of the systems that is then applied to the full Maxwell case. Based on this classification, group theory facilitates the determination of the selection rules for the efficient excitation of modes in both the linear and nonlinear regimes. This leads to significantly enhanced second-harmonic generation via judiciously exploiting the system symmetries. These results regarding the mode structure and second-harmonic generation are of direct relevance to other nanoantenna systems.

  19. Theoretical study of the low-lying electronic states of magnesium sulfide cation including spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Wang, Ning; Li, Song; Chen, Shan-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Highly correlated ab initio calculations have been performed for an accurate determination of electronic structures and spectroscopic features for the low-lying electronic states of the MgS+ cation. The potential energy curves for the four Λ-S states correlating to the lowest dissociation asymptote are studied for the first time. Four Λ-S states split into nine Ω states through the spin-orbit coupling effect. Accurate spectroscopic constants are deduced for all bound states. The spin-orbit couplings and the transition dipole moments, as well as the PECs, are utilized to calculate Franck-Condon factors and radiative lifetimes of the vibrational levels. To verify our computational accuracy, analogous calculations for the ground state of MgS are also carried out, and our derived results are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. In addition, photoelectron spectrum of MgS has been simulated. The predictive results are anticipated to serve as guidelines for further researches such as assisting laboratorial detections and analyzing observed spectrum.

  20. BER-3.2 report: Methodology for justification and optimization of protective measures including a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Sinkko, K.; Walmod-Larsen, O.; Gjoerup, H.L.; Salo, A.

    1992-07-01

    This report is a part of the Nordic BER-3 project's work to propose and harmonize Nordic intervention levels for countermeasures in case of nuclear accidents. This report focuses on the methodology for justification and optimization of protective measures in case of a reactor accident situation with a large release of fission products to the environment. The down-wind situation is very complicated. The dose to the exposed society is almost unpredictable. The task of the radiation protection experts: To give advice to the decision makers on averted doses by the different actions at hand in the situation - is complicated. That of the decision makers is certainly more: On half of the society they represent, they must decide if they wish to follow the advices from their radiation protection experts or if they wish to add further arguments - economical or political (or personal) - into their considerations before their decisions are taken. Two analysis methods available for handling such situations: cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis are described in principle and are utilized in a case study: The impacts of a Chernobyl-like accident on the Swedish island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea are analyzed with regard to the acute consequences. The use of the intervention principles found in international guidance (IAEA 91, ICRP 91), which can be summarized as the principles of justification, optimization and avoidance of unacceptable doses, are described. How to handle more intangible factors of a psychological or political character is indicated. (au) (6 tabs., 3 ills., 17 refs.)

  1. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.

    2017-05-09

    Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

  2. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

  3. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2017-09-12

    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  4. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  5. Methodology for electrical studies in industrial networks including the study of electric arc; Metodologia para los estudios electricos en redes industriales incluyendo el estudio de arco electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasgado Casique, Jose Pepe; Silva Farias, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: jrasgado@iie.org.mx; jlsilva@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    This article presents a methodology for conducting electrical studies in industrial networks. The methodology included the study of arc flash as a very important area of current basic electrical studies, such as power flow, short circuit and coordination. The aim of this study is to determine the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and flash protection boundary for personnel working with or near energized equipment, based on the IEEE Std 1584-2004 and NFPA-70E- 2004. Also included are criteria and recommendations to reduce incident energy level (cal/cm{sup 2}). At work we used a distribution network for industrial type test. The studies were carried out using a commercial program for the analysis of electrical networks. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una metodologia para llevar a cabo los estudios electricos en redes industriales. En la metodologia se incluye al estudio de arco electrico como un area muy importante de los estudios electricos basicos actuales, como: flujos de potencia, cortocircuito y coordinacion de protecciones. El objetivo de dicho estudio es determinar el Equipo de Proteccion Personal (EPP) apropiado y los limites de proteccion para el personal que opera con o cerca de equipo energizado, con base en las normas IEEE Std. 1584-2004 y la NFPA-70E-2004. Ademas, se incluyen criterios y recomendaciones para disminuir el nivel de energia incidente (cal/cm{sup 2}). En el trabajo se utilizo una red de distribucion tipo industrial de prueba. Los estudios se llevaron a cabo utilizando un programa comercial para el analisis de redes electricas.

  6. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyib Olaniyan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. Methods/design A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR. Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop. Discussion This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air

  7. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyan, Toyib; Jeebhay, Mohamed; Röösli, Martin; Naidoo, Rajen; Baatjies, Roslynn; Künzil, Nino; Tsai, Ming; Davey, Mark; de Hoogh, Kees; Berman, Dilys; Parker, Bhawoodien; Leaner, Joy; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel

    2017-09-16

    There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR). Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen) in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO) and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop). This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air pollutants on childhood respiratory health, with a specific focus on

  8. Does including informal care in economic evaluations matter? A systematic review of inclusion and impact of informal care in cost-effectiveness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Marieke; Papenburg, Jocé; van Exel, Job

    2015-02-01

    Informal care makes an important contribution to societal welfare. However, it may involve substantial time costs and can have a considerable negative effect on the health and well-being of informal caregivers. These costs and effects of informal caregiving are often excluded in economic evaluations of healthcare interventions. The impact of this exclusion on the outcomes of these evaluations is largely unknown. This study aimed to explore the inclusion of informal care in economic evaluations and the potential impact of the costs and effects of informal caregiving on cost-effectiveness outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to identify economic evaluations of interventions in four distinct disease areas where informal care is potentially important: Alzheimer's disease, metastatic colorectal cancer, Parkinson's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. It was recorded how often economic evaluations included informal caregiving. Next, for the studies including informal care, the impact on cost-effectiveness outcomes was determined by removing informal care costs and effects of the cost-effectiveness calculations and recalculating the outcomes. The new cost-effectiveness outcomes were then compared with the original reported outcomes. The study identified 100 economic evaluations investigating interventions targeted at Alzheimer's disease (n = 25), metastatic colorectal cancer (n = 24), Parkinson's disease (n = 8) and rheumatoid arthritis (n = 43). Twenty-three of these evaluations (23 %) included costs and/or effects of informal caregiving: 64 % of the Alzheimer's disease studies, 0 % of the metastatic colorectal cancer studies, 13 % of Parkinson's disease studies and 14 % of rheumatoid arthritis studies. When informal care was included, this mostly concerned time costs. Studies rarely included both costs and effects. The effect of including or excluding informal care costs or effects on cost-effectiveness outcomes in most studies was modest, but in some studies the

  9. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 18-20: Sound; Temperature, Heat, and Thermodynamics: First Law; and Kinetic Theory of Gases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  10. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 21-23: Second Law and Entropy; Coulomb's Law and the Electric Field; and Flux and Gauss' Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  11. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 15-17: Gravitation; Simple Harmonic Motion; and Traveling Waves; plus a Partial Derivatives Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  12. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 11-14: Collisions; Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies; Rotational Dynamics; and Fluid Mechanics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  13. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 35-37: Reflection and Refraction; Electric Fields and Potentials from Continuous Charge Distributions; and Maxwell's Predictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  14. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 1 and 2: Dimensions and Vector Addition; Rectilinear Motion; plus a Trigonometry and Calculus Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  15. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 31-34: Inductance; Wave Properties of Light; Interference; and Introduction to Quantum Physics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is Part of a series of 41 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 Pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized courses in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  16. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 8-10: Conservation of Energy; Impulse and Momentum; and Rotational Motion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  17. Comparison of treatment effect estimates for pharmacological randomized controlled trials enrolling older adults only and those including adults: a meta-epidemiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Seegers

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Older adults are underrepresented in clinical research. To assess therapeutic efficacy in older patients, some randomized controlled trials (RCTs include older adults only. OBJECTIVE: To compare treatment effects between RCTs including older adults only (elderly RCTs and RCTs including all adults (adult RCTs by a meta-epidemiological approach. METHODS: All systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Library (Issue 4, 2011 were screened. Eligible studies were meta-analyses of binary outcomes of pharmacologic treatment including at least one elderly RCT and at least one adult RCT. For each meta-analysis, we compared summary odds ratios for elderly RCTs and adult RCTs by calculating a ratio of odds ratios (ROR. A summary ROR was estimated across all meta-analyses. RESULTS: We selected 55 meta-analyses including 524 RCTs (17% elderly RCTs. The treatment effects differed beyond that expected by chance for 7 (13% meta-analyses, showing more favourable treatment effects in elderly RCTs in 5 cases and in adult RCTs in 2 cases. The summary ROR was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.77-1.08, p = 0.28, with substantial heterogeneity (I(2 = 51% and τ(2 = 0.14. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses by type-of-age RCT (elderly RCTs vs RCTs excluding older adults and vs RCTs of mixed-age adults, type of outcome (mortality or other and type of comparator (placebo or active drug yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of pharmacologic treatments did not significantly differ, on average, between RCTs including older adults only and RCTs of all adults. However, clinically important discrepancies may occur and should be considered when generalizing evidence from all adults to older adults.

  18. Prevalence of pain medication prescriptions in France, Germany, and the UK - a cross-sectional study including 4,270,142 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Kostev, Karel

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of pain medication prescriptions in general practices in France, Germany, and the UK. This study included all patients aged ≥18 years followed in 2016 in general practitioner practices in France, Germany and the UK. The primary outcome was the prevalence of patients receiving prescriptions for pain medications in France, Germany, and the UK in 2016. The following drugs were included in the analysis: anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, non-steroids and analgesics including opioids, antimigraine preparations, and other analgesics and antipyretics. Demographic variables included age and gender. This study included 4,270,142 patients. The prevalences of pain medication prescriptions were 57.3% in France, 29.6% in Germany, and 21.7% in the UK. Although this prevalence generally remained consistent between age groups in France (54.3%-60.3%), it increased with age in Germany (18-30 years: 23.8%; >70 years: 35.8%) and in the UK (18-30 years: 9.3%; >70 years: 43.8%). Finally, the prevalence of pain medication prescriptions was higher in women than in men in all three countries. Paracetamol was prescribed to 82.3% and 60.1% of patients receiving pain medication in France and the UK, respectively, whereas ibuprofen was prescribed to 46.5% of individuals in Germany. The prevalence of pain medication prescriptions was higher in France than in Germany and the UK. Further research is needed to gain a better understanding of the differences in the prescription patterns between these three European countries.

  19. A Prospective Cohort Study on the Effect of a Balance Training Program, Including Calf Muscle Strengthening, in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Carol A; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare

    2016-01-01

    Falls are the number 1 cause of injury, fractures, and death among the older population. In fact, one-third of adults older than 60 years will experience 1 or more falls annually. Factors including inactivity and decreased mobility are associated with overall declines in strength, balance, and functional mobility in older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a balance training program, including calf muscle strengthening, in community-dwelling older adults and to evaluate how calf muscle strength correlates with risk factors for falls. Community-dwelling older adults from a local senior center were invited to participate in a 5-week (10 sessions), 1-on-1, balance training program, which included calf muscle strengthening. All the participants were evaluated before and after the intervention. The outcome measures were static balance, unilateral heel-rise test, Timed Up and Go test (TUG), the 30-second Chair Stand Test (30-sCST), and the Activity Balance Confidence Scale. Twenty-eight participants (6 males and 22 females) mean (standard deviation) age of 78 years were included in the study and completed the baseline evaluation. Eight participants did not complete the study. Static balance with eyes closed, heel rise, TUG, 30-sCST, and the Activity Balance Confidence Scale improved significantly (P calf muscle strengthening performed twice a week for 5 weeks resulted in significant improvements in calf muscle strength, functional performance and balance, as well as a significant improvement in balance confidence. The results from this study identify the importance unilateral calf muscle strength has to falls risk among older adults.

  20. Study of Gaussian Doped Double Gate JunctionLess (GD-DG-JL) transistor including source drain depletion length: Model for sub-threshold behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Vandana; Kumar, Ayush; Saxena, Manoj; Gupta, Mridula

    2018-01-01

    The sub-threshold model formulation of Gaussian Doped Double Gate JunctionLess (GD-DG-JL) FET including source/drain depletion length is reported in the present work under the assumption that the ungated regions are fully depleted. To provide deeper insight into the device performance, the impact of gaussian straggle, channel length, oxide and channel thickness and high-k gate dielectric has been studied using extensive TCAD device simulation.

  1. Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: Individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hamajima, N; Hirose, K; Tajima, K; Rohan, T; Friedenreich, CM; Calle, EE; Gapstur, SM; Patel, AV; Coates, RJ; Liff, JM; Talamini, R; Chantarakul, N; Koetsawang, S; Rachawat, D; Marcou, Y

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected women. METHODS: Individual data from 117 epidemiological studies, including 118 964 women with invasive breast cancer and 306 091 without the disease, none of whom had used menopausal hormone thera...

  2. Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Pirie, K.

    2012-01-01

    by age at menopause were stronger for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease (p effects of menarche and menopause on breast cancer risk might not be acting merely by lengthening women's total number of reproductive......Background Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected...... women. Methods Individual data from 117 epidemiological studies, including 118 964 women with invasive breast cancer and 306 091 without the disease, none of whom had used menopausal hormone therapy, were included in the analyses. We calculated adjusted relative risks (RRs) associated with menarche...

  3. A Giant Hepatic Hemangioma Complicated by Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome: Findings of Tc-99m RBC Scintigraphy and SPECT Including a Total Body Blood Pool Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Yim, Chang Yeol [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) consists of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and localized consumption coagulopathy that develops within vascular hemangioma. This syndrome may also be associated with occult hemangiomas located at various sites. Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT have proven to be reliable for confirming or excluding hemangioma. Total body blood pool imaging study during the scintigraphy also provides a means of screening for occult lesions. The authors report the case of a 29-year-old man who presented with a giant hepatic hemangioma complicated by KMS, and underwent Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT including a total body blood pool imaging study.

  4. Prevalence study and risk factor analysis of selected bacterial, protozoal and viral, including vector-borne, pathogens in cats from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipa, Charalampos; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Sarvani, Elpida; Knowles, Toby G; Mengi, Sena; Morris, David; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine

    2017-03-13

    Feline infectious agent studies are lacking in Cyprus. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for various feline infectious agents, including feline vector-borne pathogens (FVBP), in cats from Cyprus. A cross-sectional, descriptive, multicentre study was performed on 174 feline samples [138 owned and 36 shelter-feral, including both healthy (43) and non-healthy (131), cats] from private veterinary clinics from all six districts of Cyprus. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were used to detect Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (CMhm) and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (CMt). The population was tested for four FVBP including Bartonella henselae and Leishmania spp. using qPCR, while conventional PCR assays were used to detect Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and Hepatozoon spp. Serological assays were performed to detect Leishmania infantum antibodies, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed to test associations and possible risk factors between variables and infectious agents. Ninety-six (55.2%) of the 174 cats were PCR-positive for at least one infectious agent. Forty-six cats (26.4%) were haemoplasma positive, including 13 (7.5%) for Mhf, 36 (20.7%) for CMhm and 12 (6.9%) for CMt. Sixty-six cats (37.9%) were positive for Hepatozoon spp., while 19 (10.9%) were positive for B. henselae, four (2.3%) for Leishmania spp. and one (0.6%) for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. Sequencing revealed the presence of Hepatozoon felis, L. infantum and Anaplasma platys. Of the 164 cats that underwent retroviral serology, 10 (6.1%) were FeLV-positive and 31 (18.9%) were FIV-positive, while L. infantum serology was positive in 7 (4.4%) of the 160 cats tested. Multivariable logistic regression revealed significant associations for various infectious agents including L. infantum with each of Hepatozoon spp. and CMt

  5. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal R.K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  6. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  7. Oat have multifunctional uses including animal feed, human food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akademia Rolnicza

    2014-07-11

    Jul 11, 2014 ... Abstract. The objective of the work was to evaluate the influence of genetic and mechanical removal of hulls from oat grains on their nutrient content. The studies included three cultivars and six lines of oat grains. In grain samples of hulled (5 samples), dehulled (5 samples) and naked (4 samples) oats, the ...

  8. Peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the gastrointestinal tract: a multicenter study of 58 patients including NF1-associated gastric schwannoma and unusual morphologic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaimy, Abbas; Märkl, Bruno; Kitz, Julia; Wünsch, Peter H; Arnholdt, Hans; Füzesi, Laszlo; Hartmann, Arndt; Chetty, Runjan

    2010-04-01

    The frequency and morphological spectrum of gastrointestinal peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) from consecutive case material has not been studied in the c-KIT era. We reviewed all mesenchymal gastrointestinal (GI) lesions at our departments according to current diagnostic criteria. PNSTs formed the third commonest group of mesenchymal GI tumors with a lower frequency (schwannomas (n = 22) were the most common types of PNSTs encountered. Rare tumors included neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1)-associated PNSTs (n = 5) and gastric perineurioma (n = 1). Thirteen schwannomas (including also some recent cases) were initially diagnosed as GIST, leiomyoma, or neurofibroma. Unusual histological variants included sigmoid GCT with prominent lipomatous component (n = 1), reticular-microcystic schwannoma of small (n = 1) and large (n = 1) bowel, NF1-associated gastric schwannoma (the first case to date), and psammomatous melanotic colonic schwannoma unrelated to Carney complex (n = 1). PNSTs coexisted with GIST in four patients (three had definite NF1). In conclusion, PNSTs of the GI tract are rare uniformly benign neoplasms that may show schwannian, perineurial, fibroblastic, or mixed differentiation. Most of them (92%) occurred sporadically unassociated with NF1 or NF2. Gastrointestinal PNSTs are still underrecognized by general pathologists. Awareness of their diverse morphology will help to avoid confusing them with smooth muscle neoplasms and GIST that they may closely mimic.

  9. Using patient reported outcome measures in health services: A qualitative study on including people with low literacy skills and learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahagirdar Deepa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs are self-report measures of health status increasingly promoted for use in healthcare quality improvement. However people with low literacy skills or learning disabilities may find PROMs hard to complete. Our study investigated stakeholder views on the accessibility and use of PROMs to develop suggestions for more inclusive practice. Methods Taking PROMs recommended for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as an example, we conducted 8 interviews with people with low literacy skills and/or learning disabilities, and 4 focus groups with 20 health professionals and people with COPD. Discussions covered the format and delivery of PROMs using the EQ-5D and St George Respiratory Questionnaire as prompts. Thematic framework analysis focused on three main themes: Accessibility, Ease of Use, and Contextual factors. Results Accessibility included issues concerning the questionnaire format, and suggestions for improvement included larger font sizes and more white space. Ease of Use included discussion about PROMs’ administration. While health professionals suggested PROMs could be completed in waiting rooms, patients preferred settings with more privacy and where they could access help from people they know. Contextual Factors included other challenges and wider issues associated with completing PROMs. While health professionals highlighted difficulties created by the system in managing patients with low literacy/learning disabilities, patient participants stressed that understanding the purpose of PROMs was important to reduce intimidation. Conclusions Adjusting PROMs’ format, giving an explicit choice of where patients can complete them, and clearly conveying PROMs’ purpose and benefit to patients may help to prevent inequality when using PROMs in health services.

  10. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...

  11. Why you need to include human factors in clinical and empirical studies of in vitro point of care devices? Review and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsci, Simone; Buckle, Peter; Hanna, George B

    2016-01-01

    Use of in-vitro point of care devices - intended as tests performed out of laboratories and near patient - is increasing in clinical environments. International standards indicate that interaction assessment should not end after the product release, yet human factors methods are frequently not included in clinical and empirical studies of these devices. Whilst the literature confirms some advantages of bed-side tests compared to those in laboratories there is a lack of knowledge of the risks associated with their use. This article provides a review of approaches applied by clinical researchers to model the use of in-vitro testing. Results suggest that only a few studies have explored human factor approaches. Furthermore, when researchers investigated people-device interaction these were predominantly limited to qualitative and not standardised approaches. The methodological failings and limitations of these studies, identified by us, demonstrate the growing need to integrate human factors methods in the medical field.

  12. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Page Diagnosis Treatment Complications Diagnosis Doctors usually diagnose Haemophilus influenzae , including H. influenzae type b or Hib, infection ...

  13. Partially ionized plasmas including the third symposium on uranium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [ed.

    1976-09-01

    Separate abstracts are included for 28 papers on electrically generated plasmas, fission generated plasmas, nuclear pumped lasers, gaseous fuel reactor research, and applications. Five papers have been previously abstracted and included in ERA.

  14. Dictionary of scientific units including dimensionless numbers and scales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerrard, H.G; McNeill, D.B

    1992-01-01

    .... The text includes the most recently accepted values of all units. Several disciplines, which have in the past employed few scientific principles and the dictionary has been extended to include examples of these.

  15. Meta-analysis of the INSIG2 association with obesity including 74,345 individuals: does heterogeneity of estimates relate to study design?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heid, Iris M; Huth, Cornelia; Loos, Ruth J F

    2009-01-01

    with subjects selected for conditions related to a better health status ('healthy population', HP), and obesity studies (OB). We tested five hypotheses to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The meta-analysis of 27 studies on Caucasian adults (n = 66,213) combining the different study designs did......The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was identified for obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)) in one of the first genome-wide association studies, but replications were inconsistent. We collected statistics from 34 studies (n = 74,345), including general population (GP) studies, population-based studies...... not support overall association of the CC-genotype with obesity, yielding an odds ratio (OR) of 1.05 (p-value = 0.27). The I(2) measure of 41% (p-value = 0.015) indicated between-study heterogeneity. Restricting to GP studies resulted in a declined I(2) measure of 11% (p-value = 0.33) and an OR of 1.10 (p...

  16. A water-based training program that include perturbation exercises to improve stepping responses in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled cross-over trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsedek Irit

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gait and balance impairments may increase the risk of falls, the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly population. Fall-related injuries constitute a serious public health problem associated with high costs for society as well as human suffering. A rapid step is the most important protective postural strategy, acting to recover equilibrium and prevent a fall from initiating. It can arise from large perturbations, but also frequently as a consequence of volitional movements. We propose to use a novel water-based training program which includes specific perturbation exercises that will target the stepping responses that could potentially have a profound effect in reducing risk of falling. We describe the water-based balance training program and a study protocol to evaluate its efficacy (Trial registration number #NCT00708136. Methods/Design The proposed water-based training program involves use of unpredictable, multi-directional perturbations in a group setting to evoke compensatory and volitional stepping responses. Perturbations are made by pushing slightly the subjects and by water turbulence, in 24 training sessions conducted over 12 weeks. Concurrent cognitive tasks during movement tasks are included. Principles of physical training and exercise including awareness, continuity, motivation, overload, periodicity, progression and specificity were used in the development of this novel program. Specific goals are to increase the speed of stepping responses and improve the postural control mechanism and physical functioning. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of the water-based training program. A total of 36 community-dwelling adults (age 65–88 with no recent history of instability or falling will be assigned to either the perturbation-based training or a control group (no training

  17. A water-based training program that include perturbation exercises to improve stepping responses in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Itshak; Elbar, Ori; Tsedek, Irit; Oddsson, Lars Ie

    2008-08-17

    Gait and balance impairments may increase the risk of falls, the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly population. Fall-related injuries constitute a serious public health problem associated with high costs for society as well as human suffering. A rapid step is the most important protective postural strategy, acting to recover equilibrium and prevent a fall from initiating. It can arise from large perturbations, but also frequently as a consequence of volitional movements. We propose to use a novel water-based training program which includes specific perturbation exercises that will target the stepping responses that could potentially have a profound effect in reducing risk of falling. We describe the water-based balance training program and a study protocol to evaluate its efficacy (Trial registration number #NCT00708136). The proposed water-based training program involves use of unpredictable, multi-directional perturbations in a group setting to evoke compensatory and volitional stepping responses. Perturbations are made by pushing slightly the subjects and by water turbulence, in 24 training sessions conducted over 12 weeks. Concurrent cognitive tasks during movement tasks are included. Principles of physical training and exercise including awareness, continuity, motivation, overload, periodicity, progression and specificity were used in the development of this novel program. Specific goals are to increase the speed of stepping responses and improve the postural control mechanism and physical functioning. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of the water-based training program. A total of 36 community-dwelling adults (age 65-88) with no recent history of instability or falling will be assigned to either the perturbation-based training or a control group (no training). Voluntary step reaction times and postural stability

  18. Rationale, study protocol and the cluster randomization process in a controlled trial including 40,000 women investigating the effects of mindfetalness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rådestad, Ingela; Akselsson, Anna; Georgsson, Susanne; Lindgren, Helena; Pettersson, Karin; Steineck, Gunnar

    2016-12-01

    Shortening pre-hospital delay may decrease stillbirth rates and rates of babies born with a compromised health. Stillbirth may be preceded by a decrease in fetal movements. Mindfetalness has been developed as a response to the shortcomings of kick-counting for the monitoring of fetal movements by the pregnant woman. We do not know if practicing Mindfetalness may diminish pre-hospital delay. Nor do we know if practicing Mindfetalness may increase or decrease the percentage of women seeking health care for unfounded, from a medical perspective, worry for her fetus' well-being. This article describes the rationale, study protocol and the randomization process for a planned study randomly allocating 40,000 pregnant women to receive, or not receive, proactive information about practicing Mindfetalness. The unit of randomization is 63 antenatal clinics in the Stockholm area. Midwives in the antenatal clinics randomized to Mindfetalness will verbally inform about practicing Mindfetalness, hand out brochures (printed in seven languages) and inform about a website giving information about Mindfetalness. Routine care will continue in the control clinics. All information for the analyses, including the main endpoint of an Apgar score below 7 (e.g., 0-6 with stillbirth giving a score of 0), measured five minutes after birth, will be retrieved from population-based registers. We have randomized 33 antenatal clinics to Mindfetalness and 30 to routine care. In two clinics a pilot study has been performed. One of the clinics randomly allocated to inform about Mindfetalness will not do so (but will be included in the intention-to-treat analysis). In October 2016 we started to recruit women for the main study. The work up to now follows the outlined time schedule. We expect to present the first results concerning the effects of Mindfetalness during 2018. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Production, control and utilization of radioisotopes including radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1985-05-01

    From April 29th to May 5th, 1984 27 participants from 21 developing countries stayed within an IAEA Study Tour ('Production, Control and Utilization of Radioisotopes including Radiopharmaceuticals') in the GDR. In the CINR, Rossendorf the reactor, the cyclotron, the technological centre as well as the animal test laboratory were visited. The participants were made familiar by 10 papers with the development, production and control of radiopharmaceuticals in the CINR, Rossendorf. (author)

  20. Adolescents' perceptions of flavored tobacco products, including E-cigarettes: A qualitative study to inform FDA tobacco education efforts through videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, D R; Fiellin, L E; Pendergrass, T; Miller, Erica; Pentz, M A; Hieftje, K

    2018-07-01

    Flavored tobacco products have been shown to appeal to youth, however tobacco control strategies have traditionally not focused on these products. To inform the adaptation of an existing videogame to focus on the prevention of flavored tobacco product use, this study explored adolescents' perceptions, beliefs, and social norms surrounding these products, including flavored e-cigarettes. We conducted and analyzed transcripts from seven focus groups with 11-17-year-old adolescents (n = 33) from after-school programs in CT and CA in 2016. Participants discussed flavored tobacco product beliefs and experiences, and how these compared to traditional cigarettes. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed that participants could name flavors in tobacco products, even though few discussed first-hand experience with the products. Most groups perceived that flavored tobacco product and flavored e-cigarette use facilitated peer approval and acceptance. All groups discussed how youth could easily access flavored tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. Flavoring was a salient aspect of e-cigarette advertisements; however the groups did not recall exposure to other types of flavored tobacco product counter-marketing. These data can help inform the development of tobacco control strategies, novel interventions (such as videogames), and future FDA efforts to prevent adolescent tobacco product use through education and risk communication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.

  2. Meta-analysis of the INSIG2 association with obesity including 74,345 individuals: does heterogeneity of estimates relate to study design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris M Heid

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was identified for obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2 in one of the first genome-wide association studies, but replications were inconsistent. We collected statistics from 34 studies (n = 74,345, including general population (GP studies, population-based studies with subjects selected for conditions related to a better health status ('healthy population', HP, and obesity studies (OB. We tested five hypotheses to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The meta-analysis of 27 studies on Caucasian adults (n = 66,213 combining the different study designs did not support overall association of the CC-genotype with obesity, yielding an odds ratio (OR of 1.05 (p-value = 0.27. The I(2 measure of 41% (p-value = 0.015 indicated between-study heterogeneity. Restricting to GP studies resulted in a declined I(2 measure of 11% (p-value = 0.33 and an OR of 1.10 (p-value = 0.015. Regarding the five hypotheses, our data showed (a some difference between GP and HP studies (p-value = 0.012 and (b an association in extreme comparisons (BMI> or =32.5, 35.0, 37.5, 40.0 kg/m(2 versus BMI<25 kg/m(2 yielding ORs of 1.16, 1.18, 1.22, or 1.27 (p-values 0.001 to 0.003, which was also underscored by significantly increased CC-genotype frequencies across BMI categories (10.4% to 12.5%, p-value for trend = 0.0002. We did not find evidence for differential ORs (c among studies with higher than average obesity prevalence compared to lower, (d among studies with BMI assessment after the year 2000 compared to those before, or (e among studies from older populations compared to younger. Analysis of non-Caucasian adults (n = 4889 or children (n = 3243 yielded ORs of 1.01 (p-value = 0.94 or 1.15 (p-value = 0.22, respectively. There was no evidence for overall association of the rs7566605 polymorphism with obesity. Our data suggested an association with extreme degrees of obesity, and consequently heterogeneous effects from different study designs may

  3. 75 FR 16513 - B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, Including B&C Distribution Center, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70, 975A] B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, Including B&C Distribution Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers From B&C Services... October 2, 2009, applicable to workers of B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, including on-site...

  4. A STUDY OF CHINESE YUAN (RMB APPRECIATION ACCOMPANYING WITH OTHERS FACTORS INCLUDING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI AND THEIR EFFECT ON CHINA ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-fu (Brian LAI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Yuan (RMB has been on the trend of appreciation over the last decade, and such a trend will likely be continuing for some years over the next decade. According to some scholars in their published literatures, the appreciation of RMB, the influx of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI has been ongoing accompanying the sustained growing economy in mainland China over the past decade. It is believed that the China economy has an implication from some significant factors including appreciation of RMB, interest rate of RMB, inflation and continuous increase of FDI for the next several years. The present study aims to provide an emphasis on investigation into effect on China economy as a result of appreciation of RMB and FDI together with some other factors, and to provide an outlook on the economy in China for the coming decades. First, a review was carried on relevant background information and development history of RMB and FDI. There are many reasons and factors behind leading to the sustained growth in the economy in China in the last decade and such effects were in coverage in the literature review. An overview of the development of RMB exchange mechanism, and other variables including (1 RMB exchange rate, (2 China interest rate, (3 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, (4 Trade Balance of China, (5 Annual Inflation rate in China, (6 Energy Consumption in China, (7 Foreign Exchange Reserve in China, (8 China wages, (9 China External Debt and (10 China Consumer Price Index, which may have effect on the growth of the economy in China is covered in the literature review conducted in Chapter 2.

  5. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  6. Evaluation of SCORTEN on a cohort of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis included in the RegiSCAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekula, Peggy; Liss, Yvonne; Davidovici, Batya; Dunant, Ariane; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Kardaun, Sylvia; Naldi, Luigi; Schumacher, Martin; Mockenhaupt, Maja

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the severity-of-illness score called SCORTEN with respect to its predictive ability and by using data obtained in the RegiSCAR study, the most comprehensive European registry of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). For advanced comparisons, an auxiliary score (AS) was defined using data obtained in a previous study. Three hundred sixty-nine patients with SJS/TEN were included in RegiSCAR between 2003 and 2005. The data needed for calculation of SCORTEN were available for 45% of patients. The score revealed a moderate predictive ability with a slight underestimation of the total number of in-hospital deaths by 11%, an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.75, and a Brier score of 0.14. Problems could be seen by analyzing subgroups such as patients with TEN. The AS was better calibrated but discriminated worse (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.72; Brier score: 0.14). With the help of a refined score derived from SCORTEN and AS, potential for a possible improvement could be demonstrated. The authors were able to show that the predictive ability of SCORTEN is acceptable. Although improvement might be possible, SCORTEN remains the tool of choice, whereas AS might be an alternative in retrospective settings with missing laboratory data.

  7. Retrospective multicenter matched case-control study on the risk factors for narcolepsy with special focus on vaccinations (including pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Doris; Pavel, Jutta; Mayer, Geert; Geisler, Peter; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2017-06-01

    Studies associate pandemic influenza vaccination with narcolepsy. In Germany, a retrospective, multicenter, matched case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for narcolepsy, particularly regarding vaccinations (seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections (seasonal and pandemic influenza) and to quantify the detected risks. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness who had been referred to a sleep center between April 2009 and December 2012 for multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) were eligible. Case report forms were validated according to the criteria for narcolepsy defined by the Brighton Collaboration (BC). Confirmed cases of narcolepsy (BC level of diagnostic certainty 1-4a) were matched with population-based controls by year of birth, gender, and place of residence. A second control group was established including patients in whom narcolepsy was definitely excluded (test-negative controls). A total of 103 validated cases of narcolepsy were matched with 264 population-based controls. The second control group included 29 test-negative controls. A significantly increased odd ratio (OR) to develop narcolepsy (crude OR [cOR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-8.5; adjusted OR [aOR] = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.0-9.9) was detected in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset as compared to nonvaccinated individuals. Using test-negative controls, in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset, a nonsignificantly increased OR of narcolepsy was detected when compared to nonvaccinated individuals (whole study population, BC levels 1-4a: cOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.5-6.9; aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.3-10.1). The findings of this study support an increased risk for narcolepsy after immunization with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The COG database: an updated version includes eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverdlov Alexander V

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of multiple, essentially complete genome sequences of prokaryotes and eukaryotes spurred both the demand and the opportunity for the construction of an evolutionary classification of genes from these genomes. Such a classification system based on orthologous relationships between genes appears to be a natural framework for comparative genomics and should facilitate both functional annotation of genomes and large-scale evolutionary studies. Results We describe here a major update of the previously developed system for delineation of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs from the sequenced genomes of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes and the construction of clusters of predicted orthologs for 7 eukaryotic genomes, which we named KOGs after eukaryotic orthologous groups. The COG collection currently consists of 138,458 proteins, which form 4873 COGs and comprise 75% of the 185,505 (predicted proteins encoded in 66 genomes of unicellular organisms. The eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOGs include proteins from 7 eukaryotic genomes: three animals (the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens, one plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, two fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the intracellular microsporidian parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The current KOG set consists of 4852 clusters of orthologs, which include 59,838 proteins, or ~54% of the analyzed eukaryotic 110,655 gene products. Compared to the coverage of the prokaryotic genomes with COGs, a considerably smaller fraction of eukaryotic genes could be included into the KOGs; addition of new eukaryotic genomes is expected to result in substantial increase in the coverage of eukaryotic genomes with KOGs. Examination of the phyletic patterns of KOGs reveals a conserved core represented in all analyzed species and consisting of ~20% of the KOG set. This conserved portion of the

  9. TOOLS TO INCLUDE BLIND STUDENTS IN SCHOOL BUILDING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pietzschke Abate

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the design of data collection instruments that include the opinions of blind students, in accordance with the principles of Universal Design (UD. The aim of this study is to understand the importance of adapting data collection instruments for the inclusion of disabled persons in field research in Architecture and Design, among other fields. The data collection instruments developed were a play interview with a tactile map and a 3D survey with the use of tactile models. These instruments sought to assess the school environment experienced by blind students. The study involved students from the early years of a school for the blind who had not yet mastered the Braille system. The participation of these students was evaluated. A multidisciplinary team consisting of architects, designers, educators, and psychologists lent support to the study. The results showed that the data collection instruments adapted to blind students were successful in making the group of authors examine questions regarding UD. An analysis of the participatory phase showed that the limitations resulting from blindness determine the specificities in the adaptation and implementation process of the instruments in schools. Practical recommendations for future studies related to instruments in the UD thematic are presented. This approach is in line with the global trend of including disabled persons in society based on these users’ opinions concerning what was designed by architects and designers.

  10. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: Results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgisdottir, B.E.; Knutsen, H.K.; Haugen, M.; Gjelstad, I.M. [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Jenssen, M.T.S. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Ellingsen, D.G.; Thomassen, Y. [National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo (Norway); Alexander, J. [Office of the Director-General, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Meltzer, H.M. [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Brantsæter, A.L., E-mail: Anne.Lise.Brantsaeter@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n = 111), and a random sample of controls (n = 76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B{sub ln} 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B{sub ln} 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. - Highlights: • A study on interplay and sources of six different

  11. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: Results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgisdottir, B.E.; Knutsen, H.K.; Haugen, M.; Gjelstad, I.M.; Jenssen, M.T.S.; Ellingsen, D.G.; Thomassen, Y.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.; Brantsæter, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n = 111), and a random sample of controls (n = 76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B ln 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B ln 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. - Highlights: • A study on interplay and sources of six different elements • The

  12. Can consistent benchmarking within a standardized pain management concept decrease postoperative pain after total hip arthroplasty? A prospective cohort study including 367 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benditz A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Achim Benditz,1 Felix Greimel,1 Patrick Auer,2 Florian Zeman,3 Antje Göttermann,4 Joachim Grifka,1 Winfried Meissner,4 Frederik von Kunow1 1Department of Orthopedics, University Medical Center Regensburg, 2Clinic for anesthesia, Asklepios Klinikum Bad Abbach, Bad Abbach, 3Centre for Clinical Studies, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg, 4Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany Background: The number of total hip replacement surgeries has steadily increased over recent years. Reduction in postoperative pain increases patient satisfaction and enables better mobilization. Thus, pain management needs to be continuously improved. Problems are often caused not only by medical issues but also by organization and hospital structure. The present study shows how the quality of pain management can be increased by implementing a standardized pain concept and simple, consistent, benchmarking.Methods: All patients included in the study had undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA. Outcome parameters were analyzed 24 hours after surgery by means of the questionnaires from the German-wide project “Quality Improvement in Postoperative Pain Management” (QUIPS. A pain nurse interviewed patients and continuously assessed outcome quality parameters. A multidisciplinary team of anesthetists, orthopedic surgeons, and nurses implemented a regular procedure of data analysis and internal benchmarking. The health care team was informed of any results, and suggested improvements. Every staff member involved in pain management participated in educational lessons, and a special pain nurse was trained in each ward.Results: From 2014 to 2015, 367 patients were included. The mean maximal pain score 24 hours after surgery was 4.0 (±3.0 on an 11-point numeric rating scale, and patient satisfaction was 9.0 (±1.2. Over time, the maximum pain score decreased (mean 3.0, ±2.0, whereas patient satisfaction

  13. A genome wide association study for backfat thickness in Italian Large White pigs highlights new regions affecting fat deposition including neuronal genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontanesi Luca

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcass fatness is an important trait in most pig breeding programs. Following market requests, breeding plans for fresh pork consumption are usually designed to reduce carcass fat content and increase lean meat deposition. However, the Italian pig industry is mainly devoted to the production of Protected Designation of Origin dry cured hams: pigs are slaughtered at around 160 kg of live weight and the breeding goal aims at maintaining fat coverage, measured as backfat thickness to avoid excessive desiccation of the hams. This objective has shaped the genetic pool of Italian heavy pig breeds for a few decades. In this study we applied a selective genotyping approach within a population of ~ 12,000 performance tested Italian Large White pigs. Within this population, we selectively genotyped 304 pigs with extreme and divergent backfat thickness estimated breeding value by the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and performed a genome wide association study to identify loci associated to this trait. Results We identified 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms with P≤5.0E-07 and additional 119 ones with 5.0E-07 Conclusions Further investigations are needed to evaluate the effects of the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with backfat thickness on other traits as a pre-requisite for practical applications in breeding programs. Reported results could improve our understanding of the biology of fat metabolism and deposition that could also be relevant for other mammalian species including humans, confirming the role of neuronal genes on obesity.

  14. CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL STROKE OR TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK, INCLUDED INTO THE LIS-2 REGISTER (LYUBERTSY STUDY OF MORTALITY IN PATIENTS AFTER STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To provide final data on the three-year period of the inclusion of patients; to give most accurate "portrait" of patients hospitalized with a brain stroke within the framework of the LIS-2 register (Lyubertsy study of mortality in patients after stroke.Material and methods. All patients (n=960 admitted to the Lyubertsy district hospital №2 with stroke for the period from 01.2009 to 12.2011 were included into the study.Results. Men accounted for 37.5%, women - 62.5%, mean age was 71.1±9.8 years. The history of hypertension was present in 833 patients (86.8%, atrial fibrillation in 252 (26.8% patients, 199 (20.7% patients had previously undergone stroke. In-hospital mortality was 21.6% (207 patients had died; mean age 72.9±9.8 years. Low frequency of the antihypertensive therapy (34.5%, lipid-lowering therapy (0.7%, antiplatelet agents (5.7%, anticoagulation therapy prescription in patients with atrial fibrillation was detected.Conclusion. Insufficient assignment of drugs with a proven effect on the prognosis in patients with risk factors prior to the development of the reference stroke draws attention. High incidence of recurrent strokes indicates an underactive secondary prevention.

  15. Selected Theoretical Studies Group contributions to the 14th International Cosmic Ray conference. [including studies on galactic molecular hydrogen, interstellar reddening, and on the origin of cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The galactic distribution of H2 was studied through gamma radiation and through X-ray, optical, and infrared absorption measurements from SAS-2 and other sources. A comparison of the latitude distribution of gamma-ray intensity with reddening data shows reddening data to give the best estimate of interstellar gas in the solar vicinity. The distribution of galactic cosmic ray nucleons was determined and appears to be identical to the supernova remnant distribution. Interactions between ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray nuclei and intergalactic photon radiation fields were calculated, using the Monte Carlo method.

  16. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the United...

  17. 24 CFR 220.822 - Claim computation; items included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim computation; items included. 220.822 Section 220.822 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... computation; items included. (a) Assignment of loan. Upon an acceptable assignment of the note and security...

  18. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  19. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set in this section...

  20. Including Exceptional Students in Your Instrumental Music Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the method and adaptations used by the author in including students with special needs in an instrumental music program. To ensure success in the program, the author shares the method he uses to include exceptional students and enumerates some possible adaptations. There are certainly other methods and modifications that…

  1. 26 CFR 1.1013-1 - Property included in inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Property included in inventory. 1.1013-1 Section... inventory. The basis of property required to be included in inventory is the last inventory value of such property in the hands of the taxpayer. The requirements with respect to the valuation of an inventory are...

  2. A framework for including family health spillovers in economic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Al-Janabi (Hareth); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); J. Coast (Joanna)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHealth care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these health spillovers? should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health

  3. 31 CFR 103.51 - Dollars as including foreign currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.51 Dollars as including foreign currency. Wherever in this part an amount is stated in dollars, it shall be deemed to mean... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dollars as including foreign currency...

  4. Rationale and design of three observational, prospective cohort studies including biobanking to evaluate and improve diagnostics, management strategies and risk stratification in venous thromboembolism: the VTEval Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Bernd; Ariza, Liana; Lamparter, Heidrun; Grossmann, Vera; Prochaska, Jürgen H; Ullmann, Alexander; Kindler, Florentina; Weisser, Gerhard; Walter, Ulrich; Lackner, Karl J; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Münzel, Thomas; Konstantinides, Stavros V; Wild, Philipp S

    2015-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) with its two manifestations deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major public health problem. The VTEval Project aims to investigate numerous research questions on diagnosis, clinical management, treatment and prognosis of VTE, which have remained uncertain to date. The VTEval Project consists of three observational, prospective cohort studies on VTE comprising cohorts of individuals with a clinical suspicion of acute PE (with or without DVT), with a clinical suspicion of acute DVT (without symptomatic PE) and with an incidental diagnosis of VTE (PE or DVT). The VTEval Project expects to enrol a total of approximately 2000 individuals with subsequent active and passive follow-up investigations over a time period of 5 years per participant. Time points for active follow-up investigations are at months 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 after diagnosis (depending on the disease cohort); passive follow-up investigations via registry offices and the cancer registry are performed 48 and 60 months after diagnosis for all participants. Primary short-term outcome is defined by overall mortality (PE-related death and all other causes of death), primary long-term outcome by symptomatic VTE (PE-related death, recurrence of non-fatal PE or DVT). The VTEval Project includes three 'all-comer' studies and involves the standardised acquisition of high-quality data, covering the systematic assessment of VTE including symptoms, risk profile, psychosocial, environmental and lifestyle factors as well as clinical and subclinical disease, and it builds up a large state-of-the-art biorepository containing various materials from serial blood samplings. The VTEval Project has been approved by the local data safety commissioner and the responsible ethics committee (reference no. 837.320.12 (8421-F)). Trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international scientific meetings. NCT02156401. Published by the

  5. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT : The Measuring Athlete's Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, M. M.; Braber, T. L.; Prakken, N. H. J.; Doevendans, P. A. F. M.; Backx, F. J. G.; Grobbee, D. E.; Rienks, R.; Nathoe, H. M.; Bots, M. L.; Velthuis, B. K.; Mosterd, A.

    Background Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged >= 45 years. Methods Coronary

  6. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT : The Measuring Athlete’s Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, M. M.; Braber, T. L.; Prakken, N. H J; Doevendans, P. A F M; Backx, F. J G; Grobbee, D. E.; Rienks, R.; Nathoe, H. M.; Bots, M. L.; Velthuis, B. K.; Mosterd, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged ≥45 years. Methods Coronary artery

  7. Assessing bias in osteoarthritis trials included in Cochrane reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Julie Bolvig; Juhl, Carsten Bogh; Boutron, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    the first appearing forest plot for overall pain in the Cochrane review. Treatment effect sizes will be expressed as standardised mean differences (SMDs), where the difference in mean values available from the forest plots is divided by the pooled SD. To empirically assess the risk of bias in treatment......INTRODUCTION: The validity of systematic reviews and meta-analysis depends on methodological quality and unbiased dissemination of trials. Our objective is to evaluate the association of estimates of treatment effects with different bias-related study characteristics in meta...... benefits, we will perform stratified analyses of the trials from the included meta-analyses and assess the interaction between trial characteristics and treatment effect. A relevant study-level covariate is defined as one that decreases the between-study variance (τ(2), estimated as Tau...

  8. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    was the most important sector, contributing about 60 % for BC and OC, 45 % for PM2. 5, and less than 40 % for PM10, where large combustion sources and industrial processes are equally important. Global anthropogenic emissions of BC were estimated at about 6.6 and 7.2 Tg in 2000 and 2010, respectively, and represent about 15 % of PM2. 5 but for some sources reach nearly 50 %, i.e. for the transport sector. Our global BC numbers are higher than previously published owing primarily to the inclusion of new sources. This PM estimate fills the gap in emission data and emission source characterization required in air quality and climate modelling studies and health impact assessments at a regional and global level, as it includes both carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous constituents of primary particulate matter emissions. The developed emission dataset has been used in several regional and global atmospheric transport and climate model simulations within the ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants) project and beyond, serves better parameterization of the global integrated assessment models with respect to representation of black carbon and organic carbon emissions, and built a basis for recently published global particulate number estimates.

  9. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Klimont

    2017-07-01

    anthropogenic total, and residential combustion was the most important sector, contributing about 60 % for BC and OC, 45 % for PM2. 5, and less than 40 % for PM10, where large combustion sources and industrial processes are equally important. Global anthropogenic emissions of BC were estimated at about 6.6 and 7.2 Tg in 2000 and 2010, respectively, and represent about 15 % of PM2. 5 but for some sources reach nearly 50 %, i.e. for the transport sector. Our global BC numbers are higher than previously published owing primarily to the inclusion of new sources. This PM estimate fills the gap in emission data and emission source characterization required in air quality and climate modelling studies and health impact assessments at a regional and global level, as it includes both carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous constituents of primary particulate matter emissions. The developed emission dataset has been used in several regional and global atmospheric transport and climate model simulations within the ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants project and beyond, serves better parameterization of the global integrated assessment models with respect to representation of black carbon and organic carbon emissions, and built a basis for recently published global particulate number estimates.

  10. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Jonathan J; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E; Appleyard, Sharon A; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; White, William T

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species' life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were L∞ = 159 cm TL and L0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more accurate data

  11. Dermoscopic patterns in patients with a clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis-results of a prospective study including data of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and culture examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesús-Silva, Miriam América; Fernández-Martínez, Ramón; Roldán-Marín, Rodrigo; Arenas, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Onychomycosis is the most common nail disease, representing 50% of cases affecting the nail apparatus. The diagnosis is made by clinical examination along with the KOH exam of the nail and culture of the sample. However, not all dermatologists have access to a mycology lab. To determine the correlation between KOH examination and dermoscopic patterns in patients with clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis. A descriptive, open, observational, prospective, cross-sectional study of 178 patients with clinical suspicion of onychomycosis was conducted. All patients underwent clinical examination, dermoscopy with a DermLite PHOTO dermatoscope (3Gen, San Juan Capistrano, CA, USA), KOH assessment and culture analysis. The most frequent dermoscopic patterns were identified and their correlation with the clinical subtype of onychomycosis was analyzed. The study included 178 patients with clinical suspicion of onychomycosis. Of these, 155 (87.1%) had positive direct KOH examination for onychomycosis. Eighty-seven patients (56.13%) presented with clinical onychomycosis pattern of total dystrophic onychomycosis (TDO), 67 (43.23%) with distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO), 1 (0.65%) with trachyonychia). Dermoscopic patterns of onychomycosis showed the following frequencies: the spiked pattern was present in 22 patients (14.19%), longitudinal striae pattern in 51 patients (32.9%) and linear edge pattern in 21 patients (13.55%). We identified a pattern described as "distal irregular termination" in 41 patients with TDO and 26 with DLSO. This is the fist study conducted in a Mexican population that uses dermoscopy as a diagnostic tool along with the KOH examination for the diagnosis of onychomycosis. Dermoscopy may be used as an important diagnostic tool when evaluating nail disease. However, it should not be used as the only diagnostic criteria for onychomycosis.

  12. A Prospective Study of the Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Bacteraemia in Bangladeshi Children with Severe Malnutrition and Pneumonia Including an Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Graham, Stephen M.; Duke, Trevor; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ashraf, Hasan; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; La Vincente, Sophie; Banu, Sayera; Raqib, Rubhana; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain. Methods We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years) with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital. Results 405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4%) children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396) of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16%) additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24–94) and 92% (95% CI: 87–95) respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital. Conclusion and Significance TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes. PMID:24695758

  13. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Randall

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%, including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9 and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG, all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10(-8, but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.

  14. Kinetic and Mechanistic Study of the pH-Dependent Activation (Epoxidation) of Prodrug Treosulfan Including the Reaction Inhibition in a Borate Buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romański, Michał; Ratajczak, Whitney; Główka, Franciszek

    2017-07-01

    A prodrug treosulfan (T) undergoes a pH-dependent activation to epoxide derivatives. The process seems to involve an intramolecular Williamson reaction (IWR) but clear kinetic evidence is lacking. Moreover, a cis-diol system present in the T structure is expected to promote complexation with boric acid. As a result, the prodrug epoxidation would be inhibited; however, this phenomenon has not been investigated. In this article, the effect of pH on the kinetics of T conversion to its monoepoxide was studied from a mechanistic point of view. Also, the influence of boric acid on the reaction kinetics was examined. The rate constants observed for the activation of T (k obs ) in acetate, phosphate, and carbonate buffers satisfied the equation logk obs  = -7.48 + 0.96 pH. The reaction was inhibited in the excess of boric acid over T, and the k obs decreased with increasing borate buffer concentration. The experimental results were consistent with the inhibition model that included the formation of a tetrahedral, anionic T-boric acid monoester. To conclude, in nonborate buffers, the T activation to (2S,3S)-1,2-epoxybutane-3,4-diol 4-methanesulfonate follows IWR mechanism. A borate buffer changes the reaction kinetics and complicates kinetic analysis. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia severity, Gross Motor, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification scales in childhood hyperkinetic movement disorders including cerebral palsy: a 'Rosetta Stone' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Markus C; Gimeno, Hortensia; Tustin, Kylee; Baker, Lesley; Lumsden, Daniel E; Hutton, Jane L; Lin, Jean-Pierre S-M

    2016-02-01

    Hyperkinetic movement disorders (HMDs) can be assessed using impairment-based scales or functional classifications. The Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale-movement (BFM-M) evaluates dystonia impairment, but may not reflect functional ability. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) are widely used in the literature on cerebral palsy to classify functional ability, but not in childhood movement disorders. We explore the concordance of these three functional scales in a large sample of paediatric HMDs and the impact of dystonia severity on these scales. Children with HMDs (n=161; median age 10y 3mo, range 2y 6mo-21y) were assessed using the BFM-M, GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS from 2007 to 2013. This cross-sectional study contrasts the information provided by these scales. All four scales were strongly associated (all Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rs >0.72, pdisorders including cerebral palsy can be effectively evaluated using these scales. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  16. Including land cover change in analysis of greenness trends using all available Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images: A case study from Guangzhou, China (2000–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe; Fu, Yingchun; Woodcock, Curtis; Olofsson, Pontus; Vogelmann, James; Holden, Christopher; Wang, Min; Dai, Shu; Yu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing has proven a useful way of evaluating long-term trends in vegetation “greenness” through the use of vegetation indices like Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). In particular, analyses of greenness trends have been performed for large areas (continents, for example) in an attempt to understand vegetation response to climate. These studies have been most often used coarse resolution sensors like Moderate Resolution Image Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). However, trends in greenness are also important at more local scales, particularly in and around cities as vegetation offers a variety of valuable ecosystem services ranging from minimizing air pollution to mitigating urban heat island effects. To explore the ability to monitor greenness trends in and around cities, this paper presents a new way for analyzing greenness trends based on all available Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images and applies it to Guangzhou, China. This method is capable of including the effects of land cover change in the evaluation of greenness trends by separating the effects of abrupt and gradual changes, and providing information on the timing of greenness trends.

  17. Ovarian cancers arising from endometriosis: a microenvironmental biomarker study including ER, HNF1ß, p53, PTEN, BAF250a, and COX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chiung-Ru; Hsu, Chih-Yi; Chen, Yi-Jen; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Chao, Kuan-Chong; Li, Anna Fen-Yau

    2013-11-01

    The microenvironmental biomarkers of different subtypes of ovarian cancers arising from endometriosis have not been studied in Taiwan. Their expression can help in understanding the carcinogenic mechanism. Our study used immunohistochemistry to compare the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 beta (HNF1ß), p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), BAF250a, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) among 79 cases of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancers, including 40 (50%) clear cell carcinomas (CCCs), 33 (41%) endometrioid (EM) adenocarcinomas, four (5%) serous carcinomas, one adenosquamous carcinoma, and one adenosarcoma. Positive stainings for ER, HNF1ß, p53, and COX-2 were identified in 34 (43%), 30 (38%), 10 (13%), and 44 (56%) cases. Loss of PTEN and BAF250a were noted in 29 (37%) and 37 (47%) cases. The expression of ER was reversely correlated with that of HNF1ß (rho = -0.417, p p53 (rho = 0.284, p = 0.011). ER positivity was commonly identified in EM adenocarcinomas (91%), and rarely in CCCs (8%) and serous carcinoma (0%; p carcinomas (50%), but less in EM adenocarcinoma (6%; p p53, COX-2, and PTEN, there was no difference between the invasive and precursor parts. Our results supported the suggestion that estrogen-dependent ovarian cancer arising from endometriosis is substantially more associated with EM adenocarcinoma than CCCs. The positive HNF1ß staining was a frequent finding in CCCs, but not in EM adenocarcinoma. The similar staining patterns of atypical endometriosis glandular cells with the invasive parts confirmed their precursor status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Assessment of five different guideline indication criteria for spirometry, including modified GOLD criteria, in order to detect COPD: data from 5,315 subjects in the PLATINO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luize, Ana P; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Muiño, Adriana; López, Maria Victorina; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmem; Montes de Oca, Maria; Tálamo, Carlos; Celli, Bartolomé; Nascimento, Oliver A; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Jardim, José R

    2014-10-30

    Spirometry is the gold standard for diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although there are a number of different guideline criteria for deciding who should be selected for spirometric screening, to date it is not known which criteria are the best based on sensitivity and specificity. Firstly, to evaluate the proportion of subjects in the PLATINO Study that would be recommended for spirometry testing according to Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD)-modified, American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), National Lung Health Education Program (NLHEP), GOLD and American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) criteria. Secondly, we aimed to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive and negative predictive values, of these five different criteria. Data from the PLATINO study included information on respiratory symptoms, smoking and previous spirometry testing. The GOLD-modified spirometry indication criteria are based on three positive answers out of five questions: the presence of cough, phlegm in the morning, dyspnoea, age over 40 years and smoking status. Data from 5,315 subjects were reviewed. Fewer people had an indication for spirometry (41.3%) according to the GOLD-modified criteria, and more people had an indication for spirometry (80.4%) by the GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria. A low percentage had previously had spirometry performed: GOLD-modified (14.5%); ACCP (13.2%); NLHEP (12.6%); and GOLD and ATS/ERS (12.3%). The GOLD-modified criteria showed the least sensitivity (54.9) and the highest specificity (61.0) for detecting COPD, whereas GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria showed the highest sensitivity (87.9) and the least specificity (20.8). There is a considerable difference in the indication for spirometry according to the five different guideline criteria. The GOLD-modified criteria recruit less people with the greatest sum of sensitivity and specificity.

  19. Birth weight and long-term overweight risk: systematic review and a meta-analysis including 643,902 persons from 66 studies and 26 countries globally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Schellong

    Full Text Available Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis.Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (p4,000 g was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR=1.66; 95% CI 1.55-1.77. Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500-4,000 g as reference category (OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.63-0.84, and OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.45-1.77, respectively. Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.43-2.67.Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy, might therefore be a promising strategy of genuine overweight prevention, globally.

  20. On the non-linear spectroscopy including saturated absorption and four-wave mixing in two and multi-level atoms: a computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M.; De Jager, G.; Nkosi, Z.; Wyngaard, A.; Govender, K.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we report on the study of two and multi-level atoms interacting with multiple laser beams. The semi-classical approach is used to describe the system in which the atoms are treated quantum mechanically via the density matrix operator, while the laser beams are treated classically using Maxwells equations. We present results of a two level atom interacting with single and multiple laser beams and demonstrate Rabi oscillations between the levels. The effects of laser modulation on the dynamics of the atom (atomic populations and coherences) are examined by solving the optical Bloch equations. Plots of the density matrix elements as a function of time are presented for various parameters such as laser intensity, detuning, modulation etc. In addition, phase-space plots and Fourier analysis of the density matrix elements are provided. The atomic polarization, estimated from the coherence terms of the density matrix elements, is used in the numerical solution of Maxwells equations to determine the behaviour of the laser beams as they propagate through the atomic ensemble. The effects of saturation and hole-burning are demonstrated in the case of two counter propagating beams with one being a strong beam and the other being very weak. The above work is extended to include four-wave mixing in four level atoms in a diamond configuration. Two co-propagating beams of different wavelengths drive the atoms from a ground state |1〉 to an excited state |3〉 via an intermediate state |2〉. The atoms then move back to the ground state via another intermediate state |4〉, resulting in the generation of two additional correlated photon beams. The characteristics of these additional photons are studied.

  1. Breast cancer detection using double reading of unenhanced MRI including T1-weighted, T2-weighted STIR, and diffusion-weighted imaging: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimboli, Rubina M; Verardi, Nicola; Cartia, Francesco; Carbonaro, Luca A; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of unenhanced MRI in detecting breast cancer and to assess the impact of double reading. A total of 116 breasts of 67 women who were 36-89 years old were studied at 1.5 T using an unenhanced protocol including axial T1-weighted gradient-echo, T2-weighted STIR, and echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Two blinded readers (R1 and R2) independently evaluated unenhanced images using the BIRADS scale. A combination of pathology and negative follow-up served as the reference standard. McNemar and kappa statistics were used. Per-breast cancer prevalence was 37 of 116 (32%): 30 of 37 (81%) invasive ductal carcinoma, five of 37 (13%) ductal carcinoma in situ, and two of 37 (6%) invasive lobular carcinoma. Per-breast sensitivity of unenhanced MRI was 29 of 37 (78%) for R1, 28 of 37 (76%) for R2, and 29 of 37 (78%) for double reading. Specificity was 71 of 79 (90%) for both R1 and R2 and 69 of 79 (87%) for double reading. Double reading did not provide a significant increase in sensitivity. Interobserver agreement was almost perfect (Cohen κ = 0.873). An unenhanced breast MRI protocol composed of T1-weighted gradient echo, T2-weighted STIR, and echo-planar DWI enabled breast cancer detection with sensitivity of 76-78% and specificity of 90% without a gain in sensitivity from double reading.

  2. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng

    2017-02-28

    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  3. Prevention of diabetes in overweight/obese children through a family based intervention program including supervised exercise (PREDIKID project): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenaza, Lide; Medrano, María; Amasene, María; Rodríguez-Vigil, Beatriz; Díez, Ignacio; Graña, Manuel; Tobalina, Ignacio; Maiz, Edurne; Arteche, Edurne; Larrarte, Eider; Huybrechts, Inge; Davis, Catherine L; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Margareto, Javier; Labayen, Idoia

    2017-08-10

    The global pandemic of obesity has led to an increased risk for prediabetes and type-2 diabetes (T2D). The aims of the current project are: (1) to evaluate the effect of a 22-week family based intervention program, including supervised exercise, on insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) risk in children with a high risk of developing T2D and (2) to identify the profile of microRNA in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children with a high risk of developing T2D and its response to a multidisciplinary intervention program including exercise. A total of 84 children, aged 8-12 years, with a high risk of T2D will be included and randomly assigned to control (N = 42) or intervention (N = 42) groups. The control group will receive a family based lifestyle education and psycho-educational program (2 days/month), while the intervention group will attend the same lifestyle education and psycho-educational program plus the exercise program (3 days/week, 90 min per session including warm-up, moderate to vigorous aerobic activities, and strength exercises). The following measurements will be evaluated at baseline prior to randomization and after the intervention: fasting insulin, glucose and hemoglobin A1c; body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); ectopic fat (magnetic resonance imaging); microRNA expression in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MiSeq; Illumina); cardiorespiratory fitness (cardiopulmonary exercise testing); dietary habits and physical activity (accelerometry). Prevention and identification of children with a high risk of developing T2D could help to improve their cardiovascular health and to reduce the comorbidities associated with obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03027726 . Registered on 16 January 2017.

  4. Studies on stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Colorado with eastern faunal affinities, including a new state record of the midwestern salmonfly, Pteronarcys pictetii hagen (Plecoptera: Pteronarcyidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, R.E.; Kondratieff, B.C.; Hood, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    Pteronarcys pictetii Hagen nymphs were collected and reared from the South Platte River at Julesburg in eastern Colorado. Including P. pictetii, eight species are now known from Colorado that exhibit eastern North American affinities, Paracapnia angulata Hanson, Taeniopteryx burksi Ricker and Ross, Taeniopteryx parvula Banks, Acroneuria abnormis (Newman), Perlesta decipiens (Walsh), Isoperla bilineata (Say), and Isoperla marlynia (Needham and Claassen). A brief discussion of the dispersal of these species into Colorado is presented.

  5. Defense Manpower Commission Staff Studies and Supporting Papers. Volume 2. The Total Force and Its Manpower Requirements Including Overviews of Each Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    III, DMC Filial Report.) E. MANPOWER BUDCETINC WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, by Audrey J. Page. (Related to Chapter III, DMC Final Report.) F...y *i E»V ■ X 1 m -10- Maneuver battalions (counting other non-dlvlslonal combat unlta of Amor and Infantry aa wall at thoaa Included In tht... Amor Schools, wiU continue In those "school troop" roles at Fort Banning and Fort Knox, respectively. Additionally, there are soae very serious

  6. Effectiveness of a structured motivational intervention including smoking cessation advice and spirometry information in the primary care setting: the ESPITAP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Lujan Francisco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is current controversy about the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions that are based on information obtained by spirometry. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness in the primary care setting of structured motivational intervention to achieve smoking cessation, compared with usual clinical practice. Methods Design Multicentre randomized clinical trial with an intervention and a control group. Setting 12 primary care centres in the province of Tarragona (Spain. Subjects of study 600 current smokers aged between 35 and 70 years with a cumulative habit of more than 10 packs of cigarettes per year, attended in primary care for any reason and who did not meet any of the exclusion criteria for the study, randomly assigned to structured intervention or standard clinical attention. Intervention Usual advice to quit smoking by a general practitioner as well as a 20-minute personalized visit to provide detailed information about spirometry results, during which FEV1, FVC, FEF 25-75% and PEF measurements were discussed and interpreted in terms of theoretical values. Additional information included the lung age index (defined as the average age of a non-smoker with the same FEV1 as the study participant, comparing this with the chronological age to illustrate the pulmonary deterioration that results from smoking. Measurements Spirometry during the initial visit. Structured interview questionnaire administered at the primary care centre at the initial visit and at 12-month follow-up. Telephone follow-up interview at 6 months. At 12-month follow-up, expired CO was measured in patients who claimed to have quit smoking. Main variables Smoking cessation at 12 months. Analysis Data will be analyzed on the basis of "intention to treat" and the unit of analysis will be the individual smoker. Expected results Among active smokers treated in primary care we anticipate significantly higher smoking cessation in the

  7. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  8. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  9. Including estimates of the future in today's financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Barth

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains why the question is how, not if, today's financial statements should include estimates of the future. Including such estimates is not new, but their use is increasing. This increase results primarily because standard setters believe asset and liability measures that reflect current economic conditions and up-to-date expectations of the future will result in more useful information for making economic decisions, which is the objective of financial reporting. This is why sta...

  10. Internet interventions for chronic pain including headache: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Buhrman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is a major health problem and behavioral based treatments have been shown to be effective. However, the availability of these kinds of treatments is scarce and internet-based treatments have been shown to be promising in this area. The objective of the present systematic review is to evaluate internet-based interventions for persons with chronic pain. The specific aims are to do an updated review with a broad inclusion of different chronic pain diagnoses and to assess disability and pain and also measures of catastrophizing, depression and anxiety. A systematic search identified 891 studies and 22 trials were selected as eligible for review. Two of the selected trials included children/youth and five included individuals with chronic headache and/or migraine. The most frequently measured domain reflected in the primary outcomes was interference/disability, followed by catastrophizing. Result across the studies showed a number of beneficial effects. Twelve trials reported significant effects on disability/interference outcomes and pain intensity. Positive effects were also found on psychological variable such as catastrophizing, depression and anxiety. Several studies (n = 12 were assessed to have an unclear level of risk bias. The attrition levels ranged from 4% to 54% where the headache trials had the highest drop-out levels. However, findings suggest that internet-based treatments based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT are efficacious measured with different outcome variables. Results are in line with trials in clinical settings. Meta-analytic statistics were calculated for interference/disability, pain intensity, catastrophizing and mood ratings. Results showed that the effect size for interference/disability was Hedge's g = −0.39, for pain intensity Hedge's g = −0.33, for catastrophizing Hedge's g = −0.49 and for mood variables (depression Hedge's g = −0.26.

  11. Relationship of Consumption of Meals Including Grain, Fish and Meat, and Vegetable Dishes to the Prevention of Nutrient Deficiency: The INTERMAP Toyama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tatsuya; Yoshita, Katsushi; Sakurai, Masaru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Naruse, Yuchi; Okuda, Nagako; Okayama, Akira; Stamler, Jeremiah; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    A Japanese-style diet consists of meals that include grain (shushoku), fish and meat (shusai), and vegetable dishes (fukusai). Little is known about the association of such meals (designated well-balanced meals hereafter) with nutrient intake. We therefore examined the frequency of well-balanced meals required to prevent nutrient deficiency. Participants were Japanese people, ages 40 to 59 y, from Toyama, recruited for INTERMAP, in an international population-based study. Each person provided 4 in-depth 24-h dietary recalls (149 men, 150 women). The prevalence of risk ratios of not meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2015) was calculated. Well-balanced diets were assessed by the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. We counted the frequencies of meals in which participants consumed 1.0 or more servings of all 3 dishes categories. We divided the frequency of consumption of well-balanced meals into the following 4 groups: <1.00 time/d, 1.00-1.49 times/d, 1.50-1.74 times/d, and ≥1.75 times/d. Compared with participants in the highest frequency group for well-balanced meals, those who consumed well-balanced meals less than once a day had a higher risk of not meeting the adequate intake for potassium and the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin A. Those who consumed well-balanced meals on average less than 1.50 times per day had a higher risk of not meeting the recommended dietary allowance for calcium and vitamin C. Our results suggest that individuals should on average consume well-balanced meals more than 1.5 times per day to prevent calcium and vitamin C deficiencies.

  12. Return to work of cancer patients after a multidisciplinary intervention including occupational counselling and physical exercise in cancer patients: a prospective study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leensen, Monique C J; Groeneveld, Iris F; Heide, Iris van der; Rejda, Tomas; van Veldhoven, Peter L J; Berkel, Sietske van; Snoek, Aernout; Harten, Wim van; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; de Boer, Angela G E M

    2017-06-15

    To support return to work (RTW) among cancer patients, a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was developed which combined occupational counselling with a supervised physical exercise programme during chemotherapy. The aim was to investigate RTW rates of cancer patients and to evaluate changes in work-related quality of life and physical outcomes. Longitudinal prospective intervention study using a one-group design. Two hospitals in the Netherlands. Of the eligible patients, 56% participated; 93 patients with a primary diagnosis of cancer receiving chemotherapy and on sick leave were included. Patients completed questionnaires on RTW, the importance of work, work ability (WAI), RTW self-efficacy, fatigue (MFI), and quality of life (EORTC QLQ C-30) at baseline and 6, 12 and 18 months follow-up. Before and after the exercise programme 1-repetition maximum (1RM) muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak) were assessed. Six months after the start of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme that combined occupational counselling with a supervised physical exercise programme, 59% of the cancer patients returned to work, 86% at 12 months and 83% at 18 months. In addition, significant improvements (pfatigue levels were significantly reduced. After completing the exercise programme, 1RM muscle strength was significantly increased but there was no improvement in VO 2 peak level. RTW rates of cancer patients were high after completion of the multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme. A multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme which combines occupational counselling with a supervised physical exercise programme is likely to result in RTW, reduced fatigue and increased importance of work, work ability, and quality of life. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Early initiation of basic resuscitation interventions including face mask ventilation may reduce birth asphyxia related mortality in low-income countries: a prospective descriptive observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersdal, Hege Langli; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Perlman, Jeffrey M

    2012-07-01

    Early initiation of basic resuscitation interventions within 60 s in apneic newborn infants is thought to be essential in preventing progression to circulatory collapse based on experimental cardio-respiratory responses to asphyxia. The objectives were to describe normal transitional respiratory adaption at birth and to assess the importance of initiating basic resuscitation within the first minutes after birth as it relates to neonatal outcome. This is an observational study of neonatal respiratory adaptation at birth in a rural hospital in Tanzania. Research assistants (n=14) monitored every newborn infant delivery and the response of birth attendants to a depressed baby. Time to initiation of spontaneous respirations or time to onset of breathing following stimulation/suctioning, or face mask ventilation (FMV) in apneic infants, and duration of FMV were recorded. 5845 infants were born; 5689 were liveborn, among these 4769(84%) initiated spontaneous respirations; 93% in ≤30 s and 99% in ≤60 s. Basic resuscitation (stimulation, suction, and/or FMV) was attempted in 920/5689(16.0%); of these 459(49.9%) received FMV. Outcomes included normal n=5613(96.0%), neonatal deaths n=56(1.0%), admitted neonatal area n=20(0.3%), and stillbirths n=156(2.7%). The risk for death or prolonged admission increases 16% for every 30 s delay in initiating FMV up to six minutes (p=0.045) and 6% for every minute of applied FMV (p=0.001). The majority of lifeless babies were in primary apnea and responded to stimulation/suctioning and/or FMV. Infants who required FMV were more likely to die particularly when ventilation was delayed or prolonged. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution (including PM1) and metabolic syndrome: The 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Yi; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Li, Shanshan; Fan, Shujun; Chen, Gongbo; Syberg, Kevin M; Xian, Hong; Wang, Si-Quan; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Yang, Mo; Liu, Kang-Kang; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Hu, Li-Wen; Guo, Yuming; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2018-07-01

    Little evidence exists about the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to determine the association between long-term ambient air pollution and MetS in China. A total of 15,477 adults who participated in the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS) in 2009 were evaluated. MetS was defined based on the recommendation by the Joint Interim Societies. Exposure to air pollutants was assessed using data from monitoring stations and a spatial statistical model (including particles with diameters ≤ 1.0 µm (PM 1 ), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ), and ≤ 10 µm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 )). Two-level logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the associations between air pollutants and MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 30.37%. The adjusted odds ratio of MetS per 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 1 , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 were 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00-1.24), 1.09 (95% CI = 1.00-1.18), 1.13 (95% CI = 1.08-1.19), 1.10 (95% CI = 1.02-1.18), 1.33 (95% CI = 1.12-1.57), and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.01-1.18), respectively. Stratified analyses indicated that the above associations were stronger in participants with the demographic variables of males, < 50 years of age, and higher income, as well as with the behavioral characteristics of smoking, drinking, and consuming sugar-sweetened soft drinks frequently. This study indicates that long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants may increase the risk of MetS, especially among males, the young to middle aged, those of low income, and those with unhealthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stakeholders' perception on including broader economic impact of vaccines in economic evaluations in low and middle income countries: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Putten, Ingeborg M; Evers, Silvia M A A; Deogaonkar, Rohan; Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond C W

    2015-04-10

    Current health economic evaluation guidelines mainly concentrate on immediate health gains and cost savings for the individual involved in the intervention. However, it has been argued that these guidelines are too narrow to capture the full impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries. The inclusion of broader economic impact of vaccines (BEIV) has therefore been proposed. Some examples of these are productivity-related gains, macro-economic impact, and different externalities. Despite their potency, the extent to which such benefits can and should be incorporated into economic evaluations of vaccination is still unclear. This mixed methods study aims to assess the relevance of BEIV to different stakeholders involved in the vaccine introduction decision making process. In this mixed method study an internet based survey was sent to attendees of the New and Underutilized Vaccines Initiative meeting in Montreux, Switzerland in 2011. Additionally, semi-structured interviews of 15 minutes each were conducted during the meeting. Study participants included decision makers, experts and funders of vaccines and immunization programs in low and middle income countries. Descriptive analysis of the survey, along with identification of common themes and factors extracted from the interviews and open survey questions was undertaken. Evidence on macro-economic impact, burden of disease and ecological effects were perceived as being most valuable towards aiding decision making for vaccine introduction by the 26 survey respondents. The 14 interviewees highlighted the importance of burden of disease and different types of indirect effects. Furthermore, some new interpretations of BEIVs were discussed, such as the potential negative impact of wastage during immunization programs and the idea of using vaccines as a platform for delivering other types of health interventions. Interviewees also highlighted the importance of using a broader perspective in connection to

  16. Effectiveness of a structured motivational intervention including smoking cessation advice and spirometry information in the primary care setting: the ESPITAP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Lujan, Francisco; Piñol-Moreso, Josep L I; Martin-Vergara, Nuria; Basora-Gallisa, Josep; Pascual-Palacios, Irene; Sagarra-Alamo, Ramon; Llopis, Estefania Aparicio; Basora-Gallisa, Maria T; Pedret-Llaberia, Roser

    2011-11-11

    There is current controversy about the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions that are based on information obtained by spirometry. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness in the primary care setting of structured motivational intervention to achieve smoking cessation, compared with usual clinical practice. Multicentre randomized clinical trial with an intervention and a control group. 12 primary care centres in the province of Tarragona (Spain). 600 current smokers aged between 35 and 70 years with a cumulative habit of more than 10 packs of cigarettes per year, attended in primary care for any reason and who did not meet any of the exclusion criteria for the study, randomly assigned to structured intervention or standard clinical attention. Usual advice to quit smoking by a general practitioner as well as a 20-minute personalized visit to provide detailed information about spirometry results, during which FEV1, FVC, FEF 25-75% and PEF measurements were discussed and interpreted in terms of theoretical values. Additional information included the lung age index (defined as the average age of a non-smoker with the same FEV1 as the study participant), comparing this with the chronological age to illustrate the pulmonary deterioration that results from smoking. Spirometry during the initial visit. Structured interview questionnaire administered at the primary care centre at the initial visit and at 12-month follow-up. Telephone follow-up interview at 6 months. At 12-month follow-up, expired CO was measured in patients who claimed to have quit smoking. Smoking cessation at 12 months. Data will be analyzed on the basis of "intention to treat" and the unit of analysis will be the individual smoker. Among active smokers treated in primary care we anticipate significantly higher smoking cessation in the intervention group than in the control group. Application of a motivational intervention based on structured information about spirometry results

  17. A Case for Including Transactions in OpenMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M; Bihari, B L; de Supinski, B R; Wu, P; Michael, M; Liu, Y; Chen, W

    2010-01-25

    Transactional Memory (TM) has received significant attention recently as a mechanism to reduce the complexity of shared memory programming. We explore the potential of TM to improve OpenMP applications. We combine a software TM (STM) system to support transactions with an OpenMP implementation to start thread teams and provide task and loop-level parallelization. We apply this system to two application scenarios that reflect realistic TM use cases. Our results with this system demonstrate that even with the relatively high overheads of STM, transactions can outperform OpenMP critical sections by 10%. Overall, our study demonstrates that extending OpenMP to include transactions would ease programming effort while allowing improved performance.

  18. Including a learner with physical disabilities: stressful for teachers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Eloff

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Learners with physical disabilities have been entering mainstream schools for some years now. Whereas early research on inclusive education necessitated a strong focus on the needs of the learners, there has also been a recent interest in the role of the teachers in inclusive education. By adopting constructivism as the paradigm for inquiry a study was undertaken to establish the stress factors for teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability in their mainstream classes. The rationale for the study is threefold: i Learners with physical disabilities are entering mainstream schools increasingly, ii it is often assumed that inclusive education is too stressful for teachers to cope with, and iii related research has shown that increased contact with individuals with disabilities has a positive effect on attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. In accordance with the dialectical methodology of constructivism, the Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire and in-depth interviews were utilised to establish the stress factors and the extent of the stress factors that may be present. The aim of the constructivist inquiry process is to promote understanding and reconstruction. In this article the quantitative results indicate overall low or non-existent levels of stress in teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability, and the results therefore contribute to our understanding of this situation. The qualitative results reconstruct the meanings that these teachers attach to the inclusion of a learner with a physical disability and reveal some albeit limited concerns about the communication processes between parents and teachers and a perceived lack of pre-service training.

  19. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Emma E; Essington, Timothy E; Kaplan, Isaac C

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate.

  20. Birth Weight and Long-Term Overweight Risk: Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis Including 643,902 Persons from 66 Studies and 26 Countries Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Thomas; Plagemann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis. Methods and Findings Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (poverweight (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59–0.76). High birth weight (>4,000 g) was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.55–1.77). Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500–4,000 g) as reference category (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.63–0.84, and OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.45–1.77, respectively). Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.43–2.67). Conclusions Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Pötter, Richard; Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C.; Haie-Meder, Christine; Petrič, Primož; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M.; Rai, Bhavana; Cooper, Rachel; Dörr, Wolfgang; Nout, Remi A.; Lindegaard, Jacob; Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars; Van Der Steen Banasik, Elzbieta; Haie-Meder, Christine; Dumas, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials: In total, 744 patients at a median follow-up of 21 months were included. QoL was prospectively assessed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life core module 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC cervical cancer module 24 (CX24) questionnaires at baseline, then every 3 months during the first year, every 6 months in the second and third years, and finally yearly thereafter in patients with no evidence of disease. Outcomes were evaluated over time and compared to those from an age-matched female reference population. Results: General QoL and emotional and social functioning were impaired at baseline but improved during the first 6 months after treatment, to reach a level comparable to that of the reference population, whereas cognitive functioning remained impaired. Both social and role functioning showed the lowest scores at baseline but which increased after treatment to reach a plateau at 6 months and then declined slightly at 3 and 4 years. The overall symptom experience was elevated at baseline and decreased to a level within the range of that of the reference population. Similarly, tumor-related symptoms (eg, pain, appetite loss, and constipation), which were present before treatment, decreased substantially at the first follow-up after treatment. Several treatment-related symptoms developed either immediately after and persisted over time (diarrhea, menopausal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and sexual functioning problems) or developed gradually after treatment (lymphedema and dyspnea). Conclusions: This longitudinal prospective QoL analysis showed that patients' general QoL and functioning were impaired before treatment compared to

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.kirchheiner@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Pötter, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C. [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Haie-Meder, Christine [Department of Radiotherapy, Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Petrič, Primož [Department of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Radiation Oncology, National Center for Cancer Care and Research, Doha (Qatar); Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rai, Bhavana [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Cooper, Rachel [Leeds Cancer Centre, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Dörr, Wolfgang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Nout, Remi A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Lindegaard, Jacob; Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars; Van Der Steen Banasik, Elzbieta; Haie-Meder, Christine; Dumas, Isabelle; and others

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials: In total, 744 patients at a median follow-up of 21 months were included. QoL was prospectively assessed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life core module 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC cervical cancer module 24 (CX24) questionnaires at baseline, then every 3 months during the first year, every 6 months in the second and third years, and finally yearly thereafter in patients with no evidence of disease. Outcomes were evaluated over time and compared to those from an age-matched female reference population. Results: General QoL and emotional and social functioning were impaired at baseline but improved during the first 6 months after treatment, to reach a level comparable to that of the reference population, whereas cognitive functioning remained impaired. Both social and role functioning showed the lowest scores at baseline but which increased after treatment to reach a plateau at 6 months and then declined slightly at 3 and 4 years. The overall symptom experience was elevated at baseline and decreased to a level within the range of that of the reference population. Similarly, tumor-related symptoms (eg, pain, appetite loss, and constipation), which were present before treatment, decreased substantially at the first follow-up after treatment. Several treatment-related symptoms developed either immediately after and persisted over time (diarrhea, menopausal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and sexual functioning problems) or developed gradually after treatment (lymphedema and dyspnea). Conclusions: This longitudinal prospective QoL analysis showed that patients' general QoL and functioning were impaired before treatment compared to

  3. Effect of including fitness testing in preventive health checks on cardiorespiratory fitness and motivation: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høj, Kirsten; Skriver, Mette Vinther; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Christensen, Bo; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2014-10-10

    Preventive health checks may identify individuals with an unhealthy lifestyle and motivate them to change behaviour. However, knowledge about the impact of the different components included in preventive health checks is deficient. The aim of this trial is to evaluate whether including cardiorespiratory fitness testing in preventive health checks 1) increases cardiorespiratory fitness level and motivation to change physical activity behaviour and 2) reduces physical inactivity prevalence and improves self-rated health compared with preventive health checks without fitness testing. An open-label, household-cluster, randomized controlled trial with a two-group parallel design is used. The trial is embedded in a population-based health promotion program, "Check your Health Preventive Program", in which all 30-49 year-old citizens in a Danish municipality are offered a preventive health check. In each arm of the trial, 750 citizens will be recruited (1,500 in total). The primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness level assessed by submaximal cycle ergometer testing after one year. An intermediate outcome is the percentage of participants increasing motivation for physical activity behaviour change between baseline and two-weeks follow-up assessed using the Transtheoretical Model's stages of change. Secondary outcomes include changes from baseline to one-year follow-up in physical inactivity prevalence measured by a modified version of the questions developed by Saltin and Grimby, and in self-rated health measures using the Short-Form 12, Health Survey, version 2. This trial will contribute to a critical appraisal of the value of fitness testing as part of preventive health checks. The conduction in real-life community and general practice structures makes the trial findings applicable and transferable to other municipalities providing support to decision-makers in the development of approaches to increase levels of physical activity and improve health. Clinical

  4. Student Motivation in Science Subjects in Tanzania, Including Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkimbili, Selina Thomas; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    Fostering and maintaining students' interest in science is an important aspect of improving science learning. The focus of this paper is to listen to and reflect on students' voices regarding the sources of motivation for science subjects among students in community secondary schools with contextual challenges in Tanzania. We conducted a group-interview study of 46 Form 3 and Form 4 Tanzanian secondary school students. The study findings reveal that the major contextual challenges to student motivation for science in the studied schools are limited resources and students' insufficient competence in the language of instruction. Our results also reveal ways to enhance student motivation for science in schools with contextual challenges; these techniques include the use of questioning techniques and discourse, students' investigations and practical work using locally available materials, study tours, more integration of classroom science into students' daily lives and the use of real-life examples in science teaching. Also we noted that students' contemporary life, culture and familiar language can be utilised as a useful resource in facilitating meaningful learning in science in the school. Students suggested that, to make science interesting to a majority of students in a Tanzanian context, science education needs to be inclusive of students' experiences, culture and contemporary daily lives. Also, science teaching and learning in the classroom need to involve learners' voices.

  5. Disposal project for LLW and VLLW generated from research facilities in Japan: A feasibility study for the near surface disposal of VLLW that includes uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Hasegawa, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nakatani, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion and future work: • JAEA plans trench disposal of U-bearing waste with less than 100 Bq/g. • Two safety measures of trench disposal of U-bearing waste have been discussed taking into account increasing radioactivity over a long period of time. 1. First is to carry out dose assessment of site use scenario by using a conservatively stylized condition. 2. Second is to control the average concentration of U in the trench facilities based on the concept of the existing exposure situation. • We are continuously developing the method for safety measures of near surface disposal of VLLW including U-bearing waste.

  6. A comparative study of nemertean complete mitochondrial genomes, including two new ones for Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens, may elucidate the fundamental pattern for the phylum Nemertea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hai-Xia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial genome is important for studying genome evolution as well as reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 2200 metazoans, mainly vertebrates and arthropods. To date, from a total of about 1275 described nemertean species, only three complete and two partial mitochondrial DNA sequences from nemerteans have been published. Here, we report the entire mitochondrial genomes for two more nemertean species: Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens. Results The sizes of the entire mitochondrial genomes are 15365 bp for N. cf. mirabilis and 15513 bp for Z. rubens. Each circular genome contains 37 genes and an AT-rich non-coding region, and overall nucleotide composition is AT-rich. In both species, there is significant strand asymmetry in the distribution of nucleotides, with the coding strand being richer in T than A and in G than C. The AT-rich non-coding regions of the two genomes have some repeat sequences and stem-loop structures, both of which may be associated with the initiation of replication or transcription. The 22 tRNAs show variable substitution patterns in nemerteans, with higher sequence conservation in genes located on the H strand. Gene arrangement of N. cf. mirabilis is identical to that of Paranemertes cf. peregrina, both of which are Hoplonemertea, while that of Z. rubens is the same as in Lineus viridis, both of which are Heteronemertea. Comparison of the gene arrangements and phylogenomic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes revealed that species with closer relationships share more identical gene blocks. Conclusion The two new mitochondrial genomes share many features, including gene contents, with other known nemertean mitochondrial genomes. The tRNA families display a composite substitution pathway. Gene order comparison to the proposed ground pattern of

  7. A comparative study of nemertean complete mitochondrial genomes, including two new ones for Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens, may elucidate the fundamental pattern for the phylum Nemertea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Xia; Sun, Shi-Chun; Sundberg, Per; Ren, Wei-Cheng; Norenburg, Jon L

    2012-04-17

    The mitochondrial genome is important for studying genome evolution as well as reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 2200 metazoans, mainly vertebrates and arthropods. To date, from a total of about 1275 described nemertean species, only three complete and two partial mitochondrial DNA sequences from nemerteans have been published. Here, we report the entire mitochondrial genomes for two more nemertean species: Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens. The sizes of the entire mitochondrial genomes are 15365 bp for N. cf. mirabilis and 15513 bp for Z. rubens. Each circular genome contains 37 genes and an AT-rich non-coding region, and overall nucleotide composition is AT-rich. In both species, there is significant strand asymmetry in the distribution of nucleotides, with the coding strand being richer in T than A and in G than C. The AT-rich non-coding regions of the two genomes have some repeat sequences and stem-loop structures, both of which may be associated with the initiation of replication or transcription. The 22 tRNAs show variable substitution patterns in nemerteans, with higher sequence conservation in genes located on the H strand. Gene arrangement of N. cf. mirabilis is identical to that of Paranemertes cf. peregrina, both of which are Hoplonemertea, while that of Z. rubens is the same as in Lineus viridis, both of which are Heteronemertea. Comparison of the gene arrangements and phylogenomic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes revealed that species with closer relationships share more identical gene blocks. The two new mitochondrial genomes share many features, including gene contents, with other known nemertean mitochondrial genomes. The tRNA families display a composite substitution pathway. Gene order comparison to the proposed ground pattern of Bilateria and some lophotrochozoans suggests that the

  8. Solving the high energy evolution equation including running coupling corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.

    2007-01-01

    We study the solution of the nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution equation with the recently calculated running coupling corrections [I. I. Balitsky, Phys. Rev. D 75, 014001 (2007). and Y. Kovchegov and H. Weigert, Nucl. Phys. A784, 188 (2007).]. Performing a numerical solution we confirm the earlier result of Albacete et al. [Phys. Rev. D 71, 014003 (2005).] (obtained by exploring several possible scales for the running coupling) that the high energy evolution with the running coupling leads to a universal scaling behavior for the dipole-nucleus scattering amplitude, which is independent of the initial conditions. It is important to stress that the running coupling corrections calculated recently significantly change the shape of the scaling function as compared to the fixed coupling case, in particular, leading to a considerable increase in the anomalous dimension and to a slow-down of the evolution with rapidity. We then concentrate on elucidating the differences between the two recent calculations of the running coupling corrections. We explain that the difference is due to an extra contribution to the evolution kernel, referred to as the subtraction term, which arises when running coupling corrections are included. These subtraction terms were neglected in both recent calculations. We evaluate numerically the subtraction terms for both calculations, and demonstrate that when the subtraction terms are added back to the evolution kernels obtained in the two works the resulting dipole amplitudes agree with each other. We then use the complete running coupling kernel including the subtraction term to find the numerical solution of the resulting full nonlinear evolution equation with the running coupling corrections. Again the scaling regime is recovered at very large rapidity with the scaling function unaltered by the subtraction term

  9. Ceramic substrate including thin film multilayer surface conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Joseph Ambrose; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2017-05-09

    A ceramic substrate comprises a plurality of ceramic sheets, a plurality of inner conductive layers, a plurality of vias, and an upper conductive layer. The ceramic sheets are stacked one on top of another and include a top ceramic sheet. The inner conductive layers include electrically conductive material that forms electrically conductive features on an upper surface of each ceramic sheet excluding the top ceramic sheet. The vias are formed in each of the ceramic sheets with each via being filled with electrically conductive material. The upper conductive layer includes electrically conductive material that forms electrically conductive features on an upper surface of the top ceramic sheet. The upper conductive layer is constructed from a stack of four sublayers. A first sublayer is formed from titanium. A second sublayer is formed from copper. A third sublayer is formed from platinum. A fourth sublayer is formed from gold.

  10. Including information technology project management in the nursing informatics curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    Project management is a critical skill for nurse informaticists who are in prominent roles developing and implementing clinical information systems. It should be included in the nursing informatics curriculum, as evidenced by its inclusion in informatics competencies and surveys of important skills for informaticists. The University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing includes project management in two of the four courses in the master's level informatics minor. Course content includes the phases of the project management process; the iterative unified process methodology; and related systems analysis and project management skills. During the introductory course, students learn about the project plan, requirements development, project feasibility, and executive summary documents. In the capstone course, students apply the system development life cycle and project management skills during precepted informatics projects. During this in situ experience, students learn, the preceptors benefit, and the institution better prepares its students for the real world.

  11. Classical mechanics including an introduction to the theory of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschke, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    This textbook teaches classical mechanics as one of the foundations of physics. It describes the mechanical stability and motion in physical systems ranging from the molecular to the galactic scale. Aside from the standard topics of mechanics in the physics curriculum, this book includes an introduction to the theory of elasticity and its use in selected modern engineering applications, e.g. dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic materials. The text also covers many aspects of numerical mechanics, ranging from the solution of ordinary differential equations, including molecular dynamics simulation of many particle systems, to the finite element method. Attendant Mathematica programs or parts thereof are provided in conjunction with selected examples. Numerous links allow the reader to connect to related subjects and research topics. Among others this includes statistical mechanics (separate chapter), quantum mechanics, space flight, galactic dynamics, friction, and vibration spectroscopy. An introductory...

  12. Designing monitoring programs for chemicals of emerging concern in potable reuse ⋯ What to include and what not to include?

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-11-01

    This study discussed a proposed process to prioritize chemicals for reclaimed water monitoring programs, selection of analytical methods required for their quantification, toxicological relevance of chemicals of emerging concern regarding human health, and related issues. Given that thousands of chemicals are potentially present in reclaimed water and that information about those chemicals is rapidly evolving, a transparent, science-based framework was developed to guide prioritization of which compounds of emerging concern (CECs) should be included in reclaimed water monitoring programs. The recommended framework includes four steps: (1) compile environmental concentrations (e.g., measured environmental concentration or MEC) of CECs in the source water for reuse projects; (2) develop a monitoring trigger level (MTL) for each of these compounds (or groups thereof) based on toxicological relevance; (3) compare the environmental concentration (e.g., MEC) to the MTL; CECs with a MEC/MTL ratio greater than 1 should be prioritized for monitoring, compounds with a ratio less than \\'1\\' should only be considered if they represent viable treatment process performance indicators; and (4) screen the priority list to ensure that a commercially available robust analytical method is available for that compound. © IWA Publishing 2013.

  13. Dynamical criteria for a unified gauge theory (including gravity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that local gauge invariance together with dynamical (and possibly Higgs) symmetry breaking can be taken as a basis for a unified gauge theory including gravity. The criterion for the breakdown of the linear gauge symmetry of the space-time sector turns out to be the absence of a prior geometry. The usual postulates of general relativity, such as general coordinate invariance, etc., follow from the above two criteria. Gravity actions that are natural from the point of view are discussed. The extension to superspace relevant to gauge supergroups is also given, including a large number of linear and quadratic superspace invariants

  14. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  15. Meta-structure and tunable optical device including the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seunghoon; Papadakis, Georgia Theano; Atwater, Harry

    2017-12-26

    A meta-structure and a tunable optical device including the same are provided. The meta-structure includes a plurality of metal layers spaced apart from one another, an active layer spaced apart from the plurality of metal layers and having a carrier concentration that is tuned according to an electric signal applied to the active layer and the plurality of metal layers, and a plurality of dielectric layers spaced apart from one another and each having one surface contacting a metal layer among the plurality of metal layers and another surface contacting the active layer.

  16. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  17. Tunable cavity resonator including a plurality of MEMS beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroulis, Dimitrios; Fruehling, Adam; Small, Joshua Azariah; Liu, Xiaoguang; Irshad, Wasim; Arif, Muhammad Shoaib

    2015-10-20

    A tunable cavity resonator includes a substrate, a cap structure, and a tuning assembly. The cap structure extends from the substrate, and at least one of the substrate and the cap structure defines a resonator cavity. The tuning assembly is positioned at least partially within the resonator cavity. The tuning assembly includes a plurality of fixed-fixed MEMS beams configured for controllable movement relative to the substrate between an activated position and a deactivated position in order to tune a resonant frequency of the tunable cavity resonator.

  18. Whole-body-MR imaging including DWIBS in the work-up of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noij, Daniel P., E-mail: d.noij@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boerhout, Els J., E-mail: e.boerhout@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pieters-van den Bos, Indra C., E-mail: i.pieters@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Comans, Emile F., E-mail: efi.comans@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oprea-Lager, Daniela, E-mail: d.oprea-lager@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reinhard, Rinze, E-mail: r.reinhard@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoekstra, Otto S., E-mail: os.hoekstra@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bree, Remco de, E-mail: r.debree@vumc.nl [Department Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Graaf, Pim de, E-mail: p.degraaf@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Castelijns, Jonas A., E-mail: j.castelijns@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-07-15

    Objectives: To assess the feasibility of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) including diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background-body-signal-suppression (DWIBS) for the evaluation of distant malignancies in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); and to compare WB-MRI findings with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT) and chest-CT. Methods: Thirty-three patients with high risk for metastatic spread (26 males; range 48–79 years, mean age 63 ± 7.9 years (mean ± standard deviation) years) were prospectively included with a follow-up of six months. WB-MRI protocol included short-TI inversion recovery and T1-weighted sequences in the coronal plane and half-fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo T2 and contrast-enhanced-T1-weighted sequences in the axial plane. Axial DWIBS was reformatted in the coronal plane. Interobserver variability was assessed using weighted kappa and the proportion specific agreement (PA). Results: Two second primary tumors and one metastasis were detected on WB-MRI. WB-MRI yielded seven clinically indeterminate lesions which did not progress at follow-up. The metastasis and one second primary tumor were found when combining {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT and chest-CT findings. Interobserver variability for WB-MRI was κ = 0.91 with PA ranging from 0.82 to 1.00. For {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT κ could not be calculated due to a constant variable in the table and PA ranged from 0.40 to 0.99. Conclusions: Our WB-MRI protocol with DWIBS is feasible in the work-up of HNSCC patients for detection and characterization of distant pathology. WB-MRI can be complementary to {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT, especially in the detection of non {sup 18}F-FDG avid second primary tumors.

  19. How hard can it be to include research evidence and evaluation in local health policy implementation? Results from a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Bridie Angela

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an evidence-based approach is the ideal model for planning and delivering healthcare, barriers exist to using research evidence to implement and evaluate service change. This paper aims to inform policy implementation and evaluation by understanding the role of research evidence at the local level through implementation of a national chronic conditions management policy. Methods We conducted a national email survey of health service commissioners at the most devolved level of decision-making in Wales (Local Health Boards – LHBs followed by in-depth interviews with representatives of LHBs, purposively selecting five to reflect geographic and economic characteristics. Survey data were analysed descriptively; we used thematic analysis for interview data. Results All LHBs (n = 22 completed questionnaires. All reported they routinely assessed the research literature before implementing interventions, but free-text answers revealed wide variation in approach. Most commonly reported information sources included personal contacts, needs assessments, information or research databases. No consistent approach to evaluation was reported. Frequently reported challenges were: insufficient staff capacity (17/22; limited skills, cost, limited time, competing priorities (16/22; availability and quality of routine data (15/22. Respondents reported they would value central guidance on evaluation. Five interviews were held with managers from the five LHBs contacted. Service delivery decisions were informed by Welsh Government initiatives and priorities, budgets, perceived good practice, personal knowledge, and local needs, but did not include formal research evidence, they reported. Decision making was a collaborative process including clinical staff, patient representatives, and partner organization managers with varying levels of research experience. Robust evaluation data were required, but they were constrained by a lack of skills

  20. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine failure associated with a triple mutant including kelch13 C580Y in Cambodia: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Michele D; Lin, Jessica T; Manning, Jessica E; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Somethy, Sok; Bun, Rathvicheth; Se, Youry; Chann, Soklyda; Ittiverakul, Mali; Sia-ngam, Piyaporn; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Arsanok, Montri; Buathong, Nillawan; Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Gosi, Panita; Ta-aksorn, Winita; Chanarat, Nitima; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Kong, Nareth; Heng, Thay Kheang; Nou, Samon; Teja-isavadharm, Paktiya; Pichyangkul, Sathit; Phann, Sut Thang; Balasubramanian, Sujata; Juliano, Jonathan J; Meshnick, Steven R; Chour, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Lanteri, Charlotte A; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David L

    2015-06-01

    propeller gene mutations associated with artemisinin resistance--a non-synonymous Cys580Tyr substitution in 70 (65%) of 107 participants, an Arg539Thr substitution in 33 (31%), and a wild-type parasite in four (4%). Unlike Arg539Thr, Cys580Tyr was accompanied by two other mutations associated with extended parasite clearance (MAL10:688956 and MAL13:1718319). This combination triple mutation was associated with a 5·4 times greater risk of treatment failure (hazard ratio 5·4 [95% CI 2·4-12]; p<0·0001) and higher piperaquine 50% inhibitory concentration (triple mutant 34 nM [28-41]; non-triple mutant 24 nM [1-27]; p=0·003) than other infections had. The drug was well tolerated, with gastrointestinal symptoms being the most common complaints. The dramatic decline in efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine compared with what was observed in a study at the same location in 2010 was strongly associated with a new triple mutation including the kelch13 Cys580Tyr substitution. 3 days of artemisinin as part of an artemisinin combination therapy regimen might be insufficient. Strict regulation and monitoring of antimalarial use, along with non-pharmacological approaches to malaria resistance containment, must be integral parts of the public health response to rapidly accelerating drug resistance in the region. Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center/Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System, Military Infectious Disease Research Program, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene/Burroughs Wellcome Fund. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding type 2 diabetes: including the family member's perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological and social factors and diabetes outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes and their family members. METHODS: A total of 153 patients with type 2 diabetes were assessed at a diabetes outpatient clinic and postal questionnaires were sent to nominated family members. The measures examined were diabetes knowledge, social support, well-being, and illness perceptions. RESULTS: When compared with those with diabetes, family members reported lower positive well-being and lower levels of satisfaction with support. They also perceived diabetes as a more cyclical illness, which was controlled more by treatment than by the individual. Family members also reported that the person with diabetes was more emotionally distressed and knew more about diabetes than the patient had actually reported himself or herself. There were no differences between the family members of those in good or poor glycaemic control. CONCLUSIONS: This study reinforces the importance of understanding social context and illness beliefs in diabetes management. It also highlights the potential for including family members in discussions and education about diabetes management.

  2. The association of the Clock 3111 T/C SNP with lipids and lipoproteins including small dense low-density lipoprotein: results from the Mima study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Kaoru

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clock molecule plays major roles in circadian rhythmicity and regulating lipid and glucose metabolism in peripheral organs. Disruption of the circadian rhythm can lead to cardiometabolic disorders. The existence of small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL in the circulation, an abnormality of lipid metabolism, in part associated with lifestyle, is also one of risk parameters for cardiometabolic disorders. The 3111 T/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of the Clock gene has been reported to be associated with lifestyle including morning/evening preference. We investigated whether the Clock 3111 T/C SNP may affect lipids and lipoproteins including sdLDL. Methods In 365 community-dwelling subjects (170 men and 195 women, mean age 63 ± 14 years, the 3111 T/C SNP was genotyped using a fluorescent allele-specific DNA primer assay system. The levels of sdLDL were measured with the electrophoretic separation of lipoproteins employing the Lipoprint system. Results The frequency of the Clock 3111 C allele was 0.14. The area of sdLDL did not differ between the subjects with obesity and those without. In carriers of T/T homozygotes, the area of sdLDL was significantly higher compared with carriers of the C allele (T/C or C/C (1.7 ± 3.4 vs. 0.8 ± 1.9%; p Clock 3111 T/C SNP (β = -0.114, p Conclusion Our findings indicated that the Clock 3111 T/C SNP might be associated with the existence of sdLDL.

  3. Appraisal Of Quality Of Life Of Diabetic Patients, Including Life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appraisal Of Quality Of Life Of Diabetic Patients, Including Life Expectancy. ... of long-term complications, development of short-term complications, and physical symptoms and lifestyle changes resulting from the demands of the diabetic ... Key words: Type 2 Diabetes, quality of life, life expectancy, diabetic complications.

  4. Assessing the Doctoral Thesis When It Includes Published Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmini, Sharon; Spronken-Smith, Rachel; Golding, Clinton; Harland, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore how examiners assess a thesis that includes published work. An online survey was used to gather data on approaches to assessing publication-based theses (PBTs). The respondents were 62 supervisors who had experience examining PBTs across a range of disciplines at a research-intensive university in New Zealand. Nearly…

  5. 25 CFR 20.308 - What does earned income include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What does earned income include? 20.308 Section 20.308 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND..., the sale of farm crops, livestock, or professional artists producing art work); and (b) With regard to...

  6. 34 CFR 661.20 - What must an application include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must an application include? 661.20 Section 661.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BUSINESS AND INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM How Does One Apply for a...

  7. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  8. Towards a general framework for including noise impacts in LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucurachi, Stefano; Heijungs, Reinout; Ohlau, Katrin

    Purpose Several damages have been associated with the exposure of human beings to noise. These include auditory effects, i.e., hearing impairment, but also non-auditory physiological ones such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease, or psychological ones such as annoyance, depression, sleep

  9. 25 CFR 20.403 - What do protective services include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....403 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE... services, which may include, but are not limited to, the following: (i) Investigating and reporting on... for assistance in solving the social problems of individuals, families, and children. (5) Coordinating...

  10. Including Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane; SueSee, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Many physical education curriculum frameworks include statements about the inclusion of critical inquiry processes and the development of creativity and problem-solving skills. The learning environment created by physical education can encourage or limit the application and development of the learners' cognitive resources for critical and creative…

  11. Including Leap Year in the Canonical Birthday Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandor, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    The greatest benefit of including leap year in the calculation is not to increase precision, but to show students that a problem can be solved without such presumption. A birthday problem is analyzed showing that calculating a leap-year birthday probability is not a frivolous computation.

  12. Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, in the Netherlands in 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MG van Veen; FDH Koedijk; IVF van der Broek; ELM Op de Coul; IM de Boer; AI van Sighem; MAB van der Sande; soa-centra; Stichting HIV Monitoring; EPI/Cib

    2007-01-01

    The nationally covered low threshold STI centres offering STI care targeted at high risk groups, provide surveillance data to monitor national trends in STI, including HIV. In 2006, chlamydia remained the most commonly diagnosed bacterial STI in the Netherlands in the STI centres, in spite of

  13. Three-humped fission barrier transmission including vibrational damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabretta, L.; Del Zoppo, A.; Ingrao, G.

    1978-01-01

    The total penetrability through a three-humped fission barrier including vibrational damping is calculated by using an optical model for fission. The Bondorf's stationary probability current theory is used for transitions among class-1, class-2 and class-3 phases. A method to calculate the partial-transmission coefficients is developed

  14. Information for Teachers (Including Classroom Activities), Skylab Student Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This program is intended to directly involve the educational community in space experiments, many of which can be related to existing curricula. Included in this first packet are: 1) a brief description of the Skylab Program and the National Science Teachers Association-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NSTA-NASA) Skylab Student…

  15. Smart Antenna Skins, including Conformal Array, MMICs and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, F.L.M. van den

    2000-01-01

    Low-cost technologies are presented for future space-borne and airborne SAR systems. These technologies include state-of-the art highly integrated circuits to miniaturise front-end, solutions to lower-cost interconnection technologies, new beamforming aspects and new architectures. The MMICs address

  16. Including Students with Severe Disabilities in General Education Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Lech; Alper, Sandra

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents five systematic phases for bringing about successful regular education inclusion of students with severe disabilities. Phases include develop networks within the community, assess school and community resources, review strategies for integration, install strategies that lead to integration, and develop a system of feedback and…

  17. Including patients’ perspectives in patient information leaflets: A polyocular approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2013-01-01

    Existing research reveals that patients’ perspectives are missing from mandatory patient information leaflets (PILs). At the same time, there is overwhelming consensus that they should be included in this genre, and a corresponding need for potential approaches to tackle this problem. This paper ...

  18. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  19. 10 CFR 905.11 - What must an IRP include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.11 What must an IRP include? (a) General. Integrated resource planning is a planning process for new energy... projected durability of such savings measured over time; and must treat demand and supply resources on a...

  20. LTRACK: Beam-transport calculation including wakefield effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.C.D.; Cooper, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    LTRACK is a first-order beam-transport code that includes wakefield effects up to quadrupole modes. This paper will introduce the readers to this computer code by describing the history, the method of calculations, and a brief summary of the input/output information. Future plans for the code will also be described

  1. Visual Impairments, "Including Blindness." NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #13

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Vision is one of the five senses. Being able to see gives tremendous access to learning about the world around--people's faces and the subtleties of expression, what different things look like and how big they are, and the physical environments, including approaching hazards. When a child has a visual impairment, it is cause for immediate…

  2. 34 CFR 429.20 - What must an application include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must an application include? 429.20 Section 429.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL VOCATIONAL MATERIALS, METHODS, AND TECHNIQUES PROGRAM...

  3. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...

  4. Including the gifted learner: perceptions of South African teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative content analysis revealed the following themes: inclusive education and the learner who is gifted; curriculum differentiation; obstacles to curriculum differentiation; and possible solutions for more effectively including the gifted learner. Despite their diversity in terms of culture, language and positioning by the ...

  5. Payment Services for Global Online Systems Including Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebeck, Bill; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A panel of four conference presenters address issues related to paying for services provided through online systems. Discussion includes the following topics: metering devices; electronic/digital cash; working within existing banking/credit card structures; provision of payment mechanisms in countries without extensive credit card usage; and…

  6. Restructuring the Public School Curriculum To Include Parenting Education Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Carolyn L.; And Others

    Although the current educational climate stresses a back-to-basics approach, there is nonetheless overwhelming evidence of a need for an appropriately structured parenting education program in the public school curriculum. Reasons for this need include the large number of teenage pregnancies and abortions. These lead teens to miss high school…

  7. Can We Include The Third Dimension During Image Mining?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Can We Include The Third Dimension During Image Mining? Retrieve An Image · Content-Based Retrieval · Problem Statement · Slide 5 · CBIR Methodology · Slide 7 · Illustration : Logo Search · Illustration: Arbitrary Query · Limitations · Illustration: Change in View · Slide 12 · Illustration: Depth Variation.

  8. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM. The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA, due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  9. Cosmological constraints on the neutrino mass including systematic uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchot, F.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Perdereau, O.; Plaszczynski, S.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Spinelli, M.; Tristram, M.

    2017-10-01

    When combining cosmological and oscillations results to constrain the neutrino sector, the question of the propagation of systematic uncertainties is often raised. We address this issue in the context of the derivation of an upper bound on the sum of the neutrino masses (Σmν) with recent cosmological data. This work is performed within the ΛCDM model extended to Σmν, for which we advocate the use of three mass-degenerate neutrinos. We focus on the study of systematic uncertainties linked to the foregrounds modelling in cosmological microwave background (CMB) data analysis, and on the impact of the present knowledge of the reionisation optical depth. This is done through the use of different likelihoods built from Planck data. Limits on Σmν are derived with various combinations of data, including the latest baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) results. We also discuss the impact of the preference for current CMB data for amplitudes of the gravitational lensing distortions higher than expected within the ΛCDM model, and add the Planck CMB lensing. We then derive a robust upper limit: Σmνcosmological parameters is also reported, for different assumptions on the neutrino mass repartition, and different high and low multipole CMB likelihoods.

  10. Advocacy for women's health should include lesbian health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; Dibble, Suzanne L; Hagan, H Jennifer J; Davids, Rachel

    2004-03-01

    Although research confirms that homosexuality is a normal expression of human sexuality, established scientific studies are often not reflected in laws and judicial opinions for lesbians with regard to employment, taxation, pensions, disability, healthcare, immigration, military service, marriage, custody, and adoption. The expression of homosexual attraction or behavior is sometimes met by disdain or violence. Psychological and epidemiological research confirms that the public discriminatory attitudes and second-class legal status cause physical, emotional, and financial harm to lesbians, their families, and their children. Some lesbians experience discrimination in healthcare and avoid routine primary healthcare. To decrease the harm, and improve the health of lesbians, medical institutions can include sexual orientation and gender identity in their nondiscrimination policies and offer domestic partner coverage in employment benefits. Our specialty societies should review current laws and judicial opinions and advocate for change. Further, specialty societies can effect change by issuing policy statements about issues of orientation and by writing orientation/identity curricula for public schools, colleges, and postcollegiate education to improve their accuracy, reduce sexually transmitted diseases, delay sexual activity, and reduce morbidity from homophobic violence.

  11. Magnetic properties of nickel halide hydrates including deuteration effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFotis, G.C., E-mail: gxdefo@wm.edu [Chemistry Department, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187 United States (United States); Van Dongen, M.J.; Hampton, A.S.; Komatsu, C.H.; Trowell, K.T.; Havas, K.C.; Davis, C.M.; DeSanto, C.L. [Chemistry Department, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187 United States (United States); Hays, K.; Wagner, M.J. [Chemistry Department, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 20052 United States (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic measurements on variously hydrated nickel chlorides and bromides, including deuterated forms, are reported. Results include locations and sizes of susceptibility maxima, T{sub max} and χ{sub max}, ordering temperatures T{sub c}, Curie constants and Weiss theta in the paramagnetic regime, and primary and secondary exchange interactions from analysis of low temperature data. For the latter a 2D Heisenberg model augmented by interlayer exchange in a mean-field approximation is applied. Magnetization data to 16 kG as a function of temperature show curvature and hysteresis characteristics quite system dependent. For four materials high field magnetization data to 70 kG at 2.00 K are also obtained. Comparison is made with theoretical relations for spin-1 models. Trends are apparent, primarily that T{sub max} of each bromide hydrate is less than for the corresponding chloride, and that for a given halide nD{sub 2}O (n=1 or 2) deuterates exhibit lesser T{sub max} than do nH{sub 2}O hydrates. A monoclinic unit cell determined from powder X-ray diffraction data on NiBr{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O is different from and slightly larger than that of NiBr{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O. This provides some rationale for the difference in magnetic properties between these. - Highlights: • The magnetism of Ni(II) chloride and bromide dihydrates and monohydrates is studied. • Effects of replacing H{sub 2}O by D{sub 2}O are examined for both hydration states and both halides. • Exchange interactions in bromides are weaker than in corresponding chlorides. • Exchange interactions are weaker in D{sub 2}O than in corresponding H{sub 2}O containing systems. • The unit cell of NiBr{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O is different from and slightly larger than that of NiBr{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O.

  12. Evolution of poor reporting and inadequate methods over time in 20 920 randomised controlled trials included in Cochrane reviews: research on research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechartres, Agnes; Trinquart, Ludovic; Atal, Ignacio; Moher, David; Dickersin, Kay; Boutron, Isabelle; Perrodeau, Elodie; Altman, Douglas G; Ravaud, Philippe

    2017-06-08

    Objective  To examine how poor reporting and inadequate methods for key methodological features in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have changed over the past three decades. Design  Mapping of trials included in Cochrane reviews. Data sources  Data from RCTs included in all Cochrane reviews published between March 2011 and September 2014 reporting an evaluation of the Cochrane risk of bias items: sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, and incomplete outcome data. Data extraction  For each RCT, we extracted consensus on risk of bias made by the review authors and identified the primary reference to extract publication year and journal. We matched journal names with Journal Citation Reports to get 2014 impact factors. Main outcomes measures  We considered the proportions of trials rated by review authors at unclear and high risk of bias as surrogates for poor reporting and inadequate methods, respectively. Results  We analysed 20 920 RCTs (from 2001 reviews) published in 3136 journals. The proportion of trials with unclear risk of bias was 48.7% for sequence generation and 57.5% for allocation concealment; the proportion of those with high risk of bias was 4.0% and 7.2%, respectively. For blinding and incomplete outcome data, 30.6% and 24.7% of trials were at unclear risk and 33.1% and 17.1% were at high risk, respectively. Higher journal impact factor was associated with a lower proportion of trials at unclear or high risk of bias. The proportion of trials at unclear risk of bias decreased over time, especially for sequence generation, which fell from 69.1% in 1986-1990 to 31.2% in 2011-14 and for allocation concealment (70.1% to 44.6%). After excluding trials at unclear risk of bias, use of inadequate methods also decreased over time: from 14.8% to 4.6% for sequence generation and from 32.7% to 11.6% for allocation concealment. Conclusions  Poor reporting and inadequate methods have decreased over time, especially for sequence generation

  13. Refining borders of genome-rearrangements including repetitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona-Medina, J A; Trelles, O

    2016-10-25

    DNA rearrangement events have been widely studied in comparative genomic for many years. The importance of these events resides not only in the study about relatedness among different species, but also to determine the mechanisms behind evolution. Although there are many methods to identify genome-rearrangements (GR), the refinement of their borders has become a huge challenge. Until now no accepted method exists to achieve accurate fine-tuning: i.e. the notion of breakpoint (BP) is still an open issue, and despite repeated regions are vital to understand evolution they are not taken into account in most of the GR detection and refinement methods. We propose a method to refine the borders of GR including repeated regions. Instead of removing these repetitions to facilitate computation, we take advantage of them using a consensus alignment sequence of the repeated region in between two blocks. Using the concept of identity vectors for Synteny Blocks (SB) and repetitions, a Finite State Machine is designed to detect transition points in the difference between such vectors. The method does not force the BP to be a region or a point but depends on the alignment transitions within the SBs and repetitions. The accurate definition of the borders of SB and repeated genomic regions and consequently the detection of BP might help to understand the evolutionary model of species. In this manuscript we present a new proposal for such a refinement. Features of the SBs borders and BPs are different and fit with what is expected. SBs with more diversity in annotations and BPs short and richer in DNA replication and stress response, which are strongly linked with rearrangements.

  14. Refining borders of genome-rearrangements including repetitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Arjona-Medina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA rearrangement events have been widely studied in comparative genomic for many years. The importance of these events resides not only in the study about relatedness among different species, but also to determine the mechanisms behind evolution. Although there are many methods to identify genome-rearrangements (GR, the refinement of their borders has become a huge challenge. Until now no accepted method exists to achieve accurate fine-tuning: i.e. the notion of breakpoint (BP is still an open issue, and despite repeated regions are vital to understand evolution they are not taken into account in most of the GR detection and refinement methods. Methods and results We propose a method to refine the borders of GR including repeated regions. Instead of removing these repetitions to facilitate computation, we take advantage of them using a consensus alignment sequence of the repeated region in between two blocks. Using the concept of identity vectors for Synteny Blocks (SB and repetitions, a Finite State Machine is designed to detect transition points in the difference between such vectors. The method does not force the BP to be a region or a point but depends on the alignment transitions within the SBs and repetitions. Conclusion The accurate definition of the borders of SB and repeated genomic regions and consequently the detection of BP might help to understand the evolutionary model of species. In this manuscript we present a new proposal for such a refinement. Features of the SBs borders and BPs are different and fit with what is expected. SBs with more diversity in annotations and BPs short and richer in DNA replication and stress response, which are strongly linked with rearrangements.

  15. First comparative study of primate morphological and molecular evolutionary rates including muscle data: implications for the tempo and mode of primate and human evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Peng, Zuogang; Wood, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Here we provide the first report about the rates of muscle evolution derived from Bayesian and parsimony cladistic analyses of primate higher-level phylogeny, and compare these rates with published rates of molecular evolution. It is commonly accepted that there is a ‘general molecular slow-down of hominoids’, but interestingly the rates of muscle evolution in the nodes leading and within the hominoid clade are higher than those in the vast majority of other primate clades. The rate of muscle evolution at the node leading to Homo (1.77) is higher than that at the nodes leading to Pan (0.89) and particularly to Gorilla (0.28). Notably, the rates of muscle evolution at the major euarchontan and primate nodes are different, but within each major primate clade (Strepsirrhini, Platyrrhini, Cercopithecidae and Hominoidea) the rates at the various nodes, and particularly at the nodes leading to the higher groups (i.e. including more than one genera), are strikingly similar. We explore the implications of these new data for the tempo and mode of primate and human evolution. PMID:23320764

  16. Feasibility of including patients with migration background in a structured heart failure management programme: A prospective case-control study exemplarily on Turkish migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pfister

    Full Text Available Structured management programmes deliver optimized care in heart failure patients and improve outcome. We examined the feasibility of including patients with migration background speaking little or no German in a heart failure management programme.After adaption of script material and staff to Turkish language we aimed to recruit 300 Turkish and 300 German (control group patients within 18 months using the operational basis of a local heart failure management programme for screening, contact and inclusion. Of 488 and 1,055 eligible Turkish and German patients identified through screening, 165 Turkish (34% and 335 German (32% patients consented on participation (p = 0.46. General practitioners contributed significantly more of the Turkish (84% than of the German patients (16%, p<0.001. Contact attempts by programme staff were significantly less successful in Turkish (52% than in German patients (60%, p = 0.005 due to significantly higher rate of missing phone numbers (36% vs 25%, invalid address data (28% vs 7% and being unreachable by phone more frequently (39% vs 26%, all p<0.001. Consent rate was significantly higher in successfully contacted Turkish (63% compared to German patients (50%, p<0.001.The inclusion of Turkish minority patients into a heart failure management programme is feasible with higher consent rate than in Germans. However, effort is high due to inherent logistic adaptions and barriers in identification and contacting of patients.DRKS00007780.

  17. Suddenly included: cultural differences in experiencing re-inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Graupmann, Verena; Du, Hongfei; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-03-01

    In the current research, we examined whether re-inclusion (i.e. the change from a previous state of exclusion to a new state of inclusion) was perceived differently by people with individualistic and collectivistic cultural backgrounds. Individualists (German and Austrian participants) but not collectivists (Chinese participants) experienced re-inclusion differently than continued inclusion: While collectivistic participants did not differentiate between both kinds of inclusion, individualistic participants showed reduced fulfilment of their psychological needs under re-inclusion compared to continued inclusion. The results moreover revealed that only participants from individualistic cultures expressed more feelings of exclusion when re-included than when continually included. These exclusionary feelings partially mediated the relationship between the different states of inclusion and basic need fulfilment. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Progressive IRP Models for Power Resources Including EPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the view of optimizing regional power supply and demand, the paper makes effective planning scheduling of supply and demand side resources including energy efficiency power plant (EPP, to achieve the target of benefit, cost, and environmental constraints. In order to highlight the characteristics of different supply and demand resources in economic, environmental, and carbon constraints, three planning models with progressive constraints are constructed. Results of three models by the same example show that the best solutions to different models are different. The planning model including EPP has obvious advantages considering pollutant and carbon emission constraints, which confirms the advantages of low cost and emissions of EPP. The construction of progressive IRP models for power resources considering EPP has a certain reference value for guiding the planning and layout of EPP within other power resources and achieving cost and environmental objectives.

  19. How Do We Include Underrepresented Voices in the Sustainability Conversation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virajita Singh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In a speech given at the Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships 20th Anniversary Statewide Event in the Cargill Building on the St. Paul Campus of the University of Minnesota on November 21, 2017, Virajita Singh, Assistant Vice Provost in the Office for Equity and Diversity, addressed the question, “How do we include underrepresented voices in the sustainability conversation?” The speech describes the work of The Partnerships as observed by the speaker, and its connection to the Design for Community Resilience program. It also introduces the concepts of Partnership and Design Thinking, and suggests a process for including underrepresented voices in the work informed by Design Thinking.  

  20. 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of hohlraums including fill tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J.; Hammel, B. A.; Macphee, A. G.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    Measurements of fill tube perturbations from hydro growth radiography (HGR) experiments on the National Ignition Facility show spoke perturbations in the ablator radiating from the base of the tube. These correspond to the shadow of the 10 μm diameter glass fill tube cast by hot spots at early time. We present 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of these experiments which include the fill tube. Meshing techniques are described which were employed to resolve the fill tube structure and associated perturbations in the simulations. We examine the extent to which the specific illumination geometry necessary to accommodate a backlighter in the HGR experiment contributes to the spoke pattern. Simulations presented include high resolution calculations run on the Trinity machine operated by the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES) partnership. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Survey of state legislative programs that include passive solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S

    1979-06-01

    This report surveys and evaluates state-level solar-incentive programs, including passive solar energy. The range of programs examined focuses on financial and legal incentives designed to speed the implementation of solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems. They have been evaluated by probing the wording of the incentive legislation and by interviewing state program administrators in each state to determine: (1) the extent, if any, of passive inclusion in solar-incentive programs, and (2) the level of success that various implementation techniques have achieved for encouraging passive solar designs as opposed to the more-commonly-understood active systems. Because no states have initiated incentive legislation designed exclusively to encourage passive solar techniques, it has been essential to determine whether legislative programs explicitly or implicitly include passive solar or if they explicitly exclude it.

  2. Energy storage device including a redox-enhanced electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Galen; Evanko, Brian; Parker, Nicholas; Vonlanthen, David; Auston, David; Boettcher, Shannon; Chun, Sang-Eun; Ji, Xiulei; Wang, Bao; Wang, Xingfeng; Chandrabose, Raghu Subash

    2017-08-08

    An electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) energy storage device is provided that includes at least two electrodes and a redox-enhanced electrolyte including two redox couples such that there is a different one of the redox couples for each of the electrodes. When charged, the charge is stored in Faradaic reactions with the at least two redox couples in the electrolyte and in a double-layer capacitance of a porous carbon material that comprises at least one of the electrodes, and a self-discharge of the energy storage device is mitigated by at least one of electrostatic attraction, adsorption, physisorption, and chemisorption of a redox couple onto the porous carbon material.

  3. Improving the strength of amalgams by including steel fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Calvin T. [Hendrix College, Conway, AR 72032 (United States); Van Hoose, James R. [Siemens, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); McGill, Preston B. [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM20, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Grugel, Richard N., E-mail: richard.n.grugel@nasa.gov [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM30, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A room temperature liquid Ga-In alloy was successfully substituted for mercury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physically sound amalgams with included steel fibers can be made. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small volume fraction inclusion of fibers increased strength by {approx}20%. - Abstract: Mercury amalgams, due to their material properties, are widely and successfully used in dental practice. They are, however, also well recognized as having poor tensile strength. With the possibility of expanding amalgam applications it is demonstrated that tensile strength can be increased some 20% by including a small amount of steel fibers. Furthermore, it is shown that mercury can be replaced with a room temperature liquid gallium-indium alloy. Processing, microstructures, and mechanical test results of these novel amalgams are presented and discussed in view of means to further improve their properties.

  4. QCD Reggeon field theory for every day: Pomeron loops included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinoluk, Tolga; Kovner, Alex; Peressutti, Javier; Lublinsky, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We derive the evolution equation for hadronic scattering amplitude at high energy. Our derivation includes the nonlinear effects of finite partonic density in the hadronic wave function as well as the effect of multiple scatterings for scattering on dense hadronic target. It thus includes Pomeron loops. It is based on the evolution of the hadronic wave function derived in /cite{foam}. The kernel of the evolution equation defines the second quantized Hamiltonian of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory, H RFT beyond the limits considered so far. The two previously known limits of the evolution: dilute target (JIMWLK limit) and dilute projectile (KLWMIJ limit) are recovered directly from our final result. The Hamiltonian H RFT is applicable for the evolution of scattering amplitude for arbitrarily dense hadronic projectiles/targets - from 'dipole-dipole' to 'nucleus-nucleus' scattering processes.

  5. Smart Farming: Including Rights Holders for Responsible Agricultural Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Bronson

    2018-01-01

    This article draws on the literature of responsible innovation to suggest concrete processes for including rights holders in the “smart” agricultural revolution. It first draws upon historical agricultural research in Canada to highlight how productivist values drove seed innovations with particular consequences for the distribution of power in the food system. Next, the article uses document analysis to suggest that a similar value framework is motivating public investment in smart farming i...

  6. Information to Include in Curriculum Vitae | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applicants are encouraged to use their current curriculum vitae and to add any necessary information. Please include your name and a page number on each page of the curriculum vitae. Some of the information requested below will not be applicable to all individuals. Please do not print or type your information on this page. Personal Information Name (First middle last) Gender (optional) Race (optional) Date of birth Place of birth (city,

  7. Stochastic modelling of two-phase flows including phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurisse, O.; Minier, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic modelling has already been developed and applied for single-phase flows and incompressible two-phase flows. In this article, we propose an extension of this modelling approach to two-phase flows including phase change (e.g. for steam-water flows). Two aspects are emphasised: a stochastic model accounting for phase transition and a modelling constraint which arises from volume conservation. To illustrate the whole approach, some remarks are eventually proposed for two-fluid models. (authors)

  8. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20% reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how to integrate as many sectors as possible in these efforts. Farmers, however, do not trade GHG under the Kyoto agreement. The idea of including farmers in a national emission trading system has been launc...

  9. GNSS-Based Space Weather Systems Including COSMIC Ionospheric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komjathy, Attila; Mandrake, Lukas; Wilson, Brian; Iijima, Byron; Pi, Xiaoqing; Hajj, George; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation outline includes University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) product comparisons, assimilating ground-based global positioning satellites (GPS) and COSMIC into JPL/University of Southern California (USC) Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM), and JPL/USC GAIM validation. The discussion of comparisons examines Abel profiles and calibrated TEC. The JPL/USC GAIM validation uses Arecibo ISR, Jason-2 VTEC, and Abel profiles.

  10. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients’ family networks. It has been suggested that these “health spillovers” should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the “health care perspective”). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. PMID:26377370

  11. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Electrolytes including fluorinated solvents for use in electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan

    2015-07-07

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include ion-supplying salts and fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions with the salts at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and increase safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Fluorinated salts, such as fluoroalkyl-substituted LiPF.sub.6, fluoroalkyl-substituted LiBF.sub.4 salts, linear and cyclic imide salts as well as methide salts including fluorinated alkyl groups, may be used due to their solubility in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene or, more specifically, a cyclic phosphazene and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  13. I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH Forward and Reverse Reactions. CCSD(T) Studies Including Spin-Orbit Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Guoliang; Li, Qian-Shu; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2016-03-03

    The potential energy profile for the atomic iodine plus water dimer reaction I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH has been explored using the "Gold Standard" CCSD(T) method with quadruple-ζ correlation-consistent basis sets. The corresponding information for the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 is also derived. Both zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVEs) and spin-orbit (SO) coupling are considered, and these notably alter the classical energetics. On the basis of the CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ-PP results, including ZPVE and SO coupling, the forward reaction is found to be endothermic by 47.4 kcal/mol, implying a significant exothermicity for the reverse reaction. The entrance complex I···(H2O)2 is bound by 1.8 kcal/mol, and this dissociation energy is significantly affected by SO coupling. The reaction barrier lies 45.1 kcal/mol higher than the reactants. The exit complex HI···(H2O)OH is bound by 3.0 kcal/mol relative to the asymptotic limit. At every level of theory, the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 proceeds without a barrier. Compared with the analogous water monomer reaction I + H2O → HI + OH, the additional water molecule reduces the relative energies of the entrance stationary point, transition state, and exit complex by 3-5 kcal/mol. The I + (H2O)2 reaction is related to the valence isoelectronic bromine and chlorine reactions but is distinctly different from the F + (H2O)2 system.

  14. Including spatial data in nutrient balance modelling on dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne; Oenema, Jouke; Stoorvogel, Jetse; de Boer, Imke

    2017-04-01

    at Dutch dairy farms. We selected two dairy farms located on cover sands in the Netherlands. One farm was located on relatively homogeneous soil type, and one on many different soil types within the sandy soils. A full year of data of N and P inputs and outputs on farm and field level were provided by the farmers, including field level yields, yield composition, manure composition, degree of grazing and degree of mowing. Soil heterogeneity was defined as the number of soil units within the farm corrected for surface area, and quantified from the Dutch 1:50.000 soil map. N and P balances at farm and field level were determined, as well as differences in nutrient use efficiency, leaching, and N emission. We will present the effect of the spatial scale on nutrient balance analysis and discuss to which degree any differences are caused by within-farm land management and soil variation. This study highlights to which extent within-farm land management and soil variation should be taken into account when modelling nutrient flows and nutrient use efficiencies at farm level, to contribute to field-based decision making for improved land management.

  15. Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izacard, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasmas come mainly from the use of very central processing unit (CPU)-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize the fluid theory including kinetic effects such as non-Maxwellian super-thermal tails with as few fluid equations as possible. The collisionless and collisional fluid closures from the nonlinear Landau Fokker-Planck collision operator are shown for an arbitrary collisionality. Indeed, the first fluid models associated with two examples of collisionless fluid closures are obtained by assuming an analytic non-Maxwellian distribution function (e.g. the INMDF (Izacard, O. 2016b Kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions in magnetized plasmas. Phys. Plasmas 23, 082504) that stands for interpreted non-Maxwellian distribution function). One of the main differences with the literature is our analytic representation of the distribution function in the velocity phase space with as few hidden variables as possible thanks to the use of non-orthogonal basis sets. These new non-Maxwellian fluid equations could initiate the next generation of fluid codes including kinetic effects and can be expanded to other scientific disciplines such as astrophysics, condensed matter or hydrodynamics. As a validation test, we perform a numerical simulation based on a minimal reduced INMDF fluid model. The result of this test is the discovery of the origin of particle and heat diffusion. The diffusion is due to the competition between a growing INMDF on short time scales due to spatial gradients and the thermalization on longer time scales. The results

  16. Early Course in Obstetrics Increases Likelihood of Practice Including Obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Westra, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Family Medicine and Community Health Duluth has offered the Obstetrical Longitudinal Course (OBLC) as an elective for first-year medical students since 1999. The objective of the OBLC Impact Survey was to assess the effectiveness of the course over the past 15 years. A Qualtrics survey was emailed to participants enrolled in the course from 1999-2014. Data was compiled for the respondent group as a whole as well as four cohorts based on current level of training/practice. Cross-tabulations with Fisher's exact test were applied and odds ratios calculated for factors affecting likelihood of eventual practice including obstetrics. Participation in the OBLC was successful in increasing exposure, awareness, and comfort in caring for obstetrical patients and feeling more prepared for the OB-GYN Clerkship. A total of 50.5% of course participants felt the OBLC influenced their choice of specialty. For participants who are currently physicians, 51% are practicing family medicine with obstetrics or OB-GYN. Of the cohort of family physicians, 65.2% made the decision whether to include obstetrics in practice during medical school. Odds ratios show the likelihood of practicing obstetrics is higher when participants have completed the OBLC and also are practicing in a rural community. Early exposure to obstetrics, as provided by the OBLC, appears to increase the likelihood of including obstetrics in practice, especially if eventual practice is in a rural community. This course may be a tool to help create a pipeline for future rural family physicians providing obstetrical care.

  17. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20 % reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how...... to integrate as many sectors as possible in these efforts. Farmers, however, do not trade GHG under the Kyoto agreement. The idea of including farmers in a national emission trading system has been launched in Australia but it has not yet been applied to the EU....

  18. Smart Farming: Including Rights Holders for Responsible Agricultural Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bronson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on the literature of responsible innovation to suggest concrete processes for including rights holders in the “smart” agricultural revolution. It first draws upon historical agricultural research in Canada to highlight how productivist values drove seed innovations with particular consequences for the distribution of power in the food system. Next, the article uses document analysis to suggest that a similar value framework is motivating public investment in smart farming innovations. The article is of interest to smart farming’s decision makers (from farmers to governance actors and a broader audience – anyone interested in engendering equity through innovation-led societal transitions.

  19. Luminous variable stars with naked eye: data reduction including extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    The observation of variable stars from urban contexts is hampered by city lights and field of view. Some bright stars like Betelgeuse and Antares are visible from the majority of cities, and during clear nights can be accurately estimated with the naked eye. The reference stars should be bright stars, not necessarily at the same altitude, including the atmospheric extinction in the data reduction. The software Stellarium 0.12.4 calculates well the standard atmospheric extinction with stars at least 10 degrees above the horizon. The accuracy of visual estimations is better than 0.1 magnitudes.

  20. Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

  1. Including investment risk in large-scale power market models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Meibom, P.

    2003-01-01

    can be included in large-scale partial equilibrium models of the power market. The analyses are divided into a part about risk measures appropriate for power market investors and a more technical part about the combination of a risk-adjustment model and a partial-equilibrium model. To illustrate...... the analyses quantitatively, a framework based on an iterative interaction between the equilibrium model and a separate risk-adjustment module was constructed. To illustrate the features of the proposed modelling approach we examined how uncertainty in demand and variable costs affects the optimal choice...

  2. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  3. Including Torsional Anharmonicity in Canonical and Microcanonical Reaction Path Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2013-07-09

    We reformulate multistructural variational transition state theory by removing the approximation of calculating torsional anharmonicity only at stationary points. The multistructural method with torsional anharmonicity is applied to calculate the reaction-path free energy of the hydrogen abstraction from the carbon-1 position in isobutanol by OH radical. The torsional potential anharmonicity along the reaction path is taken into account by a coupled torsional potential. The calculations show that it can be critical to include torsional anharmonicity in searching for canonical and microcanonical variational transition states. The harmonic-oscillator approximation fails to yield reasonable free energy curves along the reaction path.

  4. Solution of neutron slowing down equation including multiple inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Wakil, S.A.; Saad, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    The present work is devoted the presentation of an analytical method for the calculation of elastically and inelastically slowed down neutrons in an infinite non absorbing homogeneous medium. On the basis of the Central limit theory (CLT) and the integral transform technique the slowing down equation including inelastic scattering in terms of the Green function of elastic scattering is solved. The Green function is decomposed according to the number of collisions. A formula for the flux at any lethargy O (u) after any number of collisions is derived. An equation for the asymptotic flux is also obtained

  5. Computer Simulation of the Solidification Process Including Air Gap Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczak T.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach of numerical modelling of alloy solidification in permanent mold and transient heat transport between the casting and the mold in two-dimensional space. The gap of time-dependent width called "air gap", filled with heat conducting gaseous medium is included in the model. The coefficient of thermal conductivity of the gas filling the space between the casting and the mold is small enough to introduce significant thermal resistance into the heat transport process. The mathematical model of heat transport is based on the partial differential equation of heat conduction written independently for the solidifying region and the mold. Appropriate solidification model based on the latent heat of solidification is also included in the mathematical description. These equations are supplemented by appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The formation process of air gap depends on the thermal deformations of the mold and the casting. The numerical model is based on the finite element method (FEM with independent spatial discretization of interacting regions. It results in multi-mesh problem because the considered regions are disconnected.

  6. Exclusive queueing model including the choice of service windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2018-01-01

    In a queueing system involving multiple service windows, choice behavior is a significant concern. This paper incorporates the choice of service windows into a queueing model with a floor represented by discrete cells. We contrived a logit-based choice algorithm for agents considering the numbers of agents and the distances to all service windows. Simulations were conducted with various parameters of agent choice preference for these two elements and for different floor configurations, including the floor length and the number of service windows. We investigated the model from the viewpoint of transit times and entrance block rates. The influences of the parameters on these factors were surveyed in detail and we determined that there are optimum floor lengths that minimize the transit times. In addition, we observed that the transit times were determined almost entirely by the entrance block rates. The results of the presented model are relevant to understanding queueing systems including the choice of service windows and can be employed to optimize facility design and floor management.

  7. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  8. Proposal to Include Electrical Energy in the Industrial Return Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    At its 108th session on the 20 June 1997, the Council approved the Report of the Finance Committee Working Group on the Review of CERN Purchasing Policy and Procedures. Among other topics, the report recommended the inclusion of utility supplies in the calculation of the return statistics as soon as the relevant markets were deregulated, without reaching a consensus on the exact method of calculation. At its 296th meeting on the 18 June 2003, the Finance Committee approved a proposal to award a contract for the supply of electrical energy (CERN/FC/4693). The purpose of the proposal in this document is to clarify the way electrical energy will be included in future calculations of the return statistics. The Finance Committee is invited: 1. to agree that the full cost to CERN of electrical energy (excluding the cost of transport) be included in the Industrial Service return statistics; 2. to recommend that the Council approves the corresponding amendment to the Financial Rules set out in section 2 of this docum...

  9. APORTACIONES DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN EUROPEA INCLUD-ED PARA LA REDUCCIÓN DEL ABANDONO ESCOLAR PREMATURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Padrós Cuxart

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of reducing early school leaving in Europe, with special pressure in Spain, leads to the need of evidence based educational policies and measures. This paper presents measures to prevend and reduce early school leaving that have been identified within the research Project INCLUD-ED. Strategies for inclusion and social cohesion in Europe from education. This is the research Project with a higher level and resources developed  since now  in Europe regarding school education. The identified solutions are already being addressed in documents of the European Commission, such as the recent Communication to the European Parliament "Tackiling early school leaving: a key contribution to the Europe 2020 Agenda".

  10. PASCAL for engineers: A course including OMEGASOFT PASCAL for microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tausch, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    These are the notes of a PASCAL course for controls engineers at CERN. The course starts with 'Standard Pascal' and includes OMEGASOFT Pascal, a powerful extension of Pascal towards real-time and systems applications. It demonstrates how a language such as Pascal, with adequate extensions for systems programming and embedded microprocessor-driven systems, can substantially increase the productivity of programmers and the reliability of their products. Also enhanced will be the legibility of the programs and their maintainability, since programming in Pascal automatically leads to autodocumentation. Simple examples show how OMEGASOFT-PASCAL can be used for efficient programming of embedded systems for real-time data acquisition and control using the MC6809 microprocessor. (orig.)

  11. Dynamic Analysis of Wind Turbines Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harte, M.; Basu, B.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2012-01-01

    blades and includes the effect of centrifugal stiffening due to rotation. The foundation of the structure is modeled as a rigid gravity based foundation with two DOF whose movement is related to the surrounding soil by means of complex impedance functions generated using cone model. Transfer functions...... for displacement of the turbine system are obtained and the modal frequencies of the combined turbine-foundation system are estimated. Simulations are presented for the MDOF turbine structure subjected to wind loading for different soil stiffness conditions. Steady state and turbulent wind loading, developed using...... blade element momentum theory and the Kaimal spectrum, have been considered. Soil stiffness and damping properties acquired from DNV/Risø standards are used as a comparison. The soil-structure interaction is shown to affect the response of the wind turbine. This is examined in terms of the turbine...

  12. Environmental site assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most site assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more lenders and state governments likely to follow this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and site assessment to protect the parties involved from any legal liabilities

  13. Property transfer assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most environmental assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures and affect single family, multifamily, and commercial properties. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for protection from long term legal liabilities in the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more banks and state governments following this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and environmental assessments to protect the parties involved from any long term legal liabilities

  14. The physics of semiconductors an introduction including nanophysics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2016-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this successful textbook contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors, nanowires, quantum dots, multi-junction solar cells, thin film transistors, carbon-based nanostructures and transparent conductive oxides. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better under...

  15. Benefits of including methane measurements in selection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L; Oddy, V H

    2016-09-01

    Estimates of genetic/phenotypic covariances and economic values for slaughter weight, growth, feed intake and efficiency, and three potential methane traits were compiled to explore the effect of incorporating methane measurements in breeding objectives for cattle and meat sheep. The cost of methane emissions was assumed to be zero (scenario A), A$476/t (based on A$14/t CO equivalent and methane's 100-yr global warming potential [GWP] of 34; scenario B), or A$2,580/t (A$30/t CO equivalent combined with methane's 20-yr GWP of 86; scenario C). Methane traits were methane yield (MY; methane production divided by feed intake based on measurements over 1 d in respiration chambers) or short-term measurements of methane production adjusted for live weight (MPadjWt) in grazing animals, e.g., 40-60 min measurements in portable accumulation chambers (PAC) on 1 or 3 occasions, or measurements for 1 wk using a GreenFeed Emissions Monitor (GEM) on 1 or 3 occasions. Feed costs included the cost of maintaining the breeding herd and growth from weaning to slaughter. Sheep were assumed to be grown and finished on pasture (A$50/t DM). Feed costs for cattle included 365 d on pasture for the breeding herd and averages of 200 d postweaning grow-out on pasture and 100 d feedlot finishing. The greatest benefit of including methane in the breeding objective for both sheep and cattle was as a proxy for feed intake. For cattle, 3 GEM measurements were estimated to increase profit from 1 round of selection in scenario A (no payment for methane) by A$6.24/animal (from A$20.69 to A$26.93) because of reduced feed costs relative to gains in slaughter weight and by A$7.16 and A$12.09/animal, respectively, for scenarios B and C, which have payments for reduced methane emissions. For sheep, the improvements were more modest. Returns from 1 round of selection (no methane measurements) were A$5.06 (scenario A), A$4.85 (scenario B), and A$3.89 (scenario C) compared to A$5.26 (scenario A), A$5

  16. PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF CEMENT PASTE INCLUDING RECYCLED CONCRETE POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Topič

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The disposal and further recycling of concrete is being investigated worldwide, because the issue of complete recycling has not yet been fully resolved. A fundamental difficulty faced by researchers is the reuse of the recycled concrete fines which are very small (< 1 mm. Currently, full recycling of such waste fine fractions is highly energy intensive and resulting in production of CO2. Because of this, the only recycling methods that can be considered as sustainable and environmentally friendly are those which involve recycled concrete powder (RCP in its raw form. This article investigates the performance of RCP with the grain size < 0.25 mm as a potential binder replacement, and also as a microfiller in cement-based composites. Here, the RCP properties are assessed, including how mechanical properties and the microstructure are influenced by increasing the amount of the RCP in a cement paste (≤ 25 wt%.

  17. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Compliant Ball Screw Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An actuator includes a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is adapted to receive an input torque and in response rotates and supplies a drive force. The ball screw extends through the ball nut and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw receives the drive force from the ball nut and in response selectively translates between a retract position and a extend position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw proximate the first end to translate therewith. The ball screw stop engages the ball nut when the ball screw is in the extend position, translates, with compliance, a predetermined distance toward the first end upon engaging the ball nut, and prevents further rotation of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  18. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Stop with an Integral Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Perek, John (Inventor); Geck, Kellan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An actuator includes a housing assembly, a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is rotationally mounted in the housing assembly, is adapted to receive an input torque, and is configured, upon receipt thereof, to rotate and supply a drive force. The ball screw is mounted within the housing assembly and extends through the ball nut. The ball screw has a first end and a second end, and is coupled to receive the drive force from the ball nut. The ball screw is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively translate between a stow position and a deploy position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw to translate therewith and is configured to at selectively engage the housing assembly while the ball screw is translating, and engage the ball nut when the ball screw is in the deploy position.

  19. Ball Screw Actuator Including an Axial Soft Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Forrest, Steven Talbert (Inventor); Abel, Steve (Inventor); Woessner, George (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An actuator includes an actuator housing, a ball screw, and an axial soft stop assembly. The ball screw extends through the actuator housing and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw is coupled to receive a drive force and is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively move in a retract direction and an extend direction. The axial soft stop assembly is disposed within the actuator housing. The axial soft stop assembly is configured to be selectively engaged by the ball screw and, upon being engaged thereby, to translate, with compliance, a predetermined distance in the extend direction, and to prevent further movement of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  20. The Physics of Semiconductors An Introduction Including Nanophysics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2010-01-01

    The Physics of Semiconductors contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better understanding of the topics. The Physics of Semiconductors requires little or no prior knowledge of solid-state physics and evolved from a highly regarded two...

  1. Relativistic bound state approach to fundamental forces including gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsch H.P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To describe the structure of particle bound states of nature, a relativistic bound state formalism is presented, which requires a Lagrangian including scalar coupling of two boson fields. The underlying mechanisms are quite complex and require an interplay of overlapping boson fields and fermion-antifermion production. This gives rise to two potentials, a boson-exchange potential and one identified with the long sought confinement potential in hadrons. With minimal requirements, two elementary massless fermions (quantons - with and without charge - and one gauge boson, hadrons and leptons but also atoms and gravitational systems are described by bound states with electric and magnetic coupling between the charges and spins of quantons. No need is found for colour, Higgs-coupling and supersymmetry.

  2. Two-dimensional analysis of motion artifacts, including flow effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litt, A.M.; Brody, A.S.; Spangler, R.A.; Scott, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of motion on magnetic resonance images have been theoretically analyzed for the case of a point-like object in simple harmonic motion and for other one-dimensional trajectories. The authors of this paper extend this analysis to a generalized two-dimensional magnetization with an arbitrary motion trajectory. The authors provide specific solutions for the clinically relevant cases of the cross-sections of cylindrical objects in the body, such as the aorta, which has a roughly one-dimensional, simple harmonic motion during respiration. By extending the solution to include inhomogeneous magnetizations, the authors present a model which allows the effects of motion artifacts and flow artifacts to be analyzed simultaneously

  3. Neutrinos from Cosmic Accelerators including Magnetic Field and Flavor Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the particle physics ingredients affecting the normalization, shape, and flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos fluxes, such as different production modes, magnetic field effects on the secondaries (muons, pions, and kaons, and flavor mixing, where we focus on pγ interactions. We also discuss the interplay with neutrino propagation and detection, including the possibility to detect flavor and its application in particle physics, and the use of the Glashow resonance to discriminate pγ from pp interactions in the source. We illustrate the implications on fluxes and flavor composition with two different models: (1 the target photon spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission of coaccelerated electrons and (2 the target photon spectrum follows the observed photon spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. In the latter case, the multimessenger extrapolation from the gamma-ray fluence to the expected neutrino flux is highlighted.

  4. Optimage central organised image quality control including statistics and reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnen, A.; Schilz, C.; Shannoun, F.; Schreiner, A.; Hermen, J.; Moll, C.

    2008-01-01

    Quality control of medical imaging systems is performed using dedicated phantoms. As the imaging systems are more and more digital, adequate image processing methods might help to save evaluation time and to receive objective results. The developed software package OPTIMAGE is focusing on this with a central approach: On one hand, OPTIMAGE provides a framework, which includes functions like database integration, DICOM data sources, multilingual user interface and image processing functionality. On the other hand, the test methods are implemented using modules which are able to process the images automatically for the common imaging systems. The integration of statistics and reporting into this environment is paramount: This is the only way to provide these functions in an interactive, user-friendly way. These features enable the users to discover degradation in performance quickly and document performed measurements easily. (authors)

  5. Actuator assembly including a single axis of rotation locking member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmeyer, James N.; Benson, Dwayne M.; Geck, Kellan P.

    2009-12-08

    An actuator assembly including an actuator housing assembly and a single axis of rotation locking member fixedly attached to a portion of the actuator housing assembly and an external mounting structure. The single axis of rotation locking member restricting rotational movement of the actuator housing assembly about at least one axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a first end to the actuator housing assembly about a Y axis and at a 90.degree. angle to an X and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the Y axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a second end to a mounting structure, and more particularly a mounting pin, about an X axis and at a 90.degree. angle to a Y and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the X axis. The actuator assembly is thereby restricted from rotation about the Z axis.

  6. Double-photoionization of helium including quadrupole radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ludlow, J A [AUBURN UNIV; Lee, Teck - Ghee [AUBURN UNIV; Pindzola, M S [AUBURN UNIV; Robicheaux, F [AUBURN UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling calculations are carried out for the double photoionization of helium including both dipole and quadrupole radiation effects. At a photon energy of 800 eV, accessible at CUlTent synchrotron light sources, the quadrupole interaction contributes around 6% to the total integral double photoionization cross section. The pure quadrupole single energy differential cross section shows a local maxima at equal energy sharing, as opposed to the minimum found in the pure dipole single energy differential cross section. The sum of the pure dipole and pure quadrupole single energy differentials is insensitive to non-dipole effects at 800 eV. However, the triple differential cross section at equal energy sharing of the two ejected electrons shows strong non-dipole effects due to the quadrupole interaction that may be experimentally observable.

  7. Loan Products Included in the Offer of Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dedu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A bank loan is the main form of economical credit. It is for corporate activities – for medium and big companies and for retail activities – for small companies and individuals. The conditions for credit mainly depend on the quality of customers, it means their ability to perform a profitable activity and to be able to pay back the credits. For reasons which are mainly connected to marketing, bank practice has developed a large range of credit names, trying to emphasize some of the parts of the products or to take profit of some competition advantages in relation with customers’ products. We are trying to include the offer of bank loans in a typology which takes into account the law, the bank field rules and the main technical features of the offered products.

  8. Terrorism cover in France for property damage including nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislas, A.

    2004-01-01

    The obligation to include terrorism cover in all Property Damage policies issued on the French Market is ruled by an Act of 1986 and introduced under Section R 126-2 of the French Code of Insurance. This section stipulates that Property Damage policies must provide cover for damage resulting from acts of terrorism, with the same deductible and the same limit than that of the other damage covered in the policy. Soon after the dramatic events of September 11, 2001 in the United States and although reinsurers worldwide restricted their offer of capacities, French insurers recognized that they had to maintain this global cover for the benefit of their insurers. After difficult discussions between insurers, reinsurers, brokers, risk managers and representatives of the State, the creation of a new Pool, backed with a State guarantee, was decided in less than three months. Effective January 1, 2002 and called Gestion d'Assurance et de Reassurance des Risques Attentats et Actes de Terrorisme (GAREAT), the Pool offers a multiple layers stop-loss cover for Property Damage only, i.e. excluding TPL policies. Considering that nuclear risks should be treated in the same way as other industrial risks, it was decided that they would be covered by GAREAT as well. In the meantime, by a Decree of December 28, 2001 modifying Section R 126-2, a special provision, aiming at reducing the limit and thus the price of this cover, was introduced in the Code. The purpose of this paper is to expose the present situation applying through GAREAT and, after two years of operation to discuss future developments, including other sources of capacity for the coverage of acts of terrorism in nuclear risks insurance.(author)

  9. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment, including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of, (1) commercially available equivalent component, (2) modification of a commercial available component, (3) reverse engineering of the original component and finally (4) design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: 1) Missing, misleading or no information on the original component. 2) Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant. 3) Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering. 4) Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  10. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment - including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of: commercially available equivalent component; modification of a commercial available component; reverse engineering of the original component; and finally, design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: Missing, misleading or no information on the original component; Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant; Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering; and Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  11. STXBP1 encephalopathy: A neurodevelopmental disorder including epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamberger, Hannah; Nikanorova, Marina; Willemsen, Marjolein H; Accorsi, Patrizia; Angriman, Marco; Baier, Hartmut; Benkel-Herrenbrueck, Ira; Benoit, Valérie; Budetta, Mauro; Caliebe, Almuth; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Casara, Gianluca; Courage, Carolina; Deprez, Marie; Destrée, Anne; Dilena, Robertino; Erasmus, Corrie E; Fannemel, Madeleine; Fjær, Roar; Giordano, Lucio; Helbig, Katherine L; Heyne, Henrike O; Klepper, Joerg; Kluger, Gerhard J; Lederer, Damien; Lodi, Monica; Maier, Oliver; Merkenschlager, Andreas; Michelberger, Nina; Minetti, Carlo; Muhle, Hiltrud; Phalin, Judith; Ramsey, Keri; Romeo, Antonino; Schallner, Jens; Schanze, Ina; Shinawi, Marwan; Sleegers, Kristel; Sterbova, Katalin; Syrbe, Steffen; Traverso, Monica; Tzschach, Andreas; Uldall, Peter; Van Coster, Rudy; Verhelst, Helene; Viri, Maurizio; Winter, Susan; Wolff, Markus; Zenker, Martin; Zoccante, Leonardo; De Jonghe, Peter; Helbig, Ingo; Striano, Pasquale; Lemke, Johannes R; Møller, Rikke S; Weckhuysen, Sarah

    2016-03-08

    To give a comprehensive overview of the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of STXBP1 encephalopathy (STXBP1-E) by systematically reviewing newly diagnosed and previously reported patients. We recruited newly diagnosed patients with STXBP1 mutations through an international network of clinicians and geneticists. Furthermore, we performed a systematic literature search to review the phenotypes of all previously reported patients. We describe the phenotypic features of 147 patients with STXBP1-E including 45 previously unreported patients with 33 novel STXBP1 mutations. All patients have intellectual disability (ID), which is mostly severe to profound (88%). Ninety-five percent of patients have epilepsy. While one-third of patients presented with Ohtahara syndrome (21%) or West syndrome (9.5%), the majority has a nonsyndromic early-onset epilepsy and encephalopathy (53%) with epileptic spasms or tonic seizures as main seizure type. We found no correlation between severity of seizures and severity of ID or between mutation type and seizure characteristics or cognitive outcome. Neurologic comorbidities including autistic features and movement disorders are frequent. We also report 2 previously unreported adult patients with prominent extrapyramidal features. De novo STXBP1 mutations are among the most frequent causes of epilepsy and encephalopathy. Most patients have severe to profound ID with little correlation among seizure onset, seizure severity, and the degree of ID. Accordingly, we hypothesize that seizure severity and ID present 2 independent dimensions of the STXBP1-E phenotype. STXBP1-E may be conceptualized as a complex neurodevelopmental disorder rather than a primary epileptic encephalopathy. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Including collisions in gyrokinetic tokamak and stellarator simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffmann, Karla

    2012-04-10

    Particle and heat transport in fusion devices often exceed the neoclassical prediction. This anomalous transport is thought to be produced by turbulence caused by microinstabilities such as ion and electron-temperature-gradient (ITG/ETG) and trapped-electron-mode (TEM) instabilities, the latter ones known for being strongly influenced by collisions. Additionally, in stellarators, the neoclassical transport can be important in the core, and therefore investigation of the effects of collisions is an important field of study. Prior to this thesis, however, no gyrokinetic simulations retaining collisions had been performed in stellarator geometry. In this work, collisional effects were added to EUTERPE, a previously collisionless gyrokinetic code which utilizes the {delta}f method. To simulate the collisions, a pitch-angle scattering operator was employed, and its implementation was carried out following the methods proposed in [Takizuka and Abe 1977, Vernay Master's thesis 2008]. To test this implementation, the evolution of the distribution function in a homogeneous plasma was first simulated, where Legendre polynomials constitute eigenfunctions of the collision operator. Also, the solution of the Spitzer problem was reproduced for a cylinder and a tokamak. Both these tests showed that collisions were correctly implemented and that the code is suited for more complex simulations. As a next step, the code was used to calculate the neoclassical radial particle flux by neglecting any turbulent fluctuations in the distribution function and the electric field. Particle fluxes in the neoclassical analytical regimes were simulated for tokamak and stellarator (LHD) configurations. In addition to the comparison with analytical fluxes, a successful benchmark with the DKES code was presented for the tokamak case, which further validates the code for neoclassical simulations. In the final part of the work, the effects of collisions were investigated for slab and toroidal

  13. Contribution to the knowledge of spouted beds, including in particular an experimental study on the void fraction of the dense phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eljas, Yves.

    1975-10-01

    The spouted bed is a gas-solid contact technique used to replace fluidisation when the solid particles are too large and too dense. Part one gives a bibliographical study on the aerodynamic aspect of spouted beds. Part two describes an experimental study of the void fraction distribution in a two-dimensional bed [fr

  14. Evaluation of SCORTEN on a Cohort of Patients With Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Included in the RegiSCAR Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sekula, Peggy; Liss, Yvonne; Davidovici, Batya; Dunant, Ariane; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Kardaun, Sylvia; Naldi, Luigi; Schumacher, Martin; Mockenhaupt, Maja

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the severity-of-illness score called SCORTEN with respect to its predictive ability and by using data obtained in the RegiSCAR study, the most comprehensive European registry of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis

  15. Cooperation and Intertrade between Community Currencies : From Fundamentals to Rule-Making and Clearing Systems, including a Case Study of the Zurich Area, Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Martignoni (Jens)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCooperation, interchange or intertrade of complementary currencies is not yet very common, perhaps of because the funding impulse of most complementary currencies does not cover the question of interchange and cooperation yet, or because theoretical aspects are not often studied. The

  16. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 27-30: Direct-Current Circuits; Magnetic Forces; Ampere's Law; and Faraday's Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules indlude study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  17. Development of new method and protocol for cryopreservation related to embryo and oocytes freezing in terms of fertilization rate: A comparative study including review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayadhar Barik

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We ensure that cryopreservation technology provided useful cell survivability, tissue and organ preservation in a proper way. Although it varies according to different laboratory conditions, it is certainly beneficial for patient′s treatment and research. Further studies are needed for standardization and development of new protocol.

  18. Understanding why cancer patients accept or turn down psycho-oncological support: a prospective observational study including patients' and clinicians' perspectives on communication about distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwahlen, Diana; Tondorf, Theresa; Rothschild, Sacha; Koller, Michael T; Rochlitz, Christoph; Kiss, Alexander

    2017-05-30

    International standards prioritize introducing routine emotional distress screening in cancer care to accurately identify patients who most need psycho-oncological treatment, and ensure that patients can access appropriate supportive care. However, only a moderate proportion of distressed patients accepts referrals to or uses psycho-oncological support services. Predictors and barriers to psycho-oncological support service utilization are under-studied. We know little about how patients and oncologists perceive the discussions when oncologists assess psychosocial distress with a screening instrument. We aim to 1) assess the barriers and predictors of uptake of in-house psycho-oncological support along the distress screening pathway in cancer patients treated at a University Oncology Outpatient Clinic and, 2) determine how patients and clinicians perceive communication about psychosocial distress after screening with the Distress Thermometer. This is a quantitative prospective observational study with qualitative aspects. We will examine medical and demographic variables, cancer patient self-reports of various psychological measures, and aspects of the patient-clinician communication as variables that potentially predict uptake of psycho-oncological support service. We will also assess the patients' reasons for accepting or refusing psycho-oncological support services. We assess at three points in time, based on paper-and-pencil questionnaires and two patient interviews during the study period. We will monitor outcomes (psycho-oncology service uptake) four months after study entry. The study will improve our understanding of characteristics of patients who accept or refuse psycho-oncological support, and help us understand how patients' and oncologists perceive communication about psychosocial distress, and referral to a psycho-oncologist. We believe this is the first study to focus on factors that affect uptake or rejection of psycho-oncological support services

  19. Universal health coverage in 'One ASEAN': are migrants included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S

    2015-01-01

    As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC beyond the basis of

  20. Including geological information in the inverse problem of palaeothermal reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautner, S.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2003-04-01

    A reliable reconstruction of sediment thermal history is of central importance to the assessment of hydrocarbon potential and the understanding of basin evolution. However, only rarely do sedimentation history and borehole data in the form of present day temperatures and vitrinite reflectance constrain the past thermal evolution to a useful level of accuracy (Gallagher and Sambridge,1992; Nielsen,1998; Trautner and Nielsen,2003). This is reflected in the inverse solutions to the problem of determining heat flow history from borehole data: The recent heat flow is constrained by data while older values are governed by the chosen a prior heat flow. In this paper we reduce this problem by including geological information in the inverse problem. Through a careful analysis of geological and geophysical data the timing of the tectonic processes, which may influence heat flow, can be inferred. The heat flow history is then parameterised to allow for the temporal variations characteristic of the different tectonic events. The inversion scheme applies a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach (Nielsen and Gallagher, 1999; Ferrero and Gallagher,2002), which efficiently explores the model space and futhermore samples the posterior probability distribution of the model. The technique is demonstrated on wells in the northern North Sea with emphasis on the stretching event in Late Jurassic. The wells are characterised by maximum sediment temperature at the present day, which is the worst case for resolution of the past thermal history because vitrinite reflectance is determined mainly by the maximum temperature. Including geological information significantly improves the thermal resolution. Ferrero, C. and Gallagher,K.,2002. Stochastic thermal history modelling.1. Constraining heat flow histories and their uncertainty. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 19, 633-648. Gallagher,K. and Sambridge, M., 1992. The resolution of past heat flow in sedimentary basins from non-linear inversion

  1. The protean nature of Whipple's disease includes multiorgan arteriopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, T N

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge about the arterial abnormalities in Whipple's disease can be useful for our better understanding of both Whipple's disease and the more general question of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. There are several notable morphological features of Whipple's arteriopathy. First, it appears to involve primarily arteries one millimeter or less in diameter. Second, there is very little evidence of inflammation accompanying invasion of any or all three layers of the walls of affected arteries, and there is almost no evidence of local attraction of platelets to these sites of arterial injury. Third, the nature of arterial injury appears to be one of slow progression. The few sites of actual arteritis are most likely attributable to some other coinciding microbial organism not yet identified. Although the arteriopathy in Whipple's disease is seen mainly in small arteries (the aorta is a notable exception), their significance can be illustrated by consideration of this fact as it applies to the coronary circulation (and probably the arteries of all other organs). In the heart these small arteries comprise almost the entire collateral circulation, the principal blood supply to each component of the conduction system, and most pragmatically, these small arteries represent the terminal distribution of every larger epicardial artery. Small arteries are important. The "cardiomyopathy" so often a feature of Whipple's disease (very much including his original case) is most logically attributable to recurring bouts of focal ischemia and subsequent focal fibrosis ending in myocardial incompetence. However, direct bacillary invasion of cardiac myocytes (22) also occurs. In lamina propria of jejunum, there is also arteriopathy, as there is in brain, lung, kidney, spleen, liver, gall bladder, rectum, stomach, lymph nodes and testis. It is likely that no organ in the body is spared. There is growing evidence that a wide variety of chronic infections (occurring concomitantly or

  2. Ovarian cancer and oral contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of data from 45 epidemiological studies including 23,257 women with ovarian cancer and 87,303 controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancer, Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian; Beral, V.; Doll, R.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral contraceptives were introduced almost 50 years ago, and over 100 million women currently use them. Oral contraceptives can reduce the risk of ovarian cancer, but the eventual public-health effects of this reduction will depend on how long the protection lasts after use ceases. We...... aimed to assess these effects. METHODS: Individual data for 23,257 women with ovarian cancer (cases) and 87,303 without ovarian cancer (controls) from 45 epidemiological studies in 21 countries were checked and analysed centrally. The relative risk of ovarian cancer in relation to oral contraceptive use...... was estimated, stratifying by study, age, parity, and hysterectomy. FINDINGS: Overall 7308 (31%) cases and 32,717 (37%) controls had ever used oral contraceptives, for average durations among users of 4.4 and 5.0 years, respectively. The median year of cancer diagnosis was 1993, when cases were aged an average...

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Pötter, Richard; Tanderup, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials In total, 744...... the first year, every 6 months in the second and third years, and finally yearly thereafter in patients with no evidence of disease. Outcomes were evaluated over time and compared to those from an age-matched female reference population. Results General QoL and emotional and social functioning were impaired...... treatment, decreased substantially at the first follow-up after treatment. Several treatment-related symptoms developed either immediately after and persisted over time (diarrhea, menopausal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and sexual functioning problems) or developed gradually after treatment (lymphedema...

  4. The Molecular Targets of Selected Organophosphorus Compounds at Nicotinic, Muscarinic, GABA, and Glutamate Synapses: Acute and Chronic Studies Including Prophylactic and Therapeutic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-28

    acetylcholine and batrachotoxin . J. Physiol. (Par1i) 79.338-343, 1984. 7. Hamill, O.P., Marty, A., Neher, E., Sakmann, B., and Sigworth, FJ. Improved...for patch clamp studies of chemosensitive-and voltage-sensitive ion channels: Actions of acetylcholine and batrachotoxin . J. Pbiol(Pr 79:338- 343...EU,. Ther., 22&-73-79, 1984. 53 ii 9. Hudson, CS., Deshpande, SS, and Albuquerque, E.X. Consequences of axonal transport blockade by batrachotoxin

  5. Survey of wildlife, including aquatic mammals, associated with riparian habitat on the Syncrude Canada Ltd. Aurora Mine environmental impact assessment local study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrendi, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    A general overview of the wildlife associated with riparian habitats at Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine, located 70 km northeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta on the east side of the Athabasca River, was presented. The area is underlain by bitumen and is being considered for bitumen extraction and production of synthetic crude oil. Two surveys were conducted with the help of experienced trappers from the community at Fort McKay. One was an aerial survey on November 3, 1995, the other a ground survey on November 29-30, 1995. The two surveys yielded 248 observed tracks on four 500 metre transects. The study area was comprised of boreal forest with natural drainage via Stanley Creek into the Muskeg River and via Fort Creek into the Athabasca River. Beavers, fox, weasel, mink, rabbit, wolf, moose, deer, ptarmigan, sharp-tailed grouse and ruffed grouse, lynx, coyote, river otter and mice were associated with riparian habitat on the study area. There was no sign of muskrat in the study area. It was concluded that in order to develop an understanding of reclamation alternatives for mined areas in the region, future detailed examination of the site should be approached through the integration of traditional ecological knowledge and conventional scientific methodology. 26 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Survey of wildlife, including aquatic mammals, associated with riparian habitat on the Syncrude Canada Ltd. Aurora Mine environmental impact assessment local study area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surrendi, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    A general overview of the wildlife associated with riparian habitats at Syncrude`s proposed Aurora Mine, located 70 km northeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta on the east side of the Athabasca River, was presented. The area is underlain by bitumen and is being considered for bitumen extraction and production of synthetic crude oil. Two surveys were conducted with the help of experienced trappers from the community at Fort McKay. One was an aerial survey on November 3, 1995, the other a ground survey on November 29-30, 1995. The two surveys yielded 248 observed tracks on four 500 metre transects. The study area was comprised of boreal forest with natural drainage via Stanley Creek into the Muskeg River and via Fort Creek into the Athabasca River. Beavers, fox, weasel, mink, rabbit, wolf, moose, deer, ptarmigan, sharp-tailed grouse and ruffed grouse, lynx, coyote, river otter and mice were associated with riparian habitat on the study area. There was no sign of muskrat in the study area. It was concluded that in order to develop an understanding of reclamation alternatives for mined areas in the region, future detailed examination of the site should be approached through the integration of traditional ecological knowledge and conventional scientific methodology. 26 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. Study of direct Cp violation in B decay into vector mesons including rho zero-omega mixing in the framework of the LHCb experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimbault, C.

    2004-02-01

    ρ 0 - ω mixing effect on direct CP violation in B decay into vector mesons is one of the main studies of this work. The first part is dedicated to the calculation of the decay amplitudes of the channels B → Vρ 0 (ω) which have been represented by a model. We have used the helicity formalism. In such a way branching ratios and asymmetries depending on form factor models and other parameters are predicted. Direct CP violation appears at several levels: in branching ratios, in angular distributions and in differential asymmetry as a function of ρ 0 - ω mass. The dominance of the longitudinal polarization in the studied channels is confirmed by Babar and Belle experimental results. We calculated too the strong phase and the ratio of Penguin to Tree amplitudes for each channel. In a second part, was developed an analysis of the channel B 0 → K *0 ρ 0 (ω) in the framework of LHCb experiment. It will start in 2007 and is dedicated to b flavor study and CP violation. The realistic analysis which has been performed shows that this channel is not appropriate to observe ρ 0 - ω mixing effect on asymmetry in LHCb, while the ρ + ρ 0 (ω) channel, for which we have predicted a branching ratio value confirmed by Babar and Belle, is much more promising. (author)

  8. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P J; Hogenkamp, P S; de Graaf, C; Higgs, S; Lluch, A; Ness, A R; Penfold, C; Perry, R; Putz, P; Yeomans, M R; Mela, D J

    2016-03-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific 'learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (-0.002 kg m(-)(2) per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (-94 kcal, 95% CI -122 to -66), with no difference versus water (-2 kcal, 95% CI -30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; -1.35 kg, 95% CI -2.28 to -0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; -1.24 kg, 95% CI -2.22 to -0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI and BW, and possibly also

  9. Study of the extraction of uranium (VI) by bis-(di-n-butyl-phosphate) compounds including a polyheteroatomic chain from nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archelas, E.; Buono, G.; Waegell, B.

    1982-01-01

    Compounds 1 to 4 with two di-n-butylphosphate groups linked by a polyheteroatomic chain (BuO) 2 P(O)OCH 2 (CH 2 XCH 2 )sub(n)CH 2 OP(O)(OBu) 2 (1: n = 0; 2: n = 1, X = 0; 3: n = 2, X = 0; 4: n = 1, X = S) were prepared respectively by action of chlorodi-n-butylphosphate on ethyleneglycol, di and triethyleneglycol, and thiodiethyleneglycol under phase transfer conditions. The extraction of uranium (VI) from aqueous nitrate phase with these compounds, in toluene diluent, was studied. Distribution ratios with compounds 1 to 3 are somewhat greater than those obtained with tri-n-butylphosphate. Extraction studies reveal that polyoxygenated chain of these compounds takes part in U(VI) complexation. The general expression for the complexes is assumed to be UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 Lsub(m) in which L is extractant compound and m the number of molecules coordinated to uranyl cation. Extraction stoichiometry is dependent upon extractant compound and its concentration in organic phase. For the compounds 1 to 3, m = 1.5 when extractant concentration is higher than 0.1 M; m takes the different values 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 when extractant concentration is lower than 0.1 M. For the compound in which X is sulfur atom, m = 2.0 over all studied concentration range. It was found that in the solvent extraction of uranium (VI) with these compounds, di-n-butylphosphoric acid exhibits a synergistic effect increasing the distribution ratio of U(VI) by a factor of 100. (author)

  10. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberg Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  11. Advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, M.; Yokoyama, R.; Yasuda, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Sasaki, H. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Ogimoto, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems developed in Japan, putting focus on flexibility and efficiency in a practical application. First, criteria for evaluating flexibility of generation planning considering uncertainties are introduced. Secondly, the flexible generation mix problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization with more than two objective functions. The multi-objective optimization problem is then transformed into a single objective problem by using the weighting method, to obtain the Pareto optimal solution, and solved by a dynamics programming technique. Thirdly, a new approach for electric generation expansion planning of interconnected systems is presented, based on the Benders Decomposition technique. That is, large scale generation problem constituted by the general economic load dispatch problem, and several sub problems which are composed of smaller scale isolated system generation expansion plans. Finally, the generation expansion plan solved by an artificial neural network is presented. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of this method from the viewpoint of flexibility and applicability to practical generation expansion planning are presented. (author) 29 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  13. Falling vertical chain of oscillators, including collisions, damping, and pretensioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, R. H.; Borum, A. D.; Holmes, D. P.; Dillard, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    A chain of point masses connected by linear springs and sometimes dashpots is considered. The chain hangs in a vertical equilibrium configuration, held by its top mass. Then the top mass is released, and the chain falls. Internal damping, modeled by the dashpots, causes the bottom mass to move faster. As the system falls, upper masses sometimes accelerate faster than gravitational acceleration, and collisions may occur between adjacent masses. The types of collisions treated here include elastic, inelastic, and perfectly inelastic (in which colliding masses often stick together thereafter). The unstretched lengths of the springs, and a compressive force caused by pretensioning, may significantly affect the characteristics of the motion. Analytical and numerical results are presented for cases involving a few masses, and some generalizations are made for systems with an arbitrary number of masses. Also, the vertical chain may be used to model the motion of a falling Slinky after release at its top end. The bottom of the continuous Slinky does not move until the coils above it have collapsed onto it, and the collapse time is estimated here using the discrete chain model. For a metal Slinky with 86 masses, the estimated time is close to that previously obtained by a continuous elastic analysis.

  14. CDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  15. Apparatus including concave reflectors and a line of optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus including a radiation source which emits in a multiplicity of directions for focusing radiation on an object which may receive radiation within a certain solid angle. It comprises a first reflector and a second reflector, the first reflector being elliptical in cross section and having a first focus and a second focus, the second reflector being circular in cross section and having a center, and a radius equal to the distance between the second reflector and the first focus, the first reflector and the second reflector being arranged so that a concave reflecting surface of the first reflector faces a concave reflecting surface of the second reflector, and so arranged that the first focus of the first reflector corresponds to the center of the second reflector, the radiation source being an elongated discharge bulb, the object being a group of two or more optical fibers defining at least one line of optical fibers which are located at the second focus of the first reflector

  16. Efficient Algorithms for Electrostatic Interactions Including Dielectric Contrasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Holm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coarse-grained models of soft matter are usually combined with implicit solvent models that take the electrostatic polarizability into account via a dielectric background. In biophysical or nanoscale simulations that include water, this constant can vary greatly within the system. Performing molecular dynamics or other simulations that need to compute exact electrostatic interactions between charges in those systems is computationally demanding. We review here several algorithms developed by us that perform exactly this task. For planar dielectric surfaces in partial periodic boundary conditions, the arising image charges can be either treated with the MMM2D algorithm in a very efficient and accurate way or with the electrostatic layer correction term, which enables the user to use his favorite 3D periodic Coulomb solver. Arbitrarily-shaped interfaces can be dealt with using induced surface charges with the induced charge calculation (ICC* algorithm. Finally, the local electrostatics algorithm, MEMD(Maxwell Equations Molecular Dynamics, even allows one to employ a smoothly varying dielectric constant in the systems. We introduce the concepts of these three algorithms and an extension for the inclusion of boundaries that are to be held fixed at a constant potential (metal conditions. For each method, we present a showcase application to highlight the importance of dielectric interfaces.

  17. Pubertal induction in hypogonadism: Current approaches including use of gonadotrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharin, Margaret

    2015-06-01

    Primary disorders of the gonad or those secondary to abnormalities of the hypothalamic pituitary axis result in hypogonadism. The range of health problems of childhood and adolescence that affect this axis has increased, as most children now survive chronic illness, but many have persisting deficits in gonadal function as a result of their underlying condition or its treatment. An integrated approach to hormone replacement is needed to optimize adult hormonal and bone health, and to offer opportunities for fertility induction and preservation that were not considered possible in the past. Timing of presentation ranges from birth, with disorders of sexual development, through adolescent pubertal failure, to adult fertility problems. This review addresses diagnosis and management of hypogonadism and focuses on new management strategies to address current concerns with fertility preservation. These include Turner syndrome, and fertility presevation prior to childhood cancer treatment. New strategies for male hormone replacement therapy that may impinge upon future fertility are emphasized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  19. Radiation and nuclear safety included in the environmental health programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.

    1996-01-01

    Finland is currently preparing a national environmental health programme, the objective of which is to chart the main environmental health problems in Finland, to identify means for securing a healthy environment, and to draw up a practical action programme for preventing and rectifying problems pertaining to environmental health. Radiation and nuclear safety form an essential part of preventive health care. The action programme is based on decisions and programmes approved at the WHO Conference on the Environment and Health, held in Helsinki in June 1994. In addition to the state of the Finnish environment and the health of the Finnish population, the programme addresses the relevant international issues, in particular in areas adjacent to Finland. The Committee on Environmental Health is expected to complete its work by the end of the year. A wide range of representatives from various branches of administration have contributed to the preparation of the programme. Besides physical, biological and chemical factors, the environmental factors affecting health also include the physical environment and the psychological, social and aesthetic features of the environment. Similarly, environmental factors that have an impact on the health of present or future generations, on the essential preconditions of life and on the quality of life are investigated. The serious risk to nature caused by human actions is also considered as a potential risk to human health. (orig.)

  20. A Reformed CDM - including new mechanisms for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Olsen, K.; Fenhann, J.

    2009-07-01

    The annual CD4CDM Perspectives Series features a topic of pivotal importance to the global carbon market. The series seeks to communicate the diverse insights and visions of leading actors in the carbon market to better inform the decisions of professionals and policymakers in developing countries. The second theme of the series focuses on how the CDM can be reformed in a post-2012 climate regime, including new mechanism for sustainable development. Seventeen contributors from the private sector, Designated National Authorities, the Executive Board, research, and development agencies present their perspective on meeting challenges such as the unequal regional distribution of CDM projects, concerns about environmental integrity and technology transfer, complex governance procedures, and questions about the CDM's contribution to sustainable development. The new ideas and solutions to these challenges proposed by the authors in this edition of Perspectives have been solicited to help professionals and policy makers make the best decisions in the lead-up to COP 15 in Copenhagen and beyond. (au)

  1. Kalaeloa Energy System Redevelopment Options Including Advanced Microgrids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, Marion Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baca, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanderMey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In June 2016, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) in collaboration with the Renewable Energy Branch for the Hawaii State Energy Office (HSEO), the Hawaii Community Development Authority (HCDA), the United States Navy (Navy), and Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) established a project to 1) assess the current functionality of the energy infrastructure at the Kalaeloa Community Development District, and 2) evaluate options to use both existing and new distributed and renewable energy generation and storage resources within advanced microgrid frameworks to cost-effectively enhance energy security and reliability for critical stakeholder needs during both short-term and extended electric power outages. This report discusses the results of a stakeholder workshop and associated site visits conducted by Sandia in October 2016 to identify major Kalaeloa stakeholder and tenant energy issues, concerns, and priorities. The report also documents information on the performance and cost benefits of a range of possible energy system improvement options including traditional electric grid upgrade approaches, advanced microgrid upgrades, and combined grid/microgrid improvements. The costs and benefits of the different improvement options are presented, comparing options to see how well they address the energy system reliability, sustainability, and resiliency priorities identified by the Kalaeloa stakeholders.

  2. Project Interface Requirements Process Including Shuttle Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Garland T.

    2010-01-01

    Most failures occur at interfaces between organizations and hardware. Processing interface requirements at the start of a project life cycle will reduce the likelihood of costly interface changes/failures later. This can be done by adding Interface Control Documents (ICDs) to the Project top level drawing tree, providing technical direction to the Projects for interface requirements, and by funding the interface requirements function directly from the Project Manager's office. The interface requirements function within the Project Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) Office would work in-line with the project element design engineers early in the life cycle to enhance communications and negotiate technical issues between the elements. This function would work as the technical arm of the Project Manager to help ensure that the Project cost, schedule, and risk objectives can be met during the Life Cycle. Some ICD Lessons Learned during the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Life Cycle will include the use of hardware interface photos in the ICD, progressive life cycle design certification by analysis, test, & operations experience, assigning interface design engineers to Element Interface (EI) and Project technical panels, and linking interface design drawings with project build drawings

  3. Nuclear resonance apparatus including means for rotating a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, H.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus including magnet apparatus for generating a homogeneous static magnetic field between its magnetic poles, shims of a magnetic substance mounted on the magnetic poles to apply a first gradient magnetic field intensity distribution in a direction orthogonal as to the direction of line of magnetic force of the static magnetic field, gradient magnetic field generating electromagnetic apparatus for generating a second gradient magnetic field having a gradient magnetic field intensity distribution in superimposition with the static magnetic field and for changing the magnetic field gradient of the first gradient magnetic field, an oscillator for generating an oscillating output having a frequency corresponding to the nuclear magnetic resonance condition of an atomic nucleus to be measured, a coil wound around a body to be examined for applying the output of said oscillator as electromagnetic waves upon the body, a receiver for detecting the nuclear magnetic resonance signals received by the coil, a gradient magnetic field controller making a magnetic field line equivalent to the combined gradient magnetic fields and for rotating the line along the section of the body to be examined by controlling said gradient magnetic field generating electromagnetic apparatus and devices for recording the nuclear magnetic resonance signals, for reconstructing the concentration distribution of the specific atomic nuclei in the section of the body, and a display unit for depicting the result of reconstruction

  4. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    2000-07-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  5. Why include phenomenological analysis in a Research Methods course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ana R

    2013-01-01

    Guidelines for Spanish university curricula include the descriptor Quantitative and Qualitative Methods, but the latter are still poorly represented. To inform the argument for phenomenological methods, the last 20-year interval of ISI databases has been content-analyzed with the following codes: discourse analysis, grounded theory, narrative analysis, phenomenological analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, that is, four qualitative methods and a prototypical quantitative one. In absolute terms, the most frequent qualitative method is grounded theory, followed by discourse analysis, phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. However, taking into account content categories, only phenomenological analysis shows a clear psychological profile, similar to confirmatory factor analysis. We recommend starting qualitative training with a method that does not require either big groups, or big funding, and that has a procedural core that is simple, relatively well-delimited and "secularizable," a variety of thematic analysis. Historical reasons and the clear psychological profile evidenced by our results enhance our argument to foster the inclusion of phenomenological analysis in research method courses in psychology.

  6. Determination of potassium in several plants and study of potassium transfer to different beverages, including tequila, by measurement of 40K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, J. M.; Muller, G.; Cabrera, L.; Martinez, T.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of 40K was used for determination of potassium concentrations in leaves of agave and maguey cactus leaves, and coffee beans of various origins. The procedure was also used to study potassium transfer to tequila (alcoholic drink made of agave cactus), and the cactus and coffee infusions using 40K as a natural radioactive tracer. Counting of 40K in Marinelli containers with the aid of a low background NaI(Ti) scintillation detection system for 12 24 hours was employed. The method appeared to be simple and suitable for determination of potassium concentrations in large samples, which eliminates homogeneity problems.

  7. Determination of potassium in several plants and study of potassium transfer to different beverages, including tequila, by measurement of 40K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, J.M.; Muller, G.; Cabrera, L.; Martinez, T.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of 40 K was used for determination of potassium concentrations in leaves of agave and maguey cactus leaves, and coffee beans of various origins. The procedure was also used to study potassium transfer to tequila (alcoholic drink made of agave cactus), and the cactus and coffee infusions using 40 K as a natural radioactive tracer. Counting of 40 K in Marinelli containers with the aid of a low background NaI(Tl) scintillation detection system for 12-24 hours was employed. The method appeared to be simple and suitable for determination of potassium concentrations in large samples, which eliminates homogeneity problems. (author)

  8. Application of atomic mutations included in nuclear reactions, 40Ar(γ, p)39Cl(β decay)39Ar, to surface study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuma, Juzo

    1987-01-01

    It has been found that the nuclear transformation processes which are initiated by photonuclear reactions can be used for studying the adsorption and chemical reactions taking place on solid surfaces. Chemically reactive 39 Cl was produced by irradiating 40 Ar with high-energy bremsstrahlung, and its blow was directed onto several material surfaces. The amount of chlorine adsorption was ascertained by detecting its radioactivity. Desorption without heating the adsorber samples inevitably occurred owing to the nuclear decay of 39 Cl. The adsorption and desorption rates were compared for several elements. A fast growth of oxide islands on sample surfaces was observed during the adsorption-desorption process. (author)

  9. A protocol for ovulation delay in women who cannot use estrogen, including Jewish women with Niddah issues and a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehany, Benjamin S; Dahan, Michael H

    2017-11-01

    Orthodox Jewish women abstain from sexual intercourse from the commencement of menstruation until seven days after the end of menstrual bleeding at which point they can immerse themselves in a ritual bath and recommence relations. For women who ovulate prior to commencing intercourse this results in religious infertility. The traditional treatment for religious infertility is oral estrogens in the early follicular phase to delay ovulation. However, certain groups of women have contraindications to oral estrogens. In this group, no treatment options have existed until now. In this study we proposed a treatment protocol substituting the use of gonadotropin releasing hormone-antagonists in the early follicular phase for the oral estrogens. In a small pilot study, we demonstrate that these two protocols have similar outcomes in terms of ovulation delay (p = 1.0) and likelihood of ongoing pregnancy (p = 1.0). This protocol for ovulation delay also has applications in non-Jewish women who need to delay ovulation due to life constraints.

  10. Factors for incomplete adherence to antiretroviral therapy including drug refill and clinic visits among older adults living with human immunodeficiency virus - cross-sectional study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Abbie; Ford, Nathan; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2018-03-01

    To assess adherence outcomes to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of recipients ≥50 years in Soweto, South Africa. This was a secondary data analysis for a cross-sectional study at two HIV clinics in Soweto. Data on ART adherence and covariates were gathered through structured interviews with HIV 878 persons living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving ART. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations. PLHIV ≥50 years (n = 103) were more likely to miss clinic visits during the last six months than PLHIV aged 25-49 (OR 2.15; 95%CI 1.10-4.18). PLHIV ≥50 years with no or primary-level education were less likely to have missed a clinic visit during the last six months than PLHIV with secondary- or tertiary-level education in the same age category (OR 0.3; 95%CI 0.1-1.1), as were PLHIV who did not disclose their status (OR 0.2; 95%CI 0-1.1). There was no evidence of increased risk for non-adherence to ART pills and drug refill visits among older PLHIV. Missing a clinic visit was more common among older PLHIV who were more financially vulnerable. Further studies are needed to verify these findings and identify new risk factors associated with ART adherence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effectiveness of interventions on physical activity in overweight or obese children: a systematic review and meta-analysis including studies with objectively measured outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, C F J; Galanti, M R; Engström, K; Möller, J; Forsell, Y

    2017-02-01

    There is no consensus on interventions to be recommended in order to promote physical activity among overweight or obese children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects on objectively measured physical activity, of interventions promoting physical activity among overweight or obese children or adolescents, compared to no intervention or to interventions without a physical activity component. Publications up to December 2015 were located through electronic searches for randomized controlled trials resulting in inclusion of 33 studies. Standardized mean differences from baseline to post-intervention and to long-term follow-up were determined for intervention and control groups and meta-analysed using random effects models. The meta-analysis showed that interventions had no effect on total physical activity of overweight and obese children, neither directly post-intervention (-0.02 [-0.15, 0.11]) nor at long-term follow-up (0.07 [-0.27, 0.40]). Separate analyses by typology of intervention (with or without physical fitness, behavioural or environmental components) showed similar results (no effect). In conclusion, there is no evidence that currently available interventions are able to increase physical activity among overweight or obese children. This questions the contribution of physical activity to the treatment of overweight and obesity in children in the studied interventions and calls for other treatment strategies. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  12. Reconstruction of orbital floor blow-out fractures with autogenous iliac crest bone: a retrospective study including maxillofacial and ophthalmology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, John Edward; Hartnett, Claire; Hickey-Dwyer, Marie; Kearns, Gerard J

    2015-03-01

    This is a 10-year retrospective study of patients with an isolated unilateral orbital floor fracture reconstructed with an autogenous iliac crest bone graft. The following inclusion criteria applied: isolated orbital floor fracture without involvement of the orbital rim or other craniofacial injuries, pre-/post-operative ophthalmological/orthoptic follow-up, pre-operative CT. Variables recorded were patient age and gender, aetiology of injury, time to surgery, follow-up period, surgical morbidity, diplopia pre- and post-operatively (Hess test), eyelid position, visual acuity, and the presence of en-/or exophthalmos (Hertel exophthalmometer). Twenty patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 29 years. The mean follow up period was 26 months. No patient experienced significant donor site morbidity. There were no episodes of post-operative infection or graft extrusion. Three patients had diplopia in extremes of vision post-operatively, but no interference with activities of daily living. One patient had post-operative enophthalmos. Isolated orbital blow-out fractures may be safely and predictably reconstructed using autogenous iliac crest bone. The rate of complications in the group of patients studied was low. The value of pre- and post-operative ophthalmology consultation cannot be underestimated, and should be considered the standard of care in all patients with orbitozygomatic fractures, in particular those with blow-out fractures. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Research report for fiscal 1998. Study of utilization of biomass including foods in energy industry; 1998 nendo shokubutsu nado no biomass no energy riyo ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Rice being produced as food is taken up out of various types of biomass, and a feasibility study from the viewpoints of technology and economy is conducted as to its use in the energy industry. The production of ethanol from rice, though it has no past record worth discussion, is similar to the production of ethanol from other biomass resources in terms of technology and economy. The problem is that the production cost of rice is far higher than those of other materials. It is expected, however, that there will a large-scale production cost reduction and an increase in the yield when novel cultivation techniques are introduced in the future. It is also expected that alcohol from rice will be sufficiently competitive with alcohol from molasses or the like when the exploitation of cellulose-family by-products such as husks becomes feasible. The study on this occasion deals solely with the effective use of farmland and the surplus rice. A confrontation between rice as a biomass resource and rice as a food has to be avoided as much as possible in the long term because it may cause a price rise and compromise the security of food supply. That is, in discussing this matter, it is mandatory to draw a very definite line between rice as a food and rice as an alcohol production material. (NEDO)

  14. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep-sea megabenthos. 7: The Porcellanasteridae (Asteroidea: Echinodermata) including material collected at Great Meteor East, during Discovery cruise 156

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, P.A.; Muirhead, A.

    1986-07-01

    The reproductive biology of Porcellanaster ceruleus, Hyphalaster inermis and Styrachaster horridus is described. P. ceruleus was collected as part of the time series study in the rockall Trough, N.E. Atlantic. This species had a maximum size of 7.0mm arm radius although maximum size known is 36.0mm arm radius. Relatively few eggs are produced and in these samples grow to a maximum size of 230μm. There was no evidence of reproductive seasonality. In Hyphalaster inermis and Styrachaster horridus the eggs grow to 600μm diameter. At this size the cytoplasm is reticulate and filled with neutral fat whilst the periphery is an amorphous layer. Development of the testes in all three species appears typical of deep-sea asteroids. (author)

  15. Study of the cuasi-two body processes including production in π-p and K-p reactions at 4 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, M.; Salicio, J.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of (1385) production in reactions of the type 0 - +1 + /2 → 1 - +3 + /2 and 0 - +1 + /2 → 0 - +3 + /2 is presented. A determination of the Σ(1385) production parameters is performed and the results are compared with the predictions from several models. A transversity amplitudes reconstruction describing the processes π - p → K(890)Σ(1385) and K - p → phi Σ(1385), rho - Σ(1385) + is obtained in a model independent way. We observe dominance of unnatural parity exchange in the production mechanismes. Exchanges of exotic quantum numbers are established by the study of π - p → K 0 +Σ(1385) 0 and K - p → π -+ Σ(1385) +- processes. Additive quark model predictions are reasonable agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  16. Ovarian cancer and oral contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of data from 45 epidemiological studies including 23,257 women with ovarian cancer and 87,303 controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancer, Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian; Beral, V.; Doll, R.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral contraceptives were introduced almost 50 years ago, and over 100 million women currently use them. Oral contraceptives can reduce the risk of ovarian cancer, but the eventual public-health effects of this reduction will depend on how long the protection lasts after use ceases. We...... aimed to assess these effects. METHODS: Individual data for 23,257 women with ovarian cancer (cases) and 87,303 without ovarian cancer (controls) from 45 epidemiological studies in 21 countries were checked and analysed centrally. The relative risk of ovarian cancer in relation to oral contraceptive use...... reductions, although typical oestrogen doses in the 1960s were more than double those in the 1980s. The incidence of mucinous tumours (12% of the total) seemed little affected by oral contraceptives, but otherwise the proportional risk reduction did not vary much between different histological types. In high...

  17. Study of the quasi-two body processes including Σ(1385) production in π-p and K-p reactions at 4 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Salicio, J.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of (1385) production in reactions of the type 0 + 1/z 4 +→>-1 + 3+/2 and 0 - + 1/2+→ 0 - + 3*/2 is presented. A determination of the Σ(1385) production parameters Is performed and the results are compared with the predictions from several models. A transversity amplitudes reconstruction describing the processes π p ->K(890) Σ(1385) and K - p → 3→φ(1385), ζ - Σ(1385) is obtained in a model independent way. We observe dominance of unnatural partly exchange in the production mechanisms. Exchanges of exotic quantum numbers are established by the study of πp → K 0 + Σ(1385)s and K - p→>π+Σ(1385)± processes. Additive quark model predictions are reasonable agreement with the experimental data. (Author)

  18. A Descriptive Longitudinal Study of Changes in Vape Shop Characteristics and Store Policies in Anticipation of the 2016 FDA Regulations of Tobacco Products, Including E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sheila; Escobedo, Patricia; Garcia, Robert; Cruz, Tess Boley; Unger, Jennifer B; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Meza, Leah; Sussman, Steve

    2018-02-11

    After proposing the "Deeming Rule" in 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and sales of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products as tobacco products in 2016. The current study conducted vape shop store observations and surveyed Los Angeles-area shop employees (assessing their beliefs, awareness, and perceptions of e-cigarettes and related FDA regulations) at two time points one year apart to better understand what vape shop retailers would do given FDA's soon-to-be-enacted Deeming Rule. The study also compared retailer beliefs/awareness/actions and store characteristics immediately after the Deeming Rule proposal versus a year after the Rule had been proposed, right before its enactment. Two data collection waves occurred before the Deeming Rule enactment, with Year 1 surveying 77 shops (2014) and Year 2 surveying 61 shops (2015-2016). Between the data collection points, 16 shops had closed. Among the shops that were open at both time points, the majority (95% in Year 1; 74% in Year 2) were aware of some FDA regulations or other policies applying to vape shops. However, overall awareness of FDA regulations and state/local policies governing e-cigarettes significantly decreased from Year 1 to Year 2. At both time points, all shops offered customers free puffs of nicotine-containing e-liquids (prohibited by the then upcoming Deeming Rule). Perceptions of e-cigarette safety also significantly decreased between the years. Exploring vape shop retailer perceptions and store policies (i.e., free puffs/samples displays, perceptions of e-cigarette safety, etc.) over time will help the FDA assess the needs of the vape shop community and develop more effective retailer education campaigns and materials targeted to increase compliance with the newly enacted regulations.

  19. Arsenic Metabolites, Including N-Acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic Acid, in Chicken Litter from a Roxarsone-Feeding Study Involving 1600 Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zonglin; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Liu, Qingqing; Huang, Rongfu; Hu, Bin; Kachanoski, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Le, X Chris

    2016-07-05

    The poultry industry has used organoarsenicals, such as 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, ROX), to prevent disease and to promote growth. Although previous studies have analyzed arsenic species in chicken litter after composting or after application to agricultural lands, it is not clear what arsenic species were excreted by chickens before biotransformation of arsenic species during composting. We describe here the identification and quantitation of arsenic species in chicken litter repeatedly collected on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 of a Roxarsone-feeding study involving 1600 chickens of two strains. High performance liquid chromatography separation with simultaneous detection by both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry provided complementary information necessary for the identification and quantitation of arsenic species. A new metabolite, N-acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic acid (N-AHAA), was identified, and it accounted for 3-12% of total arsenic. Speciation analyses of litter samples collected from ROX-fed chickens on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 showed the presence of N-AHAA, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-AHPAA), inorganic arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), and ROX. 3-AHPAA accounted for 3-19% of the total arsenic. Inorganic arsenicals (the sum of As(III) and As(V)) comprised 2-6% (mean 3.5%) of total arsenic. Our results on the detection of inorganic arsenicals, methylarsenicals, 3-AHPAA, and N-AHAA in the chicken litter support recent findings that ROX is actually metabolized by the chicken or its gut microbiome. The presence of the toxic metabolites in chicken litter is environmentally relevant as chicken litter is commonly used as fertilizer.

  20. Association of tobacco habits, including bidi smoking, with overall and site-specific cancer incidence: results from the Mumbai cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Yeole, Balkrishna B.; Hébert, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Bidis are hand-rolled cigarettes commonly smoked in South Asia and are marketed to Western populations as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes. This study examined the association between bidis and other forms of tobacco use and cancer incidence in an urban developing country population. Methods Using data from the large, well-characterized Mumbai cohort study, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from Cox proportional hazards regression models in order to compare the relative effect of various forms of tobacco use on cancer incidence. Results During 649,228 person-years of follow-up 1,267 incident cancers occurred in 87,222 male cohort members. Incident oral cancer in bidi smokers (HR = 3.55; 95% CI = 2.40,5.24) was 42% higher than in cigarette smokers (HR = 2.50;95% CI = 1.65,3.78). For all respiratory and intrathoracic organs combined, the increase was 69% (HR = 5.54; 95% CI = 3.46,8.87 vs. HR = 3.28; 95% CI = 1.99,5.39); for lung and larynx, the increases were 35 and 112%, respectively. Smokeless tobacco use was associated with cancers of the lip, oral cavity, pharynx, digestive, respiratory, and intrathoracic organs. Conclusions Despite marketing claims to the contrary, we found that smokeless tobacco use and bidi smoking are at least as harmful as cigarette smoking for all incident cancers and are associated with increased risk of oral and respiratory/intrathoracic cancers. PMID:21431915

  1. Ribbon like appearance of the midsubstance fibres of the anterior cruciate ligament close to its femoral insertion site: a cadaveric study including 111 knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmigielski, Robert; Zdanowicz, Urszula; Drwięga, Michał; Ciszek, Bogdan; Ciszkowska-Łysoń, Beata; Siebold, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the configuration of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) from its direct femoral insertion to midsubstance was found to be flat. This might have an important impact for anatomical ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this anatomical study was to evaluate the macroscopic appearance of the ACL from femoral to midsubstance. The ACL was dissected in 111 human fresh frozen cadaver knees from its femoral insertion to midsubstance, and the shape was described. The anatomical findings were documented on digital photographs and on video. Thirty knees were sent for computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology of the femoral ACL insertion. Two millimetres from its direct femoral insertion, the ACL fibres formed a flat ribbon in all dissected knees without a clear separation between AM and PL bundles. The ribbon was in exact continuity of the posterior femoral cortex. The width of the ribbon was between 11.43 and 16.18 mm and the thickness of the ACL was only 2.54-3.38 mm. 3D CT, MRI and the histological examination confirmed above findings. This is a detailed anatomical study describing the ribbon-like structure of the ACL from its femoral insertion to midsubstance. A key point was to carefully remove the surface fibrous membrane of the ACL. A total of 2-3 mm from its bony femoral insertion, the ACL formed a flat ribbon without a clear separation between AM and PL bundles. The ribbon was in exact continuity of the posterior femoral cortex. The findings of a flat ligament may change the future approach to femoral ACL footprint and midsubstance ACL reconstruction and to graft selection.

  2. A Descriptive Longitudinal Study of Changes in Vape Shop Characteristics and Store Policies in Anticipation of the 2016 FDA Regulations of Tobacco Products, Including E-Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available After proposing the “Deeming Rule” in 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA began regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and sales of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette products as tobacco products in 2016. The current study conducted vape shop store observations and surveyed Los Angeles–area shop employees (assessing their beliefs, awareness, and perceptions of e-cigarettes and related FDA regulations at two time points one year apart to better understand what vape shop retailers would do given FDA’s soon-to-be-enacted Deeming Rule. The study also compared retailer beliefs/awareness/actions and store characteristics immediately after the Deeming Rule proposal versus a year after the Rule had been proposed, right before its enactment. Two data collection waves occurred before the Deeming Rule enactment, with Year 1 surveying 77 shops (2014 and Year 2 surveying 61 shops (2015–2016. Between the data collection points, 16 shops had closed. Among the shops that were open at both time points, the majority (95% in Year 1; 74% in Year 2 were aware of some FDA regulations or other policies applying to vape shops. However, overall awareness of FDA regulations and state/local policies governing e-cigarettes significantly decreased from Year 1 to Year 2. At both time points, all shops offered customers free puffs of nicotine-containing e-liquids (prohibited by the then upcoming Deeming Rule. Perceptions of e-cigarette safety also significantly decreased between the years. Exploring vape shop retailer perceptions and store policies (i.e., free puffs/samples displays, perceptions of e-cigarette safety, etc. over time will help the FDA assess the needs of the vape shop community and develop more effective retailer education campaigns and materials targeted to increase compliance with the newly enacted regulations.

  3. Glycoprotein CD44 expression in normal, hyperplasic and neoplastic endometrium. An immunohistochemical study including correlations with p53, steroid receptor status and proliferative indices (PCNA, MIB1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorianakou, N; Ioachim, E; Mitselou, A; Kitsou, E; Zagorianakou, P; Stefanaki, S; Makrydimas, G; Agnantis, N J

    2003-01-01

    We have studied by immunohistochemistry the presence and localization of CD44, estrogen and progesterone receptors, p53 and proliferative associated indices (MIB1, PCNA) in archival endometrial tissue, in order to determine their diagnostic and prognostic value as well as the possible correlations between them. We examined 186 samples of endometrial tissue (100 endometrial carcinomas of endometrioid type, 40 cases of hyperplasia and 46 of normal endometrium). Patient records were examined for FIGO stage, grade, and depth of myometrial invasion, histology, and lympho-vascular space invasion. Strong membranous immunostaining (> 10% of neoplastic cells) was observed in 45% of the carcinomas. A statistically significant correlation was found in the expression of protein in stromal cells, when compared with epithelial cells (p failed to show any statistical correlation with tumor grade or with vessel invasion. The expression of the protein was lower in FIGO Stage II compared with Stage I (p = 0.03). A positive relation of CD44 expression with progesterone receptor status (p = 0.02) was detected. CD44 expression was also positively associated with the proliferation associated with the proliferative index MIB1 (p = 0.001). CD44 is closely related to the secretory phase of the normal menstrual cycle and its expression is decreased in hyperplasia (simple or complex with or without atypia) and in cancer cases. These observations suggest that decreased CD44 expression might be functionally involved in the multiple mechanisms of the development and progression of endometrial lesions.

  4. The effects of performance criteria including accounting, market, and economy on the quality of financial reporting: A case study on Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the effects of performance criteria (accounting, market and economy on the quality of financial reporting in Iran. To evaluate the variable financial reporting quality, the scores given to each company are applied based on the checklist introduced by Iranian Association of Certified Public Accountants and used for the disclosure of the information of the annual financial statements of companies. The statistical population of this research consists of the companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2011. This research, which is classified as applied research, uses the methods of multivariate regression test. The data and hypotheses of this research are analyzed and tested using correlation test and means difference test. The results of the tests conducted on 99 companies indicate that there is a significant and positive relation between the rate of return on equity and the equality of financial reporting. There is also a significant and positive relation between earnings per share and the equality of financial reporting. However, there is no relationship between QTOBIN and the equality of financial reporting. Finally, our results indicate there is a significant and positive relation between market value-added and the equality of financial reporting.

  5. Discharge and water-quality data for selected streams at low flow including some bottom-material analyses, and limnological study of six lakes, Westchester County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Roger J.; Turk, John T.

    1977-01-01

    Water-quality data collected at sites on 33 Westchester County, N.Y., streams August 4 to 6, 1976 during low flow (80-percent or more duration) indicate that although the chemical characteristics of most streams met State standards for water-supply source waters, none met the coliform standard, and several failed to meet standards for organic nitrogen, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Chemical analyses of bottom materials indicated detectable concentrations of the insecticides chlordane, dieldrin, and DDT at most of the 17 stream sites sampled. Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCB's) were found in more than half the samples, and the lead concentration on one stream was significantly higher than at the other sites. The six lakes studied are similar in bedrock geology, climate, and algal types and numbers. Minor differences in the chemistry of the lakes is attributable to the presence or absence of marble (calcium carbonate) in the gneissic basins, septic loadings of soluble constituents, or runoff containing salt from winter road deicing. The lakes probably receive most of their water by direct runoff and groundwater seepage rather than from major streams. All six lakes can be classed as eutrophic on the basis of algal type and density, dissolved-oxygen distribution, and nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. A TAXONOMIC STUDY OF THE GENUS PADINA (DICTYOTALES, PHAEOPHYCEAE) INCLUDING THE DESCRIPTIONS OF FOUR NEW SPECIES FROM JAPAN, HAWAII, AND THE ANDAMAN SEA(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Ni Ni; Hanyuda, Takeaki; Arai, Shogo; Uchimura, Masayuki; Prathep, Anchana; Draisma, Stefano G A; Phang, Siew Moi; Abbott, Isabella A; Millar, Alan J K; Kawai, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    A taxonomic study of the genus Padina from Japan, Southeast Asia, and Hawaii based on morphology and gene sequence data (rbcL and cox3) resulted in the recognition of four new species, that is, Padina macrophylla and Padina ishigakiensis from Ryukyu Islands, Japan; Padina maroensis from Hawaii; and Padina usoehtunii from Myanmar and Thailand. All species are bistratose and morphologically different from one another as well as from any known taxa by a combination of characters relating to degree of calcification; the structure, position, and arrangement of hairlines (HLs) and reproductive sori; and the presence or absence of rhizoid-like groups of hairs and an indusium. Molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated a close relationship between P. ishigakiensis, P. macrophylla, P. maroensis, and Padina australis Hauck. The position of P. usoehtunii, however, was not fully resolved, being either sister to a clade comprising the other three new species and P. australis in the rbcL tree or more closely related to a clade comprising several other recently described species in the cox3 tree. The finding of the four new species demonstrates high species diversity particularly in southern Japan. The following characters were first recognized here to be useful for species delimitation: the presence or absence of small rhizoid-like groups of hairs on the thallus surface, structure and arrangement of HLs on both surfaces either alternate or irregular, and arrangement of the alternating HLs between both surfaces in equal or unequal distance. The evolutionary trajectory of these and six other morphological characters used in species delineation was traced on the phylogenetic tree. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  7. Evaluation of octyl p-methoxycinnamate included in liposomes and cyclodextrins in anti-solar preparations: preparations, characterizations and in vitro penetration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Mariana Sato de Souza de Bustamante; Ozzetti, Rafael Antonio; Vergnanini, André Luiz; de Brito-Gitirana, Lycia; Volpato, Nadia Maria; de Freitas, Zaida Maria Faria; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Awareness of the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation has led to the increasing use of sunscreens, thus, the development of safe and effective antisolar preparations is important. The inclusion of sunscreen molecules in different release systems, like liposomes (lipo) and cyclodextrins (CD) is therefore required. The in vivo sun protection factor (SPF), water resistance, and in vitro transdermal penetration test of octyl p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) in different dispersions, such as OMC encapsulated in liposomes (lipo/OMC), OMC encapsulated in β-cyclodextrins (β-CD/OMC), OMC encapsulated in both release systems (lipo/OMC and β-CD/OMC), and an OMC-free formulation were determined. Although the formulation containing only the lipo/OMC system revealed high value of in vivo SPF (11.0 ± 1.3) and water resistance (SPF = 10.3 ± 2.2), the formulation containing both release systems (lipo/OMC + β-cyclodextrin/OMC) showed the best result in the in vivo SPF test (11.6 ± 1.6). In the penetration test, the formulation containing the lipo/OMC system had better performance, since a high amount of OMC in the epidermis (18.04 ± 1.17 μg) and a low amount of OMC in the dermis (9.4 ± 2.36 μg) were observed. These results suggest that liposomes interact with the cells of the stratum corneum, promoting retention of OMC in this layer. According to our study, the lipo/OMC system is the most advantageous release system, due to its ability to both increase the amount of OMC in the epidermis and decrease the risk of percutaneous absorption.

  8. Rheumatoid factor testing in Spanish primary care: A population-based cohort study including 4.8 million subjects and almost half a million measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsley, Klara; Miller, Anne; Luqmani, Raashid; Fina-Aviles, Francesc; Javaid, Muhammad Kassim; Edwards, Christopher J; Pinedo-Villanueva, Rafael; Medina, Manuel; Calero, Sebastian; Cooper, Cyrus; Arden, Nigel; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel

    2018-02-26

    Rheumatoid factor (RF) testing is used in primary care in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however a positive RF may occur without RA. Incorrect use of RF testing may lead to increased costs and delayed diagnoses. The aim was to assess the performance of RF as a test for RA and to estimate the costs associated with its use in a primary care setting. A retrospective cohort study using the Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care database (contains primary care records and laboratory results of >80% of the Catalonian population, Spain). Participants were patients ≥18 years with ≥1 RF test performed between 01/01/2006 and 31/12/2011, without a pre-existing diagnosis of RA. Outcome measures were an incident diagnosis of RA within 1 year of testing, and the cost of testing per case of RA. 495,434/4,796,498 (10.3%) patients were tested at least once. 107,362 (21.7%) of those tested were sero-positive of which 2768 (2.6%) were diagnosed with RA within 1 year as were 1141/388,072 (0.3%) sero-negative participants. The sensitivity of RF was 70.8% (95% CI 69.4-72.2), specificity 78.7% (78.6-78.8), and positive and negative predictive values 2.6% (2.5-2.7) and 99.7% (99.6-99.7) respectively. Approximately €3,963,472 was spent, with a cost of €1432 per true positive case. Although 10% of patients were tested for RF, most did not have RA. Limiting testing to patients with a higher pre-test probability would significantly reduce the cost of testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  9. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries (including cardiac events) in South Africa from 2008 to 2011: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Craig; Lambert, Mike I; Verhagen, Evert; Readhead, Clint; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    To establish an accurate and comprehensive injury incidence registry of all rugby union-related catastrophic events in South Africa between 2008 and 2011. An additional aim was to investigate correlates associated with these injuries. Prospective. The South African amateur and professional rugby-playing population. An estimated 529 483 Junior and 121 663 Senior rugby union ('rugby') players (population at risk). Annual average incidences of rugby-related catastrophic injuries by type (cardiac events, traumatic brain and acute spinal cord injuries (ASCIs)) and outcome (full recoveries-fatalities). Playing level (junior and senior levels), position and event (phase of play) were also assessed. The average annual incidence of ASCIs and Traumatic Brain Injuries combined was 2.00 per 100 000 players (95% CI 0.91 to 3.08) from 2008 to 2011. The incidence of ASCIs with permanent outcomes was significantly higher at the Senior level (4.52 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0.74 to 8.30) than the Junior level (0.24 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0 to 0.65) during this period. The hooker position was associated with 46% (n=12 of 26) of all permanent ASCI outcomes, the majority of which (83%) occurred during the scrum phase of play. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries in South Africa between 2008 and 2011 is comparable to that of other countries and to most other collision sports. The higher incidence rate of permanent ASCIs at the Senior level could be related to the different law variations or characteristics (eg, less regular training) compared with the Junior level. The hooker and scrum were associated with high proportions of permanent ASCIs. The BokSmart injury prevention programme should focus efforts on these areas (Senior level, hooker and scrum) and use this study as a reference point for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the programme.

  10. Structure-function studies of five natural, including catfish and dogfish, gonadotropin-releasing hormones and eight analogs on reproduction in Thai catfish (Clarias macrocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamvongchon, S; Rivier, J E; Sherwood, N M

    1992-11-20

    Five distinct forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and their analogs, six of which are newly designed, were used to study reproduction in Thai catfish, Clarias macrocephalus. Determination was made for the percentage of fish that ovulated within 16-18 h; the percentage of eggs fertilized; and the percentage of larva that hatched and survived for 7 days. The results show, firstly, that natural chicken GnRH-II, which is identical with catfish GnRH-II, was significantly more effective at a dose of 300 micrograms/kg than the control injection for the induction of ovulation. Dogfish GnRH at the same dose was also significantly more effective than the control, but was not significantly different from chicken (catfish) GnRH-II for ovulation induction. The novel catfish GnRH-I, mammalian GnRH and salmon GnRH were not effective at 100, 150 or 300 micrograms/kg in Thai catfish. Secondly, 5 of 8 analogs of GnRH at a dose of 20 micrograms/kg resulted in a significantly higher percentage of ovulating fish compared with the control fish. Among these five analogs, the most effective were the two analog forms of chicken GnRH-II (D-Arg6,Pro9 NEt and D-Nal6,Pro9 NEt), followed by the salmon GnRH analog (D-Arg6,Pro9 NEt), a dogfish GnRH analog (D-Arg6,Pro9 NEt) and the mammalian GnRH analog (D-Ala6,Pro9 NEt). Not significantly different from the controls were the two catfish GnRH-I analogs and one of the dogfish (D-Nal6,Pro9 NEt) analogs. The six new analogs had not been previously tested in any animal. Thirdly, the number of fish ovulating was the same whether GnRH was administered in one or two injections.

  11. High radiofrequency radiation at Stockholm Old Town: An exposimeter study including the Royal Castle, Supreme Court, three major squares and the Swedish Parliament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Koppel, Tarmo; Hedendahl, Lena

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO in 2011. The exposure pattern is changing due to the rapid development of technology. Outdoor RF radiation level was measured during five tours in Stockholm Old Town in April, 2016 using the EME Spy 200 exposimeter with 20 predefined frequencies. The results were based on 10,437 samples in total. The mean level of the total RF radiation was 4,293 µW/m 2 (0.4293 µW/cm 2 ). The highest mean levels were obtained for global system for mobile communications (GSM) + universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) 900 downlink and long-term evolution (LTE) 2600 downlink (1,558 and 1,265 µW/m 2 , respectively). The town squares displayed highest total mean levels, with the example of Järntorget square with 24,277 µW/m 2 (min 257, max 173,302 µW/m 2 ). These results were in large contrast to areas with lowest total exposure, such as the Supreme Court, with a mean level of 404 µW/m 2 (min 20.4, max 4,088 µW/m 2 ). In addition, measurements in the streets surrounding the Royal Castle were lower than the total for the Old Town, with a mean of 756 µW/m 2 (min 0.3, max 50,967 µW/m 2 ). The BioInitiative 2012 Report defined the scientific benchmark for possible health risks as 30-60 µW/m 2 . Our results of outdoor RF radiation exposure at Stockholm Old Town are significantly above that level. The mean exposure level at Järntorget square was 405-fold higher than 60 µW/m 2 . Our results were below the reference level on 10,000,000 µW/m 2 established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), which, however, are less credible, as they do not take non-thermal effects into consideration and are not based on sound scientific evaluation. Our highest measured mean level at Järntorget was 0.24% of the ICNIRP level. A number of studies have found adverse, non-thermal (no measurable

  12. Rare CNVs in Suicide Attempt include Schizophrenia-Associated Loci and Neurodevelopmental Genes: A Pilot Genome-Wide and Family-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Sokolowski

    Full Text Available Suicidal behavior (SB has a complex etiology involving genes and environment. One of the genetic components in SB could be copy number variations (CNVs, as CNVs are implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, a recently published genome-wide and case-control study did not observe any significant role of CNVs in SB. Here we complemented these initial observations by instead using a family-based trio-sample that is robust to control biases, having severe suicide attempt (SA in offspring as main outcome (n = 660 trios. We first tested for CNV associations on the genome-wide Illumina 1M SNP-array by using FBAT-CNV methodology, which allows for evaluating CNVs without reliance on CNV calling algorithms, analogous to a common SNP-based GWAS. We observed association of certain T-cell receptor markers, but this likely reflected inter-individual variation in somatic rearrangements rather than association with SA outcome. Next, we used the PennCNV software to call 385 putative rare (100 kb CNVs, observed in n = 225 SA offspring. Nine SA offspring had rare CNV calls in a set of previously schizophrenia-associated loci, indicating the importance of such CNVs in certain SA subjects. Several additional, very large (>1MB sized CNV calls in 15 other SA offspring also spanned pathogenic regions or other neural genes of interest. Overall, 45 SA had CNVs enriched for 65 medically relevant genes previously shown to be affected by CNVs, which were characterized by a neurodevelopmental biology. A neurodevelopmental implication was partly congruent with our previous SNP-based GWAS, but follow-up analysis here indicated that carriers of rare CNVs had a decreased burden of common SNP risk-alleles compared to non-carriers. In conclusion, while CNVs did not show genome-wide association by the FBAT-CNV methodology, our preliminary observations indicate rare pathogenic CNVs affecting neurodevelopmental functions in a subset of SA, who were distinct from SA having

  13. Rare CNVs in Suicide Attempt include Schizophrenia-Associated Loci and Neurodevelopmental Genes: A Pilot Genome-Wide and Family-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Marcus; Wasserman, Jerzy; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior (SB) has a complex etiology involving genes and environment. One of the genetic components in SB could be copy number variations (CNVs), as CNVs are implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, a recently published genome-wide and case-control study did not observe any significant role of CNVs in SB. Here we complemented these initial observations by instead using a family-based trio-sample that is robust to control biases, having severe suicide attempt (SA) in offspring as main outcome (n = 660 trios). We first tested for CNV associations on the genome-wide Illumina 1M SNP-array by using FBAT-CNV methodology, which allows for evaluating CNVs without reliance on CNV calling algorithms, analogous to a common SNP-based GWAS. We observed association of certain T-cell receptor markers, but this likely reflected inter-individual variation in somatic rearrangements rather than association with SA outcome. Next, we used the PennCNV software to call 385 putative rare (100 kb) CNVs, observed in n = 225 SA offspring. Nine SA offspring had rare CNV calls in a set of previously schizophrenia-associated loci, indicating the importance of such CNVs in certain SA subjects. Several additional, very large (>1MB) sized CNV calls in 15 other SA offspring also spanned pathogenic regions or other neural genes of interest. Overall, 45 SA had CNVs enriched for 65 medically relevant genes previously shown to be affected by CNVs, which were characterized by a neurodevelopmental biology. A neurodevelopmental implication was partly congruent with our previous SNP-based GWAS, but follow-up analysis here indicated that carriers of rare CNVs had a decreased burden of common SNP risk-alleles compared to non-carriers. In conclusion, while CNVs did not show genome-wide association by the FBAT-CNV methodology, our preliminary observations indicate rare pathogenic CNVs affecting neurodevelopmental functions in a subset of SA, who were distinct from SA having increased SNP

  14. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries (including cardiac events) in South Africa from 2008 to 2011: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Craig; Lambert, Mike I; Verhagen, Evert; Readhead, Clint; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To establish an accurate and comprehensive injury incidence registry of all rugby union-related catastrophic events in South Africa between 2008 and 2011. An additional aim was to investigate correlates associated with these injuries. Design Prospective. Setting The South African amateur and professional rugby-playing population. Participants An estimated 529 483 Junior and 121 663 Senior rugby union (‘rugby’) players (population at risk). Outcome measures Annual average incidences of rugby-related catastrophic injuries by type (cardiac events, traumatic brain and acute spinal cord injuries (ASCIs)) and outcome (full recoveries—fatalities). Playing level (junior and senior levels), position and event (phase of play) were also assessed. Results The average annual incidence of ASCIs and Traumatic Brain Injuries combined was 2.00 per 100 000 players (95% CI 0.91 to 3.08) from 2008 to 2011. The incidence of ASCIs with permanent outcomes was significantly higher at the Senior level (4.52 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0.74 to 8.30) than the Junior level (0.24 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0 to 0.65) during this period. The hooker position was associated with 46% (n=12 of 26) of all permanent ASCI outcomes, the majority of which (83%) occurred during the scrum phase of play. Conclusions The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries in South Africa between 2008 and 2011 is comparable to that of other countries and to most other collision sports. The higher incidence rate of permanent ASCIs at the Senior level could be related to the different law variations or characteristics (eg, less regular training) compared with the Junior level. The hooker and scrum were associated with high proportions of permanent ASCIs. The BokSmart injury prevention programme should focus efforts on these areas (Senior level, hooker and scrum) and use this study as a reference point for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the programme. PMID:23447464

  15. The role of the intestinal microvasculature in inflammatory bowel disease: studies with a modified Caco-2 model including endothelial cells resembling the intestinal barrier in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Jennifer Y; Hermanns, Maria Iris; Cavelius, Christian; Kraegeloh, Annette; Jung, Thomas; Danzebrink, Rolf; Unger, Ronald E; Kirkpatrick, Charles James

    2016-01-01

    . In summary, this coculture model exhibits in vivo-like features, which cannot be observed in conventional monocultures, making the former more suitable to study interactions with external stimuli. PMID:27994454

  16. Olkiluoto surface hydrological modelling: Update 2012 including salt transport modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2013-11-01

    Posiva Oy is responsible for implementing a final disposal program for spent nuclear fuel of its owners Teollisuuden Voima Oyj and Fortum Power and Heat Oy. The spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed at a depth of about 400-450 meters in the crystalline bedrock at the Olkiluoto site. Leakages located at or close to spent fuel repository may give rise to the upconing of deep highly saline groundwater and this is a concern with regard to the performance of the tunnel backfill material after the closure of the tunnels. Therefore a salt transport sub-model was added to the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model (SHYD). The other improvements include update of the particle tracking algorithm and possibility to estimate the influence of open drillholes in a case where overpressure in inflatable packers decreases causing a hydraulic short-circuit between hydrogeological zones HZ19 and HZ20 along the drillhole. Four new hydrogeological zones HZ056, HZ146, BFZ100 and HZ039 were added to the model. In addition, zones HZ20A and HZ20B intersect with each other in the new structure model, which influences salinity upconing caused by leakages in shafts. The aim of the modelling of long-term influence of ONKALO, shafts and repository tunnels provide computational results that can be used to suggest limits for allowed leakages. The model input data included all the existing leakages into ONKALO (35-38 l/min) and shafts in the present day conditions. The influence of shafts was computed using eight different values for total shaft leakage: 5, 11, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 l/min. The selection of the leakage criteria for shafts was influenced by the fact that upconing of saline water increases TDS-values close to the repository areas although HZ20B does not intersect any deposition tunnels. The total limit for all leakages was suggested to be 120 l/min. The limit for HZ20 zones was proposed to be 40 l/min: about 5 l/min the present day leakages to access tunnel, 25 l/min from

  17. Four new massive pulsating white dwarfs including an ultramassive DAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curd, Brandon; Gianninas, A.; Bell, Keaton J.; Kilic, Mukremin; Romero, A. D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I.

    2017-06-01

    We report the discovery of four massive (M > 0.8 M⊙) ZZ Ceti white dwarfs, including an ultramassive 1.16 M⊙ star. We obtained ground-based, time series photometry for 13 white dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 and Data Release 10 whose atmospheric parameters place them within the ZZ Ceti instability strip. We detect monoperiodic pulsations in three of our targets (J1015, J1554 and J2038) and identify three periods of pulsation in J0840 (173, 327 and 797 s). Fourier analysis of the remaining nine objects does not indicate variability above the 4 detection threshold. Our preliminary asteroseismic analysis of J0840 yields a stellar mass M = 1.14 ± 0.01 M⊙, hydrogen and helium envelope masses of MH = 5.8 × 10-7 M⊙ and MHe = 4.5 × 10-4 M⊙ and an expected core crystallized mass ratio of 50-70 per cent. J1015, J1554 and J2038 have masses in the range 0.84-0.91 M⊙ and are expected to have a CO core; however, the core of J0840 could consist of highly crystallized CO or ONeMg given its high mass. These newly discovered massive pulsators represent a significant increase in the number of known ZZ Ceti white dwarfs with mass M > 0.85 M⊙, and detailed asteroseismic modelling of J0840 will allow for significant tests of crystallization theory in CO and ONeMg core white dwarfs.

  18. Parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (including the orbit): results of orbital irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereb, B.; Haik, B.G.; Ong, R.; Ghavimi, F.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with parameningeal (including orbital rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)) were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) between July 1971 and January 1983. Twenty were children with a mean age of 6 and 3 were adults. In 6 patients, the primary tumor was from the orbit, whereas the remaining 17 had other parameningeal primary sites. The tumors were in a very progressive local stage, with extensive destruction of the facial bones in 19 patients. Eight patients were treated with T2 chemotherapy protocol and 15 received T6. Seven patients received 5,000 to 7,200 rad delivered to the primary tumor in 11-16 weeks, 15 patients received between 4,500 to 5,000 rad in 4-7 weeks, and 1 patient received 3,000 rad in 3 weeks for residual microscopic disease following surgery. Two patients were treated with radiation to the whole brain; no patients received radiation of the whole central nervous axis (CNA). Fifteen of the 23 patients (65%) are alive and well with a medical follow-up time of 5 years. Two patients died of therapeutic complications and six died of tumor spread. In five patients, involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) was the cause of death. The prognosis of orbital RMS with parameningeal involvement is no better than in other tumors of parameningeal sites. In those patients who had impaired vision because of optic nerve damage prior to treatment, the vision did not improve following treatment. There was no impaired vision seen due to radiation damage of eye structures except in the lens

  19. Monitoring of tritium-contaminated surfaces, including skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surette, R.A.; Wood, M.J.

    1994-05-01

    We have examined various commercially available tritium surface contamination monitors along with different swipe media and techniques for direct and indirect (swipe) monitoring of contaminated surfaces, including skin. None of the methods or instruments evaluated were more sensitive than the swipe and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method. Swipe measurements with open-window proportional counters were, in general, less than half as sensitive as LSC, but have the advantages of having the results available almost immediately, and no sample preparation is required. The Nuclear Measurement Corporation's PC-55 is the most suitable instrument we tested for the analysis of routine swipe measurement. The PC-55 was about one third as sensitive as LSC when used with Ontario Hydro filter paper swipe media. Surface contamination measurement results can be obtained within minutes using the PC-55, compared to hours using LSC. The selection of swipe media for use with proportional counter-based instruments is critical. A medium that is electrically insulating can develop an electrostatic charge on its surface; this may alter the field gradient in the detector and may adversely influence the results. Although the PC-55 is sufficiently sensitive and very convenient, operational experience with the instrument is needed before recommending that it replace current LSC methods. The PC-55's susceptibility to internal tritium contamination may limit its practical usefulness. Because of the complexity of using live animals to evaluate direct and indirect methods for assessing skin contamination, pig skin was investigated as a possible substitute. We concluded that, for the first few hours post-exposure, pig skin mimics the kinetics of animal skin that has contacted a tritium-contaminated surface. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  20. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  1. How Might Industry Governance Be Broadened To Include Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, Gretchen; Seward, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    Broadening industry governance to support nonproliferation could provide significant new leverage in preventing the spread/diversion of nuclear, radiological, or dual-use material or technology that could be used in making a nuclear or radiological weapon. Industry is defined broadly to include (1) the nuclear industry, (2) dual-use industries, and (3) radioactive source manufacturers and selected radioactive source-user industries worldwide. This paper describes how industry can be an important first line of defense in detecting and thwarting proliferation, such as an illicit trade network or an insider theft case, by complementing and strengthening existing governmental efforts. For example, the dual-use industry can play a critical role by providing export, import, or security control information that would allow a government or the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to integrate this information with safeguards, export, import, and physical protection information it has to create a more complete picture of the potential for proliferation. Because industry is closest to users of the goods and technology that could be illicitly diverted throughout the supply chain, industry information can potentially be more timely and accurate than other sources of information. Industry is in an ideal position to help ensure that such illicit activities are detected. This role could be performed more effectively if companies worked together within a particular industry to promote nonproliferation by implementing an industry-wide self-regulation program. Performance measures could be used to ensure their materials and technologies are secure throughout the supply chain and that customers are legitimately using and/or maintaining oversight of these items. Nonproliferation is the overarching driver that industry needs to consider in adopting and implementing a self-regulation approach. A few foreign companies have begun such an approach to date; it is believed that

  2. Structures that Include a Semi-Outdoor Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papachristou, C.; Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2016-01-01

    The thermal environment of buildings with a second "skin" and semi-outdoor space is examined in the present study. A literature review was conducted on similar structures and only a few studies were found focusing on the thermal environment. Two different building case studies were chosen with di...

  3. Mineral resources of the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study Areas, including Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, Emery County, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Dickerson, R.P.; Barton, H.W.; McCafferty, A.E.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Koyuncu, H.; Lee, K.; Duval, J.S.; Munts, S.R.; Benjamin, D.A.; Close, T.J.; Lipton, D.A.; Neumann, T.R.; Willet, S.L.

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study areas, which includes the Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, in Emery County, south-central Utah. Within and near the Crack Canyon Wilderness Study Area are identified subeconomic uranium and vanadium resources. Within the Carmel Formation are inferred subeconomic resources of gypsum in the Muddy Creek, San Rafael Reef, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas. Other commodities evaluated include geothermal energy, gypsum, limestone, oil and gas, sand and gravel, sandstone, semiprecious gemstones, sulfur petrified wood, and tar sand

  4. Reaction behaviour of reactor materials, including concrete during core meltdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.; Hofmann, P.; Skokan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The problems dealt with in the studies on the material behaviour of core meltdowns are sketched, and an outline is given on the experimental investigations now in progress. These studies aim at establishing a model which is as realistic as possible, and the paper tries to show that knowledge on the reaction behaviour is a basic prerequisite for this. (orig./TK) [de

  5. The Significance of Including an Entrepreneurship Course in Engineering Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosly, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    This paper studied the significance of entrepreneurship education in engineering programs. It looked into its influence on engineering students' perception and willingness to change their future job direction. The study was performed at the College of Engineering-Rabigh Branch, of King Abdulaiziz University in Saudi Arabia. Entrepreneurship…

  6. Prevention of metabolic diseases: fruits (including fruit sugars) vs. vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Schmidt, Kelsey A; Kratz, Mario

    2017-07-01

    To discuss recent evidence from observational and intervention studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and metabolic disease. Observational studies have consistently demonstrated a modest inverse association between the intake of fruit and leafy green vegetables, but not total vegetables, and biomarkers of metabolic disease as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is in contrast to limited evidence from recently published randomized controlled dietary intervention trials, which - in sum - suggests little to no impact of increased F&V consumption on biomarkers of metabolic disease. Evidence from observational studies that fruit and leafy green vegetable intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk and better metabolic health could not be confirmed by dietary intervention trials. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is because of limitations inherent in observational studies (e.g., subjective dietary assessment methods, residual confounding) or due to limitations in the few available intervention studies (e.g., short duration of follow-up, interventions combining whole fruit and fruit juice, or lack of compliance). Future studies that attempt to address these limitations are needed to provide more conclusive insight into the impact of F&V consumption on metabolic health.

  7. Free vibration of elastically supported thin cylinders including gyroscopic effects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    1998-10-29

    Full Text Available stream_source_info loveday_1998.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 30419 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name loveday_1998.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 D[R[ 747723*JSV 106...# or in_nite "rigid#[ 7 0887 Academic Press 0[ INTRODUCTION The vibration of thin elastic shells has been studied by many researchers[ The results of many of these studies have been summarised by Leissa 0 and Blevins 1 [ The literature contains numerous...

  8. Identifying Clusters with Mixture Models that Include Radial Velocity Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnatowicz, Alexis; Ybarra, Jason E.

    2018-01-01

    The study of stellar clusters plays an integral role in the study of star formation. We present a cluster mixture model that considers radial velocity data in addition to spatial data. Maximum likelihood estimation through the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is used for parameter estimation. Our mixture model analysis can be used to distinguish adjacent or overlapping clusters, and estimate properties for each cluster.Work supported by awards from the Virginia Foundation for Independent Colleges (VFIC) Undergraduate Science Research Fellowship and The Research Experience @Bridgewater (TREB).

  9. Including Psychology in Inclusive Pedagogy: Enriching the Dialogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershner, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education is a complex field of study and practice that requires good communication and dialogue between all involved. Psychology has to some extent been marginalised in these educational dialogues. This is, in part, due to psychology's perceived heritage in the standardised testing that has been used to support the educational…

  10. Refined Probability of Differential Characteristics Including Dependency Between Multiple Rounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Canteaut (Anne); E. Lambooij (Eran); S. Neves (Samuel); S. Rasoolzadeh (Shahram); Y. Sasaki (Yu); M.M.J. Stevens (Marc)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe current paper studies the probability of differential characteristics for an unkeyed (or with a fixed key) construction. Most notably, it focuses on the gap between two probabilities of differential characteristics: probability with independent S-box assumption, p_ind, and exact

  11. The cover letter should include the corresponding author's full ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uaf

    Integrated Pest Management Laboratory, University of Agriculture,. Faisalabad, Pakistan, during the same season. For this purpose, fully mature leaves of tested plant species were selected for the study of the thickness of leaf lamina (µm), trichome density from leaf lamina (per cm2), as well as length of hair (mm) from the ...

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practices of STIs including HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings of the study show that adolescents in the sample have a wide gap between knowledge, attitude and practice with regards to STIs and HIV/AIDS though they become sexually active at an early age. There is also a lack of behavioural change which is reinforced by perceptions and misconception regarding STIs and ...

  13. New research builds strong case for including informal migrant ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... The informal sector is a major source of income for the urban poor. Migrants play a critical role in the informal economy, yet the importance of their role is often overlooked. Two new studies supported by IDRC seek to address this gap.

  14. Nonlinear waves in electron–positron–ion plasmas including charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-04

    Jan 4, 2017 ... Recently, it has been suggested that the nonlinear study of wave propagation can be helpful to under- stand nonlinear structures similar to the broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) observed in the Earth's mag- netosphere by numerous satellites (spacecrafts) such as. Geotail [8], Polar [9],Viking [10], FAST ...

  15. Sulphur in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Including NLTE corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skúladóttir, Á.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Tolstoy, E.; Hill, V.; Salvadori, S.; Korotin, S. A.; Pettini, M.

    In Galactic halo stars, sulphur has been shown to behave like other α-elements, but until now, no comprehensive studies have been done on this element in stars of other galaxies. Here, we use high-resolution ESO VLT/FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectra to determine sulphur abundances for 85 stars in the Sculptor

  16. A macroelement framework for shallow foundations including changes in configuration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisano, F.; Flessati, L; di Prisco, C

    2016-01-01

    Macroelement plasticity models are being increasingly applied to study non-linear soil–foundation interaction (SFI) problems. Macroelement models are particularly appealing from a computational standpoint, as they can capture the essence of SFI by means of a few degrees of freedom. However, all the

  17. Program for reduction body mass and cellulite including aesthetic physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolovska, Lence

    2012-01-01

    The study monitored the effect of separate eating, ultrasonic cavitation, presoterapy, radio frequency and vibrating platform (GREEN PLATE) weight reduction, cellulite removal and improved psycho-emotional status. Perform 3 weekly treatments. In the course of three months were examined 45 overweight women and cellulite.

  18. Mainstream teachers about including deaf or hard of hearing students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.A.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Knoors, H.E.T.

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed at teachers’ classroom practices and their beliefs and emotions regarding the inclusion of deaf or hard of hearing (d/hh) students in mainstream secondary schools. Nine teachers in two schools were interviewed about the inclusion of d/hh students. These teachers were found to

  19. Harmonics and voltage stability analysis in power systems including

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, non-sinusoidal quantities and voltage stability, both known as power quality criteria, are examined together in detail. The widespread use of power electronics elements cause the existence of significant non-sinusoidal quantities in the system. These non-sinusoidal quantities can create serious harmonic ...

  20. Harmonics and voltage stability analysis in power systems including ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. In this study, non-sinusoidal quantities and voltage stability, both known as power quality criteria, are examined together in detail. The widespread use of power electronics elements cause the existence of significant non-sinusoidal quantities in the system. These non-sinusoidal quantities can create serious har-.