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Sample records for included relative advantage

  1. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  2. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES ENTERPRISES IN KOOPERATION RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mikitiuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Formation of new approaches to the definition of competitive advantage requires different ways to implement them according to market conditions. These paths can be cooperative relations entities that are implemented in the competitive advantage of enterprises in the new stage of development of a competitive society. The result of the interaction of small businesses with industrial and economic structures is the formation and development of such forms of cooperation entities as subcontracting, franchising, leasing, venture finance. The content of these forms is to integrate (interlacing of the functional areas of business including production of functional form is subcontracting relationships, forms of supply – franchising, industrial and financial shape – leasing as a form of innovative functional integration relations is venture financing.

  3. RELATIVE COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE IN TRADE DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalendu GUHA BIKA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In the era and process of free trade globalisation the classical and neo-classical theories of comparative and competitive advantages have become short-termed because of new actors and devices in the modern techno-economic advancement. Hence, a new approach seems necessary, respectively the one of relative advantages that are related to economies of scale and marketability, as today, the macroeconomic concept is the concept of Multinational or Transnational, and no longer a national one. At the same time, the micro-concept may be used as concept of an entire international economic sector or branch. Due to these new developments the relative advantages approach focuses more on cost-reduction functions of commodities and services and it plays an important role in both theoretical and practical investigation. The examples presented in the paper are built on three competing Asian countries: China, South Korea and post-emerged Japan.

  4. The Relational View of Interorganizational Competitive Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    Collaborating with external partners on R&D and forming strategic partnership for R&D have been popular phenomena for long, which leads new development in existing theories. Though the relational view of competitive advantage has been proposed for more than a decade, few in-depth empirical...... they generate relational rents (interorganizational competitive advantage) from this alliance? Based on this case study, we will propose some implications for the R&D collaboration between Chinese and Scandinavian countries. Also, the case will help us to test and enrich the existing theories...... on interorganizational competitive advantage. At the end of the paper, based on existing theories and the case study result, we will propose our conceptual framework on researching R&D strategic alliance between Scandinavian and Chinese firms....

  5. Relative Advantage: Strength for Favorable Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    289. 92A commonly used code- word for the foreign-built air defense network. It is simply Iraq spelled backwards. 93Richard Hallion, Storm Over...are interconnected. The implication is that the Department of Defense, writ large, must integrate the concept of relative advantage and its connection

  6. State-of-the-evidence reviews: advantages and challenges of including grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, Karen M; Premji, Shahirose; Hayden, K Alix; Serrett, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, health policy decision-makers and professionals are turning to research-based evidence to support decisions about policy and practice. Systematic reviews are useful for gathering, summarizing, and synthesizing published and unpublished research about clearly defined interventions. State-of-the-evidence reviews are broader than traditional systematic reviews and may include not only published and unpublished research, but also published and unpublished non-research literature. Decisions about whether to include this "grey literature" in a review are challenging and lead to many questions about whether the advantages outweigh the challenges. The primary purpose of this article is to describe what constitutes grey literature, and methods to locate it and assess its quality. The secondary purpose is to discuss the core issues to consider when making decisions to include grey literature in a state-of-the-evidence review. A recent state-of-the-evidence review is used as an exemplar to present advantages and challenges related to including grey literature in a review. Despite the challenges, in the exemplar, inclusion of grey literature was useful to validate the results of a research-based literature search. Decisions about whether to include grey literature in a state-of-the-evidence review are complex. A checklist to assist in decision-making was created as a tool to assist the researcher in determining whether it is advantageous to include grey literature in a review.

  7. Generating Relational Competitive Advantage from Strategic Technological Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2012-01-01

    Collaborating with external partners on strategic technological partnerships (STPs) have been popular phenomena for long, which leads new development in existing theories on competitive advantage. Under the relational view, the competitive advantage is jointly generated by alliance firms. Though...... the relational view of competitive advantage has been proposed for more than a decade, few in-depth empirical researches are down within this field, especially case study on R&D strategic alliance from this perspective. Based on these considerations, we investigate an STP between a Danish transnational...... corporation and a Chinese private firm aiming to understand how to generate relational competitive from an STP? Based on the explorative case study, we find that there are three key processes related to relational competitive advantage: partner selection, relational rents generation and relational rents...

  8. The relation between proactive environmental strategies and competitive advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnariu, A.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    There are two distinct orientations of the environmental management that companies may adopt: the model of compliance and the strategic model. The strategic model treats environmental expenses as investments that will lead to competitive advantage for the company. Nevertheless, there are few scientific works that prove the relation between corporate environmental investments and competitive advantage. Thereby, in order to bring clarifications about the profound implications of environmental investments, in the first stage of our research we have proposed the hypothesis that the environmental investments would probably lead to competitive advantage by creating capabilities that are mediators of this relation. In the second stage we have tested this hypothesis, using the research method of survey. A questionnaire was sent to managers in textile Romanian industry, and 109 answers were received. The data was analysed using the linear multiple regression method and the results confirm our hypothesis.

  9. Islamic Banking in Nigeria: Perception of its Relative Advantage by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied Islamic banking customers' segment using antecedents of Rogers and. Shoemaker's paradigm in Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria. We equally measure the perceived relative advantage of Islamic banking concept by those consumer groups in. Awka, capital city of Anambra state, Nigeria. ANOVA was used in order ...

  10. Islamic Banking in Nigeria: Perception of its Relative Advantage by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    Abstract. We studied Islamic banking customers' segment using antecedents of Rogers and. Shoemaker's paradigm in Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria. We equally measure the perceived relative advantage of Islamic banking concept by those consumer groups in. Awka, capital city of Anambra state, Nigeria. ANOVA was ...

  11. Islamic Banking in Nigeria: Perceived Relative Advantage among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied Islamic banking customers' segment using the religious groups in Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria to determine if there are significant differences in their mean perception of the relative advantage of Islamic banking concept. Crosstab was used to study the relationship between the demographic factors that made ...

  12. The Female Stroke Survival Advantage: Relation to Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2009-01-01

    Background: Age-related hormonal factors are thought to be related to the gender gap in longevity. Testing the hypothesis that survival is best in young premenopausal women we studied the effect of age on 1-week mortality in stroke patients. Methods: A registry was started in 2001 with the aim...... logistic regression. Results: The probability of death within 1 week adjusted for stroke severity, stroke type and risk factors was highly age-dependent in both men and women. Up to the age of 50 years, the 1-week female/male mortality rates paralleled being slightly (15%) but insignificantly better...... in women. While mortality increased almost linearly in women over the entire age range, it increased steeply in men from the age of 50 and at the age of 80 years survival was 80% better in women. Conclusion: The female stroke survival advantage applies to all ages. It increases with age due to a steeply...

  13. Single incision pediatric endoscopic surgery: advantages of relatively large incision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, E.; Afsarlar, E.; Karaman, I.

    2015-01-01

    To describe Single Incision Pediatric Endoscopic Surgery (SIPES) performed on children with various diagnoses, emphasizing its advantages. Study Design: An observational case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pediatric Surgery, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, from January 2011 to November 2014. Methodology: A review of patient charts was conducted in which SIPES was preferred as the surgical procedure. Patient demographics, operative details, operative time, clinical outcomes, postoperative pain and cosmesis were analyzed. Results: SIPES was performed on 45 patients (21 girls, 24 boys). Thirty-three appendectomies, 5 varicocelectomies, 3 oophorectomies, 2 ovarian and one paratubal cyst excision, and one fallopian tube excision were performed. All except one procedures were performed through our standard 2cm umbilical vertical or smile incision. In 18 cases, abdominal irrigation/aspiration was easily performed through the existing larger incision, as is done with open surgical technique. None of the patients had early postoperative shoulder/back pain since complete disinflation of CO/sub 2/ could be ensured. All of the patients/parents were satisfied with the cosmesis. Conclusion: SIPES has the advantages of limiting the surgical scar to within the umbilicus and providing easy disinflation of CO/sub 2/, allowing intraabdominal cleaning and extraction of large volume tissue samples through a single large umbilical incision. (author)

  14. Constructing regional advantage: platform policies based on related variety and differentiated knowledge bases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asheim, B.T.; Boschma, R.A.; Cooke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing regional advantage: platform policies based on related variety and differentiated knowledge bases, Regional Studies. This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related

  15. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  16. What are the advantages and disadvantages of imaging modalities to diagnose wear-related corrosion problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Denis; Barrack, Robert L; Potter, Hollis G

    2014-12-01

    Adverse tissue reactions are known to occur after total hip arthroplasty using both conventional and metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings and after MoM hip resurfacing arthroplasty (SRA). A variety of imaging tools, including ultrasound (US), CT, and MRI, have been used to diagnose problems associated with wear after MoM hip arthroplasty and corrosion at the head-trunnion junction; however, the relative advantages and disadvantages of each remain a source of controversy. The purposes of this review were to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of (1) US; (2) CT; and (3) MRI as diagnostic tools in the assessment of wear-related corrosion problems after hip arthroplasty. A systematic literature review was performed through Medline, EMBASE, Scopus CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library without time restriction using search terms related to THA, SRA, US, CT, MRI, adverse tissue reactions, and corrosion. Inclusion criteria were Level I through IV studies in the English language, whereas expert opinions and case reports were excluded. The quality of included studies was judged by their level of evidence, method of intervention allocation, outcome assessments, and followup of patients. Four hundred ninety unique results were returned and 40 articles were reviewed. The prevalence of adverse local tissue reactions in both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients varies based on the method of evaluation (US, CT, MRI) and imaging protocols. US is accessible and relatively inexpensive, yet has not been used to report synovial thicknesses in the setting of wear-related corrosion. CT scans are highly sensitive and provide information regarding component positioning but are limited in providing enhanced soft tissue contrast and require ionizing radiation. MRI has shown promise in predicting both the presence and severity of adverse local tissue reactions but is more expensive. All three imaging modalities have a role in the assessment of adverse local tissue reactions and tribocorrosion

  17. Comparative advantages of the Czech agrarian foreign trade in relation to the EU and third countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Svatoš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech agrarian trade represents a variable which has been developing in a very dynamic manner over time. In the time period of 2000–2010 alone, the value of its turnover grew up from about USD 2.7 billion to about USD 11.4 billion. In the course of time, the Czech agrarian foreign trade has gradually adjusted its territorial as well as commodity structure. As regards the importance of trading partners, Member States of the European Union have unequivocally come to the fore. Accession of CR to the EU has also left its marks on the existing form of the commodity structure of realized exports and imports alike, while especially the export structure has still been shaping in a significant manner. The paper deals with issues related to development of the Czech agrarian foreign trade with the aim to identify its comparative advantages in the area of the commodity and territorial structure both in relation to the global market (the market of third countries outside the EU and in relation to the EU27 countries. Following are the outcomes of the paper conclusions. Although the Czech agrarian trade as the whole does not have any comparative advantages both with respect to the market of the EU27 countries and with respect to third countries (the global market, its individual aggregations are able to win through and gain comparative advantages, especially with respect to individual Member States of the EU. In this respect, it is worth mentioning that in 2010, 190 (i.e. nearly one half out of 390 studied export flows realized to 26 Member States of the EU were competitive. The comparative advantages are more or less evenly distributed among the new and old Member States of the EU. As regards third countries, it may be stated that the Czech agrarian export has comparative advantages only to a significantly limited scope.

  18. Advantages and disadvantages of relational and non-relational (NoSQL) databases for analytical tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Klapač, Milan

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on NoSQL databases, their use for analytical tasks and on comparison of NoSQL databases with relational and OLAP databases. The aim is to analyse the benefits of NoSQL databases and their use for analytical purposes. The first part presents the basic principles of Business Intelligence, Data Warehousing, and Big Data. The second part deals with the key features of relational and NoSQL databases. The last part of the thesis describes the properties of four basic types of NoSQ...

  19. Relative socioeconomic advantage and mood during advanced pregnancy in women in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jane RW

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health during pregnancy has not been investigated in Vietnam. Antenatal depression is an established risk factor for postpartum mood disturbance and two representative cohort studies have found rates of depression after childbirth in Vietnam two to three times higher than those in high income countries. Aim The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the prevalence and determinants of depression in a cohort of pregnant Vietnamese women. This was the subsidiary aim of an investigation of sexual beliefs and behaviours in pregnancy in Vietnam. Methods Participants were recruited from antenatal clinics at Hanoi Obstetric Hospital. Inclusion criteria were to be in advanced pregnancy and appear well educated and confident and therefore potentially be willing to discuss sexual matters. Data were collected by individual structured interviews assessing socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive health, quality of intimate relationship and adequacy of support. Emotional wellbeing was assessed by the Vietnamese translation of the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS. Results In total 61/74 (82% of women approached to participate were recruited. The mean EDS score of 5.42 ± 3.8, was similar to that of community cohorts in high income countries and only one participant scored above 15. The cohort was relatively socioeconomically advantaged with high rates of post-secondary education, secure salaried employment, reproductive autonomy and ability to afford higher quality antenatal care. Most participants were able to confide in their husbands and their pregnancies were welcome. Worse mood was associated with insecure casual work, crowded living conditions and experiencing critical coercion in the marital relationship. Conclusion There is an apparently low prevalence of symptoms of depression in relatively socioeconomically advantaged pregnant women in Vietnam.

  20. The advantages of tomosynthesis for evaluating bisphosphonate-related atypical femur fractures compared to radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraszko, Andrew; Siegal, Daniel; Flynn, Michael; Rao, Sudhaker D; Peterson, Ed; van Holsbeeck, Marnix

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the advantages of using tomosynthesis (TS) compared to radiographs in the detection, characterization, and follow-up of bisphosphonate-related atypical femur fractures (BP-AFF). Eight patients were identified retrospectively who underwent TS for radiographic findings suspicious for BP-AFF. Two radiologists independently interpreted 15 radiographs and 16 TS examinations, indicating the presence or absence of the following: (1) cortical "beaking" on radiographs, (2) radiolucent fracture line on radiographs, and (3) fracture lucency on TS corresponding to the site of radiographic abnormality. Radiation dose data were calculated for radiographs and TS using Monte Carlo analysis. There was agreement on 100 % of radiographs regarding the presence or absence of a cortical beak. Regarding the presence or absence of a fracture lucency, there was agreement on 100 % of TS examinations (Kappa = 1.0) and 73 % of radiographs (Kappa = 0.40 ± 0.24). For the 46 % of radiographs in which one or both radiologists did not visualize a fracture line, there was 100 % agreement for the presence of a fracture line on the corresponding TS. The interobserver agreement for fracture line detection was significantly higher for TS than for radiographs (p = 0.012). The effective radiation dose using TS was approximately 96 % lower compared to radiography. TS outperformed radiographs in the detection and characterization of BP-AFF. TS may also have advantages over radiography for BP-AFF follow-up through its unique ability to visualize fracture healing with lower effective radiation doses to the patient.

  1. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  2. Advantage of meditation over exercise in reducing cold and flu illness is related to improved function and quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Obasi, Chidi N.; Brown, Roger; Ewers, Tola; Barlow, Shari; Gassman, Michele; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Coe, Christopher L.; Barrett, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Obasi et?al. (2012) Advantage of meditation over exercise in reducing cold and flu illness is related to improved function and quality of life. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 00(0), 00?00. Purpose? To examine whether apparent advantages following training in meditation over exercise can be attributed to specific symptoms, functional impairments, or quality?of?life indicators assessed by the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS?24). Methods? Res...

  3. Fish positions relative to neighbours modulate the hydrodynamic advantages of schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    of distances along the direction of locomotion, spanning one body length (BL) in the front (+1 BL) and behind (-1 BL) a neighbouring fish. We found a significant reduction in the mean TBF of fish when swimming in a school versus solitary fish . Furthermore, the TBF of the focal fish decreased linearly between......) and Paolo Domenici (CNR, Italy) Schooling behaviour is a widespread phenomenon shared by a large number of fish species. One of the most common benefits of swimming in a school is the hydrodynamic and energetic advantage obtained by its members. Fish occupying non-frontal positions can benefit from the flow...... generated by the caudal movement of fish swimming in the front. While previous work has demonstrated that trailing fish show a lower tail beat frequency (TBF) than leading fish , the extent to which schooling provides hydrodynamic advantages compared to swimming alone has not been quantified. We quantified...

  4. Fish positions relative to neighbours modulate the hydrodynamic advantages of schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    ) and Paolo Domenici (CNR, Italy) Schooling behaviour is a widespread phenomenon shared by a large number of fish species. One of the most common benefits of swimming in a school is the hydrodynamic and energetic advantage obtained by its members. Fish occupying non-frontal positions can benefit from the flow...... generated by the caudal movement of fish swimming in the front. While previous work has demonstrated that trailing fish show a lower tail beat frequency (TBF) than leading fish , the extent to which schooling provides hydrodynamic advantages compared to swimming alone has not been quantified. We quantified...... of distances along the direction of locomotion, spanning one body length (BL) in the front (+1 BL) and behind (-1 BL) a neighbouring fish. We found a significant reduction in the mean TBF of fish when swimming in a school versus solitary fish . Furthermore, the TBF of the focal fish decreased linearly between...

  5. What causes the processing advantage in the comprehension of German object relative clauses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Adelt

    2015-05-01

    Wo ist der Hund, den gerade der Fuchs kitzelt? (Where is the dog that the fox is currently tickling? (1b Case/Early disambiguation: Wo ist die Ente, die gerade der Fuchs kitzelt? (Where is the duck that the fox is currently tickling? (2 Number/Late disambiguation: Wo ist das Reh, das gerade die Füchse kitzeln? (Where is the deer that the foxes are currently tickling? ORC processing was studied by simultaneously using an off-line task (auditory referent identification and an on-line method (eye-tracking in the visual-world paradigm. Results In the referent identification task, IWAs’ comprehension performance for case-marked ORCs (1a, 1b was above chance (p.05, binomial test. Both, IWAs and controls revealed significantly better performance on early disambiguated ORCs (1b as compared to late disambiguated ORCs (2; all p.05, GLM. Finally, no participant group revealed a significant difference within case conditions (p>.05, GLM. Discussion Controls show a processing advantage for both types of case-marked ORCs compared to number-marked ORCs. For controls, this processing advantage seems to be caused by a difference in the morphological features, irrespective of the disambiguation point, as they performed equally well in both case conditions. In contrast, IWAs reveal a processing advantage only for early-disambiguated case-marked ORCs as compared to number-marked ORCs. We suggest that disambiguation in the immediate case condition does not lead to a processing advantage in IWAs due to a delay in sentence processing. Analyses of the eye-tracking data (in preparation will provide additional insights about real-time ORC processing.

  6. Effects of shading on relative competitive advantage of three species of Sphagnum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Z. Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available (1 Sphagnum is an important genus of bryophytes holding 10–15 % of the terrestrial carbon stock. With climate change a drier surface may increase the abundance of vascular plants on peatlands, so shading of Sphagnum may increase. Here we describe growth cabinet experiments to reveal the effects of shading on interactions among mixtures of three species: S. capillifolium, S. palustre (hummock species, and S. fallax (a hollow species. We measured the six traits: growth in length, growth as increase in dry mass, side-shoot production, nitrogen and carbon proportion of the capitulum dry mass, and C:N ratio in the capitulum. (2 Shading had no effect on biomass production or side-shoot production but increased height increment in all three species. It also increased the C and N proportions of total dry mass but decreased C:N ratio in the capitula. (3 Neighbours of a different species reduced biomass and side-shoot production in the two hummock species but had no effect on the hollow species. (4 All three species showed interaction between shading and neighbour in two or more plant traits. S. fallax showed competitive advantage over S. palustre in no-shading treatments and over S. capillifolium in moderate shading treatments. In addition, under deep shading, S. fallax showed a competitive advantage over both hummock species. A clear competitive hierarchy S. fallax>S. capillifolium>S. palustre emerged which was consistent with the hierarchy of side-shoot production. (5 The results suggest that all the species appear to tolerate deep shade (for a few months at least. In a shaded environment, especially under deeply shaded conditions, S. fallax retains its dominance in hollow habitats (if water availability is guaranteed by virtue of its advantage in side-shoot production. (6 If shading increases then the abundance of different Sphagnum species is likely to change.

  7. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first

  8. Empirical study of the perceived ease of use and relative advantage on load-bearing masonry (LBM) technology adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nor Azlinda; Abdullah, Che Sobry; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Load-bearing masonry (LBM) technology has been identified as an alternative method that can potentially encourage the sustainability of the housing industry. The adoption of LBM technology is believed to bring beneficial effects to the housing industry as well as company productivity. The factors related to the adoption LBM technology was revealed to strongly influence the implementation of this system in the housing industry. The aim of this study is to determine the factors influencing the adoption of LBM technology among the developer firms in Malaysia as well as the factors that are highly related to perceived ease of use and relative advantage. A random sampling technique was applied and a questionnaire-based field survey was carried out to obtain the data from the respondents. All the data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). The findings of this paper have revealed that perceived ease of use and relative advantage are related to the adoption of LBM technology. The findings also indicated the validity of Technology Acceptance Model TAM (perceived ease of use) and Innovation Diffusion Theory IDT (relative advantage) as the determinant factors in the adoption of LBM technology. Finally, some recommendations for future research are suggested in the final section of this paper.

  9. Is Being Gifted Always an Advantage? Peer Relations and Self-Concept of Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košir, Katja; Horvat, Marina; Aram, Urška; Jurinec, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between identified gifted adolescents and adolescents not identified as gifted in terms of social acceptance and self-concept (peer relations, academic, and general). In addition, we aimed to investigate the differences between two groups of students identified according to different…

  10. Advancing ASEAN Human Rights Norms Through External Relations: Capacity, Advantages, and the Potential for External Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Arsika, I Made Budi

    2016-01-01

    The gradual development of human rights norms in ASEAN has been discussed until recently. As before the human rights provisions were formally enshrined in the ASEAN Charter, many experts have shared their views on how such norms should ideally be formulated and how to use the institutional approach in the promotion and protection of human rights in Southeast Asia region.This paper mainly discusses about the role of ASEAN's external relations to advance the ASEAN human rights norms.On the more...

  11. The relative advantage of marketing over technological capabilities in influencing new product performance:the moderating role of country institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Eisend, Martin; Evanschitzky, Heiner; Calantone, Roger J.

    2016-01-01

    Marketing and technological capabilities are major drivers of new product performance. Prior research has suggested that marketing capabilities outperform technological capabilities. This study shows that the relative advantage of marketing over technological capabilities for new product performance depends on the institutional context in a country. Meta-analytic data of 341 effect sizes of the relationship between capabilities and new product performance taken from 50 articles with 57 indepe...

  12. Heterologous prime-boost vaccinations for poverty-related diseases: advantages and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosević, Katarina; Rodriguez, Ariane; Lemckert, Angelique; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2009-05-01

    Classical vaccination approaches, based on a single vaccine administered in a homologous prime-boost schedule and optimized to induce primarily neutralizing antibodies, are unlikely to be sufficiently efficacious to prevent TB, malaria or HIV infections. Novel vaccines, capable of inducing a more powerful immune response, in particular T-cell immunity, are desperately needed. Combining different vaccine modalities that are able to complement each other and induce broad and sustainable immunity is a promising approach. This review provides an overview of heterologous prime-boost vaccination modalities currently in development for the 'big three' poverty-related diseases and emphasizes the need for innovative vaccination approaches.

  13. Using public relations/marketing communications to gain a competitive advantage in the US power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzman, L.R. [Full Spectrum Communications, Loudonville, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    For many industries throughout the United States, deregulation will make or break a company. In the power generation and transmission arena, deregulation is currently underway. Many utilities and power generation equipment suppliers alike are being forced to compete very differently in this new market due to legislative changes. Also, as many companies reorganize, cut costs and downsize, public relations and marketing communications (PR/marcom) is often one of the first programs to be cut. This paper will offer some solid public relationships that can enhance a company`s image, help it generate sales leads and assist it in staying healthy in this competitive power area. Also provided will be a discussion of marketing communications and why PR/marcom efforts should not be discarded but stepped up during downsizing.

  14. EU-MOLDOVA TRADE RELATIONS: COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES OF MOLDOVAN INDUSTRIES ON THE SINGLE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana SANDU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Engaging on the long road of implementing the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the EU in 2010, Moldova is now closer than ever to being included in the most privileged category of the Eastern neighbouring countries - those who have chosen to deepen the European economic integration. The Vilnius Summit in November 2013 has reinforced the ‘more for more’ principle for both Moldova and Georgia by emphasizing, at the same time, the role of reactive measures and financial aid in counterbalancing aggressive trade barriers from non-EU states. Not only has Moldova proved to efficiently capitalize the provisions of the ATP agreement since 2008, but it has also consequently received more support from the EU in boosting exports to the single market. The wine industry was the first to benefit from the free-trade regime, as for the EU decision of eliminating quotas from the beginning of 2014. Nonetheless, the progressive liberalisation of trade flows between Moldova and the EU would finally oppose two asymmetric partners. Consequently, Moldova is facing the challenge of asserting its value on the EU market, by yet not undermining the relevance of other important trading partners nearby.

  15. Advantages of the association of resveratrol with oral contraceptives for management of endometriosis-related pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Jr H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hugo Maia Jr,1,2 Clarice Haddad,2 Nathanael Pinheiro,3,4 Julio Casoy21Itaigara Memorial Day Hospital, 2Centro de Pesquisas e Assistência em Reprodução Humana, 3ImagePat, Pathology Laboratory, 4Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, BrazilBackground: The effect of resveratrol on the management of endometriosis-related pain was investigated in 12 patients who failed to obtain pain relief during use of an oral contraceptive containing drospirenone + ethinylestradiol.Methods and results: The addition of 30 mg of resveratrol to the contraceptive regimen resulted in a significant reduction in pain scores, with 82% of patients reporting complete resolution of dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain after 2 months of use. In a separate experiment, aromatase and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression were investigated in the endometrial tissue of 42 patients submitted to laparoscopy and hysteroscopy for the management of endometriosis. Sixteen of these patients were using oral contraceptives alone prior to hospital admission, while the remaining 26 were using them in combination with resveratrol. Inhibition of both aromatase and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression was significantly greater in the eutopic endometrium of patients using combined drospirenone + resveratrol therapy compared with the endometrium of patients using oral contraceptives alone.Conclusion: These results suggest that resveratrol potentiates the effect of oral contraceptives in the management of endometriosis-associated dysmenorrhea by further decreasing aromatase and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression in the endometrium.Keywords: resveratrol, drospirenone, endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, cyclo-oxygenase-2

  16. Generic Advantages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Generic Advantages. Scalability an incremental coverage. Standardization. Business Plan Flexibility. Lifecycle Flexibility. Reliability. Service Interoperability. Changed Industry dynamics.

  17. pH-Free Measurement of Relative Acidities, Including Isotope Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    A powerful pH-free multicomponent NMR titration method can measure relative acidities, even of closely related compounds, with excellent accuracy. The history of the method is presented, along with details of its implementation and a comparison with earlier NMR titrations using a pH electrode. Many of its areas of applicability are described, especially equilibrium isotope effects. The advantages of the method, some practical considerations, and potential pitfalls are considered. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Electronic Information Resources (EIR Adoption in Private University Libraries: The Moderating Effect of Productivity and Relative Advantage on Perceived Usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izuagbe, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tested a hybrid model with constructs drawn from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory in order to examine the moderating effect of productivity and relative advantage (RA on perceived usefulness (PU vis-à-vis electronic information resources (EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States of Nigeria. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 61 (55.0% librarians and 50 (45.0% library officers (totaling 116—100% in Babcock University, Bells University, Covenant University, Bowen University, Oduduwa University, and Redeemer's University. Purposive sampling procedure was adopted after which total enumeration was used since the total population is small. The questionnaire was used for data collection. Of the 116 copies of the questionnaire administered, 111 (95.7% were found usable. The instrument was structured based on a 4-point Likert agreement scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like tables of frequency counts and percentage. The findings revealed that productivity and relative advantage are significant moderators of perceived usefulness of EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States, Nigeria.

  19. Buyer-Supplier Relationships and the Resource- Advantage Perspective: An Illustrative Example of Relational and Transactional Drivers of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raskovic Matevz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the so called resource-advantage perspective can be used to determine the importance of specific relational and transactional dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships in driving relationship competitiveness within a transnational company (TNC. The main objective of our research was to analyze which and how much specific relational and/or transactional dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships affect TNC buyer-supplier relationship competitiveness. Based on an illustrative empirical example, we tested a simple variance-based reflective Structural Equation Model (SEM with main effects based on a sampleof 130 TNC buyer-supplier relationships. Our results show that buyer-supplier relationship competitiveness is mostly driven by interpersonal trust and joint problem solving (both relationaldeterminants, as well as by two kinds of transaction-specific investments (TSIs, namely investments into people and physical assets. In terms of theoretical implications, our results show thatthe resource-advantage theory of competition can link both the relationship marketing and the transaction cost economics perspective of buyer-supplier relationship management. We further provide some managerial recommendations for more effective management of TNC buyer-supplier relationships in terms of leveraging competitiveness.

  20. Centrosomes in the zebrafish (Danio rerio: a review including the related basal body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessman Charles A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ever since Edouard Van Beneden and Theodor Boveri first formally described the centrosome in the late 1800s, it has captivated cell biologists. The name clearly indicated its central importance to cell functioning, even to these early investigators. We now know of its role as a major microtubule-organizing center (MTOC and of its dynamic roles in cell division, vesicle trafficking and for its relative, the basal body, ciliogenesis. While centrosomes are found in most animal cells, notably it is absent in most oocytes and higher plant cells. Nevertheless, it appears that critical components of the centrosome act as MTOCs in these cells as well. The zebrafish has emerged as an exciting and promising new model organism, primarily due to the pioneering efforts of George Streisinger to use zebrafish in genetic studies and due to Christiane Nusslein-Volhard, Wolfgang Driever and their teams of collaborators, who applied forward genetics to elicit a large number of mutant lines. The transparency and rapid external development of the embryo allow for experiments not easily done in other vertebrates. The ease of producing transgenic lines, often with the use of fluorescent reporters, and gene knockdowns with antisense morpholinos further contributes to the appeal of the model as an experimental system. The added advantage of high-throughput screening of small-molecule libraries, as well as the ease of mass rearing together with low cost, makes the zebrafish a true frontrunner as a model vertebrate organism. The zebrafish has a body plan shared by all vertebrates, including humans. This conservation of body plan provides added significance to the existing lines of zebrafish as human disease models and adds an impetus to the ongoing efforts to develop new models. In this review, the current state of knowledge about the centrosome in the zebrafish model is explored. Also, studies on the related basal body in zebrafish and their relationship to

  1. How Environmental Uncertainty Moderates the Effect of Relative Advantage and Perceived Credibility on the Adoption of Mobile Health Services by Chinese Organizations in the Big Data Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of adoption of mobile health services by an organization on the diffusion of mobile technology in the big data era, it has received minimal attention in literature. This study investigates how relative advantage and perceived credibility affect an organization’s adoption of mobile health services, as well as how environmental uncertainty changes the relationship of relative advantage and perceived credibility with adoption. A research model that integrates relative advantage, perceived credibility, environmental uncertainty, and an organization’s intention to use mobile health service is developed. Quantitative data are collected from senior managers and information systems managers in 320 Chinese healthcare organizations. The empirical findings show that while relative advantage and perceived credibility both have positive effects on an organization’s intention to use mobile health services, relative advantage plays a more important role than perceived credibility. Moreover, environmental uncertainty positively moderates the effect of relative advantage on an organization’s adoption of mobile health services. Thus, mobile health services in environments characterized with high levels of uncertainty are more likely to be adopted because of relative advantage than in environments with low levels of uncertainty.

  2. How Environmental Uncertainty Moderates the Effect of Relative Advantage and Perceived Credibility on the Adoption of Mobile Health Services by Chinese Organizations in the Big Data Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of adoption of mobile health services by an organization on the diffusion of mobile technology in the big data era, it has received minimal attention in literature. This study investigates how relative advantage and perceived credibility affect an organization's adoption of mobile health services, as well as how environmental uncertainty changes the relationship of relative advantage and perceived credibility with adoption. A research model that integrates relative advantage, perceived credibility, environmental uncertainty, and an organization's intention to use mobile health service is developed. Quantitative data are collected from senior managers and information systems managers in 320 Chinese healthcare organizations. The empirical findings show that while relative advantage and perceived credibility both have positive effects on an organization's intention to use mobile health services, relative advantage plays a more important role than perceived credibility. Moreover, environmental uncertainty positively moderates the effect of relative advantage on an organization's adoption of mobile health services. Thus, mobile health services in environments characterized with high levels of uncertainty are more likely to be adopted because of relative advantage than in environments with low levels of uncertainty. PMID:28115932

  3. Sex-related time-dependent variations in post-stroke survival-evidence of a female stroke survival advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2007-01-01

    of stroke and remained so during the first month suggesting a female survival advantage. Throughout the second month the rate reversed in favour of men suggesting that women in that period are paying a 'toll' for their initial survival advantage. Hereafter, the rate steadily decreased, and after 4 months...

  4. Advantage Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Increased focus has been placed on the issues of energy access and energy poverty over the last number of years, most notably indicated by the United Nations (UN) declaring 2012 as the 'International Year of Sustainable Energy for All'. Although attention in these topics has increased, incorrect assumptions and misunderstandings still arise in both the literature and dialogues. Access to energy does not only include electricity, does not only include cook stoves, but must include access to all types of energy that form the overall energy system. This paper chooses to examine this energy system using a typology that breaks it into 3 primary energy subsystems: heat energy, electricity and transportation. Describing the global energy system using these three subsystems provides a way to articulate the differences and similarities for each system's required investments needs by the private and public sectors.

  5. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary sect...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases.......This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...

  6. The fitness advantage of commercial wine yeasts in relation to the nitrogen concentration, temperature, and ethanol content under microvinification conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ríos, Estéfani; Gutiérrez, Alicia; Salvadó, Zoel; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé; Guillamon, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the main environmental factors governing wine fermentation on the fitness of industrial yeast strains has barely received attention. In this study, we used the concept of fitness advantage to measure how increasing nitrogen concentrations (0 to 200 mg N/liter), ethanol (0 to 20%), and temperature (4 to 45°C) affects competition among four commercial wine yeast strains (PDM, ARM, RVA, and TTA). We used a mathematical approach to model the hypothetical time needed for the control strain (PDM) to out-compete the other three strains in a theoretical mixed population. The theoretical values obtained were subsequently verified by competitive mixed fermentations in both synthetic and natural musts, which showed a good fit between the theoretical and experimental data. Specifically, the data show that the increase in nitrogen concentration and temperature values improved the fitness advantage of the PDM strain, whereas the presence of ethanol significantly reduced its competitiveness. However, the RVA strain proved to be the most competitive yeast for the three enological parameters assayed. The study of the fitness of these industrial strains is of paramount interest for the wine industry, which uses them as starters of their fermentations. Here, we propose a very simple method to model the fitness advantage, which allows the prediction of the competitiveness of one strain with respect to different abiotic factors.

  7. Advantages of dietary, exercise-related, and therapeutic interventions to prevent and treat sarcopenia in adult patients: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Waters

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available DL Waters1, RN Baumgartner2, PJ Garry3, B Vellas41Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 2Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA; 3Department of Pathology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA; 4Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatric Medicine, University Hospital Center of Toulouse, Gerontopole, Toulouse, FranceAbstract: Sarcopenia is the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with aging. Although the term sarcopenia was first coined in 1989, its etiology is still poorly understood. Moreover, a consensus for defining sarcopenia continues to elude us. Sarcopenic changes in the muscle include losses in muscle fiber quantity and quality, alpha-motor neurons, protein synthesis rates, and anabolic and sex hormone production. Other factors include basal metabolic rate, increased protein dietary requirements, and chronic inflammation secondary to age-related changes in cytokines and oxidative stress. These changes lead to decreased overall physical functioning, increased frailty, falls risk, and ultimately the loss of independent living. Because the intertwining relationships of these factors are complex, effective treatment options are still under investigation. The published data on sarcopenia are vast, and this review is not intended to be exhaustive. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current knowledge of the definition, etiology, consequences, and current clinical trials that may help address this pressing public health problem for our aging populations.Keywords: aging, muscle loss, nutrition, physical activity

  8. The Online Social Networking of Cyberspace: A Study on the Development of an Online Social Network Project and the Sport Industry's Perception of Its Relative Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptrap, Timothy John

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory case study examined online social networking (OSN), and the perceptions of Sport Marketing students and sport industry professional as to the relative advantage of the OSN tools in the marketplace. The conceptual framework for this study was based on Boyer's (1990) concepts of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL), and the…

  9. Accessing offshoring advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Motika, Agnes; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    of the work include using only the offshoring strategy elements and only their limited variety as factors potentially influencing access to offshoring advantages. Also, the findings are limited to Scandinavian companies. Originality/value – The paper introduces a new concept of access, which can help to more......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to advance the understanding of factors that affect offshoring performance results. To do so, this paper focuses on the access to location-specific advantages, rather than solely on the properties of the offshoring company, its strategy or environment....... Assuming that different levels of synergy may exist between particular offshoring strategic decisions (choosing offshore outsourcing or captive offshoring and the type of function) and different offshoring advantages, this work advocates that the actual fact of realization of certain offshoring advantages...

  10. Including chemical-related impact categories in LCA on printed matter does it matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Morten Søes; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    special focus is on the production stage but upstream emissions assessed to be of possible significant importance are included (e.g. estimated emissions from pigment production) or handled in the sensitivity analysis. The functional unit is 1 ton of sheet feed offset produced printed matter, i.e. printed......Introduction Existing product Life Cycle Assessments (LCA¡¦s) on offset printed matter all point at paper as the overall dominating contributor to the impacts from the life-cycle of this category of products. This dominating role of paper is primarily founded in the energy-related impact categories...... include these chemical-related impact categories by making use of some of the newest knowledge about emissions from the production at the printing industry combined with knowledge about the composition of the printing materials used during the production of offset printed matter. This paper is based...

  11. The mechanical advantage of the magnetosphere: solar-wind-related forces in the magnetosphere-ionosphere-Earth system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vasyliūnas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions involve electric currents that circulate between the two regions; the associated Lorentz forces, existing in both regions as matched opposite pairs, are generally viewed as the primary mechanism by which linear momentum, derived ultimately from solar wind flow, is transferred from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere, where it is further transferred by collisions to the neutral atmosphere. For a given total amount of current, however, the total force is proportional to ℒB and in general, since ℒ2B~ constant by flux conservation, is much larger in the ionosphere than in the magnetosphere (ℒ = effective length, B = magnetic field. The magnetosphere may be described as possesing a mechanical advantage: the Lorentz force in it is coupled with a Lorentz force in the ionosphere that has been amplified by a factor given approximately by the square root of magnetic field magnitude ratio (~20 to 40 on field lines connected to the outer magnetosphere. The linear momentum transferred to the ionosphere (and thence to the atmosphere as the result of magnetic stresses applied by the magnetosphere can thus be much larger than the momentum supplied by the solar wind through tangential stress. The added linear momentum comes from within the Earth, extracted by the Lorentz force on currents that arise as a consequence of magnetic perturbation fields from the ionosphere (specifically, the shielding currents within the Earth that keep out the time-varying external fields. This implies at once that Fukushima's theorem on the vanishing of ground-level magnetic perturbations cannot be fully applicable, a conclusion confirmed by re-examining the assumptions from which the theorem is derived. To balance the inferred Lorentz force within the Earth's interior, there must exist an antisunward mechanical stress there, only a small part of which is the acceleration of the entire Earth system

  12. A satellite relative motion model including J_2 and J_3 via Vinti's intermediary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biria, Ashley D.; Russell, Ryan P.

    2018-03-01

    Vinti's potential is revisited for analytical propagation of the main satellite problem, this time in the context of relative motion. A particular version of Vinti's spheroidal method is chosen that is valid for arbitrary elliptical orbits, encapsulating J_2, J_3, and generally a partial J_4 in an orbit propagation theory without recourse to perturbation methods. As a child of Vinti's solution, the proposed relative motion model inherits these properties. Furthermore, the problem is solved in oblate spheroidal elements, leading to large regions of validity for the linearization approximation. After offering several enhancements to Vinti's solution, including boosts in accuracy and removal of some singularities, the proposed model is derived and subsequently reformulated so that Vinti's solution is piecewise differentiable. While the model is valid for the critical inclination and nonsingular in the element space, singularities remain in the linear transformation from Earth-centered inertial coordinates to spheroidal elements when the eccentricity is zero or for nearly equatorial orbits. The new state transition matrix is evaluated against numerical solutions including the J_2 through J_5 terms for a wide range of chief orbits and separation distances. The solution is also compared with side-by-side simulations of the original Gim-Alfriend state transition matrix, which considers the J_2 perturbation. Code for computing the resulting state transition matrix and associated reference frame and coordinate transformations is provided online as supplementary material.

  13. Cyclic nucleotide metabolism including nitric oxide and phosphodiesterase-related targets in the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckert, Stefan; Kuczyk, Markus A

    2011-01-01

    The clinical data on the use of the orally active phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 5 inhibitors sildenafil (VIAGRA™), vardenafil (LEVITRA™), and tadalafil (CIALIS™) for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction have boosted research activities on the physiology and pharmacology of the organs of the lower urinary tract (LUT). This includes both intracellular signal transduction in the prostate, urinary bladder (detrusor), and urethra, as well as central brain and spinal cord pathways controlling the function of the LUT. Such efforts provided the basis for the development of new therapeutic modalities into the management of dysfunctions/ syndromes of the LUT, some of which are already offered to the patients. The pharmacological treatment of the overactive bladder and the so-called benign prostatic syndrome, including LUT symptomatology and bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic enlargement, has primarily focused on selective, orally available drugs acting by influencing intracellular regulatory mechanisms. These agents are regarded efficacious, have a fast onset of drug action in the target tissue and an improved effect-to-side-effect ratio. Better understanding of the functional significance of proteins related to cyclic nucleotide-dependent pathways, such as nitric oxide synthase, cytosolic and membrane-bound guanylyl cyclases, PDE isoenzymes and cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-binding protein kinases, the relative distribution in tissues of the LUT, and the consequences for urogenital function, seems to be of particular interest in order to identify new or more selective pharmacological approaches to manage disorders of the LUT. The present review focuses on cyclic nucleotide-related targets involved in the control of the function of the bladder, prostate, and urethra and the significance of those proteins in the process of evolving new pharmacological options for the treatment of LUT symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia as well as

  14. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  15. Advantages of Relative versus Absolute Data for the Development of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Classification Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Irene Luque; Gómez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel

    2017-11-27

    The appropriate selection of a chemical space represented by the data set, the selection of its chemical data representation, the development of a correct modeling process using a robust and reproducible algorithm, and the performance of an exhaustive training and external validation determine the usability and reproducibility of a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) classification model. In this paper, we show that the use of relative versus absolute data in the representation of the data sets produces better classification models when the other processes are not modified. Relative data considers a reference frame to measure the chemical characteristics involved in the classification model, refining the data set representation and smoothing the lack of chemical information. Three data sets with different characteristics have been used in this study, and classifications models have been built applying the support vector machine algorithm. For randomly selected training and test sets, values of accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve close to 100% have been obtained for the generation of the models and external validations in all cases.

  16. Survival advantage of hemodialysis relative to peritoneal dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Florence; Schott-Pethelaz, Anne-Marie; Labeeuw, Michel; Colin, Cyrille; Villar, Emmanuel

    2011-11-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been proposed as a therapeutic option for patients with end-stage renal disease and associated congestive heart failure (CHF). Here, we compare mortality risks in these patients by dialysis modality by including all patients who started planned chronic dialysis with associated congestive heart failure and were prospectively enrolled in the French REIN Registry. Survival was compared between 933 PD and 3468 hemodialysis (HD) patients using a Kaplan-Meier model, Cox regression, and propensity score analysis. The patients were followed from their first dialysis session and stratified by modality at day 90 or last modality if death occurred prior. There was a significant difference in the median survival time of 20.4 months in the PD group and 36.7 months in the HD group (hazard ratio, 1.55). After correction for confounders, the adjusted hazard ratio for death in PD compared to the HD patients remained significant at 1.48. Subgroup analyses showed that the results were not changed with regard to the New York Heart Association stage, age strata, or estimated glomerular filtration rate strata at first renal replacement therapy. The use of propensity score did not change results (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.55). Thus, mortality risk was higher with PD than with HD among incident patients with end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. These results may help guide clinical decisions and also highlight the need for randomized clinical trials.

  17. Some Mathematical Structures Including Simplified Non-Relativistic Quantum Teleportation Equations and Special Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woesler, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The computations of the present text with non-relativistic quantum teleportation equations and special relativity are totally speculative, physically correct computations can be done using quantum field theory, which remain to be done in future. Proposals for what might be called statistical time loop experiments with, e.g., photon polarization states are described when assuming the simplified non-relativistic quantum teleportation equations and special relativity. However, a closed time loop would usually not occur due to phase incompatibilities of the quantum states. Histories with such phase incompatibilities are called inconsistent ones in the present text, and it is assumed that only consistent histories would occur. This is called an exclusion principle for inconsistent histories, and it would yield that probabilities for certain measurement results change. Extended multiple parallel experiments are proposed to use this statistically for transmission of classical information over distances, and regarding time. Experiments might be testable in near future. However, first a deeper analysis, including quantum field theory, remains to be done in future

  18. Three-dimensional free electron laser dispersion relation including betatron oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Y.H.; Kim, K.J.; Xie, M.

    1991-08-01

    We have developed a 3-D FEL theory based upon the Maxwell-Vlasov equations including the effects of the energy spread and emittance of the electron beam, and of betatron oscillations. The radiation field is expressed in terms of the Green's function of the inhomogeneous wave equation and the distribution function of the electron beam. The distribution function is expanded in terms of a set of orthogonal functions determined by the unperturbed particle distribution. The coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations are then reduced to a matrix equation, from which a dispersion relation for the eigenvalues is derived. In the limit of small betatron oscillation frequency, the present dispersion relation reduces to the well-known cubic equation of the one-dimensional theory in the limit of large beam size, and it gives the correct gain in the limit of small beam size. Comparisons of our numerical results with other approaches show good agreement. We present a handy empirical formula for the FEL gain of a 3-D Gaussian beam, as a function of the scaled parameters, that can be used for a quick estimate of the grain. 5 refs., 2 figs

  19. Local Staff (LS) - Proposal by the Management, Including related Modifications to the Staff Rules And Regulations

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The issue of Local Staff (LS) has been discussed since May 2002 at successive meetings of TREF and the Committees, leading to a proposal document by the Management, which was examined at TREF last November. As reported by the Chairman of TREF to the Finance Committee in December, the Management has now revised its proposal in the light of discussions at the Forum. This document summarises the background, the main aims, scope and features of LS, as well as estimated consequences of implementing the Management's proposal, including those indicated in the Human Resources Plan submitted last December. Related modifications of the Staff Rules and Regulations required to implement the Management's proposal are set out in Annex 8. After discussion at TREF in February 2003, the Management hereby submits its proposal for approval by the Finance Committee and the Council, for entry into force as of 1 April 2003. This time-scale would permit gradual implementation of LS starting this year, which is consistent with the f...

  20. United Kingdom nationwide study of avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S N; Palmer, N O A; Lowe, D; Randall, C

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to record all new patients who presented to departments of oral surgery, oral medicine, and oral and maxillofacial surgery, and to dental hospitals in the UK, with avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis (BRONJ) over a 2-year period (1 June 2009-31 May 2011). They were eligible irrespective of age, cause, or coexisting conditions. Data on incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, and coexisting conditions were collected. A total of 383 cases were registered: 369 were described as BRONJ, 5 as avascular necrosis, and 9 were unknown. Bisphosphonates had been given orally in 207 (56%), intravenously in 125 (34%), both orally and intravenously in 27 (7%), and was unknown in 9 (2%); one had been given denosumab. The main risk factor was dental extraction, and the mandible was commonly affected. The median duration of administration until onset of BRONJ was 3 years in those treated intravenously and 4 years in those treated orally. Levels of engagement with the study varied between regions, and extrapolation from the 2 most involved (Merseyside and Northern Ireland) found around 8.2-12.8 cases/million/year, which is 508-793 patients/year across the UK. To our knowledge this is one of the first studies to estimate national rates of BRONJ. It confirms that the risk and incidence are low. With changes in trends for antiresorptive bone medication, and increasing numbers of elderly people, it would be useful to repeat the registration in the future. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Completion of the universal I-Love-Q relations in compact stars including the mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Borja; Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Vera, Raül; Font, José A.

    2017-09-01

    In a recent paper, we applied a rigorous perturbed matching framework to show the amendment of the mass of rotating stars in Hartle's model. Here, we apply this framework to the tidal problem in binary systems. Our approach fully accounts for the correction to the Love numbers needed to obtain the universal I-Love-Q relations. We compute the corrected mass versus radius configurations of rotating quark stars, revisiting a classical paper on the subject. These corrections allow us to find a universal relation involving the second-order contribution to the mass δM. We thus complete the set of universal relations for the tidal problem in binary systems, involving four perturbation parameters, namely I, Love, Q and δM. These relations can be used to obtain the perturbation parameters directly from observational data.

  2. 76 FR 10385 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will be Included in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related... that was indicated is the estimated annualized cost to the respondents for the hour burden for... additional 30-days for public comments and to correct the cost from $236,253.00 to zero. DATES: Comments are...

  3. Including pride and its group-based, relational, and contextual features in theories of contempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gavin Brent

    2017-01-01

    Sentiment includes emotional and enduring attitudinal features of contempt, but explaining contempt as a mixture of basic emotion system affects does not adequately address the family resemblance structure of the concept. Adding forms of individual, group-based, and widely shared arrogance and contempt is necessary to capture the complex mixed feelings of proud superiority when "looking down upon" and acting harshly towards others.

  4. Olfactory exposure to males, including men, causes stress and related analgesia in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Robert E; Martin, Loren J; Isbester, Kelsey A; Sotocinal, Susana G; Rosen, Sarah; Tuttle, Alexander H; Wieskopf, Jeffrey S; Acland, Erinn L; Dokova, Anastassia; Kadoura, Basil; Leger, Philip; Mapplebeck, Josiane C S; McPhail, Martina; Delaney, Ada; Wigerblad, Gustaf; Schumann, Alan P; Quinn, Tammie; Frasnelli, Johannes; Svensson, Camilla I; Sternberg, Wendy F; Mogil, Jeffrey S

    2014-06-01

    We found that exposure of mice and rats to male but not female experimenters produces pain inhibition. Male-related stimuli induced a robust physiological stress response that results in stress-induced analgesia. This effect could be replicated with T-shirts worn by men, bedding material from gonadally intact and unfamiliar male mammals, and presentation of compounds secreted from the human axilla. Experimenter sex can thus affect apparent baseline responses in behavioral testing.

  5. On the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stress including Specific Results related to Dolosse

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; Howell, G.L.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structural integrity. The paper presents a general discussion of the problems related to stress etermination and describes the results and the analyses of model tests with 200 kg and 200 g load-cell instrume...

  6. The role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in peripheral and central pain mechanisms including migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Smriti; Ossipov, Michael H; Johnson, Kirk W

    2017-04-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid peptide found primarily in the C and Aδ sensory fibers arising from the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, as well as the central nervous system. Calcitonin gene-related peptide was found to play important roles in cardiovascular, digestive, and sensory functions. Although the vasodilatory properties of CGRP are well documented, its somatosensory function regarding modulation of neuronal sensitization and of enhanced pain has received considerable attention recently. Growing evidence indicates that CGRP plays a key role in the development of peripheral sensitization and the associated enhanced pain. Calcitonin gene-related peptide is implicated in the development of neurogenic inflammation and it is upregulated in conditions of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. It is most likely that CGRP facilitates nociceptive transmission and contributes to the development and maintenance of a sensitized, hyperresponsive state not only of the primary afferent sensory neurons but also of the second-order pain transmission neurons within the central nervous system, thus contributing to central sensitization as well. The maintenance of a sensitized neuronal condition is believed to be an important factor underlying migraine. Recent successful clinical studies have shown that blocking the function of CGRP can alleviate migraine. However, the mechanisms through which CGRP may contribute to migraine are still not fully understood. We reviewed the role of CGRP in primary afferents, the dorsal root ganglion, and in the trigeminal system as well as its role in peripheral and central sensitization and its potential contribution to pain processing and to migraine.

  7. Relation between generalized Bogoliubov and Bogoliubov-de Gennes approaches including Nambu-Goldstone mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, M.; Okumura, M.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The two approaches of consistent quantum field theory for systems of the trapped Bose-Einstein condensates are known, one is the Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach and the other is the generalized Bogoliubov approach. In this paper, we investigate the relation between the two approaches and show that they are formally equivalent to each other. To do this one must carefully treat the Nambu-Goldstone mode which plays a crucial role in the condensation. It is emphasized that the choice of vacuum is physically relevant

  8. Possible Simple Structures of the Universe to Include General Relativity Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu BERBENTE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The general relativity describes the universe properties, the gravity playing a fundamental role. One uses a metric tensor in a Riemann space, g  , which should be in agreement with a mass (or energy tensor in order to satisfy the Einstein equation of the general relativity [1]. This equation contains the Ricci curvature as well. In general, applications are done considering that a chosen metric is valid without region limits. In fact, the density of the energy whose distribution is however unknown is variable in universe; therefore, the metrics need to be adapted to different regions. For this reason one suggests to start with a simple, average mass-energy distribution that could represent in a first step the actual universe. This suggestion is in agreement with the symmetrical distribution of equal spheres existing in a model of the early universe given by one of the authors. Two kinds of distribution are given. The possibility of black holes formation is studied and a criterion is given.

  9. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Robert Dominick

    2014-09-09

    Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

  10. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in several organisms including humans from Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsolini, S. [Siena Univ. (Italy); Kannan, K. [New York State Univ., Albany, NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant, extremely resistant to environmental degradation and is ubiquitous in the environment. Traditional monitoring studies for persistent chemicals failed to identify this contaminant for a long time because of its unique physicochemical properties and its tendency to bind to proteins instead of accumulating in fatty tissues. PFOS is known to be toxic in laboratory animals (rats, mice, monkeys) at levels close to the range already found in organisms and people. PFOS has been commercially produced by an electrochemical fluorination process for over 40 years. Perfluorooctane sulfonylfluoride (POSF; C{sub 8}F{sub 17}SO{sub 2}F) is used as a building block for further reactions that produce several other sulfonated fluorinated compounds, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (C{sub 8}F{sub 17}SO{sub 3}{sup -}) and other precursor molecules such as n-ethyl or n-methyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol. POSF-based fluorochemicals have been used in a wide variety of industrial and consumer products, including protective coatings for carpets and apparel, paper coatings, insecticide formulations, and surfactants. These compounds repel water and oil, reduce surface tension, catalyze oligomerization and polymerization, and maintain their properties under extreme conditions. Depending upon the specific functional derivatization or the degree of polymerization, POSF-based chemicals may degrade or metabolize to PFOS, which is known to be the final metabolite of POSF-based fluorochemicals. PFOS is stable, chemically inert, and non-reactive and has the potential to bioaccumulate. It has been found in polar bears from the Arctic, albatross and other fish-eating water birds in the mid-Pacific, and aquatic organisms11 and people world-wide. PFOS and other perfluorinated chemicals such as perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been detected in human blood. In

  11. Fine-mapping diabetes-related traits, including insulin resistance, in heterogeneous stock rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg Woods, Leah C; Holl, Katie L; Oreper, Daniel; Xie, Yuying; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Valdar, William

    2012-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease of relative insulin deficiency resulting from both insulin resistance and beta cell failure. We have previously used heterogeneous stock (HS) rats to fine-map a locus for glucose tolerance. We show here that glucose intolerance in the founder strains of the HS colony is mediated by different mechanisms: insulin resistance in WKY and an insulin secretion defect in ACI, and we demonstrate a high degree of variability for measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in HS rats. As such, our goal was to use HS rats to fine-map several diabetes-related traits within a region on rat chromosome 1. We measured blood glucose and plasma insulin levels after a glucose tolerance test in 782 male HS rats. Using 97 SSLP markers, we genotyped a 68 Mb region on rat chromosome 1 previously implicated in glucose and insulin regulation. We used linkage disequilibrium mapping by mixed model regression with inferred descent to identify a region from 198.85 to 205.9 that contains one or more quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fasting insulin and a measure of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. This region also encompasses loci identified for fasting glucose and Insulin_AUC (area under the curve). A separate <3 Mb QTL was identified for body weight. Using a novel penalized regression method we then estimated effects of alternative haplotype pairings under each locus. These studies highlight the utility of HS rats for fine-mapping genetic loci involved in the underlying causes of T2D.

  12. Volatile anaesthetics enhance the metastasis related cellular signalling including CXCR2 of ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Masae; Zhao, Hailin; Jaffer, Tanweer; Unwith, Sandeep; Benzonana, Laura; Lian, Qingquan; Sakamoto, Atsuhiro; Ma, Daqing

    2016-05-03

    The majority of ovarian cancer patients relapse after surgical resection. Evidence is accumulating regarding the role of surgery in disseminating cancer cells; in particular anaesthesia may have an impact on cancer re-occurrence. Here, we have investigated the metastatic potential of volatile anaesthetics isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane on ovarian cancer cells. Human ovarian carcinoma cells (SKOV3) were exposed to isoflurane (2%), sevoflurane (3.6%) or desflurane (10.3%) for 2 hours. Metastatic related gene expression profiles were measured using the Tumour Metastasis PCR Array and qRT-PCR. Subsequently vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2) proteins expression were determined using immunofluorescent staining. The migratory capacities of SK-OV3 cells were assessed with a scratch assay and the potential role of CXCR2 in mediating the effects of volatile anaesthetics on cancer cell biology were further investigated with CXCR2 knockdown by siRNA. All three volatile anaesthetics altered expression of 70 out of 81 metastasic related genes with significant increases in VEGF-A, MMP-11, CXCR2 and TGF-β genes and protein expression with a magnitude order of desflurane (greatest), sevoflurane and isoflurane. Scratch analysis revealed that exposure to these anesthetics increased migration, which was abolished by CXCR2 knockdown. Volatile anaesthetics at clinically relevant concentrations have strong effects on cancer cell biology which in turn could enhance ovarian cancer metastatic potential. This work raises the urgency for further in vivo studies and clinical trials before any conclusions can be made in term of the alteration of clinical practice.

  13. Education outcomes related to including genomics activities in nursing practice in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, Elizabeth; Lim, Swee Hia; Png, Hong Hock

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of a genomic educational intervention by measuring the extent participants could apply the class content to practice. A sample of 76 nurses employed by Singapore Health Services, Singapore, participated in a nursing genomics seminar in 2008 and completed a survey form with a response rate of 89%. Every respondent was able to identify use of a genomic assessment or intervention item with a patient from their clinical practice. The mean use of genomic assessment and intervention items was 5.8 out of a possible 10. The most frequently used items were assessment of family history information, environmental factors and genomic physical findings. Findings provide evidence that nurses are able to include genomic assessments and interventions in their practice following targeted education. This study highlights how informed nurses are able to apply genomic assessments and interventions to individualize patient care.

  14. Comparison of behavioral profiles for anxiety-related comorbidities including ADHD and selective mutism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Decanini, Tal; Connolly, Sucheta D; Simpson, David; Suarez, Liza; Jacob, Suma

    2013-09-01

    Elucidating differences in social-behavioral profiles of children with comorbid presentations, utilizing caregiver as well as teacher reports, will refine our understanding of how contextual symptoms vary across anxiety-related disorders. In our pediatric anxiety clinic, the most frequent diagnoses and comorbidities were mixed anxiety (MA; ≥ 1 anxiety disorder; N = 155), anxiety with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MA/ADHD, N = 47) and selective mutism (SM, N = 48). Behavioral measures (CPRS, CTRS) were analyzed using multiple one-way multivariate analyses of covariance tests. Differences between the three diagnostic groups were examined using completed parent and teacher reports (N = 135, 46, and 48 for MA, MA/ADHD, and SM groups, respectively). Comparisons across the MA, MA/ADHD, and SM groups indicate a significant multivariate main effect of group for caregiver and teacher responses (P < 0.01). Caregivers reported that children with SM are similar in profile to those with MA, and both groups were significantly different from the MA/ADHD group. Teachers reported that children with SM had more problems with social behaviors than with the MA or MA/ADHD groups. Further comparison indicates a significant main effect of group (P < 0.001), such that children with SM have the greatest differences in behavior observed by teachers versus caregivers. Clinical profiles between MA/ADHD, MA, and SM groups varied, illustrating the importance of multi-rater assessment scales to capture subtle distinctions and to inform treatment planning given that comorbidities occur frequently in children who present with anxiety. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. 41 CFR 301-74.16 - What must be included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance? 301-74.16 Section 301-74.16... included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance? (a) Any advertisement or application for attendance at a conference described in § 301-74.14 must include: (1) Notice of...

  16. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    , the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...

  17. Explaining the Immigrant Health Advantage: Self-selection and Protection in Health-Related Factors Among Five Major National-Origin Immigrant Groups in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riosmena, Fernando; Kuhn, Randall; Jochem, Warren C.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being newcomers, immigrants often exhibit better health relative to native-born populations in industrialized societies. We extend prior efforts to identify whether self-selection and/or protection explain this advantage. We examine migrant height and smoking levels just prior to immigration to test for self-selection; and we analyze smoking behavior since immigration, controlling for self-selection, to assess protection. We study individuals aged 20–49 from five major national origins: India, China, the Philippines, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. To assess self-selection, we compare migrants, interviewed in the National Health and Interview Surveys (NHIS), with nonmigrant peers in sending nations, interviewed in the World Health Surveys. To test for protection, we contrast migrants’ changes in smoking since immigration with two counterfactuals: (1) rates that immigrants would have exhibited had they adopted the behavior of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites in the NHIS (full —assimilation ); and (2) rates that migrants would have had if they had adopted the rates of nonmigrants in sending countries (no-migration scenario). We find statistically significant and substantial self-selection, particularly among men from both higher-skilled (Indians and Filipinos in height, Chinese in smoking) and lower-skilled (Mexican) undocumented pools. We also find significant and substantial protection in smoking among immigrant groups with stronger relative social capital (Mexicans and Dominicans). PMID:28092071

  18. Explaining the Immigrant Health Advantage: Self-selection and Protection in Health-Related Factors Among Five Major National-Origin Immigrant Groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riosmena, Fernando; Kuhn, Randall; Jochem, Warren C

    2017-02-01

    Despite being newcomers, immigrants often exhibit better health relative to native-born populations in industrialized societies. We extend prior efforts to identify whether self-selection and/or protection explain this advantage. We examine migrant height and smoking levels just prior to immigration to test for self-selection; and we analyze smoking behavior since immigration, controlling for self-selection, to assess protection. We study individuals aged 20-49 from five major national origins: India, China, the Philippines, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. To assess self-selection, we compare migrants, interviewed in the National Health and Interview Surveys (NHIS), with nonmigrant peers in sending nations, interviewed in the World Health Surveys. To test for protection, we contrast migrants' changes in smoking since immigration with two counterfactuals: (1) rates that immigrants would have exhibited had they adopted the behavior of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites in the NHIS (full "assimilation"); and (2) rates that migrants would have had if they had adopted the rates of nonmigrants in sending countries (no-migration scenario). We find statistically significant and substantial self-selection, particularly among men from both higher-skilled (Indians and Filipinos in height, Chinese in smoking) and lower-skilled (Mexican) undocumented pools. We also find significant and substantial protection in smoking among immigrant groups with stronger relative social capital (Mexicans and Dominicans).

  19. Canadian competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, J.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of the Canadian petrochemical industry was outlined, emphasizing the proximity to feedstocks as the principal advantage enjoyed by the industry over its international competitors. Annual sales statistics for 1995 were provided. Key players in the Canadian petrochemical industry (Nova, Dow, DuPont, Methanex, Esso, Union Carbide, Shell and Celanese), their share of the market and key products were noted. Manufacturing facilities are located primarily in Alberta, southern Ontario and Quebec. The feedstock supply infrastructure, historical and alternative ethane pricing in Canada and the US, the North American market for petrochemicals, the competitiveness of the industry, tax competitiveness among Canadian provinces and the US, the Canada - US unit labour cost ratio, ethylene facility construction costs in Canada relative to the US Gulf Coast, and projected 1997 financial requirements were reviewed. 19 figs

  20. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zaharia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative as possible the business strategy of the organizations, their capacity of interacting with customers and other categories of audience. Such concepts as strategic positioning, relational marketing, management of the relationship with the consumer, marketing integrated research, a.s.o. are only a few of the tools with the help of which the marketing managers will implement successful operational strategies. All these developments are creating a real new paradigm of Marketing aimed to better explain the new types of complex market relationship in which the 21st Century organization is .

  1. Practical advantages of evolutionary computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, David B.

    1997-10-01

    Evolutionary computation is becoming a common technique for solving difficult, real-world problems in industry, medicine, and defense. This paper reviews some of the practical advantages to using evolutionary algorithms as compared with classic methods of optimization or artificial intelligence. Specific advantages include the flexibility of the procedures, as well as their ability to self-adapt the search for optimum solutions on the fly. As desktop computers increase in speed, the application of evolutionary algorithms will become routine.

  2. Multinationals without Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Motta, Massimo

    1996-01-01

    We propose a simple model to analyze the widespread idea that a necessary condition for firms to make foreign direct investments is that they have firm-specific advantages with respect to host country firms. We show that no such advantages are necessary to become multinationals. Further, firms might be induced to invest abroad to acquire new advantages, rather than exploiting existing ones. For this reason, foreign direct investment might occur even in the absence of exporting costs and lower...

  3. Morphological evaluation of fetus CNS and its related anomalies; The advantages and limitations of prenatal diagnosis by means of MRI, US, and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, Shizuo; Tamaki, Norihiko; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Katayama, Kazuaki; Mochizuki, Matsuto (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-08-01

    The fetal central nervous system was evaluated morphologically by ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and CT scan to analyze the prenatal diagnostic value for anomalies. A total of 31 patients with 42 lesions had been diagnosed during the preceding 7 years. The patients included 24 with hydrocephalus, three with anencephaly, three with myeloschisis, three with holoprosencephaly, three with an encephalocele, two with a Dandy-Walker cyst, one with hydroencephalodysplasia, one with an intracranial neoplasm, one with sacrococcygeal teratoma, and one with sacral agenesis. Compared with US and MRI, CT proved to be more accurate in the detection of spine and cranium-bone morphology. This finding seems to be valuable in the diagnosis of spina bifida, cranium bifidum and some cases of hypertensive hydrocephalus, especially in the axial view. MRI was definitely superior in the anatomico-pathological diagnosis of cerebral dysgenesis, ventriculomegaly, intracranial tumors, and other brain parenchymal changes in view of multi-dimensional analysis. MRI performed poorly in the diagnosis of spine and cranium morphology. A super-conducting MRI system is still insufficient to demonstrate the spinal cord of a fetus. US used routinely and multidimensional slices were valuable for screening the CNS abnormalies. Intracranial hematomas had a specific echogenecity on US. However, US sometimes failed to demarcate the cerebral parenchymal or subdural morphological changes because its artifacts had hyperchoic shadows. While US, MRI, and CT were valuable diagnostic tools in the morphological evaluation of fetal CNS anomalies, each modality has different advantages and disadvantages. Diagnostic advandage,depending on the nature of the anamoly, can be achieved by using the complementary imaging modalities.

  4. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  5. Advantages of Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanidis, P. K.; Bakhos, T.; Cardiff, M. A.; Barrash, W.

    2012-12-01

    Characterizing the subsurface is significant for most hydrogeologic studies, such as those involving site remediation and groundwater resource explo¬ration. A variety of hydraulic and geophysical methods have been developed to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. Hydraulic methods based on the analysis of conventional pumping tests allow the estimation of conductivity and storage without need for approximate petrophysical relations, which is an advantage over most geophysical methods that first estimate other properties and then infer values of hydraulic parameters. However, hydraulic methods have the disadvantage that the head-change signal decays with distance from the pumping well and thus becomes difficult to separate from noise except in close proximity to the source. Oscillatory hydraulic tomography (OHT) is an emerging technology to im¬age the subsurface. This method utilizes the idea of imposing sinusoidally varying pressure or discharge signals at several points, collecting head observations at several other points, and then processing these data in a tomographic fashion to estimate conductivity and storage coefficients. After an overview of the methodology, including a description of the most important potential advantages and challenges associated with this approach, two key promising features of the approach will be discussed. First, the signal at an observation point is orthogonal to and thus can be separated from nuisance inputs like head fluctuation from production wells, evapotranspiration, irrigation, and changes in the level of adjacent streams. Second, although the signal amplitude may be weak, one can extract the phase and amplitude of the os¬cillatory signal by collecting measurements over a longer time, thus compensating for the effect of large distance through longer sampling period.

  6. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some......In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance...

  7. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance......In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some...

  8. Home advantage in Greek football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage.

  9. Advantages of Team Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, John

    1973-01-01

    Describes a high school biology program which successfully utilizes team teaching. Outlines the advantages of team teaching and how it is used in the large group lecture-discussion situation, with small groups in the laboratory and on field trips. (JR)

  10. Competitive Advantage through Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, Maximilian; Wimschneider, Christine

    2016-01-01

    to failure several times. Before the current situation of the company, it remains challenging in the future as well. Hence, the Nespresso story provides interesting space for discussion and learning about what innovation is, how innovation emerges, and under which circumstances innovation can serve...... as a source for competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications Especially given the current market situation, the case offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and long-term company success. Practical implications Especially before the current market situation, the case...... offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and the success of a company on the long term. The case is designed to give practitioners a better understanding on what an innovation as, and how competitive advantages can be linked to innovation. Originality/value This case of Nespresso...

  11. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    Drawing upon extant alliance literature, this article substantiates the argument that we need to look beyond mere structural and formative aspects of cooperation in order to fully understand the performance antecedents of public-private partnerships. Currently, scholarly work on operational......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...... is that public management research can benefit from drawing upon existing alliance research. Alliance scholars have during the past couple of decades accumulated an impressive amount of knowledge on different aspects of inter-firm cooperation, and therefore the learning potential for public management scholars...

  12. Viral eradication reduces all-cause mortality, including non-liver-related disease, in patients with progressive hepatitis C virus-related fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Toshifumi; Kumada, Takashi; Toyoda, Hidenori; Kiriyama, Seiki; Tanikawa, Makoto; Hisanaga, Yasuhiro; Kanamori, Akira; Kitabatake, Shusuke; Yama, Tsuyoki; Tanaka, Junko

    2017-03-01

    Eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with interferon (IFN)-based therapy has been reported to reduce all-cause mortality in patients with chronic HCV infection. However, the impact of HCV eradication on non-liver-related mortality and causes of death has not been sufficiently investigated in patients with progressive HCV-related fibrosis. We enrolled 784 chronic HCV patients with progressive liver fibrosis (aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index >1). Cause of death, incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma, and all-cause mortality including non-liver-related mortality were analyzed. Of these 784 patients, 170 achieved sustained virological response (SVR) (eradication of HCV) with IFN-based therapy (IFN-SVR), and 614 did not receive IFN-based therapy (non-IFN patients, chronic HCV infection). The median follow-up duration was 10.3 years. Two hundred seventy-three patients died during follow-up (liver-related death, n = 171; non-liver-related death, n = 102). The mortality rate from non-liver-related disease was 63.6% (7/11) in IFN-SVR patients and 36.3% (95/262) in non-IFN patients, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the eradication of HCV associated with not only hepatocellular carcinoma incidence (hazard ratio (HR), 0.162; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.092-0.284), and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.094; 95% CI, 0.047-0.187), but non-liver-related mortality (HR, 0.286; 95% CI, 0.127-0.644) as well. Eradication of HCV reduced both liver-related and non-liver-related mortality in patients with progressive HCV-related fibrosis. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Trust, Commitment and Competitive Advantage in SMEs Export Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Daud Ismail

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The entry of small businesses into international markets has intensified. However, despite the growing presence of small businesses in international markets, studies into their international behavior, particularly regarding the effect of international relationships on international outcomes, remain limited. This study investigates the cross-border relationships of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs by examining the effects of the dimensions of the key relationship on the competitive advantage and performance of SMEs in export markets. These dimensions include trust and commitment. Results indicate that trust is significantly related to commitment and export performance. Commitment is positively related to competitive advantage but not to export performance. Trust affects competitive advantage through commitment. The effect of commitment on export performance is mediated by competitive advantage. The methodology and results are presented. The conclusion, implications, and limitations of this study are also discussed.

  14. Comparative advantage, economic structure and growth: The case of Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Sejkora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using a concept of revealed and latent comparative advantage, this article identifies relatively productive industries and industries with great potential in the slow-growing economy of Senegal. The identification of such industries allows for economic structure adjustment resulting in a higher gross domestic product (GDP growth rate. Aim: The aim of the study is to identify Senegalese long-term revealed comparative advantages and to estimate Senegalese latent comparative advantages. The analysis is focused solely on manufacturing industries because industrialisation serves as an engine of growth in developing countries. Setting: The analysis is carried out on endowment structure and international trade data (1995–2015 of Senegal and appropriate comparator economies (Tanzania, Cambodia, Lao, Vietnam and Cape Verde. Methods: To identify revealed comparative advantages, we calculate the normalised revealed comparative advantage index. To estimate latent comparative advantages, we employ a growth identification and facilitation framework. The methodology is slightly modified because the estimation is based on long-term revealed comparative advantages comparisons (rather than export shares comparisons. Results: We argue that the relatively productive manufacturing industries (with revealed comparative advantage include chemicals and manufactured goods classified chiefly by various materials. Furthermore, Senegal may have unexploited potential (i.e. latent comparative advantage in footwear and particularly in apparel production. Conclusion: In order to accelerate GDP growth rate, Senegal should focus on developing the above mentioned industries to align its economic structure with the comparative advantages and also to promote industrialisation.

  15. The elicitation step of nickel allergy is promoted in mice by microbe-related substances, including some from oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; Kinbara, Masayuki; Funayama, Hiromi; Takada, Haruhiko; Sugawara, Shunji; Endo, Yasuo

    2011-11-01

    Microbial components activate the host's innate immunity via interactions with molecules including TLRs and NODs. We previously reported that in mice (i) Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; TLR4 agonist) promotes Ni-allergy even in T-cell-deficient mice, (ii) E. coli LPS reduces the minimum allergy-inducing concentrations of Ni at both the sensitization and elicitation steps, and (iii) various microbe-related substances promote sensitization to Ni. Here, we examined the effects of microbe-related substances at the elicitation step. Mice (except for TLR4-mutated C3H/HeJ mice) were sensitized to Ni by intraperitoneal injection of NiCl(2) + E. coli LPS. Ten days later their ear-pinnas were challenged with 1 μM NiCl(2) with or without a test substance. Although NiCl(2) alone at this concentration does not induce Ni-allergy, its combination with the following substances induced Ni-allergy in BALB/c mice: LPS preparations from oral gram-negative bacteria (Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis), a mannan preparation from a fungus (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and synthetic NOD2 and TLR2 agonists. The effect of the mannan preparation was small in C3H/HeJ mice (sensitized with NiCl(2) + the P. intermedia preparation). The P. intermedia preparation promoted Ni-allergy in C3H/HeJ and nude mice, but not in mice deficient in either TLR2 or histidine decarboxylase. Intragingival injection of the P. intermedia preparation and later challenge with NiCl(2) alone to ear-pinnas also promoted Ni-allergy. These results indicate that (i) in Ni-allergy, a microbial milieu or innate immunity is important at the elicitation step, too, and (ii) some oral bacteria may promote Ni-allergy via TLR2-stimulant(s) production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Atypical onset of therapy-related acute promyelocytic leukemia after combined modality therapy including (89)Sr for metastatic breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsu, Yoshikazu; Aotsuka, Nobuyuki; Masuda, Shinichi; Matsuura, Yasuhiro; Wakita, Hisashi

    2013-08-01

    A 51-year-old woman diagnosed as having left breast cancer with axillary lymph node and liver metastases seven years earlier was seen in our office because of severe pancytopenia. She had received chemotherapy including several cycles of doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide and docetaxel followed by hormone therapy containing leuprorelin and tamoxifen over four years. For management of bone pain due to metastasis, she had also undergone stereotaxic radiation therapy of the neck one and a half years earlier and unsealed internal radiation therapy with (89)Sr injection five months prior to the current presentation, Subsequently, myelosuppression progressively worsened and she finally required a blood transfusion. Although bone marrow examination showed severe hypoplasia, but neither blastic nor dysplastic, a test for PML-RARA fluorescence in situ hybridization was positive. After administration of all-trans retinoic acid, hematogenesis improved within three weeks. Neither disseminated intravascular coagulation nor retinoic acid syndrome was observed during the course of her illness. This is the first report describing acute promyelocytic leukemia after administration of (89)Sr, to our knowledge, and with an atypical onset and progression. As the number of cancer survivors increases due to improvements in medical intervention, clinicians must take more notice of special characteristics of therapy-related leukemia modified by previous treatments.

  17. Digital linear accelerator: The advantages for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andric, S.; Maksimovic, M.; Dekic, M.; Clark, T.

    1998-01-01

    Technical performances of Digital Linear Accelerator were presented to point out its advantages for clinical radiotherapy treatment. The accelerator installation is earned out at Military Medical Academy, Radiotherapy Department, by Medes and Elekta companies. The unit offers many technical advantages with possibility of introduction new conformal treatment techniques as stereotactic radiosurgery, total body and total skin irradiation. In the paper are underlined advantages in relation to running conventional accelerator units at Yugoslav radiotherapy departments, both from technical and medical point of view. (author)

  18. A Conceptual Mapping Resource Advantage Theory, Competitive Advantage Theory, and Transient Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanta PERANGINANGIN

    2015-01-01

    Competitive advantage is the main purposed of the business entity focusing on market base view. Resource advantage theorists put their concern to empowering resources development with resources based view, in the other side needs to redefining competitive advantage. All the competitive advantage are transient, concluded the end of competitive advantage. Redefining competitive advantage by selling migration and shrewdness outward. This research to emphasize innovation capability rarely appears...

  19. Home advantage in the Commonwealth Games | Ramchandani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Research examining the phenomenon of home advantage in international multi-sport competitions is limited to the Olympic Games. This paper investigates the prevalence of home advantage in the Commonwealth Games. The paper also explores the relative impact of travel on performance in the ...

  20. Assessment of vitamin A status of preschool children in a sub-Saharan African setting: comparative advantage of modified relative-dose response test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samba, C; Gourmel, B; Houze, P; Malvy, D

    2010-10-01

    A nationally-representative sample of 2,696 preschool children living in Congo was examined during Au gust-September 2003 to determine the rates of vitamin A deficiency. Ninety clusters of 30 children, aged six months to six years, were selected, using a randomized two-level cluster-sampling method. Vitamin A deficiency was determined by assessing the prevalence of active xerophthalmia (nightblindness and/or Bitot spots) in the cross-over sample of 2,696 individuals. A semi-quantitative seven-day dietary questionnaire was concurrently applied to the mothers of children enrolled to estimate the latter's consumption of vitamin A-rich food. Vitamin A status was assessed by performing the modified relative dose-response test (MRDR) on dried blood spots (DBS) from a subsample of 207 children aged less than six years and the impression cytology with transfer (ICT) test on a subsample of 1,162 children. Of the children enrolled, 5.2% suffered from nightblindness, 8.0% had Bitot spots, and 2.5% had other vitamin A deficiency sequellae. Fifty-three percent of the ICT tests showed the presence of vitamin A deficiency. The biochemical MRDR test showed that the vitamin A status of 30% of the study children was critical. Twenty-seven of them had retinol levels of < 10 microg/dL [mean +/- standard deviation (SD) 7.02 +/- 2.0 microg/dL], and 50% had retinol levels of 10-20 microg/dL (mean +/- SD 14.2 +/- 2.83 microg/dL). The poor health status and low rates of consumption of vitamin A-rich food are the main factors determining critical status. Vitamin A deficiency, reflecting poor nutrition and health, is a serious public-health issue among children aged less than six years in Congo.

  1. Advantageous direct quantification of viable closely related probiotics in petit-suisse cheeses under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions by Propidium Monoazide--qPCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lissete Morales Villarreal

    Full Text Available Species-specific Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR alone and combined with the use of propidium monoazide (PMA were used along with the plate count method to evaluate the survival of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12, and the bacteriocinogenic and potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a in synbiotic (F1 and probiotic (F2 petit-suisse cheeses exposed throughout shelf-life to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. The three strains studied showed a reduction in their viability after the 6 h assay. Bb-12 displayed the highest survival capacity, above 72.6 and 74.6% of the initial populations, respectively, by plate count and PMA-qPCR, maintaining population levels in the range or above 6 log CFU/g. The prebiotic mix of inulin and FOS did not offer any additional protection for the strains against the simulated gastrointestinal environment. The microorganisms' populations were comparable among the three methods at the initial time of the assay, confirming the presence of mainly viable and culturable cells. However, with the intensification of the stress induced throughout the various stages of the in vitro test, the differences among the methods increased. The qPCR was not a reliable enumeration method for the quantification of intact bacterial populations, mixed with large numbers of injured and dead bacteria, as confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy results. Furthermore, bacteria plate counts were much lower (P<0.05 than with the PMA-qPCR method, suggesting the accumulation of stressed or dead microorganisms unable to form colonies. The use of PMA overcame the qPCR inability to differentiate between dead and alive cells. The combination of PMA and species-specific qPCR in this study allowed a quick and unequivocal way of enumeration of viable closely related species incorporated into probiotic and synbiotic petit-suisse cheeses and

  2. Interim staff position on environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment: including staff responses to public comments. Regulatory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szukiewicz, A.J.

    1981-07-01

    This document provides the NRC staff positions regarding selected areas of environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment, in the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-24, 'Qualification of Class IE Safety-Related Equipment.' The positions herein are applicable to plants that are or will be in the construction permit (CP) or operating license (OL) review process and that are required to satisfy the requirements set forth in either the 1971 or the 1974 version of IEEE-323 standard

  3. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Procedures for Special Educational Programs (Including Related Services) for Preschool Children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... frequency, number of times per week/month and intensity, amount of times each day) and the extent to which... school activities, including meals and recess periods, with students who do not have a disability. E...

  4. Striving to Connect: Extending an Achievement Goal Approach to Teacher Motivation to Include Relational Goals for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were designed to extend Butler's (2007) model and measure of achievement goals for teaching, to recognize that teaching is an interpersonal endeavor, not just personal endeavor. In Study 1, results from 530 teachers in Israel confirmed the predicted 5-factor model comprising relational goals, whereby teachers aspire to create close and…

  5. 25 CFR 1000.242 - What provisions relating to a construction program may be included in an AFA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Construction § 1000.242 What provisions relating to a... specific provisions of the Office of Federal Procurement and Policy Act and Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  6. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 41 and 42: Lenses and Mirrors; Relativity; and Appendix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  7. On the relative advantage of cooperatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm...

  8. On the relative advantage of cooperatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm......We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm...

  9. Data Mining of Web-Based Documents on Social Networking Sites That Included Suicide-Related Words Among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juyoung; Song, Tae Min; Seo, Dong-Chul; Jin, Jae Hyun

    2016-12-01

    To investigate online search activity of suicide-related words in South Korean adolescents through data mining of social media Web sites as the suicide rate in South Korea is one of the highest in the world. Out of more than 2.35 billion posts for 2 years from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012 on 163 social media Web sites in South Korea, 99,693 suicide-related documents were retrieved by Crawler and analyzed using text mining and opinion mining. These data were further combined with monthly employment rate, monthly rental prices index, monthly youth suicide rate, and monthly number of reported bully victims to fit multilevel models as well as structural equation models. The link from grade pressure to suicide risk showed the largest standardized path coefficient (beta = .357, p adolescents' suicide risk. Real-time suicide-related word search activity monitoring and response system needs to be developed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Repeatability of food frequency assessment tools in relation to the number of items and response categories included

    OpenAIRE

    Bountziouka, V. (Vassiliki); Bathrellou, E. (Eirini); Zazpe, I. (Itziar); Ezquer, L. (Leyre); Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Ángel); Panagiotakos, D.B. (Demosthenes B.)

    2012-01-01

    Background: Accuracy of a measurement is a cornerstone in research in order to make robust conclusions about the research hypothesis. Objective: To examine whether the number of items (questions) and the number of responses of consumption included in nutritional assessment tools influence their repeatability. Methods: During 2009, 400 participants (250 from Greece, 37±13 yrs, 34% males and 150 participants from Spain, 39±17 yrs, 41% males) completed a diet index with 11-items a...

  11. Contextual Advantage for State Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, David; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2018-02-01

    Finding quantitative aspects of quantum phenomena which cannot be explained by any classical model has foundational importance for understanding the boundary between classical and quantum theory. It also has practical significance for identifying information processing tasks for which those phenomena provide a quantum advantage. Using the framework of generalized noncontextuality as our notion of classicality, we find one such nonclassical feature within the phenomenology of quantum minimum-error state discrimination. Namely, we identify quantitative limits on the success probability for minimum-error state discrimination in any experiment described by a noncontextual ontological model. These constraints constitute noncontextuality inequalities that are violated by quantum theory, and this violation implies a quantum advantage for state discrimination relative to noncontextual models. Furthermore, our noncontextuality inequalities are robust to noise and are operationally formulated, so that any experimental violation of the inequalities is a witness of contextuality, independently of the validity of quantum theory. Along the way, we introduce new methods for analyzing noncontextuality scenarios and demonstrate a tight connection between our minimum-error state discrimination scenario and a Bell scenario.

  12. Home advantage in professional tennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2011-01-01

    Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in

  13. The Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    In this article we clarify the historical roots of stakeholder theory to establish that a much larger role was played by Scandinavian thinkers in its development than is currently acknowledged. We show that important contributions to the stakeholder concept were being made by Eric Rhenman and his...... Management: A Stakeholder Approach (Freeman, 1984). These important Scandinavian contributions include the first publication and description of the expression „stakeholder‟ in management literature accessible to scholars throughout the world and the introduction of the first stakeholder map to the management...... literature. We use this occasion to consider potential relationships between these early Scandinavian contributions to the stakeholder concept with current practices of well-known Scandinavian companies. Through this we contend the evidence suggests relationships worthy of further considerations. We conclude...

  14. Repeatability of food frequency assessment tools in relation to the number of items and response categories included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Bathrellou, Eirini; Zazpe, Itziar; Ezquer, Leyre; Martínez-González, Miguel-Angel; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2012-12-01

    Accuracy of measurement is a cornerstone of research in order to make robust conclusions about the research hypothesis. To examine whether the number of items (questions) and the number of consumption responses (the coding used to measure the frequency of consumption) included in nutritional assessment tools influence their repeatability. During 2009, 400 participants (250 from Greece, mean age 37 +/- 13 years, 34% males, and 150 from Spain, mean age 39 +/- 17 years, 41% males) completed a diet index with 11 items and binary (yes/ no) responses, a diet index with 11 items and 6-scale responses, and 36-item and 76-item food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) with 6-scale responses. The participants completed these tools twice, with 15 days between the two administrations of the tools. The Spearman-Brown coefficient (r(sb)), Kendall's tau coefficients, and the Bland-Altman method were applied to answer the research hypothesis. The highest repeatability coefficient was observed for the diet index with 11 items and binary (yes/no) responses (r(sb) = 0.948, p tools (p > .23), whereas these three tools had significantly higher repeatability coefficients than the 76-item FFQ (p = .002). Subgroup analyses by sex, education, smoking, and clinical status confirmed these results. Repeatability was found for all food frequency assessment tools used, irrespective of the number of items or the number of responses included.

  15. Patient-related factors and circumstances surrounding decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment, including intensive care unit admission refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reignier, Jean; Dumont, Romain; Katsahian, Sandrine; Martin-Lefevre, Laurent; Renard, Benoit; Fiancette, Maud; Lebert, Christine; Clementi, Eva; Bontemps, Frederic

    2008-07-01

    To assess decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment (LST) in patients too sick for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, comparatively to patients admitted to the ICU. Prospective observational cohort study. A medical-surgical ICU. Consecutive patients referred to the ICU during a one-yr period. None. Of 898 triaged patients, 147 were deemed too well to benefit from ICU admission. Decisions to forego LST were made in 148 of 666 (22.2%) admitted patients and in all 85 patients deemed too sick for ICU admission. Independent predictors of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal rather than after ICU admission were: age; underlying disease; living in an institution; preexisting cognitive impairment; admission for medical reasons; and acute cardiac failure, acute central neurologic illness, or sepsis. Hospital mortality after decisions to forego LST was not significantly different in refused and admitted patients (77.5% vs. 86.5%; p = .1). Decisions to forego LST were made via telephone in 58.8% of refused patients and none of the admitted patients. Nurses caring for the patient had no direct contact with the ICU physicians for 62.3% of the decisions in refused patients, whereas meetings between nurses and physicians occurred in 70.3% of decisions to forego LST in the ICU. Patients or relatives were involved in 28.2% of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal compared with 78.4% of decisions to forego LST in ICU patients (p refused patients (vs. none of admitted patients) and were associated with less involvement of nurses and relatives compared with decisions in admitted patients. Further work is needed to improve decisions to forego LST made under the distinctive circumstances of triage.

  16. Serum levels of IGF-1 are related to human skin characteristics including the conspicuousness of facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Y; Naoe, A; Ohuchi, A; Kitahara, T

    2011-04-01

    Conspicuous facial pores are one type of serious aesthetic defects for many women. However, the mechanism(s) that underlie the conspicuousness of facial pores remains unclear. We previously characterized the epidermal architecture around facial pores that correlates with the appearance of those pores in various ethnic groups including Japanese. The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible relationships between facial pore size, the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores and sebum output levels to investigate the possible role of IGF-1 in the pathogenesis of conspicuous facial pores. The subjects consisted of 38 healthy Japanese women (aged 22-41 years). IGF-1 was measured using immunoradiometric assay. Surface replicas were collected to compare pore sizes of cheek skin and horizontal cross-section images of cheek skin were obtained non-invasively from the same subjects using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy and the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores was determined. The skin surface lipids of each subject were collected from their cheeks and lipid classes were determined using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. The serum level of IGF-1 correlated significantly with total pore area (R = 0.36, P facial pores (R = 0.43, P pore area (R = 0.32, P facial skin characteristics including facial pore size and with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Variations in Carabidae assemblages across the farmland habitats in relation to selected environmental variables including soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Baranová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The variations in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae assemblages across the three types of farmland habitats, arable land, meadows and woody vegetation were studied in relation to vegetation cover structure, intensity of agrotechnical interventions and selected soil properties. Material was pitfall trapped in 2010 and 2011 on twelve sites of the agricultural landscape in the Prešov town and its near vicinity, Eastern Slovakia. A total of 14,763 ground beetle individuals were entrapped. Material collection resulted into 92 Carabidae species, with the following six species dominating: Poecilus cupreus, Pterostichus melanarius, Pseudoophonus rufipes, Brachinus crepitans, Anchomenus dorsalis and Poecilus versicolor. Studied habitats differed significantly in the number of entrapped individuals, activity abundance as well as representation of the carabids according to their habitat preferences and ability to fly. However, no significant distinction was observed in the diversity, evenness neither dominance. The most significant environmental variables affecting Carabidae assemblages species variability were soil moisture and herb layer 0-20 cm. Another best variables selected by the forward selection were intensity of agrotechnical interventions, humus content and shrub vegetation. The other from selected soil properties seem to have just secondary meaning for the adult carabids. Environmental variables have the strongest effect on the habitat specialists, whereas ground beetles without special requirements to the habitat quality seem to be affected by the studied environmental variables just little.

  18. A carpal tunnel grading system including combined sensory index-diagnosed mild cases: Relation to presenting features and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Pandey, Dilip K

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated superiority of the combined sensory index (CSI) algorithm in diagnosing mild carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and have compared presenting symptoms to CTS grade. However, CTS symptoms, signs, and outcomes, including CSI-diagnosed cases, have not been compared with CTS grade. We retrospectively studied 294 CTS hands from 2010 to 2013; stratified them into mild, moderate, and severe grades; and analyzed the association between CTS grade and presenting symptoms/signs and outcomes. Sensorimotor symptoms (P = 0.017) and signs (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with CTS grade. Regardless of CTS grade, 94% of hands improved with surgery compared with 42% with conservative treatment (P < 0.001). Even in mild CTS, 100% improved with surgery vs. 33% with conservative management (P = 0.011). These results corroborate prior studies that compared symptoms to CTS grade and suggest that more objective signs associate even better. CTS grades associate with outcomes, but additional studies are required. Muscle Nerve 57: 45-48, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Questionnaire about the intake of and hypersensitivity to fruits, vegetables and nuts including birch pollen related foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Asakura, Kohji; Shirasaki, Hideaki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2013-07-01

    In Hokkaido and Scandinavia, birch pollen allergic persons are common and they often report oral and pharyngeal hypersensitivity to fruits and vegetables (oral allergy syndrome, OAS), because of immunological cross-reactivity. In Scandinavia, nuts as well as Rosaceae fruits such as apples were the foods most often reported to elicit symptoms. On the other hand, nuts are minor foods causing hypersensitivity in Japan. Even in Japan, regional differences of foods causing hypersensitivity have been reported, which may be related to the regional differences of elementary habit and pollen dispersion. In the present study, we evaluated the intake history of the foods and the frequency of food hypersensitivity in adults from the general population. Three hundreds and thirty nine subjects (20-67 years old) took part in the study. With a questionnaire survey, we asked them about their intake history and hypersensitive symptoms for 33 kinds of fruit, vegetables, and nuts. 30% of subjects had eaten Brazil nuts, 80% had eaten pomegranates, and 81% had eaten hazelnuts. And over 95% of subjects had eaten the other 30 foods. Those who had lived in Hokkaido for more than 20 years had a higher frequency of plum consumption than the others. Those who had lived in Hokkaido for more than 20 years had a lower frequency of loquat, fig and pomegranate consumption than the others. Food hypersensitivity was found in 52 subjects (15.3%). The most common symptom was OAS (46 subjects, 13.6%), and foods most frequently causing OAS were peach (21 subjects, 6.2%), cherry (19 subjects, 5.6%) and apple (17 subjects, 5.0%). 26 subjects (7.7%) reported OAS to Rosaceae fruits. The ratio of having OAS to consuming Rosaceae fruits was 11.0% in the group who had lived in Hokkaido for more than 20 years, which was higher than the group who has lived in Hokkaido for less than 20 years. The intake history of hazelnuts and Brazil nuts was very low, with a correspondingly low frequency of food

  20. Experimental study of the relative efficiency of nonlinear and restricted selection indices for ratios including quadratic and cubic terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J L; Jorquera, M J

    1994-01-12

    respuesta obtenida para el cociente en el experimento 2 fue debida a la disminución de ambos caracteres componentes. Los resultados de estos experimentos mostraban que los indices no lineales incrementaban cocientes que incluían en el denominador términos cuadráticos o cúbicos. Los índices lineales con restricción para el denominador del cociente eran una alternativa menos eficiente. RÉSUMÉ: Etude expérimentale de l'efficacité relative des indices de sélection non linéares y avec restriction pour des quotients qui comportent des carrés et des cubes Nous avons comparé un index non linéaire de sélection (NL) avec un index linéaire avec restriction (RI) à Tribolium, on utilisant deux expériences de sélection en faveur du quotient poids/(Longueur)(n) . La première expérience fut conçue pour augmenter le poids de la pupe/(Longueur de pupe)(2) , tandis que la deuxième expérience essayait d'améliorer le poids de la larve/(Longueur de larve)(3) . Les caractères de larve et de pupe furent mesurés au bout de 14 et de 21 jours respectivement. Il y avait quatre générations de sélection dans chacune des trois répétitions et la proportion choisie fut celle de 20 %. On prit (m(1) + Ĝ(1) )/(m(2) + Ĝ(2) )(n) come critére de sélection dans les lignes NL, m(1) et m(2) étant les moyennes pour les caractères numérateur et dénominateur, Ĝ(1) et Ĝ(2) les valeurs additives estimées et n étant 2 (expérience 1) ou 3 (expérience 2). Le index avec restriction employé comme critère de sélection dans les lignes RI a été calculé pour augmenter le numérateur et maintenir le dénominateur constant. Les réponses obtenues pour le quotient étaient significativement différentes entre les lignes (P < .05) dans les deux expériences, la réponse plus grande étant celle de la ligne NL. Dans l'expérience 1, la réponse observée dans le numérateur fût significative dans la ligne NL, tandis qu'elle fut positive et significative pour les deux caracteres

  1. MOLDOVA: MISSED ADVANTAGES OF EURASIAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Vasiljevna Fokina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to potentially missed advantages of Eurasian integration (EAEU for Moldova. Special attention is given to the branches in which the country could get evident advantages including agriculture, power engineering, external trade ties with the EAEU countries. Possible positive effects of Eurasian integration in solution of the Transnistrian problem, in the sphere of labour migration and other fields are also shown.

  2. Is Batting Last an Advantage?

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore L. Turocy

    2003-01-01

    This paper applies the theory of zero-sum stochastic games to assess the validity of baseball's ancient wisdom that batting last confers a strategic advantage. Results from numerical calculation of Markov perfect equilibrium suggest that the team that bats last will have an advantage if in fact the offense has, in some sense, more useful strategic actions available than the defense. An example is provided where the advantage depends on details of the teams playing. Regardless of which team ha...

  3. Integrated Approach to Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Ragelskaja

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes and globalization of markets make an impact on intense competition in almost all business sectors. Evolutionary changes influence companies to learn, adequately react, adapt to environmental changes and to change themselves. Such a situation has revealed the problems of competitive advan­tage of industry companies. Therefore the focus to the factors impacting competitive advantage is seen as timely and relevant. The authors of the paper analyze approaches to competitive advantage and the factors impacting competitive advantage. The integrated model of competitive advantage is proposed in the paper.Article in Lithuanian

  4. A General Discussion of Problems Related to the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stresses Including Specific Results related to Static and Dynamic Stresses in Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1989-01-01

    Recent breakwater failures revealed the shortcomings of the traditional design procedures for concrete armour units. This paper deals with one of them, which can be expressed as the "lack of balance between the hydraulic stability of the armour layer and the mechanical strength or integrity...... of the units". This problem is related mainly to the slender types of armour units. The paper discusses the various types of loads, and the practical determination of the wave and gravity induced loads and stresses, especially the model test technique and its restrictions. Examples related to Dolosse...

  5. Biomass as a fuel: Advantages, limitations and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBurney, B.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation briefly outlines major issues related to the use of biomass fuels. Advantages and disadvantages of biomass fuels are identified, as well as major factors that may facilitate greater use of biomass fuels. Highlights of the US DOE Biomass Power Program, program activities, and demonstration projects are presented. Some statistical and economic data are provided, including biomass fueled electric capacity, biomass energy consumption by sector, and fuel cost savings and greenhouse gas emissions reductions for four biomass co-fired units

  6. Logistics potentials in business competitive advantage creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Matwiejczuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Companies constantly search for ways to achieve and sustain long-term competitive advantage. Among the factors influencing the competitive advantage creation there are so called logistics potentials, which constitute a component part of a business strategic potentials. Logistics resources, logistics capabilities and logistics competences are the main components of the logistics potentials structure and hierarchy. Methods: In order to recognize the logistics potentials which determine the competitive advantage creation one may use the assumptions and elements of contemporary management concepts, including strategic management. In particular the article deals with Resource-Based View (RBV, Dynamic Capabilities Concept (DCC and - first of all - Competence-Based Management (CBM. Results and conclusions: Several significant research projects have presented a wide scope and a large number of possibilities of logistics potentials (and logistics competences in particular influence on business competitive advantage creation. The article briefly presents the research results conducted by: (1 Michigan State University (USA, (2 European Logistics Association (ELA in cooperation with A.T. Kearney, (3 Computer Sciences Corporation and (4 Capgemini. The research results have pointed out to differentiated but at the same distinctive symptoms of logistics competences influence on competitive advantage creation. The article also refers to the results of the research carried out by the Chair of Logistics & Marketing at Opole University (Poland in companies operating in Poland. The research has been mainly dealing with the significance of logistics competences in competitive advantage creation.

  7. Online commerce: advantages and disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    SNOPOK E.V.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses the online commerce. Presents the advantages and disadvantages purchases on the Internet, considered the purpose and object of. online trading. Conclusions are made about possible directions of further improvement and development of this type of commerce.

  8. Multinational team. Advantages and disadvantages.

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Alena

    2014-01-01

    The topic of the tesis is advantages and disadvantages of work in russian-czech multicultural teams. The research then analyzes the efficiency of such teams primarily from the side of partners and clients of such projects.

  9. Creating and Sustaining Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Lage Hansen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides a general framework for examining how governance choice affects competitive advantage. I argue that firms rely on assets for competing, and that these assets can be accessed by different governance structures (i.e., they can be in- or outsourced). The transaction cost economics framework is used to expose strengths and weaknesses of governance structures with respect to creating and sustaining competitive advantage. The result is a tradeoff to consider when choosing how to ...

  10. Airtraq optical laryngoscope: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracoglu, Kemal Tolga; Eti, Zeynep; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

    2013-06-01

    Difficult or unsuccesful tracheal intubation is one of the important causes for morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. Almost 30% of the anesthesia-related deaths are induced by the complications of difficult airway management and more than 85% of all respiratory related complications cause brain injury or death. Nowadays, due to the advances in technology, new videolaryngoscopic devices became available. Airtraq is a novel single-use laryngoscope which provides glottis display without any deviation in the normal position of the oral, pharyngeal or the tracheal axes. With the help of the display lens glottis and the surrounding structures are visualised and under direct view of its tip the tracheal tube is introduced between the vocal cords. In patients having restricted neck motion or limited mouth opening (provided that it is greater than 3 cm) Airtraq offers the advantage of a better display. Moreover the video image can be transfered to an external monitor thus an experienced specialist can provide assistance and an educational course can be conducted simultaneously. On the other hand the Airtraq videolaryngoscopic devices possess certain disadvantages including the need of experience and the time demand for the operator to learn how to use them properly, the rapid deterioration of their display in the presence of a swelling or a secretion and the fact that they are rather complicated and expensive devices. The Airtraq device has already documented benefits in the management of difficult airways, however serial utilization obviously necessitates experience.

  11. home advantage in the commonwealth games

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of home advantage in sport is generally well doc- umented and has been shown to exist in a ... there are 53 Commonwealth nations, there are at present 71. Commonwealth Games Associations ... market share values for each host nation were analysed relative to the distance travelled by them (in terms of ...

  12. Home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowich, Paul

    2012-10-01

    This study examined whether the home advantage varies for open-air, domed, or retractable-roof baseball stadia, and whether having the roof open or closed affects the home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia. Data from Major League Baseball (MLB) games played between 2001 and 2009 were analyzed for whether or not the presence of a home-advantage was dependent on the type of home stadium used. Home advantage was robust for all three types of stadia. A significant effect of stadium type on home advantage was found, with a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to open-air stadia, replicating a previous study. There was a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to retractable-roof stadia. No other differences in the home advantage were found; results are discussed in terms of familiarity with the facility.

  13. Thoracoscopic versus robotic approaches: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benjamin; D'Amico, Thomas A

    2014-05-01

    The overall advantages of thoracoscopy over thoracotomy in terms of patient recovery have been fairly well established. The use of robotics, however, is a newer and less proven modality in the realm of thoracic surgery. Robotics offers distinct advantages and disadvantages in comparison with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Robotic technology is now used for a variety of complex cardiac, urologic, and gynecologic procedures including mitral valve repair and microsurgical treatment of male infertility. This article addresses the potential benefits and limitations of using the robotic platform for the performance of a variety of thoracic operations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  15. Analysis of the impact of climate change on groundwater related hydrological fluxes: a multi-model approach including different downscaling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stoll

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change related modifications in the spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation and evapotranspiration will have an impact on groundwater resources. This study presents a modelling approach exploiting the advantages of integrated hydrological modelling and a broad climate model basis. We applied the integrated MIKE SHE model on a perialpine, small catchment in northern Switzerland near Zurich. To examine the impact of climate change we forced the hydrological model with data from eight GCM-RCM combinations showing systematic biases which are corrected by three different statistical downscaling methods, not only for precipitation but also for the variables that govern potential evapotranspiration. The downscaling methods are evaluated in a split sample test and the sensitivity of the downscaling procedure on the hydrological fluxes is analyzed. The RCMs resulted in very different projections of potential evapotranspiration and, especially, precipitation. All three downscaling methods reduced the differences between the predictions of the RCMs and all corrected predictions showed no future groundwater stress which can be related to an expected increase in precipitation during winter. It turned out that especially the timing of the precipitation and thus recharge is very important for the future development of the groundwater levels. However, the simulation experiments revealed the weaknesses of the downscaling methods which directly influence the predicted hydrological fluxes, and thus also the predicted groundwater levels. The downscaling process is identified as an important source of uncertainty in hydrological impact studies, which has to be accounted for. Therefore it is strongly recommended to test different downscaling methods by using verification data before applying them to climate model data.

  16. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  17. Prochlorococcus: Advantages and Limits of Minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology.

  18. Upright Biplanar Slot Scanning in Pediatric Orthopedics: Applications, Advantages, and Artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Nathan C; Binkovitz, Larry A; Schueler, Beth A; Kolbe, Amy B; Larson, A Noelle

    2015-07-01

    Digital slot scanning is a relatively new technology that has been used for imaging of pediatric orthopedic conditions such as scoliosis and leg-length discrepancies. This article will review the clinical applications, advantages, and unique artifacts of this new technology. Upright biplanar slot scanners acquire high-resolution radiographs simultaneously in two orthogonal planes with reduced radiation dose. Other advantages include a more physiologic weightbearing imaging position, improved Cobb angle measurements, and 3D modeling.

  19. Burden and health-related quality of life of eating disorders, including Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID), in the Australian population

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Phillipa; Mitchison, Deborah; Collado, Abraham Ernesto Lopez; Gonz?lez-Chica, David Alejandro; Stocks, Nigel; Touyz, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about the epidemiology and health related quality of life (HRQoL) of the new DSM-5 diagnoses, Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in the Australian population. We aimed to investigate the prevalance and burden of these disorders. Methods We conducted two sequential population-based surveys including individuals aged over 15?years who were interviewed in 2014 (n?=?2732) and 2015 (n =3005). Demographic information and diag...

  20. Parenting Advantage in the MNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Ambos, Björn

    2013-01-01

    What determines the value an MNC's headquarters adds to its own affiliates? In this paper, we shed light on this question by linking the embeddedness view of the multinational corporation to the literature on parenting advantage. We test our hypotheses on an original dataset of 124 manufacturing....... Furthermore, this relationship is stronger when the subsidiary itself is strongly embedded. We discuss implications for the MNC literature, embeddedness research, and the literature on parenting and headquarters' roles...

  1. Advertising Dynamics and Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Doraszelski; Sarit Markovich

    2004-01-01

    Can advertising lead to a sustainable competitive advantage? To answer this question, we propose a dynamic model of advertising competition where firms repeatedly advertise, compete in the product market, and make entry as well as exit decisions. Within this dynamic framework, we study two different models of advertising: In the first model, advertising influences the goodwill consumers extend towards a firm ("goodwill advertising"), whereas in the second model it influences the share of cons...

  2. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative advantage in Bangladesh crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Shahabuddin, Quazi; Dorosh, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    "This study uses data from 1996/97 through 1998/99 to examine the relative efficiency of production of crops in Bangladesh and their comparative advantage in international trade as measured by net economic profitability (the profitability using economic, rather than financial costs and prices), and the domestic resource cost ratio, (the amount of value of non-tradable domestic resources used in production divided by the value of tradable products). The economic profitability analysis demonstr...

  4. Logistics as a Competitive Warfighting Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-20

    Logistics as a Competitive Warfighting Advantage October 20, 2016 MajGen Arnold Punaro, USMC(ret), Chair Mr. Bill Phillips Mr. John...Background / Context  The Department of Defense operates one of the largest logistics enterprises in the world  Includes supply, maintenance, and...fully explore this, the Task Group worked to: – Understand the unique requirements, perceptions, and realities of logistics in the DoD from each of

  5. BUSINESS COMPETITORS AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU TITUS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of competition, both from the perspective of the economic sector –where it is characteristic for pure monopole, oligopoly, monopole competition and pure competition, as well asfrom the market’s point of view – where it determines the strategies, objectives, advantages and weaknesses of acompany. The main point of the paper is the criticism of the pure and perfect competition theory. Concluding,the author insists on innovation, especially on the model of open innovation.

  6. Sustainability in organizations: advantages and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Josende Paz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are currently seeking to adopt sustainable policies and practices, causing a greater search for and use of sustainable models. This article therefore aims to evaluate the advantages of using sustainability principles in organizations, as well as to detect the main difficulties in implementing a sustainable model, identifying the existence of the principles described by Oliveira et al. (2012 and other authors. Bibliographic research was used to understand the “state of the art” in relation to sustainability in organizations, and the data was collected from articles published in journals in the last eight years. The importance of sustainability to organizations, better financial performance, stimulus for innovation, better management and the involvement of stakeholders in their processes were all evident as advantages of using this methodology. Finally, the following challenges were identified: the need for an investigation into the organization’s maturity in the use of sustainable methods and preparation of human resources for organizational change.

  7. Were there evolutionary advantages to premenstrual syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillings, Michael R

    2014-09-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects up to 80% of women, often leading to significant personal, social and economic costs. When apparently maladaptive states are widespread, they sometimes confer a hidden advantage, or did so in our evolutionary past. We suggest that PMS had a selective advantage because it increased the chance that infertile pair bonds would dissolve, thus improving the reproductive outcomes of women in such partnerships. We confirm predictions arising from the hypothesis: PMS has high heritability; gene variants associated with PMS can be identified; animosity exhibited during PMS is preferentially directed at current partners; and behaviours exhibited during PMS may increase the chance of finding a new partner. Under this view, the prevalence of PMS might result from genes and behaviours that are adaptive in some societies, but are potentially less appropriate in modern cultures. Understanding this evolutionary mismatch might help depathologize PMS, and suggests solutions, including the choice to use cycle-stopping contraception.

  8. Nuclear energy. Risk or advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettiger, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear energy is controversial. But what's all about really in the controversy? It's about more than safty or electricity prices. Nuclear energy is not only a technical or political question, but also a moral, a human. The discussion enter various rational and irrational arguments, beside straightforward arguments various misleading and mendacious exist. The present publication is comprehensively dedicated to the thema of nuclear energy - its pro and contra - and considers its risks and advantages. Thereby the sources of energy, the processes in the nuclear reactor, and the risk potentials (Harrisburg, Chernobyl, Fukushima) are illustratively and reproducibly presented. Extensively the text explains the forms of the radiation, its doses, and the tolerance of it. Also to the theme waste and final disposal an explaining chapter is dedicated and the question for the exit from nuclear energy elucidated. Finally the author appoints with the question ''How considers mankind nuclear energy world-wide'' the international comparison.

  9. Building a Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Srivastava

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes cross-industrial best practices and future trends in the context of the contemporary resource based competitive advantage model of the firm. It identifies key managerial levers, tools and systems that can be used to build and sustain a Hi-Technology company’s core competences in order to facilitate a more innovative, collaborative 21st century corporate culture. A qualitative and quantitative assessment is made of how a firm’s leadership, human capital management, organizational culture, design and systems can all collectively merge to create a more dynamic and responsive organization which is far more adept at building unique resources and capabilities, which can then be leveraged to create new market opportunities with high competitive entry barriers.

  10. Alliances: Their advantages and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolidge, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Contract alliances between operators and service companies, contractors, and suppliers in the drilling and production industry have helped cut costs and improve operational efficiency, but there are pitfalls to be aware of. Operators and service companies tend to form alliances for long-term pricing or efficiency gains rather than for continuous quality improvement or as a technology sharing agreements. A survey was sent to a total of 200 operators, contractors, and service companies to help identify the advantages nd pitfalls with current alliance strategies in the US petroleum industry. This article is the first of a two-part series on petroleum industry alliances. the second part, which will appear in an upcoming issue, covers the results of the alliance survey in detail

  11. THE CONCEPT OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES. LOGIC, SOURCES AND DURABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Cegliński, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this article is to present theoretical assumptions of the concept of competitive advantages and main problems connected with the same. Most of all, the article outlines issues, which are presently discussed in the field of management sciences, including sources of competitive advantages, causal ambiguity and character of durability of competitive advantages in the contemporary turbulent business environment. In the author’s opinion, the issues have a great signifi...

  12. Expressions For Total Energy And Relativistic Kinetic Energy At Low Speeds In Special Relativity Must Include Rotational And Vibrational As Well As Linear Kinetic Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Stewart

    2017-09-01

    Einstein calculated the total energy at low speeds in the Special Theory of Relativity to be Etotal =m0c2 + 1 / 2m0v2 . However, the total energy must include the rotational and vibrational kinetic energies as well as the linear kinetic energies. If 1 / 2 Iω2 is the expression for the rotational kinetic energy of mass and 1 / 2 kx02 is the vibrational kinetic energy expression of a typical mass, the expression for the total energy of a mass at low speeds must be Etotal =m0c2 + 1 / 2m0v2 + 1 / 2 Iω2 + 1 / 2 kx02 . If this expression is correct, the relativistic kinetic energy of a mass. at low speeds must include the rotational and vibrational kinetic energies as well as the linear kinetic energies since according to Einstein K = (m -m0) c2 and therefore, K = 1 / 2m0v2 + 1 / 2 Iω2 + 1 / 2 kx02 .

  13. [Experimental Approach to Analysis of the Relationship between Food Environments and Lifestyle-Related Diseases, Including Cardiac Hypertrophy, Fatty Liver, and Fatigue Symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahisa; Nakakuma, Miwa; Arimura, Emi; Ushikai, Miharu; Yoshida, Goichiro

    2015-01-01

    The food habit is involved in the onset and development of lifestyle-related diseases. In this review I would like to describe a historical case of vitamin B1 deficiency, as well as our case study of fatty acid metabolism abnormality due to carnitine deficiency. In history, the army and navy personnel in Japan at the end of the 19th century received food rations based on a high-carbohydrate diet including white rice, resulting in the onset of beriberi. An epidemiological study by Kenkan Takaki revealed the relationship between the onset of beriberi and rice intake. Then, Takaki was successful in preventing the onset of beriberi by changing the diet. However, the primary cause had yet to be elucidated. Finally, Christian Eijkman established an animal model of beriberi (chickens) showing peripheral neuropathy, and he identified the existence of an anti-beriberi substance, vitamin B1. This is an example of the successful control of a disease by integrating the results of epidemiological and experimental studies. In our study using a murine model of fatty acid metabolism abnormality caused by carnitine deficiency, cardiac abnormality and fatty liver developed depending on the amount of dietary fat. In addition, the mice showed disturbance of orexin neuron activity related to the sleep-arousal system, which is involved in fatigue symptoms under fasting condition, one of the states showing enhanced fatty acid metabolism. These findings suggest that fatty acid toxicity is enhanced when the mice are more dependent on fatty acid metabolism. Almost simultaneously, a human epidemiological study showed that narcolepsy, which is caused by orexin system abnormality, is associated with the polymorphism of the gene coding for carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B, which is involved in carnitine metabolism. To understand the pathological mechanism of fatty acid toxicity, not only an experimental approach using animal models, but also an epidemiological approach is necessary. The

  14. Home advantage in Australian soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumas, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the magnitude of home advantage (HA) in Australian soccer and to investigate how home-team crowd support and away-team travel may contribute to it. A paired design was used wherein each match contributed two observations, one for the home team and one for the away team. The data used in this study were all matches from the first seven seasons (2005/06-2011/12) of the Australian A-League - the major soccer league in Australia. Repeated measures Poisson regression analysis was used to investigate the effect that crowd size and density, distance and direction travelled by away teams, and crossing time zones may have on HA. HA in terms of the percentage of competition points gained by home teams in the A-League averaged 58% over the study period. HA increased significantly with increasing number of time zones crossed by away teams (pteam crowd support. Travel management programs aimed at reducing the effects of jet lag could significantly improve away team performance in Australian soccer. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Pötter, Richard; Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C.; Haie-Meder, Christine; Petrič, Primož; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M.; Rai, Bhavana; Cooper, Rachel; Dörr, Wolfgang; Nout, Remi A.; Lindegaard, Jacob; Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars; Van Der Steen Banasik, Elzbieta; Haie-Meder, Christine; Dumas, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials: In total, 744 patients at a median follow-up of 21 months were included. QoL was prospectively assessed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life core module 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC cervical cancer module 24 (CX24) questionnaires at baseline, then every 3 months during the first year, every 6 months in the second and third years, and finally yearly thereafter in patients with no evidence of disease. Outcomes were evaluated over time and compared to those from an age-matched female reference population. Results: General QoL and emotional and social functioning were impaired at baseline but improved during the first 6 months after treatment, to reach a level comparable to that of the reference population, whereas cognitive functioning remained impaired. Both social and role functioning showed the lowest scores at baseline but which increased after treatment to reach a plateau at 6 months and then declined slightly at 3 and 4 years. The overall symptom experience was elevated at baseline and decreased to a level within the range of that of the reference population. Similarly, tumor-related symptoms (eg, pain, appetite loss, and constipation), which were present before treatment, decreased substantially at the first follow-up after treatment. Several treatment-related symptoms developed either immediately after and persisted over time (diarrhea, menopausal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and sexual functioning problems) or developed gradually after treatment (lymphedema and dyspnea). Conclusions: This longitudinal prospective QoL analysis showed that patients' general QoL and functioning were impaired before treatment compared to

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.kirchheiner@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Pötter, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C. [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Haie-Meder, Christine [Department of Radiotherapy, Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Petrič, Primož [Department of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Radiation Oncology, National Center for Cancer Care and Research, Doha (Qatar); Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rai, Bhavana [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Cooper, Rachel [Leeds Cancer Centre, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Dörr, Wolfgang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Nout, Remi A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Lindegaard, Jacob; Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars; Van Der Steen Banasik, Elzbieta; Haie-Meder, Christine; Dumas, Isabelle; and others

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials: In total, 744 patients at a median follow-up of 21 months were included. QoL was prospectively assessed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life core module 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC cervical cancer module 24 (CX24) questionnaires at baseline, then every 3 months during the first year, every 6 months in the second and third years, and finally yearly thereafter in patients with no evidence of disease. Outcomes were evaluated over time and compared to those from an age-matched female reference population. Results: General QoL and emotional and social functioning were impaired at baseline but improved during the first 6 months after treatment, to reach a level comparable to that of the reference population, whereas cognitive functioning remained impaired. Both social and role functioning showed the lowest scores at baseline but which increased after treatment to reach a plateau at 6 months and then declined slightly at 3 and 4 years. The overall symptom experience was elevated at baseline and decreased to a level within the range of that of the reference population. Similarly, tumor-related symptoms (eg, pain, appetite loss, and constipation), which were present before treatment, decreased substantially at the first follow-up after treatment. Several treatment-related symptoms developed either immediately after and persisted over time (diarrhea, menopausal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and sexual functioning problems) or developed gradually after treatment (lymphedema and dyspnea). Conclusions: This longitudinal prospective QoL analysis showed that patients' general QoL and functioning were impaired before treatment compared to

  17. The effect of weight management interventions that include a diet component on weight-related outcomes in pregnant and postpartum women: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Lisa; Rollo, Megan; Hauck, Yvonne; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Wood, Lisa; Hutchesson, Melinda; Giglia, Roslyn; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare

    2015-01-01

    What are the effects of weight management interventions that include a diet component on weight-related outcomes in pregnant and postpartum women?The primary objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness of weight management interventions which include a diet component and are aimed at limiting gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention in women.The second objective of this systematic review is to investigate included intervention components with respect to effect on weight-related outcomes. This may include, but is not limited to: length of intervention, use of face-to-face counselling, group or individual consultations, use of other interventions components including exercise, use of goals and use of support tools like food diaries, coaching, including email or text message support. Around half of all women of reproductive age are either overweight or obese, with women aged 25-34 years having a greater risk of substantial weight gain compared with men of all ages. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PPWR) may play a significant role in long term obesity. Having one child doubles the five- and 10-year obesity incidence for women, with many women who gain excessive weight during pregnancy remaining obese permanently. Excessive GWG and/or PPWR can also significantly contribute to short- and long-term adverse health outcomes for mother, baby and future pregnancies.Maternal obesity increases the risk of pregnancy related complications such as pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, stillbirth and the rate of caesarean section. Childhood obesity is a further long term complication of maternal obesity for offspring, which may persist in to adulthood. Excess GWG is also a risk factor for PPWR both in the short and long-term. Nehring et al. conducted a meta-analysis with over 65,000 women showing that, compared to women who gained weight within recommendations during pregnancy, women with GWG

  18. Counterproliferation, Border Security and Counterterrorism Subject-Related Laws and Regulations, Including Export Control Regimes in South-Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Each nation's laws should prohibit development, acquisition, or transfer of WMD-critical items and should make it a crime to violate that prohibition for hostile purposes. Thus, WMD proliferation should be illegal everywhere, powerfully reinforcing the norm against acquisition of such weapons as well as facilitating law enforcement and trans-national legal cooperation. Provisions applicable to threats should be harmonized. National laws should address threats and should ensure prosecution of offenders or extradition to another State for prosecution. The scope of legal jurisdiction over such crimes should broadly reach the behaviour of legal entities in trans-national smuggling and weapons development conspiracies. A priority question is precisely which activity should constitute a criminal offence. It is relatively straightforward to make the use of WMD a crime; but it will be necessary to reach preparatory steps that can encompass innocent behaviour or even legitimate scientific inquiry. Bio-terror preparations, for example, may employ the same materials, equipment and techniques as undertaking legitimate disease research. Standards must be developed to instruct law enforcers as to what behaviour merits criminal investigation to prevent a hostile attack. Similarly, legal measures must define 'WMD' items, including chemical and biological agents that are non-lethal but incapacitating to humans as well as agents that are lethal as to animal or plant life. If WMD proliferation is criminalized, each State's law enforcement officials must work jointly with their counterparts in other States by sharing information, conducting investigations, and prosecuting apprehended terrorists. State cooperation both in gathering intelligence and using that information to prevent criminal activity is undermined, however, by lack of coherent legal instruments. Currently, there is no integrated database of State laws concerning production or use of WMD; it is difficult to know what

  19. Burden and health-related quality of life of eating disorders, including Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID), in the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Phillipa; Mitchison, Deborah; Collado, Abraham Ernesto Lopez; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Stocks, Nigel; Touyz, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology and health related quality of life (HRQoL) of the new DSM-5 diagnoses, Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in the Australian population. We aimed to investigate the prevalance and burden of these disorders. We conducted two sequential population-based surveys including individuals aged over 15 years who were interviewed in 2014 ( n  = 2732) and 2015 ( n =3005). Demographic information and diagnostic features of DSM-5 eating disorders were asked including the occurrence of regular (at least weekly over the past 3 months) objective binge eating with levels of distress, extreme dietary restriction/fasting for weight/shape control, purging behaviors, overvaluation of shape and/or weight, and the presence of an avoidant/restrictive food intake without overvaluation of shape and/or weight. In 2014 functional impact or role performance was measured with the 'days out of role' question and in 2015, Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) was assessed with the Short Form -12 item questionnaire (SF-12v1). The 2014 and 2015 3-month prevalence of eating disorders were: anorexia nervosa-broad 0.4% (95% CI 0.2-0.7) and 0.5% (0.3-0.9); bulimia nervosa 1.1% (0.7-1.5) and 1.2% (0.9-1.7); ARFID 0.3% (0.1-0.5) and 0.3% (0.2-0.6). The 2015 3-month prevalence rates were: BED-broad 1.5% (1.1-2.0); Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED) 3.2 (2.6-3.9); and Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorder (UFED) 10.4% (0.9-11.5). Most people with OSFED had atypical anorexia nervosa and majority with UFED were characterised by having recurrent binge eating without marked distress. Eating disorders were represented throughout sociodemographic groups and those with bulimia nervosa and BED-broad had mean weight (BMI, kg/m 2 ) in the obese range. Mental HRQoL was poor in all eating disorder groups but particularly poor for those with BED-broad and ARFID. Individuals with bulimia nervosa, BED

  20. Prevalence and Citation Advantage of Gold Open Access in the Subject Areas of the Scopus Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorta-González, Pablo; Santana-Jiménez, Yolanda

    2018-01-01

    The potential benefit of open access (OA) in relation to citation impact has been discussed in the literature in depth. The methodology used to test the OA citation advantage includes comparing OA vs. non-OA journal impact factors and citations of OA vs. non-OA articles published in the same non-OA journals. However, one problem with many studies…

  1. Altered functional connectivity links in neuroleptic-naïve and neuroleptic-treated patients with schizophrenia, and their relation to symptoms including volition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidan Pu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze functional connectivity in untreated and treated patients with schizophrenia, resting-state fMRI data were obtained for whole-brain functional connectivity analysis from 22 first-episode neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenia (NNS, 61 first-episode neuroleptic-treated schizophrenia (NTS patients, and 60 healthy controls (HC. Reductions were found in untreated and treated patients in the functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus, and this was correlated with the reduction in volition from the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS, that is in the willful initiation, sustenance, and control of thoughts, behavior, movements, and speech, and with the general and negative symptoms. In addition in both patient groups interhemispheric functional connectivity was weaker between the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and temporal pole. These functional connectivity changes and the related symptoms were not treated by the neuroleptics. Differences between the patient groups were that there were more strong functional connectivity links in the NNS patients (including in hippocampal, frontal, and striatal circuits than in the NTS patients. These findings with a whole brain analysis in untreated and treated patients with schizophrenia provide evidence on some of the brain regions implicated in the volitional, other general, and negative symptoms, of schizophrenia that are not treated by neuroleptics so have implications for the development of other treatments; and provide evidence on some brain systems in which neuroleptics do alter the functional connectivity.

  2. Meta-analysis of the INSIG2 association with obesity including 74,345 individuals: does heterogeneity of estimates relate to study design?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heid, Iris M; Huth, Cornelia; Loos, Ruth J F

    2009-01-01

    with subjects selected for conditions related to a better health status ('healthy population', HP), and obesity studies (OB). We tested five hypotheses to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The meta-analysis of 27 studies on Caucasian adults (n = 66,213) combining the different study designs did......The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was identified for obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)) in one of the first genome-wide association studies, but replications were inconsistent. We collected statistics from 34 studies (n = 74,345), including general population (GP) studies, population-based studies...... not support overall association of the CC-genotype with obesity, yielding an odds ratio (OR) of 1.05 (p-value = 0.27). The I(2) measure of 41% (p-value = 0.015) indicated between-study heterogeneity. Restricting to GP studies resulted in a declined I(2) measure of 11% (p-value = 0.33) and an OR of 1.10 (p...

  3. Food irradiation: advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandes, N.K.; Vital, H. de C.; Sabaa-Srur, A.U.O.

    2003-01-01

    Food irradiation is a physical method of processing food (e.g. freezing, canning). It has been thoroughly researched over the last four decades and is recognized as a safe and wholesome method. It has the potential both of disinfesting dried food to reduce storage losses and disinfesting fruits and vegetables to meet quarantine requirements for export trade. Low doses of irradiation inhibit spoilage losses due to sprouting of root and tuber crops. Food- borne diseases due to contamination by pathogenic microorganisms and parasites of meat, poultry, fish, fishery products and spices are on the increase. Irradiation of these solid foods can decontaminate them of pathogenic organisms and thus provide safe food to the consumer. Irradiation can successfully replace the fumigation treatment of cocoa beans and coffee beans and disinfest dried fish, dates, dried fruits, etc. One of the most important advantages of food irradiation processing is that it is a coldprocess which does not significantly alter physico-chemical characters of the treated product. It can be applied to food after its final packaging. Similar to other physical processes of food processing, (e.g. canning, freezing), irradiation is a capital intensive process. Thus, adequate product volume must be made available in order to maximize the use of the facility and minimize the unit cost of treatment. Lack of harmonization of regulations among the countries which have approved irradiated foods hampers the introduction of this technique for international trade. Action at the international level has to be taken in order to remedy this situation. One of the important limitations of food irradiation processing is its slow acceptance by consumers, due inter alia to a perceived association with radioactivity. The food industry tends to be reluctant to use the technology in view of uncertainties regarding consumer acceptance of treated foods. Several market testing and consumer acceptance studies have been carried

  4. Assertive behavior: advantages and perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheinov V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this information-analytical paper analyzes and summarizes the results of all available international research and assertiveness assertive behavior relating to the identification of their strengths and the perception of these phenomena in society. Are some suggestions for overcoming the problems detected.

  5. Early initiation of basic resuscitation interventions including face mask ventilation may reduce birth asphyxia related mortality in low-income countries: a prospective descriptive observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersdal, Hege Langli; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Perlman, Jeffrey M

    2012-07-01

    Early initiation of basic resuscitation interventions within 60 s in apneic newborn infants is thought to be essential in preventing progression to circulatory collapse based on experimental cardio-respiratory responses to asphyxia. The objectives were to describe normal transitional respiratory adaption at birth and to assess the importance of initiating basic resuscitation within the first minutes after birth as it relates to neonatal outcome. This is an observational study of neonatal respiratory adaptation at birth in a rural hospital in Tanzania. Research assistants (n=14) monitored every newborn infant delivery and the response of birth attendants to a depressed baby. Time to initiation of spontaneous respirations or time to onset of breathing following stimulation/suctioning, or face mask ventilation (FMV) in apneic infants, and duration of FMV were recorded. 5845 infants were born; 5689 were liveborn, among these 4769(84%) initiated spontaneous respirations; 93% in ≤30 s and 99% in ≤60 s. Basic resuscitation (stimulation, suction, and/or FMV) was attempted in 920/5689(16.0%); of these 459(49.9%) received FMV. Outcomes included normal n=5613(96.0%), neonatal deaths n=56(1.0%), admitted neonatal area n=20(0.3%), and stillbirths n=156(2.7%). The risk for death or prolonged admission increases 16% for every 30 s delay in initiating FMV up to six minutes (p=0.045) and 6% for every minute of applied FMV (p=0.001). The majority of lifeless babies were in primary apnea and responded to stimulation/suctioning and/or FMV. Infants who required FMV were more likely to die particularly when ventilation was delayed or prolonged. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Skills and Changing Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Edward N. Wolff

    2003-01-01

    Using U.S. input-output data for the period 1947-1996 and Dictionary of Occupational Titles skill scores, I find that U.S. exports have a high content in cognitive and interactive skills relative to imports, and a low content in motor skills. Moreover, the skill gap between exports and imports has widened over time. Imports are more capital- and equipment-intensive than exports, but the difference has fallen over time. By 1987 exports were more computer-intensive than imports. In contrast, th...

  7. Meta-analysis of the INSIG2 association with obesity including 74,345 individuals: does heterogeneity of estimates relate to study design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris M Heid

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was identified for obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2 in one of the first genome-wide association studies, but replications were inconsistent. We collected statistics from 34 studies (n = 74,345, including general population (GP studies, population-based studies with subjects selected for conditions related to a better health status ('healthy population', HP, and obesity studies (OB. We tested five hypotheses to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The meta-analysis of 27 studies on Caucasian adults (n = 66,213 combining the different study designs did not support overall association of the CC-genotype with obesity, yielding an odds ratio (OR of 1.05 (p-value = 0.27. The I(2 measure of 41% (p-value = 0.015 indicated between-study heterogeneity. Restricting to GP studies resulted in a declined I(2 measure of 11% (p-value = 0.33 and an OR of 1.10 (p-value = 0.015. Regarding the five hypotheses, our data showed (a some difference between GP and HP studies (p-value = 0.012 and (b an association in extreme comparisons (BMI> or =32.5, 35.0, 37.5, 40.0 kg/m(2 versus BMI<25 kg/m(2 yielding ORs of 1.16, 1.18, 1.22, or 1.27 (p-values 0.001 to 0.003, which was also underscored by significantly increased CC-genotype frequencies across BMI categories (10.4% to 12.5%, p-value for trend = 0.0002. We did not find evidence for differential ORs (c among studies with higher than average obesity prevalence compared to lower, (d among studies with BMI assessment after the year 2000 compared to those before, or (e among studies from older populations compared to younger. Analysis of non-Caucasian adults (n = 4889 or children (n = 3243 yielded ORs of 1.01 (p-value = 0.94 or 1.15 (p-value = 0.22, respectively. There was no evidence for overall association of the rs7566605 polymorphism with obesity. Our data suggested an association with extreme degrees of obesity, and consequently heterogeneous effects from different study designs may

  8. Structuring the competitive advantage of printing company

    OpenAIRE

    Kukharuk A. D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the concept of "competitive advantage of the company" if analyzed. The concept of "structuring a competitive advantage" is suggested. The model of structuring of printing company’s competitive advantage based on fundamentals of stakeholder theory is developed.

  9. Comparative Advantage: Explaining Tourism Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jie; Jensen, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    The original research article is reprinted in this volume from Edward Elgar on the Economics and Management of Tourism: ‘Ritchie and Crouch’s book The Competitive Destination: A Sustainable Tourism Perspective (CABI, 2003) has become one of the seminal works in tourism destination research...... and includes many key destination competitiveness papers. In the eight years since their original work, the topic of destination competitiveness has become even more important. It is one of today’s key forces driving tourism research and destination management. I fully anticipate this book will become...

  10. Is bilingualism losing its advantage? A bibliometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Azanza, Victor A; López-Penadés, Raúl; Buil-Legaz, Lucía; Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Adrover-Roig, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This study uses several bibliometric indices to explore the temporal course of publication trends regarding the bilingual advantage in executive control over a ten-year window. These indices include the number of published papers, numbers of citations, and the journal impact factor. According to the information available in their abstracts, studies were classified into one of four categories: supporting, ambiguous towards, not mentioning, or challenging the bilingual advantage. Results show that the number of papers challenging the bilingual advantage increased notably in 2014 and 2015. Both the average impact factor and the accumulated citations as of June 2016 were equivalent between categories. However, of the studies published in 2014, those that challenge the bilingual advantage accumulated more citations in June 2016 than those supporting it. Our findings offer evidence-based bibliometric information about the current state of the literature and suggest a change in publication trends regarding the literature on the bilingual advantage.

  11. Disease-related and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms in patients with systemic sclerosis, including fear of progression and appearance self-esteem.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Lankveld, W.G. van; Vonk, M.C.; Becker, E.S.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of depressive symptoms is high in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma). This study was conducted to determine which disease-related and psychosocial factors are associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic factors. METHODS: In total,

  12. Disease-related and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms in patients with systemic sclerosis, including fear of progression and appearance self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Vonk, M.C.; Becker, E.S.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of depressive symptoms is high in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma). This study was conducted to determine which disease-related and psychosocial factors are associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic factors. Methods: In total,

  13. Nurses' creativity: advantage or disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari Isfahani, Sara; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masood; Peyrovi, Hamid; Khanke, Hamid Reza

    2015-02-01

    Recently, global nursing experts have been aggressively encouraging nurses to pursue creativity and innovation in nursing to improve nursing outcomes. Nurses' creativity plays a significant role in health and well-being. In most health systems across the world, nurses provide up to 80% of the primary health care; therefore, they are critically positioned to provide creative solutions for current and future global health challenges. The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian nurses' perceptions and experiences toward the expression of creativity in clinical settings and the outcomes of their creativity for health care organizations. A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Data were collected through in-depth semistructured interviews with 14 nurses who were involved in the creative process in educational hospitals affiliated to Jahrom and Tehran Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Four themes emerged from the data analysis, including a) Improvement in quality of patient care, b) Improvement in nurses' quality of work, personal and social life, c) Promotion of organization, and d) Unpleasant outcomes. The findings indicated that nurses' creativity in health care organizations can lead to major changes of nursing practice, improvement of care and organizational performance. Therefore, policymakers, nurse educators, nursing and hospital managers should provide a nurturing environment that is conducive to creative thinking, giving the nurses opportunity for flexibility, creativity, support for change, and risk taking.

  14. Nurses’ Creativity: Advantage or Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari Isfahani, Sara; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masood; Peyrovi, Hamid; Khanke, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, global nursing experts have been aggressively encouraging nurses to pursue creativity and innovation in nursing to improve nursing outcomes. Nurses’ creativity plays a significant role in health and well-being. In most health systems across the world, nurses provide up to 80% of the primary health care; therefore, they are critically positioned to provide creative solutions for current and future global health challenges. Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian nurses’ perceptions and experiences toward the expression of creativity in clinical settings and the outcomes of their creativity for health care organizations. Patients and Methods A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Data were collected through in-depth semistructured interviews with 14 nurses who were involved in the creative process in educational hospitals affiliated to Jahrom and Tehran Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Results Four themes emerged from the data analysis, including a) Improvement in quality of patient care, b) Improvement in nurses’ quality of work, personal and social life, c) Promotion of organization, and d) Unpleasant outcomes. Conclusions The findings indicated that nurses’ creativity in health care organizations can lead to major changes of nursing practice, improvement of care and organizational performance. Therefore, policymakers, nurse educators, nursing and hospital managers should provide a nurturing environment that is conducive to creative thinking, giving the nurses opportunity for flexibility, creativity, support for change, and risk taking. PMID:25793116

  15. Environmental standards provide competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chynoweth, E.; Kirshner, E.

    1993-01-01

    Quality organizations are breaking new ground with the development of international standards for environmental management. These promise to provide the platform for chemical companies wanting to establish their environmental credibility with a global audience. open-quotes It will be similar to auditing our customers to ISO 9000 close-quote, says the environmental manager for a European chemical firm. open-quote We will only want to deal with people who have got their environmental act together. And we'll be in a better competitive positions close-quote. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO;Geneva) has set up a taskforce to develop an environmental management standard, which is expected to be completed by the mid-1990s. Observers think the ISO standard will draw heavily on the British Standard Institute's (BSI;London) environmental management standard, BS7750, which will likely be the first system adopted in the world. Published last year, BS7750 has been extensively piloted in the UK (CW, Sept. 30, 1992, p. 62) and is now set to be revised before being offically adopted by BSI. The UK's Chemical Industries Association (CIA;London) is anxious to prevent a proliferation of standards, and its report on BS7750 pilot projects calls for an approach integrating quality, environment, and health and safety. But standard setters, including ISO, appear to be moving in the opposite direction. In the US, the American national Standards Institute (ANSI;Washington) has started work on an environmental management standard

  16. Optical advantages in retinal scanning displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urey, Hakan

    2000-06-01

    Virtual Retinal DisplayTM technology is a retinal scanning display (RSD) technology being developed at Microvision, Inc., for a variety of applications including microdisplays. An RSD scans a modulated light beam onto a viewer's retina to produce a perceived image. Red, green and blue light sources, such as lasers, laser diodes or LEDs combine with Microvision's proprietary miniaturized scanner designs to make the RSD very well suited for head-worn and helmet-mounted displays (HMD). This paper compares the features of RSD technology to other display technologies such as the cathode ray tubes or matrix-based displays for HMD and other wearable display applications, and notes important performance advantages due to the number of pixel- generating elements. Also discussed are some fundamental optical limitations for virtual displays used in the HMD applications.

  17. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries (including cardiac events) in South Africa from 2008 to 2011: a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.C.; Lambert, M.I.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Readhead, C.; van Mechelen, W.; Viljoen, W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To establish an accurate and comprehensive injury incidence registry of all rugby union-related catastrophic events in South Africa between 2008 and 2011. An additional aim was to investigate correlates associated with these injuries. Design: Prospective. Setting: The South African

  18. Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development.

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life: Expanding a Conceptual Framework to Include Older Adults Who Receive Long-Term Services and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubritsky, Cynthia; Abbott, Katherine M.; Hirschman, Karen B.; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Foust, Janice B.; Naylor, Mary D.

    2013-01-01

    For older adults receiving long-term services and supports (LTSS), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has emerged as a critical construct to examine because of its focus on components of well-being, which are affected by progressive changes in health status, health care, and social support. HRQoL is a health-focused quality of life (QOL)…

  20. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries (including cardiac events) in South Africa from 2008 to 2011: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Craig; Lambert, Mike I; Verhagen, Evert; Readhead, Clint; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    To establish an accurate and comprehensive injury incidence registry of all rugby union-related catastrophic events in South Africa between 2008 and 2011. An additional aim was to investigate correlates associated with these injuries. Prospective. The South African amateur and professional rugby-playing population. An estimated 529 483 Junior and 121 663 Senior rugby union ('rugby') players (population at risk). Annual average incidences of rugby-related catastrophic injuries by type (cardiac events, traumatic brain and acute spinal cord injuries (ASCIs)) and outcome (full recoveries-fatalities). Playing level (junior and senior levels), position and event (phase of play) were also assessed. The average annual incidence of ASCIs and Traumatic Brain Injuries combined was 2.00 per 100 000 players (95% CI 0.91 to 3.08) from 2008 to 2011. The incidence of ASCIs with permanent outcomes was significantly higher at the Senior level (4.52 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0.74 to 8.30) than the Junior level (0.24 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0 to 0.65) during this period. The hooker position was associated with 46% (n=12 of 26) of all permanent ASCI outcomes, the majority of which (83%) occurred during the scrum phase of play. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries in South Africa between 2008 and 2011 is comparable to that of other countries and to most other collision sports. The higher incidence rate of permanent ASCIs at the Senior level could be related to the different law variations or characteristics (eg, less regular training) compared with the Junior level. The hooker and scrum were associated with high proportions of permanent ASCIs. The BokSmart injury prevention programme should focus efforts on these areas (Senior level, hooker and scrum) and use this study as a reference point for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the programme.

  1. [Assessment of the technology of care relations in the health services: perception of the elderly included in the family health strategy in Bambuí, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Wagner Jorge dos; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-08-01

    In the health field, technologies of care relations are in the scope of the worker-user encounter, implying intersubjectivity with the development of relationships between subjects, resulting in action. Evaluation studies synthesize knowledge produced on the consequences of using these technologies for society. This anthropological study aims to understand the perception of the elderly regarding the resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts produced in health care relationships in the context of the Family Health Strategy (ESF). The group studied consisted of 57 elderly residents in Bambui, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The model of signs, meanings and actions was used for collecting and analyzing data and the semi-structured interview was applied as a research technique. Elderly individuals assess resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts of care in the ESF as negative, with relation to the quality of user and professional interaction. The ESF is not effective and the desired change in the health care model has not occurred in practice. It repeats the centrality of the medical-drug-procedure model that treats the disease rather than the patient, perceiving old age as a disease and illness as being related to aging.

  2. Fiches Pratiques: Mots...a croiser; Profitons du cinema; Le discours rapporte; Cent ans (Practical Ideas: Words...to Cross; Let's Take Advantage of the Movies; Relating Others' Discourse; One Hundred Years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vever, Daniel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Four class activities for French language instruction are described, including a crossword puzzle exercise emphasizing French culture, use of films for developing a variety of language skills, techniques for helping students discuss others' ideas, and an exercise promoting discussion through photographs of older adults engaged in various…

  3. Potash: a global overview of evaporate-related potash resources, including spatial databases of deposits, occurrences, and permissive tracts: Chapter S in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris, Greta J.; Cocker, Mark D.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wynn, Jeff C.; Spanski, Gregory T.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Gass, Leila; Bliss, James D.; Bolm, Karen S.; Yang, Chao; Lipin, Bruce R.; Ludington, Stephen; Miller, Robert J.; Słowakiewicz, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    Potash is mined worldwide to provide potassium, an essential nutrient for food crops. Evaporite-hosted potash deposits are the largest source of salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form, including potassium chloride, potassium-magnesium chloride, potassium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Thick sections of evaporitic salt that form laterally continuous strata in sedimentary evaporite basins are the most common host for stratabound and halokinetic potash-bearing salt deposits. Potash-bearing basins may host tens of millions to more than 100 billion metric tons of potassium oxide (K2O). Examples of these deposits include those in the Elk Point Basin in Canada, the Pripyat Basin in Belarus, the Solikamsk Basin in Russia, and the Zechstein Basin in Germany.

  4. Is There an Islamist Political Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammett, Melani; Luong, Pauline Jones

    2014-01-25

    There is a widespread presumption that Islamists have an advantage over their opponents when it comes to generating mass appeal and winning elections. The question remains, however, as to whether these advantages-or, what we refer to collectively as an Islamist political advantage-actually exist. We argue that-to the extent that Islamists have a political advantage-the primary source of this advantage is reputation rather than the provision of social services, organizational capacity, or ideological hegemony. Our purpose is not to dismiss the main sources of the Islamist governance advantage identified in scholarly literature and media accounts, but to suggest a different causal path whereby each of these factors individually and sometimes jointly promotes a reputation for Islamists as competent, trustworthy, and pure. It is this reputation for good governance that enables Islamists to distinguish themselves in the streets and at the ballot box.

  5. Comparative Advantage, Trade and Labour Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Busse

    2002-01-01

    This paper empirically explores the relationship between labour standards and comparative advantage. Focusing on unskilled-labour-intensive goods and core labour standards, the results show that the effects of low standards depend on the type of standard: Weaker basic union rights are associated with a stronger comparative advantage. Forced and child labour also lead to an increase in the endowment of unskilled labour, and hence improve comparative advantage in unskilled-labour-intensive good...

  6. Psychological factors including sense of coherence and some lifestyles are related to general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) in elderly workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ichiyo; Sagara, Takiko; Ohshita, Yoshiko; Nagase, Hirofumi; Ogino, Keiki; Eboshida, Akira; Sasahara, Shinichiro; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2007-03-01

    The number of elderly workers has also been increasing and poor psychological well-being in elderly workers has been reported. The aim of this study is to elucidate the factors that are related to poor psychological well-being in elderly workers. We administered General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) as an indicator of psychological well-being to 330 male elderly workers in the age range of 50-69, and analyzed different psychological factors, namely sense of coherence (SOC), and physical and lifestyle variables such as blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, smoking frequency, alcohol intake, exercise frequency, and body mass index (BMI) that are related to GHQ-12. When the cut-off point of GHQ-12 was 2/3, 97 workers who showed high GHQ-12 score were classified as one group having poor psychological well-being. A statistically significantly lower SOC score, higher stress score, lower frequency of exercise, higher smoking score and higher BMI, but not longer working hours or higher shift work score in the workers with higher GHQ-12 scores were observed than in the workers with normal GHQ-12 scores. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the low SCO score, low frequency of exercise, high smoking frequency and high BMI significantly contributed to the high GHQ-12 score. A low SOC score in elderly workers is assumed to be directly related to poor psychological well-being, or via the development of lifestyle problems such as lack of exercise, obesity, and smoking in elderly workers. This assumption must be confirmed by conducting future intervention studies on lifestyle.

  7. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries (including cardiac events) in South Africa from 2008 to 2011: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Craig; Lambert, Mike I; Verhagen, Evert; Readhead, Clint; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To establish an accurate and comprehensive injury incidence registry of all rugby union-related catastrophic events in South Africa between 2008 and 2011. An additional aim was to investigate correlates associated with these injuries. Design Prospective. Setting The South African amateur and professional rugby-playing population. Participants An estimated 529 483 Junior and 121 663 Senior rugby union (‘rugby’) players (population at risk). Outcome measures Annual average incidences of rugby-related catastrophic injuries by type (cardiac events, traumatic brain and acute spinal cord injuries (ASCIs)) and outcome (full recoveries—fatalities). Playing level (junior and senior levels), position and event (phase of play) were also assessed. Results The average annual incidence of ASCIs and Traumatic Brain Injuries combined was 2.00 per 100 000 players (95% CI 0.91 to 3.08) from 2008 to 2011. The incidence of ASCIs with permanent outcomes was significantly higher at the Senior level (4.52 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0.74 to 8.30) than the Junior level (0.24 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0 to 0.65) during this period. The hooker position was associated with 46% (n=12 of 26) of all permanent ASCI outcomes, the majority of which (83%) occurred during the scrum phase of play. Conclusions The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries in South Africa between 2008 and 2011 is comparable to that of other countries and to most other collision sports. The higher incidence rate of permanent ASCIs at the Senior level could be related to the different law variations or characteristics (eg, less regular training) compared with the Junior level. The hooker and scrum were associated with high proportions of permanent ASCIs. The BokSmart injury prevention programme should focus efforts on these areas (Senior level, hooker and scrum) and use this study as a reference point for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the programme. PMID:23447464

  8. Positive approach: Implications for the relation between number theory and geometry, including connection to Santilli mathematics, from Fibonacci reconstitution of natural numbers and of prime numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Stein E.

    2014-01-01

    The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems

  9. Positive approach: Implications for the relation between number theory and geometry, including connection to Santilli mathematics, from Fibonacci reconstitution of natural numbers and of prime numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Stein E., E-mail: stein.johansen@svt.ntnu.no [Institute for Basic Research, Division of Physics, Palm Harbor, Florida, USA and Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Social Anthropology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-12-10

    The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems.

  10. Diverse Cone-Snail Species Harbor Closely Related Streptomyces Species with Conserved Chemical and Genetic Profiles, Including Polycyclic Tetramic Acid Macrolactams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Quezada

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces are Gram-positive bacteria that occupy diverse ecological niches including host-associations with animals and plants. Members of this genus are known for their overwhelming repertoire of natural products, which has been exploited for almost a century as a source of medicines and agrochemicals. Notwithstanding intense scientific and commercial interest in Streptomyces natural products, surprisingly little is known of the intra- and/or inter-species ecological roles played by these metabolites. In this report we describe the chemical structures, biological properties, and biosynthetic relationships between natural products produced by Streptomyces isolated from internal tissues of predatory Conus snails, collected from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Using chromatographic, spectroscopic and bioassays methodology, we demonstrate that Streptomyces isolated from five different Conus species produce identical chemical and antifungal profiles – comprising a suite of polycyclic tetramic acid macrolactams (PTMs. To investigate possible ecological (and evolutionary relationships we used genome analyses to reveal a close taxonomic relationship with other sponge-derived and free-living PTM producing Streptomyces (i.e., Streptomyces albus. In-depth phylogenomic analysis of PTM biosynthetic gene clusters indicated PTM structure diversity was governed by a small repertoire of genetic elements, including discrete gene acquisition events involving dehydrogenases. Overall, our study shows a Streptomyces-Conus ecological relationship that is concomitant with specific PTM chemical profiles. We provide an evolutionary framework to explain this relationship, driven by anti-fungal properties that protect Conus snails from fungal pathogens.

  11. Figures of merit and constraints from testing general relativity using the latest cosmological data sets including refined COSMOS 3D weak lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossett, Jason N.; Moldenhauer, Jacob; Ishak, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    We use cosmological constraints from current data sets and a figure of merit approach in order to probe any deviations from general relativity at cosmological scales. The figure of merit approach is used to study and compare the constraining power of various combinations of data sets on the modified gravity (MG) parameters. We use the recently refined HST-COSMOS weak-lensing tomography data, the ISW-galaxy cross correlations from 2MASS and SDSS luminous red galaxy surveys, the matter power spectrum from SDSS-DR7 (MPK), the WMAP7 temperature and polarization spectra, the baryon acoustic oscillations from Two-Degree Field and SDSS-DR7, and the Union2 compilation of type Ia supernovae, in addition to other bounds from Hubble parameter measurements and big bang nucleosynthesis. We use three parametrizations of MG parameters that enter the perturbed field equations. In order to allow for variations of the parameters with the redshift and scale, the first two parametrizations use recently suggested functional forms while the third is based on binning methods. Using the first parametrization, we find that the CMB+ISW+WL combination provides the strongest constraints on the MG parameters followed by CMB+WL or CMB+MPK+ISW. Using the second parametrization or the binning methods, we find that the combination CMB+MPK+ISW consistently provides some of the strongest constraints. This shows that the constraints are parametrization dependent. We find that adding up current data sets does not improve consistently the uncertainties on MG parameters due to tensions between the best-fit MG parameters preferred by different data sets. Furthermore, some functional forms imposed by the parametrizations can lead to an exacerbation of these tensions. Next, unlike some studies that used the CFHTLS lensing data, we do not find any deviation from general relativity using the refined HST-COSMOS data, confirming previous claims in those studies that their result may have been due to some

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Pötter, Richard; Tanderup, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials In total, 744...... the first year, every 6 months in the second and third years, and finally yearly thereafter in patients with no evidence of disease. Outcomes were evaluated over time and compared to those from an age-matched female reference population. Results General QoL and emotional and social functioning were impaired...... treatment, decreased substantially at the first follow-up after treatment. Several treatment-related symptoms developed either immediately after and persisted over time (diarrhea, menopausal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and sexual functioning problems) or developed gradually after treatment (lymphedema...

  13. A new delimitation of the Afro-Eurasian plant genus Althenia to include its Australasian relative, Lepilaena (Potamogetonaceae) - Evidence from DNA and morphological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yu; Tanaka, Norio; García-Murillo, Pablo; Muasya, A Muthama

    2016-05-01

    Althenia (Potamogetonaceae) is an aquatic plant genus disjunctly distributed in the southern- (South Africa's Cape Floristic Region: CFR) and northern- (Mediterranean Eurasia) hemispheres. This genus and its Australasian relative, Lepilaena, share similar floral characters yet have been treated as different genera or sections of Althenia sensu lato (s.l.) due to the isolated geographic distribution as well as the differences in sex expression, stamen construction, and stigma morphology. The diagnostic characters, however, need reevaluation over the boundaries between the entities. Here we tested the taxonomic delimitation between the entities, assessed synapomorphies for evolutionary lineages, and inferred biogeographic history in a phylogenetic framework. Our results indicated that Lepilaena was resolved as non-monophyletic in both plastid DNA and nuclear PhyC trees and Althenia was nested within it. As Althenia has nomenclatural priority, we propose a new delimitation to recognize Althenia s.l., which can be diagnosed by the female flowers with 3-segmented perianths and male flowers with perianths. The previously used diagnostic characters are either autapomorphies or synapomorphies for small lineages within Althenia s.l., and evolutionary transitions to sessile female flowers and narrow leaves characterize larger clades. Biogeographic analyses suggested a Miocene origin of Althenia s.l. in Australasia and indicated at least one inter- and one intra-specific inter-continental dispersal events among Australasia, Mediterranean Eurasia, and CFR need to be hypothesized to explain the current distribution patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analisis Dampak Servant Leadership Terhadap Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Oktavia, Pek Nike

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah terdapat dampak antara Servant Leadership terhadap Competitve Advantage, Employee Empowerment dan Organizational Learning. Variabel Servant Leadership diukur dari lima indikator, yaitu altruistic calling, emotional healing, wisdom, persuasive mapping, dan organizational stewardship. Variabel Competitive Advantage diukur dari lima indikator, yaitu price/cost, quality, delivery dependability, time to market, dan product innovation. Variabel Emplo...

  15. The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2009-01-01

    The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not…

  16. Competitive advantage, what does it really mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Haijing de Haan; Hongjue Yan

    2013-01-01

    Competitive advantage is probably the most popular business concept today (Mooney, 2007). This article aims to investigate critically the discourse on competitive advantage, as expressed by business literature, by locating its meanings in the public higher education sector. This research reveals

  17. Strategic Positioning for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, most literature has not clearly linked organizational learning with sustainable competitive advantage. This paper, therefore, explores and discusses the role of organizational learning in helping business firms to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. Specifically, it deals with how organizational learning ...

  18. Analysis of yield advantage in mixed cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, R.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage.

  19. Mechanistic Basis of Cocrystal Dissolution Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fengjuan; Amidon, Gordon L; Rodríguez-Hornedo, Naír; Amidon, Gregory E

    2018-01-01

    Current interest in cocrystal development resides in the advantages that the cocrystal may have in solubility and dissolution compared with the parent drug. This work provides a mechanistic analysis and comparison of the dissolution behavior of carbamazepine (CBZ) and its 2 cocrystals, carbamazepine-saccharin (CBZ-SAC) and carbamazepine-salicylic acid (CBZ-SLC) under the influence of pH and micellar solubilization. A simple mathematical equation is derived based on the mass transport analyses to describe the dissolution advantage of cocrystals. The dissolution advantage is the ratio of the cocrystal flux to drug flux and is defined as the solubility advantage (cocrystal to drug solubility ratio) times the diffusivity advantage (cocrystal to drug diffusivity ratio). In this work, the effective diffusivity of CBZ in the presence of surfactant was determined to be different and less than those of the cocrystals. The higher effective diffusivity of drug from the dissolved cocrystals, the diffusivity advantage, can impart a dissolution advantage to cocrystals with lower solubility than the parent drug while still maintaining thermodynamic stability. Dissolution conditions where cocrystals can display both thermodynamic stability and a dissolution advantage can be obtained from the mass transport models, and this information is useful for both cocrystal selection and formulation development. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 77 FR 6619 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...-Site Examinations. SBA's Office of Credit Risk Management (OCRM) will evaluate the CA Lender's level of... Community Advantage Pilot Program loan applications (or requests for loan numbers submitted under a lender's... Advantage Lenders (``CA Lenders'') to pledge loans made under the CA Pilot Program (``CA loans'') as...

  1. Drone Use in Monioring Open Ocean Surface Debris, Including Paired Manta and Tucker Trawls for Relateing Sea State to Vertical Debris Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, G.

    2016-02-01

    Monitoring debris at sea presents challenges not found in beach or riverine habitats, and is typically done with trawl nets of various apertures and mesh sizes, which limits the size of debris captured and the area surveyed. To partially overcome these limitations in monitoring floating debris, a Quadcopter drone with video transmitting and recording capabilities was deployed at the beginning and the end of manta trawl transects within the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre's eastern convergence zone. Subsurface tucker trawls at 10 meters were conducted at the same time as the manta trawls, in order to assess the effect of sea state on debris dispersal. Trawls were conducted on an 11 station grid used repeatedly since 1999. For drone observations, the operator and observer were stationed on the mother ship while two researchers collected observed debris using a rigid inflatable boat (RIB). The drone was flown to a distance of approximately 100 meters from the vessel in a zigzag or circular search pattern. Here we examine issues arising from drone deployment during the survey: 1) relation of area surveyed by drone to volume of water passing through trawl; 2) retrieval of drone-spotted and associated RIB spotted debris. 3) integrating post- flight image analysis into retrieved debris quantification; and 4) factors limiting drone effectiveness at sea. During the survey, debris too large for the manta trawl was spotted by the drone, and significant debris not observed using the drone was recovered by the RIB. The combination of drone sightings, RIB retrieval, and post flight image analysis leads to improved monitoring of debris at sea. We also examine the issue of the distribution of floating debris during sea states varying from 0-5 by comparing quantities from surface manta trawls to the tucker trawls at a nominal depth of 10 meters.

  2. Disease-related and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms in patients with systemic sclerosis, including fear of progression and appearance self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakkenbos, Linda; van Lankveld, Wim G J M; Vonk, Madelon C; Becker, Eni S; van den Hoogen, Frank H J; van den Ende, Cornelia H M

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of depressive symptoms is high in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma). This study was conducted to determine which disease-related and psychosocial factors are associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic factors. In total, 215 patients with SSc completed questionnaires on sociodemographics, physical functioning (HAQ-DI), pain (VAS), fatigue (CIS), psychosocial characteristics (CISS, ICQ, PRQ, ASE, FoP-Q-SF) and depressive symptoms (CES-D). Disease characteristics (disease duration, disease subtype, modified Rodnan Skin Score) were collected. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to assess associations with depressive symptoms. The mean CES-D score was 12.9 (SD=9.7) and the prevalence of patients scoring>= 16 and>=19 were 32.1% and 25.1%, respectively. The variance explained by sociodemographics and disease characteristics was negligible (R(2)≤.09). Fatigue and pain were independently associated with depressive symptoms (R(2) change=.35). After adding psychological factors (R(2) change=.21), satisfaction with social support, emotion-focused coping and helplessness were also significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Higher fear of progression was associated with more depressive symptoms (P≤.01), and appearance self-esteem showed a marginally significant association (P=.08). Depressive symptoms were common in the present sample of patients with SSc and were independently associated with pain, fatigue, social support, emotion-focused coping, helplessness and fear of progression. Results suggest that, in addition to assessment of disease characteristics, attention should be given also to psychosocial factors found to be associated with depressive symptoms. For the development and trialling of psychological interventions, fear of progression could be an important target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Advantages of thin silicon solar cells for use in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A system definition study on the Solar Power Satellite System showed that a thin, 50 micrometers, silicon solar cell has significant advantages. The advantages include a significantly lower performance degradation in a radiation environment and high power-to-mass ratios. The advantages of such cells for an employment in space is further investigated. Basic questions concerning the operation of solar cells are considered along with aspects of radiation induced performance degradation. The question arose in this connection how thin a silicon solar cell had to be to achieve resistance to radiation degradation and still have good initial performance. It was found that single-crystal silicon solar cells could be as thin as 50 micrometers and still develop high conversion efficiencies. It is concluded that the use of 50 micrometer silicon solar cells in space-based photovoltaic power systems would be advantageous.

  4. The inflammatory/cancer-related IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and maintains the active state of breast myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Harbi, Bothaina; Al-Ansari, Mysoon M; Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-07-05

    The IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop links inflammation to cancer and maintains cells at a transformed state. Similarly, cancer-associated myofibroblats remains active even in absence of cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of this sustained active state remains elusive. We have shown here that breast cancer cells and IL-6 persistently activate breast stromal fibroblasts through the stimulation of the positive IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB feedback loop. Transient neutralization of IL-6 in culture inhibited this signaling circuit and reverted myofibrobalsts to a normalized state, suggesting the implication of the IL-6 autocrine feedback loop as well. Importantly, the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB pro-inflammatory circuit was also active in cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer patients. Transient inhibition of STAT3 by specific siRNA in active fibroblasts persistently reduced the level of the RNA binding protein AUF1, blocked the loop and normalized these cells. Moreover, we present clear evidence that AUF1 is also part of this positive feedback loop. Interestingly, treatment of breast myofibroblasts with caffeine, which has been previously shown to persistently inhibit active breast stromal fibroblasts, blocked the positive feedback loop through potent and sustained inhibition of STAT3, AKT, lin28B and AUF1. These results indicate that the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and is responsible for the sustained active status of cancer-associated fibroblasts. We have also shown that normalizing myofibroblasts, which could be of great therapeutic value, is possible through the inhibition of this procarcinogenic circuit.

  5. An exploratory randomised controlled trial of a premises-level intervention to reduce alcohol-related harm including violence in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Simon C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of a licensed premises intervention to reduce severe intoxication and disorder; to establish effect sizes and identify appropriate approaches to the development and maintenance of a rigorous research design and intervention implementation. Methods An exploratory two-armed parallel randomised controlled trial with a nested process evaluation. An audit of risk factors and a tailored action plan for high risk premises, with three month follow up audit and feedback. Thirty-two premises that had experienced at least one assault in the year prior to the intervention were recruited, match paired and randomly allocated to control or intervention group. Police violence data and data from a street survey of study premises’ customers, including measures of breath alcohol concentration and surveyor rated customer intoxication, were used to assess effect sizes for a future definitive trial. A nested process evaluation explored implementation barriers and the fidelity of the intervention with key stakeholders and senior staff in intervention premises using semi-structured interviews. Results The process evaluation indicated implementation barriers and low fidelity, with a reluctance to implement the intervention and to submit to a formal risk audit. Power calculations suggest the intervention effect on violence and subjective intoxication would be raised to significance with a study size of 517 premises. Conclusions It is methodologically feasible to conduct randomised controlled trials where licensed premises are the unit of allocation. However, lack of enthusiasm in senior premises staff indicates the need for intervention enforcement, rather than voluntary agreements, and on-going strategies to promote sustainability. Trial registration UKCRN 7090; ISRCTN: 80875696

  6. Processing with kW fibre lasers: advantages and limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratky, A.; Schuöcker, D.; Liedl, G.

    2008-10-01

    Up-to-date fibre lasers produce multi-kw radiation with an excellent beam quality. Compared to CO2-lasers, fibre lasers have relatively low operational costs and offer a very high flexibility in production due to the beam delivery with process fibres. As a consequence, fibre lasers have attracted more and more attention. On the other hand, their use in industrial applications especially in the automotive industry is still limited to a certain extent and fibre lasers haven't replaced all other laser sources till now as it could be expected. In laser cutting, the small kerf width produced by fibre lasers should be advantageous since the heated volume is smaller compared to CO2-lasers. In fact, cutting velocities are usually much higher which is also caused by the higher absorption coefficient of most metals at the wavelength emitted by fibre lasers. Nevertheless, cutting with fibre lasers of some metals - e.g. stainless steels - is restricted to a small thicknesses of approx. 5mm. The reason for this is that the surface roughness of the edges increases dramatically with the thickness of the work piece. Applications of fibre lasers include e.g. remote welding or even remote cutting of a large variety of materials with usually excellent results. Due to the excellent beam quality the aspect ratio of the weld seam in relation to the penetration depth is quite good. In the case of thin sheet metal welding such a small beam waist is beneficial - but with thicker sheet metals it is very often disadvantageous since the preparation of samples is more complicated, costs increase and requirements on clamping devices rise. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of fibre lasers are discussed briefly. Applications of a 1.5 kW fibre laser are presented and compared to classical laser systems.

  7. Genome-wide association mapping including phenotypes from relatives without genotypes in a single-step (ssGWAS for 6-week body weight in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyu eWang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained from various methodologies for genome-wide association studies, when applied to real data, in terms of number and commonality of regions identified and their genetic variance explained, computational speed, and possible pitfalls in interpretations of results. Methodologies include: two iteratively reweighted single-step genomic BLUP procedures (ssGWAS1 and ssGWAS2, a single-marker model (CGWAS, and BayesB. The ssGWAS methods utilize genomic breeding values (GEBVs based on combined pedigree, genomic and phenotypic information, while CGWAS and BayesB only utilize phenotypes from genotyped animals or pseudo-phenotypes. In this study, ssGWAS was performed by converting GEBVs to SNP marker effects. Unequal variances for markers were incorporated for calculating weights into a new genomic relationship matrix. SNP weights were refined iteratively. The data was body weight at 6 weeks on 274,776 broiler chickens, of which 4553 were genotyped using a 60k SNP chip. Comparison of genomic regions was based on genetic variances explained by local SNP regions (20 SNPs. After 3 iterations, the noise was greatly reduced of ssGWAS1 and results are similar to that of CGWAS, with 4 out of the top 10 regions in common. In contrast, for BayesB, the plot was dominated by a single region explaining 23.1% of the genetic variance. This same region was found by ssGWAS1 with the same rank, but the amount of genetic variation attributed to the region was only 3%. These finding emphasize the need for caution when comparing and interpreting results from various methods, and highlight that detected associations, and strength of association, strongly depends on methodologies and details of implementations. BayesB appears to overly shrink regions to zero, while overestimating the amount of genetic variation attributed to the remaining SNP effects. The real world is most likely a compromise between methods and remains to

  8. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNEA Ana Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in market characteristics and the technological innovations are common and faster challenges, resulting in products, processes and technologies. The competitive advantage is volatile, difficult to obtain and more difficult to maintain and strengthened with consumers who through their individual choices polarization confirms the recognition performance and award competitive advantages, thus causing the competitive ranking of companies present in a particular market. The competitive advantage lies in the focus of the performance of companies in competitive markets and innovation is a source for obtaining and consolidating it. Companies will need to demonstrate the capacity to adapt to changes in the business environment so as to maintain the helded positions. This paper treats this aspect behavior that companies should adopt to get on the account of innovation a sustainable competitive advantage. I started of the work in the elaboration from the theory of developed by Michael Porter in his book "Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance" we applied methods listed thus trying to point out possible ways of creating competitive advantage by companies. We have presented the sources of competitive advantage and the factors on which depends its creation. Walking theoretical research revealed how lack of competitive advantage leads to a lack of competitiveness of companies and the benefits that arise with the creation of this type of asset. Among the most important benefits is to increase performances. Once the competitive advantage is achieved, it must be maintained and updated market conditions and the methods that can be created a sustainable competitive advantage represent the answers to many of the companies questions are fighting for survival in an environment of fierce competition. The implementation of methods for obtaining competitive advantages, but also exist dangers, that every company should know them

  9. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  10. Strategic advantages of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaskova, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    Traditional methods to assess the competitiveness of different types of real estate in the context of huge changes of new technological way of life don't provide building solutions that would be correct from a strategic perspective. There are many challenges due to changes in the consumers' behavior in the housing area. A multiplicity of life models, a variety of opportunities and priorities, traditions and new trends in construction should be assessed in terms of prospective benefits in the environment of the emerging new world order. At the same time, the mane discourse of high-rise construction mainly relates to its design features, technical innovations, and architectural accents. We need to clarify the criteria for economic evaluation of high-rise construction in order to provide decisions with clear and quantifiable contexts. The suggested approach to assessing the strategic advantage of high-rise construction and the prospects for capitalization of high-rise buildings poses new challenges for the economy to identify adequate quantitative assessment methods of the high-rise buildings economic efficiency, taking into account all stages of their life cycle.

  11. Advantages and disadvantages of burning spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.A.; Ferek, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The full potential for in situ burning as a controlled oil spill response technique is a subject of growing interest throughout the world. Information now available from burning oil during accidental fires, war-related fires in Kuwait, spillage from the Exxon Valdez, and controlled test burns, permits an objective and comprehensive assessment of both the positive and negative aspects of in situ burning. A thorough analysis has been made of direct and indirect impacts and concerns typically associated with the decision, to burn or not to burn. These factors, together with the comparative costs of various response techniques, have been identified and described to provide spill control planners and response organizations with a means of assessing the potential use of burning to clean up offshore oil spills. Some of the advantages for in situ burning are high elimination rate, minimal environmental impact, minimal disposal and cleanup, and ease of control. Some of the disadvantages are localized reduction of air quality, oil conditions, and limited window of opportunity

  12. First Mover Advantages in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Businesses entering early into new markets are believed to attain crucial competitive advantages over later entrants. However, this contention receives only mixed support in the empirical literature, in part because performance is measured in different ways. We reexamine the performance difference...... expectations and relative to industry standards. We find that market share is strongly related to order of entry, but we did not find a positive relationship between order of entry and perceived performance. We found general support for early mover advantages in Hungary and Poland but a strongly negative...

  13. Clinical advantages of carbon-ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Baba, Masayuki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotoshi; Kato, Shingo; Yamada, Shigeru; Yasuda, Shigeo; Yanagi, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroyuki; Hara, Ryusuke; Yamamoto, Naotaka; Mizoe, Junetsu [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Anagawa 4-9-1, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: tsujii@nirs.go.jp

    2008-07-15

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) possesses physical and biological advantages. It was started at NIRS in 1994 using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC); since then more than 50 protocol studies have been conducted on almost 4000 patients with a variety of tumors. Clinical experiences have demonstrated that C-ion RT is effective in such regions as the head and neck, skull base, lung, liver, prostate, bone and soft tissues, and pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer, as well as for histological types including adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, malignant melanoma and various types of sarcomas, against which photon therapy could be less effective. Furthermore, when compared with photon and proton RT, a significant reduction of overall treatment time and fractions has been accomplished without enhancing toxicities. Currently, the number of irradiation sessions per patient averages 13 fractions spread over approximately three weeks. This means that in a carbon therapy facility a larger number of patients than is possible with other modalities can be treated over the same period of time.

  14. Software exporting: a developing country advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Software exports have the potential to make a significant contribution to the economies of developing countries and to the global IT industry. Developing countries have demonstrated a comparative advantage in this export sector and the global IT industry can benefit from this developing country advantage. Today, IT is high investment, high risk, and high reward and has graduated from being a critical support function to a key partner, sometimes responsible for directing the strategy of an enterprise. Business and technology managers cannot afford to miss the opportunities provided by the comparative advantage of developing countries in the IT arena.

  15. AquAdvantage Salmon Genetically modified organism

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Saurí, Ester

    2014-01-01

    Póster AquAdvantage Salmon is a genetically modified organism developed by AquBounty Technologies. The objective of this transgenic organism is to increase the growth rate to obtain the same of conventional salmon faster.

  16. Measuring Coding Intensity in Medicare Advantage - SUPP.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In 2004, Medicare implemented a risk-adjustment system that pays Medicare Advantage (MA) plans based on diagnoses reported for their enrollees, giving the plans an...

  17. Overview of research in the ADVANTAGE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Cosovic, Mirsad; Kalalas, Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    The European Marie Curie Project ADVANTAGE (Advanced Communications and Information processing in smart grid systems) was launched in 2014. It represents a major inter-disciplinary research project into the topic of Smart Grid technology. A key aspect of the project is to bring together and train...... in the project. The major research focus of the ADVANTAGE project is on advancing technologies for the smart grid, providing architectural solutions and developing innovative information and communications technology (ICT) solutions to support its operation....

  18. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    PRUNEA Ana Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Rapid changes in market characteristics and the technological innovations are common and faster challenges, resulting in products, processes and technologies. The competitive advantage is volatile, difficult to obtain and more difficult to maintain and strengthened with consumers who through their individual choices polarization confirms the recognition performance and award competitive advantages, thus causing the competitive ranking of companies present in a particular market. The competiti...

  19. Islamic Banking in Nigeria: Perceived Relative Advantage among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    influences may surround the very notion of the acquisition of material goods. Religion has also been associated with ... orientations, not just one's own, may yield satisfaction. Consumers' religious consideration will ... immense influence on the values and life styles of individuals. The growing awareness and recognition of ...

  20. Advantages of directional hearing aid microphones related to room acoustics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, A. R.; Dreschler, W. A.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, two types of hearing aids were used. Both aids had the same frequency characteristics for frontal sound, but one employed an omnidirectional microphone and the other a directional microphone. The frequency characteristics of both hearing aids were measured for five azimuths on KEMAR

  1. Stimulus-dependent effects on right ear advantage in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smucny J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jason Smucny,1,3 Korey Wylie,3 Jason Tregellas1–31Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Research Science, Denver VA Medical, Center, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USABackground: When presented with different sounds in each ear (dichotic listening, healthy subjects typically show a preference for stimuli heard in the right ear, an effect termed "right ear advantage". Previous studies examining right ear advantage in schizophrenia have been inconsistent, showing either decreased or increased advantage relative to comparison subjects. Given evidence for enhanced semantic processing in schizophrenia, some of this inconsistency may be due to the type of stimuli presented (words or syllables. The present study examined right ear advantage in patients and controls using both words and syllables as stimuli.Methods: Right ear advantage was compared between 20 patients with schizophrenia and 17 healthy controls. Two versions of the task were used, ie, a consonant-vowel pairing task and a fused rhymed words task.Results: A significant group × task interaction was observed. Relative to healthy controls, patients showed a greater difference on the syllable-based task compared with the word-based task. The number of distractors marked during the syllable-based task was inversely correlated with score on the Global Assessment of Function Scale.Conclusion: The findings are consistent with a left hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia, but also suggest that differences may be stimulus-specific, with a relative sparing of the deficit in the context of word stimuli. Performance may be related to measures of social, occupational, and psychological function.Keywords: schizophrenia, right ear advantage, dichotic, distraction

  2. Re-assessment of home advantage in Spanish handball: comment on Gutierrez, et al. (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Richard; Gómez, Miguel A

    2012-12-01

    Because of problems with a previously published study, a re-analysis of data relating to home advantage in handball in Spain was made. The overall home advantage for 10,536 games played over 11 seasons (1997-98 to 2007-08) at the top two levels of play for both men and women was 60.4%. It was significantly higher for men (61.6%) than for women (59.2%). Contrary to a conclusion in the previous paper, it was also significantly higher for play at Level 2 (61.3%) than at Level 1 (59.4%), representing the top two divisions of play for each sex. A three-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that there was no difference between seasons, nor an interaction between seasons and gender as claimed previously. For individual teams, there was a clear negative correlation between home advantage and ability, as quantified by the overall performance of each team each season. This reversed the previous conclusion of a positive correlation. Because the previous study incorrectly claimed no prior research had been done on home advantage either in handball or between sexes, a review of the literature relating to these topics is included.

  3. Advantages and Challenges of Radiative Liquid Lithium Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    Steady-state fusion power plant designs present major divertor technology challenges, including high divertor heat flux both in steady-state and during transients. In addition to these concerns, there are the unresolved technology issues of long term dust accumulation and associated tritium inventory and safety issues. The application of lithium (Li) in NSTX resulted in improved H-mode confinement, H-mode power threshold reduction, and reduction in the divertor peak heat flux while maintaining essentially Li-free core plasma operation even during H-modes. These promising results in NSTX and related modeling calculations motivated the radiative liquid Li divertor (RLLD) concept and its variant, the active liquid Li divertor concept (ARLLD), taking advantage of the enhanced Li radiation in relatively poorly confined divertor plasmas. It has been suggested that radiation-based liquid lithium (LL) divertor concepts with a modest Li-loop could provide a possible solution for the outstanding fusion reactor technology issues such as divertor heat flux mitigation and real time dust removal, while potentially improving the reactor plasma performance. Laboratory tests are also planned to investigate the Li-T recover efficiency and other relevant research topics of the RLLD. This work supported by DoE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  4. Cognitive Advantages and Disadvantages in Early and Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, Sabra D.; Abrams, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual "after"…

  5. Undermatched? School-Based Linguistic Status, College Going, and the Immigrant Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca M.; Humphries, Melissa H.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable research investigates the immigrant advantage--the academic benefit first- and second-generation students experience relative to native-born peers. However, little work examines how school-based linguistic status may influence this advantage. Contradictory patterns exist: Research identifies both an immigrant advantage and a language…

  6. N-type solar cells: advantages, issues, and current scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Bandana; Solanki, Chetan S.

    2017-07-01

    Crystalline silicon, including p-type czochralski (CZ) mono-crystalline and multi-crystalline (mc) silicon, has been the workhorse for solar cell production for decades. In recent years, there has been many developments in n-type c-Si solar cells basically due to the advantages of n-type c-Si wafers over p-type wafers. However, there are some limitations in making n-type solar cells considering the technologies involved to fabricate p-type cells. In this paper, different advantages of n-types wafers, their limitations in solar cell production, and an analysis of total market coverage are discussed.

  7. Is There an Islamist Political Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammett, Melani; Luong, Pauline Jones

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread presumption that Islamists have an advantage over their opponents when it comes to generating mass appeal and winning elections. The question remains, however, as to whether these advantages—or, what we refer to collectively as an Islamist political advantage—actually exist. We argue that—to the extent that Islamists have a political advantage—the primary source of this advantage is reputation rather than the provision of social services, organizational capacity, or ideological hegemony. Our purpose is not to dismiss the main sources of the Islamist governance advantage identified in scholarly literature and media accounts, but to suggest a different causal path whereby each of these factors individually and sometimes jointly promotes a reputation for Islamists as competent, trustworthy, and pure. It is this reputation for good governance that enables Islamists to distinguish themselves in the streets and at the ballot box. PMID:25767370

  8. Potential advantages of solar electric propulsion for outer planet orbiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, C. G.; Atkins, K. L.

    1972-01-01

    Past studies of solar electric propulsion for outer planet orbiters have generally emphasized the advantages of flight time reduction and payload increases. However, several subtle advantages exist, which may become important in an environment of increasingly difficult requirements as ways to extend current technology are sought. These advantages accrue primarily because of the inherent capability, unique to electric propulsion, to efficiently shape a trajectory while enroute. Stressed in this paper are: the ability to meet orbital constraints due to assumed radiation belts, science flexibility in a dual launch program, increased numbers of observational passes, and the lengthening of launch periods. These are examined for years representative of relatively easy and difficult ballistic missions. The results indicate that an early investment in solar electric technology will provide a strong performance foundation for a long range outer planet exploration program which evolves from current spacecraft technology.

  9. Safety and environmental advantages of breeding blanketless fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Merola, M.; Matera, R.

    1994-01-01

    Next-step reactors will use DT cycle. However, environmental advantage will be the main chance for fusion to compete with other energy sources. The environmental problems of DT cycle due to tritium and neutron activation, are examined. Fusion commercial reactors could be based on alternative fuel cycles like D-He3. Advantages and disadvantages of this fuel cycle are outlined. All the technologies related with the self-breeding of tritium and the concept of breeding blanket itself may be not reactor relevant. In the frame of the Next-step studies, the potential advantages of intermediate DT devices without breeding blanket are discussed. Simplified design, lower cost, higher safety are the main ones. The problem of the source of tritium is examined. (author)

  10. Achieving competitive advantage through the integration of disabled architects in architectural design firms in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat Othman Ayman Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2030 strategy of sustainable development in Egypt is based on integrated goals, including Human Resource Development. Egypt has ~9,540 disabled architects, who can play an important role in achieving competitive advantage through their integration in Architectural Design Firms (ADFs. By neglecting the benefits of integrating disabled architects, ADFs encounter the risk of losing unique skills and competent personnel. This article investigates the integration of disabled architects in ADFs as an approach for achieving competitive advantage. To achieve this aim, a research methodology consisting of literature review, case studies, and survey questionnaire has been adopted, and it is designed to achieve five objectives. First, literature review is used to investigate the concepts of disabilities and competitive advantage, as well as the relation between integrating disabled architects and the achievement of competitiveness in ADFs. Second, six case studies are presented and analyzed to investigate the role and process of achieving competitive advantage in ADFs through employing disabled architects. Third, the results of a survey questionnaire are analyzed to examine the perception regarding and application of employing disabled architects as an approach for achieving competitive advantage in ADFs in Egypt. Fourth, a framework is developed to facilitate the integration of disabled architects in ADFs with the goal of achieving competitive advantage. Finally, the research findings are summarized and recommendations are put forth. The value of this research stems from the need to address the issue of lack of employment of disabled architects in ADFs and the benefits of making better use of their unique capabilities and skills toward achieving competitiveness. In addition, this research covers a controversial topic that receives scant attention in construction literature, especially in Egypt.

  11. Thermodynamic advantages of nuclear desalination through reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, K.P.; Prabhakar, S.; Tewari, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) integrated with nuclear power station has significant thermodynamic advantages since it can utilize the waste heat available in the condenser cooling circuit and electrical power from the nuclear power plant with provision for using grid power in case of exigencies and shared infrastructure. Coupling of RO plants to the reactor is simple and straightforward and power loss due to RO unit, resulting in the loss of load, does not impact reactor turbine. Product water contamination probability is also very less since it has in-built mechanical barrier. Preheat reverse osmosis desalination has many thermodynamic advantages and studies have indicated improved performance characteristics thereby leading to savings in operational cost. The significant advantages include the operational flexibility of the desalination systems even while power plant is non-operational and non-requirement of safety systems for resource utilization. This paper brings out a comprehensive assessment of reverse osmosis process as a stand-alone nuclear desalination system. (author)

  12. THE TAX ADVANTAGES OF INCOME TAX PAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the cost of financing through financial and operational leasing due to the deductibility of depreciation and interest. The shareholders of any company aim to obtain profit and to increase their ownership equity. In order for this to happen, the company must have profit, for which a corporate tax must be paid. A good management translates into choosing the most advantageous means of financing, which will lead to paying a lower corporate tax. Leasing and the non-taxation of reinvested profits are two means through which companies can obtain significant fiscal advantages, by increasing the deductible expenses, or by paying lower taxes.

  13. ELECTRONIC BANKING ADVANTAGES FOR FINANCIAL SERVICES DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Dragos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available E-banking is a fully automatic service for traditionally banking customers products based on information technology platforms. E-banking services provide customer access to accounts, the ability to move their money between different accounts or making payments via e-channels. The advantages generated by this services have determined an accelerate developing of this industry over the entire world. This paper examines some of the advantages of electronic banking products together with the characteristic management issues generated by the implementation of this new channel for financial services delivery.

  14. Polyploidy in haloarchaea: advantages for growth and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin eZerulla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigated haloarchaeal species, Halobacterium salinarum, Haloferax mediterranii, and H. volcanii, have all been shown to be polyploid. They contain several replicons that have independent copy number regulation, and most have a higher copy number during exponential growth phase than stationary phase. The possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea, most of which have experimental support for at least one species, are discussed. These advantages include a low mutation rate and high resistance towards X-ray irradiation and desiccation, which depend on homologous recombination. For H. volcanii, it has been shown that gene conversion operates in the absence of selection, which leads to the equalization of genome copies. On the other hand, selective forces might lead to heterozygous cells, which have been verified in the laboratory. Additional advantages of polyploidy are survival over geological times in halite deposits as well as at extreme conditions on earth and at simulated Mars conditions. Recently, it was found that H. volcanii uses genomic DNA as genetic material and as a storage polymer for phosphate. In the absence of phosphate, H. volcanii dramatically decreases its genome copy number, thereby enabling cell multiplication, but diminishing the genetic advantages of polyploidy. Stable storage of phosphate is proposed as an alternative driving force for the emergence of DNA in early evolution. Several additional potential advantages of polyploidy are discussed that have not been addressed experimentally for haloarchaea. An outlook summarizes selected current trends and possible future developments.

  15. Modern Paradigm of Ensuring Competitive Advantages of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Alyona O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers evolution of development of the paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise. Foreign and domestic scientists focus on individual directions of development of competitive advantages and pay insufficient attention to new management concepts – development of the information society, knowledge economy and dynamism of integration processes. The goal of the study is formation of the modern paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise with consideration of tendencies of development of the knowledge economy, information society and integration processes. Enterprise competitiveness is a synergetic characteristic, which reflects enterprise capability of dynamic response to changes of the market situation with the aim of keeping predominance over other economic subjects. Management of the future, on the basis of the management 2.0 concept, should take into account interests not only of top management and shareholders but also employees, local communities and territories and meet requirements of the society in general, individual groups of consumers and tendencies of development of managerial and information technologies. The paradigm of the modern theory of ensuring competitive advantages should include models of keeping competitive advantages in the existing markets and models of development of future markets; strategy of development of enterprise competitiveness, human capital development and efficient enterprise management.

  16. On the measurement of comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, A.R.; Oosterhaven, J.

    This paper shows-that the standard measure of revealed comparative advantage (RCA), ranging from 0 to infinity, has problematic properties. Due to its multiplicative specification, it has a moving mean larger than its expected value of 1, while its distribution strongly depends on the number of

  17. Advantages of the production contractor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisvold, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents some thoughts on the Production Contractor concept. It starts with an attempt to define the prerequisites for such contractorship to exist and develop, going on to examine the considerations that the oil company and the contractor respectively have to go through, and finally trying to summarize what emerges as the advantages of production contracting. Examples are given to emphasize particular points

  18. Comparative Economic Advantage Analysis of Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile country has comparative disadvantage ill production of northern highlands co.ffee and Morogoro maize. Wide variations in comparative advantage shown emanate from differences in resource and biophysical conditions, farming systems, technology levels and tenure arrangements. In general the measures of distortion ...

  19. Tanzania's Revealed Comparative Advantage and Structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... agricultural products dominate Tanzania's comparative advantage for both years, although minerals assume the first rank in 2011. Specifically, 70% of the product groups are agricultural, with the rest being mineral products. These findings suggest that no structural transformation has occurred in the Tanzanian economy ...

  20. Advantages of Intelligent SDH/SONET Networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Advantages of Intelligent SDH/SONET Networks. GMPLS simplifies network management, thus reducing operating expenses (“staff”) and minimizing errors. Same benefits as computerization of banking, accounts, etc. Auto-discovery simplifies equipment installation ...

  1. Advantages and disadvantages of developing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhixin

    1987-01-01

    To solve the problem of the shortage of electricity in China, an objective assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of generating electricity from different energy sources is necessary. Nuclear power is evaluated against hydro-, oil-, gas- and coal-power. It is proposed to develop nuclear power in a planned way as a sensible long term strategy

  2. Online Shopping: Advantages over the Offline Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Joshua Chang

    2003-01-01

    The advent of the Internet as a shopping medium has enabled shoppers to gain shopping benefits such as convenience and time-saving, better information, and price savings. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the benefits of Internet shopping by identifying and discussing the advantages of Internet shopping over traditional storefront shopping.

  3. Business Intelligence Solutions for Gaining Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence is the process for increasing the competitive advantage of a company by intelligent use of available data in decision-making. Only a revolutionary Business Intelligence solution, like the proposed portal-based, can solve the complex issues faced when evaluating decision support applications and ensures the availability of any business-critical information.

  4. Project safety as a sustainable competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenthin, David

    2004-01-01

    To be consistently profitable, a construction company must complete projects in scope, on schedule, and on budget. At the same time, the nature of the often high-risk work performed by construction companies can result in high accident rates. Clients and other stakeholders are placing increasing pressure on companies to decrease those accident rates. Clients routinely demand copies of safety plans and evidence of past results at the "pre-qualification" or "request for proposal" stages of the procurement process. Are high accident rates and the associated costs just a part of business? Companies that deliver on scope, schedule, and budget have a competitive advantage. Is it possible for projects with low accident rates to use it as a competitive advantage? Is the value added by safety just a temporary or parity issue, or does a successful safety program offer significant advantage to the company and the client? This article concludes that in the case of a high-risk industry, such as the construction industry, an organization with a successful safety program can promote safety performance as a sustainable competitive advantage. It is a choice the company can make.

  5. [The advantage of multidisciplinary treatment of presbycusis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouccara, Didier; Madjlessi, Arach; Mosnier, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Attributable to the ageing of the hearing system, presbycusis presents a wide variability in the general population. Early detection is necessary in order to be able to provide the patient with a suitable hearing aid. Collaboration between otolaryngologists and geriatricians proves to be advantageous as a consultation for a memory complaint may be the opportunity to detect presbycusis and vice versa.

  6. Distance learning: its advantages and disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    KEGEYAN SVETLANA ERIHOVNA

    2016-01-01

    Distance learning has become popular in higher institutions because of its flexibility and availability to learners and teachers at anytime, regardless of geographic location. With so many definitions and phases of distance education, this paper only focuses on the delivery mode of distance education (the use of information technology), background, and its disadvantages and advantages for today’s learners.

  7. First Mover Advantages in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Businesses entering early into new markets are believed to attain crucial competitive advantages over later entrants. However, this contention receives only mixed support in the empirical literature, in part because performance is measured in different ways. We reexamine the performance difference...... between early movers and followers entering new geographical markets based on a sample of foreign entrants in Poland, Hungary and Lithuania. We contrast market share with two other measures of firm performance that are based on the managers' perception of their own performance relative to their own prior...... expectations and relative to industry standards. We find that market share is strongly related to order of entry, but we did not find a positive relationship between order of entry and perceived performance. We found general support for early mover advantages in Hungary and Poland but a strongly negative...

  8. Home advantage in judo: a study of the world ranking list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Julio, Ursula; Panissa, Valéria Leme Gonçalves; Miarka, Bianca; Takito, Monica Yuri; Franchini, Emerson

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the International Judo Federation established a ranking system (RS) to classify athletes and to distribute the competitor quotas of the Olympic Games. However, the RS does not consider the home advantage. This issue has not been studied in judo, and its implications for the RS have not been determined. The objective was to verify the home advantage in judo in terms of winning a medal or the number of matches won. Therefore, 25 competitions that computed points for the RS in 2009 were analysed. Logistic regression analysis and the Poisson generalised linear model were used for the analyses, which included the relative quality of the athletes. The sample was composed only of athletes who had competed both at home and away. The odds ratio for winning medals was higher for athletes who competed at home for both males and females. The association between the number of matches won and competing at home was significant only for the male athletes. The home advantage was observed in the competitions that used the judo RS. Thus, it is likely that athletes from countries that host competitions using the RS have an advantage in terms of obtaining their Olympic classification.

  9. Concepts of the advantages and disadvantages of teenage childbearing among pregnant adolescents: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengard, Cynthia; Pollock, Lealah; Weitzen, Sherry; Meers, Ann; Phipps, Maureen G

    2006-08-01

    We sought to enhance our understanding of pregnant adolescents' concepts of the advantages and disadvantages of teen pregnancy and childbearing. This is a qualitative study of 247 pregnant adolescents recruited during their first prenatal health care visit to a women's primary care clinic in Providence, Rhode Island. Participants responded in writing to open-ended questions assessing their ideas about what was advantageous and disadvantageous about having an infant during their teen years rather than waiting until they were older. Themes and patterns in responding were coded, and subgroup differences based on age, ethnicity, intendedness of current pregnancy, and pregnancy/parenting history were assessed. Themes related to advantages of teen pregnancy included enhancing connections, positive changes/benefits, and practical considerations. Themes related to disadvantages included lack of preparedness, changes/interference, and others' perceptions. Differences among groups based on age, ethnicity, intendedness of the current pregnancy, and pregnancy/parenting history were examined and noted. Pregnant adolescents do not represent a homogeneous group. Considering differences in how pregnancy and childbearing are conceptualized along developmental, cultural, attitudinal, and experiential lines will strengthen our ability to tailor pregnancy-prevention messages.

  10. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrospray mass detection and 1H and 13C NMR characterization of new process-related impurities, including forced degradants of efavirenz: related substances correlated to the synthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadapayale, Kamalesh; Kakde, Rajendra; Sarma, V U M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a stability-indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic electrospray mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for the determination of process-related impurities and forced degradants of Efavirenz in bulk drugs. Efavirenz was subjected to acid, alkaline hydrolysis, H2O2 oxidation, photolysis, and thermal stress. Significant degradation was observed during alkaline hydrolysis, and the degradants were isolated on a mass-based purification system and characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry, positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Accurate mass measurement and NMR spectroscopy revealed the possible structure of process-related impurities and degradant under stress conditions. The acceptable separation was accomplished on Waters bondapak C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 μm), using 5 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as a mobile phase in a gradient elution mode at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The eluents were monitored by diode array detector at 247 nm and quantitation limits were obtained in the range of 0.1-2.5 μg/mL for Efavirenz, degradants, and process-related impurities. The liquid chromatography method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision, linearity, robustness, and limits of detection and quantification as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Indonesian Comparative Advantage Entering the ASEAN Economic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riandi .

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the comparative advantage of Indonesian commodities in order to enter the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC. This study uses the export data during the period of 2003-2013 among five ASEAN countries participating in the AEC, including Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. All data obtained from the UN Comtrade database following the Harmonized System (HS at the two-digit classification level. This study applies dynamic revealed comparative advantage (DRCA index developed by Edwards and Schoer (2001 which is the development of revealed comparative advantage (RCA index by Balassa (1965. The results show that Indonesia is ready to enter the AEC. From this research, there are several Indonesian main commodities which have comparative advantage in ASEAN, including fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic invertebrates ones (HS-03, edible fruit, nuts, peel of citrus fruit, melons (HS-08, oil seed, oleagic fruits, grain, seed, fruit, etc, nes (HS-12, lac, gums, resins, vegetable saps and extracts nes (HS-13, rubber and articles thereof (HS-40, paper & paperboard, articles of pulp, paper and board (HS-48, special woven or tufted fabric, lace, tapestry etc (HS-58, articles apparel, accessories, not knit or crochet (HS-62, and vehicles other than railway, tramway (HS-87. Those commodities are in line with Indonesian government export's strategy direction which mainly focuses on several sectors, including fishery, vegetable products, rubber, wood and wood products, textiles, and transportation. Therefore, Indonesian government should focus to improve those commodities in AEC. Keywords: Indonesian Comparative Advantage, Main Export Commodities, Export Strategy Direction, ASEAN Economic Community

  12. Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Michael Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value.

  13. Advantages and disadvantages of digital education

    OpenAIRE

    Mąkosa, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The digitization of education in Poland is spreading into more and more areas. Therefore, it becomes necessary to analyse all its aspects, both advantages and disadvantages. In the performed reflection, an attempt to present the current state of the access to computers, the Internet and e-course books in Polish schools has been made. On the basis of the secondary analysis of various recent studies as well as own research performed, it has been determined that the level of digitization of educ...

  14. Advantages of polarization experiments at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    We point out various spin experiments that could be done if the polarized beam option is pursued at RHIC. The advantages of RHIC for investigating several current and future physics problems are discussed. In particular, the gluon spin dependent structure function of the nucleon could be measured cleanly and systematically. Relevant experience developed in conjunction with the Fermilab Polarized Beam program is also presented. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  15. The Employment Advantages of Skilled Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Escobar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores whether the agglomeration of human capital leads to social employment advantages in urban labor markets of a developing country: Colombia. I estimate the social effects of human capital agglomeration by comparing employment opportunities of individuals located in urban areas in which the level of education differs. Results show that employment opportunities are higher on average in skilled urban areas. Three explanations have been offered: human capital externalities, prod...

  16. The "Private School Advantage" in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo E. Fischman

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Local actors' perceptions of curricular and management changes in two private schools and one neighboring public secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, are analyzed. An exploration was conducted of how, within an ideologically and politically pro-reform context and a widespread acceptance of the "private school advantage," principals, teachers, and students in these schools evaluated the changes (or lack of them in management, teaching, and curriculum orientations of the secondary education sector.

  17. Assessing the binocular advantage in aided vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Lawrence K; McIntire, John P; Hopper, Darrel G

    2014-09-01

    Advances in microsensors, microprocessors, and microdisplays are creating new opportunities for improving vision in degraded environments through the use of head-mounted displays. Initially, the cutting-edge technology used in these new displays will be expensive. Inevitably, the cost of providing the additional sensor and processing required to support binocularity brings the value of binocularity into question. Several assessments comparing binocular, binocular, and monocular head-mounted displays for aided vision have concluded that the additional performance, if any, provided by binocular head-mounted displays does not justify the cost. The selection of a biocular [corrected] display for use in the F-35 is a current example of this recurring decision process. It is possible that the human binocularity advantage does not carry over to the aided vision application, but more likely the experimental approaches used in the past have been too coarse to measure its subtle but important benefits. Evaluating the value of binocularity in aided vision applications requires an understanding of the characteristics of both human vision and head-mounted displays. With this understanding, the value of binocularity in aided vision can be estimated and experimental evidence can be collected to confirm or reject the presumed binocular advantage, enabling improved decisions in aided vision system design. This paper describes four computational approaches-geometry of stereopsis, modulation transfer function area for stereopsis, probability summation, and binocular summation-that may be useful in quantifying the advantage of binocularity in aided vision.

  18. Hidden Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeau, Sébastien; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2017-02-01

    Three studies conducted among fifth and sixth graders examined how school contexts disrupt the achievement of working-class students by staging unfair comparison with their advantaged middle-class peers. In regular classrooms, differences in performance among students are usually showcased in a way that does not acknowledge the advantage (i.e., higher cultural capital) experienced by middle-class students, whose upbringing affords them more familiarity with the academic culture than their working-class peers have. Results of Study 1 revealed that rendering differences in performance visible in the classroom by having students raise their hands was enough to undermine the achievement of working-class students. In Studies 2 and 3, we manipulated students' familiarity with an arbitrary standard as a proxy for social class. Our results suggest that classroom settings that make differences in performance visible undermine the achievement of the students who are less familiar with academic culture. In Study 3, we showed that being aware of the advantage in familiarity with a task restores the performance of the students who have less familiarity with the task.

  19. Injuries and home advantage in the NFL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marshall B

    2016-01-01

    In the first decade of this century players in the National Football League, the NFL community, fans, even the public at large, became aware that multiple concussions, heretofore considered inconsequential, could have devastating consequences later in life. Since 1978, each one of the 32 teams in the NFL plays 16 games in the regular season. In the 25 years from 1978 to 2004 home advantage in the regular season tended to increase with Game Number (1-16). Then in the following decade (2005-2014) it changed direction and tended clearly to decrease. The change in direction was highly reliable statistically. The result reported in this paper is an association in time between two striking events, a new consciousness regarding the long-term consequences of concussions in football, and a change in the course of home advantage in the regular season. The paper then advances a possible explanation for this association. The home advantage may be equally well treated as an away disadvantage, the disadvantage being that away players tend to feel on the defensive, that both the hometown crowd and the officials are against them. Injuries put players on both teams on the defensive. The higher the percentage of players on a team who are injured or playing hurt (injury prevalence) the less likely it is that as-yet-uninjured players will adopt an attacking style of play. Injury prevalence increases linearly with Game Number. It turns out, however, that formal considerations require that injury prevalence be the same or close to it for teams playing at home and teams playing away. Therefore, the away disadvantage in total defensiveness (defensiveness due to playing away plus defensiveness due to injury) starts at 1 in the first game of the season, decreases steeply at first, and then decelerates as it approaches .5. This downward course of the away disadvantage in total defensiveness leads directly to a corresponding downward course of the home advantage in game outcome (by the

  20. Supplier relationship management leverages intellectual capital for increased competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    C. R. Van Zyl

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate how supplier relationship management (SRM) enables the capture and creation of intellectual capital, thereby attaining and sustaining a strategic competitive advantage and increasing supply chain profitability. In order to achieve this purpose, a large part of the article is devoted to exploring the relatively new and unknown field of SRM. It is shown that an organisation must possess a thorough understanding of good supplier characteri...

  1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy in Turkey: Public Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Akyüz, Emrah

    2018-01-01

    Turkey intends tobuild three nuclear power stations in the Akkuyu, Sinopand Igneada regions to meet its increasing energy demands. This policy,however, is still a highly controversial topic in Turkey as nuclear energy hasboth advantages and disadvantages. The related literature on this topic isdivided into two groups; supporters claim that nuclear energy may decreaseTurkey's energy dependency on other countries, as it already importsapproximately 70% of its total energy demand. In contra...

  2. The Survival Advantage: Underlying Mechanisms and Extant Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Kazanas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have begun to investigate the function of memory in our evolutionary history. According to Nairne and colleagues (e.g., Nairne, Pandeirada, and Thompson, 2008; Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada, 2007, the best mnemonic strategy for learning lists of unrelated words may be one that addresses the same problems that our Pleistocene ancestors faced: fitness-relevant problems including securing food and water, as well as protecting themselves from predators. Survival processing has been shown to promote better recall and recognition memory than many well-known mnemonic strategies (e.g., pleasantness ratings, imagery, generation, etc.. However, the survival advantage does not extend to all types of stimuli and tasks. The current review presents research that has replicated Nairne et al.'s (2007 original findings, in addition to the research designs that fail to replicate the survival advantage. In other words, there are specific manipulations in which survival processing does not appear to benefit memory any more than other strategies. Potential mechanisms for the survival advantage are described, with an emphasis on those that are the most plausible. These proximate mechanisms outline the memory processes that may contribute to the advantage, although the ultimate mechanism may be the congruity between the survival scenario and Pleistocene problem-solving.

  3. Enhancement stimulants: perceived motivational and cognitive advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena P. Ilieva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants like Adderall and Ritalin are widely used for cognitive enhancement by people without ADHD, although the empirical literature has shown little conclusive evidence for effectiveness in this population. This paper explores one potential explanation of this discrepancy: the possibility that the benefit from enhancement stimulants is at least in part motivational, rather than purely cognitive. We review relevant laboratory, survey and interview research and present the results of a new survey of enhancement users with the goal of comparing perceived cognitive and motivational effects. These users perceived stimulant effects on motivationally-related factors, especially energy and motivation, and reported motivational effects to be at least as pronounced as cognitive effects, including effects on "attention."

  4. Enhancement stimulants: perceived motivational and cognitive advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Irena P; Farah, Martha J

    2013-01-01

    Psychostimulants like Adderall and Ritalin are widely used for cognitive enhancement by people without ADHD, although the empirical literature has shown little conclusive evidence for effectiveness in this population. This paper explores one potential explanation of this discrepancy: the possibility that the benefit from enhancement stimulants is at least in part motivational, rather than purely cognitive. We review relevant laboratory, survey, and interview research and present the results of a new survey of enhancement users with the goal of comparing perceived cognitive and motivational effects. These users perceived stimulant effects on motivationally-related factors, especially "energy" and "motivation," and reported motivational effects to be at least as pronounced as cognitive effects, including the effects on "attention."

  5. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  6. Advantages of floating covers with LLDPE Liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Gomez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Using floating covers in irrigation pounds and waste dam gives many advantages. It is a very interesting investment for those place with a high evaporation ratio. this is an easy system which improves several aspects in irrigation or drinkable water reservoirs, mainly it saves water and it saves clean-works (time and cost). It is also used in waste dam to deodorization. Time ago this application was developed with PVC liners and TPO liners, now the innovation is LLDPE liners which improve mechanical properties, durability and an easier installation. This paper develops the state of art of this design technology, and the back ground of our experience. (Author)

  7. Advantages of super-light structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2009-01-01

    Super-light structures with pearl-chain reinforcement is a new revolutionary technology that opens possibilities of building load-bearing structures much cheaper and with several other advantages compared to traditional constructions of concrete and steel. Some benefits are: 1 Half price or less. 2...... Architectural expressions never seen before. 3 Material savings of more than 50 %. 4 Energy and CO2 savings of more than 50 %. 5 No Scaffolding and cheaper moulds. 6 Improved durability. 7 Extreme thermal insulation. 8 Better indoor-climate. 9 User friendly operation and maintenance. 10 Increased safety...

  8. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  9. Hiding effort to gain a competitive advantage: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Heyman, Gail D

    2016-06-06

    Previous studies with Western populations have shown that adolescents' tendency to downplay their academic effort is affected by two kinds of motives: ability-related motives (e.g., to appear competent) and social approval motives (e.g., to be popular). In this research, we test for the presence of additional competition-related motives in China, a culture placing strong emphasis on academic competition. Study 1 (N = 150) showed that, in response to a scenario in which a hard-working high-school junior hid effort from classmates, the most highly endorsed explanation was "to influence others to work less hard to maintain a competitive advantage." Study 2 (N = 174) revealed that competition-related explanations were endorsed relatively more often when the speaker and audience had similar academic rankings. This tendency was most evident when both speaker and audience were top performers, and when this was the case, participants' desire to demonstrate superiority over others was a positive predictor of endorsement of competition-related motives. Study 3 (N = 137) verified that competition-related motives were more strongly endorsed among Chinese participants than U.S. These results suggest that at least in cultures that emphasize academic competition and in contexts where competition is salient, hiding effort is often about attempting to gain strategic advantage. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. FSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to functions of the ne rvous system, including psycholog ical functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to functions of the nervous system, including psychological functions. This guidance has been drawn from scientific opinions...... of the NDA Panel on such health claims. Thus, this guidance represents the views of the NDA Panel based on the experience gained to date with the evaluation of health claims in these areas. It is not intended that the document will include an exhaustive list of beneficial effects and studies/outcome measures...

  11. Advantageous developmental outcomes of advancing paternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, M; Rijsdijk, F; Rai, D; Modabbernia, A; Reichenberg, A

    2017-06-20

    Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been associated with negative outcomes in offspring, raising concerns about increasing age at fatherhood. Evidence from evolutionary and psychological research, however, suggests possible link between APA and a phenotypic advantage. We defined such advantage as educational success, which is positively associated with future socioeconomic status. We hypothesised that high IQ, strong focus on the subject of interest and little concern about 'fitting in' will be associated with such success. Although these traits are continuously distributed in the population, they cluster together in so-called 'geeks'. We used these measures to compute a 'geek index' (GI), and showed it to be strongly predictive of future academic attainment, beyond the independent contribution of the individual traits. GI was associated with paternal age in male offspring only, and mediated the positive effects of APA on education outcomes, in a similar sexually dimorphic manner. The association between paternal age and GI was partly mediated by genetic factors not correlated with age at fatherhood, suggesting contribution of de novo factors to the 'geeky' phenotype. Our study sheds new light on the multifaceted nature of the APA effects and explores the intricate links between APA, autism and talent.

  12. Advantages of digital imaging for radiological diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapero, M. A.; Gonzalez, S.; Albillos, J. C.; Martel, J.; Rebollo, M.

    2006-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of radiological digital images in comparison with analogic ones are analyzed. We discuss three main topics: acquisition, post-procedure manipulation, and visualization, archive and communication. Digital acquisition with computed radiology systems present a global sensitivity very close to conventional film for diagnostic purposes. However, flat panel digital systems seems to achieve some advantages in particular clinical situations. A critical issue is the radiation dose-reduction that can be accomplished without reducing image quality nor diagnostic exactitude. The post-procedure manipulation allows, particularly in multiplanar modalities like CT or MR, to extract all implicit diagnostic information in the images: Main procedures are multiplanar and three-dimensional reformations, dynamic acquisitions, functional studies and image fusion. The use of PACS for visualization, archive and communication of images, improves the effectiveness and the efficiency of the workflow, allows a more comfortable diagnosis for the radiologist and gives way to improvements in the communication of images, allowing tele consulting and the tele radiology. (Author) 6 refs

  13. Cooperative resources lead to sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vieira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze how organizational resources contribute to cooperatives achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The theoretical approach of this study is the Resource Based View and VRIO model advocated by Barney and Hesterly (2007. The research was characterized as descriptive and quantitative, through data collection from secondary sources and a survey. The data collection tool was a questionnaire devised by Peacock, Sehnem and Hoffmann (2011. Data collection took place between the months of September 2014 and March 2015. The study sample was composed of a total of 215 cooperatives from across the country, divided into 13 segments. Secondary data was subjected to content analysis. The primary data was analyzed using statistical inference, namely: descriptive statistics, mean, Pearson correlation, Varimax rotation and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The main results showed that human resources are seen as important to achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. This research contributed to and enables new studies concerning the growth of cooperatives taking into account the use of internal resources.

  14. An evolutionary advantage for extravagant honesty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Seth

    2012-01-07

    A game-theoretic model of handicap signalling over a pair of signalling channels is introduced in order to determine when one channel has an evolutionary advantage over the other. The stability conditions for honest handicap signalling are presented for a single channel and are shown to conform with the results of prior handicap signalling models. Evolutionary simulations are then used to show that, for a two-channel system in which honest signalling is possible on both channels, the channel featuring larger advertisements at equilibrium is favoured by evolution. This result helps to address a significant tension in the handicap principle literature. While the original theory was motivated by the prevalence of extravagant natural signalling, contemporary models have demonstrated that it is the cost associated with deception that stabilises honesty, and that the honest signals exhibited at equilibrium need not be extravagant at all. The current model suggests that while extravagant and wasteful signals are not required to ensure a signalling system's evolutionary stability, extravagant signalling systems may enjoy an advantage in terms of evolutionary attainability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Advantages of Spin-off Firms: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Uzunca

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As predicted by evolutionary economics, historical antecedents matter when it comes to the relationship between survival of entrants and organizational capabilities. Spinoff firms provide an exemplary case of such relationship where the founders’ pre-entry capabilities that are inherited from the parent firm increases their survival chances. Looking closer and deeper to the evolutionary spinoff success mechanisms, I examine three specific genetic features which make spinoff firms more advantageous compared to other entrants; namely 1 Genotype: Transfer of blueprint, 2 Phenotype: Organizational learning, and 3 Memes: Informal relations and social capital. A detailed theoretical analysis of each mechanism prevails how they function and provide sustainable competitive advantage to spinoff firms. Testable hypotheses are provided about each mechanism.

  16. Advantages and disadvantages of computer imaging in cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, R J; Chavez, A; Dagum, P; Newman, J P

    1998-02-01

    Despite the growing popularity of computer imaging systems, it is not clear whether the medical and legal advantages of using such a system outweigh the disadvantages. The purpose of this report is to evaluate these aspects, and provide some protective guidelines in the use of computer imaging in cosmetic surgery. The positive and negative aspects of computer imaging from a medical and legal perspective are reviewed. Also, specific issues are examined by a legal panel. The greatest advantages are potential problem patient exclusion, and enhanced physician-patient communication. Disadvantages include cost, user learning curve, and potential liability. Careful use of computer imaging should actually reduce one's liability when all aspects are considered. Recommendations for such use and specific legal issues are discussed.

  17. Home advantage in Turkish professional soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seçkin, Aylin; Pollard, Richard

    2008-08-01

    Home advantage is known to play an important role in the outcome of professional soccer games and to vary considerably worldwide. In the Turkish Super League over the last 12 years, 61.5% of the total points gained have been won by the home team, a figure similar to the worldwide average and to the Premier League in England. It is lower (57.7%) for games played between teams from Istanbul and especially high for games involving teams from cities in the more remote and ethnically distinct parts of Turkey (Van and Diyarbakir). Match performance data show that although home teams in Turkey take 26% more shots at goal than away teams, the success rates for shots do not differ. For fouls and disciplinary cards, home and away teams do not differ significantly in Turkey, a finding that differs from games in England, perhaps due to less referee bias.

  18. Chalazion surgery: advantages of a subconjunctival approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana Filipa; Moreira, Elisabete; Nogueira, Ana; Santos, Paulo; Azevedo, Filomena

    2009-09-01

    The meibomian glands, present within the tarsus, produce an oily fluid which is part of the tear film. The obstruction of this gland is common, and results in a meibomian cyst or chalazion. Initially, a chalazion may spontaneously resolve, or respond to conservative measures such as warm compresses and topical antibiotics. However, sometimes the lesion becomes persistent and prominent, leading to visual and aesthetic problems, requiring a surgical solution. We report a 23-year-old man, with a right lower eyelid chalazion, persisting for more than 1 year, refractory to local measures that was submitted to surgical correction via the subconjunctival approach. This report emphasizes the advantages of this technique, namely the fast and simple procedure, with an excellent cosmetic result.

  19. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  20. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  1. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN A NANOTECHNOLOGY VALUE CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Radan UNGUREANU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The value chain analysis is one of the most important methods for understanding the industrial world. The main task of the value chain that links producers and buyers consists in understanding where or how exactly the value added is generated. In the case of products incorporating nanotechnology, most of them are still in the trial phase into laboratories, but there are some examples of good practices where nanoproducts discovered their way to the market. This paper tries to present two cases of value chains for nanotechnologies applied to textiles by identifying the competitive advantages and focusing on getting some answers for a better understanding of the entire process from production to the final user.

  2. Rethinking Marketing for Sustainable Competitive Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın KOÇAK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When formal marketing thought developed in the early 1900s, dominant perspective of marketing was about taking things “to market”. After 1950 marketing thought moved to a “market to” orientation. This orientation reflects “product dominant logic”. After radical changes in information technology, knowledge asymmetry between firm and customer is decreased and customer becomes operant resource instead of a resource to be acted on. Therefore, new marketing paradigm has been emerged and main focus moved from “value in exchange” to “value in use” and customer becomes collaborative partner. Firm can only provide value proposition. New definition of marketing comprises “customer relationship”, “share holders”, and “value creation”. Apart from evolving of marketing thought, theories of competitive advantages have been also change form industry perspective to internal resource and dynamic capabilities.

  3. Mastering Tacit Corridors for Competitive Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glisby, Martin; Holden, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    In today's business world, knowledge is shaped in corporate relationships and diffused in networks. A major mode of knowledge is the tacit dimension, which refers to the elusive, uncodified knowledge that comes from experience, is hard to quantify, but gives an all-important mood and tone...... to explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge is traditionally viewed as an important though hazily conceived organizational asset; however, here it is treated as something that is co-created in cross-cultural business relationships and as a knowledge resource of immense significance. Tacit knowledge is prone...... to serious misappreciation by managers, but understanding it for what it is can give firms a key edge that the authors term knowledge advantage. Here, they use case-study data from four international firms to introduce a model that makes use of the concepts of tacit corridors and coupling. Tacit corridors...

  4. The environmental advantage in the competitive equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, T.J.; Blake, E.T.

    1992-01-01

    The role of environmental issues in the utility business has undergone a dramatic transition in the past few years and this new role is the basis for new definitions and new responses. Policies or products that protect the environment are now an advantage to those companies that properly capture environmental issues in their strategic planning process. This paper will focus on the underpinnings of this shift in the role of environmental protection in business and go beyond the issues of today to suggest some paradigms for the future. The current status of environmental concern is evident in the time and resources committed to environmental protection. Public officials take more proactive environmental positions; Corporations recognize environmental values in competitive equation; Citizens express willingness to pay for environmentally responsible services and products; Environmental issues tie business to the community; and Environmental planning tradeoffs are becoming more complex

  5. STRATEGIES FOR COMPETETIVE ADVANTAGE IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Azadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite rapid and sustained development of electronic commerce, many companies doing e-business are still in the investment and brand-building phase and have yet to show a profit. However, as e-businesses shift their focus from  building a customer base to increasing revenue growth and profitability, they should reevaluate their current business strategies, if any, and develop strategies that provide a clear path to profitability. This study uses McCarthy’s four marketing mix model and Porter’s five competitive forces model to identify strategies for Internet companies that respond to the five competitive forces and thereby achieve a competitive advantage. The study provides significant new insights into the development and implementation of e-business strategies that contribute to increased profit.

  6. The competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürerk, Ozgür; Irlenbusch, Bernd; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2006-04-07

    Understanding the fundamental patterns and determinants of human cooperation and the maintenance of social order in human societies is a challenge across disciplines. The existing empirical evidence for the higher levels of cooperation when altruistic punishment is present versus when it is absent systematically ignores the institutional competition inherent in human societies. Whether punishment would be deliberately adopted and would similarly enhance cooperation when directly competing with nonpunishment institutions is highly controversial in light of recent findings on the detrimental effects of punishment. We show experimentally that a sanctioning institution is the undisputed winner in a competition with a sanction-free institution. Despite initial aversion, the entire population migrates successively to the sanctioning institution and strongly cooperates, whereas the sanction-free society becomes fully depopulated. The findings demonstrate the competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions and exemplify the emergence and manifestation of social order driven by institutional selection.

  7. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joint...

  8. Content Analysis of Advantages and Disadvantages of Drinking Among Individuals With the Lived Experience of Homelessness and Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Susan E; Taylor, Emily; Jones, Connor; Haelsig, Laura; Grazioli, Véronique S; Mackelprang, Jessica L; Holttum, Jessica; Koker, Molly; Hatsukami, Alyssa; Baker, Madeline; Clifasefi, Seema L

    2018-01-02

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are more prevalent among people who are homeless than in the general population. Thus, homeless individuals experience disproportionately high levels of alcohol-related problems and associated publicly funded criminal justice and healthcare system utilization. Available treatment services, however, are not effective at engaging and treating this population. To better tailor treatment services to their needs, it is imperative we understand this population's perceptions of their alcohol use. The aim of this study was to provide description and relative rankings of the advantages and disadvantages of alcohol use from this population's perspectives. Participants were 44 individuals with lived experiences of AUDs and homelessness who received services at community-based agencies in Seattle, Washington. Open-ended prompts were used in interviews conducted in 2013-2014 to assess the perceived role of alcohol in participants' lives, including participants' perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of their current drinking, and a conventional content analysis was conducted. The most frequently mentioned advantages of drinking included positively and negatively reinforcing psychological reasons, perceived control over drinking, and social benefits. Physical effects, concerns about dependence on alcohol, and health problems were the most commonly mentioned disadvantages. Conclusions/importance: By documenting the perceived advantages and disadvantages of drinking among people with the lived experience of homelessness and AUDs, this study supplies information providers may use to better tailor treatment services to this multimorbid, high service-utilizing population's needs and interests.

  9. The inhibitory advantage in bilingual children revisited: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Hernández, Juan Andrés; Antón, Eneko; Macizo, Pedro; Estévez, Adelina; Fuentes, Luis J; Carreiras, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades several authors have suggested that bilinguals exhibit enhanced cognitive control as compared to monolinguals and some proposals suggest that this main difference between monolinguals and bilinguals is related to bilinguals' enhanced capacity of inhibiting irrelevant information. This has led to the proposal of the so-called bilingual advantage in inhibitory skills. However, recent studies have cast some doubt on the locus and generality of the alleged bilingual advantage in inhibitory skills. In the current study we investigated inhibitory skills in a large sample of 252 monolingual and 252 bilingual children who were carefully matched on a large number of indices. We tested their performance in a verbal Stroop task and in a nonverbal version of the same task (the number size-congruency task). Results were unequivocal and showed that bilingual and monolingual participants performed equally in these two tasks across all the indices or markers of inhibitory skills explored. Furthermore, the lack of differences between monolingual and bilingual children extended to all the age ranges tested and was not modulated by any of the independent factors investigated. In light of these results, we conclude that bilingual children do not exhibit any specific advantage in simple inhibitory tasks as compared to monolinguals.

  10. Neuroanatomical Evidence in Support of the Bilingual Advantage Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olulade, O A; Jamal, N I; Koo, D S; Perfetti, C A; LaSasso, C; Eden, G F

    2016-07-01

    The "bilingual advantage" theory stipulates that constant selection and suppression between 2 languages results in enhanced executive control (EC). Behavioral studies of EC in bilinguals have employed wide-ranging tasks and report some conflicting results. To avoid concerns about tasks, we employed a different approach, measuring gray matter volume (GMV) in adult bilinguals, reasoning that any EC-associated benefits should manifest as relatively greater frontal GMV. Indeed, Spanish-English-speaking bilinguals exhibited greater bilateral frontal GMV compared with English-speaking monolinguals. Was this observation attributable to the constant selection and inhibition of 2 spoken languages? To answer this question, we drew on bimodal bilinguals of American Sign Language (ASL) and English who, unlike unimodal bilinguals, can simultaneously use both languages and have been shown not to possess the EC advantage. In this group, there was no greater GMV when compared with monolinguals. Together these results provide neuroanatomical evidence in support of the bilingual advantage theory. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Gaining competitive advantage through business analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sprongl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The industry for business analytics within the BI sphere is growing significantly and the distinction in organizations between transactional information systems and decision-oriented systems breaks down. Firms need to understand both the opportunity and the potential of business analytics. Reporting, which is getting a handle on what happened in organizations, is complemented by analytics that is rather explanatory and predictive. Leveraging business analytics means to use analytics applications in order to analyse business problems and produce related business recommendations to improve business process performance. Business analytics must but be a part of a value creating process operating together with other systems and organisational factors in a synergistic manner, including people, processes, knowledge and relationship assets, culture, structure, and policies. In order for companies to be efficient, they need to automate processes, workflows and make rules. Effectiveness, on the other hand, is about making better decisions, perhaps using the same data that their competitors may have. What matters is not necessarily the technologies deployed, but emerging competence that the firm uses to support its business. A specific “mindset” needs to be installed for companies to invest into business analytics. Organisations need to better understand how best to exploit their data and convert them into information and sense-making capabilities. Business capabilities can be enhanced not only by exploitation of analytical tools, but also by the sophisticated use of information. This leads to a truly sense-making capability or “analytical mindset”. The primary data covers 398 data sets, where firms have been asked about the specifics of their information management. The data is used as input to statistical tests and the value of business analytics is being analyzed in an empirical way.

  12. GLOBAL COMPETITION AND ROMANIA’S NATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing products and services around us it is clear that most of them are the result of production factors, labor and capital becoming more international and increasingly less and less national. We are witnessing the globalization of markets and production, to a large global integration and interdependence, increase personalization of production and services as a result of new communication systems interaction and flexible production processes. Markets will continue to homogenize and diversify at the same time, so it is important that as a global marketer one addresses a market segment defined by income, age, and consumption habits and not by membership of a nation. The most visible and polarized is the premium segment fighting for high income clients where brand value plays an important role. Instead identification of large segments of customers offers the advantages of scale economy in production and marketing for global enterprises. Consumer profile is the dominant global consumer requesting and accepting global products and services easily. In fact, what can force an economic alignment to achieve the best performance, rather than the global consumer. The research methodology used includes literature review, comparative analysis, synthesis of data based on bibliographic resources and official documents.The aim of the paper is to highlight current models that underlie the competitive advantage of nations and assess the competitive advantage of Romania in the context of the global market. A case study is used to offer an overview of competitive advantage of Antibiotice Iasi SA, a competitive player, in a global pharmaceutical market with strong global competition. Countries moderate companies’ achievements of global efficiency objectives due to the countries’ rivalry. Romania has to understand that it is in competition with other countries in order to fulfill economic, political and social objectives. The scope in the end is the well

  13. Anger and guilt about ingroup advantage explain the willingness for political action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Colin Wayne; Iyer, Aarti; Pedersen, Anne

    2006-09-01

    Three studies examined non-Aboriginal Australians' guilt and anger about their ingroup's advantage over structurally disadvantaged Aborigines. Study 1 showed that participants who perceived their ingroup as relatively advantaged perceived this inequality as unfair and felt guilt and anger about it. Anger, and to a lesser degree guilt, predicted the willingness to engage in political action regarding ingroup advantage. Study 2 showed both guilt and anger to be relatively self-focused because both were associated with appraising the ingroup's (rather than the government's) discrimination as responsible for ingroup advantage. Study 3 examined on participants especially willing to engage in political action to bring about systemic compensation to Aborigines. Anger about ingroup advantage was a potent predictor. Although guilt was associated with the abstract goal of systemic compensation, guilt did not explain willingness for political action. Results underline the importance of examining specific group-based emotions in intergroup relations.

  14. Grounding Animal Rights in Mutual Advantage Contractarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to critics and advocates of contractarianism alike, I argue that mutual advantage contractarianism entails rights and protections for animals. In section one I outline the criteria that must be met in order for an individual to qualify for moral rights on the contractarian view. I then introduce an alternative form of ‘rights,’ which I call ‘protectorate status,’ from which an individual can receive protections indirectly. In section two I suggest guidelines for assigning animal rights based on two ways of categorizing animals. On the basis of the categorization according to benefit derived, I argue that animals used for companionship, security, hunting assistance, transportation, entertainment, medical service, nourishment, or clothing will tend to qualify for basic rights against starvation, predation, and disease. On the basis of the categorization according to species, I argue that, on top of the basic rights above, dogs tend to qualify for rights against abuse, and against frivolous medical experimentation, as well as further negotiated rights. Cows have the basic rights against starvation, predation, and disease, but squirrels and bears have no rights. In section three I argue that some animals qualify for protectorate status, which would establish various protections for different animals, but would also generally prohibit cruelty towards animals.

  15. BILATERAL COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES: INDONESIA AND MALAYSIA CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Wiwin Setyari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This studytried tolook more closely at market integration, through export prices channel, inIndonesiaandMalaysia. Severalpreviousstudiestendtorejectthe existence oflawofoneprice(LOP. The law of one price (LOP states that price a given product should be the same in different parts of the world if valued in common currency. However, empirical studies uniformly shows LOP does not describe most markets. Someimportantfactorsthat are consideredinstrumentalin this regardaretransportation costsandprice stickiness. However, there isone characteristicthat is oftenoverlookedin the discussion ofLOP, namelychanges incomparative advantage. The specific objectiveofthispaperis to look atcomparative advantagecorrelationbetween the two countriesandtheir effect onpriceconvergence. Correlationof both selected commodities –using therankspearman's test -indicates the nature ofthemutualsubstitutionof productsthatcarrythe possibility of"price competition" so thatthe pricepointtoconvergeto one another. Tests on theexportprice ofsomeselected productsinboth countriesindicatedthe occurrence ofpriceconvergence, seen from thetwoanalytical techniques: σconvergenceandco-integrationusingJohansen's test. This conclusion is generated by attempted to control the "identical assumption" is to examines prices for similar products (homogeneous using SITC 3-digit, which is produced from the "same" or close locations, with the export destination to the same trading partner

  16. Advantages and limitations of peer assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Goršak, Karmen Pižorn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines current theoretical work and research findings regarding the effectiveness of peer assessment. The main purpose of the article is to define peer asses sment and its subcategory peer feedback and to present the advantages and limitations of peer assessment derived from different research findings. In addition, conditions and strategies to successfully guarantee the benefits of peer assessment are presented. The main research studies, mentioned in this article, have been carried out in different disciplines in higher education programmes and their findings reveal positive students’ and teachers’ attitude to peer assessment as well as high correlation between peers’ and te achers’ grades. The main results of the studies show a positive effect of peer assessment on student’s active role in the process of learning and assessment, the development of social and professional skills, student’s autonomy, critical thinking, peer and selfassessment skills. Recommendations for implementing peer assessment within foreign language tea ching, as well as implications for future research work are provided.

  17. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Sugimoto

    Full Text Available We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO. Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  18. The advantages and disadvantages of pacifier use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Dede Nursan

    2004-01-01

    A powerful reflex of the infant in the weeks following birth is sucking. Breastfed babies benefit from both the nutrition in mother's milk and the satisfaction of their sucking instinct. Babies that can not be breastfed due to various reasons may satisfy their sucking instinct by using pacifiers. Pacifier use and digit sucking are believed to be harmless habits. In many places of the world, and especially in developing countries, pacifier use in early childhood is very common. It is said that pacifier use eases the baby and satisfies its sucking instinct. It has been reported in several studies that pacifier use reduces the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The most important risks of this non-nutritive sucking habit are failure of breastfeeding, dental deformities, recurrent acute otitis media, and the possibility of accidents. The development of latex allergy, tooth decay, oral ulcers and sleep disorders are other problems encountered with pacifier use. Parents may hesitate to use pacifiers for their babies and consult nurses or midwives on this issue. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of pacifier use are discussed with the aim of providing guidance to nurses and midwives working in the field of pediatrics and infant health.

  19. Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo

    2011-08-02

    High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries-the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (θ(GB)) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe(2)As(2) (BaFe(2)As(2):Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (J(c)(BGB)) remained high (>1 MA cm(-2)) and nearly constant up to a critical angle θ(c) of ∼9°, which is substantially larger than the θ(c) of ∼5° for YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-δ). Even at θ(GB)>θ(c), the decay of J(c)(BGB) was much slower than that of YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-δ).

  20. When is Crowdsourcing Advantageous? The Case of Crowdsourced Software Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leicht, Niklas; Knop, Nicolas; Blohm, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    , we present two case studies from the domain of crowdsourced software testing. We systematically analyze two organizations that applied crowdtesting to test a mobile applcation. As both organizations tested the application via crowdtesting and their traditional in-house testing, we are able to relate...... the effectiveness of crowdtesting and the associated costs to the effective-ness and costs of in-house testing. We find that crowdtesting is comparable in terms of testing quality and costs, but provides large advantages in terms of speed, heterogeneity of testers and user feedback as added value. We contribute...

  1. Citation advantage of open access articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Eysenbach

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Open access (OA to the research literature has the potential to accelerate recognition and dissemination of research findings, but its actual effects are controversial. This was a longitudinal bibliometric analysis of a cohort of OA and non-OA articles published between June 8, 2004, and December 20, 2004, in the same journal (PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Article characteristics were extracted, and citation data were compared between the two groups at three different points in time: at "quasi-baseline" (December 2004, 0-6 mo after publication, in April 2005 (4-10 mo after publication, and in October 2005 (10-16 mo after publication. Potentially confounding variables, including number of authors, authors' lifetime publication count and impact, submission track, country of corresponding author, funding organization, and discipline, were adjusted for in logistic and linear multiple regression models. A total of 1,492 original research articles were analyzed: 212 (14.2% of all articles were OA articles paid by the author, and 1,280 (85.8% were non-OA articles. In April 2005 (mean 206 d after publication, 627 (49.0% of the non-OA articles versus 78 (36.8% of the OA articles were not cited (relative risk = 1.3 [95% Confidence Interval: 1.1-1.6]; p = 0.001. 6 mo later (mean 288 d after publication, non-OA articles were still more likely to be uncited (non-OA: 172 [13.6%], OA: 11 [5.2%]; relative risk = 2.6 [1.4-4.7]; p < 0.001. The average number of citations of OA articles was higher compared to non-OA articles (April 2005: 1.5 [SD = 2.5] versus 1.2 [SD = 2.0]; Z = 3.123; p = 0.002; October 2005: 6.4 [SD = 10.4] versus 4.5 [SD = 4.9]; Z = 4.058; p < 0.001. In a logistic regression model, controlling for potential confounders, OA articles compared to non-OA articles remained twice as likely to be cited (odds ratio = 2.1 [1.5-2.9] in the first 4-10 mo after publication (April 2005, with the odds ratio increasing to 2.9 (1

  2. Change Detection by Fusing Advantages of Threshold and Clustering Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M.; Hao, M.

    2017-09-01

    In change detection (CD) of medium-resolution remote sensing images, the threshold and clustering methods are two kinds of the most popular ones. It is found that the threshold method of the expectation maximum (EM) algorithm usually generates a CD map including many false alarms but almost detecting all changes, and the fuzzy local information c-means algorithm (FLICM) obtains a homogeneous CD map but with some missed detections. Therefore, we aim to design a framework to improve CD results by fusing the advantages of threshold and clustering methods. Experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. CHANGE DETECTION BY FUSING ADVANTAGES OF THRESHOLD AND CLUSTERING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In change detection (CD of medium-resolution remote sensing images, the threshold and clustering methods are two kinds of the most popular ones. It is found that the threshold method of the expectation maximum (EM algorithm usually generates a CD map including many false alarms but almost detecting all changes, and the fuzzy local information c-means algorithm (FLICM obtains a homogeneous CD map but with some missed detections. Therefore, we aim to design a framework to improve CD results by fusing the advantages of threshold and clustering methods. Experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. [Advantages and disadvantages of direct-to-consumer genetic tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Camilla Worm; Gerdes, Anne-Marie Axø

    2017-03-13

    Direct-to-consumer genetic tests are sold over the internet to consumers all over the world - including Denmark. No regulation of these tests has been introduced neither in Denmark nor in Europe, even though they have been on the market since 2007. Such tests have several advantages, but indeed also a long list of potential disadvantages, which are most often ignored, and among these is insufficient training of general practitioners in performing the necessary counselling but also the risk of increased expenses to unnecessary follow-up consultations.

  5. Protontherapy versus carbon ion therapy advantages, disadvantages and similarities

    CERN Document Server

    d’Ávila Nunes, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comparison analysis of two cancer treatment therapies: carbon ion therapy and protontherapy. It is divided in 5 sections. The first ones gives the reader a brief history of Radiotherapy and types of radiation. In the second section, the techniques and equipments, including new ones in development such as Cyclinac , Laser and DWA, are described. The third section describes biophysical (such as stopping power and LET) and biological (such as RBE and OER) properties, the fundamental experiments and clinical area. The fourth section presents models and the fifth section compares both techniques, showing advantages and disadvantages of each, and their similarities.

  6. The generation of sustainable competitive advantage through training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Danvila Del Valle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the significance of training as a generating factor of human capital that allows the attainment of long term sustainable competitive advantage turned into greater economic rents. Initially, two are prescribed that try to demonstrate from a universalistic approach, such relationship, to subsequently include the possible impact of the moderator strategy with the purpose of verifying if this could mean an improvement in the explanatory power of our model of analysis. For this, we have carried out the verification of the hypothesis through an analysis of hierarchical regression.

  7. Vacuum-assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Filho, Elio Barreto de; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes da; Antunes, Nilson

    2014-01-01

    Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas.

  8. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate the results and they both validated the questionnaire. The results of the survey have determined six effective groups including product development, e-commerce, marketing planning, organizational performance, competitiveness and supply chain management.

  9. ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

  10. Risks of neurological and immune-related diseases, including narcolepsy, after vaccination with Pandemrix: a population- and registry-based cohort study with over 2 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, I; Granath, F; Askling, J; Ludvigsson, J F; Olsson, T; Feltelius, N

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the association between vaccination with Pandemrix and risk of selected neurological and immune-related diseases including narcolepsy. Population-based prospective cohort study using data from regional vaccination registries and national health registries. Seven healthcare regions in Sweden comprising 61% of the Swedish population. Study population of 3,347,467 vaccinated and 2,497,572 nonvaccinated individuals (vaccination coverage ≈ 60%) followed between 2009 and 2011 for 6.9 million person-years after exposure and 6.0 million person-years without exposure. First recorded diagnosis of neurological and immune-related diseases. Relative risks [hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] assessed using Cox regression, adjusted for covariates. For all selected neurological and immune-related outcomes under study, other than allergic vaccine reactions (for which we verified an expected increase in risk) and narcolepsy, HRs were close to 1.0 and always below 1.3. We observed a three-fold increased risk of a diagnosis of narcolepsy (HR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.78-4.79; that is, four additional cases per 100,000 person-years) in individuals ≤ 20 years of age at vaccination and a two-fold increase (HR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.00-4.75) amongst young adults between 21 and 30 years of age. The excess risk declined successively with increasing age at vaccination; no increase in risk was seen after 40 years of age. For a large number of selected neurological and immune-related diseases, we could neither confirm any causal association with Pandemrix nor refute entirely a small excess risk. We confirmed an increased risk for a diagnosis of narcolepsy in individuals ≤ 20 years of age and observed a trend towards an increased risk also amongst young adults between 21 and 30 years. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  11. Features of formation of competitive advantages: a strategic dimension

    OpenAIRE

    O.Р. Pashchenko

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the features of formation of competitive advantages, the depth of theoretical and methodological basis for the formation of competitive advantages at an enterprise. The author has reviewed the approaches to the formation of stable and long-term competitive advantages. The author has also overviewed the requirements which are to be met by competitive advantages of a company and the factors that affect the possibility of competitive advantages. The author develops her ow...

  12. [The precautionary principle: advantages and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    2001-04-01

    The extension of the precautionary principle to the field of healthcare is the social response to two demands of the population: improved health safety and the inclusion of an informed public in the decision-making process. The necessary balance between cost (treatment-induced risk) and benefit (therapeutic effect) underlies all healthcare decisions. An underestimation or an overestimation of cost, i.e. risk, is equally harmful in public healthcare. A vaccination should be prescribed when its beneficial effect outweighs its inevitable risk. Mandatory vaccination, such as in the case of the Hepatitis B virus, is a health policy requiring some courage because those who benefit will never be aware of its positive effect while those who are victims of the risk could resort to litigation. Defense against such accusations requires an accurate assessment of risk and benefit, which underlines the importance of expertise. Even within the framework of the precautionary principle, it is impossible to act without knowledge, or at least a plausible estimation, of expected effects. Recent affairs (blood contamination, transmissible spongiform encephalitis by growth hormone, and new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease) illustrate that in such cases the precautionary principle would have had limited impact and it is only when enough knowledge was available that effective action could be taken. Likewise, in current debates concerning the possible risks of electromagnetic fields, cellular phones and radon, research efforts must be given priority. The general public understands intuitively the concept of cost and benefit. For example, the possible health risks of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy were not ignored, but the public has judged that their advantages justify the risk. Estimating risk and benefit and finding a balance between risk and preventive measures could help avoid the main drawbacks of the precautionary principle, i.e. inaction and refusal of

  13. National and International Library Collaboration: Necessity, Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Mark

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of cooperation between research library associations can be demonstrated quite clearly. Where cooperation becomes essential is where there is a common cause to champion or an initiative to pursue for the common good. Thanks in part to the power of information communications technology, research is becoming increasingly international in scope. The members of interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research teams are frequently drawn from across the world. Correspondingly, scholarly publishing (especially in medicine and the sciences is dominated by a few multinational publishers. In this context, issues that play a vital role in global scholarly communication - such as copyright, journal pricing, the managing of datasets, digital preservation and open access - are issues for the research library community everywhere in the world. Certainly there are many challenges at the local or regional level. However there are definite roles that research library associations can play most effectively at the national or international level. It is clear that by sharing expertise, building partnerships and alliances, it is possible to address common issues much more effectively than when working alone. What is special is that potentially the most powerful form of cooperation is advocacy at the national and international levels. It is essential for research library associations to work together at the political level to move their agenda forward. Examples are lobbying about copyright legislation (nationally, or within the EC or at WIPO; or promoting the cause of Open Access. The unique value of LIBER is to provide a forum and a platform for European research library associations to explore and benefit from cooperation and their shared strength.

  14. Better imaging: the advantages of digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Stelt, Paul F

    2008-06-01

    Digital radiography has been available in dentistry for more than 25 years, but it has not replaced conventional film-based radiography completely. This could be because of the costs involved in replacing conventional radiographic equipment with a digital imaging system, or because implementing new technology in the dental practice requires a bit of courage. When the practitioner is fully aware of the new possibilities offered by digital radiography, he or she can make a more informed decision about adopting it. This article offers information about digital radiography, not just as a replacement of conventional radiography, but also as a concept offering benefits beyond those of conventional radiography. Digital radiographs are composed of a set of numbers arranged as a grid of rows and columns. The dentist can perform mathematical operations on these numbers to create a new image in which certain characteristics are enhanced, thus making interpretation of the image easier. The dentist also can correct, to some extent, overexposed or underexposed images and can optimize contrast and brightness for specific diagnostic procedures, such as caries detection and bone level assessment. More advanced procedures are available as well, such as digital subtraction radiography and computer-aided recognition of image features. The author presents a selection of the advantages of digital radiography that are not achievable with conventional film-based radiography. Implementing digital radiography in the dental office requires additional training. However, once members of the dental team have gone through this initial phase, they have the benefits of several new diagnostic possibilities. With a digital system, information from radiographic images is collected more easily and in a more objective way, which will improve the performance of the diagnostic process.

  15. Competitive advantage on a warming planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred

    2007-03-01

    Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global warming's dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a warming world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's environmental record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an environmental think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging environmental harm), reputational (how a company's environmental policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors.

  16. Future generations of CANDU: advantages and development with passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R. B.

    2006-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) advances water reactor and CANDLT technology using an evolutionary development strategy. This strategy ensures that innovations are based firmly on current experience and keeps our development programs focused on one reactor concept, reducing risks, development costs, and product development cycle times. It also assures our customers that our products will never become obsolete or unsupported, and the continuous line of water reactor development is secure and supported into the future. Using the channel reactor advantage of modularity, the subdivided core has the advantage of passive safety by heat removal to the low- pressure moderator. With continuous improvements, the Advanced CANDU Reactor TM (ACR-1000TM) concept will likely remain highly competitive for a number of years and leads naturally to the next phase of CANDU development, namely the Generation IV CANDU -SCWR concept. This is conventional water technology, since supercritical boilers and turbines have been operating for some time in coal-fired power plants. Significant cost, safety, and performance advantages would result from the CANDU-SCWR concept, plus the flexibility of a range of plant sizes suitable for both small and large electric grids, and the ability for co-generation of electric power, process heat, and hydrogen. In CANDU-SCWR, novel developments are included in the primary circuit layout and channel design. The R and D in Canada is integrated with the Generation IV international Forum (GIF) plans, and has started on examining replaceable insulating liners that would ensure channel life, and on providing completely passive reactor decay heat removal directly to the moderator heat sink without forced cooling. In the interests of sustainability, hydrogen production by a CANDU- SCWR is also be included as part of the system requirements, where the methods for hydrogen production will depend on the outlet temperature of the reactor

  17. A Proposal for Including Patient-Generated Web-based Creative Writing Material into Psychotherapy: Advantages and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, Timothy

    2008-06-01

    Creative writing presents both a challenging and promising modality for psychotherapy. Though it has been used in various settings, the application within a session can be difficult. This case study presents a use of a web-based format to engage a resistant patient through her creative writing. Benefits and potential pitfalls of using a patient's writing in therapy are discussed.

  18. Taking Full Advantage of Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Teachers need a deeper understanding of the texts being discussed, in particular the various textual and visual aspects of picturebooks themselves, including the images, written text and design elements, to support how readers made sense of these texts. As teachers become familiar with aspects of literary criticism, art history, visual grammar,…

  19. The Significance of Immunohistochemical Staining, Including that for Glucose Transporter Protein Isoform 1, as Related to the Clinical and Angiographic Features of Adult Soft-Tissue Hemangioma and Arteriovenous Malformation in the Head and Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ha Young; Kim, Seon Mi; Choi, Jin Woo

    2009-01-01

    Glucose transporter protein isoform 1 (GLUT1) has been introduced to diagnose the hemangiomas of infancy. We investigated the usefulness of several immunohistochemical markers, including GLUT1, as related with the clinical and radiologic findings for making the diagnosis of adult subcutaneous vascular lesions in the head and neck. Materials and Methods: The 24 patients who underwent operations for soft tissue vascular lesion during the previous 7 years were included in this study. We analyzed the angiographic data, the clinical data and the immunohistochemical study results, including the GLUT1, S-100 protein and Movat pentichrome staining. Results: Twenty-two patients were confirmed to have arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and two hemangiomas, respectively. The number of lesions with positive Movat pentichrome, S-100 and GLUT1 staining in the patients with AVM and those patients with hemangioma were 22/22, 20/22 and 0/22, and 0/2, 0/2 and 0/2, respectively. For the 22 patients with AVMs, eight had a soft tissue vascular lesion at birth, 13 had cutaneous change and 15 had a change of the size of the lesion. For the 2 patients with one hemangioma each, neither patient had a soft tissue vascular lesion at birth, and both patients had cutaneous change and a change of the size of the lesion. The angiograms revealed a focal hypervascular mass (19/24) or diffuse staining (5/24) without showing significant features for making the definitive differential diagnosis. Our study revealed that none of the patients with AVM or hemangioma had GLUT1 positivity, and an arteriovenous malformation was more common than the adult-type hemangioma

  20. The Health Advantage of a Vegan Diet: Exploring the Gut Microbiota Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Glick-Bauer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This review examines whether there is evidence that a strict vegan diet confers health advantages beyond that of a vegetarian diet or overall healthy eating. Few studies include vegan subjects as a distinct experimental group, yet when vegan diets are directly compared to vegetarian and omnivorous diets, a pattern of protective health benefits emerges. The relatively recent inclusion of vegan diets in studies of gut microbiota and health allows us the opportunity to assess whether the vegan gut microbiota is distinct, and whether the health advantages characteristic of a vegan diet may be partially explained by the associated microbiota profile. The relationship between diet and the intestinal microbial profile appears to follow a continuum, with vegans displaying a gut microbiota most distinct from that of omnivores, but not always significantly different from that of vegetarians. The vegan gut profile appears to be unique in several characteristics, including a reduced abundance of pathobionts and a greater abundance of protective species. Reduced levels of inflammation may be the key feature linking the vegan gut microbiota with protective health effects. However, it is still unclear whether a therapeutic vegan diet can be prescribed to alter the gut microflora for long-term health benefits.

  1. The health advantage of a vegan diet: exploring the gut microbiota connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick-Bauer, Marian; Yeh, Ming-Chin

    2014-10-31

    This review examines whether there is evidence that a strict vegan diet confers health advantages beyond that of a vegetarian diet or overall healthy eating. Few studies include vegan subjects as a distinct experimental group, yet when vegan diets are directly compared to vegetarian and omnivorous diets, a pattern of protective health benefits emerges. The relatively recent inclusion of vegan diets in studies of gut microbiota and health allows us the opportunity to assess whether the vegan gut microbiota is distinct, and whether the health advantages characteristic of a vegan diet may be partially explained by the associated microbiota profile. The relationship between diet and the intestinal microbial profile appears to follow a continuum, with vegans displaying a gut microbiota most distinct from that of omnivores, but not always significantly different from that of vegetarians. The vegan gut profile appears to be unique in several characteristics, including a reduced abundance of pathobionts and a greater abundance of protective species. Reduced levels of inflammation may be the key feature linking the vegan gut microbiota with protective health effects. However, it is still unclear whether a therapeutic vegan diet can be prescribed to alter the gut microflora for long-term health benefits.

  2. Territory, competitive advantages and local productive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Monarca U.

    2007-01-01

    This work aims at analyzing if, as often indicated by theoretical and empirical literature, the "territory" variable shows local development dynamics. A review of the districts phenomenon has favoured the attempt to integrate modern economical trends in this consolidated productive model, with particular emphasis on firm internationalization, market globalisation and the IT developments, including business services as well. The work underlines two implication of this innovative approach: the ...

  3. Changing Patterns of Publication Productivity: Accumulative Advantage or Institutional Isomorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Eric L.; Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates two competing perspectives, accumulated advantage and institutional isomorphism, on the relationship between publication productivity and institutional hierarchy. Accumulated advantage refers to the continuing attraction of students, faculty, and research dollars to prestige universities. Institutional isomorphism denotes the tendency…

  4. Advantages of using ICT in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmanovska, Dragana; Ivanova, Biljana; Kirova, Snezana

    2016-01-01

    The quality of the educational system of a country is determined by its higher education. As it is known, higher education is at the top of the education pyramid and as such its responsibility towards the whole education system and towards the society is increasing every day. Teaching and schooling is changing in a variety of ways. As our university ‘Goce Delcev’ is relatively new, it follows the new modern trends of e-learning integrated through courses on Moodle. This paper presents the ...

  5. FORMATION OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES OF ENTERPRISES IN TERMS OF GLOBALIZATION: COMPETITIVE DYNAMICS AND AN INTELLECTUAL COMPONENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Tarasenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to investigate the current state of scientific thought in relation to the formation of intellectual capital of an enterprise in the innovation process, achievement by the enterprise of corresponding competitive advantages and their protection. Methodology. The methodological basis of the article is the systematic approach, which provided a comprehensive definition of the scope of this research – intellectual property and its protection as a complex economic and legal category. This made it possible to systematically define the purpose, level of abstraction, hierarchy, forms of manifestation, and key attributes of the subject of research. Application of principles of modelling of business processes also allowed studying the influence of factors of the external environment on the sequence of information flows in the process of forming competitive advantages on the basis of intellectual property. In addition, having determined the scientific basis, the collective and local monographic studies of leading scientists concerning the specificity of the formation of competitive advantages of innovative enterprises, including on the basis of intellectual capital, were also taken into account. Results. The article studies, describes and, correspondingly, formalizes modern processes of formation of competitive advantages in the conditions of Smart Economy: knowledge management, their patenting, modern significance, and the influence of patenting on the role of intellectual property in the investigated phenomena, as well as management of relevant information flows. Practical implications. The research demonstrates ways of forming competitive advantages in the modern economy, and the results of the analysis of relevant statistics explain patterns of economic and legal processes in the field of relevant practical activities. This allows assessing the actual state of the subject of the research, determining the development

  6. Selection of exterior wall using advantageousness comparison; Ulkoseinaen valinta elinkaariedullisuuden perusteella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, A.; Vesa, M.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the study was to clarify the advantageousness of six chosen exterior wall solutions and at the same time to produce the procedure the measurement of the advantageousness. The examined wall types were: (1) brick wall, (2) brick-wool-concrete wall, (2b) brick-wool-concrete wall (not plastered), (3) brick-wool-wood wall, (4) precast concrete wall, and (5) plaster-wool-concrete wall. The analysis was made to a residential construction project which is built in a frame municipality of the metropolitan area. Here the life cycle costs, environmental burdens, and other factors (the aesthetic character, image, a comfort and easy maintenance) have an affect to the advantageousness of exterior wall. The averages of appreciation of the seven members of the supervising body of this study were used as the weights of the aforementioned value factors in the comparison. The result of the analysis was that the unplastered brick-wool-concrete wall had the equal life cycle costs as the precast concrete wall (an annual cost FIM 70 per apartment floor area). They were superior in relation to other examined wall types. In turn the brick wall had the highest life cycle costs (an annual cost nearly FIM 200 per apartment floor area) from the examined wall solutions on the advantageousness measuring straightforwardly likewise. It was chosen for an examination time period for 50 years. Likewise the brick wall was the distinctly weakest solution eco-economically, irrespective of, how costs and environmental factors are weighted. The brick wall was both the most expensive and unecological from the examined exterior wall types. It had a weak ecological qualities because considerably more building material than to other examined wall types. Also it's thermal insulation capacity was the weakest. But if in the decision-making also the aesthetic character, image, the effect on the comfort, and easy maintenance of the exterior wall indeed are included in addition to the eco

  7. Systems neuroscience in Drosophila: Conceptual and technical advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, H

    2015-06-18

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is ideally suited for investigating the neural circuit basis of behavior. Due to the simplicity and genetic tractability of the fly brain, neurons and circuits are identifiable across animals. Additionally, a large set of transgenic lines has been developed with the aim of specifically labeling small subsets of neurons and manipulating them in sophisticated ways. Electrophysiology and imaging can be applied in behaving individuals to examine the computations performed by each neuron, and even the entire population of relevant neurons in a particular region, because of the small size of the brain. Moreover, a rich repertoire of behaviors that can be studied is expanding to include those requiring cognitive abilities. Thus, the fly brain is an attractive system in which to explore both computations and mechanisms underlying behavior at levels spanning from genes through neurons to circuits. This review summarizes the advantages Drosophila offers in achieving this objective. A recent neurophysiology study on olfactory behavior is also introduced to demonstrate the effectiveness of these advantages. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Achieving competitive advantage through strategic human resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottler, M D; Phillips, R L; Blair, J D; Duran, C A

    1990-01-01

    The framework presented here challenges health care executives to manage human resources strategically as an integral part of the strategic planning process. Health care executives should consciously formulate human resource strategies and practices that are linked to and reinforce the broader strategic posture of the organization. This article provides a framework for (1) determining and focusing on desired strategic outcomes, (2) identifying and implementing essential human resource management actions, and (3) maintaining or enhancing competitive advantage. The strategic approach to human resource management includes assessing the organization's environment and mission; formulating the organization's business strategy; assessing the human resources requirements based on the intended strategy; comparing the current inventory of human resources in terms of numbers, characteristics, and human resource management practices with respect to the strategic requirements of the organization and its services or product lines; formulating the human resource strategy based on the differences between the assessed requirements and the current inventory; and implementing the appropriate human resource practices to reinforce the strategy and attain competitive advantage.

  9. Alternative Conceptions: Turning Adversity into Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Annalize; Lemmer, Miriam; Gunstone, Richard

    2017-08-01

    While a vast body of research has identified difficulties in students' understanding about forces and acceleration and their related alternative conceptions, far less research suggests ways to use students' alternative conceptions to enhance conceptual understanding of a specific fundamental concept. This study focused on distinguishing between students' conceptual understanding of the Newtonian concept of gravitational acceleration being the same for all objects and students' alternative conception that heavy objects fall faster. A multiple choice questionnaire was distributed to first year physics students for three consecutive years at a university in South Africa. The results indicate that changing the direction of motion and the physics quantity asked in paired questions revealed practically significant inconsistencies in students' reasoning and conceptions. This research contributes to the body of knowledge in proposing how the alternative conception of mass-related gravitational acceleration can be used in instruction to enhance conceptual understanding of the force-mass-acceleration relationship. Understanding of this relationship not only promotes conceptual understanding of the basic Newtonian concepts of the laws of motion which forms the critical foundation on which more advanced physics courses are built, but also contributes towards students' perception of physics as a set of coherent ideas applicable in all contexts.

  10. Sources of competitive advantage and business performance in the European meat processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    1. The aim of the paper is to investigate the relative importance of three sets of sources of competitive advantages on business performance in a specific industry context, ie the European meat processing industry. The three sets of competitive sources are Firm Specific Advantages (FSAs......), Localizational Specific Advantages (LSAs) and Relationship Specific Advantages (RSAs). Based on a literature study, each set of competitive advantages is briefly described in terms of their theoretical antecedents. Seven hypotheses are formulated regarding the direct as well as the indirect relationships between...... the FSAs, LSAs and RSAs and business performance. Also, the direction of causality between the various sets of explanatory variables is considered. The hypotheses are combined in a structural modelling of firm competition. 2. Data and measurements are derived from a survey in the European meat processing...

  11. Advantages of iron core in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettis, E.S.; Ballou, J.K.; Becraft, W.R.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Watts, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative comparison of the iron core vs air core concepts was carried out on a preliminary basis by using a representative tokamak reactor design with the following self-consistent reference parameters. In the area of plasma engineering, poloidal field and MHD equilibrium considerations with an unsaturated iron core is discussed. The question of proper poloidal field coils to maintain D-shaped plasmas of relatively high anti β (7%) with a saturated iron core is also discussed. Estimates of the required iron core size, volt seconds, magnetic flux and its influence on force loading on the superconducting toroidal field coils are shown. Conceptual designs of the mechanical structure of an iron core device are presented. Favorable impacts on the OH power supply cost and complexity are indicated

  12. The Productivity Advantage of Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Kathryn L.; Sørensen, Anders

    Serial entrepreneurs, who open more than one business, are found to have higher sales and higher productivity than novice entrepreneurs, who open one business. Using panel data on entrepreneurs and their firms from Denmark for 2001-2013, the serial entrepreneur has 67% higher sales than the novice......, but also opens firms that are larger in terms of the initial capital and labor, and thus is 39% more productive. There are subsets of firms that perform especially well – serial entrepreneurs that hold a portfolio of overlapping ongoing firms perform the best, as do those that open as limited liability...... firm rather than proprietorships. Female serial entrepreneurs do as well as male serial entrepreneurs relative to the performance of novices of their own genders. The second firms of the serial entrepreneurs also stay in business longer than the first (and only) firms of the novices....

  13. Taking advantage of luminescent lanthanide ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünzli, Jean-Claude G; Piguet, Claude

    2005-12-01

    Lanthanide ions possess fascinating optical properties and their discovery, first industrial uses and present high technological applications are largely governed by their interaction with light. Lighting devices (economical luminescent lamps, light emitting diodes), television and computer displays, optical fibres, optical amplifiers, lasers, as well as responsive luminescent stains for biomedical analysis, medical diagnosis, and cell imaging rely heavily on lanthanide ions. This critical review has been tailored for a broad audience of chemists, biochemists and materials scientists; the basics of lanthanide photophysics are highlighted together with the synthetic strategies used to insert these ions into mono- and polymetallic molecular edifices. Recent advances in NIR-emitting materials, including liquid crystals, and in the control of luminescent properties in polymetallic assemblies are also presented. (210 references.).

  14. Advantages of a Lunar Cryogenic Astronomical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, James; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2017-04-01

    ESA and collaborating agencies are preparing to establish a Moon Village at a south polar site. Robotic precursor missions will include resource prospecting in permanently shadowed cold traps. The environment there is favorable for infrared and millimeter-wave astronomy. In this paper we examine the evolutionary development of a cryogenic observatory, beginning with small telescopes robotically installed and operated in conjunction with prospecting precursor missions, and continuing into later phases supported from the Moon Village. Relay communications into and out of the cold traps may be shared or else provided by dedicated links. Candidate locations can be selected with the help of data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. The first telescope will be primarily a proof-of-concept demonstrator but it can have scientific and applications uses too, supplementing other space-based survey instruments observing astrophysical objects and potentially hazardous asteroids and comets. A south polar site sees only half or the sky but that half includes the galactic center and many other interesting targets. The telescopes can stare at any object for as long as desired, providing monitoring capabilities for transiting or radial velocity planet searches, like NASA's TESS mission. In addition such telescopes are opening the prospect of gathering spectroscopic data on exoplanet atmospheres and cool stars - from UV information to assess the activity of a star to VIS to IR spectral data of the atmosphere and even atmospheric biosignatures. Preliminary design of the first telescope might be funded under a NASA call for lunar science payload concepts. An important additional product can be educational and outreach uses of the observatory, especially for the benefit of people in the developing world who can do southern hemisphere follow-up observations.

  15. Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in the kindred of an infant with CFTR-related metabolic syndrome: importance of follow-up that includes monitoring sweat chloride concentrations over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sophia N; Nussbaum, Eliezer; Chin, Terry W; Do, Paul C M; Singh, Kathryn E; Randhawa, Inderpal

    2014-03-01

    Newly implemented newborn screening (NBS) programs in California have resulted in a large subset of patients in whom at least two cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations are identified, but subsequent sweat chloride analysis reveals normal or indeterminate values. These patients are diagnosed with CFTR-Related Metabolic Syndrome (CRMS). However, the natural progression and management of these patients are not clearly understood and frequently after the age of 1-year these patients are lost to follow-up with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Centers. We present the first case of an infant who was referred to Miller Children's Hospital for a NBS positive for CF and subsequent discovery of identical mutations in six of his seven older brothers. Several siblings had positive sweat chloride results on repeat testing after the age of 3 years. We suggest the need for continued follow-up of CRMS in a CF center with diagnostic evaluation including repeat sweat chloride testing, beyond the currently recommended period. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Advantages of diabetic tractional retinal detachment repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternfeld A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Amir Sternfeld, Ruth Axer-Siegel, Hadas Stiebel-Kalish, Dov Weinberger, Rita Ehrlich Department of Ophthalmology, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva, Israel Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes and complications of patients with diabetic tractional retinal detachment (TRD treated with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV.Patients and methods: We retrospectively studied a case series of 24 eyes of 21 patients at a single tertiary, university-affiliated medical center. A review was carried out on patients who underwent PPV for the management of TRD due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy from October 2011 to November 2013. Preoperative and final visual outcomes, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and medical background were evaluated.Results: A 23 G instrumentation was used in 23 eyes (95.8%, and a 25 G instrumentation in one (4.2%. Mean postoperative follow-up time was 13.3 months (4–30 months. Visual acuity significantly improved from logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR 1.48 to LogMAR 1.05 (P<0.05. Visual acuity improved by ≥3 lines in 75% of patients. Intraoperative complications included iatrogenic retinal breaks in seven eyes (22.9% and vitreal hemorrhage in nine eyes (37.5%. In two eyes, one sclerotomy was enlarged to 20 G (8.3%. Postoperative complications included reoperation in five eyes (20.8% due to persistent subretinal fluid (n=3, vitreous hemorrhage (n=1, and dislocated intraocular lens (n=1. Thirteen patients (54.2% had postoperative vitreous hemorrhage that cleared spontaneously, five patients (20.8% required antiglaucoma medications for increased intraocular pressure, seven patients (29.2% developed an epiretinal membrane, and two patients (8.3% developed a macular hole.Conclusion: Patients with diabetic TRD can benefit from PPV surgery. Intraoperative and postoperative complications can be attributed to the complexity of this disease. Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, proliferative

  17. Advantages of being a nuclear state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadova, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : Despite of some progress in the field of nuclear non-proliferation regime at the end of the last century, de-facto nuclear countries, and the issues such as Iran's uranium enrichment activities, the nuclear program of the North Korea proves the regime is in deep crisis. Besides, as a result of rapid scientific and technological development the number of enterprises processing raw material is increasing, the import of materials containing uranium and plutonium is becoming easier and reserves and facilities are widely spread in the black market. Unimpeded access to the information and scientific literature on production of nuclear weapons becomes available, organization and purposeful participation in the events related to the nuclear technology increase, the fact of involvement of scholars and engineers from the developed countries is observed. The growth of nuclear reactors amount with the purpose of energy supply increase the demand for enriched uranium and plutonium, and this hampers the protection these substances. Furthermore, the existence of local natural reserves, the state attention to the staff training able to create nuclear weapons, the staff aware of the work with radioactive substances, the programs considering military preparation on the application of nuclear weapons and so on problems directly threaten the non-proliferation regime. Despite the concern on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons expressed by many scholars and officials, the interest and attempts of states in becoming nuclear states always increase. These interests are stipulated by objective and subjective reasons

  18. Demography can favour female-advantageous alleles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harts, Anna M. F.; Schwanz, Lisa E.; Kokko, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    When female fecundity is relatively independent of male abundance, while male reproduction is proportional to female abundance, females have a larger effect on population dynamics than males (i.e. female demographic dominance). This population dynamic phenomenon might not appear to influence evolution, because male and female genomes still contribute equally much to the next generation. However, here we examine two evolutionary scenarios to provide a proof of principle that spatial structure can make female demographic dominance matter. Our two simulation models combine dispersal evolution with local adaptation subjected to intralocus sexual conflict and environmentally driven sex ratio biases, respectively. Both models have equilibria where one environment (without being intrinsically poorer) has so few reproductive females that trait evolution becomes disproportionately determined by those environments where females survive better (intralocus sexual conflict model), or where daughters are overproduced (environmental sex determination model). Surprisingly, however, the two facts that selection favours alleles that benefit females, and population growth is improved when female fitness is high, together do not imply that all measures of population performance are improved. The sex-specificity of the source–sink dynamics predicts that populations can evolve to fail to persist in habitats where alleles do poorly when expressed in females. PMID:25056617

  19. Advantages and disadvantages of storage with surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchowitz, M.

    1985-01-01

    After the shut-down decision, the technical effort necessary to place a reactor facility in the ''storage with surveillance'' condition is relatively minor. The operating costs during the storage time depend on whether a second power plant unit is located or is being constructed at the site. If the reactor facility is totally removed after the decision to shut it down, the resulting costs are at first not comparable to those incurred by the bringing about of ''storage with surveillance''. Because the nuclear power plant ''stored with surveillance'' will have to be removed at the end of the storage time, enormously high costs once again are the result here too. The savings resulting because the need for remotely controlled dismantling and packing of parts with higher activity (reactor vessel, core fixtures, etc.) is eliminated, do not, from a technical point of view, outweigh the disadvantages of the surveillance and maintenance necessary during a storage time of 40 years. It is to be noted, however, that during a total removal, large quantities of radioactive waste result and suitable repositories or storage possibilities must be available

  20. [The patient billing cost in medical biology: advantages and disadvantages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppa, Franck; Burnat, Pascal; Basin, Anne; Lebreton, Soizic

    2010-01-01

    Control of health expenditures in relation with staff reduction have led hospital or private labs to seek out growing productivity associated with limited costs. Consolidation and harmonization of equipment have to be implemented, as well as work positions, with the aid of computers. Analytical and preanalytical choices often converge towards the same manufacturer, and it is tempting to simplify also order, receipt and invoicing procedures. This cost optimization requires invoicing taking into account real activity of the lab, establishing "pay per patient" rather than "pay per kit". These changes may also apply to smaller analyzers such as those employed for haemostasis that are deployed in several sites, in aim to reduce costs. We describe the principles of this new mode of invoicing proposed by Roche Diagnostics, for which one may bring out main advantages and inconveniences.

  1. Joint hypermobility and sport: a review of advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Velasco, Carolina; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Pailhez, Guillem; Vilarrasa, Antonio Bulbena

    2013-01-01

    Joint hypermobility (JH) is a feature observed in several inherited conditions in which joints have a range of motion beyond normal limits. Such inherent flexibility makes it relatively easy for hypermobile people to perform certain physical activities, so this characteristic is particularly convenient for certain athletes. However JH also can carry some disadvantages: it has been associated to a higher risk of injury and to states of anxiety. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current evidence concerning the advantages and disadvantages of JH in the field of sport. We emphasize the importance of detecting JH in athletes in order to intervene appropriately through injury prevention programs, and emphasize how inherent anxiety may have a negative impact on sporting performance.

  2. Clubfoot posteromedial release: advantages of tibialis anterior tendon lengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicart, Philippe R; Barthes, Xavier; Ghanem, Ismat; Seringe, Raphaël

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the eventual advantages of tibialis anterior (TA) tendon lengthening during clubfoot posteromedial release. A continuous series of 60 idiopathic clubfeet has been retrospectively studied. Tibialis anterior lengthening (TAL) began to be performed in 1984. Two groups of 30 feet have been distinguished: without TAL (before 1984) and with TAL (after 1984). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups concerning mean age at surgery, preoperative clinical and radiologic data. Mean postoperative follow-up was 10 years and minimal follow-up required was 5 years. TAL decreased Triceps surae relative insufficiency and improved monopodal jump. TAL balanced TA and peroneus longus, decreased dynamic supination and balanced forefoot pronation and supination. The feet without TAL presented lack of anteromedial support (20% without TAL, 0% with TAL) and medial arch cavus with dorsal talo-navicular subluxation (20% without TAL, 3,3% with TAL). TAL decreased the rate of recurrence and surgical revision.

  3. Vacuum-assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass: advantages and disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Filho, Élio Barreto; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; da Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes; Antunes, Nilson

    2014-01-01

    Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas. PMID:25140478

  4. Advantages of using gyrotron scattering for alpha particle diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woskoboinikow, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Machuzak, J.S.; Myer, R.C.; Rhee, R.Y.

    1987-07-01

    Millimeter-wave gyrotron collective Thomson scattering can be an effective diagnostic technique for the study of alpha particle behavior in ignited plasmas. The measurement of alpha particle density, velocity distribution, and alpha particle induced plasma instabilities can be accomplished with both spatial and temporal resolution. Advantages include long pulse operation which can make possible very high signal to noise ratios and use of millimeter waves which maximizes the Doppler shifted scattered signal in WHz -1 and makes possible scattering angles up to 180 0 . Extraordinary mode scattering at approximately 60 and 200 GHz would be used in TFTR and CIT respectively, and 140 GHz ordinary mode scattering in JET. 8 refs., 1 fig

  5. Nanomaterials in the application of tumor vaccines: advantages and disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li XD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available XD Li,2,* JY Gao,1,* Y Yang,1,* HY Fang,1 YJ Han,1 XM Wang,1 W Ge1 1Department of Geriatrics, 2Department of Equipment, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tumor vaccines are a novel approach to the treatment of malignancy, and are attracting the attention of the medical profession. Nanomaterials have significant advantages in the preparation of a tumor vaccine, including their ability to penetrate and target cancer tissue and their antigenic properties. In this review, we focus on several nanomaterials, ie, carbon nanotubes, nanoemulsions, nanosized aluminum, and nanochitosan. Applications for these nanomaterials in nanovaccines and their biological characteristics, as well as their potential toxicity, are discussed. Keywords: nanomaterials, tumor vaccine, carbon nanotubes, nanoemulsions, nanosized aluminum, nanochitosan

  6. The evolutionary advantage of limited network knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jennifer M

    2016-06-07

    Groups of individuals have social networks that structure interactions within the groups; evolutionary theory increasingly uses this fact to explain the emergence of cooperation (Eshel and Cavalli-Sforza, 1982; Boyd and Richerson, 1988, 1989; Ohtsuki et al., 2006; Nowak et al., 2010; Van Veelen et al., 2012). This approach has resulted in a number of important insights for the evolution of cooperation in the biological and social sciences, but omits a key function of social networks that has persisted throughout recent evolutionary history (Apicella et al., 2012): their role in transmitting gossip about behavior within a group. Accounting for this well-established role of social networks among rational agents in a setting of indirect reciprocity not only shows a new mechanism by which the structure of networks is fitness-relevant, but also reveals that knowledge of social networks can be fitness-relevant as well. When groups enforce cooperation by sanctioning peers whom gossip reveals to have deviated, individuals in certain peripheral network positions are tempting targets of uncooperative behavior because gossip they share about misbehavior spreads slowly through the network. The ability to identify these individuals creates incentives to behave uncooperatively. Consequently, groups comprised of individuals who knew precise information about their social networks would be at a fitness disadvantage relative to groups of individuals with a coarser knowledge of their networks. Empirical work has consistently shown that modern humans know little about the structure of their own social networks and perform poorly when tasked with learning new ones. This robust empirical regularity may be the product of natural selection in an environment of strong selective pressure at the group level. Imprecise views of networks make enforcing cooperation easier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The competitive advantage of corporate philanthropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael E; Kramer, Mark R

    2002-12-01

    When it comes to philanthropy, executives increasingly see themselves as caught between critics demanding ever higher levels of "corporate social responsibility" and investors applying pressure to maximize short-term profits. In response, many companies have sought to make their giving more strategic, but what passes for strategic philanthropy is almost never truly strategic, and often isn't particularly effective as philanthropy. Increasingly, philanthropy is used as a form of public relations or advertising, promoting a company's image through high-profile sponsorships. But there is a more truly strategic way to think about philanthropy. Corporations can use their charitable efforts to improve their competitive context--the quality of the business environment in the locations where they operate. Using philanthropy to enhance competitive context aligns social and economic goals and improves a company's long-term business prospects. Addressing context enables a company to not only give money but also leverage its capabilities and relationships in support of charitable causes. The produces social benefits far exceeding those provided by individual donors, foundations, or even governments. Taking this new direction requires fundamental changes in the way companies approach their contribution programs. For example, philanthropic investments can improve education and local quality of life in ways that will benefit the company. Such investments can also improve the company's competitiveness by contributing to expanding the local market and helping to reduce corruption in the local business environment. Adopting a context-focused approach goes against the grain of current philanthropic practice, and it requires a far more disciplined approach than is prevalent today. But it can make a company's philanthropic activities far more effective.

  8. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  9. [Breastfeeding and HIV. Risks and advantages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaijage, T

    1995-10-01

    HIV can be transmitted from the mother to the baby during pregnancy, birth, or breast feeding. Around 66% of infants born to HIV-infected mothers are not infected with HIV. Most infants breast fed by their HIV-infected mothers do not become infected with HIV via breast milk, even though HIV has been detected in breast milk. Breast feeding when the mother is HIV infected does increase the risks of HIV infection for the infant but the degree of risk is not yet known. It is not easy to know if an infant is HIV positive until 12-18 months. Certain factors do increase the risk of HIV transmission during breast feeding: recent maternal HIV infection and presence of AIDS-related infections. Medical experts are so preoccupied by the risks that women receive bad advice and decide not to breast feed out of fear of transmitting HIV to their newborn. Breast feeding is an important way for mothers to assure good health for their newborns. Infants not breast fed are 14 times more likely to suffer childhood diseases than exclusively breast fed infants. Health workers must continue to support breast feeding, especially in areas where infectious diseases and malnutrition are the main causes of death, where poor hygienic conditions prevail, and where limited financial resources do not allow viable infant feeding alternatives. In such scenarios, the risk of transmitting HIV via breast milk is less than the risk of death if an infant is not breast fed. Health workers need to counsel pregnant women on breast feeding and to encourage them to consider their risk status, regardless of HIV status, so the women can make a more informed decision whether or not to breast feed. They often must provide this counseling under conditions where neither HIV testing nor infant feeding alternatives are available. Infant feeding decisions affect the whole family. Health workers should address counseling services for other family members also. Regardless of the mothers' decision on breast feeding, they

  10. Practices of Weight Regulation Among Elite Athletes in Combat Sports: A Matter of Mental Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Context The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. Objective To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Design Qualitative study. Setting With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Patients or Other Participants Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Data Collection and Analysis Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Results Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete.” Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Conclusions Weight regulation has mentally important functions

  11. Practices of weight regulation among elite athletes in combat sports: a matter of mental advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Qualitative study. With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being "a real athlete." Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Weight regulation has mentally important functions extending beyond the common notion that combat-sport athletes reduce their weight merely to gain a physical edge

  12. The K Dwarf Advantage for Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Giada; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn David; Meadows, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Biosignature detection is typically studied in the context of an atmosphere in chemical disequilibrium. Oxygen (O2) and methane (CH4) are generally considered the “canonical” biosignature disequilibrium pair. However, the modern CH4 concentration poses a major detection challenge to future direct imaging telescopes, and it has been difficult for Earth to accumulate spectrally detectable quantities of O2 and CH4 over its history (Olson et al 2016, Reinhard et al 2017). Even the lower atmospheric levels of O2 typical of the Earth’s Proterozoic eon (0.01-1% of the modern O2 amount) may have resulted in a reduced photochemical lifetime of CH4 due to decreased UV shielding of CH4 (Claire et al 2006, Goldblatt et al 2006). However, while the above is true for an Earthlike planet orbiting a sunlike star, the situation changes for other stars. For instance, Segura et al (2005) found longer photochemical lifetimes for CH4 in the atmospheres of Earthlike planets orbiting M dwarfs. M dwarfs, however, present several barriers to planetary habitability including desiccation during the stellar super-luminous pre-main sequence phase (Lugar and Barnes 2015) and tidal locking. K dwarfs, which comprise about 12% of all main sequence stars, avoid these M dwarf hazards, and will be important targets for future exoplanet direct imaging missions. Using a photochemical model, we find CH4 and O2 are simultaneously detectable in the atmospheres of K dwarf planets with various O2 concentrations ranging between Proterozoic levels and modern O2 amounts. For instance, for a planet with an Earth-like CH4 surface flux (1 x 1011 molecules/cm2/s) and a Proterozoic-like O2 level (1% of modern), the planet generates a CH4 surface mixing ratio of 1x10-5 for a planet orbiting the sun, and 1.5x10-4 – an order of magnitude more CH4 – for a planet orbiting a K6V star. This is enough to produce detectable CH4 and O2 for the planet orbiting the K6V star. We discuss the implications of this

  13. Enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants exhibit growth advantages in high nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X A; Peng, Y; Li, J J; Peng, P H

    2018-03-12

    Resource amendments commonly promote plant invasions, raising concerns over the potential consequences of nitrogen (N) deposition; however, it is unclear whether invaders will benefit from N deposition more than natives. Growth is among the most fundamental inherent traits of plants and thus good invaders may have superior growth advantages in response to resource amendments. We compared the growth and allocation between invasive and native plants in different N regimes including controls (ambient N concentrations). We found that invasive plants always grew much larger than native plants in varying N conditions, regardless of growth- or phylogeny-based analyses, and that the former allocated more biomass to shoots than the latter. Although N addition enhanced the growth of invasive plants, this enhancement did not increase with increasing N addition. Across invasive and native species, changes in shoot biomass allocation were positively correlated with changes in whole-plant biomass; and the slope of this relationship was greater in invasive plants than native plants. These findings suggest that enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants retain a growth advantage in high N conditions relative to natives, and also highlight that future N deposition may increase the risks of plant invasions.

  14. Invaders do not require high resource levels to maintain physiological advantages in a temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberling, J Mason; Fridley, Jason D

    2016-04-01

    Non-native, invasive plants are commonly typified by trait strategies associated with high resource demands and plant invasions are often thought to be dependent upon site resource availability or disturbance. However, the invasion of shade-tolerant woody species into deciduous forests of the Eastern United States seems to contradict such generalization, as growth in this ecosystem is strongly constrained by light and, secondarily, nutrient stress. In a factorial manipulation of light and soil nitrogen availability, we established an experimental resource gradient in a secondary deciduous forest to test whether three common, woody, invasive species displayed increased metabolic performance and biomass production compared to six co-occurring woody native species, and whether these predicted differences depend upon resource supply. Using hierarchical Bayesian models of photosynthesis that included leaf trait effects, we found that invasive species exhibited functional strategies associated with higher rates of carbon gain. Further, invader metabolic and growth-related attributes were more responsive to increasing light availability than those of natives, but did not fall below average native responses even in low light. Surprisingly, neither group showed direct trait or growth responses to soil N additions. However, invasive species showed increased photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiencies with decreasing N availability, while that of natives remained constant. Although invader advantage over natives was amplified in higher resource conditions in this forest, our results indicate that some invasive species can maintain physiological advantages over co-occurring natives regardless of resource conditions.

  15. Assessing the Effects of Product Quality and Environmental Management Accounting on the Competitive Advantage of Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan S. Dunk

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Arguments have been made in the literature that product quality provides a basis forestablishing and maintaining a firm’s competitive advantage. Proposals suggest that theframework provided by environmental management accounting facilitates product qualityhaving the attributes that are likely to contribute to competitive advantage, and hence it islikely that environmental accounting plays an influential role in that relation. The purpose ofthis study is to examine empirically whether there is evidence for environmental managementaccounting impacting on the relation between product quality and competitive advantage.These findings support the view that environmental management accounting has animportant role to play in firms. Specifically, the results of the study suggest that productquality contributes to a firm’s competitive advantage when the reliance on environmentalmanagement accounting is high. However, it fails to do so when the reliance on environmentalmanagement accounting is low.

  16. ORGANISATIONAL CAPABILITIES, COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND PERFORMANCE IN SUPPORTING INDUSTRIES IN VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nham Phong Tuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on applying the resource-based view (RBV of firms to explain performance in supporting industries in Vietnam. Specifically, we based our research on the comprehensive framework of RBV and reviewed previous empirical researches before deciding on adopting a dynamic capabilities approach to test relationships among organisational capabilities, competitive advantage and performance. A multivariate analysis of survey responses of 102 firms belonging to supporting industries in Vietnam indicates that the organisational capabilities are related to the competitive advantage, that the competitive advantage is related to performance, and that the competitive advantage mediates the relationship between organizational capabilities and performance. These findings have considerable implications for academics as well as practitioners. Finally, this study also provides directions for future research.

  17. The energetic advantages of slug specialization in garter snakes (genus Thamnophis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Eric J; Bennett, Albert F

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dietary specialization by foraging garter snakes is accompanied by increased assimilation efficiency on specialist prey items. Our comparison included two closely related garter snake species considered to be slug specialists (Thamnophis ordinoides and Thamnophis elegans terrestris), one fish specialist (Thamnophis couchii), and one diet generalist (Thamnophis elegans elegans). Our results suggest that slug specialists have an energetic advantage over non-slug-eating snakes when both eat slugs. Slug specialists T. ordinoides and T. e. terrestris both have higher assimilation and net assimilation efficiencies when eating slugs than do generalists T. e. elegans and T. couchii. The slug specialists did not experience decreased efficiency when eating fish. Therefore, there was no apparent digestive trade-off for the slug specialists when eating other prey.

  18. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  19. Is obesity an advantage in patients with colorectal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Zafar, S Yousuf; Grothey, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Obesity/higher BMI appears to be important determinants in the development of colon cancer as well as in predicting outcomes in the adjuvant setting in these patients. These associations seem to be stronger for men and tend to be 'J-shaped', with worse outcomes in both lower and upper BMI categories than in the middle categories. How this factors in the metastatic setting is less clear. A recent pooled analysis of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer receiving bevacizumab in the first-line setting observed that patients with the lowest BMI had the lowest median overall survival. An incremental BMI increase of 5 kg/m(2) led to actually a decrease in the risk of death (hazard ratio, 0.911 [95% CI, 0.879-0.944]). The observed association does not necessarily mean that obesity is an advantage for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. More likely, it is conceivable that, in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with a lower BMI, the effects of cancer-related cachexia may be more deleterious than the potential adverse events related to a higher BMI. In patients already diagnosed with metastatic disease, studying how body weight affects tumor biology and treatment-related decisions are important considerations.

  20. [Applications and advantages of a multimedia system for autopsies ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualco, M; Benzi, D; Fulcheri, E

    2001-10-01

    This work evaluates the benefits and applications of computers and multimedia systems in post-mortem examination practice and, more in particular, in the definition of data collection protocols. We examined issues concerning the different aims of autopsy (e.g. diagnostic, scientific, educational, legal), and found that the pathologist's main duty is to acquire a large amount of data in the best possible way. However, despite the will to carry out detailed post-mortem examinations, many pathologic anatomy services face objective difficulties in doing so, especially due to understaffing, lack of time and high costs. The Institute for Pathologic Anatomy of the University of Genoa has developed software for data handling and for outcome reporting, a particularly important aspect in fetal-perinatal diagnosis. The system consists of a relational database in a client-server environment (Fourth Dimension) with two integrated parts. The first part, with unrestricted access, contains patients' personal data, including gender, age, time and date of death, hospital department of origin, person and department requiring the post-mortem examination, hour and time of autopsy, pathologist's name, and clinical diagnosis of death. Using a scanner, a copy of the autopsy application is also field, together with the patient's medical file and any diagnostic images useful to document the case history. The second part of the information system is accessible by pathologists only, and contains the autopsy report. This part is organized to balance two different needs: it allows sufficient space and freedom for autopsy description while providing guidelines for presentation of the report. The structure of the conventional autopsy protocol has been maintained, with subdivisions for all the organs and apparatuses according to topographic criteria. Before this part, a section is dedicated to external cadaver examination and anthropometric data; weight, shape, volume and texture are described for

  1. The advantages of reliability centered maintenance for standby safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, R.F.; Ayazzudin, S.; Nickerson, J.H.; DeLong, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: On standby safety systems, nuclear plants have to balance the requirements of demonstrating the reliability of each system, while maintaining the system and plant availability. With the goal of demonstrating statistical reliability, these systems have extensive testing programs, which often makes the system unavailable and this can impact the plant capacity. The inputs to the process are often safety and regulatory related, resulting in programs that provide a high level of scrutiny on the systems being considered. In such cases, the value of the application of a maintenance optimization strategy, such as Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), is questioned. Part of the question stems from the use of the word 'Reliability' in RCM, which implies a level of redundancy when applied to a system maintenance program driven by reliability requirements. A deeper look at the RCM process, however, shows that RCM has the goal of ensuring that the system operates 'reliably' through the application of an integrated maintenance strategy. This is a subtle, but important distinction. Although the system reliability requirements are an important part of the strategy evaluation, RCM provides a broader context where testing is only one part of an overall strategy focused on ensuring that component function is maintained through a combination of monitoring technologies (including testing), predictive techniques, and intrusive maintenance strategies. Each strategy is targeted to identify known component degradation mechanisms. The conclusion is that a maintenance program driven by reliability requirements will tend to have testing defined at a frequency intended to support the needed statistics. The testing demonstrates that the desired function is available today. Maintenance driven by functional requirements and known failure causes, as developed through an RCM assessment, will have frequencies tied to industry experience with components and rely on a higher degree of

  2. Maintaining competitive tourism advantage with reference to the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area.

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Shelley; Hardiman, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Business literature is replete with examples of industries that failed to adapt to emerging trends and lost competitive advantage (see Levitt, 1975 - historical examples). To maximise opportunities, industries must identify sources of competitive advantage, and adapt. Tourism (including recreation) is particularly vulnerable to a diversity of external forces that threaten competitiveness (climatic variability/change, residents’ attitudes, terrorism/crime). Australia’s main competitive tourism...

  3. Building Competitive Advantage Through Open Innovation : A case study in the financial technology sector

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson Holm, Erik; Andersson, Felix

    2018-01-01

    The modern financial industry includes fast-changing technology, new regulations, and markets where companies at times find themselves at disadvantage. This study focuses on how organizations can build competitive advantage, particularly by drawing on the open innovation concept. We conceptualize its relationship to competitive advantage as a strategy of using and developing dynamic capabilities in business ecosystems. This view is empirically analysed through qualitative data from four organ...

  4. A Cram of E-Learning Advantages and Disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, following the exponential development of ICT, the classical method of learning has undergone numerous changes. The emergence of the Internet has accelerated these changes due to its capacity to offer multiple possibilities of access to information, instruction, all based on dynamic technologies, transparency and open dialogue. It can be well said that the Internet is turning into an arbiter for the access to education and culture, while eLearning is a new form of education that suggests itself as an alternative with a view to the needs of continuing training and knowledge. The most widely known results of this change are obvious in two learning models mediated by ICT: eLearning and Computer-assisted learning. As well as the classical models, these models imply an efficient learning process based on well-grounded cooperation and communication activities. Moreover, these models require appropriate technology and equipment. It is also important for the eLearners to have knowledge of the new technologies. The great advantage of eLearning is the abolition of formal barriers by eliminating distances, by introducing temporal flexibility and the creation of a new type of student-teacher relationship. The authors have asked the question whether the greatest advantages of this new way of learning and refreshing will still hold for those of a higher educational and financial status, thus deepening unequal opportunity of chances. A team of members of the teaching staff of "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi (UAIC and the Academy of Economic Studies of Bucharest (ASE have carried out a survey among the students of the two institutions regarding the students' perceptions, expectations and attitudes related to eLearning and the identifi-cation of the profile of the student with access to this form of education. The paper presents some of the most important findings of this research.

  5. Ageing and bilingualism: absence of a "bilingual advantage" in stroop interference in a nonimmigrant sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousaie, Shanna; Phillips, Natalie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found an advantage for bilinguals relative to monolinguals on tasks of attentional control. This advantage has been found to be larger in older adults than in young adults, suggesting that bilingualism provides a buffer against age-related declines in executive functioning. Using a computerized Stroop task in a nonimmigrant sample of young and older monolinguals and bilinguals, the current investigation tried to replicate previous findings of a bilingual advantage. A bilingual advantage would have been demonstrated by smaller Stroop interference (i.e., smaller increases in response time for incongruent than for neutral trials) for bilinguals than for monolinguals. The results showed that bilingual young adults showed a general speed advantage relative to their monolingual counterparts, but this was not associated with smaller Stroop interference. Older adults showed no effect of bilingualism. Thus, the present investigation does not find evidence of a bilingual advantage in young or older adults and suggests limits to the robustness and/or specificity of previous findings.

  6. Diplomatic advantages and threats in global health program selection, design, delivery and implementation: development and application of the Kevany Riposte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2015-05-27

    Global health programs, as supported by organizations such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), stand to make significant contributions to international medical outcomes. Traditional systems of monitoring and evaluation, however, fail to capture downstream, indirect, or collateral advantages (and threats) of intervention selection, design, and implementation from broader donor perspectives, including those of the diplomatic and foreign policy communities, which these programs also generate. This paper describes the development a new métier under which assessment systems designed to consider the diplomatic value of global health initiatives are described and applied based on previously-identified "Top Ten" criteria. The "Kevany Riposte" and the "K-Score" were conceptualized based on a retrospective and collective assessment of the author's participation in the design, implementation and delivery of a range of global health interventions related to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Responses and associated scores reframe intervention worth or value in terms of global health diplomacy criteria such as "adaptability", "interdependence", "training," and "neutrality". Response options ranged from "highly advantageous" to "significant potential threat". Global health initiatives under review were found to generate significant advantages from the diplomatic perspective. These included (1) intervention visibility and associations with donor altruism and prestige, (2) development of international non-health collaborations and partnerships, (3) adaptability and responsiveness of service delivery to local needs, and (4) advancement of broader strategic goals of the international community. Corresponding threats included (1) an absence of formal training of project staff on broader political and international relations roles and responsibilities, (2) challenges to recipient cultural and religious practices

  7. The Interleague Advantage: A Difference in Differences Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Volz

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that the introduction of interleague play in Major League Baseball provides an advantage to American League teams due to their use of the designated hitter. This paper examines whether this advantage actually exists and if so how large any advantage may be. The question is analyzed using a difference in differences model based on player performance data on interleague games from 1997 to 2008. It is shown that American League teams do have a small and statistically significa...

  8. Selenium utilization in thioredoxin and catalytic advantage provided by selenocysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon-Jung [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Cheon [Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Kwang Yeon [Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Gladyshev, Vadim N. [Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kim, Hwa-Young, E-mail: hykim@ynu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-12

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a major thiol-disulfide reductase that plays a role in many biological processes, including DNA replication and redox signaling. Although selenocysteine (Sec)-containing Trxs have been identified in certain bacteria, their enzymatic properties have not been characterized. In this study, we expressed a selenoprotein Trx from Treponema denticola, an oral spirochete, in Escherichia coli and characterized this selenoenzyme and its natural cysteine (Cys) homologue using E. coli Trx1 as a positive control. {sup 75}Se metabolic labeling and mutation analyses showed that the SECIS (Sec insertion sequence) of T. denticola selenoprotein Trx is functional in the E. coli Sec insertion system with specific selenium incorporation into the Sec residue. The selenoprotein Trx exhibited approximately 10-fold higher catalytic activity than the Sec-to-Cys version and natural Cys homologue and E. coli Trx1, suggesting that Sec confers higher catalytic activity on this thiol-disulfide reductase. Kinetic analysis also showed that the selenoprotein Trx had a 30-fold higher K{sub m} than Cys-containing homologues, suggesting that this selenoenzyme is adapted to work efficiently with high concentrations of substrate. Collectively, the results of this study support the hypothesis that selenium utilization in oxidoreductase systems is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by the rare amino acid, Sec. - Highlights: • The first characterization of a selenoprotein Trx is presented. • The selenoenzyme Trx exhibits 10-fold higher catalytic activity than Cys homologues. • Se utilization in Trx is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by Sec residue.

  9. Advantages of neutron scattering for biological structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenborn, B.P.

    1975-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of neutron scattering for protein crystallography, scattering from oriented systems, and solution scattering are summarized. Techniques for minimizing the disadvantages are indicated

  10. Plant circadian clocks increase photosynthesis, growth, survival, and competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Antony N; Salathia, Neeraj; Hall, Anthony; Kévei, Eva; Tóth, Réka; Nagy, Ferenc; Hibberd, Julian M; Millar, Andrew J; Webb, Alex A R

    2005-07-22

    Circadian clocks are believed to confer an advantage to plants, but the nature of that advantage has been unknown. We show that a substantial photosynthetic advantage is conferred by correct matching of the circadian clock period with that of the external light-dark cycle. In wild type and in long- and short-circadian period mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, plants with a clock period matched to the environment contain more chlorophyll, fix more carbon, grow faster, and survive better than plants with circadian periods differing from their environment. This explains why plants gain advantage from circadian control.

  11. Changes in the competitive advantages of Croatia’s manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Galović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyse the position and detecte competitive advantages of Croatia’s manufacturing industry in foreign exchange trading. The methodology of this research is based on the application of indices of openness to foreign trade and detected competitive advantages, as well as the complete analysis of the manufacturing industry structure of the Republic of Croatia. In order to analyse the competitive advantages of the manufacturing industry in the Republic of Croatia the following quantitative methods were used: Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA, as a method for detecting comparative advantages of exporting goods of some countries, Export Competitiveness Indices (XS, as a method for measuring export competitiveness of the observed countries, Export Specialization Index (ES, as a method for comparing export activities of the manufacturing industry in the Republic of Croatia and the European Union, and the Relative Trade Advantage Index (RTA that incorporates the RCA and the RMA indices. The main results of the research indicate competitive advantages detected by measuring, evaluation of the Croatian manufacturing industry particularly on foreign markets, recommendations and proposals in order to reach a higher level of export competitiveness. The main conclusion of this research is that there is a need to establish prerequisites and to define measures for structural changes in the Croatian manufacturing industry.Key words: JEL classification: O18, O12, F18, R11

  12. Home advantage analysis in ACB league in season 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Rubio, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Home advantage was defined as the fact that home teams win more than the 50% of their matches (Courneya & Carron, 1992). The aim of this work was to investigate the home advantage in the ACB league and identify the game-related statistics which best discriminate home and away teams. The data were obtained from the Spanish Basketball Association for the period 2007-2008 ACB league (n= 306). Game related statistics were normalized to 100 ball possessions. In order to compare game related statis...

  13. The Advantages of Fixed Facilities in Characterizing TRU Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRENCH, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    In May 1998 the Hanford Site started developing a program for characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. After less than two years, Hanford will have a program certified by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO). By picking a simple waste stream, taking advantage of lessons learned at the other sites, as well as communicating effectively with the CAO, Hanford was able to achieve certification in record time. This effort was further simplified by having a centralized program centered on the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility that contains most of the equipment required to characterize TRU waste. The use of fixed facilities for the characterization of TRU waste at sites with a long-term clean-up mission can be cost effective for several reasons. These include the ability to control the environment in which sensitive instrumentation is required to operate and ensuring that calibrations and maintenance activities are scheduled and performed as an operating routine. Other factors contributing to cost effectiveness include providing approved procedures and facilities for handling hazardous materials and anticipated contingencies and performing essential evolutions, and regulating and smoothing the work load and environmental conditions to provide maximal efficiency and productivity. Another advantage is the ability to efficiently provide characterization services to other sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex that do not have the same capabilities. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is a state-of-the-art facility designed to consolidate the operations necessary to inspect, process and ship waste to facilitate verification of contents for certification to established waste acceptance criteria. The WRAP facility inspects, characterizes, treats, and certifies transuranic (TRU), low-level and mixed waste at the Hanford Site in Washington state. Fluor Hanford operates the $89

  14. Sustainability and strategic competitive advantage: an exploratory and bibliometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrita Dantas Gabriele

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to conduct a bibliometric analysis to understand the state of the art of academic research that relates to sustainability strategy and competitive advantage. For this, the article seeks to identify what is produced, released and knowledge generated by the scientific community related to the subject, and analyzing key trends, through a quantitative analysis of the evolution of scientific literature on the themes, vehicles publishing, centers research, leading researchers and research networks. Initially we constructed a tree of keywords in order to quest the search engines and publications on the subject and later, do the processing and analysis software with the support of EndNote ®, RefViz ® and Excel ®.Through research, we found that there was a recent increase of publications on the subject of this article, especially since 2000, and the areas of science that most published on the subject are represented by the Triple Bottom Line (environmental, social and economic, pointing out that sustainability is currently having a bias much more proactive instead of reactive. Furthermore, it was also possible to identify countries that have the highest rate of development, like the HDI and GINI index, are the pioneers in publishing this issue.

  15. Inert matrix advantages in the transmutation balance of minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prunier, C.; Guerin, Y. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d`Etudes des Combustibles; Zaetta, A.; Tommasi, J. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d`Etudes des Reacteurs

    1995-12-31

    The results of experimental irradiation in relation to the homogeneous concept (UO{sub 2} fuel) with a limited burn-up of 4.5 atom. % have shown that the percentage of the minor actinides Am and Np incinerated reached values of around 25% to 30% - values confirmed by calculations - for irradiation in the Phenix reactor (FR). The calculation and analysis of the quantity of nuclides formed by transmutation, especially plutonium isotopes, are also in close agreement. Using these experimental results, which are supported by the calculations, research on the incineration of minor actinides has been extended to compare the production of plutonium isotopes. Two minor actinide supports are used for this comparison: - a fuel (UO{sub 2} oxide), - an inert matrix (magnesia MgO). In both cases, a content of 45% of minor actinides (Np or Am) by weight is used to represent the heterogeneous recycling mode. Comparison shows the advantage of inert matrices relative to UO{sub 2} fuel to greatly reduce the production of plutonium for the same consumption of minor actinides. A particularly interesting case is that of heterogeneous recycling, which implements americium-based targets (magnesia with 45% americium in the form of AmO{sub 2}), placed on the periphery of the FR core (first row of blankets). (authors). 9 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Blood Transfusion In Surgical Children: The Advantages And Hazards

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing opposition to blood transfusion makes the management of surgical children who require blood very challenging. This retrospective study reviews records of blood transfusion so as to determine the advantages and hazards in surgical children. The advantages and hazards of blood transfusion in surgical ...

  17. Home advantage in the Winter Olympics (1908-1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, N J; Nevill, A M; Williams, A M

    2001-02-01

    We obtained indices of home advantage, based on the medals won by competing nations, for each event held at the Winter Olympics from 1908 to 1998. These indices were designed to assess home advantage while controlling for nation strength, changes in the number of medals on offer and the performance of 'non-hosting' nations. Some evidence of home advantage was found in figure skating, freestyle skiing, ski jumping, alpine skiing and short track speed skating. In contrast, little or no home advantage was observed in ice hockey, Nordic combined, Nordic skiing, bobsled, luge, biathlon or speed skating. When all events were combined, a significant home advantage was observed (P = 0.029), although no significant differences in the extent of home advantage were found between events (P > 0.05). When events were grouped according to whether they were subjectively assessed by judges, significantly greater home advantage was observed in the subjectively assessed events (P = 0.037). This was a reflection of better home performances, suggesting that judges were scoring home competitors disproportionately higher than away competitors. Familiarity with local conditions was shown to have some effect, particularly in alpine skiing, although the bobsled and luge showed little or no advantage over other events. Regression analysis showed that the number of time zones and direction of travel produced no discernible trends or differences in performance.

  18. Home advantage in speed skating : evidence from individual data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2003-01-01

    Home advantage is a well documented phenomena in many types of sports. Home advantage has been shown to exist for team sports (soccer, hockey, football, baseball, basketball) and for countries organizing sports tournaments like the Olympics and World Cup Soccer. There is also some evidence for home

  19. Home advantage in speed skating : Evidence from individual data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, RH

    Home advantage is a well-documented phenomenon in many sports. Home advantage has been shown to exist for team sports (soccer, hockey, football, baseball, basketball) and for countries organizing sports tournaments like the Olympics and World Cup Soccer. There is also some evidence for home

  20. Home Field Advantage Calculation for Physical Education and Sport Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Tugbay

    2018-01-01

    It is a well-established fact that playing at home field is an advantageous condition for professional sport teams. For this reason, the home field advantage in team sports is an important issue to be explored. It is also one of the different topics that physical education and sports students can use when they want to perform performance analysis…

  1. Aging and Text Comprehension: Interpretation and Domain Knowledge Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Heisawn; Kim, Hyo Sik

    2009-01-01

    In this study, young, middle-aged, and elderly adults read two different history texts. In the "knowledge advantage" condition, readers read a history text about an event that was well-known to readers of all ages but most familiar to elderly adults. In the "no advantage" condition, readers read a history text about a political…

  2. Referee bias contributes to home advantage in English Premiership football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Mark G

    2007-09-01

    Officiating bias is thought to contribute to home advantage. Recent research has shown that sports with subjective officiating tend to experience greater home advantage and that referees' decisions can be influenced by crowd noise, but little work has been done to examine whether individual referees vary in their home bias or whether biased decisions contribute to overall home advantage. We develop an ordinal regression model to determine whether various measures of home advantage are affected by the official for the match and by crowd size while controlling for team ability. We examine 5244 English Premier League (EPL) match results involving 50 referees and find that home bias differs between referees. Individual referees give significantly different levels of home advantage, measured as goal differential between the home and away teams, although the significance of this result depends on one referee with a particularly high home advantage (an outlier). Referees vary significantly and robustly in their yellow card and penalty differentials even excluding the outlier. These results confirm that referees are responsible for some of the observed home advantage in the EPL and suggest that home advantage is dependent on the subjective decisions of referees that vary between individuals. We hypothesize that individual referees respond differently to factors such as crowd noise and suggest further research looking at referees' psychological and behavioural responses to biased crowds.

  3. Identifying the comparative advantage of products and industries of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    however, governments have limited resources that must be used efficiently in order to achieve results. One of the ... comparative advantage. In order to determine Mpumalanga's comparative advantage products, this study .... therefore able to cover the entry costs associated with exporting, such as product adaptation and ...

  4. Modelling home advantage in the Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, N J; Nevill, A M; Williams, A M

    2003-06-01

    Home advantage in team games is well proven and the influence of the crowd upon officials' decisions has been identified as a plausible cause. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of home advantage for five event groups selected from the Summer Olympic Games between 1896 and 1996, and put home advantage in team games in context with other sports. The five event groups were athletics and weightlifting (predominantly objectively judged), boxing and gymnastics (predominantly subjectively judged) and team games (involving subjective decisions). The proportion of points won was analysed as a binomial response variable using generalized linear interactive modelling. Preliminary exploration of the data highlighted the need to control for the proportion of competitors entered and to split the analysis pre- and post-war. Highly significant home advantage was found in event groups that were either subjectively judged or rely on subjective decisions. In contrast, little or no home advantage (and even away advantage) was observed for the two objectively judged groups. Officiating system was vital to both the existence and extent of home advantage. Our findings suggest that crowd noise has a greater influence upon officials' decisions than players' performances, as events with greater officiating input enjoyed significantly greater home advantage.

  5. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages andLabour Market Performance@*In a two-country model with trade driven by comparative advantages, it is considered howimperfectly competitive labour markets are affected by lower frictions in international goodstrade. Easier goods trading...

  6. Home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games 1976-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014. Both country level and individual sport level analysis is conducted for this time period. Comparisons are also drawn with the Winter Olympic Games since 1992, the point from which both the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Paralympic Games have been hosted by the same nations and in the same years. Clear evidence of a home advantage effect in the Winter Paralympic Games was found at country level. When examining individual sports, only alpine skiing and cross country skiing returned a significant home advantage effect. When comparing home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games with the Winter Olympic Games for the last seven host nations (1992-2014), we found that home advantage was generally more pronounced (although not a statistically significant difference) in the case of the former. The causes of home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games are unclear and should be investigated further.

  7. Features of formation of competitive advantages: a strategic dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Р. Pashchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the features of formation of competitive advantages, the depth of theoretical and methodological basis for the formation of competitive advantages at an enterprise. The author has reviewed the approaches to the formation of stable and long-term competitive advantages. The author has also overviewed the requirements which are to be met by competitive advantages of a company and the factors that affect the possibility of competitive advantages. The author develops her own approach to the definition of «competitive enterprise strategy», suggests to understand the concept as the perspective of company development, the way of achieving the goals a company sets for itself guided by its policy, using internal and external competitive advantages. The author implements the model of strategic management of enterprise development based on competitive advantage creating. The suggested model will take into account the maximum possible factors that impact on the development and implementation of strategies. Due to the model risks will also be reduced. The paper determines that the important stage of enterprise development strategic management based on competitive advantage creating is the management of changes and the management of resistance to changes caused by the influence of factors of external and internal environment.

  8. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Buhrman (Harry); L. Czekaj (Lłukasz); A. Grudka (Andrzej); M. Horodecki (Michalł); P. Horodecki (Pawelł); M. Markiewicz (Marcin); F. Speelman (Florian); S. Strelchuk (Sergii)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe obtain a general connection between a quantum advantage in communication complexity and non-locality. We show that given any protocol offering a (sufficiently large) quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics which violate

  9. The effects of greening the supplier and innovation on environmental performance and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unine van den Berg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Companies in South Africa should realise the important influence of greening their suppliers and of innovation to achieve environmental goals and competitive advantages. In order to prove this, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 75 companies from 11 industries in the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality region, South Africa. A confirmatory factor analysis was done, followed by bivariate correlations to determine the strength of association between the latent constructs. Correlations between greening the supplier, innovation, environmental performance and competitive advantages were done. The research found that a green innovative process had a significant effect on environmental performance. Green managerial innovation further had a significant correlation with competitive advantage. The primary result of the study indicated that all the constructs positively related to each other, meaning that greening suppliers, by means of green innovation, leads to an enhanced environmental performance and to competitive advantages.

  10. The effects of greening the supplier and innovation on environmental performance and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unine van den Berg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Companies in South Africa should realise the important influence of greening their suppliers and of innovation to achieve environmental goals and competitive advantages. In order to prove this, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 75 companies from 11 industries in the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality region, South Africa. A confirmatory factor analysis was done, followed by bivariate correlations to determine the strength of association between the latent constructs. Correlations between greening the supplier, innovation, environmental performance and competitive advantages were done. The research found that a green innovative process had a significant effect on environmental performance. Green managerial innovation further had a significant correlation with competitive advantage. The primary result of the study indicated that all the constructs positively related to each other, meaning that greening suppliers, by means of green innovation, leads to an enhanced environmental performance and to competitive advantages.

  11. Loan Products Included in the Offer of Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dedu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A bank loan is the main form of economical credit. It is for corporate activities – for medium and big companies and for retail activities – for small companies and individuals. The conditions for credit mainly depend on the quality of customers, it means their ability to perform a profitable activity and to be able to pay back the credits. For reasons which are mainly connected to marketing, bank practice has developed a large range of credit names, trying to emphasize some of the parts of the products or to take profit of some competition advantages in relation with customers’ products. We are trying to include the offer of bank loans in a typology which takes into account the law, the bank field rules and the main technical features of the offered products.

  12. Social network analysis: foundations and frontiers on advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Ronald S; Kilduff, Martin; Tasselli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We provide an overview of social network analysis focusing on network advantage as a lens that touches on much of the area. For reasons of good data and abundant research, we draw heavily on studies of people in organizations. Advantage is traced to network structure as a proxy for the distribution of variably sticky information in a population. The network around a person indicates the person's access and control in the distribution. Advantage is a function of information breadth, timing, and arbitrage. Advantage is manifest in higher odds of proposing good ideas, more positive evaluations and recognition, higher compensation, and faster promotions. We discuss frontiers of advantage contingent on personality, cognition, embeddedness, and dynamics.

  13. Comparative Advantage of Value-Added Services: The Case of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Grater

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Global supply chains have changed the way in which products are produced internationally. The inputs into a final product include both intermediate goods and services, which adds value to the final product. Gross trade data is misleading and includes some double counting. This study questions whether traditional revealed comparative advantage (RCA calculations for gross exports of services would offer different results from value-added services. RCA calculation was done for South Africa and the bric countries for both gross exports and value added services. The analysis showed that some countries performed stronger in terms of gross exports than in value added terms for some sectors, but others showed higher comparative advantage in value added terms. For South Africa, most services had a higher comparative advantage in terms of value added than for gross exports. The results indicated the importance of including value added data in international trade data analysis.

  14. Heterozygote Advantage in a Finite Population: Black Color in Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Stahler, Daniel R; Dekker, Dick

    2014-01-01

    There is a striking color polymorphism for wolves in the Yellowstone National Park where approximately half the wolves are black. The genetic basis for this polymorphism is known, and fitnesses of the genotypes are estimated. These estimates suggest that there is strong heterozygote advantage but substantial asymmetry in the fitness differences of the 2 homozygotes. Theoretically, such fitnesses in a finite population are thought to reduce genetic variation at least as fast as if there were no selection at all. Because the color polymorphism has remained at about the same frequency for 17 years, about 4 generations, we investigated whether this was consistent with the theoretical predictions. Counter to this general expectation of loss, given the initial frequency of black wolves, the theoretical expectation in this case was found to be that the frequency would only decline slowly over time. For example, if the effective population size is 20, then the expected black allele frequency after 4 generations would be 0.191, somewhat less than the observed value of 0.237. However, nearly 30% of the time the expected frequency is 0.25 or greater, consistent with the contemporary observed frequency. In other words and in contrast to general theoretical predictions, because of the short period of time in evolutionary terms and the relatively weak selection at low frequencies, the observed variation and the predicted theoretical variation are not inconsistent. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Cognitive Advantages of Bilingual Children in Different Sociolinguistic Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Boerma, Tessel; Bosma, Evelyn; Cornips, Leonie; Everaert, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown that bilingual children outperform monolinguals on tasks testing executive functioning, but other studies have not revealed any effect of bilingualism. In this study we compared three groups of bilingual children in the Netherlands, aged 6-7 years, with a monolingual control group. We were specifically interested in testing whether the bilingual cognitive advantage is modulated by the sociolinguistic context of language use. All three bilingual groups were exposed to a minority language besides the nation's dominant language (Dutch). Two bilingual groups were exposed to a regional language (Frisian, Limburgish), and a third bilingual group was exposed to a migrant language (Polish). All children participated in two working memory tasks (verbal, visuospatial) and two attention tasks (selective attention, interference suppression). Bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on selective attention. The cognitive effect of bilingualism was most clearly present in the Frisian-Dutch group and in a subgroup of migrant children who were relatively proficient in Polish. The effect was less robust in the Limburgish-Dutch sample. Investigation of the response patterns of the flanker test, testing interference suppression, suggested that bilingual children more often show an effect of response competition than the monolingual children, demonstrating that bilingual children attend to different aspects of the task than monolingual children. No bilingualism effects emerged for verbal and visuospatial working memory.

  16. Problem-based Learning in Veterinary Medicine: Advantages and Disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Rata

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to see if Problem-based Learning (PBL can be successfully used in veterinary medicine. Research results show that PBL offers several advantages (it contributes towards the reduction of information overload; it develops generic skills and aptitudes; it facilitates an integrated core curriculum; it facilitates the relevance of curriculum content; it fosters active, deep learning, improved understanding, and retention and development of lifelong learning skills; it is a constructivist approach; it makes the students more responsible for their learning; and it motivates both teachers and students over traditional teaching methods. However, it also has several well recognised disadvantages (it deprives students’ access to a particular inspirational teacher who, in a traditional curriculum, would deliver lectures to a large group; it is difficult and frustrating for the tutors who cannot “teach”; it makes students be unsure about how much self-directed study to do and what information is relevant and useful; it needs more human resources to take part in the tutoring process; it needs more material resources for the students to access simultaneously. The conclusion is that PBL can successfully be used in the teaching of veterinary medicine-related disciplines provided the teachers work on its disadvantages

  17. Supplier relationship management leverages intellectual capital for increased competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Van Zyl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate how supplier relationship management (SRM enables the capture and creation of intellectual capital, thereby attaining and sustaining a strategic competitive advantage and increasing supply chain profitability. In order to achieve this purpose, a large part of the article is devoted to exploring the relatively new and unknown field of SRM. It is shown that an organisation must possess a thorough understanding of good supplier characteristics and of the drivers, benefits and requirements for the successful implementation of SRM, in order to enable that organisation to leverage their supplier relationships to ensure the capture of supplier expertise, patents, experiences etc. (i.e. their intellectual capital. The article then explores how the integration of technology in SRM applications can improve the efficiency of supplier collaboration and intellectual capital capture and creation. It is then demonstrated how efficient and collaborative supplier relationships improve supply chain profitability and competitiveness. Lastly, the article explores the implementation pitfalls and trends of SRM that must be constantly considered and monitored by an organisation in order to continually capture and create intellectual capital and reap the full benefits of SRM. This exploration involved an examination of contemporary literature, theories and business cases and subsequently revealed that SRM is a vital discipline/philosophy that must be implemented by any organisation wishing to achieve greater supply chain efficiency and competitiveness. This competitiveness can only be achieved through the mutual unlocking, sharing and leveraging of intellectual capital.

  18. Building an Online Community: Student Teachers’ Perceptions on the Advantages of Using Social Networking Services in A Teacher Education Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad HABIBI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry examined student teachers' perceptions on the advantages of using Social Networking Services (SNS in an English teacher education program at a public university in Jambi, Indonesia to ease the communication, supervision, discussion, and report submissions between supervisors and student teachers. The networking types included in the program are Whatsapp, Telegram, Email, and Google Form. The method of the research was qualitative through using focus group discussions as the technique of collecting data involving forty-two student teachers. We organized our analysis and discussion around their perceptions and the contexts in which the advantages they perceived emerge. The analyses of the texts revealed that two salient themes with their sub-themes related to the advantages of using Social Networking Services (SNS in a teacher education program were social interaction (peer discussion and platform to interact with supervisors or lecturers and learning motivation and experience supports (self-directed learning, promotes critical thinking, content engagement. Some pedagogical and social implications are also discussed.

  19. Advantages of a Modular Mars Surface Habitat Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Hoffman, Stephan J.; Andrews, Alida; Watts, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Early crewed Mars mission concepts developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) assumed a single, large habitat would house six crew members for a 500-day Mars surface stay. At the end of the first mission, all surface equipment, including the habitat, -would be abandoned and the process would be repeated at a different Martian landing site. This work was documented in a series of NASA publications culminating with the Mars Design Reference Mission 5.0 (NASA-SP-2009-566). The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) explored whether re-using surface equipment at a single landing site could be more affordable than the Apollo-style explore-abandon-repeat mission cadence. Initial EMC assumptions preserved the single, monolithic habitat, the only difference being a new requirement to reuse the surface habitat for multiple expedition crews. A trade study comparing a single large habitat versus smaller, modular habitats leaned towards the monolithic approach as more mass-efficient. More recent work has focused on the operational aspects of building up Mars surface infrastructure over multiple missions, and has identified compelling advantages of the modular approach that should be considered before making a final decision. This paper explores Mars surface mission operational concepts and integrated system analysis, and presents an argument for the modular habitat approach.

  20. [Computer program controlled perimetry, its advantages and disadvantages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbolzheimer, W G

    1986-10-01

    Following a short historical introduction and a description of basic methods of perimetry, computerized perimetry is described (taking the Octopus computerized perimeter as an example). The hardware-software concept and the three parts of the automatic perimeter, i.e., the controller, the measuring section, and the program section, are described. The technique of threshold determination, the programs (including the new Octopus programs), and the modes of representation of the results are explained. It is shown how one tries top take subjective criteria of the patient, such as attention, intelligence, and ability to concentrate into account during the measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of computerized perimetry are pointed out. It is emphasized that on average the range of scatter of measurements made with the automatic perimeter is smaller than when traditional manual methods are employed. In addition to the accuracy (scatter), the reproducibility (correlation) of the results is also better. Pathologic visual field defects are detected in greater detail and earlier by the automatic static perimeter than by manual perimetry. This applies in particular to early stages of retrobulbar neuritis and glaucoma.

  1. Home advantage and referee bias in European football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumas, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage is well documented in a wide range of team sports including association football (soccer). Home team crowd support has been shown to be a likely causal factor and its influence on referee decision-making appears to play a significant role. Match data from the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) Champions League and Europa League were used to investigate referee bias in terms of the association between match location (home vs. away) and disciplinary sanctions used by football referees. The adjusted mean number of yellow cards received by home and away teams and the ratios of these means were estimated from Poisson regression models. After controlling for within-match measures of attacking dominance referees in the Champions League and Europa League issued 25% (preferee bias increased with increasing crowd density (preferee bias after controlling for crowd density. These results provide further evidence that crowd support influences referee decisions. Failure to control for within-match team performance may over-estimate the extent of referee bias in terms of the number of disciplinary sanctions used.

  2. Fuel cell mining vehicles: design, performance and advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betournay, M.C.; Miller, A.R.; Barnes, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The potential for using fuel cell technology in underground mining equipment was discussed with reference to the risks associated with the operation of hydrogen vehicles, hydrogen production and hydrogen delivery systems. This paper presented some of the initiatives for mine locomotives and fuel cell stacks for underground environments. In particular, it presents the test results of the first applied industrial fuel cell vehicle in the world, a mining and tunneling locomotive. This study was part of an international initiative managed by the Fuel Cell Propulsion Institute which consists of several mining companies, mining equipment manufacturers, and fuel cell technology developers. Some of the obvious benefits of fuel cells for underground mining operations include no exhaust gases, lower electrical costs, significantly reduced maintenance, and lower ventilation costs. Another advantage is that the technology can be readily automated and computer-based for tele-remote operations. This study also quantified the cost and operational benefits associated with fuel cell vehicles compared to diesel vehicles. It is expected that higher vehicle productivity could render fuel cell underground vehicles cost-competitive. 6 refs., 1 tab

  3. Investigative safety science as a competitive advantage for Pharma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggs, Jonathan; Moulin, Pierre; Pognan, Francois; Brees, Dominique; Leonard, Michele; Busch, Steve; Cordier, Andre; Heard, David J; Kammüller, Michael; Merz, Michael; Bouchard, Page; Chibout, Salah-Dine

    2012-09-01

    Following a US National Academy of Sciences report in 2007 entitled "Toxicity Testing of the 21st Century: a Vision and a Strategy," significant advances within translational drug safety sciences promise to revolutionize drug discovery and development. The purpose of this review is to outline why investigative safety science is a competitive advantage for the pharmaceutical industry. The article discusses the essential goals for modern investigative toxicologists including: cross-species target biology; molecular pathways of toxicity; and development of predictive tools, models and biomarkers that allow discovery researchers and clinicians to anticipate safety problems and plan ways to address them, earlier than ever before. Furthermore, the article emphasizes the importance of investigating unanticipated clinical safety signals through a combination of mechanistic preclinical studies and/or molecular characterization of clinical samples from affected organs. The traditional boundaries between pharma industry teams focusing on safety/efficacy and preclinical/clinical development are rapidly disappearing in favor of translational safety science-centric organizations with a vision of bringing more effective medicines forward safely and quickly. Comparative biology and mechanistic toxicology approaches facilitate: i) identifying translational safety biomarkers; ii) identifying new drug targets/indications; and iii) mitigating off-target toxicities. These value-adding safety science contributions will change traditional toxicologists from side-effect identifiers to drug development enablers.

  4. Advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable platforms in drug eluting stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Granillo, Agustina; Rubilar, Bibiana; Rodriguez-Granillo, Gaston; Rodriguez, Alfredo E

    2011-03-26

    Coronary angioplasty with drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is currently the most common stent procedure worldwide. Since the introduction of DES, coronary restenosis as well as the incidence of target vessel and target lesion revascularization have been significantly reduced. However, the incidence of very late stent thrombosis beyond the first year after stent deployment has more commonly been linked to DES than to bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation. Several factors have been associated with very late stent thrombosis after DES implantation, such as delayed healing, inflammation, stent mal-apposition and endothelial dysfunction. Some of these adverse events were associated with the presence of durable polymers, which were essential to allow the elution of the immunosuppressive drug in the first DES designs. The introduction of erodable polymers in DES technology has provided the potential to complete the degradation of the polymer simultaneously or immediately after the release of the immunosuppressive drug, after which a BMS remains in place. Several DES designs with biodegradable (BIO) polymers have been introduced in preclinical and clinical studies, including randomized trials. In this review, we analyze the clinical results from 6 observational and randomized studies with BIO polymers and discuss advantages and disadvantages of this new technology.

  5. Advantages and Limitations of Integrated Management System: the Theoretical Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agota Giedrė Raišienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of the paper is to discuss the potential benefits and to highlight the drawbacks of integrated management system for organizations that seek to improve management process.Methodology. Methods of the research were used: analysis of a scientific and special literature that presents the requirements, models and results of integrated management systems studies, and analysis of statistical data to assess actuality of integrated management systems for enterprises in Lithuania.Findings. Summarizing research findings, it should be stated that the implementation of management system integration should be based on provision of social responsibility and holistic approach to the organization. It requires the long-term united efforts of leaders in a strategic hierarchical level and high organizational maturity to ensure the fluency of the running stages of planning management system integration, preparing documentations, implementing and realizing integrated management system. Also it is necessary to purify the conception of integrated management system in organizational context. Theoretical analysis of integrated management systems show, that all of the management systems can not be well integrated in principle. They can only be partly integrated and coordinated. A need to question the level of integration of management systems is very important as in scientific discourse as in practice. It is important to mark, that the number of organizations, that seek to optimize management processes by implementing the integrated management systems is rapidly increasing in Lithuania, too. It shows that benefit associated with integration of management systems is apprehensible in Lithuania. Advantages of integrated management systems can certainly become even stronger if scientists and practicians join their forces in search of methods of organizational management development.Research limitations. The research limitations related to a lack of

  6. Advantages and Limitations of Integrated Management System: the Theoretical Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agota Giedrė Raišienė

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of the paper is to discuss the potential benefits and to highlight the drawbacks of integrated management system for organizations that seek to improve management process.Methodology. Methods of the research were used: analysis of a scientific and special literature that presents the requirements, models and results of integrated management systems studies, and analysis of statistical data to assess actuality of integrated management systems for enterprises in Lithuania.Findings. Summarizing research findings, it should be stated that the implementation of management system integration should be based on provision of social responsibility and holistic approach to the organization. It requires the long-term united efforts of leaders in a strategic hierarchical level and high organizational maturity to ensure the fluency of the running stages of planning management system integration, preparing documentations, implementing and realizing integrated management system. Also it is necessary to purify the conception of integrated management system in organizational context. Theoretical analysis of integrated management systems show, that all of the management systems can not be well integrated in principle. They can only be partly integrated and coordinated. A need to question the level of integration of managementsystems is very important as in scientific discourse as in practice. It is important to mark, that the number of organizations, that seek to optimize management processes by implementing the integrated management systems is rapidly increasing in Lithuania, too. It shows that benefit associated with integration of management systems is apprehensible in Lithuania. Advantages of integrated management systems can certainly become even stronger if scientists and practicians join their forces in search of methods of organizational management development.Research limitations. The research limitations related to a lack of integrated

  7. Consumer Insight as Competitive Advantage Using Big Data and Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Veysel Ertemel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital revolution serves as a competitive advantage to businesses that are able to analyze consumer behavior in order to gain insights for their strategic advantage. After the advent of Internet, the past two decades witnessed generation of vast amount of business data. The amount of data is so huge that traditional database management system approaches falls short of managing and analyzing this data. This paper explores the characteristics of this phenomenon called Big Data together with Analytics as a tool for marketers to gain insights about consumer behavior and hence provide competitive advantage to the businesses. It also discusses some best practices as case studies.

  8. Knowledge And Knowledge Management As A Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bratić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern business environment with high turbulence and complexity, an organization’s force to create and sustain competitive advantage lies in what it knows not what it owns. Establishment of a knowledge management in organization will ensure sustainable competitive advantage because the intellectual capital has become the primary bases of core competencies and the key to superior performance. The transition from industrial to knowledge society, effective use of knowledge is one of the deciding factors in the struggle for competitiveness because it will ensure the rationality, efficiency and flexibility in operations, and only through the realization of those graphics company can gain a competitive advantage on the market.

  9. Competitive advantage for differentiation of Pereira International Free Trade Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Echeverri Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The best way to know if a company is at the heart of success is by determining its competitive advantage. For Pereira International Free Trade Zone, foreign trade platform and recent project implementation, it is important to identify its competitive advantage, so it can develop strategies for entering and staying in the market. In this research, an analysis of the five forces industry free zones was performed, the value chain of the Pereira International Free Trade Zone was defined, finally the factors that influence their competitive advantage was determined.

  10. Influence of innovation in the customer-supplier re lationship on competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar Lenarčič

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available RQ: The excellence of a company is also the result of the relationship to the supplier. A good relationship is shown on the results in developing innovative ideas. In this study we were interested in the relations between the buyer and the supplier and how this effects their innovation development, which is later expressed as a competitive advantage, and if this relation effectson the creation of innovation ideas.Purpose: The purpose is to explore the relationship between suppliers and customers, their common innovative activity and the impact of joint innovation ideas in competitive advantage.Method: A literature review and a quantitative analysis with an opinion questionnaire was used in this study. Data analysis was carried out with frequency statistics and χ2-test.Results: The result shows that the relationship between buyers and suppliers has a greater impact on competitive advantage than the number of innovations.Organization: The research study impacts the customer-supplier relationship, mutual expectations and common creation of innovative ideas to increase competitive advantage. The results will be informative in adapting decisions and measures in strengthening the relationship for the creation of an innovative environment withininterpersonal relationships.Society: Society is aware of the importance of customer-supplier relations. Society will be able to obtain information on the degree of the customer-supplier mutual relationship in collaborating and developing innovative ideas, the level of awareness in the importance of innovation in the mutual relation of creating a competitive advantage.Originality: The originality of the research is to learn aboutthe impact of customer-supplier relations and on innovation as one of an organization’s competitive advantages.Limitations: The research is limited to one company and a smaller sample-size of suppliers in an organization.

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANISATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND PERFORMANCE MODERATED BY THE AGE AND SIZE OF FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimin Ismadi Ismail

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that achieving a position of competitive advantage is a necessary precursor to a firm's significant performance. This paper will empirically examine the potential moderating variables that could affect the relationship between a firm's competitive advantage and performance, namely the firms' age and size. By examining the relative moderating effects of these variables, this paper delivers valuable information to firms, specifically with regard to strategic management directed toward performance and attaining a competitive advantage. This research was conducted among 127 manufacturers listed in the 2008 Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers Directory. A cross- sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire to obtain responses from the manufacturers. A two-way ANOVA shows that only the age of firms is a significant moderator in the relationship between competitive advantage and performance, and that this relationship is stronger for older firms. The size of firms does not significantly moderate the relationship between competitive advantage and performance. Despite the non-significant moderating effect of firms' size, overall, this study provides empirical support for the Resource-Based View (RBV of Malaysian manufacturers regarding the issue of competitive advantage.

  12. Carbon Monoxide in Meat and Fish Packaging: Advantages and Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncalés, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    Due to increased demands for greater expectation in relation to quality, convenience, safety and extended shelf-life, combined with growing demand from retailers for cost-effective extensions of fresh muscle foods’ shelf-life, the food packaging industry quickly developed to meet these expectations. During the last few decades, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of foods has been a promising area of research, but much remains to be known regarding the use of unconventional gases such carbon monoxide (CO). The use of CO for meat and seafood packaging is not allowed in most countries due to the potential toxic effect, and its use is controversial in some countries. The commercial application of CO in food packaging was not then considered feasible because of possible environmental hazards for workers. CO has previously been reported to mask muscle foods’ spoilage, and this was the primary concern raised for the prohibition, as this may mislead consumers. This review was undertaken to present the most comprehensive and current overview of the widely-available, scattered information about the use of CO in the preservation of muscle foods. The advantages of CO and its industrial limits are presented and discussed. The most recent literature on the consumer safety issues related to the use of CO and consumer acceptance of CO especially in meat packaging systems were also discussed. Recommendations and future prospects were addressed for food industries, consumers and regulators on what would be a “best practice” in the use of CO in food packaging. All this promotes high ethical standards in commercial communications by means of effective regulation, for the benefit of consumers and businesses in the world, and this implies that industrialized countries and members of their regulatory agencies must develop a coherent and robust systems of regulation and control that can respond effectively to new challenges. PMID:29360803

  13. Carbon Monoxide in Meat and Fish Packaging: Advantages and Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Djenane

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to increased demands for greater expectation in relation to quality, convenience, safety and extended shelf-life, combined with growing demand from retailers for cost-effective extensions of fresh muscle foods’ shelf-life, the food packaging industry quickly developed to meet these expectations. During the last few decades, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP of foods has been a promising area of research, but much remains to be known regarding the use of unconventional gases such carbon monoxide (CO. The use of CO for meat and seafood packaging is not allowed in most countries due to the potential toxic effect, and its use is controversial in some countries. The commercial application of CO in food packaging was not then considered feasible because of possible environmental hazards for workers. CO has previously been reported to mask muscle foods’ spoilage, and this was the primary concern raised for the prohibition, as this may mislead consumers. This review was undertaken to present the most comprehensive and current overview of the widely-available, scattered information about the use of CO in the preservation of muscle foods. The advantages of CO and its industrial limits are presented and discussed. The most recent literature on the consumer safety issues related to the use of CO and consumer acceptance of CO especially in meat packaging systems were also discussed. Recommendations and future prospects were addressed for food industries, consumers and regulators on what would be a “best practice” in the use of CO in food packaging. All this promotes high ethical standards in commercial communications by means of effective regulation, for the benefit of consumers and businesses in the world, and this implies that industrialized countries and members of their regulatory agencies must develop a coherent and robust systems of regulation and control that can respond effectively to new challenges.

  14. Views of Japanese patients on the advantages and disadvantages of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Taira, Nanako; Muranaka, Yoshimi; Miwa, Masako; Kin, Seikon; Hirai, Kei

    2013-08-01

    The preference for dialysis modalities is not well understood in Japan. This study explored the subjective views of Japanese patients undergoing dialysis regarding their treatments. The participants were receiving in-center hemodialysis (CHD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In Study 1, 34 participants (17 CHD and 17 CAPD) were interviewed about the advantages and disadvantages of dialysis modalities. In Study 2, 454 dialysis patients (437 CHD and 17 CAPD) rated the advantages and disadvantages of CHD and CAPD in a cross-sectional survey. Interviews showed that professional care and dialysis-free days were considered as advantages of CHD, while independence, less hospital visits, and flexibility were considered as advantages of CAPD. Disadvantages of CHD included restriction of food and fluids and unpleasant symptoms after each dialysis session. Catheter care was an additional disadvantage of CAPD. Survey showed that the highly ranked advantages were professional care in CHD and less frequent hospital visits in CAPD, while the highly ranked disadvantages were concerns about emergency and time restrictions in CHD, and catheter care and difficulty in soaking in a bath in CAPD. The total scores of advantages and disadvantages showed that CHD patients subjectively rated their own modality better CHD over CAPD, while CAPD patients had the opposite opinion. The results of this study indicate that the factors affecting the decision-making process of Japanese patients are unique to Japanese culture, namely considering the trouble caused to the people around patients (e.g., families, spouses, and/or caregivers).

  15. AN AGING POPULATION: A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE FOR COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Barešová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the most currently discussed topics, the ageing population. Population aging can be discussed from different perspectives, exploring various challenges associated with it. The authors examined marketing communications from the point of view of a target group, over age 55. The main objective of this study was to find out which marketing communication tools those over age 55 prefer, including selected aspects of printed advertising. At the same time, it was examined whether there is a different gender perspective on this issue. To find out answers to the main question of this study, we conducted quantitative research by using a questionnaire survey among the population over age 55 living in the Czech Republic (Zlín Region. The results of this study were compared with the results of a previous study conducted in 2014, focusing on the marketing communication tools targeted at the 55+ group from the point of view of companies. The research results have shown that the target groups’ most effective (preferred marketing communication tools are printed materials (leaflets and catalogues, sales promotions, competitions, club memberships, gifts, fairs, markets and fairs, and last but not least, newspapers and magazines. Based on the results, it can be said that these tools, in comparison with others, contain sufficient information that the customer can read and think about, save, and eventually return to them. At the same time, they are tools that bring a certain benefit or advantage to the customer, which can then be verified in person. If the results are compared from a gender perspective, different preferences were revealed in the selection of marketing communication tools. There were also different views on some selected aspects of printed materials. These findings can be implemented by companies and organizations in their marketing campaigns, allowing them to better reach the target group of people over age 55

  16. Relationships between Medicare Advantage contract characteristics and quality-of-care ratings: an observational analysis of Medicare Advantage star ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Burgess, James F; Cabral, Howard; Soria-Saucedo, Rene; Kazis, Lewis E

    2015-03-03

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) publishes star ratings on Medicare Advantage (MA) contracts to measure plan quality of care with implications for reimbursement and bonuses. To investigate whether MA contract characteristics are associated with quality of care through the Medicare plan star ratings. Retrospective study of MA star ratings in 2010. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable linear regression models assessed the relationship between 5-star rating summary scores and plan characteristics. CMS MA contracts nationally. 409 (71%) of a total of 575 MA contracts, covering 10.56 million Medicare beneficiaries (90% of the MA population) in the United States in 2010. The MA quality ratings summary score (stars range from 1 to 5) is a quality measure based on 36 indicators related to processes of care, health outcomes, access to care, and beneficiary satisfaction. Nonprofit, larger, and older MA contracts were more likely to receive higher star ratings. Star ratings ranged from 2 to 5. Nonprofit contracts received an average 0.55 (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.67) higher star ratings than for-profit contracts (P  contract characteristics. The study focused on persons aged 65 years or older covered by MA. In 2010, nonprofit MA contracts received significantly higher star ratings than for-profit contracts. When comparing health plans in the future, the CMS should give increasing attention to for-profit plans with lower quality ratings and consider developing programs to assist newer and smaller plans in improving their care for Medicare beneficiaries. None.

  17. Measuring Coding Intensity in the Medicare Advantage Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In 2004, Medicare implemented a risk-adjustment system that pays Medicare Advantage (MA) plans based on diagnoses reported for their enrollees, giving the plans an...

  18. Medicare Advantage-Part D Contract and Enrollment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Advantage (MA) - Part D Contract and Enrollment Data section serves as a centralized repository for publicly available data on contracts and plans,...

  19. Cognitive advantage in bilingualism: an example of publication bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Angela; Treccani, Barbara; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    It is a widely held belief that bilinguals have an advantage over monolinguals in executive-control tasks, but is this what all studies actually demonstrate? The idea of a bilingual advantage may result from a publication bias favoring studies with positive results over studies with null or negative effects. To test this hypothesis, we looked at conference abstracts from 1999 to 2012 on the topic of bilingualism and executive control. We then determined which of the studies they reported were subsequently published. Studies with results fully supporting the bilingual-advantage theory were most likely to be published, followed by studies with mixed results. Studies challenging the bilingual advantage were published the least. This discrepancy was not due to differences in sample size, tests used, or statistical power. A test for funnel-plot asymmetry provided further evidence for the existence of a publication bias. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. The Changing Dynamics of Military Advantage in the Information Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulcahey, Sean

    2004-01-01

    .... national security, particularly from a new form of global insurgency. The continued development and proliferation of information technology impacts the very nature of conflict and military competitive advantage. Can the U.S...

  1. Assessing the Comparative Advantage of Albanian Olive Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Mane-Kapaj, Ana; Kapaj, Ilir; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Totojani, Orkida

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the comparative advantage of olive oil production in Albania using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) method. The result indicates that olive oil production in Albania is profitable for the producers. Whereas the DRC ratio equals to 2.2, meaning that olive oil production in Albania does not have a comparative advantage for the given situation of production, prices and technology. This means that while it is profitable for private producers to manufact...

  2. Advantages and disadvantages of franchising as a form of business

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesova, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the features of the development of franchising in Russia. Franchising has a number of advantages and it is a perspective form of interaction between small and large businesses. However, in taking a decision to contract with the franchise network, in addition to understanding the forms of doing business, the advantages of the system, you should also take into account that the franchise system is associated with some risks.

  3. Demographic and Competitiveness Acceleration and Government Sustainable Advantage in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Samosir, Omas Bulan; Rajagukguk, Wilson

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of demographic and competitiveness acceleration on sustainable advantage in government areas in Indonesia. The research is done at district level (kabupaten/kota) in Indonesia. The sustainable advantage variable is the gross domestic product (GDP), while the demographic and competitiveness acceleration variables are the dependency ratio growth rate, capital investment, percentage share of agriculture in the economy, and percentage o...

  4. Irrelevance of competitive advantage for the benefits of international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Siggel, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    International competitiveness is often regarded as crucial for the attainment of gains from trade, which may lead policy makers to subsidize exports. This view is based on confusion between the concepts of competitive and comparative advantage. The paper argues that when comparative advantage is defined and measured appropriately, not limiting it to the Ricardian and Heckscher-Ohlin models, it becomes a necessary condition for the attainment of gains from trade and it applies to all forms of ...

  5. Company competitiveness and competitive advantages in tourism and hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Cetinski, Vinka; Milohnic, Ines

    2008-01-01

    Connection between competitive strategies and competitive advantages is described in details in this paper. Model of the research is located on the company level in tourism and hospitality. Applicative basis of the paper is founded on the Diamond of Competitiveness (Case Study) usage and is based on the qualitative research of small entrepreneurship in tourism and hospitality. The fact that every strategy is based on creating and sustaining competitive advantages implies that the principal...

  6. Creating First-Mover Advantages: The Case of Samsung Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Jang-Sup SHIN; Sung-Won JANG

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of first-mover advantages by examining the case of Samsung Electronics, a firm which has maintained and strengthened the technological leadership in the DRAM industry since 1992. The focus is on endogeneity of first-mover advantages under changing technological and competitive environments, part of which are also shaped by the technology leader. The paper also discusses general implications of this case study for strategy and organization for innovation.

  7. Leveraging marketing capabilities into competitive advantage and export performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Q.; Sousa, C. M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – By using the dynamic capabilities (DC) theory and the theory of competitive advantage, the purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to investigate the role of marketing capabilities on the firm’s export performance. Specifically, this framework depicts the consequences of marketing capabilities and focuses on the relationships among marketing capabilities, competitive advantage, and export performance. Design/methodology/approach – The authors conduct a meta-analysis of ...

  8. An investigation of home advantage in the Summer Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of home advantage research set in the context of para-sport events. It is this gap in the knowledge that this paper addresses by investigating the prevalence and size of home advantage in the Summer Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of nations when competing at home with their own performances away from home in the competition between 1960 and 2016. Both country-level and individual sport-level analyses were conducted for this time frame. A Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine whether there was a genuine difference in nations' performance under host and non-host conditions. Spearman's rank-order correlation was run to assess the relationship between nation quality and home advantage. Strong evidence of a home advantage effect in the Summer Paralympic Games was found at country level ( p   0.10). While our results confirm that home advantage is prevalent in the Summer Paralympic Games at an overall country level and within specific sports, they do not explain fully why such an effect does exist. Future studies should investigate the causes of home advantage in the competition and also draw comparisons with the Summer Olympic Games to explore any differences between para-sport events and able-bodied events.

  9. Neural correlates of the in-group memory advantage on the encoding and recognition of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzmann, Grit; Curran, Tim

    2013-01-01

    People have a memory advantage for faces that belong to the same group, for example, that attend the same university or have the same personality type. Faces from such in-group members are assumed to receive more attention during memory encoding and are therefore recognized more accurately. Here we use event-related potentials related to memory encoding and retrieval to investigate the neural correlates of the in-group memory advantage. Using the minimal group procedure, subjects were classified based on a bogus personality test as belonging to one of two personality types. While the electroencephalogram was recorded, subjects studied and recognized faces supposedly belonging to the subject's own and the other personality type. Subjects recognized in-group faces more accurately than out-group faces but the effect size was small. Using the individual behavioral in-group memory advantage in multivariate analyses of covariance, we determined neural correlates of the in-group advantage. During memory encoding (300 to 1000 ms after stimulus onset), subjects with a high in-group memory advantage elicited more positive amplitudes for subsequently remembered in-group than out-group faces, showing that in-group faces received more attention and elicited more neural activity during initial encoding. Early during memory retrieval (300 to 500 ms), frontal brain areas were more activated for remembered in-group faces indicating an early detection of group membership. Surprisingly, the parietal old/new effect (600 to 900 ms) thought to indicate recollection processes differed between in-group and out-group faces independent from the behavioral in-group memory advantage. This finding suggests that group membership affects memory retrieval independent of memory performance. Comparisons with a previous study on the other-race effect, another memory phenomenon influenced by social classification of faces, suggested that the in-group memory advantage is dominated by top

  10. Electrophysiological Explorations of the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence from a Stroop Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L.; van Heuven, Walter J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to exhibit a performance advantage on executive control tasks, outperforming their monolingual counterparts. Although a wealth of research has investigated this ‘bilingual advantage’ behaviourally, electrophysiological correlates are lacking. Using EEG with a Stroop task that manipulated the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of word and colour presentation, the current study addressed two facets of the bilingual advantage. The possibility that bilinguals experience superior conflict processing relative to monolinguals (a ‘conflict-specific advantage’) was investigated by comparing behavioural interference effects as well as the amplitude of the Ninc, a conflict-related ERP component occurring from approximately 300–500 ms after the onset of conflict. In contrast, the hypothesis that bilinguals experience domain-general, conflict-independent enhancements in executive processing (a ‘non-conflict-specific advantage’) was evaluated by comparing the control condition (symbol strings) between groups. There was some significant, but inconsistent, evidence for a conflict-specific bilingual advantage. In contrast, strong evidence emerged for a non-conflict-specific advantage, with bilinguals demonstrating faster RTs and reduced ERP amplitudes on control trials compared to monolinguals. Importantly, when the control stimulus was presented before the colour, ERPs to control trials revealed group differences before the onset of conflict, suggesting differences in the ability to ignore or suppress distracting irrelevant information. This indicates that bilinguals experience superior executive processing even in the absence of conflict and semantic salience, and suggests that the advantage extends to more efficient proactive management of the environment. PMID:25068723

  11. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment, including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of, (1) commercially available equivalent component, (2) modification of a commercial available component, (3) reverse engineering of the original component and finally (4) design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: 1) Missing, misleading or no information on the original component. 2) Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant. 3) Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering. 4) Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  12. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment - including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of: commercially available equivalent component; modification of a commercial available component; reverse engineering of the original component; and finally, design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: Missing, misleading or no information on the original component; Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant; Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering; and Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  13. Relatively high rates of G:C → A:T transitions at CpG sites were observed in certain epithelial tissues including pancreas and submaxillary gland of adult big blue® mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtenjaca, Anita; Tarnowski, Heather E; Marr, Alison M; Heney, Melanie A; Creamer, Laura; Sathiamoorthy, Sarmitha; Hill, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    With few exceptions, spontaneous mutation frequency and pattern are similar across tissue types and relatively constant in young to middle adulthood in wild type mice. Underrepresented in surveys of spontaneous mutations across murine tissues is the diversity of epithelial tissues. For the first time, spontaneous mutations were detected in pancreas and submaxillary gland and compared with kidney, lung, and male germ cells from five adult male Big Blue® mice. Mutation load was assessed quantitatively through measurement of mutant and mutation frequency and qualitatively through identification of mutations and characterization of recurrent mutations, multiple mutations, mutation pattern, and mutation spectrum. A total of 9.6 million plaque forming units were screened, 226 mutants were collected, and 196 independent mutations were identified. Four novel mutations were discovered. Spontaneous mutation frequency was low in pancreas and high in the submaxillary gland. The submaxillary gland had multiple recurrent mutations in each of the mice and one mutant had two independent mutations. Mutation patterns for epithelial tissues differed from that observed in male germ cells with a striking bias for G:C to A:T transitions at CpG sites. A comprehensive review of lacI spontaneous mutation patterns in young adult mice and rats identified additional examples of this mutational bias. An overarching observation about spontaneous mutation frequency in adult tissues of the mouse remains one of stability. A repeated observation in certain epithelial tissues is a higher rate of G:C to A:T transitions at CpG sites and the underlying mechanisms for this bias are not known. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Physician Reimbursement in Medicare Advantage Compared With Traditional Medicare and Commercial Health Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trish, Erin; Ginsburg, Paul; Gascue, Laura; Joyce, Geoffrey

    2017-09-01

    Nearly one-third of Medicare beneficiaries are enrolled in a Medicare Advantage (MA) plan, yet little is known about the prices that MA plans pay for physician services. Medicare Advantage insurers typically also sell commercial plans, and the extent to which MA physician reimbursement reflects traditional Medicare (TM) rates vs negotiated commercial prices is unclear. To compare prices paid for physician and other health care services in MA, traditional Medicare, and commercial plans. Retrospective analysis of claims data evaluating MA prices paid to physicians and for laboratory services and durable medical equipment between 2007 and 2012 in 348 US core-based statistical areas. The study population included all MA and commercial enrollees with a large national health insurer operating in both markets, as well as a 20% sample of TM beneficiaries. Enrollment in an MA plan. Mean reimbursement paid to physicians, laboratories, and durable medical equipment suppliers for MA and commercial enrollees relative to TM rates for 11 Healthcare Common Procedure Coding Systems (HCPCS) codes spanning 7 sites of care. The sample consisted of 144 million claims. Physician reimbursement in MA was more strongly tied to TM rates than commercial prices, although MA plans tended to pay physicians less than TM. For a mid-level office visit with an established patient (Current Procedural Terminology [CPT] code 99213), the mean MA price was 96.9% (95% CI, 96.7%-97.2%) of TM. Across the common physician services we evaluated, mean MA reimbursement ranged from 91.3% of TM for cataract removal in an ambulatory surgery center (CPT 66984; 95% CI, 90.7%-91.9%) to 102.3% of TM for complex evaluation and management of a patient in the emergency department (CPT 99285; 95% CI, 102.1%-102.6%). However, for laboratory services and durable medical equipment, where commercial prices are lower than TM rates, MA plans take advantage of these lower commercial prices, ranging from 67.4% for a walker

  15. Potential advantages of protons over conventional radiation beams for paraspinal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isacsson, Ulf; Hagberg, Hans; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Montelius, Anders; Jung Bo; Glimelius, Bengt

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: Conformal treatment planning with megavoltage X-rays and protons was studied in an attempt to determine if there are advantages of boost therapy with protons instead of X-rays for a patient with a tumour growing around the cervical spinal cord. Materials and methods: A patient with a Ewing sarcoma was selected for the model study. The proton boost plan was realised with a six beam patched technique. Several X-ray boost techniques were planned, some not yet practically realisable. The techniques giving the best dose distributions and the best tumour control probabilities in the absence of significant late toxicity were looked for. The boost techniques were added to two large lateral X-ray beams covering the planning target volume (PTV) and the main risk organ, the spinal cord. The evaluation was made with two biological models, i.e. the tumour control probability (TCP) model, proposed by Webb and Nahum (Webb, S. and Nahum, A.E. A model for calculating tumour control probability in radiotherapy including the effect of inhomogeneous distributions of dose and clonogenic cell density. Phys. Med. Biol. 38: 653-666, 1993), and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model, first derived by Lyman (Lyman, J.T. Complication probability as assessed from dose-volume histograms. Radiat. Res. 104: s13-s19, 1985). Results: The comparison showed small but clear advantages of protons for the boost. At 1% NTCP in the spinal cord, the calculated TCP was on average 5% higher. However, depending on the values of the parameters chosen in the biological models, the gain for protons varied from 0-10%. The smallest gains were seen in radiosensitive tumours for which the TCP was close to 100% with any of the techniques and in radioresistant tumours for which neither technique resulted in any appreciable probability of local cure. Conclusion: Protons appear to have therapeutic advantages over conventional radiotherapy in tumours with relatively high

  16. The Effects of Aphid Traits on Parasitoid Host Use and Specialist Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagic, Vesna; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Fründ, Jochen; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Starý, Petr; Tomanović, Željko

    2016-01-01

    Specialization is a central concept in ecology and one of the fundamental properties of parasitoids. Highly specialized parasitoids tend to be more efficient in host-use compared to generalized parasitoids, presumably owing to the trade-off between host range and host-use efficiency. However, it remains unknown how parasitoid host specificity and host-use depends on host traits related to susceptibility to parasitoid attack. To address this question, we used data from a 13-year survey of interactions among 142 aphid and 75 parasitoid species in nine European countries. We found that only aphid traits related to local resource characteristics seem to influence the trade-off between host-range and efficiency: more specialized parasitoids had an apparent advantage (higher abundance on shared hosts) on aphids with sparse colonies, ant-attendance and without concealment, and this was more evident when host relatedness was included in calculation of parasitoid specificity. More traits influenced average assemblage specialization, which was highest in aphids that are monophagous, monoecious, large, highly mobile (easily drop from a plant), without myrmecophily, habitat specialists, inhabit non-agricultural habitats and have sparse colonies. Differences in aphid wax production did not influence parasitoid host specificity and host-use. Our study is the first step in identifying host traits important for aphid parasitoid host specificity and host-use and improves our understanding of bottom-up effects of aphid traits on aphid-parasitoid food web structure.

  17. Culture as a Determinant of Competitive Advantage in Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekuwmini Mornah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Culture plays a role in international trade much as it does in any other human activity. Attitudes and ways of life do matter even when a lucrative business opportunity exists, especially across national borders. This paper examines which aspects of culture give countries competitive edge in terms of bilateral trade performances. Specifically, do relatively higher scores in certain cultural dimensions have a deterministic effect on bilateral trade performance (terms of trade or bilateral trade balance? Methodology: We adopt empirical econometric estimation methods on trade data covering 59 countries and 29 years combined with the nine "Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE" culture dimensions, Our estimations were based on Robust Regression Analysis and Ordinary Least Squares methods. Findings: We find that indeed, certain aspects of culture enhance bilateral trade performance/competitiveness. Performance Orientation, Future Orientation, Institutional Collectivism, Gender Egalitarianism, Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance improve bilateral trade performance while Assertiveness, Humane Orientation and In-Group Collectivism impair it. Research limitations: Direct measures of international competitiveness are not readily available. So we had to adopt proxies for measuring international competitiveness. Implications: Many countries want to boost international competitiveness. However, in the current world order with multilateral trade agreements under the WTO and increased transferability of technology, governments are clipped in terms of available trade policy options. By understanding which aspects of culture promote bilateral competitiveness and performance, governments could take steps to maximize their competitiveness. For instance, when negotiating trade treaties, policy makers may benefit from the knowledge of culture's impact on competitive advantage when selecting partners. Originality/value: To

  18. Organic foods: health and environmental advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Joel; Silverstein, Janet

    2012-11-01

    The US market for organic foods has grown from $3.5 billion in 1996 to $28.6 billion in 2010, according to the Organic Trade Association. Organic products are now sold in specialty stores and conventional supermarkets. Organic products contain numerous marketing claims and terms, only some of which are standardized and regulated. In terms of health advantages, organic diets have been convincingly demonstrated to expose consumers to fewer pesticides associated with human disease. Organic farming has been demonstrated to have less environmental impact than conventional approaches. However, current evidence does not support any meaningful nutritional benefits or deficits from eating organic compared with conventionally grown foods, and there are no well-powered human studies that directly demonstrate health benefits or disease protection as a result of consuming an organic diet. Studies also have not demonstrated any detrimental or disease-promoting effects from an organic diet. Although organic foods regularly command a significant price premium, well-designed farming studies demonstrate that costs can be competitive and yields comparable to those of conventional farming techniques. Pediatricians should incorporate this evidence when discussing the health and environmental impact of organic foods and organic farming while continuing to encourage all patients and their families to attain optimal nutrition and dietary variety consistent with the US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate recommendations. This clinical report reviews the health and environmental issues related to organic food production and consumption. It defines the term "organic," reviews organic food-labeling standards, describes organic and conventional farming practices, and explores the cost and environmental implications of organic production techniques. It examines the evidence available on nutritional quality and production contaminants in conventionally produced and organic foods. Finally, this

  19. Gender Asymmetry in Family Migration: Occupational Inequality or Interspousal Comparative Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shauman, Kimberlee A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gender inequality in the determinants of job-related long-distance migration among married dual-earner couples during the 1980s and 1990s. The analysis tested the structural explanation, which attributes gender asymmetry in family migration to structural inequality in the labor market, and the comparative advantage explanation…

  20. Contingent Self-Esteem and Race: Implications for the Black Self-Esteem Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has found that despite being aware of negative stereotypes about their group and experiencing prejudice and discrimination, Blacks tend to report higher levels of self-esteem than Whites. Despite the robust nature of the Black self-esteem advantage, an adequate explanation for the higher self-esteem of Blacks relative to Whites…

  1. Endoscopic endonasal surgery for giant pituitary adenomas: advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutourousiou, Maria; Gardner, Paul A; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Paluzzi, Alessandro; Wang, Eric W; Snyderman, Carl H

    2013-03-01

    Giant pituitary adenomas (> 4 cm in maximum diameter) represent a significant surgical challenge. Endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) has recently been introduced as a treatment option for these tumors. The authors present the results of EES for giant adenomas and analyze the advantages and limitations of this technique. The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical files and imaging studies of 54 patients with giant pituitary adenomas who underwent EES and studied the factors affecting surgical outcome. Preoperative visual impairment was present in 45 patients (83%) and partial or complete pituitary deficiency in 28 cases (52%), and 7 patients (13%) presented with apoplexy. Near-total resection (> 90%) was achieved in 36 patients (66.7%). Vision was improved or normalized in 36 cases (80%) and worsened in 2 cases due to apoplexy of residual tumor. Significant factors that limited the degree of resection were a multilobular configuration of the adenoma (p = 0.002) and extension to the middle fossa (p = 0.045). Cavernous sinus invasion, tumor size, and intraventricular or posterior fossa extension did not influence the surgical outcome. Complications included apoplexy of residual adenoma (3.7%), permanent diabetes insipidus (9.6%), new pituitary insufficiency (16.7%), and CSF leak (16.7%, which was reduced to 7.4% in recent years). Fourteen patients underwent radiation therapy after EES for residual mass or, in a later stage, for recurrence, and 10 with functional pituitary adenomas received medical treatment. During a mean follow-up of 37.9 months (range 1-114 months), 7 patients were reoperated on for tumor recurrence. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Endoscopic endonasal surgery provides effective initial management of giant pituitary adenomas with favorable results compared with traditional microscopic transsphenoidal and transcranial approaches.

  2. The advantages of a rolling foot in human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Peter G; Collins, Steven H; Kuo, Arthur D

    2006-10-01

    The plantigrade human foot rolls over the ground during each walking step, roughly analogous to a wheel. The center of pressure progresses on the ground like a wheel of radius 0.3 L (leg length). We examined the effect of varying foot curvature on the mechanics and energetics of walking. We controlled curvature by attaching rigid arc shapes of various radii to the bottoms of rigid boots restricting ankle motion. We measured mechanical work performed on the center of mass (COM), and net metabolic rate, in human subjects (N=10) walking with seven arc radii from 0.02-0.40 m. Simple models of dynamic walking predict that redirection of COM velocity requires step-to-step transition work, decreasing quadratically with arc radius. Metabolic cost would be expected to change in proportion to mechanical work. We measured the average rate of negative work performed on the COM, and found that it followed the trend well (r2=0.95), with 2.37 times as much work for small radii as for large. Net metabolic rate (subtracting quiet standing) also decreased with increasing arc radius to a minimum at 0.3 L, with a slight increase thereafter. Maximum net metabolic rate was 6.25 W kg(-1) (for small-radius arc feet), about 59% greater than the minimum rate of 3.93 W kg(-1), which in turn was about 45% greater than the rate in normal walking. Metabolic rate was fit reasonably well (r2=0.86) by a quadratic curve, but exceeded that expected from COM work for extreme arc sizes. Other factors appear to increase metabolic cost for walking on very small and very large arc feet. These factors may include effort expended to stabilize the joints (especially the knee) or to maintain balance. Rolling feet with curvature 0.3 L appear energetically advantageous for plantigrade walking, partially due to decreased work for step-to-step transitions.

  3. [Orbital decompression in endocrine orbitopathy: advantages and disadvantages of different methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, A

    2001-01-01

    Based on the disease activity score, current indications for orbital decompression are described. After that, all contemporary decompression techniques are mentioned and their advantages and disadvantages are described. Transpalpebral fat resection is also included. Results (reduction of proptosis, complications) are presented for the coronal and transconjunctival (swinging eyelid and transcaruncular orbitotomy) approach used by the author and discussed in comparison with other methods.

  4. Factor Endowments, Technology, Capital Mobility and the Sources of Comparative Advantage in Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Lederman, Daniel; Hakobyan, Shushanik

    2016-01-01

    Using data on net exports and factor endowments for more than 100 countries, this paper studies the relationship between factor endowments and comparative advantage in 28 manufacturing sectors between 1975 and 2010. The authors allow for systematic technological differences across countries, including differences in factor intensities across countries with different ratios of skilled labor...

  5. Effects of the early diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis on the patient: advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, D

    2000-03-01

    Advantages of early diagnoses in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis include validation of symptoms, avoidance of unnecessary procedures, enhanced preparation for disability and medical education. Most importantly, earlier in the course of the disease--while there is a greater motor neuron pool survival--diagnosis would enable earlier treatment intervention.

  6. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  7. Places and faces: Geographic environment influences the ingroup memory advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Nicholas O; Garrett, James V; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-03-01

    The preferential allocation of attention and memory to the ingroup (the ingroup memory advantage) is one of the most replicated effects in the psychological literature. But little is known about what factors may influence such effects. Here the authors investigated a potential influence: category salience as determined by the perceiver's geographic environment. They did so by studying the ingroup memory advantage in perceptually ambiguous groups for whom perceptual cues do not make group membership immediately salient. Individuals in an environment in which a particular group membership was salient (Mormon and non-Mormon men and women living in Salt Lake City, Utah) showed better memory for faces belonging to their ingroup in an incidental encoding paradigm. Majority group participants in an environment where this group membership was not salient (non-Mormon men and women in the northeastern United States), however, showed no ingroup memory advantage whereas minority group participants (Mormons) in the same environment did. But in the same environment, when differences in group membership were made accessible via an unobtrusive priming task, non-Mormons did show an ingroup memory advantage and Mormons' memory for ingroup members increased. Environmental context cues therefore influence the ingroup memory advantage for categories that are not intrinsically salient.

  8. Competitive Advantage and its Sources in an Evolving Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaridis, Apostolos D.

    2009-08-01

    In a continuously altered and evolving Market, as is the food manufacturing market, the main and long-lasting objective of firm that is the maximization of its wealth and consequently the continuous remaining in profit regions, appears that it is possible to be achieved via the obtainment and maintenance of diachronically long-term competitive advantage, which it will render the firm unique or leader force in a inexorable competition that is continuously extended in a globalized market. Various definitions and different regards are developed in regard to the competitive advantage and the way with which a firm it is possible, acquiring it, to star in the market in which it is activated. As result of sustainable competitive advantage in a firm comes the above the average performance. Abundance of resources and competences that are proposed as sources of competitive advantage in the resource-based view literature exists, while they are added continuously new based on empiric studies. In any case, it appears to suffer hierarchy of sources of competitive advantage, with regard to sustainability of these.

  9. A Kantian argument against comparatively advantageous genetic modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, David

    2011-08-01

    The genetic modification of children is becoming a more likely possibility given our rapid progress in medical technologies. I argue, from a broadly Kantian point of view, that at least one kind of such modification-modification by a parent for the sake of a child's comparative advantage-is not rationally justified. To argue this, I first characterize a necessary condition on reasons and rational justification: what is a reason for an agent to do an action in one set of circumstances must be a reason for any in those circumstances to do the action. I then show that comparatively advantageous genetic modification violates this principle since a child's "getting ahead" through genetic modification cannot be rationally justified unless other children also could receive the modification, thus rendering the advantage useless. Finally, I consider the major objection to this it seems to disallow all cases of a parent's helping a child get ahead, something that parents normally engage in with their children. I argue that typical practices of developing a comparative advantage in a child, as well as practices of societal competition in general, do not conflict because they involve circumstances that mitigate the universal character of reasons. Many ordinary cases of competitive advantage that we think of as unjust, in fact, can be explained by my argument.

  10. Accelerator-driven thermal fission systems may provide energy supply advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation discusses the energy supply advantages of using accelerator-driven thermal fission systems. Energy supply issues as related to cost, fuel supply stability, environmental impact, and safety are reviewed. It is concluded that the Los Alamos Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept, discussed here, has the following advantages: improved safety in the form of low inventory and subcriticality; reduced high-level radioactive waste management timescales for both fission products and actinides; and a very long-term fuel supply requiring no enrichment

  11. Competitive advantage in the ERP system's value-chain and its influence on future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Björn; Newman, Mike

    2010-02-01

    Using the resource-based view, we present a set of propositions related to enterprise resource planning (ERP) development, reflections on competitive advantage and the different roles that stakeholders play in the value-chain. This has the goal of building a foundation for future research on ERPs and how stakeholders' desire to achieve competitive advantage influence ERP development, especially when it comes to development of a more standardised or pre-customised ERP system. The propositions also act as a foundation for increasing our knowledge concerning the difficulty in developing improved ERP systems.

  12. Sustainable Competitive Advantage in E-Commerce and the Role of the Enterprise System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Petra; Williams, Susan P.; Woelfle, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    advantage in e-commerce companies. This paper explores factors that enable sustainable competitive advantages in B2C retailing. The analysis is based on a single in-depth case study of an Internet pioneer company (LeShop), which was observed by the authors since its inception more than 10 years ago......Shop is now one of the few successful e-commerce suppliers in the supermarket segment worldwide. The discussion includes an analysis of further critical resources of the company from a resource-based view....

  13. An analysis of home advantage in Iranian football super league

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Hemayat TALAB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate home advantage in Iranian Football Super League. Methods: The information regarding wins, losses, goals for, goals against, yellow cards, red cards and gained points in matches at home and away of Super League teams of Iran was obtained using the internet website www.Soccerway.com and was analyzed. Results: The results showed that the mean of wins, goals for and points gained from matches in the home have been more than matches away, but in matches away, the mean of losses, yellow cards, red cards and goals against have been higher. Also, the percentage of home advantage in Iranian Football Super League was close to international norms.  Conclusion: According to the results, sport psychologist, coaches and people who are involved in football are recommended to pay more attention to this advantage and make short and long term plans to do psychological readiness and competitive performance.

  14. Knowledge and Knowledge Management as a Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bratic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the modern business environment with high turbulence and complexity, an organization’s force to create and sustain competitive advantage lies in what it knows, not what it owns. Establishment of a knowledge management in organization will ensure sustainable competitive advantage because the intellectual capital has become the primary bases of core competencies and the key to superior performance.                    The transition from industrial to knowledge society, effective use of knowledge is one of the deciding factors in the struggle for competitiveness because it will ensure the rationality, efficiency and flexibility in operations, and only through the realization of those graphics company can gain a competitive advantage on the market.

  15. Reasoning about other people's beliefs: bilinguals have an advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Fernández, Paula; Glucksberg, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Bilingualism can have widespread cognitive effects. In this article we investigate whether bilingualism might have an effect on adults' abilities to reason about other people's beliefs. In particular, we tested whether bilingual adults might have an advantage over monolingual adults in false-belief reasoning analogous to the advantage that has been observed with bilingual children. Using a traditional false-belief task coupled with an eye-tracking technique, we found that adults in general suffer interference from their own perspective when reasoning about other people's beliefs. However, bilinguals are reliably less susceptible to this egocentric bias than are monolinguals. Moreover, performance on the false-belief task significantly correlated with performance on an executive control task. We argue that bilinguals' early sociolinguistic sensitivity and enhanced executive control may account for their advantage in false-belief reasoning.

  16. Smart City as Framework for Creating Competitive Advantages in International Business Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sofronijević

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the essence of the Smart City concept and opportunities for the creation of competitive advantages arising in the framework generated by this concept. Various elements of a Smart City are analysed and related to different options for economic growth and business innovation improvement. Possibilities arising from networking and clustering in Creative Cities are listed along with some details of advantages provided by a symbiosis of information and communication technologies and creativity to companies operating in such environments. Managerial aspects of the Internet of Things are presented and identified as a basis for the Smart City outlook, but also as a major prospect to develop certain business opportunities leading to competitive advantages for companies operating out of smart cities.

  17. Human Resources as a Competitive Advantage of Travel Agencies in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksa Vučetić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Human resources in travel agencies represent an especially valuable resource, which possesses the multidisciplinary and highly specialized knowledge and skills in the field of selective tourism. Human resources enable the agencies to create the services and products of superior value for the consumers within market niches, and thereby significantly contribute to increase in profitability of agencies, thereby becoming an important factor in competitive advantage of the agencies. Research results enable identification of the relation between human resources and servicing of travel agencies market niches. The paper presents an analysis of travel agencies’ human resources from the aspect of competitive advantage, with a special overview of their role in the domain of offer development and servicing of consumers in various types of selective tourism. The goal of the research is to prove, on a scientific basis, that the human resources represent a very important factor of competitive advantage of travel agencies.

  18. The evolutionary advantage of haploid versus diploid microbes in nutrient-poor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Kazuhiro; Iwasa, Yoh; Day, Troy

    2015-10-21

    Sexual eukaryotic organisms are characterized by haploid and diploid nuclear phases. In many organisms, growth and development occur in both haploid and diploid phases, and the relative length of these phases exhibits considerable diversity. A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain the maintenance of this diversity of life cycles and the advantage of being haploid versus that of being diploid. The nutrient-limitation hypothesis postulates that haploid cells, because they are small and thus have a higher surface area to volume ratio, are advantageous in nutrient-poor environments. In this paper, we examine this hypothesis theoretically and determine the conditions under which it holds. On the basis of our analysis, we make the following predictions. First, the relative advantages of different ploidy levels strongly depend on the ploidy-dependent energy conversion efficiency and the scaling of mortality with cell size. Specifically, haploids enjoy a higher intrinsic population growth rate than diploids do under nutrient-poor conditions, but under nutrient-rich conditions the intrinsic population growth rate of diploids is higher, provided that the energy conversion efficiency of diploids is higher than that of haploids and the scaling of mortality with cell size is weak. Second, differences in nutrient concentration in the inflowing medium have almost no effect on the relative advantage of ploidy levels at population equilibrium. Our study illustrates the importance of explicit modeling of microbial life history and population dynamics to understand the evolution of ploidy levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring the bilingual advantage: manipulations of similarity and second language immersion in a Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaway, Naomi; Opitz, Bertram; Sauseng, Paul

    2017-10-19

    To explain varying previous results as to whether bilinguals show an advantage over monolinguals in inhibitory control, two hypotheses have been suggested. The Bilingual Inhibitory Control Advantage (BICA) hypothesis proposes a bilingual advantage specific to the presence of conflict. In contrast, the Bilingual Executive Processing Advantage (BEPA) hypothesis proposes a global advantage in processing, across all contexts. The present research contrasts these hypotheses by investigating the effects of second language immersion and similarity of colour terms across languages on the bilingual Stroop task. Ten English and ten German native speakers, residing in Munich, Germany, completed a bilingual Stroop task using stimuli with colour terms which were similar or dissimilar between the two languages. Event-related potentials were recorded alongside behavioural data. Dissimilar stimuli showed greater costs, reflected by increased reaction times (RTs), more negative N400 amplitudes and more positive Late Positive Component (LPC) amplitudes, than similar stimuli. Participants who were immersed in a second language environment experienced greater costs, which were specific to conflict trials for RT and LPC measures, but occurred across all trial types during the N400 window. It was concluded that in contrast to previous research only supporting BEPA, there is also evidence for the BICA hypothesis.

  20. Open Access Citation Advantage in selected Information Science journals: an extended analysis to altmetrics indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Cintra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Open access refers to scientific literature available free of charge and free of copyright restrictions and licensing for its reuse. An increase in the total number of citations received by articles available in open access in relation to those of restricted, pay-walled access is expected, according to the Open Access Citation Advantage hypothesis. Objective: Assess the possible citation advantages and mentions on the social web that open access can offer to the Information Science area. Methodology: Bibliometric and altmetric indicators were analyzed in two journals: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Scientometrics. Data collection was conducted in the Web of Science, Google Scholar, Altmetric.com and Mendeley. Results: The results indicated that for both journals, open access offers an advantage in the number of citations received by articles. It was also demonstrated that the advantage is maintained over time. Conclusions: This research confirmed the hypothesis of an Open Access Citation Advantage for the journals analyzed in the area of Information Science. This pattern was also observed for the altmetric data.

  1. Business statistics for competitive advantage with Excel 2016 basics, model building, simulation and cases

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The revised Fourth Edition of this popular textbook is redesigned with Excel 2016 to encourage business students to develop competitive advantages for use in their future careers as decision makers. Students learn to build models using logic and experience, produce statistics using Excel 2016 with shortcuts, and translate results into implications for decision makers. The textbook features new examples and assignments on global markets, including cases featuring Chipotle and Costco. Exceptional managers know that they can create competitive advantages by basing decisions on performance response under alternative scenarios, and managers need to understand how to use statistics to create such advantages. Statistics, from basic to sophisticated models, are illustrated with examples using real data such as students will encounter in their roles as managers. A number of examples focus on business in emerging global markets with particular emphasis on emerging markets in Latin America, China, and India. Results are...

  2. Competitive Advantage and the Existence of the MNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    This paper provides a counterpoint to Buckley and Hashai’s paper “Is competitive advantage a necessary condition for the emergence of the Multinational Enterprise?”. We agree with their conclusion that it is, in fact, not a necessary condition, but argue that the theoretical reasons behind...... this are different and more diverse than the ones they propose. We suggest that much extant economic theory is in fact consistent with their view that firms may internationalize without owning or achieving competitive advantages, and model various other ways in which imperfections can drive their overall result. We...

  3. Advantages and Challenges of a Type-3 PLL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Monfared, Mohammad; Freijedo, Francisco D.

    2013-01-01

    made to design type-3 PLLs, either by employing a specific second-order controller as the loop filter, or by implementing two parallel tracking paths for the PLL. For this type of PLLs, however, the advantages and limitations are not clear at all, as the results reported in different literature...... type-3 PLL are presented. Finally, to get insight into the advantages/limitations of this type of PLLs, the performance of a well-tuned type-3 PLL is compared with a conventional synchronous reference frame PLL (which is a type-2 PLL) through extensive experimental results and some theoretical...

  4. Romanowsky staining in cytopathology: history, advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafts, K P; Pambuccian, S E

    2011-04-01

    If the entire discipline of diagnostic cytopathology could be distilled into a single theme, it would be the Papanicolaou stain. Yet it was the Romanowsky stain upon which the discipline of cytopathology was founded. Both stains are used today in the cytopathology laboratory, each for a different and complementary purpose. We trace the history of cytopathological stains and discuss the advantages and limitations of Romanowsky-type stains for cytological evaluation. We also provide suggestions for the advantageous use of Romanowsky-type stains in cytopathology.

  5. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii

    2016-01-01

    We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs. PMID:26957600

  6. Competitive Advantage in Intercollegiate Athletics: Role of Intangible Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Doyeon; Chelladurai, Packianathan

    2016-01-01

    The present research explored the dynamics of competitive advantages in intercollegiate athletics by investigating the contribution of intangible resources (i.e., athletic and academic reputations) on the generation of more tangible resources (i.e., human and financial resources), which in turn influence the athletic performance (i.e., winning record) and academic performance (i.e., graduation rates), and gender equity. The research was based entirely on archival data of 324 NCAA Division I member institutions. The results of the SEM supported the study's basic arguments that tangible resources are the sources of competitive advantages in Division I intercollegiate athletics, and that intangible resources contribute to the generation of tangible resources.

  7. Radiation therapy-related toxicity (including pneumonitis and fibrosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Rahul R; Bogart, Jeffrey A

    2009-05-01

    In the modern age of cancer therapy, advances in the multidisciplinary management of cancer have resulted in increased rates of survivorship. Radiation therapy (RT) toxicity must be tempered with the desire to achieve dose escalation to provide the best chance of long-term cure. This article is designed to acquaint emergency medicine physicians with common, expected, and potential acute and late complications of RT.

  8. THE EFFECT OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND HUMAN ADVANTAGE ON INDUSTRIAL COMPETITIVE STRATEGY (Case Study: SMIs in Gorontalo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifandi Lasalewo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Industries (SMIs have a strategic role in the Indonesian economy, as they earn 61.9 percent of the foreign exchange which goes to make up the nation’s Gross Domestic Product, and nationally they are able to absorb 97 percent of the workforce. The Global Competitiveness Report also notes that SMIs serve as the business units that affect every nation’s competitiveness. Considering this strategic role, the selection of a competitive strategy for these SMIs is absolutely necessary. Through an in-depth literature review, this study aims to explore what variables influence the competitive strategy of industries, particularly the SMIs. By using a Systematic Literature Review (SLR with a total of 31 main literature (articles, papers and books, this study has found two dominant factors that influence industrial competitive strategy: Competitive advantage and human advantage, which are subsequently developed into six independent variables (construct variables, i.e. cost, delivery, product quality, product variety, know-how and innovativeness, with a total of 44 indicators. The results of measurements of the sample of SMIs in Gorontalo Province, using Structural Equation Modeling, found that both competitive advantage and human advantage jointly influence 40.2 percent of the industrial competitive strategies. These results indicate that competitive strategies, such as creating products with unique features, on-time delivery, flexibility in production, and employee involvement in the innovations, are indispensable to SMIs in order for them to produce quality products and be able to maintain their advantage.

  9. Comparison between refrigeration systems: advantages, disadvantages and environmental impact; Comparacion entre sistemas de refrigeracion: ventajas, desventajas y impacto ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilo, Roberto Ricardo [CIAR, Congreso Iberoamericano de Aire Acondicionado y Refrigeracion, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: rraguilo@ciudad.com.ar

    2000-07-01

    This work perform a comparison among flow control systems with distinct cooling fluids, including the alternative of secondary cooling fluid, for evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of each system, from the technical, economical and environment impact view points.

  10. When David beats Goliath: the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive contests declines over evolutionary time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul R; Ghalambor, Cameron K

    2014-01-01

    Body size has long been recognized to play a key role in shaping species interactions. For example, while small species thrive in a diversity of environments, they typically lose aggressive contests for resources with larger species. However, numerous examples exist of smaller species dominating larger species during aggressive interactions, suggesting that the evolution of traits can allow species to overcome the competitive disadvantage of small size. If these traits accumulate as lineages diverge, then the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive interactions should decline with increased evolutionary distance. We tested this hypothesis using data on the outcomes of 23,362 aggressive interactions among 246 bird species pairs involving vultures at carcasses, hummingbirds at nectar sources, and antbirds and woodcreepers at army ant swarms. We found the advantage of large size declined as species became more evolutionarily divergent, and smaller species were more likely to dominate aggressive contests when interacting with more distantly-related species. These results appear to be caused by both the evolution of traits in smaller species that enhanced their abilities in aggressive contests, and the evolution of traits in larger species that were adaptive for other functions, but compromised their abilities to compete aggressively. Specific traits that may provide advantages to small species in aggressive interactions included well-developed leg musculature and talons, enhanced flight acceleration and maneuverability, novel fighting behaviors, and traits associated with aggression, such as testosterone and muscle development. Traits that may have hindered larger species in aggressive interactions included the evolution of morphologies for tree trunk foraging that compromised performance in aggressive contests away from trunks, and the evolution of migration. Overall, our results suggest that fundamental trade-offs, such as those associated with body size

  11. When David beats Goliath: the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive contests declines over evolutionary time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Martin

    Full Text Available Body size has long been recognized to play a key role in shaping species interactions. For example, while small species thrive in a diversity of environments, they typically lose aggressive contests for resources with larger species. However, numerous examples exist of smaller species dominating larger species during aggressive interactions, suggesting that the evolution of traits can allow species to overcome the competitive disadvantage of small size. If these traits accumulate as lineages diverge, then the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive interactions should decline with increased evolutionary distance. We tested this hypothesis using data on the outcomes of 23,362 aggressive interactions among 246 bird species pairs involving vultures at carcasses, hummingbirds at nectar sources, and antbirds and woodcreepers at army ant swarms. We found the advantage of large size declined as species became more evolutionarily divergent, and smaller species were more likely to dominate aggressive contests when interacting with more distantly-related species. These results appear to be caused by both the evolution of traits in smaller species that enhanced their abilities in aggressive contests, and the evolution of traits in larger species that were adaptive for other functions, but compromised their abilities to compete aggressively. Specific traits that may provide advantages to small species in aggressive interactions included well-developed leg musculature and talons, enhanced flight acceleration and maneuverability, novel fighting behaviors, and traits associated with aggression, such as testosterone and muscle development. Traits that may have hindered larger species in aggressive interactions included the evolution of morphologies for tree trunk foraging that compromised performance in aggressive contests away from trunks, and the evolution of migration. Overall, our results suggest that fundamental trade-offs, such as those

  12. Tangential finger forces use mechanical advantage during static grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slota, Gregory P; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2012-02-01

    When grasping and manipulating objects, the central controller utilizes the mechanical advantage of the normal forces of the fingers for torque production. Whether the same is valid for tangential forces is unknown. The main purpose of this study was to determine the patterns of finger tangential forces and the use of mechanical advantage as a control mechanism when dealing with objects of nonuniform finger positioning. A complementary goal was to explore the interaction of mechanical advantage (moment arm) and the role a finger has as a torque agonist/antagonist with respect to external torques (±0.4 N m). Five 6-df force/torque transducers measured finger forces while subjects held a prism handle (6 cm width × 9 cm height) with and without a single finger displaced 2 cm (handle width). The effect of increasing the tangential moment arm was significant (p forces (in >70% of trials) and hence creating greater moments. Thus, the data provides evidence that the grasping system as a rule utilizes mechanical advantage for generating tangential forces. The increase in tangential force was independent of whether the finger was acting as a torque agonist or antagonist, revealing their effects to be additive.

  13. Peran Strategic Entrepreneurship Dalam Membangun Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Handrimurtjahjo, Agustinus Dedy

    2014-01-01

    Strategic entrepreneurship has emerged as a new concept in examining convergence in entrepreneurship studies (opportunity-seeking behavior) and strategic management (advantage-seeking behavior). Studies in the area of strategic management have gradually exposed the relationship betweenstrategic management and entrepreneurship: entrepreneurial strategy making; intrapreneurship; entrepreneurial strategic posture within organizations; entrepreneurial orientation; strategic managementintegration ...

  14. Multidimensional epistasis and the transitory advantage of sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nowak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and quantifying the benefits of sex and recombination is a long-standing problem in evolutionary theory. In particular, contradictory claims have been made about the existence of a benefit of recombination on high dimensional fitness landscapes in the presence of sign epistasis. Here we present a comparative numerical study of sexual and asexual evolutionary dynamics of haploids on tunably rugged model landscapes under strong selection, paying special attention to the temporal development of the evolutionary advantage of recombination and the link between population diversity and the rate of adaptation. We show that the adaptive advantage of recombination on static rugged landscapes is strictly transitory. At early times, an advantage of recombination arises through the possibility to combine individually occurring beneficial mutations, but this effect is reversed at longer times by the much more efficient trapping of recombining populations at local fitness peaks. These findings are explained by means of well-established results for a setup with only two loci. In accordance with the Red Queen hypothesis the transitory advantage can be prolonged indefinitely in fluctuating environments, and it is maximal when the environment fluctuates on the same time scale on which trapping at local optima typically occurs.

  15. The advantages of using photographs and video images in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the advantages of a telephone consultation with a specialist in paediatric surgery after taking photographs and video images by a general practitioner for the diagnosis of some diseases. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of the reliability of paediatric ...

  16. Competitive advantage of independent small businesses in Soweto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Small businesses in Soweto face increasing competition from large retail chains located in shopping malls. In order to survive and grow, small business owners need to identify and focus on the competitive advantage they have over competing businesses. The aim of this article is to explore the various sources of a ...

  17. Computer-Based Study Guides II: Educational Components and Advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, R. M.; Smyth, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the potential contributions of computers to medical education and, in particular, the use of computer-based study guides. Presents the educational functions of various study guide components and lists advantages and disadvantages of computer-based study guides over print-based guides. (LZ)

  18. Providing Homeless Adults with Advantage: A Sustainable University Degree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, Richard; Lanctot, Melissa Kim

    2016-01-01

    A university partnered with the New York City Department of Homeless Services (NYC DHS) to provide cohorts of adults a 60-credit Associate Degree Program in Business Administration over a 2-year period. Results of two cohorts of 30 Advantage Academy Program graduates revealed significant improvement in College Board AccuPlacer (ACPL) Arithmetic…

  19. The Critical Advantage: Developing Critical Thinking Skills in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, William T., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    In "The Critical Advantage," noted scholar and early childhood expert William T. Gormley, Jr. takes a wide ranging look at the important role of critical thinking in preparing students for college, careers, and civic life. Drawing on research from psychology, philosophy, business, political science, neuroscience, and other disciplines,…

  20. Advantage of irradiation in food industry, technical and economical constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, P.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation is an effective method to extend the conservation and to increase the hygienic security of food. Nevertheless the use of irradiation remains limited in food industry. The prospects of different applications are evaluated, referring to the other alternative technologies. The advantage of adequate irradiation facilities incorporated or not into the plants are compared [fr

  1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Student Loans Repayment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hua

    2010-01-01

    It is a difficulty problem to choice repayment patterns of student loan. "Conventional mortgage-type loan" and "Income contingent loan" has been performed in many countries. These loan repayment manners have their own characteristics. In this paper, we discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and would provide policy choice…

  2. .Compar~ive Economic Advantage Analysis of Ahernative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The objecth'e l?f this paper was to analyze the comparative agricultural economic advantage and extellt of policy distortion in alternative agricultural production activities in various agro-ecological zones andfamling systems, in Tanzania. The Domestic Resource Cosf (DRC) ratio den'vedfrom the. Policy. Analysis ...

  3. The UNIX/XENIX Advantage: Applications in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Kelly L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the application of the UNIX/XENIX operating system to support administrative office automation functions--word processing, spreadsheets, database management systems, electronic mail, and communications--at the Central Michigan University Libraries. Advantages and disadvantages of the XENIX operating system and system configuration are…

  4. Travel fatigue and home ground advantage in South African Super ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Studies have shown the existence of a significant home ground advantage in a range of sports. The aim of this study was to determine whether home performances of the South African teams during the 1996 - 2005 seasons were different before touring to Australia and New Zealand, compared with the home ...

  5. Advantage 24 nonoxynol-9 product discussed at meeting. Contraception (spermicides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-09

    Columbia Laboratories, Inc., Miami, Florida, reported safety data on the spermicidal product Advantage 24 that show it is safe even when administered four times a day, according to data from the UN Global Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). The data were reported at a meeting of the Nonprescription Drugs, Reproductive Health Drugs, Anti-Infective Drugs, and Antiviral Drugs advisory committees of the US Food and Drug Administration. Because of its favorable safety profile, Advantage 24 was the only product that UNAIDS selected for testing to determine its effectiveness against the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Therefore, in May 1996, Columbia Laboratories and UNAIDS announced the initiation of an international Phase III clinical study of Advantage 24 for the prevention of the heterosexual transmission of HIV and STDs in approximately 2000 women. Additionally, the NIH is performing similar testing in Africa. Advantage 24, which uses Columbia Laboratories' patented bioadhesive delivery system to deliver nonoxynol-9, currently is marketed in the US by Lake Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and in Canada by Roberts Pharmaceuticals, as a long-lasting, vaginally delivered spermicide, pursuant to strategic alliance agreements with Columbia Laboratories. full text

  6. Identifying the Comparative Advantage of Products and Industries of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of a region's comparative advantage may dictate its industrial development agenda and realistic export opportunities. Through the effective targeting of specific sectors and industries within the South African provinces, provincial government entities can determine which sector or industry could gain the most from ...

  7. Students Perceptions on the Effectiveness and Advantages of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the perceptions of students on the effectiveness and advantages of the Open Distance electronic Learning (ODeL) methodology over the traditional face to face learning methodology. The University of Zimbabwe has, in the past two years, been offering a Bachelor of Education degree in Science and ...

  8. Assessment of protection and comparative advantage in rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main analytical framework used was the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM). The policy distortions were measured through Nominal Protection Coefficient (NPC) and Effective Protection Coefficient (EPC). Private Profitability Coefficient (PPC) was used to measure the comparative advantage a processor has in producing ...

  9. Building Competitive Advantage in Academic Programmes in Open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper however, suggests that greatest competitive advantage for ODL-HLIs such as OUT‟s is hidden in its postgraduate programmes. The paper stresses that improved quality and completion rates of research and postgraduate students in business, law, economics, and education and applied natural sciences should ...

  10. The Bilingual Advantage: Language, Literacy and the US Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca M., Ed.; Gándara, Patricia C., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The Bilingual Advantage draws together researchers from education, economics, sociology, anthropology and linguistics to examine the economic and employment benefits of bilingualism in the US labor market, countering past research that shows no such benefits exist. Collectively, the authors draw on novel methodological approaches and new data to…

  11. Bilingual Education and L3 Learning: Metalinguistic Advantage or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutgers, Dieuwerke; Evans, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Metalinguistic skills are highlighted in the literature as providing bilinguals with an advantage in additional language (L3) learning. The extent to which this may apply to bilingual education and content-and-language-integrated-learning settings, however, is as yet little understood. This article reports on a study exploring and comparing the…

  12. Career management: a competitive advantage in today's health care marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbeau, J

    2001-01-01

    A valuable new tool to attract and retain new employees is being used by some of the most progressive companies in Michigan. It is called career management, and it is being used with great success by businesses of all types to give themselves a competitive advantage.

  13. Strategic Mergers of Strong Institutions to Enhance Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Grant; Harman, Kay

    2008-01-01

    Strategic mergers are formal combinations or amalgamations of higher education institutions with the aim of enhancing competitive advantage, or merging for "mutual growth". Recently, in a number of countries, there has been a decided shift from mergers initiated by governments, and dealing mainly with "problem" cases, towards…

  14. Comparative local advantages and technological competitiveness for Italian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Daniela; Zini, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the Italian manufacturing sector's competitiveness over the past ten years and the role played bu the local technology-based comparative advantages in shaping national competitiveness. Data obtained with local-based econometric techniques point to a gradual weakening of core know-how in high-tech industries strongly rooted in the Northwest [it

  15. Congruent Knowledge Management Behaviors as Discriminate Sources of Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnier-Watanabe, Remy; Senoo, Dai

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: While knowledge management has been shown to be a strategic source of competitive advantage, processes designed to enhance the productivity of knowledge do not, however, equally contribute to the organization's capabilities. Consequently, this research aims to focus on the relationship between each mode of the knowledge management process…

  16. Educating Students to Give Them a Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Christopher D.; Raymond, Mary Anne; Carlson, Les

    2011-01-01

    With an increasingly competitive job market, this study focuses on what marketing educators can do to help students develop a sustainable competitive advantage. The authors conducted a survey of students, faculty, and recruiters to develop a better understanding of what skills and characteristics might be of value to each group of respondents and…

  17. Building Competitive Advantage of Small and Medium Sized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is theoretical in nature and relies heavily on the review of pertinent existing literature on knowledge acquisition, competitive advantage, networks, partnerships, and performance. Organisations, especially SMEs, the paper argues, can acquire and develop knowledge resources and capabilities via networks and ...

  18. A Bilateral Advantage for Storage in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Akina; Drew, Trafton; Ester, Edward F.; Awh, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated enhanced visual processing when information is presented across both visual hemifields rather than in a single hemifield (the "bilateral advantage"). For example, Alvarez and Cavanagh (2005) reported that observers were able to track twice as many moving visual stimuli when the tracked items were presented…

  19. Comparative advantage of the eastern and central Africa in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative advantage of the eastern and central Africa in the coffee export sector: The case of Burundi. ... the ECA countries to remain competitive in the global market, they must strengthen their position in the market by tackling coffee price volatility at ^producer level and show willingness to revamp the coffee industry.

  20. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Buhrman (Harry); L. Czekaj (Lłukasz); A. Grudka (Andrzej); M. Horodecki (Michalł); P. Horodecki (Pawelł); M. Markiewicz (Marcin); F. Speelman (Florian); S. Strelchuk (Sergii)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe obtain a general connection between a large quantumadvantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that