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Sample records for included relative advantage

  1. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  2. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES ENTERPRISES IN KOOPERATION RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mikitiuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Formation of new approaches to the definition of competitive advantage requires different ways to implement them according to market conditions. These paths can be cooperative relations entities that are implemented in the competitive advantage of enterprises in the new stage of development of a competitive society. The result of the interaction of small businesses with industrial and economic structures is the formation and development of such forms of cooperation entities as subcontracting, franchising, leasing, venture finance. The content of these forms is to integrate (interlacing of the functional areas of business including production of functional form is subcontracting relationships, forms of supply – franchising, industrial and financial shape – leasing as a form of innovative functional integration relations is venture financing.

  3. The Relational View of Interorganizational Competitive Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    Collaborating with external partners on R&D and forming strategic partnership for R&D have been popular phenomena for long, which leads new development in existing theories. Though the relational view of competitive advantage has been proposed for more than a decade, few in-depth empirical...... they generate relational rents (interorganizational competitive advantage) from this alliance? Based on this case study, we will propose some implications for the R&D collaboration between Chinese and Scandinavian countries. Also, the case will help us to test and enrich the existing theories...... on interorganizational competitive advantage. At the end of the paper, based on existing theories and the case study result, we will propose our conceptual framework on researching R&D strategic alliance between Scandinavian and Chinese firms....

  4. State-of-the-evidence reviews: advantages and challenges of including grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, Karen M; Premji, Shahirose; Hayden, K Alix; Serrett, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, health policy decision-makers and professionals are turning to research-based evidence to support decisions about policy and practice. Systematic reviews are useful for gathering, summarizing, and synthesizing published and unpublished research about clearly defined interventions. State-of-the-evidence reviews are broader than traditional systematic reviews and may include not only published and unpublished research, but also published and unpublished non-research literature. Decisions about whether to include this "grey literature" in a review are challenging and lead to many questions about whether the advantages outweigh the challenges. The primary purpose of this article is to describe what constitutes grey literature, and methods to locate it and assess its quality. The secondary purpose is to discuss the core issues to consider when making decisions to include grey literature in a state-of-the-evidence review. A recent state-of-the-evidence review is used as an exemplar to present advantages and challenges related to including grey literature in a review. Despite the challenges, in the exemplar, inclusion of grey literature was useful to validate the results of a research-based literature search. Decisions about whether to include grey literature in a state-of-the-evidence review are complex. A checklist to assist in decision-making was created as a tool to assist the researcher in determining whether it is advantageous to include grey literature in a review.

  5. Islamic Banking in Nigeria: Perception of its Relative Advantage by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Islamic Banking in Nigeria: Perception of its Relative Advantage by Consumer Segments in Anambra State. ... perceived relative advantage of Islamic banking concept by those consumer groups in. Awka ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. Generating Relational Competitive Advantage from Strategic Technological Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2012-01-01

    Collaborating with external partners on strategic technological partnerships (STPs) have been popular phenomena for long, which leads new development in existing theories on competitive advantage. Under the relational view, the competitive advantage is jointly generated by alliance firms. Though...... the relational view of competitive advantage has been proposed for more than a decade, few in-depth empirical researches are down within this field, especially case study on R&D strategic alliance from this perspective. Based on these considerations, we investigate an STP between a Danish transnational...... corporation and a Chinese private firm aiming to understand how to generate relational competitive from an STP? Based on the explorative case study, we find that there are three key processes related to relational competitive advantage: partner selection, relational rents generation and relational rents...

  7. Islamic Banking in Nigeria: Perception of its Relative Advantage by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    perceived relative advantage of Islamic banking concept by those consumer groups in. Awka, capital ..... Religious motivation was not a primary criterion. However ... more critical aspects of consumer behavior to the global firm that launches.

  8. The relation between proactive environmental strategies and competitive advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnariu, A.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    There are two distinct orientations of the environmental management that companies may adopt: the model of compliance and the strategic model. The strategic model treats environmental expenses as investments that will lead to competitive advantage for the company. Nevertheless, there are few scientific works that prove the relation between corporate environmental investments and competitive advantage. Thereby, in order to bring clarifications about the profound implications of environmental investments, in the first stage of our research we have proposed the hypothesis that the environmental investments would probably lead to competitive advantage by creating capabilities that are mediators of this relation. In the second stage we have tested this hypothesis, using the research method of survey. A questionnaire was sent to managers in textile Romanian industry, and 109 answers were received. The data was analysed using the linear multiple regression method and the results confirm our hypothesis.

  9. Islamic Banking in Nigeria: Perceived Relative Advantage among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied Islamic banking customers' segment using the religious groups in Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria to determine if there are significant differences in their mean perception of the relative advantage of Islamic banking concept. Crosstab was used to study the relationship between the demographic factors that made ...

  10. Advantages and disadvantages of 3D ultrasound of thyroid nodules including thin slice volume rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slapa Rafal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of 3D gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasound, including thin slice volume rendering (TSVR, applied for evaluation of thyroid nodules. Methods The retrospective evaluation by two observers of volumes of 71 thyroid nodules (55 benign, 16 cancers was performed using a new TSVR technique. Dedicated 4D ultrasound scanner with an automatic 6-12 MHz 4D probe was used. Statistical analysis was performed with Stata v. 8.2. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent risk factors of thyroid cancers identified by 3D ultrasound include: (a ill-defined borders of the nodule on MPR presentation, (b a lobulated shape of the nodule in the c-plane and (c a density of central vessels in the nodule within the minimal or maximal ranges. Combination of features provided sensitivity 100% and specificity 60-69% for thyroid cancer. Calcification/microcalcification-like echogenic foci on 3D ultrasound proved not to be a risk factor of thyroid cancer. Storage of the 3D data of the whole nodules enabled subsequent evaluation of new parameters and with new rendering algorithms. Conclusions Our results indicate that 3D ultrasound is a practical and reproducible method for the evaluation of thyroid nodules. 3D ultrasound stores volumes comprising the whole lesion or organ. Future detailed evaluations of the data are possible, looking for features that were not fully appreciated at the time of collection or applying new algorithms for volume rendering in order to gain important information. Three-dimensional ultrasound data could be included in thyroid cancer databases. Further multicenter large scale studies are warranted.

  11. The Female Stroke Survival Advantage: Relation to Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2009-01-01

    Background: Age-related hormonal factors are thought to be related to the gender gap in longevity. Testing the hypothesis that survival is best in young premenopausal women we studied the effect of age on 1-week mortality in stroke patients. Methods: A registry was started in 2001 with the aim...... in women. While mortality increased almost linearly in women over the entire age range, it increased steeply in men from the age of 50 and at the age of 80 years survival was 80% better in women. Conclusion: The female stroke survival advantage applies to all ages. It increases with age due to a steeply...

  12. Relation between competence and competitive advantages of the firm

    OpenAIRE

    Lavrova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Research paper was considered an aspect of competence as source of uniqueness organization and its competition advantages. It emphasizes the importance internal factors for get success of business. The article is divided into two parts: theoretical framework and case study, which suggests as the competence of the influence on the competitive advantages of firms in theory and practice.

  13. Single incision pediatric endoscopic surgery: advantages of relatively large incision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, E.; Afsarlar, E.; Karaman, I.

    2015-01-01

    To describe Single Incision Pediatric Endoscopic Surgery (SIPES) performed on children with various diagnoses, emphasizing its advantages. Study Design: An observational case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pediatric Surgery, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, from January 2011 to November 2014. Methodology: A review of patient charts was conducted in which SIPES was preferred as the surgical procedure. Patient demographics, operative details, operative time, clinical outcomes, postoperative pain and cosmesis were analyzed. Results: SIPES was performed on 45 patients (21 girls, 24 boys). Thirty-three appendectomies, 5 varicocelectomies, 3 oophorectomies, 2 ovarian and one paratubal cyst excision, and one fallopian tube excision were performed. All except one procedures were performed through our standard 2cm umbilical vertical or smile incision. In 18 cases, abdominal irrigation/aspiration was easily performed through the existing larger incision, as is done with open surgical technique. None of the patients had early postoperative shoulder/back pain since complete disinflation of CO/sub 2/ could be ensured. All of the patients/parents were satisfied with the cosmesis. Conclusion: SIPES has the advantages of limiting the surgical scar to within the umbilicus and providing easy disinflation of CO/sub 2/, allowing intraabdominal cleaning and extraction of large volume tissue samples through a single large umbilical incision. (author)

  14. Constructing regional advantage: platform policies based on related variety and differentiated knowledge bases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asheim, B.T.; Boschma, R.A.; Cooke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing regional advantage: platform policies based on related variety and differentiated knowledge bases, Regional Studies. This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related

  15. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  16. Required IT-Related Capabilities For The Utilization of New Opportunities in Creating Interorganizational Competitive Advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.L. Vlaar (Paul); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDevelopments in information technology (IT) are perceived to promote interorganizational cooperation within and across industry boundaries. IT-enabled cooperation has challenged the creation of interorganizational competitive advantages, as conceptualized in the Relational View (e.g.,

  17. Privilege and status in an unequal society: shifting the focus of health promotion research to include the maintenance of advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christine

    2010-10-01

    There has been a great deal of social policy and health promotion practice directed toward the inclusion of underprivileged groups with the aim of improving their health. This focus on disadvantaged people and poor communities, to help them empower themselves and improve their lot, often fails because it ignores the role of the broader society. We neglect to note the crucial part that the advantaged play in perpetuating inequalities. Theory and empirical work from sociology and anthropology points to the everyday ways in which privileged people are able to maintain their advantage and even hi-jack the benefits of public health programmes designed to improve the health of the poor. Some examples from these other disciplines suggest ways in which a social psychological perspective can contribute to an understanding of how inequalities and poverty are perpetuated in everyday life. These understandings will inform the effectiveness of social programmes to reduce inequalities.

  18. The Competitive Advantages of Retail Enterprises: the Factor and the Result of Competitive Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorna Maryna V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at systematization and development of a conceptual-categorical apparatus of the essence of competitive advantages. The approaches to their interpretation have been allocated. The essential characteristics and stages of the life cycle of competitive advantages are considered. As active stages it is suggested to consider the following: formation, implementation, and development. The basic properties of competitive advantages such as dual character have been substantiated and supplemented. Both the factor and the effective nature of competitive advantages are characterized. On the basis of the mentioned approaches together with the identified features, a definition of the concept of «competitive advantages» as economic category has been proposed. Its use as a base along with taking into consideration the functional specificity of trade enterprises has allowed: clarifying the essence of competitive advantages of retail enterprises; suggesting their definition as a factor and as a result of competitive relations. The identification of dual character will increase the possibilities to assess competitive advantages. Prospects for further researches in this direction are connected with allocating of peculiarities and kinds of competitive advantages of retail trade enterprises with the purpose of increasing the of validity of decisions on their formation, implementation, and development.

  19. What are the advantages and disadvantages of imaging modalities to diagnose wear-related corrosion problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Denis; Barrack, Robert L; Potter, Hollis G

    2014-12-01

    Adverse tissue reactions are known to occur after total hip arthroplasty using both conventional and metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings and after MoM hip resurfacing arthroplasty (SRA). A variety of imaging tools, including ultrasound (US), CT, and MRI, have been used to diagnose problems associated with wear after MoM hip arthroplasty and corrosion at the head-trunnion junction; however, the relative advantages and disadvantages of each remain a source of controversy. The purposes of this review were to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of (1) US; (2) CT; and (3) MRI as diagnostic tools in the assessment of wear-related corrosion problems after hip arthroplasty. A systematic literature review was performed through Medline, EMBASE, Scopus CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library without time restriction using search terms related to THA, SRA, US, CT, MRI, adverse tissue reactions, and corrosion. Inclusion criteria were Level I through IV studies in the English language, whereas expert opinions and case reports were excluded. The quality of included studies was judged by their level of evidence, method of intervention allocation, outcome assessments, and followup of patients. Four hundred ninety unique results were returned and 40 articles were reviewed. The prevalence of adverse local tissue reactions in both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients varies based on the method of evaluation (US, CT, MRI) and imaging protocols. US is accessible and relatively inexpensive, yet has not been used to report synovial thicknesses in the setting of wear-related corrosion. CT scans are highly sensitive and provide information regarding component positioning but are limited in providing enhanced soft tissue contrast and require ionizing radiation. MRI has shown promise in predicting both the presence and severity of adverse local tissue reactions but is more expensive. All three imaging modalities have a role in the assessment of adverse local tissue reactions and tribocorrosion

  20. Articles which include chevron film cooling holes, and related processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Ronald Scott; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2014-12-09

    An article is described, including an inner surface which can be exposed to a first fluid; an inlet; and an outer surface spaced from the inner surface, which can be exposed to a hotter second fluid. The article further includes at least one row or other pattern of passage holes. Each passage hole includes an inlet bore extending through the substrate from the inlet at the inner surface to a passage hole-exit proximate to the outer surface, with the inlet bore terminating in a chevron outlet adjacent the hole-exit. The chevron outlet includes a pair of wing troughs having a common surface region between them. The common surface region includes a valley which is adjacent the hole-exit; and a plateau adjacent the valley. The article can be an airfoil. Related methods for preparing the passage holes are also described.

  1. Ear Advantage for Musical Location and Relative Pitch: Effects of Musical Training and Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Joanna L; Hubbard, Timothy L; Hubbard, Nicholas A; Rypma, Bart

    2017-06-01

    Trained musicians have been found to exhibit a right-ear advantage for high tones and a left-ear advantage for low tones. We investigated whether this right/high, left/low pattern of musical processing advantage exists in listeners who had varying levels of musical experience, and whether such a pattern might be modulated by attentional strategy. A dichotic listening paradigm was used in which different melodic sequences were presented to each ear, and listeners attended to (a) the left ear or the right ear or (b) the higher pitched tones or the lower pitched tones. Listeners judged whether tone-to-tone transitions within each melodic sequence moved upward or downward in pitch. Only musically experienced listeners could adequately judge the direction of successive pitch transitions when attending to a specific ear; however, all listeners could judge the direction of successive pitch transitions within a high-tone stream or a low-tone stream. Overall, listeners exhibited greater accuracy when attending to relatively higher pitches, but there was no evidence to support a right/high, left/low bias. Results were consistent with effects of attentional strategy rather than an ear advantage for high or low tones. Implications for a potential performer/audience paradox in listening space are considered.

  2. Advantages and disadvantages of relational and non-relational (NoSQL) databases for analytical tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Klapač, Milan

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on NoSQL databases, their use for analytical tasks and on comparison of NoSQL databases with relational and OLAP databases. The aim is to analyse the benefits of NoSQL databases and their use for analytical purposes. The first part presents the basic principles of Business Intelligence, Data Warehousing, and Big Data. The second part deals with the key features of relational and NoSQL databases. The last part of the thesis describes the properties of four basic types of NoSQ...

  3. Relative socioeconomic advantage and mood during advanced pregnancy in women in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jane RW

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health during pregnancy has not been investigated in Vietnam. Antenatal depression is an established risk factor for postpartum mood disturbance and two representative cohort studies have found rates of depression after childbirth in Vietnam two to three times higher than those in high income countries. Aim The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the prevalence and determinants of depression in a cohort of pregnant Vietnamese women. This was the subsidiary aim of an investigation of sexual beliefs and behaviours in pregnancy in Vietnam. Methods Participants were recruited from antenatal clinics at Hanoi Obstetric Hospital. Inclusion criteria were to be in advanced pregnancy and appear well educated and confident and therefore potentially be willing to discuss sexual matters. Data were collected by individual structured interviews assessing socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive health, quality of intimate relationship and adequacy of support. Emotional wellbeing was assessed by the Vietnamese translation of the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS. Results In total 61/74 (82% of women approached to participate were recruited. The mean EDS score of 5.42 ± 3.8, was similar to that of community cohorts in high income countries and only one participant scored above 15. The cohort was relatively socioeconomically advantaged with high rates of post-secondary education, secure salaried employment, reproductive autonomy and ability to afford higher quality antenatal care. Most participants were able to confide in their husbands and their pregnancies were welcome. Worse mood was associated with insecure casual work, crowded living conditions and experiencing critical coercion in the marital relationship. Conclusion There is an apparently low prevalence of symptoms of depression in relatively socioeconomically advantaged pregnant women in Vietnam.

  4. The advantages of tomosynthesis for evaluating bisphosphonate-related atypical femur fractures compared to radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraszko, Andrew; Siegal, Daniel; Flynn, Michael; Rao, Sudhaker D; Peterson, Ed; van Holsbeeck, Marnix

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the advantages of using tomosynthesis (TS) compared to radiographs in the detection, characterization, and follow-up of bisphosphonate-related atypical femur fractures (BP-AFF). Eight patients were identified retrospectively who underwent TS for radiographic findings suspicious for BP-AFF. Two radiologists independently interpreted 15 radiographs and 16 TS examinations, indicating the presence or absence of the following: (1) cortical "beaking" on radiographs, (2) radiolucent fracture line on radiographs, and (3) fracture lucency on TS corresponding to the site of radiographic abnormality. Radiation dose data were calculated for radiographs and TS using Monte Carlo analysis. There was agreement on 100 % of radiographs regarding the presence or absence of a cortical beak. Regarding the presence or absence of a fracture lucency, there was agreement on 100 % of TS examinations (Kappa = 1.0) and 73 % of radiographs (Kappa = 0.40 ± 0.24). For the 46 % of radiographs in which one or both radiologists did not visualize a fracture line, there was 100 % agreement for the presence of a fracture line on the corresponding TS. The interobserver agreement for fracture line detection was significantly higher for TS than for radiographs (p = 0.012). The effective radiation dose using TS was approximately 96 % lower compared to radiography. TS outperformed radiographs in the detection and characterization of BP-AFF. TS may also have advantages over radiography for BP-AFF follow-up through its unique ability to visualize fracture healing with lower effective radiation doses to the patient.

  5. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  6. Subcortical encoding of sound is enhanced in bilinguals and relates to executive function advantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizman, Jennifer; Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Bilingualism profoundly affects the brain, yielding functional and structural changes in cortical regions dedicated to language processing and executive function [Crinion J, et al. (2006) Science 312:1537–1540; Kim KHS, et al. (1997) Nature 388:171–174]. Comparatively, musical training, another type of sensory enrichment, translates to expertise in cognitive processing and refined biological processing of sound in both cortical and subcortical structures. Therefore, we asked whether bilingualism can also promote experience-dependent plasticity in subcortical auditory processing. We found that adolescent bilinguals, listening to the speech syllable [da], encoded the stimulus more robustly than age-matched monolinguals. Specifically, bilinguals showed enhanced encoding of the fundamental frequency, a feature known to underlie pitch perception and grouping of auditory objects. This enhancement was associated with executive function advantages. Thus, through experience-related tuning of attention, the bilingual auditory system becomes highly efficient in automatically processing sound. This study provides biological evidence for system-wide neural plasticity in auditory experts that facilitates a tight coupling of sensory and cognitive functions. PMID:22547804

  7. Fish positions relative to neighbours modulate the hydrodynamic advantages of schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    ) and Paolo Domenici (CNR, Italy) Schooling behaviour is a widespread phenomenon shared by a large number of fish species. One of the most common benefits of swimming in a school is the hydrodynamic and energetic advantage obtained by its members. Fish occupying non-frontal positions can benefit from the flow...... generated by the caudal movement of fish swimming in the front. While previous work has demonstrated that trailing fish show a lower tail beat frequency (TBF) than leading fish , the extent to which schooling provides hydrodynamic advantages compared to swimming alone has not been quantified. We quantified...... of distances along the direction of locomotion, spanning one body length (BL) in the front (+1 BL) and behind (-1 BL) a neighbouring fish. We found a significant reduction in the mean TBF of fish when swimming in a school versus solitary fish . Furthermore, the TBF of the focal fish decreased linearly between...

  8. It’s all relative : how customer-perceived competitive advantage influences referral intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Mende, Martin; Thompson, Scott; Coenen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Better understanding the mechanisms that influence customer intentions to spread positive word-of-mouth (WOM) is crucial to both marketing scholars and managers. This multimethod research contributes to marketing knowledge by revealing how a firm’s customer-perceived competitive advantage (CPCA) influences positive WOM intentions. Analyses of (1) cross-sectional survey data on bank customers in Germany and (2) experimental data on customers of car insurance companies in the USA reveal two cru...

  9. Advantages and Disadvantages of Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery and Its Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Go; Boissiere, Louis; Larrieu, Daniel; Bourghli, Anouar; Vital, Jean Marc; Gille, Olivier; Pointillart, Vincent; Challier, Vincent; Mariey, Remi; Pellisé, Ferran; Vila-Casademunt, Alba; Perez-Grueso, Francisco Javier Sánchez; Alanay, Ahmet; Acaroglu, Emre; Kleinstück, Frank; Obeid, Ibrahim

    2017-03-15

    Prospective multicenter study of adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. To clarify the effect of ASD surgery on each health-related quality of life (HRQOL) subclass/domain. For patients with ASD, surgery offers superior radiological and HRQOL outcomes compared with nonoperative care. HRQOL may, however, be affected by surgical advantages related to corrective effects, yielding adequate spinopelvic alignment and stability or disadvantages because of long segment fusion. The study included 170 consecutive patients with ASD from a multicenter database with more than 2-year follow-up period. We analyzed each HRQOL domain/subclass (short form-36 items, Oswestry Disability Index, Scoliosis Research Society-22 [SRS-22] questionnaire), and radiographic parameters preoperatively and at 1 and 2 years postoperatively. We divided the patients into two groups each based on lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV; above L5 or S1 to ilium) or surgeon-determined preoperative pathology (idiopathic or degenerative). Improvement rate (%) was calculated as follows: 100 × |pre.-post.|/preoperative points (%) (+, advantages; -, disadvantages). The scores of all short form-36 items and SRS-22 subclasses improved at 1 and 2 years after surgery, regardless of LIV location and preoperative pathology. Personal care and lifting in Oswestry Disability Index were, however, not improved after 1 year. These disadvantages were correlated to sagittal modifiers of SRS-Schwab classification similar to other HRQOL. The degree of personal care disadvantage mainly depended on LIV location and preoperative pathology. Although personal care improved after 2 years postoperatively, no noticeable improvements in lifting were recorded. HRQOL subclass analysis indicated two disadvantages of ASD surgery, which were correlated to sagittal radiographic measures. Fusion to the sacrum or ilium greatly restricted the ability to stretch or bend, leading to limited daily activities for at least 1 year postoperatively

  10. Effects of shading on relative competitive advantage of three species of Sphagnum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Z. Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available (1 Sphagnum is an important genus of bryophytes holding 10–15 % of the terrestrial carbon stock. With climate change a drier surface may increase the abundance of vascular plants on peatlands, so shading of Sphagnum may increase. Here we describe growth cabinet experiments to reveal the effects of shading on interactions among mixtures of three species: S. capillifolium, S. palustre (hummock species, and S. fallax (a hollow species. We measured the six traits: growth in length, growth as increase in dry mass, side-shoot production, nitrogen and carbon proportion of the capitulum dry mass, and C:N ratio in the capitulum. (2 Shading had no effect on biomass production or side-shoot production but increased height increment in all three species. It also increased the C and N proportions of total dry mass but decreased C:N ratio in the capitula. (3 Neighbours of a different species reduced biomass and side-shoot production in the two hummock species but had no effect on the hollow species. (4 All three species showed interaction between shading and neighbour in two or more plant traits. S. fallax showed competitive advantage over S. palustre in no-shading treatments and over S. capillifolium in moderate shading treatments. In addition, under deep shading, S. fallax showed a competitive advantage over both hummock species. A clear competitive hierarchy S. fallax>S. capillifolium>S. palustre emerged which was consistent with the hierarchy of side-shoot production. (5 The results suggest that all the species appear to tolerate deep shade (for a few months at least. In a shaded environment, especially under deeply shaded conditions, S. fallax retains its dominance in hollow habitats (if water availability is guaranteed by virtue of its advantage in side-shoot production. (6 If shading increases then the abundance of different Sphagnum species is likely to change.

  11. Relative advantages of dichromatic and trichromatic color vision in camouflage breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troscianko, Jolyon; Wilson-Aggarwal, Jared; Griffiths, David; Spottiswoode, Claire N; Stevens, Martin

    2017-01-01

    There is huge diversity in visual systems and color discrimination abilities, thought to stem from an animal's ecology and life history. Many primate species maintain a polymorphism in color vision, whereby most individuals are dichromats but some females are trichromats, implying that selection sometimes favors dichromatic vision. Detecting camouflaged prey is thought to be a task where dichromatic individuals could have an advantage. However, previous work either has not been able to disentangle camouflage detection from other ecological or social explanations, or did not use biologically relevant cryptic stimuli to test this hypothesis under controlled conditions. Here, we used online "citizen science" games to test how quickly humans could detect cryptic birds (incubating nightjars) and eggs (of nightjars, plovers and coursers) under trichromatic and simulated dichromatic viewing conditions. Trichromats had an overall advantage, although there were significant differences in performance between viewing conditions. When searching for consistently shaped and patterned adult nightjars, simulated dichromats were more heavily influenced by the degree of pattern difference than were trichromats, and were poorer at detecting prey with inferior pattern and luminance camouflage. When searching for clutches of eggs-which were more variable in appearance and shape than the adult nightjars-the simulated dichromats learnt to detect the clutches faster, but were less sensitive to subtle luminance differences. These results suggest there are substantial differences in the cues available under viewing conditions that simulate different receptor types, and that these interact with the scene in complex ways to affect camouflage breaking.

  12. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first

  13. Empirical study of the perceived ease of use and relative advantage on load-bearing masonry (LBM) technology adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nor Azlinda; Abdullah, Che Sobry; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Load-bearing masonry (LBM) technology has been identified as an alternative method that can potentially encourage the sustainability of the housing industry. The adoption of LBM technology is believed to bring beneficial effects to the housing industry as well as company productivity. The factors related to the adoption LBM technology was revealed to strongly influence the implementation of this system in the housing industry. The aim of this study is to determine the factors influencing the adoption of LBM technology among the developer firms in Malaysia as well as the factors that are highly related to perceived ease of use and relative advantage. A random sampling technique was applied and a questionnaire-based field survey was carried out to obtain the data from the respondents. All the data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). The findings of this paper have revealed that perceived ease of use and relative advantage are related to the adoption of LBM technology. The findings also indicated the validity of Technology Acceptance Model TAM (perceived ease of use) and Innovation Diffusion Theory IDT (relative advantage) as the determinant factors in the adoption of LBM technology. Finally, some recommendations for future research are suggested in the final section of this paper.

  14. Is Being Gifted Always an Advantage? Peer Relations and Self-Concept of Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košir, Katja; Horvat, Marina; Aram, Urška; Jurinec, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between identified gifted adolescents and adolescents not identified as gifted in terms of social acceptance and self-concept (peer relations, academic, and general). In addition, we aimed to investigate the differences between two groups of students identified according to different…

  15. The light-makeup advantage in facial processing: Evidence from event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Tagai, Keiko; Shimakura, Hitomi; Isobe, Hiroko; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of makeup on attractiveness have been evaluated using mainly subjective measures. In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from a total of 45 Japanese women (n = 23 and n = 22 for Experiment 1 and 2, respectively) to examine the neural processing of faces with no makeup, light makeup, and heavy makeup. To have the participants look at each face carefully, an identity judgement task was used: they were asked to judge whether the two faces presented in succ...

  16. Heterologous prime-boost vaccinations for poverty-related diseases: advantages and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosević, Katarina; Rodriguez, Ariane; Lemckert, Angelique; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2009-05-01

    Classical vaccination approaches, based on a single vaccine administered in a homologous prime-boost schedule and optimized to induce primarily neutralizing antibodies, are unlikely to be sufficiently efficacious to prevent TB, malaria or HIV infections. Novel vaccines, capable of inducing a more powerful immune response, in particular T-cell immunity, are desperately needed. Combining different vaccine modalities that are able to complement each other and induce broad and sustainable immunity is a promising approach. This review provides an overview of heterologous prime-boost vaccination modalities currently in development for the 'big three' poverty-related diseases and emphasizes the need for innovative vaccination approaches.

  17. Genome mining of Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 reveals symbiotic features including genes related to plant interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Luna, Stefany Daniela; Cruz Vázquez, Angélica Patricia; Jiménez Suárez, Verónica; Rodríguez-Sanoja, Romina; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Sánchez, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are wide-spread and associated with plant physiological benefits, yet their genomes and secondary metabolites remain largely unidentified. In this study, we explored the genome of the endophyte Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 for discovery of potential novel molecules as well as genes and metabolites involved in host interactions. The complete genomes of seven Streptomyces and three other more distantly related bacteria were used to define the functional landscape of this unique microbe. The S. scabrisporus NF3 genome is larger than the average Streptomyces genome and not structured for an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle; this and the fact that can grow in R2YE media implies that it could include a soil-living stage. The genome displays an enrichment of genes associated with amino acid production, protein secretion, secondary metabolite and antioxidants production and xenobiotic degradation, indicating that S. scabrisporus NF3 could contribute to the metabolic enrichment of soil microbial communities and of its hosts. Importantly, besides its metabolic advantages, the genome showed evidence for differential functional specificity and diversification of plant interaction molecules, including genes for the production of plant hormones, stress resistance molecules, chitinases, antibiotics and siderophores. Given the diversity of S. scabrisporus mechanisms for host upkeep, we propose that these strategies were necessary for its adaptation to plant hosts and to face changes in environmental conditions. PMID:29447216

  18. Genome mining of Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 reveals symbiotic features including genes related to plant interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Diana Ceapă

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria are wide-spread and associated with plant physiological benefits, yet their genomes and secondary metabolites remain largely unidentified. In this study, we explored the genome of the endophyte Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 for discovery of potential novel molecules as well as genes and metabolites involved in host interactions. The complete genomes of seven Streptomyces and three other more distantly related bacteria were used to define the functional landscape of this unique microbe. The S. scabrisporus NF3 genome is larger than the average Streptomyces genome and not structured for an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle; this and the fact that can grow in R2YE media implies that it could include a soil-living stage. The genome displays an enrichment of genes associated with amino acid production, protein secretion, secondary metabolite and antioxidants production and xenobiotic degradation, indicating that S. scabrisporus NF3 could contribute to the metabolic enrichment of soil microbial communities and of its hosts. Importantly, besides its metabolic advantages, the genome showed evidence for differential functional specificity and diversification of plant interaction molecules, including genes for the production of plant hormones, stress resistance molecules, chitinases, antibiotics and siderophores. Given the diversity of S. scabrisporus mechanisms for host upkeep, we propose that these strategies were necessary for its adaptation to plant hosts and to face changes in environmental conditions.

  19. Using public relations/marketing communications to gain a competitive advantage in the US power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzman, L.R. [Full Spectrum Communications, Loudonville, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    For many industries throughout the United States, deregulation will make or break a company. In the power generation and transmission arena, deregulation is currently underway. Many utilities and power generation equipment suppliers alike are being forced to compete very differently in this new market due to legislative changes. Also, as many companies reorganize, cut costs and downsize, public relations and marketing communications (PR/marcom) is often one of the first programs to be cut. This paper will offer some solid public relationships that can enhance a company`s image, help it generate sales leads and assist it in staying healthy in this competitive power area. Also provided will be a discussion of marketing communications and why PR/marcom efforts should not be discarded but stepped up during downsizing.

  20. The light-makeup advantage in facial processing: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagai, Keiko; Shimakura, Hitomi; Isobe, Hiroko; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of makeup on attractiveness have been evaluated using mainly subjective measures. In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from a total of 45 Japanese women (n = 23 and n = 22 for Experiment 1 and 2, respectively) to examine the neural processing of faces with no makeup, light makeup, and heavy makeup. To have the participants look at each face carefully, an identity judgement task was used: they were asked to judge whether the two faces presented in succession were of the same person or not. The ERP waveforms in response to the first faces were analyzed. In two experiments with different stimulus probabilities, the amplitudes of N170 and vertex positive potential (VPP) were smaller for faces with light makeup than for faces with heavy makeup or no makeup. The P1 amplitude did not differ between facial types. In a subsequent rating phase, faces with light makeup were rated as more attractive than faces with heavy makeup and no makeup. The results suggest that the processing fluency of faces with light makeup is one of the reasons why light makeup is preferred to heavy makeup and no makeup in daily life.

  1. EU-MOLDOVA TRADE RELATIONS: COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES OF MOLDOVAN INDUSTRIES ON THE SINGLE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana SANDU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Engaging on the long road of implementing the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the EU in 2010, Moldova is now closer than ever to being included in the most privileged category of the Eastern neighbouring countries - those who have chosen to deepen the European economic integration. The Vilnius Summit in November 2013 has reinforced the ‘more for more’ principle for both Moldova and Georgia by emphasizing, at the same time, the role of reactive measures and financial aid in counterbalancing aggressive trade barriers from non-EU states. Not only has Moldova proved to efficiently capitalize the provisions of the ATP agreement since 2008, but it has also consequently received more support from the EU in boosting exports to the single market. The wine industry was the first to benefit from the free-trade regime, as for the EU decision of eliminating quotas from the beginning of 2014. Nonetheless, the progressive liberalisation of trade flows between Moldova and the EU would finally oppose two asymmetric partners. Consequently, Moldova is facing the challenge of asserting its value on the EU market, by yet not undermining the relevance of other important trading partners nearby.

  2. Advantages of the association of resveratrol with oral contraceptives for management of endometriosis-related pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Jr H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hugo Maia Jr,1,2 Clarice Haddad,2 Nathanael Pinheiro,3,4 Julio Casoy21Itaigara Memorial Day Hospital, 2Centro de Pesquisas e Assistência em Reprodução Humana, 3ImagePat, Pathology Laboratory, 4Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, BrazilBackground: The effect of resveratrol on the management of endometriosis-related pain was investigated in 12 patients who failed to obtain pain relief during use of an oral contraceptive containing drospirenone + ethinylestradiol.Methods and results: The addition of 30 mg of resveratrol to the contraceptive regimen resulted in a significant reduction in pain scores, with 82% of patients reporting complete resolution of dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain after 2 months of use. In a separate experiment, aromatase and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression were investigated in the endometrial tissue of 42 patients submitted to laparoscopy and hysteroscopy for the management of endometriosis. Sixteen of these patients were using oral contraceptives alone prior to hospital admission, while the remaining 26 were using them in combination with resveratrol. Inhibition of both aromatase and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression was significantly greater in the eutopic endometrium of patients using combined drospirenone + resveratrol therapy compared with the endometrium of patients using oral contraceptives alone.Conclusion: These results suggest that resveratrol potentiates the effect of oral contraceptives in the management of endometriosis-associated dysmenorrhea by further decreasing aromatase and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression in the endometrium.Keywords: resveratrol, drospirenone, endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, cyclo-oxygenase-2

  3. pH-Free Measurement of Relative Acidities, Including Isotope Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    A powerful pH-free multicomponent NMR titration method can measure relative acidities, even of closely related compounds, with excellent accuracy. The history of the method is presented, along with details of its implementation and a comparison with earlier NMR titrations using a pH electrode. Many of its areas of applicability are described, especially equilibrium isotope effects. The advantages of the method, some practical considerations, and potential pitfalls are considered. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Generic Advantages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Generic Advantages. Scalability an incremental coverage. Standardization. Business Plan Flexibility. Lifecycle Flexibility. Reliability. Service Interoperability. Changed Industry dynamics.

  5. Absolute advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractA country is said to have an absolute advantage over another country in the production of a good or service if it can produce that good or service using fewer real resources. Equivalently, using the same inputs, the country can produce more output. The concept of absolute advantage can

  6. Comparative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jie; Jensen, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    that are typically explained from the supply-side variables, the comparative advantage of the exporting countries. A simple model is proposed and tested. The results render strong support for the relevance of supply-side factors such as natural endowments, technology, and infrastructure in explaining international...

  7. How Environmental Uncertainty Moderates the Effect of Relative Advantage and Perceived Credibility on the Adoption of Mobile Health Services by Chinese Organizations in the Big Data Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Zhang, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of adoption of mobile health services by an organization on the diffusion of mobile technology in the big data era, it has received minimal attention in literature. This study investigates how relative advantage and perceived credibility affect an organization's adoption of mobile health services, as well as how environmental uncertainty changes the relationship of relative advantage and perceived credibility with adoption. A research model that integrates relative advantage, perceived credibility, environmental uncertainty, and an organization's intention to use mobile health service is developed. Quantitative data are collected from senior managers and information systems managers in 320 Chinese healthcare organizations. The empirical findings show that while relative advantage and perceived credibility both have positive effects on an organization's intention to use mobile health services, relative advantage plays a more important role than perceived credibility. Moreover, environmental uncertainty positively moderates the effect of relative advantage on an organization's adoption of mobile health services. Thus, mobile health services in environments characterized with high levels of uncertainty are more likely to be adopted because of relative advantage than in environments with low levels of uncertainty.

  8. How Environmental Uncertainty Moderates the Effect of Relative Advantage and Perceived Credibility on the Adoption of Mobile Health Services by Chinese Organizations in the Big Data Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of adoption of mobile health services by an organization on the diffusion of mobile technology in the big data era, it has received minimal attention in literature. This study investigates how relative advantage and perceived credibility affect an organization’s adoption of mobile health services, as well as how environmental uncertainty changes the relationship of relative advantage and perceived credibility with adoption. A research model that integrates relative advantage, perceived credibility, environmental uncertainty, and an organization’s intention to use mobile health service is developed. Quantitative data are collected from senior managers and information systems managers in 320 Chinese healthcare organizations. The empirical findings show that while relative advantage and perceived credibility both have positive effects on an organization’s intention to use mobile health services, relative advantage plays a more important role than perceived credibility. Moreover, environmental uncertainty positively moderates the effect of relative advantage on an organization’s adoption of mobile health services. Thus, mobile health services in environments characterized with high levels of uncertainty are more likely to be adopted because of relative advantage than in environments with low levels of uncertainty.

  9. Brokers and Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Ryall; Olav Sorenson

    2007-01-01

    The broker profits by intermediating between two (or more) parties. Using a biform game, we examine whether such a position can confer a competitive advantage, as well as whether any such advantage could persist if actors formed relations strategically. Our analysis reveals that, if one considers exogenous the relations between actors, brokers can enjoy an advantage but only if (1) they do not face substitutes either for the connections they offer or the value they can create, (2) they interm...

  10. Including chemical-related impact categories in LCA on printed matter does it matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Morten Søes; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    global warming, acidification and nutrification. The studies focus on energy consumption including the emissions and impact categories related to energy. The chemical-related impact categories comprising ecotoxicity and human toxicity are not included at all or only to a limited degree. In this paper we...... include these chemical-related impact categories by making use of some of the newest knowledge about emissions from the production at the printing industry combined with knowledge about the composition of the printing materials used during the production of offset printed matter. This paper is based...... printed matter produced on a fictitious sheet feed offset printing industry in Europe has been identified and shown in Figure 1 (light bars). „Ï The effect of including the chemical related impact categories is substantial as shown in Figure 1, e.g. the importance of paper is reduced from 67% to 31...

  11. Advantage Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Increased focus has been placed on the issues of energy access and energy poverty over the last number of years, most notably indicated by the United Nations (UN) declaring 2012 as the 'International Year of Sustainable Energy for All'. Although attention in these topics has increased, incorrect assumptions and misunderstandings still arise in both the literature and dialogues. Access to energy does not only include electricity, does not only include cook stoves, but must include access to all types of energy that form the overall energy system. This paper chooses to examine this energy system using a typology that breaks it into 3 primary energy subsystems: heat energy, electricity and transportation. Describing the global energy system using these three subsystems provides a way to articulate the differences and similarities for each system's required investments needs by the private and public sectors.

  12. Intravenous heroin use in Haiphong, Vietnam: Need for comprehensive care including methamphetamine use-related interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Laurent; Des Jarlais, Don C; Duong Thi, Huong; Khuat Thi Hai, Oanh; Pham Minh, Khuê; Peries, Marianne; Vallo, Roselyne; Nham Thi Tuyet, Thanh; Hoang Thi, Giang; Le Sao, Mai; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Vu Hai, Vinh; Moles, Jean-Pierre; Laureillard, Didier; Nagot, Nicolas

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe patterns among people who inject drugs (PWID), risk-related behaviours and access to methadone treatment, in order to design a large-scale intervention aiming to end the HIV epidemic in Haiphong, Vietnam. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was first conducted to identify profiles of drug use and HIV risk-related behaviour among PWID. A sample of PWID was then included in a one-year cohort study to describe access to methadone treatment and associated factors. Among the 603 patients enrolled in the RDS survey, 10% were female, all were injecting heroin and 24% were using methamphetamine, including 3 (0.5%) through injection. Different profiles of risk-related behaviours were identified, including one entailing high-risk sexual behaviour (n=37) and another involving drug-related high-risk practices (n=22). High-risk sexual activity was related to binge drinking and methamphetamine use. Among subjects with low sexual risk, sexual intercourse with a main partner with unknown serostatus was often unprotected. Among the 250 PWID included in the cohort, 55.2% initiated methadone treatment during the follow-up (versus 4.4% at RDS); methamphetamine use significantly increased. The factors associated with not being treated with methadone after 52 weeks were fewer injections per month and being a methamphetamine user at RDS. Heroin is still the main drug injected in Haiphong. Methamphetamine use is increasing markedly and is associated with delay in methadone initiation. Drug-related risks are low but sexual risk behaviours are still present. Comprehensive approaches are needed in the short term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases....

  14. Force measuring valve assemblies, systems including such valve assemblies and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWall, Kevin George [Pocatello, ID; Garcia, Humberto Enrique [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael George [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-17

    Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include stroking a valve member and measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke. Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include measuring a force acting on a valve member in the presence of fluid flow over a period of time and evaluating at least one of the frequency of changes in the measured force over the period of time and the magnitude of the changes in the measured force over the period of time to identify the presence of an anomaly in a fluid flow and, optionally, its estimated location. Methods of evaluating a valve condition may include directing a fluid flow through a valve while stroking a valve member, measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke, and comparing the measured force to a reference force. Valve assemblies and related systems are also disclosed.

  15. Educational advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This issue of JERHRE examines informed consent requirements as they arise in diverse countries and cultures, and in relation to level of risk of the research and vulnerability of the potential participants. It also examines issues of literacy as they affect informed consent. And it examines whether research participants want to be informed. Adequate informed consent is a statement that is meaningful and understandable by the particular research participant and that allows the participant free choice regarding participation. The way in which an adequate consent procedure is administered must, by definition, depend on the level of literacy of the potential research participants, and the nature and values of the culture of the potential participants. An implication of these requirements is that Western consent procedures are likely to violate ethical standards when employed in non-Western cultures. Educational activities presented below will enable readers to consolidate their knowledge and understanding of these issues. Written informed consent statements are not valid for use with research participants who lack literacy. The level of literacy required depends on the complexity of the research topic. In Clough et al., we find that cultural differences in self-concept, understanding of research methods, level of education, and deference to researchers challenge researchers to modify standard consent procedures to render them valid in some cultural contexts. In Abou Zeina et al., we find an even more complex problem of communicating patients' rights to illiterate patients in an Egyptian public hospital: not only can they not read, but they consider "patients' rights" as the least of their problems. In Iverson et al., we find still different issues concerning the scientific literacy of surrogate decision makers for critically ill patients. And in Ghandour et al., we find in Lebanon, within a very large sample of socioeconomically diverse students, a virtually total lack

  16. Advantages of dietary, exercise-related, and therapeutic interventions to prevent and treat sarcopenia in adult patients: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Waters

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available DL Waters1, RN Baumgartner2, PJ Garry3, B Vellas41Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 2Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA; 3Department of Pathology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA; 4Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatric Medicine, University Hospital Center of Toulouse, Gerontopole, Toulouse, FranceAbstract: Sarcopenia is the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with aging. Although the term sarcopenia was first coined in 1989, its etiology is still poorly understood. Moreover, a consensus for defining sarcopenia continues to elude us. Sarcopenic changes in the muscle include losses in muscle fiber quantity and quality, alpha-motor neurons, protein synthesis rates, and anabolic and sex hormone production. Other factors include basal metabolic rate, increased protein dietary requirements, and chronic inflammation secondary to age-related changes in cytokines and oxidative stress. These changes lead to decreased overall physical functioning, increased frailty, falls risk, and ultimately the loss of independent living. Because the intertwining relationships of these factors are complex, effective treatment options are still under investigation. The published data on sarcopenia are vast, and this review is not intended to be exhaustive. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current knowledge of the definition, etiology, consequences, and current clinical trials that may help address this pressing public health problem for our aging populations.Keywords: aging, muscle loss, nutrition, physical activity

  17. The Online Social Networking of Cyberspace: A Study on the Development of an Online Social Network Project and the Sport Industry's Perception of Its Relative Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptrap, Timothy John

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory case study examined online social networking (OSN), and the perceptions of Sport Marketing students and sport industry professional as to the relative advantage of the OSN tools in the marketplace. The conceptual framework for this study was based on Boyer's (1990) concepts of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL), and the…

  18. The disease related deaths due to differentiated thyroid carcinomas treated multidisciplinary, including radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovic, Lj.; Kermeci, K.; Malesevic, M.; Mihailovic, J.; Srbovan, D.; Popadic, S.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the disease related deaths of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients treated multidisciplinary, including radioiodine. Patients and Methods: 364 DTC patients were treated from 1977 to the end of 2000. All patients were operated, treated by radioiodine and by hormonal therapy, external radiotherapy was applied in 22 and chemotherapy in 6 of them. 54 treated patients were lost from the follow-up. The course of disease and outcomes are known in 310 patients, among them 53 patients died. The disease related deaths occurred in 33 (10.6%) patients. Results: Between 33 patients whose deaths were in relation with DTC the disease progression was the cause of deaths in 30 (9.7% of treated) patients (the locoregional disease in 10, distant metastases /M1/ in 17, locoregional disease + M1 in 3 patients). From the late complications of treatment died 3 (1%) patients (all of them were in complete remission to the deaths). The mean survival of these 33 patients from the diagnosis to the end of the life was 6.9 years, median 5.1 years, range 2 months to 23.9 years. The five years survived 54.6% of them, 10 years 21.2% and more than 20 years 3%. M1 had 72.7% of patients (lung and/or bone M1 were present in 91.7% of them), N1 had 69.7% and in 30.3% local tumor was T4. In relation to all treated patients died 14.6% men compared to 9% women (p<0.05), 15.7% of patients 45 years old or older compared to 4.4% of younger then 45 years (p<0.001) and 21.3% of patients with follicular type of DTC compared to 7.3% with papillary type (p<0.001). From all patients without radioiodine accumulation in tumor tissue died 60%. Conclusion: The DTC related deaths were the consequence of M1 and less frequently the result of locoregional disease (T4 and/or N1) in about 1/10 of all treated patients. The deaths as result of the late complications of treatment were exceptional. The deaths were significantly more frequent between males, patients 45 years old or older and patients

  19. Inverted duplication including Endothelin 3 closely related to dermal hyperpigmentation in Silkie chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming TIAN,Suyun FANG,Yanqiang WANG,Xiaorong GU,Chungang FENG,Rui HAO,Xiaoxiang HU,Ning LI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dermal hyperpigmentation phenotype in chickens is controlled by the dominant fibromelanosis allele. One of the ten unique characteristics of Silkie chickens is the fibromelanosis phenotype, which is pigmentation in the dermal layer of the skin and connective tissue. In this study, we found a mutation of fibromelanosis, a genomic rearrangement that included an inverted duplication of endothelin3 (EDN3, is responsible. We show that, as a stimulator of melanoblast proliferation, EDN3 expression was increased in silkie embryos and in both skin and muscle throughout adulthood. EDN3 expression led to an increase in expression of the downstream genes EDNRB2 and TYRP2, and was closely relate with the hyperpigmentation phenotype. We examined eight different Chinese chicken breeds showing hyperpigmentation and conclude that this structural genetic variant exists in all fibromelanosis chicken breeds.

  20. Cost of tobacco-related diseases, including passive smoking, in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, S M; Ho, L M; Lapsley, H M; Chau, J; Cheung, W L; Ho, S Y; Pow, M; Lam, T H; Hedley, A J

    2006-04-01

    Costs of tobacco-related disease can be useful evidence to support tobacco control. In Hong Kong we now have locally derived data on the risks of smoking, including passive smoking. To estimate the health-related costs of tobacco from both active and passive smoking. Using local data, we estimated active and passive smoking-attributable mortality, hospital admissions, outpatient, emergency and general practitioner visits for adults and children, use of nursing homes and domestic help, time lost from work due to illness and premature mortality in the productive years. Morbidity risk data were used where possible but otherwise estimates based on mortality risks were used. Utilisation was valued at unit costs or from survey data. Work time lost was valued at the median wage and an additional costing included a value of USD 1.3 million for a life lost. In the Hong Kong population of 6.5 million in 1998, the annual value of direct medical costs, long term care and productivity loss was USD 532 million for active smoking and USD 156 million for passive smoking; passive smoking accounted for 23% of the total costs. Adding the value of attributable lives lost brought the annual cost to USD 9.4 billion. The health costs of tobacco use are high and represent a net loss to society. Passive smoking increases these costs by at least a quarter. This quantification of the costs of tobacco provides strong motivation for legislative action on smoke-free areas in the Asia Pacific Region and elsewhere.

  1. Some Mathematical Structures Including Simplified Non-Relativistic Quantum Teleportation Equations and Special Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woesler, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The computations of the present text with non-relativistic quantum teleportation equations and special relativity are totally speculative, physically correct computations can be done using quantum field theory, which remain to be done in future. Proposals for what might be called statistical time loop experiments with, e.g., photon polarization states are described when assuming the simplified non-relativistic quantum teleportation equations and special relativity. However, a closed time loop would usually not occur due to phase incompatibilities of the quantum states. Histories with such phase incompatibilities are called inconsistent ones in the present text, and it is assumed that only consistent histories would occur. This is called an exclusion principle for inconsistent histories, and it would yield that probabilities for certain measurement results change. Extended multiple parallel experiments are proposed to use this statistically for transmission of classical information over distances, and regarding time. Experiments might be testable in near future. However, first a deeper analysis, including quantum field theory, remains to be done in future

  2. Competitive Advantage through Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, Maximilian; Wimschneider, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe how Nespresso achieved competitive advantage through innovation by changing the rules of the game in its industry. Design/methodology/approach Nespresso was analyzed based on public available secondary data, in combination with related academic...... concepts on innovation and competitive advantage. Findings The company succeeded by the thorough application of a strategy that, through perfect alignment, allowed the company to reach a unique market position. However, as described in the case, it took a relatively long time and the company came close...... as a source for competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications Especially given the current market situation, the case offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and long-term company success. Practical implications Especially before the current market situation, the case...

  3. Cocombustion of peat and biofuels - ash-related system advantages; Samfoerbraenning av torv och biobraenslen - askrelaterade systemfoerdelar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, Marcus [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry; Burvall, Jan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Unit for Biomass Technology and Chemistry

    2006-12-30

    In heat and power plants peat fuels are, for combustion technical reasons, often co-combusted in fuel blends together with wood fuels. The aim of the present work has therefore been to investigate the possible interacting effects that cocombustion of peat and biofuels has on the whole bioenergy system with focus on the ash properties. Ash related problems in heat and power plants, especially in fluidised bed combustion (FB), can be minimised by co-combustion of peat and wood fuels. The fuel flexibility is one of the reasons why FB is the most common technology when new boilers are built for heat and power production. When biofuels are burned in FB-boilers total defluidisation has been relatively frequently reported. Co-combustion of peat and biofuels minimise the risk for total defluidisation, which result in an unscheduled plant shut down. For FB-boilers, problems related to the ash properties in the fuel or fuel blends are often observed. Today, co-combustion of peat and biofuels are used in practise for approximately 50 % of all FB-boilers in Sweden. For these plants, the low risk for total defluidisation (translated to economical figures) could be evaluated to 20-30 million SEK or 100 GWh annually. That is because no additional costs will occur for more expensive energy sources such as oil, gas, and electricity. Co-combustion still has a potential to introduce for the rest of the fluidised bed plants in Sweden, which will give approximately the same economical figures as given above. Corrosion problems, which result in unacceptable short lifetime of the super heater tube surfaces, have been reported from approximately 50 % of the biofuel supplied power plants in Sweden. These problems are more frequent in the middle and southern parts of Sweden. The reasons for these problems may be related to that higher use of forests residues and recovered-wood materials containing higher contents of chlorine and alkali. The experience from the owners of the power plants and

  4. Sex-related time-dependent variations in post-stroke survival-evidence of a female stroke survival advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2007-01-01

    the influence of gender on post-stroke mortality, from the time of admission through the subsequent years until death or censoring ( mean follow-up time: 538 days). All patients underwent an evaluation including stroke severity, computed tomography and cardiovascular risk factors. Independent predictors......Background: Women live longer than men, yet most studies show that gender has no influence on survival after stroke. Methods: A registry was started in 2001, with the aim of registering all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark, and it now holds 39,484 patients of which 48% are female. We studied...... of death were identified by means of a survival model based on 22,222 individuals with a complete data set. Results: Females were older and had severer stroke. Interestingly, the risk of death between genders was time dependent. The female/male stroke mortality rate favoured women from the first day...

  5. Teaching Children How to Include the Inversion Principle in Their Reasoning about Quantitative Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Evans, Deborah; Bell, Daniel; Barros, Rossana

    2012-01-01

    The basis of this intervention study is a distinction between numerical calculus and relational calculus. The former refers to numerical calculations and the latter to the analysis of the quantitative relations in mathematical problems. The inverse relation between addition and subtraction is relevant to both kinds of calculus, but so far research…

  6. United Kingdom nationwide study of avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S N; Palmer, N O A; Lowe, D; Randall, C

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to record all new patients who presented to departments of oral surgery, oral medicine, and oral and maxillofacial surgery, and to dental hospitals in the UK, with avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis (BRONJ) over a 2-year period (1 June 2009-31 May 2011). They were eligible irrespective of age, cause, or coexisting conditions. Data on incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, and coexisting conditions were collected. A total of 383 cases were registered: 369 were described as BRONJ, 5 as avascular necrosis, and 9 were unknown. Bisphosphonates had been given orally in 207 (56%), intravenously in 125 (34%), both orally and intravenously in 27 (7%), and was unknown in 9 (2%); one had been given denosumab. The main risk factor was dental extraction, and the mandible was commonly affected. The median duration of administration until onset of BRONJ was 3 years in those treated intravenously and 4 years in those treated orally. Levels of engagement with the study varied between regions, and extrapolation from the 2 most involved (Merseyside and Northern Ireland) found around 8.2-12.8 cases/million/year, which is 508-793 patients/year across the UK. To our knowledge this is one of the first studies to estimate national rates of BRONJ. It confirms that the risk and incidence are low. With changes in trends for antiresorptive bone medication, and increasing numbers of elderly people, it would be useful to repeat the registration in the future. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  8. Age-related changes in the bimanual advantage and in brain oscillatory activity during tapping movements suggest a decline in processing sensory reafference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallard, Etienne; Spierer, Lucas; Ludwig, Catherine; Deiber, Marie-Pierre; Barral, Jérôme

    2014-02-01

    Deficits in the processing of sensory reafferences have been suggested as accounting for age-related decline in motor coordination. Whether sensory reafferences are accurately processed can be assessed based on the bimanual advantage in tapping: because of tapping with an additional hand increases kinesthetic reafferences, bimanual tapping is characterized by a reduced inter-tap interval variability than unimanual tapping. A suppression of the bimanual advantage would thus indicate a deficit in sensory reafference. We tested whether elderly indeed show a reduced bimanual advantage by measuring unimanual (UM) and bimanual (BM) self-paced tapping performance in groups of young (n = 29) and old (n = 27) healthy adults. Electroencephalogram was recorded to assess the underlying patterns of oscillatory activity, a neurophysiological mechanism advanced to support the integration of sensory reafferences. Behaviorally, there was a significant interaction between the factors tapping condition and age group at the level of the inter-tap interval variability, driven by a lower variability in BM than UM tapping in the young, but not in the elderly group. This result indicates that in self-paced tapping, the bimanual advantage is absent in elderly. Electrophysiological results revealed an interaction between tapping condition and age group on low beta band (14-20 Hz) activity. Beta activity varied depending on the tapping condition in the elderly but not in the young group. Source estimations localized this effect within left superior parietal and left occipital areas. We interpret our results in terms of engagement of different mechanisms in the elderly depending on the tapping mode: a 'kinesthetic' mechanism for UM and a 'visual imagery' mechanism for BM tapping movement.

  9. Variational and symplectic integrators for satellite relative orbit propagation including drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Leonel; Gurfil, Pini

    2018-04-01

    Orbit propagation algorithms for satellite relative motion relying on Runge-Kutta integrators are non-symplectic—a situation that leads to incorrect global behavior and degraded accuracy. Thus, attempts have been made to apply symplectic methods to integrate satellite relative motion. However, so far all these symplectic propagation schemes have not taken into account the effect of atmospheric drag. In this paper, drag-generalized symplectic and variational algorithms for satellite relative orbit propagation are developed in different reference frames, and numerical simulations with and without the effect of atmospheric drag are presented. It is also shown that high-order versions of the newly-developed variational and symplectic propagators are more accurate and are significantly faster than Runge-Kutta-based integrators, even in the presence of atmospheric drag.

  10. 3D numerical surface charge model including relative permeability : the general theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casteren, van D.T.E.H.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the still "open" issues within low-frequency magnetics is the inclusion of µr in the calculations using the magnetic charge method. In this paper a new iterative method to take the relative permeability into account is investigated. Results show that the model accurately accounts for the

  11. Including pride and its group-based, relational, and contextual features in theories of contempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gavin Brent

    2017-01-01

    Sentiment includes emotional and enduring attitudinal features of contempt, but explaining contempt as a mixture of basic emotion system affects does not adequately address the family resemblance structure of the concept. Adding forms of individual, group-based, and widely shared arrogance and contempt is necessary to capture the complex mixed feelings of proud superiority when "looking down upon" and acting harshly towards others.

  12. On the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stress including Specific Results related to Dolosse

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; Howell, G.L.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structural integrity. The paper presents a general discussion of the problems related to stress etermination and describes the results and the analyses of model tests with 200 kg and 200 g load-cell instrume...

  13. Relation between generalized Bogoliubov and Bogoliubov-de Gennes approaches including Nambu-Goldstone mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, M.; Okumura, M.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The two approaches of consistent quantum field theory for systems of the trapped Bose-Einstein condensates are known, one is the Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach and the other is the generalized Bogoliubov approach. In this paper, we investigate the relation between the two approaches and show that they are formally equivalent to each other. To do this one must carefully treat the Nambu-Goldstone mode which plays a crucial role in the condensation. It is emphasized that the choice of vacuum is physically relevant

  14. Possible Simple Structures of the Universe to Include General Relativity Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu BERBENTE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The general relativity describes the universe properties, the gravity playing a fundamental role. One uses a metric tensor in a Riemann space, g  , which should be in agreement with a mass (or energy tensor in order to satisfy the Einstein equation of the general relativity [1]. This equation contains the Ricci curvature as well. In general, applications are done considering that a chosen metric is valid without region limits. In fact, the density of the energy whose distribution is however unknown is variable in universe; therefore, the metrics need to be adapted to different regions. For this reason one suggests to start with a simple, average mass-energy distribution that could represent in a first step the actual universe. This suggestion is in agreement with the symmetrical distribution of equal spheres existing in a model of the early universe given by one of the authors. Two kinds of distribution are given. The possibility of black holes formation is studied and a criterion is given.

  15. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Robert Dominick

    2014-09-09

    Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

  16. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in several organisms including humans from Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsolini, S. [Siena Univ. (Italy); Kannan, K. [New York State Univ., Albany, NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant, extremely resistant to environmental degradation and is ubiquitous in the environment. Traditional monitoring studies for persistent chemicals failed to identify this contaminant for a long time because of its unique physicochemical properties and its tendency to bind to proteins instead of accumulating in fatty tissues. PFOS is known to be toxic in laboratory animals (rats, mice, monkeys) at levels close to the range already found in organisms and people. PFOS has been commercially produced by an electrochemical fluorination process for over 40 years. Perfluorooctane sulfonylfluoride (POSF; C{sub 8}F{sub 17}SO{sub 2}F) is used as a building block for further reactions that produce several other sulfonated fluorinated compounds, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (C{sub 8}F{sub 17}SO{sub 3}{sup -}) and other precursor molecules such as n-ethyl or n-methyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol. POSF-based fluorochemicals have been used in a wide variety of industrial and consumer products, including protective coatings for carpets and apparel, paper coatings, insecticide formulations, and surfactants. These compounds repel water and oil, reduce surface tension, catalyze oligomerization and polymerization, and maintain their properties under extreme conditions. Depending upon the specific functional derivatization or the degree of polymerization, POSF-based chemicals may degrade or metabolize to PFOS, which is known to be the final metabolite of POSF-based fluorochemicals. PFOS is stable, chemically inert, and non-reactive and has the potential to bioaccumulate. It has been found in polar bears from the Arctic, albatross and other fish-eating water birds in the mid-Pacific, and aquatic organisms11 and people world-wide. PFOS and other perfluorinated chemicals such as perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been detected in human blood. In

  17. On the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stress including Specific Results related to Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Howell, G.L.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structu......Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams...... and scale effects. Moreover, some results from the Crescent City Prototype Dolosse study are presented and related to results from small-de model tests. A preliminary design diagram for Dolosse ir presented as well....

  18. Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw

    2013-09-01

    For years, radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations have been applied in the modern world. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones called recent attention to the possible health risks of RF/MW exposures. In 2011, a group of international experts organized by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. Three meta-analyses of case-control studies have concluded that using cell phones for more than ten years was associated with an increase in the overall risk of developing a brain tumor. The Interphone Study, the largest health-related case-control international study of use of cell phones and head and neck tumors, showed no statistically significant increases in brain cancers related to higher amounts of cell phone use, but excess risk in a small subgroup of more heavily exposed users associated with latency and laterality was reported. So far, the published studies do not show that mobile phones could for sure increase the risk of cancer. This conclusion is based on the lack of a solid biological mechanism, and the fact that brain cancer rates are not going up significantly. However, all of the studies so far have weaknesses, which make it impossible to entirely rule out a risk. Mobile phones are still a new technology and there is little evidence about effects of long-term use. For this reason, bioelectromagnetic experts advise application of a precautionary resources. It suggests that if people want to use a cell phone, they can choose to minimize their exposure by keeping calls short and preferably using hand-held sets. It also advises discouraging children from making non essential calls as well as also keeping their calls short.

  19. Fine-mapping diabetes-related traits, including insulin resistance, in heterogeneous stock rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Katie L.; Oreper, Daniel; Xie, Yuying; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Valdar, William

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease of relative insulin deficiency resulting from both insulin resistance and beta cell failure. We have previously used heterogeneous stock (HS) rats to fine-map a locus for glucose tolerance. We show here that glucose intolerance in the founder strains of the HS colony is mediated by different mechanisms: insulin resistance in WKY and an insulin secretion defect in ACI, and we demonstrate a high degree of variability for measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in HS rats. As such, our goal was to use HS rats to fine-map several diabetes-related traits within a region on rat chromosome 1. We measured blood glucose and plasma insulin levels after a glucose tolerance test in 782 male HS rats. Using 97 SSLP markers, we genotyped a 68 Mb region on rat chromosome 1 previously implicated in glucose and insulin regulation. We used linkage disequilibrium mapping by mixed model regression with inferred descent to identify a region from 198.85 to 205.9 that contains one or more quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fasting insulin and a measure of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. This region also encompasses loci identified for fasting glucose and Insulin_AUC (area under the curve). A separate <3 Mb QTL was identified for body weight. Using a novel penalized regression method we then estimated effects of alternative haplotype pairings under each locus. These studies highlight the utility of HS rats for fine-mapping genetic loci involved in the underlying causes of T2D. PMID:22947656

  20. Comparison of behavioral profiles for anxiety-related comorbidities including ADHD and selective mutism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Decanini, Tal; Connolly, Sucheta D; Simpson, David; Suarez, Liza; Jacob, Suma

    2013-09-01

    Elucidating differences in social-behavioral profiles of children with comorbid presentations, utilizing caregiver as well as teacher reports, will refine our understanding of how contextual symptoms vary across anxiety-related disorders. In our pediatric anxiety clinic, the most frequent diagnoses and comorbidities were mixed anxiety (MA; ≥ 1 anxiety disorder; N = 155), anxiety with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MA/ADHD, N = 47) and selective mutism (SM, N = 48). Behavioral measures (CPRS, CTRS) were analyzed using multiple one-way multivariate analyses of covariance tests. Differences between the three diagnostic groups were examined using completed parent and teacher reports (N = 135, 46, and 48 for MA, MA/ADHD, and SM groups, respectively). Comparisons across the MA, MA/ADHD, and SM groups indicate a significant multivariate main effect of group for caregiver and teacher responses (P < 0.01). Caregivers reported that children with SM are similar in profile to those with MA, and both groups were significantly different from the MA/ADHD group. Teachers reported that children with SM had more problems with social behaviors than with the MA or MA/ADHD groups. Further comparison indicates a significant main effect of group (P < 0.001), such that children with SM have the greatest differences in behavior observed by teachers versus caregivers. Clinical profiles between MA/ADHD, MA, and SM groups varied, illustrating the importance of multi-rater assessment scales to capture subtle distinctions and to inform treatment planning given that comorbidities occur frequently in children who present with anxiety. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. 41 CFR 301-74.16 - What must be included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must be included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance? 301-74.16 Section 301-74.16... included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance? (a) Any advertisement...

  2. High relative humidity in-package of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables: advantage or disadvantage considering microbiological problems and antimicrobial delivering systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Zavala, J F; Del-Toro-Sánchez, L; Alvarez-Parrilla, E; González-Aguilar, G A

    2008-05-01

    This hypothesis article states that the high relative humidity (RH) of packaged fresh-cut fruits or vegetables that is associated with spoilage can be used as an advantageous way to deliver antimicrobial compounds using cyclodextrins (CDs) as carriers. CDs can function as antimicrobial delivery systems as they can release antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds (guest molecules) as the humidity levels increase in the headspace. Hydrophobic antimicrobial guests can be complexed with CDs due to the amphiphatic nature of the host. Then, at high RH values, due to the water-CDs interaction, host-guest interactions are weakened; consequently, the antimicrobial molecule is released and should protect the product against the microbial growth. Potential antimicrobial compounds capable of forming complexes with CDs are discussed, as well as possible applications to preserve fresh-cut produce and future research in this area.

  3. Competitive advantage and corporate communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic importance of corporate communications and its role in the development of competitive advantage has attracted interest of numerous researchers in the fields of organization, management, marketing and public relations. Recent studies particularly emphasise the growing importance of soft factors, such as reputation in the development of competitive advantage. Concept of reputation is strongly connected with stakeholder theory, which stresses the importance of corporate communications for competitive advantage of firms. The paper focuses on competitive advantage and the link among strategy, reputation and corporate communications.

  4. Competitive versus comparative advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Neary, J. Peter

    2002-01-01

    I explore the interactions between comparative, competitive and absolute advantage in a two-country model of oligopoly in general equilibrium. Comparative advantage always determines the direction of trade, but both competitive and absolute advantage affect resource allocation, trade patterns and trade volumes. Competitive advantage in the sense of more home firms drives foreign firms out of marginal sectors but also makes some marginal home sectors uncompetitive. Absolute advantage in the se...

  5. Rapid Improvement of thyroid storm-related hemodynamic collapse by aggressive anti-thyroid therapy including steroid pulse

    OpenAIRE

    Kiriyama, Hiroyuki; Amiya, Eisuke; Hatano, Masaru; Hosoya, Yumiko; Maki, Hisataka; Nitta, Daisuke; Saito, Akihito; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Minatsuki, Shun; Sato, Tatsuyuki; Murakami, Haruka; Uehara, Masae; Manaka, Katsunori; Makita, Noriko; Watanabe, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Heart failure is relatively common in patients with hyperthyroidism, but thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy with poor left ventricular (LV) systolic function is very rare. Patient concerns: We experienced a representative case of a patient who presented with severe LV dysfunction related to thyroid storm and needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) temporally. Diagnosis: Thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy. Interventions and Outcomes: Aggressive antithyroid therapy, including steroi...

  6. Explaining the Immigrant Health Advantage: Self-selection and Protection in Health-Related Factors Among Five Major National-Origin Immigrant Groups in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riosmena, Fernando; Kuhn, Randall; Jochem, Warren C.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being newcomers, immigrants often exhibit better health relative to native-born populations in industrialized societies. We extend prior efforts to identify whether self-selection and/or protection explain this advantage. We examine migrant height and smoking levels just prior to immigration to test for self-selection; and we analyze smoking behavior since immigration, controlling for self-selection, to assess protection. We study individuals aged 20–49 from five major national origins: India, China, the Philippines, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. To assess self-selection, we compare migrants, interviewed in the National Health and Interview Surveys (NHIS), with nonmigrant peers in sending nations, interviewed in the World Health Surveys. To test for protection, we contrast migrants’ changes in smoking since immigration with two counterfactuals: (1) rates that immigrants would have exhibited had they adopted the behavior of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites in the NHIS (full —assimilation ); and (2) rates that migrants would have had if they had adopted the rates of nonmigrants in sending countries (no-migration scenario). We find statistically significant and substantial self-selection, particularly among men from both higher-skilled (Indians and Filipinos in height, Chinese in smoking) and lower-skilled (Mexican) undocumented pools. We also find significant and substantial protection in smoking among immigrant groups with stronger relative social capital (Mexicans and Dominicans). PMID:28092071

  7. Do holocentric chromosomes represent an evolutionary advantage? A study of paired analyses of diversification rates of lineages with holocentric chromosomes and their monocentric closest relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Corro, José Ignacio; Escudero, Marcial; Luceño, Modesto

    2017-10-17

    Despite most of the cytogenetic research is focused on monocentric chromosomes, chromosomes with kinetochoric activity localized in a single centromere, several studies have been centered on holocentric chromosomes which have diffuse kinetochoric activity along the chromosomes. The eukaryotic organisms that present this type of chromosomes have been relatively understudied despite they constitute rather diversified species lineages. On the one hand, holocentric chromosomes may present intrinsic benefits (chromosome mutations such as fissions and fusions are potentially neutral in holocentrics). On the other hand, they present restrictions to the spatial separation of the functions of recombination and segregation during meiotic divisions (functions that may interfere), separation that is found in monocentric chromosomes. In this study, we compare the diversification rates of all known holocentric lineages in animals and plants with their most related monocentric lineages in order to elucidate whether holocentric chromosomes constitute an evolutionary advantage in terms of diversification and species richness. The results showed that null hypothesis of equal mean diversification rates cannot be rejected, leading us to surmise that shifts in diversification rates between holocentric and monocentric lineages might be due to other factors, such as the idiosyncrasy of each lineage or the interplay of evolutionary selections with the benefits of having either monocentric or holocentric chromosomes.

  8. Stat6 activity-related Th2 cytokine profile and tumor growth advantage of human colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ben Hui; Xu, Shuang Bing; Li, Feng; Zou, Xiao Guang; Saimaiti, Abudukeyoumu; Simayi, Dilixia; Wang, Ying Hong; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Jia; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2012-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (Stat6) is critical in Th2 polarization of immune cells and active Stat6 activity has been suggested in anti-tumor immunity in animal models. The present study aims at investigating the impact of natural Stat6 activity on tumor microenvironment in human colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Using colorectal cancer cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 whose IL-4/Stat6 activities were known and nude mice as a model, we examined correlative relationships between Stat6 activities and gene expression profiles together with cellular behaviors in vitro and in vivo. HT-29 cells carrying active Stat6 signaling displayed spontaneous expression profiles favoring Th2 cytokines, cell cycle promotion, anti-apoptosis and pro-metastasis with increased mRNA levels of IL-4, IL-13, GATA-3, CDK4, CD44v6 and S100A4 using RT-PCR. In contrast, Caco-2 cells carrying defective Stat6 signaling exhibited spontaneous expression profiles favoring Th1 and Th17 cytokines, cell cycle inhibition, pro-apoptosis and anti-metastasis with elevated mRNA expression of IFNγ, TNFα, IL-12A, IL-17, IL-23, T-bet, CDKN1A, CDKNIB, CDKN2A and NM23-H1. Xenograft tumors of Stat6-active HT-29 cells showed a growth advantage over those of Stat6-defective Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, mice bearing HT-29 tumors expressed increased levels of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 in the blood and pro-growth and/or pro-metastasis proteins CDK4 and CD44v6 in the tumor. To the contrary, mice bearing Caco-2 tumors expressed heightened levels of Th1 cytokines IFNγ and TNF in the blood and pro-apoptosis and anti-metastatic proteins p53 and p27(kip1) in the tumor. Colorectal cancer cells carrying active Stat6 signaling may create a microenvironment favoring Th2 cytokines and promoting expression of genes related to pro-growth, pro-metastasis and anti-apoptosis, which leads to a tumor growth advantage in vivo. These findings may imply why Stat6 pathway is constitutively activated in a

  9. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zaharia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative as possible the business strategy of the organizations, their capacity of interacting with customers and other categories of audience. Such concepts as strategic positioning, relational marketing, management of the relationship with the consumer, marketing integrated research, a.s.o. are only a few of the tools with the help of which the marketing managers will implement successful operational strategies. All these developments are creating a real new paradigm of Marketing aimed to better explain the new types of complex market relationship in which the 21st Century organization is .

  10. Canadian competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, J.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of the Canadian petrochemical industry was outlined, emphasizing the proximity to feedstocks as the principal advantage enjoyed by the industry over its international competitors. Annual sales statistics for 1995 were provided. Key players in the Canadian petrochemical industry (Nova, Dow, DuPont, Methanex, Esso, Union Carbide, Shell and Celanese), their share of the market and key products were noted. Manufacturing facilities are located primarily in Alberta, southern Ontario and Quebec. The feedstock supply infrastructure, historical and alternative ethane pricing in Canada and the US, the North American market for petrochemicals, the competitiveness of the industry, tax competitiveness among Canadian provinces and the US, the Canada - US unit labour cost ratio, ethylene facility construction costs in Canada relative to the US Gulf Coast, and projected 1997 financial requirements were reviewed. 19 figs

  11. The assessment of cyberstalking: an expanded examination including social networking, attachment, jealousy, and anger in relation to violence and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawhun, Jenna; Adams, Natasha; Huss, Matthew T

    2013-01-01

    Because the first antistalking statute was enacted in California in 1990, stalking research has been expanded immensely, yet been largely confined to exploring traditional pursuit tactics. This study instead examined the prevalence and correlates of cyberstalking behaviors while examining the phenomenon in a more inclusive manner than previous studies focusing on cyberstalking by including social networking avenues. In addition to a measure assessing cyberstalking-related behaviors, questionnaires assessing pathological aspects of personality, including attachment style, interpersonal jealousy, interpersonal violence, and anger were also provided to participants. Results indicate that, given preliminary evidence, cyberstalking-related behaviors are related to past measures of traditional stalking and cyberstalking, although prior attachment, jealousy, and violence issues within relationships are significant predictors of cyberstalking-related behaviors. In addition, unexpected gender differences emerged. For example, women admitted greater frequencies of cyberstalking perpetration than males, signaling that further research on frequency and motivation for cyberstalking among the sexes is necessary.

  12. Competitive advantage and corporate communications

    OpenAIRE

    Mitić Sanja; Ognjanov Galjina

    2013-01-01

    Strategic importance of corporate communications and its role in the development of competitive advantage has attracted interest of numerous researchers in the fields of organization, management, marketing and public relations. Recent studies particularly emphasise the growing importance of soft factors, such as reputation in the development of competitive advantage. Concept of reputation is strongly connected with stakeholder theory, which stresses the importance of corporate communications ...

  13. STRATEGIES FOR ACHIEVING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Jusuf ZEKIRI; Alexandru NEDELEA

    2011-01-01

    This paper is organized in three parts. A brief overview of the importance of strategies within companies, as well as literature review is presented along with traditional approaches on strategies for achieving competitive advantage, and new approaches for gaining a competitive advantage. The main objective of the paper is to outline and discuss the relevant issues and challenges from a theoretical viewpoint related with the possible strategy formulation of companies in order to achieve a com...

  14. Practical advantages of evolutionary computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, David B.

    1997-10-01

    Evolutionary computation is becoming a common technique for solving difficult, real-world problems in industry, medicine, and defense. This paper reviews some of the practical advantages to using evolutionary algorithms as compared with classic methods of optimization or artificial intelligence. Specific advantages include the flexibility of the procedures, as well as their ability to self-adapt the search for optimum solutions on the fly. As desktop computers increase in speed, the application of evolutionary algorithms will become routine.

  15. Does an advantageous occupational position make women happier in contemporary Japan? Findings from the Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity (J-HOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Umeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational position is one of the determinants of psychological health, but this association may differ for men and women depending on the social context. In contemporary Japanese society, occupational gender segregation persists despite increased numbers of women participating in the labour market, which may contribute to gender specific patterns in the prevalence of poor psychological health. The present study examined gender specific associations between occupational position and psychological health in Japan, and the potential mediating effects of job control and effort–reward imbalance in these associations. We used data obtained from 7123 men and 2222 women, aged between 18 and 65 years, who participated in an occupational cohort study, the Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity (J-HOPE, between 2011 and 2012. We used logistic regression to examine the association between occupational position and poor psychological health, adjusted for age, working hours, household income and education, as well as psychosocial work characteristics (job control and effort–reward imbalance. The prevalence of poor psychological health increased from manual/service occupations (23% to professionals/managers (38% among women, while it did not vary by occupational position among men. In women, the significant association between occupational position and psychological health was not explained by job control, but was attenuated by effort–reward imbalance. Our findings suggest that Japanese women in more advantaged occupational positions are likely to be at a greater risk for poor psychological health due to higher levels of effort–reward imbalance at work.

  16. Morphological evaluation of fetus CNS and its related anomalies; The advantages and limitations of prenatal diagnosis by means of MRI, US, and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, Shizuo; Tamaki, Norihiko; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Katayama, Kazuaki; Mochizuki, Matsuto (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-08-01

    The fetal central nervous system was evaluated morphologically by ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and CT scan to analyze the prenatal diagnostic value for anomalies. A total of 31 patients with 42 lesions had been diagnosed during the preceding 7 years. The patients included 24 with hydrocephalus, three with anencephaly, three with myeloschisis, three with holoprosencephaly, three with an encephalocele, two with a Dandy-Walker cyst, one with hydroencephalodysplasia, one with an intracranial neoplasm, one with sacrococcygeal teratoma, and one with sacral agenesis. Compared with US and MRI, CT proved to be more accurate in the detection of spine and cranium-bone morphology. This finding seems to be valuable in the diagnosis of spina bifida, cranium bifidum and some cases of hypertensive hydrocephalus, especially in the axial view. MRI was definitely superior in the anatomico-pathological diagnosis of cerebral dysgenesis, ventriculomegaly, intracranial tumors, and other brain parenchymal changes in view of multi-dimensional analysis. MRI performed poorly in the diagnosis of spine and cranium morphology. A super-conducting MRI system is still insufficient to demonstrate the spinal cord of a fetus. US used routinely and multidimensional slices were valuable for screening the CNS abnormalies. Intracranial hematomas had a specific echogenecity on US. However, US sometimes failed to demarcate the cerebral parenchymal or subdural morphological changes because its artifacts had hyperchoic shadows. While US, MRI, and CT were valuable diagnostic tools in the morphological evaluation of fetal CNS anomalies, each modality has different advantages and disadvantages. Diagnostic advandage,depending on the nature of the anamoly, can be achieved by using the complementary imaging modalities.

  17. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  18. Accessing offshoring advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Motika, Agnes; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    . Assuming that different levels of synergy may exist between particular offshoring strategic decisions (choosing offshore outsourcing or captive offshoring and the type of function) and different offshoring advantages, this work advocates that the actual fact of realization of certain offshoring advantages...

  19. Advantages of Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanidis, P. K.; Bakhos, T.; Cardiff, M. A.; Barrash, W.

    2012-12-01

    Characterizing the subsurface is significant for most hydrogeologic studies, such as those involving site remediation and groundwater resource explo¬ration. A variety of hydraulic and geophysical methods have been developed to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. Hydraulic methods based on the analysis of conventional pumping tests allow the estimation of conductivity and storage without need for approximate petrophysical relations, which is an advantage over most geophysical methods that first estimate other properties and then infer values of hydraulic parameters. However, hydraulic methods have the disadvantage that the head-change signal decays with distance from the pumping well and thus becomes difficult to separate from noise except in close proximity to the source. Oscillatory hydraulic tomography (OHT) is an emerging technology to im¬age the subsurface. This method utilizes the idea of imposing sinusoidally varying pressure or discharge signals at several points, collecting head observations at several other points, and then processing these data in a tomographic fashion to estimate conductivity and storage coefficients. After an overview of the methodology, including a description of the most important potential advantages and challenges associated with this approach, two key promising features of the approach will be discussed. First, the signal at an observation point is orthogonal to and thus can be separated from nuisance inputs like head fluctuation from production wells, evapotranspiration, irrigation, and changes in the level of adjacent streams. Second, although the signal amplitude may be weak, one can extract the phase and amplitude of the os¬cillatory signal by collecting measurements over a longer time, thus compensating for the effect of large distance through longer sampling period.

  20. Time-domain simulation of constitutive relations for nonlinear acoustics including relaxation for frequency power law attenuation media modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Noé; Camarena, Francisco; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-10-01

    We report a numerical method for solving the constitutive relations of nonlinear acoustics, where multiple relaxation processes are included in a generalized formulation that allows the time-domain numerical solution by an explicit finite differences scheme. Thus, the proposed physical model overcomes the limitations of the one-way Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) type models and, due to the Lagrangian density is implicitly included in the calculation, the proposed method also overcomes the limitations of Westervelt equation in complex configurations for medical ultrasound. In order to model frequency power law attenuation and dispersion, such as observed in biological media, the relaxation parameters are fitted to both exact frequency power law attenuation/dispersion media and also empirically measured attenuation of a variety of tissues that does not fit an exact power law. Finally, a computational technique based on artificial relaxation is included to correct the non-negligible numerical dispersion of the finite difference scheme, and, on the other hand, improve stability trough artificial attenuation when shock waves are present. This technique avoids the use of high-order finite-differences schemes leading to fast calculations. The present algorithm is especially suited for practical configuration where spatial discontinuities are present in the domain (e.g. axisymmetric domains or zero normal velocity boundary conditions in general). The accuracy of the method is discussed by comparing the proposed simulation solutions to one dimensional analytical and k-space numerical solutions.

  1. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  2. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some......In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance...

  3. Advantages of magnification radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, K.

    1976-01-01

    Geometric arrangements and exposure conditions used in different magnification techniques are described and the following advantages of radiographic magnification technique are discussed: sharpness effect; noise effect; air gap effect; and visual effect. The magnification technique can be used in various diagnostic procedures as a means of improving the image quality of radiographs

  4. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some...... of the present theory to understanding Chinese firms. I conclude with managerial implications and suggestions for future research....

  5. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    processes and behavioural dimensions is practically non-existent. This article tries to remedy the current gap in the literature by reviewing research findings on interfirm collaboration (alliances). On that basis a conceptual framework for analyzing partnership processes is developed. Finally......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...... is that public management research can benefit from drawing upon existing alliance research. Alliance scholars have during the past couple of decades accumulated an impressive amount of knowledge on different aspects of inter-firm cooperation, and therefore the learning potential for public management scholars...

  6. [Internet research methods: advantages and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Tien, Yueh-Hsuan

    2009-12-01

    Compared to traditional research methods, using the Internet to conduct research offers a number of advantages to the researcher, which include increased access to sensitive issues and vulnerable / hidden populations; decreased data entry time requirements; and enhanced data accuracy. However, Internet research also presents certain challenges to the researcher. In this article, the advantages and challenges of Internet research methods are discussed in four principle issue areas: (a) recruitment, (b) data quality, (c) practicality, and (d) ethics. Nursing researchers can overcome problems related to sampling bias and data truthfulness using creative methods; resolve technical problems through collaboration with other disciplines; and protect participant's privacy, confidentiality and data security by maintaining a high level of vigilance. Once such issues have been satisfactorily addressed, the Internet should open a new window for Taiwan nursing research.

  7. Trust, Commitment and Competitive Advantage in SMEs Export Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Daud Ismail

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The entry of small businesses into international markets has intensified. However, despite the growing presence of small businesses in international markets, studies into their international behavior, particularly regarding the effect of international relationships on international outcomes, remain limited. This study investigates the cross-border relationships of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs by examining the effects of the dimensions of the key relationship on the competitive advantage and performance of SMEs in export markets. These dimensions include trust and commitment. Results indicate that trust is significantly related to commitment and export performance. Commitment is positively related to competitive advantage but not to export performance. Trust affects competitive advantage through commitment. The effect of commitment on export performance is mediated by competitive advantage. The methodology and results are presented. The conclusion, implications, and limitations of this study are also discussed.

  8. Creating corporate advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, D J; Montgomery, C A

    1998-01-01

    What differentiates truly great corporate strategies from the merely adequate? How can executives at the corporate level create tangible advantage for their businesses that makes the whole more than the sum of the parts? This article presents a comprehensive framework for value creation in the multibusiness company. It addresses the most fundamental questions of corporate strategy: What businesses should a company be in? How should it coordinate activities across businesses? What role should the corporate office play? How should the corporation measure and control performance? Through detailed case studies of Tyco International, Sharp, the Newell Company, and Saatchi and Saatchi, the authors demonstrate that the answers to all those questions are driven largely by the nature of a company's special resources--its assets, skills, and capabilities. These range along a continuum from the highly specialized at one end to the very general at the other. A corporation's location on the continuum constrains the set of businesses it should compete in and limits its choices about the design of its organization. Applying the framework, the authors point out the common mistakes that result from misaligned corporate strategies. Companies mistakenly enter businesses based on similarities in products rather than the resources that contribute to competitive advantage in each business. Instead of tailoring organizational structures and systems to the needs of a particular strategy, they create plain-vanilla corporate offices and infrastructures. The company examples demonstrate that one size does not fit all. One can find great corporate strategies all along the continuum.

  9. Interim staff position on environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment: including staff responses to public comments. Regulatory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szukiewicz, A.J.

    1981-07-01

    This document provides the NRC staff positions regarding selected areas of environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment, in the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-24, 'Qualification of Class IE Safety-Related Equipment.' The positions herein are applicable to plants that are or will be in the construction permit (CP) or operating license (OL) review process and that are required to satisfy the requirements set forth in either the 1971 or the 1974 version of IEEE-323 standard

  10. Digital linear accelerator: The advantages for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andric, S.; Maksimovic, M.; Dekic, M.; Clark, T.

    1998-01-01

    Technical performances of Digital Linear Accelerator were presented to point out its advantages for clinical radiotherapy treatment. The accelerator installation is earned out at Military Medical Academy, Radiotherapy Department, by Medes and Elekta companies. The unit offers many technical advantages with possibility of introduction new conformal treatment techniques as stereotactic radiosurgery, total body and total skin irradiation. In the paper are underlined advantages in relation to running conventional accelerator units at Yugoslav radiotherapy departments, both from technical and medical point of view. (author)

  11. 25 CFR 1000.242 - What provisions relating to a construction program may be included in an AFA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Construction § 1000.242 What provisions relating to a... specific provisions of the Office of Federal Procurement and Policy Act and Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  12. Data Mining of Web-Based Documents on Social Networking Sites That Included Suicide-Related Words Among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juyoung; Song, Tae Min; Seo, Dong-Chul; Jin, Jae Hyun

    2016-12-01

    To investigate online search activity of suicide-related words in South Korean adolescents through data mining of social media Web sites as the suicide rate in South Korea is one of the highest in the world. Out of more than 2.35 billion posts for 2 years from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012 on 163 social media Web sites in South Korea, 99,693 suicide-related documents were retrieved by Crawler and analyzed using text mining and opinion mining. These data were further combined with monthly employment rate, monthly rental prices index, monthly youth suicide rate, and monthly number of reported bully victims to fit multilevel models as well as structural equation models. The link from grade pressure to suicide risk showed the largest standardized path coefficient (beta = .357, p < .001) in structural models and a significant random effect (p < .01) in multilevel models. Depression was a partial mediator between suicide risk and grade pressure, low body image, victims of bullying, and concerns about disease. The largest total effect was observed in the grade pressure to depression to suicide risk. The multilevel models indicate about 27% of the variance in the daily suicide-related word search activity is explained by month-to-month variations. A lower employment rate, a higher rental prices index, and more bullying were associated with an increased suicide-related word search activity. Academic pressure appears to be the biggest contributor to Korean adolescents' suicide risk. Real-time suicide-related word search activity monitoring and response system needs to be developed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 41 and 42: Lenses and Mirrors; Relativity; and Appendix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  14. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Procedures for Special Educational Programs (Including Related Services) for Preschool Children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... arts, and mathematics, to determine whether a preschool child or child may be in need of special... special educator, school psychologist, speech therapist, or a reading specialist, in conformity with the... a multidisciplinary team and shall include a teacher or other specialist with knowledge in the areas...

  15. Multiple analyte adduct formation in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry - Advantages and limitations in the analysis of biologically-related samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadosz, Marek

    2018-05-01

    Multiple analyte adduct formation was examined and discussed in the context of reproducible signal detection in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry applied in the analysis of biologically-related samples. Appropriate infusion solutions were prepared in H 2 O/methanol (3/97, v/v) with 1 mM sodium acetate and 10 mM acetic acid. An API 4000 QTrap tandem mass spectrometer was used for experiments performed in the negative scan mode (-Q1 MS) and the negative enhanced product ion mode (-EPI). γ‑Hydroxybutyrate and its deuterated form were used as model compounds to highlight both the complexity of adduct formation in popular mobile phases used and the effective signal compensation by the application of isotope-labelled analytes as internal standards. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparing Outcomes and Cost of 3 Surgical Treatments for Sagittal Synostosis: A Retrospective Study Including Procedure-Related Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Sarah T; Karsy, Michael; Kestle, John R W; Siddiqi, Faizi; Spanos, Stephen P; Riva-Cambrin, Jay

    2017-10-01

    Neurosurgical techniques for repair of sagittal synostosis include total cranial vault (TCV) reconstruction, open sagittal strip (OSS) craniectomy, and endoscopic strip (ES) craniectomy. To evaluate outcomes and cost associated with these 3 techniques. Via retrospective chart review with waiver of informed consent, the last consecutive 100 patients with sagittal synostosis who underwent each of the 3 surgical correction techniques before June 30, 2013, were identified. Clinical, operative, and process of care variables and their associated specific charges were analyzed along with overall charge. The study included 300 total patients. ES patients had fewer transfusion requirements (13% vs 83%, P cost savings compared with the TCV reconstruction. The charges were similar to those incurred with OSS craniectomy, but patients had a shorter length of stay and fewer revisions. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  17. A Conceptual Mapping Resource Advantage Theory, Competitive Advantage Theory, and Transient Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanta PERANGINANGIN

    2015-01-01

    Competitive advantage is the main purposed of the business entity focusing on market base view. Resource advantage theorists put their concern to empowering resources development with resources based view, in the other side needs to redefining competitive advantage. All the competitive advantage are transient, concluded the end of competitive advantage. Redefining competitive advantage by selling migration and shrewdness outward. This research to emphasize innovation capability rarely appears...

  18. Advantageous direct quantification of viable closely related probiotics in petit-suisse cheeses under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions by Propidium Monoazide--qPCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lissete Morales Villarreal

    Full Text Available Species-specific Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR alone and combined with the use of propidium monoazide (PMA were used along with the plate count method to evaluate the survival of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12, and the bacteriocinogenic and potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a in synbiotic (F1 and probiotic (F2 petit-suisse cheeses exposed throughout shelf-life to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. The three strains studied showed a reduction in their viability after the 6 h assay. Bb-12 displayed the highest survival capacity, above 72.6 and 74.6% of the initial populations, respectively, by plate count and PMA-qPCR, maintaining population levels in the range or above 6 log CFU/g. The prebiotic mix of inulin and FOS did not offer any additional protection for the strains against the simulated gastrointestinal environment. The microorganisms' populations were comparable among the three methods at the initial time of the assay, confirming the presence of mainly viable and culturable cells. However, with the intensification of the stress induced throughout the various stages of the in vitro test, the differences among the methods increased. The qPCR was not a reliable enumeration method for the quantification of intact bacterial populations, mixed with large numbers of injured and dead bacteria, as confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy results. Furthermore, bacteria plate counts were much lower (P<0.05 than with the PMA-qPCR method, suggesting the accumulation of stressed or dead microorganisms unable to form colonies. The use of PMA overcame the qPCR inability to differentiate between dead and alive cells. The combination of PMA and species-specific qPCR in this study allowed a quick and unequivocal way of enumeration of viable closely related species incorporated into probiotic and synbiotic petit-suisse cheeses and

  19. Age- and risk-related appropriateness of the use of available influenza vaccines in the Italian elderly population is advantageous: results from a budget impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, M; Capri, S; Waure, C DE; Boccalini, S; Panatto, D

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, four different types of influenza vaccines are available in Italy: trivalent (TIV), quadrivalent (QIV), MF59-adjuvanted (aTIV) and intradermal TIV (idTIV) inactivated vaccines. Recently, a concept of the appropriateness (i.e. according to the age and risk factors) of the use of different vaccines has been established in Italy. We conducted a budget impact analysis of switching to a policy, in which the Italian elderly (who carry the major disease burden) received the available vaccines according to their age and risk profile. A novel budget impact model was constructed with a time horizon of one influenza season. In the reference scenario the cohort of Italian elderly individuals could receive either available vaccine according to 2017/18 season market share. The alternative scenario envisaged the administration of TIV/QIV to people aged 65-74 years and at low risk of developing influenza-related complications, while aTIV/idTIV were allocated to high-risk 65-74-year-olds and all subjects aged ≥ 75 years. Switching to the alternative scenario would result in both significant health benefits and net budget savings. Particularly, it would be possible to prevent an additional 8201 cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza, 988 complications, 355 hospitalizations and 14 deaths. Despite the alternative strategy being associated with slightly higher vaccination costs, the total savings derived from fewer influenza events completely resets this increase with net budget savings of € 0.13 million. An immunization policy in which influenza vaccines are administered according to the age and risk profile of Italian elderly individuals is advisable.

  20. Development of several data bases related to reactor safety research including probabilistic safety assessment and incident analysis at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kensuke; Oikawa, Tetsukuni; Watanabe, Norio; Izumi, Fumio; Higuchi, Suminori

    1986-01-01

    Presented are several databases developed at JAERI for reactor safety research including probabilistic safety assessment and incident analysis. First described are the recent developments of the databases such as 1) the component failure rate database, 2) the OECD/NEA/IRS information retrieval system, 3) the nuclear power plant database and so on. Then several issues are discussed referring mostly to the operation of the database (data input and transcoding) and to the retrieval and utilization of the information. Finally, emphasis is given to the increasing role which artifitial intelligence techniques such as natural language treatment and expert systems may play in improving the future capabilities of the databases. (author)

  1. Health-related quality of life and hand eczema--a comparison of two instruments, including factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhammar, Lena-Marie; Nyfjäll, Mats; Lindberg, Magnus; Meding, Birgitta

    2004-06-01

    Hand eczema is a disease of long duration, affecting the individual and society. The purpose of this study of 100 patients (51 females and 49 males) at an occupational dermatology clinic was to investigate whether the generic questionnaire Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the dermatology-specific Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) are appropriate for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with hand eczema, and whether gender differences in HRQL could be detected. HRQL was affected by hand eczema, measured with both SF-36 and DLQI. The SF-36 showed more impaired HRQL for females than for males, in the mental health dimension, whereas no gender-related differences were detected with the DLQI. To compare the instruments we used factor analysis, with a polychoric correlation matrix as input, thus taking the ordinal aspect of the data into account. There was a high correlation between the instruments for physical health, but lower for mental health. In this context our interpretation of the factor analysis is that the SF-36 measures mental health better than the DLQI. The SF-36 therefore appears suitable for use in future studies for measuring HRQL, and gender differences in HRQL, in persons with reported hand eczema.

  2. A novel mutation in two Hmong families broadens the range of STRA6-related malformations to include contractures and camptodactyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcadier, Julien L; Mears, Alan J; Woods, Elizabeth A; Fisher, Jamie; Airheart, Cory; Qin, Wen; Beaulieu, Chandree L; Dyment, David A; Innes, A Micheil; Curry, Cynthia J

    2016-01-01

    PDAC (also termed Matthew Wood) syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by pulmonary hypoplasia/aplasia, diaphragmatic defects, bilateral anophthalmia, and cardiac malformations. The disorder is caused by mutations in STRA6, an important regulator of vitamin A and retinoic acid metabolism. We describe six cases from four families of Hmong ancestry, seen over a 30 years period in California. These include: (i) consanguineous siblings with a combination of bilateral anophthalmia, diaphragmatic abnormalities, truncus arteriosus, and/or pulmonary agenesis/hypoplasia; (ii) a singleton fetus with bilateral anophthalmia, pulmonary agenesis, cardiac malformation, and renal hypoplasia; (iii) a sibling pair with a combination of antenatal contractures, camptodactyly, fused palpebral fissures, pulmonary agenesis, and/or truncus arteriosus; (iv) a fetus with bilateral anophthalmia, bushy eyebrows, pulmonary agenesis, heart malformation, and abnormal hand positioning. The phenotypic spectrum of PDAC syndrome has until now not included contractures or camptodactyly. Sequencing of STRA6 in unrelated members of families three and four identified a novel, shared homozygous splice site alteration (c.113 + 3_4delAA) that is predicted to be pathogenic. We hypothesize this may represent a unique disease allele in the Hmong. We also provide a focused review of all published PDAC syndrome cases with confirmed or inferred STRA6 mutations, illustrating the phenotypic and molecular variability that characterizes this disorder. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Patient-related factors and circumstances surrounding decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment, including intensive care unit admission refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reignier, Jean; Dumont, Romain; Katsahian, Sandrine; Martin-Lefevre, Laurent; Renard, Benoit; Fiancette, Maud; Lebert, Christine; Clementi, Eva; Bontemps, Frederic

    2008-07-01

    To assess decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment (LST) in patients too sick for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, comparatively to patients admitted to the ICU. Prospective observational cohort study. A medical-surgical ICU. Consecutive patients referred to the ICU during a one-yr period. None. Of 898 triaged patients, 147 were deemed too well to benefit from ICU admission. Decisions to forego LST were made in 148 of 666 (22.2%) admitted patients and in all 85 patients deemed too sick for ICU admission. Independent predictors of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal rather than after ICU admission were: age; underlying disease; living in an institution; preexisting cognitive impairment; admission for medical reasons; and acute cardiac failure, acute central neurologic illness, or sepsis. Hospital mortality after decisions to forego LST was not significantly different in refused and admitted patients (77.5% vs. 86.5%; p = .1). Decisions to forego LST were made via telephone in 58.8% of refused patients and none of the admitted patients. Nurses caring for the patient had no direct contact with the ICU physicians for 62.3% of the decisions in refused patients, whereas meetings between nurses and physicians occurred in 70.3% of decisions to forego LST in the ICU. Patients or relatives were involved in 28.2% of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal compared with 78.4% of decisions to forego LST in ICU patients (p refused patients (vs. none of admitted patients) and were associated with less involvement of nurses and relatives compared with decisions in admitted patients. Further work is needed to improve decisions to forego LST made under the distinctive circumstances of triage.

  4. Serum levels of IGF-1 are related to human skin characteristics including the conspicuousness of facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Y; Naoe, A; Ohuchi, A; Kitahara, T

    2011-04-01

    Conspicuous facial pores are one type of serious aesthetic defects for many women. However, the mechanism(s) that underlie the conspicuousness of facial pores remains unclear. We previously characterized the epidermal architecture around facial pores that correlates with the appearance of those pores in various ethnic groups including Japanese. The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible relationships between facial pore size, the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores and sebum output levels to investigate the possible role of IGF-1 in the pathogenesis of conspicuous facial pores. The subjects consisted of 38 healthy Japanese women (aged 22-41 years). IGF-1 was measured using immunoradiometric assay. Surface replicas were collected to compare pore sizes of cheek skin and horizontal cross-section images of cheek skin were obtained non-invasively from the same subjects using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy and the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores was determined. The skin surface lipids of each subject were collected from their cheeks and lipid classes were determined using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. The serum level of IGF-1 correlated significantly with total pore area (R = 0.36, P facial pores (R = 0.43, P pore area (R = 0.32, P facial skin characteristics including facial pore size and with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Advantages of later motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrskylä, M; Barclay, K; Goisis, A

    2017-01-01

    In high-income countries childbearing has been increasingly postponed since the 1970s and it is crucial to understand the consequences of this demographic shift. The literature has tended to characterize later motherhood as a significant health threat for children and parents. We contribute to this debate by reviewing recent evidence suggesting that an older maternal age can also have positive effects. Literature linking the age at parenthood with the sociodemographic characteristics of the parents, with macrolevel interactions, and with subjective well-being. Comprehensive review of the existing literature. Recent studies show that there can also be advantages associated with later motherhood. First, whilst in past older mothers had low levels of education and large families, currently older mothers tend to have higher education and smaller families than their younger peers. Consequently, children born to older mothers in the past tended to have worse outcomes than children born to younger mothers, whilst the opposite is true in recent cohorts. Second, postponement of childbearing means that the child is born at a later date and in a later birth cohort, and may benefit from secular changes in the macroenvironment. Evidence shows that when the positive trends in the macroenvironment are strong they overweigh the negative effects of reproductive ageing. Third, existing studies show that happiness increases around and after childbirth among older mothers, whereas for younger mothers the effect does not exist or is short-lived. There are important sociodemographic pathways associated with postponement of childbearing which might compensate or even more than compensate for the biological disadvantages associated with reproductive ageing.

  6. Commentary on nuclear power plant control room habitability - including a review of related LERs (1981-1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.; Kotra, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    A review of Licensee Event Reports filed by the operator of commercial nuclear power plants from 1981 through 1983 has revealed that approximately 3% pertain to systems that maintain or monitor control room habitability. Dominant contributors were deficiencies in normal and emergency trains of heating, ventilation, air conditioning and air cleaning systems (45%), deficiencies in atmospheric monitors for toxic and radioactive substances (27%) and deficiencies in fire protection systems (13%). To correct the situation revealed by these analyses and by information provided from other sources, it is recommended that the NRC incorporate into its program plan the development of information that anticipates the conditions within a control room during emergencies, and that criteria for habitability within the control room be better defined. In addition, it is suggested than an improved protocol for testing control room air-related systems be developed, that the required thickness and number of layers of charcoal adsorption beds for control room air cleaning systems be re-evaluated, and that steps be taken to improve the quality of heating, ventilating, air conditioning and air cleaning components. It is also recommended that greater emphasis be placed on maintaining nuclear power plant control rooms in a habitable condition during emergencies so that the operators can remain there and safely shut down the plant, in contrast to placing reliance on the use of remote shutdown panels or auxiliary control facilities

  7. Variations in Carabidae assemblages across the farmland habitats in relation to selected environmental variables including soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Baranová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The variations in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae assemblages across the three types of farmland habitats, arable land, meadows and woody vegetation were studied in relation to vegetation cover structure, intensity of agrotechnical interventions and selected soil properties. Material was pitfall trapped in 2010 and 2011 on twelve sites of the agricultural landscape in the Prešov town and its near vicinity, Eastern Slovakia. A total of 14,763 ground beetle individuals were entrapped. Material collection resulted into 92 Carabidae species, with the following six species dominating: Poecilus cupreus, Pterostichus melanarius, Pseudoophonus rufipes, Brachinus crepitans, Anchomenus dorsalis and Poecilus versicolor. Studied habitats differed significantly in the number of entrapped individuals, activity abundance as well as representation of the carabids according to their habitat preferences and ability to fly. However, no significant distinction was observed in the diversity, evenness neither dominance. The most significant environmental variables affecting Carabidae assemblages species variability were soil moisture and herb layer 0-20 cm. Another best variables selected by the forward selection were intensity of agrotechnical interventions, humus content and shrub vegetation. The other from selected soil properties seem to have just secondary meaning for the adult carabids. Environmental variables have the strongest effect on the habitat specialists, whereas ground beetles without special requirements to the habitat quality seem to be affected by the studied environmental variables just little.

  8. Determination of Equilibrium Constant and Relative Brightness in FRET-FCS by Including the Third-Order Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingyi; He, Shanshan; Zhao, Xin Sheng

    2017-12-21

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) encodes the information on the equilibrium constant (K), the relative fluorescence brightness of fluorophore (Q), and the forward and backward reaction rate constants (k + and k - ) on a physical or chemical relaxation. However, it has been a long-standing problem to completely resolve the FCS data to get the thermodynamic and kinetic information. Recently, we have solved the problem for fluorescence autocorrelation spectroscopy (FACS). Here, we extend the method to fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS), which appears when FCS is coupled with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Among 12 total second-order and third-order pre-exponential factors in a relaxation process probed by the FRET-FCS technique, 3 are independent. We presented and discussed 3 sets of explicit solutions to use these pre-exponential factors to calculate K and Q. Together with the relaxation time, the acquired K will allow people to obtain k + and k - , so that the goal of deciphering the FRET-FCS data will be fully reached. The theory is verified by extensive computer simulations and tested experimentally on a system of oligonucleotide hybridization.

  9. Relative Advantage: Strength for Favorable Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    by their extremes but by their limitations…Second: War’s original aims and methods are constantly revised by the stresses and actions of war…Third...monograph. Originally published following the Vietnam Conflict, this work provides a discussion on the “intellectual difficulty in connecting military...Derailing the Tokyo Express, Jack Coombe asserts that, “the islands of Palau, Yap, and Ulithi; and the Philippines, [were] all part of a gigantic dagger

  10. On the relative advantage of cooperatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm......We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm...

  11. A General Discussion of Problems Related to the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stresses Including Specific Results related to Static and Dynamic Stresses in Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1989-01-01

    Recent breakwater failures revealed the shortcomings of the traditional design procedures for concrete armour units. This paper deals with one of them, which can be expressed as the "lack of balance between the hydraulic stability of the armour layer and the mechanical strength or integrity...... of the units". This problem is related mainly to the slender types of armour units. The paper discusses the various types of loads, and the practical determination of the wave and gravity induced loads and stresses, especially the model test technique and its restrictions. Examples related to Dolosse...

  12. Contextual Advantage for State Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, David; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2018-02-01

    Finding quantitative aspects of quantum phenomena which cannot be explained by any classical model has foundational importance for understanding the boundary between classical and quantum theory. It also has practical significance for identifying information processing tasks for which those phenomena provide a quantum advantage. Using the framework of generalized noncontextuality as our notion of classicality, we find one such nonclassical feature within the phenomenology of quantum minimum-error state discrimination. Namely, we identify quantitative limits on the success probability for minimum-error state discrimination in any experiment described by a noncontextual ontological model. These constraints constitute noncontextuality inequalities that are violated by quantum theory, and this violation implies a quantum advantage for state discrimination relative to noncontextual models. Furthermore, our noncontextuality inequalities are robust to noise and are operationally formulated, so that any experimental violation of the inequalities is a witness of contextuality, independently of the validity of quantum theory. Along the way, we introduce new methods for analyzing noncontextuality scenarios and demonstrate a tight connection between our minimum-error state discrimination scenario and a Bell scenario.

  13. Contextual Advantage for State Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schmid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding quantitative aspects of quantum phenomena which cannot be explained by any classical model has foundational importance for understanding the boundary between classical and quantum theory. It also has practical significance for identifying information processing tasks for which those phenomena provide a quantum advantage. Using the framework of generalized noncontextuality as our notion of classicality, we find one such nonclassical feature within the phenomenology of quantum minimum-error state discrimination. Namely, we identify quantitative limits on the success probability for minimum-error state discrimination in any experiment described by a noncontextual ontological model. These constraints constitute noncontextuality inequalities that are violated by quantum theory, and this violation implies a quantum advantage for state discrimination relative to noncontextual models. Furthermore, our noncontextuality inequalities are robust to noise and are operationally formulated, so that any experimental violation of the inequalities is a witness of contextuality, independently of the validity of quantum theory. Along the way, we introduce new methods for analyzing noncontextuality scenarios and demonstrate a tight connection between our minimum-error state discrimination scenario and a Bell scenario.

  14. Home advantage in professional tennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2011-01-01

    Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in

  15. The Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    In this article we clarify the historical roots of stakeholder theory to establish that a much larger role was played by Scandinavian thinkers in its development than is currently acknowledged. We show that important contributions to the stakeholder concept were being made by Eric Rhenman and his...... Scandinavian contemporaries in parallel to the contributions from the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) in the early 1960s and thereafter and thus are not a “historical trail” as they are currently labeled. Therefore we offer a significant modification to the historical narrative as presented in Strategic...... Management: A Stakeholder Approach (Freeman, 1984). These important Scandinavian contributions include the first publication and description of the expression „stakeholder‟ in management literature accessible to scholars throughout the world and the introduction of the first stakeholder map to the management...

  16. Parenting Advantage in the MNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Ambos, Björn

    2013-01-01

    subsidiaries located in Europe. Our results indicate that the external embeddedness of the MNC is an antecedent to headquarters' value creation. We find that headquarters' investments into their own relationships with the subsidiaries' contexts are positively related to the value added by headquarters....... Furthermore, this relationship is stronger when the subsidiary itself is strongly embedded. We discuss implications for the MNC literature, embeddedness research, and the literature on parenting and headquarters' roles......What determines the value an MNC's headquarters adds to its own affiliates? In this paper, we shed light on this question by linking the embeddedness view of the multinational corporation to the literature on parenting advantage. We test our hypotheses on an original dataset of 124 manufacturing...

  17. The Temporal Limits of Technological Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    technologically advanced capabilities. “ Technology , in fact, is one of the keys to understanding relations between Hitler’s regime and the German business ...strategy sought to “leverage US advantages in technologies 2 like big data, stealth, advanced manufacturing (e.g. 3-D printing), robotics, and... history has had different parameters and different results, examining historical situations in which a technological advantage has been achieved

  18. MOLDOVA: MISSED ADVANTAGES OF EURASIAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Vasiljevna Fokina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to potentially missed advantages of Eurasian integration (EAEU for Moldova. Special attention is given to the branches in which the country could get evident advantages including agriculture, power engineering, external trade ties with the EAEU countries. Possible positive effects of Eurasian integration in solution of the Transnistrian problem, in the sphere of labour migration and other fields are also shown.

  19. Biomass as a fuel: Advantages, limitations and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBurney, B.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation briefly outlines major issues related to the use of biomass fuels. Advantages and disadvantages of biomass fuels are identified, as well as major factors that may facilitate greater use of biomass fuels. Highlights of the US DOE Biomass Power Program, program activities, and demonstration projects are presented. Some statistical and economic data are provided, including biomass fueled electric capacity, biomass energy consumption by sector, and fuel cost savings and greenhouse gas emissions reductions for four biomass co-fired units

  20. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  1. Advantaged Bidders in Franchise Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, V.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Consider a government that auctions a franchise for, e.g., an airport, telecommunication network, or utility. Consider an 'incumbent bidder' that owns a complement or substitute. With an auction on the transfer (i.e. payment) to the government, the incumbent is advantaged.If the government regulates the market with an auction on the price asked to consumers, it depends who is advantaged. With complements, the incumbent is advantaged: it can set a lower price on the new franchise, as this inc...

  2. Analysis of the impact of climate change on groundwater related hydrological fluxes: a multi-model approach including different downscaling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stoll

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change related modifications in the spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation and evapotranspiration will have an impact on groundwater resources. This study presents a modelling approach exploiting the advantages of integrated hydrological modelling and a broad climate model basis. We applied the integrated MIKE SHE model on a perialpine, small catchment in northern Switzerland near Zurich. To examine the impact of climate change we forced the hydrological model with data from eight GCM-RCM combinations showing systematic biases which are corrected by three different statistical downscaling methods, not only for precipitation but also for the variables that govern potential evapotranspiration. The downscaling methods are evaluated in a split sample test and the sensitivity of the downscaling procedure on the hydrological fluxes is analyzed. The RCMs resulted in very different projections of potential evapotranspiration and, especially, precipitation. All three downscaling methods reduced the differences between the predictions of the RCMs and all corrected predictions showed no future groundwater stress which can be related to an expected increase in precipitation during winter. It turned out that especially the timing of the precipitation and thus recharge is very important for the future development of the groundwater levels. However, the simulation experiments revealed the weaknesses of the downscaling methods which directly influence the predicted hydrological fluxes, and thus also the predicted groundwater levels. The downscaling process is identified as an important source of uncertainty in hydrological impact studies, which has to be accounted for. Therefore it is strongly recommended to test different downscaling methods by using verification data before applying them to climate model data.

  3. Logistics potentials in business competitive advantage creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Matwiejczuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Companies constantly search for ways to achieve and sustain long-term competitive advantage. Among the factors influencing the competitive advantage creation there are so called logistics potentials, which constitute a component part of a business strategic potentials. Logistics resources, logistics capabilities and logistics competences are the main components of the logistics potentials structure and hierarchy. Methods: In order to recognize the logistics potentials which determine the competitive advantage creation one may use the assumptions and elements of contemporary management concepts, including strategic management. In particular the article deals with Resource-Based View (RBV, Dynamic Capabilities Concept (DCC and - first of all - Competence-Based Management (CBM. Results and conclusions: Several significant research projects have presented a wide scope and a large number of possibilities of logistics potentials (and logistics competences in particular influence on business competitive advantage creation. The article briefly presents the research results conducted by: (1 Michigan State University (USA, (2 European Logistics Association (ELA in cooperation with A.T. Kearney, (3 Computer Sciences Corporation and (4 Capgemini. The research results have pointed out to differentiated but at the same distinctive symptoms of logistics competences influence on competitive advantage creation. The article also refers to the results of the research carried out by the Chair of Logistics & Marketing at Opole University (Poland in companies operating in Poland. The research has been mainly dealing with the significance of logistics competences in competitive advantage creation.

  4. Innovation strategies and competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Gërguri, Shqipe; Rexhepi, Gadaf; Ramadani, Veland

    2013-01-01

    Companies today operate in a very dynamic, uncertain and competitive environment. They compete in "nicety" that are so small but so important. Companies are trying to achieve competitive advantage in order to help them obtain a better and a stable position in the marketplace. The best way for companies to achieve a competitive advantage is through innovation. This paper addresses the meaning of innovation what does innovation present, types of innovation specifically discussing the right way ...

  5. Perceived versus Actual Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Langemeier, Michael R.; Yeager, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between farm characteristics and perceived sources of competitive advantage, and cost-based and revenue-based efficiency indices. Gross farm income and the percentage of labor devoted to crop production were significant and positively correlated with cost and revenue efficiency while the perception of the cowherd being the most important part of the operation was negatively correlated with efficiency. In general, perceived sources of competitive advantage ...

  6. Corporate Finance and Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Egger; Christian Keuschnigg

    2009-01-01

    Since innovative firms are often financially constrained, access to external funds is important for the expansion of innovative industries. This paper reports four important results. First, comparative advantage is shaped by factor endowments as well as fundamental determinants of corporate finance. In particular, a larger equity ratio of firms and tough governance standards relax finance constraints and create a comparative advantage in innovative industries. Second, factor price equalizatio...

  7. Function and modulation of premotor brainstem parasympathetic cardiac neurons that control heart rate by hypoxia-, sleep-, and sleep-related diseases including obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergacheva, Olga; Weigand, Letitia A; Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Mares, Jacquelyn; Wang, Xin; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-01-01

    Parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the brainstem dominate the control of heart rate. Previous work has determined that these neurons are inherently silent, and their activity is largely determined by synaptic inputs to CVNs that include four major types of synapses that release glutamate, GABA, glycine, or serotonin. Whereas prior reviews have focused on glutamatergic, GABAergic and glycinergic pathways, and the receptors in CVNs activated by these neurotransmitters, this review focuses on the alterations in CVN activity with hypoxia-, sleep-, and sleep-related cardiovascular diseases including obstructive sleep apnea. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Airtraq optical laryngoscope: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracoglu, Kemal Tolga; Eti, Zeynep; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

    2013-06-01

    Difficult or unsuccesful tracheal intubation is one of the important causes for morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. Almost 30% of the anesthesia-related deaths are induced by the complications of difficult airway management and more than 85% of all respiratory related complications cause brain injury or death. Nowadays, due to the advances in technology, new videolaryngoscopic devices became available. Airtraq is a novel single-use laryngoscope which provides glottis display without any deviation in the normal position of the oral, pharyngeal or the tracheal axes. With the help of the display lens glottis and the surrounding structures are visualised and under direct view of its tip the tracheal tube is introduced between the vocal cords. In patients having restricted neck motion or limited mouth opening (provided that it is greater than 3 cm) Airtraq offers the advantage of a better display. Moreover the video image can be transfered to an external monitor thus an experienced specialist can provide assistance and an educational course can be conducted simultaneously. On the other hand the Airtraq videolaryngoscopic devices possess certain disadvantages including the need of experience and the time demand for the operator to learn how to use them properly, the rapid deterioration of their display in the presence of a swelling or a secretion and the fact that they are rather complicated and expensive devices. The Airtraq device has already documented benefits in the management of difficult airways, however serial utilization obviously necessitates experience.

  9. home advantage in the commonwealth games

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of home advantage in sport is generally well doc- umented and has been shown to exist in a ... there are 53 Commonwealth nations, there are at present 71. Commonwealth Games Associations ... market share values for each host nation were analysed relative to the distance travelled by them (in terms of ...

  10. How Successful Is Medicare Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Joseph P; McGuire, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Context Medicare Part C, or Medicare Advantage (MA), now almost 30 years old, has generally been viewed as a policy disappointment. Enrollment has vacillated but has never come close to the penetration of managed care plans in the commercial insurance market or in Medicaid, and because of payment policy decisions and selection, the MA program is viewed as having added to cost rather than saving funds for the Medicare program. Recent changes in Medicare policy, including improved risk adjustment, however, may have changed this picture. Methods This article summarizes findings from our group's work evaluating MA's recent performance and investigating payment options for improving its performance even more. We studied the behavior of both beneficiaries and plans, as well as the effects of Medicare policy. Findings Beneficiaries make “mistakes” in their choice of MA plan options that can be explained by behavioral economics. Few beneficiaries make an active choice after they enroll in Medicare. The high prevalence of “zero-premium” plans signals inefficiency in plan design and in the market's functioning. That is, Medicare premium policies interfere with economically efficient choices. The adverse selection problem, in which healthier, lower-cost beneficiaries tend to join MA, appears much diminished. The available measures, while limited, suggest that, on average, MA plans offer care of equal or higher quality and for less cost than traditional Medicare (TM). In counties, greater MA penetration appears to improve TM's performance. Conclusions Medicare policies regarding lock-in provisions and risk adjustment that were adopted in the mid-2000s have mitigated the adverse selection problem previously plaguing MA. On average, MA plans appear to offer higher value than TM, and positive spillovers from MA into TM imply that reimbursement should not necessarily be neutral. Policy changes in Medicare that reform the way that beneficiaries are charged for MA plan

  11. Burden and health-related quality of life of eating disorders, including Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID), in the Australian population

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Phillipa; Mitchison, Deborah; Collado, Abraham Ernesto Lopez; Gonz?lez-Chica, David Alejandro; Stocks, Nigel; Touyz, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about the epidemiology and health related quality of life (HRQoL) of the new DSM-5 diagnoses, Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in the Australian population. We aimed to investigate the prevalance and burden of these disorders. Methods We conducted two sequential population-based surveys including individuals aged over 15?years who were interviewed in 2014 (n?=?2732) and 2015 (n =3005). Demographic information and diag...

  12. Prevention of HPV-related cancers in Norway: cost-effectiveness of expanding the HPV vaccination program to include pre-adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Emily A; Sy, Stephen; Nygård, Mari; Kristiansen, Ivar S; Kim, Jane J

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, countries have introduced female vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), causally linked to several cancers and genital warts, but few have recommended vaccination of boys. Declining vaccine prices and strong evidence of vaccine impact on reducing HPV-related conditions in both women and men prompt countries to reevaluate whether HPV vaccination of boys is warranted. A previously-published dynamic model of HPV transmission was empirically calibrated to Norway. Reductions in the incidence of HPV, including both direct and indirect benefits, were applied to a natural history model of cervical cancer, and to incidence-based models for other non-cervical HPV-related diseases. We calculated the health outcomes and costs of the different HPV-related conditions under a gender-neutral vaccination program compared to a female-only program. Vaccine price had a decisive impact on results. For example, assuming 71% coverage, high vaccine efficacy and a reasonable vaccine tender price of $75 per dose, we found vaccinating both girls and boys fell below a commonly cited cost-effectiveness threshold in Norway ($83,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained) when including vaccine benefit for all HPV-related diseases. However, at the current market price, including boys would not be considered 'good value for money.' For settings with a lower cost-effectiveness threshold ($30,000/QALY), it would not be considered cost-effective to expand the current program to include boys, unless the vaccine price was less than $36/dose. Increasing vaccination coverage to 90% among girls was more effective and less costly than the benefits achieved by vaccinating both genders with 71% coverage. At the anticipated tender price, expanding the HPV vaccination program to boys may be cost-effective and may warrant a change in the current female-only vaccination policy in Norway. However, increasing coverage in girls is uniformly more effective and cost-effective than expanding

  13. Creating Competitive Advantage through Effective Management Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Clinton O.; Ariss, Sonny S.

    2002-01-01

    Managers trained in executive education programs (n=203) identified ways in which management education can increase an organization's competitive advantage: exposure to new ideas and practices, skill development, and motivation. Characteristics of effective management education included experience-based learning orientation, credible instructors,…

  14. Robustness of the Sequential Lineup Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronlund, Scott D.; Carlson, Curt A.; Dailey, Sarah B.; Goodsell, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States and around the world involves promoting the advantages of conducting an eyewitness lineup in a sequential manner. We conducted a large study (N = 2,529) that included 24 comparisons of sequential versus simultaneous lineups. A liberal statistical criterion revealed only 2 significant sequential lineup…

  15. Thoracoscopic versus robotic approaches: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benjamin; D'Amico, Thomas A

    2014-05-01

    The overall advantages of thoracoscopy over thoracotomy in terms of patient recovery have been fairly well established. The use of robotics, however, is a newer and less proven modality in the realm of thoracic surgery. Robotics offers distinct advantages and disadvantages in comparison with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Robotic technology is now used for a variety of complex cardiac, urologic, and gynecologic procedures including mitral valve repair and microsurgical treatment of male infertility. This article addresses the potential benefits and limitations of using the robotic platform for the performance of a variety of thoracic operations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  17. Prevention of HPV-related cancers in Norway: cost-effectiveness of expanding the HPV vaccination program to include pre-adolescent boys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Burger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasingly, countries have introduced female vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV, causally linked to several cancers and genital warts, but few have recommended vaccination of boys. Declining vaccine prices and strong evidence of vaccine impact on reducing HPV-related conditions in both women and men prompt countries to reevaluate whether HPV vaccination of boys is warranted. METHODS: A previously-published dynamic model of HPV transmission was empirically calibrated to Norway. Reductions in the incidence of HPV, including both direct and indirect benefits, were applied to a natural history model of cervical cancer, and to incidence-based models for other non-cervical HPV-related diseases. We calculated the health outcomes and costs of the different HPV-related conditions under a gender-neutral vaccination program compared to a female-only program. RESULTS: Vaccine price had a decisive impact on results. For example, assuming 71% coverage, high vaccine efficacy and a reasonable vaccine tender price of $75 per dose, we found vaccinating both girls and boys fell below a commonly cited cost-effectiveness threshold in Norway ($83,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained when including vaccine benefit for all HPV-related diseases. However, at the current market price, including boys would not be considered 'good value for money.' For settings with a lower cost-effectiveness threshold ($30,000/QALY, it would not be considered cost-effective to expand the current program to include boys, unless the vaccine price was less than $36/dose. Increasing vaccination coverage to 90% among girls was more effective and less costly than the benefits achieved by vaccinating both genders with 71% coverage. CONCLUSIONS: At the anticipated tender price, expanding the HPV vaccination program to boys may be cost-effective and may warrant a change in the current female-only vaccination policy in Norway. However, increasing coverage in girls is

  18. Prevention of HPV-Related Cancers in Norway: Cost-Effectiveness of Expanding the HPV Vaccination Program to Include Pre-Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Emily A.; Sy, Stephen; Nygård, Mari; Kristiansen, Ivar S.; Kim, Jane J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasingly, countries have introduced female vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), causally linked to several cancers and genital warts, but few have recommended vaccination of boys. Declining vaccine prices and strong evidence of vaccine impact on reducing HPV-related conditions in both women and men prompt countries to reevaluate whether HPV vaccination of boys is warranted. Methods A previously-published dynamic model of HPV transmission was empirically calibrated to Norway. Reductions in the incidence of HPV, including both direct and indirect benefits, were applied to a natural history model of cervical cancer, and to incidence-based models for other non-cervical HPV-related diseases. We calculated the health outcomes and costs of the different HPV-related conditions under a gender-neutral vaccination program compared to a female-only program. Results Vaccine price had a decisive impact on results. For example, assuming 71% coverage, high vaccine efficacy and a reasonable vaccine tender price of $75 per dose, we found vaccinating both girls and boys fell below a commonly cited cost-effectiveness threshold in Norway ($83,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained) when including vaccine benefit for all HPV-related diseases. However, at the current market price, including boys would not be considered ‘good value for money.’ For settings with a lower cost-effectiveness threshold ($30,000/QALY), it would not be considered cost-effective to expand the current program to include boys, unless the vaccine price was less than $36/dose. Increasing vaccination coverage to 90% among girls was more effective and less costly than the benefits achieved by vaccinating both genders with 71% coverage. Conclusions At the anticipated tender price, expanding the HPV vaccination program to boys may be cost-effective and may warrant a change in the current female-only vaccination policy in Norway. However, increasing coverage in girls is uniformly more

  19. Prochlorococcus: Advantages and Limits of Minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology.

  20. Advertising Dynamics and Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Doraszelski; Sarit Markovich

    2004-01-01

    Can advertising lead to a sustainable competitive advantage? To answer this question, we propose a dynamic model of advertising competition where firms repeatedly advertise, compete in the product market, and make entry as well as exit decisions. Within this dynamic framework, we study two different models of advertising: In the first model, advertising influences the goodwill consumers extend towards a firm ("goodwill advertising"), whereas in the second model it influences the share of cons...

  1. Interest alignment and competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschalg, Oliver; Zollo, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    This paper articulates a theory of the conditions under which the alignment between individual and collective interests generates sustainable competitive advantage. The theory is based on the influence of tacitness, context-specificity and casual ambiguity in the determinants of different types of motivation (extrinsic, normative intrinsic and hedonic intrinsic), under varying conditions of environmental dynamism. The analysis indicates the need to consider mitivational processes as a complem...

  2. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadvar, Hossein, E-mail: jadvar@usc.edu; Colletti, Patrick M.

    2014-01-15

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved.

  3. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved

  5. Economic Development and "National Competitive Advantage"

    OpenAIRE

    J.T., Goode

    2002-01-01

    Despite the preponderance of economic theory and research which argues to the contrary, the notion that national economies stand in a fundamentally competitive relationship with one another remains surprisingly widespread. In recent years, some of the most influential impetus for this misperception has come from Michael Porter's conceptualization of "the competitive advantage of nations" in relation to economic development and date theory. It is argued that Porter neither proposes nor demonst...

  6. Relation between natural and anthropogenic factors in the redistribution of radionuclides on the 30 km Chernobyl NPP territory, including the result of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, S.V.; Sukhoruchkin, A.K.; Arkhipov, N.P.; Arkhipov, A.N.; Loginova, L.S.; Meshalkin, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    Before the accident natural and anthropogenic ecosystems occupied about 90% of 30-km zone area, including 36% of forest ecosystem, ploughed lands -28%, meadows and bogs - 18%. About 10% of total areas were occupied by ameliorated lands, separate water reservoirs - 2.8% relatively large area. Ten years after the Chernobyl accident the lands structure was changed: Areas of forest territories became larger (up to 12-13%). Areas of territories occupied by different technical constructions, roads were increased too. Contamination of different objects of 30-km zone territory is very uneven, for instance variation of 137 Cs contamination of soil reaches the same thousand times (From 0.1-5 up to 10000 and more Ci/km 2 )

  7. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Pötter, Richard; Tanderup, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials In total, 744...... patients at a median follow-up of 21 months were included. QoL was prospectively assessed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life core module 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC cervical cancer module 24 (CX24) questionnaires at baseline, then every 3 months during...... at 6 months and then declined slightly at 3 and 4 years. The overall symptom experience was elevated at baseline and decreased to a level within the range of that of the reference population. Similarly, tumor-related symptoms (eg, pain, appetite loss, and constipation), which were present before...

  8. Tumor cell anaplasia and multinucleation are predictors of disease recurrence in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, including among just the human papillomavirus-related cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James S; Scantlebury, Juliette B; Luo, Jingqin; Thorstad, Wade L

    2012-07-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is frequently related to high risk human papillomavirus. This tumor expresses p16, frequently has a nonkeratinizing morphology, and has improved outcomes. Despite having a good prognosis, tumors can have focal or diffuse nuclear anaplasia or multinucleation, the significance of which is unknown. From a database of 270 oropharyngeal SCCs with known histologic typing (using our established system) and p16 immunohistochemistry, all surgically resected cases (149) were reviewed. Anaplasia was defined as any × 40 field with ≥ 3 tumor nuclei with diameters ≥ 5 lymphocyte nuclei (~25 μm), and multinucleation was defined as any × 40 field with ≥ 3 tumor cells with multiple nuclei. p16 was positive in 128 cases (85.9%), 64 cases (43.0%) showed anaplasia, and 71 (47.7%) showed multinucleation. Anaplasia and multinucleation were highly related (Panaplasia or multinucleation had worse overall, disease-specific, and disease-free survival (Panaplasia and multinucleation both predicted worse disease-specific survival (hazard ratio 9.9, P=0.04; and hazard ratio 11.9, P=0.02, respectively) independent of the other variables. In summary, among surgically resectable oropharyngeal SCC (including among just the p16-positive cohort), tumor cell anaplasia and multinucleation independently correlated with disease recurrence and poorer survival.

  9. Seasonal and annual variation in planktonic foraminiferal fluxes including warm period related El Niño in the northwestern North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, A.; Kawahata, H.; Nishi, H.; Honda, M. C.

    2007-12-01

    Planktonic foraminifera provide a record of the upper ocean environment through their species assemblage and individual tests. To investigate the relationship between foraminifera and oceanographic conditions and the impact of El Niño on foraminifera, we analyzed foraminiferal fluxes and relative abundances by using sediment trap samples collected biweekly at three sites in the northwestern North Pacific: Site 40N (39 °60'N, 165 °00'E), Site KNOT (43 °58'N, 155 °03'E), and Site 50N (50 °01'N, 165 °02'E) from 1998- 2001, a period that included an El Niño effect. Based on foraminiferal production and assemblage composition, we divided the sampling duration into several periods during which certain characteristic oceanographic properties were observed. These sampling periods were classified into five types (I-V) based upon four factors: 1) the predominant foraminiferal group, 2) total foraminiferal fluxes (TFFs), 3) organic matter (OM) fluxes, and 4) hydrographic conditions, which included sea surface temperature (SST) and thermal structure. Our results suggest that seasonal changes in foraminifera were closely related to water mass properties in addition to SST. If species compositions were the same, then water mass properties were the most important factors affecting the seasonal variation of foraminiferal abundance in the northwestern North Pacific. Although one of the major controlling factors for foraminiferal fluxes is food availability, the controlling factors for each type (types I-V) are different because of specific oceanographic situations, such as phytoplankton blooms, which result in an excess food supply for foraminifera. At Site KNOT in 1998, SST was remarkably high because of El Niño, and high surface temperatures and weak winds would have lowered nutrient supply and intensified water column stratification, resulting in the relatively low fluxes of total foraminifera, N. pachyderma, and G. bulloides, and the high fluxes of N. dutertrei that

  10. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.kirchheiner@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Pötter, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C. [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Haie-Meder, Christine [Department of Radiotherapy, Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Petrič, Primož [Department of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Radiation Oncology, National Center for Cancer Care and Research, Doha (Qatar); Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rai, Bhavana [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Cooper, Rachel [Leeds Cancer Centre, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Dörr, Wolfgang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Nout, Remi A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Lindegaard, Jacob; Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars; Van Der Steen Banasik, Elzbieta; Haie-Meder, Christine; Dumas, Isabelle; and others

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials: In total, 744 patients at a median follow-up of 21 months were included. QoL was prospectively assessed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life core module 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC cervical cancer module 24 (CX24) questionnaires at baseline, then every 3 months during the first year, every 6 months in the second and third years, and finally yearly thereafter in patients with no evidence of disease. Outcomes were evaluated over time and compared to those from an age-matched female reference population. Results: General QoL and emotional and social functioning were impaired at baseline but improved during the first 6 months after treatment, to reach a level comparable to that of the reference population, whereas cognitive functioning remained impaired. Both social and role functioning showed the lowest scores at baseline but which increased after treatment to reach a plateau at 6 months and then declined slightly at 3 and 4 years. The overall symptom experience was elevated at baseline and decreased to a level within the range of that of the reference population. Similarly, tumor-related symptoms (eg, pain, appetite loss, and constipation), which were present before treatment, decreased substantially at the first follow-up after treatment. Several treatment-related symptoms developed either immediately after and persisted over time (diarrhea, menopausal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and sexual functioning problems) or developed gradually after treatment (lymphedema and dyspnea). Conclusions: This longitudinal prospective QoL analysis showed that patients' general QoL and functioning were impaired before treatment compared to

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Pötter, Richard; Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C.; Haie-Meder, Christine; Petrič, Primož; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M.; Rai, Bhavana; Cooper, Rachel; Dörr, Wolfgang; Nout, Remi A.; Lindegaard, Jacob; Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars; Van Der Steen Banasik, Elzbieta; Haie-Meder, Christine; Dumas, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials: In total, 744 patients at a median follow-up of 21 months were included. QoL was prospectively assessed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life core module 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC cervical cancer module 24 (CX24) questionnaires at baseline, then every 3 months during the first year, every 6 months in the second and third years, and finally yearly thereafter in patients with no evidence of disease. Outcomes were evaluated over time and compared to those from an age-matched female reference population. Results: General QoL and emotional and social functioning were impaired at baseline but improved during the first 6 months after treatment, to reach a level comparable to that of the reference population, whereas cognitive functioning remained impaired. Both social and role functioning showed the lowest scores at baseline but which increased after treatment to reach a plateau at 6 months and then declined slightly at 3 and 4 years. The overall symptom experience was elevated at baseline and decreased to a level within the range of that of the reference population. Similarly, tumor-related symptoms (eg, pain, appetite loss, and constipation), which were present before treatment, decreased substantially at the first follow-up after treatment. Several treatment-related symptoms developed either immediately after and persisted over time (diarrhea, menopausal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and sexual functioning problems) or developed gradually after treatment (lymphedema and dyspnea). Conclusions: This longitudinal prospective QoL analysis showed that patients' general QoL and functioning were impaired before treatment compared to those of

  12. BUSINESS COMPETITORS AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU TITUS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of competition, both from the perspective of the economic sector –where it is characteristic for pure monopole, oligopoly, monopole competition and pure competition, as well asfrom the market’s point of view – where it determines the strategies, objectives, advantages and weaknesses of acompany. The main point of the paper is the criticism of the pure and perfect competition theory. Concluding,the author insists on innovation, especially on the model of open innovation.

  13. Ecology. The advantages of togetherness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, E; Bonner, J

    2001-04-20

    What would be the advantage of unicellular organisms becoming multicellular? For organisms that feed on organic food (heterotrophs), the most efficient way to produce energy is to metabolize the food by aerobic respiration, but the fastest way is to metabolize it by fermentation. In their Perspective, Cox and Bonner discuss a mathematical model (Pfeiffer et al.), which shows that when these two kinds of organisms (respirators and fermenters) compete for a limited food source, the respirators manage best when they are grouped in clusters rather than remaining as separate cells. In this way, multicellularity could have originated.

  14. Advantages of computed tomographic guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casola, G.; Vansonnenberg, E.

    1987-01-01

    Both ultrasound and CT are successfully used to guide interventional procedures throughout the body. There are advantages and disadvantages to each modality and choosing one over the other will vary from case to case. Major factors influencing choice are discussed in this paper. As a general rule CT guidance is usually required for lesions in the thorax, the adrenals, the pancreas, lymph nodes, and for percutaneous abscess drainage. The authors feel that a complimentary use of ultrasound and CT is essential to optimize success and cost-effectiveness; therefore, the interventional radiologist should be familiar with both imaging modalities

  15. The effect of weight management interventions that include a diet component on weight-related outcomes in pregnant and postpartum women: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Lisa; Rollo, Megan; Hauck, Yvonne; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Wood, Lisa; Hutchesson, Melinda; Giglia, Roslyn; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare

    2015-01-01

    What are the effects of weight management interventions that include a diet component on weight-related outcomes in pregnant and postpartum women?The primary objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness of weight management interventions which include a diet component and are aimed at limiting gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention in women.The second objective of this systematic review is to investigate included intervention components with respect to effect on weight-related outcomes. This may include, but is not limited to: length of intervention, use of face-to-face counselling, group or individual consultations, use of other interventions components including exercise, use of goals and use of support tools like food diaries, coaching, including email or text message support. Around half of all women of reproductive age are either overweight or obese, with women aged 25-34 years having a greater risk of substantial weight gain compared with men of all ages. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PPWR) may play a significant role in long term obesity. Having one child doubles the five- and 10-year obesity incidence for women, with many women who gain excessive weight during pregnancy remaining obese permanently. Excessive GWG and/or PPWR can also significantly contribute to short- and long-term adverse health outcomes for mother, baby and future pregnancies.Maternal obesity increases the risk of pregnancy related complications such as pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, stillbirth and the rate of caesarean section. Childhood obesity is a further long term complication of maternal obesity for offspring, which may persist in to adulthood. Excess GWG is also a risk factor for PPWR both in the short and long-term. Nehring et al. conducted a meta-analysis with over 65,000 women showing that, compared to women who gained weight within recommendations during pregnancy, women with GWG

  16. Advantage of resonant power conversion in aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, I. G.

    1983-01-01

    An ultrasonic, sinusoidal aerospace power distribution system is shown to have many advantages over other candidate power systems. These advantages include light weight, ease of fault clearing, versatility in handling many loads including motors, and the capability of production within the limits of present technology. References are cited that demonstrate the state of resonant converter technology and support these conclusions.

  17. Counterproliferation, Border Security and Counterterrorism Subject-Related Laws and Regulations, Including Export Control Regimes in South-Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Each nation's laws should prohibit development, acquisition, or transfer of WMD-critical items and should make it a crime to violate that prohibition for hostile purposes. Thus, WMD proliferation should be illegal everywhere, powerfully reinforcing the norm against acquisition of such weapons as well as facilitating law enforcement and trans-national legal cooperation. Provisions applicable to threats should be harmonized. National laws should address threats and should ensure prosecution of offenders or extradition to another State for prosecution. The scope of legal jurisdiction over such crimes should broadly reach the behaviour of legal entities in trans-national smuggling and weapons development conspiracies. A priority question is precisely which activity should constitute a criminal offence. It is relatively straightforward to make the use of WMD a crime; but it will be necessary to reach preparatory steps that can encompass innocent behaviour or even legitimate scientific inquiry. Bio-terror preparations, for example, may employ the same materials, equipment and techniques as undertaking legitimate disease research. Standards must be developed to instruct law enforcers as to what behaviour merits criminal investigation to prevent a hostile attack. Similarly, legal measures must define 'WMD' items, including chemical and biological agents that are non-lethal but incapacitating to humans as well as agents that are lethal as to animal or plant life. If WMD proliferation is criminalized, each State's law enforcement officials must work jointly with their counterparts in other States by sharing information, conducting investigations, and prosecuting apprehended terrorists. State cooperation both in gathering intelligence and using that information to prevent criminal activity is undermined, however, by lack of coherent legal instruments. Currently, there is no integrated database of State laws concerning production or use of WMD; it is difficult to know what

  18. Burden and health-related quality of life of eating disorders, including Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID), in the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Phillipa; Mitchison, Deborah; Collado, Abraham Ernesto Lopez; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Stocks, Nigel; Touyz, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology and health related quality of life (HRQoL) of the new DSM-5 diagnoses, Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in the Australian population. We aimed to investigate the prevalance and burden of these disorders. We conducted two sequential population-based surveys including individuals aged over 15 years who were interviewed in 2014 ( n  = 2732) and 2015 ( n =3005). Demographic information and diagnostic features of DSM-5 eating disorders were asked including the occurrence of regular (at least weekly over the past 3 months) objective binge eating with levels of distress, extreme dietary restriction/fasting for weight/shape control, purging behaviors, overvaluation of shape and/or weight, and the presence of an avoidant/restrictive food intake without overvaluation of shape and/or weight. In 2014 functional impact or role performance was measured with the 'days out of role' question and in 2015, Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) was assessed with the Short Form -12 item questionnaire (SF-12v1). The 2014 and 2015 3-month prevalence of eating disorders were: anorexia nervosa-broad 0.4% (95% CI 0.2-0.7) and 0.5% (0.3-0.9); bulimia nervosa 1.1% (0.7-1.5) and 1.2% (0.9-1.7); ARFID 0.3% (0.1-0.5) and 0.3% (0.2-0.6). The 2015 3-month prevalence rates were: BED-broad 1.5% (1.1-2.0); Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED) 3.2 (2.6-3.9); and Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorder (UFED) 10.4% (0.9-11.5). Most people with OSFED had atypical anorexia nervosa and majority with UFED were characterised by having recurrent binge eating without marked distress. Eating disorders were represented throughout sociodemographic groups and those with bulimia nervosa and BED-broad had mean weight (BMI, kg/m 2 ) in the obese range. Mental HRQoL was poor in all eating disorder groups but particularly poor for those with BED-broad and ARFID. Individuals with bulimia nervosa, BED

  19. Development of new method and protocol for cryopreservation related to embryo and oocytes freezing in terms of fertilization rate: A comparative study including review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Mayadhar; Bajpai, Minu; Patnaik, Santosh; Mishra, Pravash; Behera, Priyamadhaba; Dwivedi, Sada Nanda

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation is basically related to meritorious thin samples or small clumps of cells that are cooled quickly without loss. Our main objective is to establish and formulate an innovative method and protocol development for cryopreservation as a gold standard for clinical uses in laboratory practice and treatment. The knowledge regarding usefulness of cryopreservation in clinical practice is essential to carry forward the clinical practice and research. We are trying to compare different methods of cryopreservation (in two dozen of cells) at the same time we compare the embryo and oocyte freezing interms of fertilization rate according to the International standard protocol. The combination of cryoprotectants and regimes of rapid cooling and rinsing during warming often allows successful cryopreservation of biological materials, particularly cell suspensions or thin tissue samples. Examples include semen, blood, tissue samples like tumors, histological cross-sections, human eggs and human embryos. Although presently many studies have reported that the children born from frozen embryos or "frosties," show consistently positive results with no increase in birth defects or development abnormalities is quite good enough and similar to our study (50-85%). We ensure that cryopreservation technology provided useful cell survivability, tissue and organ preservation in a proper way. Although it varies according to different laboratory conditions, it is certainly beneficial for patient's treatment and research. Further studies are needed for standardization and development of new protocol.

  20. Meta-analysis of the INSIG2 association with obesity including 74,345 individuals: does heterogeneity of estimates relate to study design?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heid, Iris M; Huth, Cornelia; Loos, Ruth J F

    2009-01-01

    with subjects selected for conditions related to a better health status ('healthy population', HP), and obesity studies (OB). We tested five hypotheses to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The meta-analysis of 27 studies on Caucasian adults (n = 66,213) combining the different study designs did......The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was identified for obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)) in one of the first genome-wide association studies, but replications were inconsistent. We collected statistics from 34 studies (n = 74,345), including general population (GP) studies, population-based studies...... not support overall association of the CC-genotype with obesity, yielding an odds ratio (OR) of 1.05 (p-value = 0.27). The I(2) measure of 41% (p-value = 0.015) indicated between-study heterogeneity. Restricting to GP studies resulted in a declined I(2) measure of 11% (p-value = 0.33) and an OR of 1.10 (p...

  1. Multimodal interventions including nutrition in the prevention and management of disease-related malnutrition in adults: a systematic review of randomised control trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Frances; Baldwin, Christine

    2014-06-01

    There has been a move to improve nutritional status in malnourished patients through the use of multimodal interventions (MI). There are currently no systematic reviews that have examined their effectiveness. This analysis aimed to examine the effects on nutritional, clinical, functional and patient-centred outcomes. A systematic review and meta-analysis using Cochrane methodology. 15 studies were included in the analysis, 13 comparing MI with usual care and 2 comparing MI with a nutrition intervention alone. Quality of studies varied and studies reported few relevant outcomes. Only 3 outcomes were compatible with meta-analysis; weight, mortality and length of stay (LOS). No statistically significant differences between groups were found. Narrative review was inconclusive. There was no evidence of benefit in the intervention groups in relation to body composition, functional status or quality of life (QoL). Intervention groups appeared to show a trend towards increased energy and protein intake however data was provided by only 2 studies (301 participants). No conclusive evidence of benefit for MI on any of the reviewed outcomes was found. Well designed, high quality trials addressing the impact of MI on relevant nutritional, functional and clinical outcomes are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Patient Migration Patterns and Related Health Care Costs Within a National Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug Plan After Implementation of an Oxycodone HCl Extended-Release Access Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chang; De, Ajita P; Sweet, Brian; Wade, Rolin L

    2017-08-01

    Health plans use formulary restrictions (e.g., prior authorization, step therapy, tier change, nonformulary status) in an effort to control cost and promote quality, safety, and appropriate prescription utilization. Some Medicare payers perceive that the inclusion of certain agents, such as branded oxycodone HCl extended-release tablets (OERs), on their formularies is associated with attracting high-cost members to the plan. To evaluate disenrollment rates, patient migration, and subsequent health care costs among OER users who disenrolled from a national Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug plan (study-MAPD) in the plan year following OER nonformulary restriction. A retrospective, longitudinal cohort study using IMS pharmacy and medical claims data between July 1, 2011, and December 31, 2014, was conducted. In the study-MAPD, adults aged ≥ 18 years who were chronic OER users with ≥ 2 OER claims 6 months before the nonformulary restriction date on January 1, 2013 (index date) and with continuous activity in pharmacy and medical claims for 6 months pre- and post-index were included in the study. Comparison years of 2012 and 2014 prerestriction/postrestriction were selected. All groups were followed for 6 months postindex. Year-to-year disenrollment rates of OER patients and the overall plan, as well as patient characteristics and costs of those who disenrolled from and those who remained with the plan, were measured. Costs were compared using a difference-in-differences approach. This study identified 2,935 eligible OER users from the study-MAPD population after imposing nonformulary restrictions on OERs on January 1, 2013. Mean age was 62.1 years, and 59.8% were female. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index score was 1.83 for those 1,001 patients with medical claims data. For comparison years 2012 (prerestriction) and 2014 (postrestriction), 2,248 and 2,222 OER patients were identified, respectively. Patient characteristics were similar across patient cohorts in

  3. Nuclear energy. Risk or advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettiger, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear energy is controversial. But what's all about really in the controversy? It's about more than safty or electricity prices. Nuclear energy is not only a technical or political question, but also a moral, a human. The discussion enter various rational and irrational arguments, beside straightforward arguments various misleading and mendacious exist. The present publication is comprehensively dedicated to the thema of nuclear energy - its pro and contra - and considers its risks and advantages. Thereby the sources of energy, the processes in the nuclear reactor, and the risk potentials (Harrisburg, Chernobyl, Fukushima) are illustratively and reproducibly presented. Extensively the text explains the forms of the radiation, its doses, and the tolerance of it. Also to the theme waste and final disposal an explaining chapter is dedicated and the question for the exit from nuclear energy elucidated. Finally the author appoints with the question ''How considers mankind nuclear energy world-wide'' the international comparison.

  4. Marketing channels and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Issue that can already be seen and will be very clear in the future is that the central problem in the market of tube caps will not be the product or the price or promotion, but marketing channels. Therefore, the competitive advantage will most probably be built on marketing channels and not the production - as it has been so far, so, the questions of choice functioning and modification of marketing channels, as well as selection of the most appropriate members of channels will become more and more important. Accordingly, it may freely be said that the choice, i.e. the movement of marketing channels represents one of the strategic decisions which has to be made by a company management and which will subsequently very significantly influence the functioning and efficacy of not only the system of distribution, but also the entire business transactions.

  5. IMPACT OF FARM SIZE AND TYPE ON COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Jeffery D.; Langemeier, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined sustained competitive advantage for a sample of Kansas farms. Whole-farm data for 224 farms with continuous data from 1982-2001 were used. Overall efficiency was computed for each farm and year. Sixty farms exhibited a sustained competitive advantage. Seventy-six farms exhibited a sustained competitive disadvantage. Farms with a competitive advantage were relatively larger, received more of their gross farm income from dairy and swine production, had significantly lower ex...

  6. THE CONCEPT OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES. LOGIC, SOURCES AND DURABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Cegliński, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this article is to present theoretical assumptions of the concept of competitive advantages and main problems connected with the same. Most of all, the article outlines issues, which are presently discussed in the field of management sciences, including sources of competitive advantages, causal ambiguity and character of durability of competitive advantages in the contemporary turbulent business environment. In the author’s opinion, the issues have a great signifi...

  7. Transnasal endoscopy: Technical considerations, advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Mustafa; Kadayifci, Abdurrahman

    2014-02-16

    Transnasal endoscopy (TNE) is an upper endoscopy method which is performed by the nasal route using a thin endoscope less than 6 mm in diameter. The primary goal of this method is to improve patient tolerance and convenience of the procedure. TNE can be performed without sedation and thus eliminates the risks associated with general anesthesia. In this way, TNE decreases the cost and total duration of endoscopic procedures, while maintaining the image quality of standard caliber endoscopes, providing good results for diagnostic purposes. However, the small working channel of the ultra-thin endoscope used for TNE makes it difficult to use for therapeutic procedures except in certain conditions which require a thinner endoscope. Biopsy is possible with special forceps less than 2 mm in diameter. Recently, TNE has been used for screening endoscopy in Far East Asia, including Japan. In most controlled studies, TNE was found to have better patient tolerance when compared to unsedated endoscopy. Nasal pain is the most significant symptom associated with endoscopic procedures but can be reduced with nasal pretreatment. Despite the potential advantage of TNE, it is not common in Western countries, usually due to a lack of training in the technique and a lack of awareness of its potential advantages. This paper briefly reviews the technical considerations as well as the potential advantages and limitations of TNE with ultra-thin scopes.

  8. Transnasal endoscopy: Technical considerations, advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Mustafa; Kadayifci, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    Transnasal endoscopy (TNE) is an upper endoscopy method which is performed by the nasal route using a thin endoscope less than 6 mm in diameter. The primary goal of this method is to improve patient tolerance and convenience of the procedure. TNE can be performed without sedation and thus eliminates the risks associated with general anesthesia. In this way, TNE decreases the cost and total duration of endoscopic procedures, while maintaining the image quality of standard caliber endoscopes, providing good results for diagnostic purposes. However, the small working channel of the ultra-thin endoscope used for TNE makes it difficult to use for therapeutic procedures except in certain conditions which require a thinner endoscope. Biopsy is possible with special forceps less than 2 mm in diameter. Recently, TNE has been used for screening endoscopy in Far East Asia, including Japan. In most controlled studies, TNE was found to have better patient tolerance when compared to unsedated endoscopy. Nasal pain is the most significant symptom associated with endoscopic procedures but can be reduced with nasal pretreatment. Despite the potential advantage of TNE, it is not common in Western countries, usually due to a lack of training in the technique and a lack of awareness of its potential advantages. This paper briefly reviews the technical considerations as well as the potential advantages and limitations of TNE with ultra-thin scopes. PMID:24567791

  9. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Our well-being depends on both our personal success and the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation an essential trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remains elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly rich social dynamics that explain why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding, coming from over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utilization of network reciprocity. This may explain why, despite its success, rewarding is not as firmly embedded into our societal organization as punishment. (paper)

  10. Prevalence and Citation Advantage of Gold Open Access in the Subject Areas of the Scopus Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorta-González, Pablo; Santana-Jiménez, Yolanda

    2018-01-01

    The potential benefit of open access (OA) in relation to citation impact has been discussed in the literature in depth. The methodology used to test the OA citation advantage includes comparing OA vs. non-OA journal impact factors and citations of OA vs. non-OA articles published in the same non-OA journals. However, one problem with many studies…

  11. Female Survival Advantage Relates to Male Inferiority Rather Than Female Superiority: A Hypothesis Based on the Impact of Age and Stroke Severity on 1-Week to 1-Year Case Fatality in 40,155 Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T.S.; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2010-01-01

    , and whether female survival advantage applies only to patients for whom stroke is the most likely cause of death. Methods: The Danish National Indicator Project, a registry designed to list all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark beginning in March 2001, had 40,155 registered patients as of February 2007...... until death or censoring. Case fatality (stratified by 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year) in men and women was correlated with age and stroke severity. Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors was performed by means of multivariate regression analysis. Results: A total of 20,854 (51.9%) men and 19......,301 (48.1%) women were registered. Women were significantly older than men at the time of stroke (74.5 vs 69.7 years, respectively; P

  12. Food irradiation: advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandes, N.K.; Vital, H. de C.; Sabaa-Srur, A.U.O.

    2003-01-01

    Food irradiation is a physical method of processing food (e.g. freezing, canning). It has been thoroughly researched over the last four decades and is recognized as a safe and wholesome method. It has the potential both of disinfesting dried food to reduce storage losses and disinfesting fruits and vegetables to meet quarantine requirements for export trade. Low doses of irradiation inhibit spoilage losses due to sprouting of root and tuber crops. Food- borne diseases due to contamination by pathogenic microorganisms and parasites of meat, poultry, fish, fishery products and spices are on the increase. Irradiation of these solid foods can decontaminate them of pathogenic organisms and thus provide safe food to the consumer. Irradiation can successfully replace the fumigation treatment of cocoa beans and coffee beans and disinfest dried fish, dates, dried fruits, etc. One of the most important advantages of food irradiation processing is that it is a coldprocess which does not significantly alter physico-chemical characters of the treated product. It can be applied to food after its final packaging. Similar to other physical processes of food processing, (e.g. canning, freezing), irradiation is a capital intensive process. Thus, adequate product volume must be made available in order to maximize the use of the facility and minimize the unit cost of treatment. Lack of harmonization of regulations among the countries which have approved irradiated foods hampers the introduction of this technique for international trade. Action at the international level has to be taken in order to remedy this situation. One of the important limitations of food irradiation processing is its slow acceptance by consumers, due inter alia to a perceived association with radioactivity. The food industry tends to be reluctant to use the technology in view of uncertainties regarding consumer acceptance of treated foods. Several market testing and consumer acceptance studies have been carried

  13. Internal state variable plasticity-damage modeling of AISI 4140 steel including microstructure-property relations: temperature and strain rate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacif el Alaoui, Reda

    Mechanical structure-property relations have been quantified for AISI 4140 steel. under different strain rates and temperatures. The structure-property relations were used. to calibrate a microstructure-based internal state variable plasticity-damage model for. monotonic tension, compression and torsion plasticity, as well as damage evolution. Strong stress state and temperature dependences were observed for the AISI 4140 steel. Tension tests on three different notched Bridgman specimens were undertaken to study. the damage-triaxiality dependence for model validation purposes. Fracture surface. analysis was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to quantify the void. nucleation and void sizes in the different specimens. The stress-strain behavior exhibited. a fairly large applied stress state (tension, compression dependence, and torsion), a. moderate temperature dependence, and a relatively small strain rate dependence.

  14. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries (including cardiac events) in South Africa from 2008 to 2011: a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.C.; Lambert, M.I.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Readhead, C.; van Mechelen, W.; Viljoen, W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To establish an accurate and comprehensive injury incidence registry of all rugby union-related catastrophic events in South Africa between 2008 and 2011. An additional aim was to investigate correlates associated with these injuries. Design: Prospective. Setting: The South African

  15. Assertive behavior: advantages and perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheinov V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this information-analytical paper analyzes and summarizes the results of all available international research and assertiveness assertive behavior relating to the identification of their strengths and the perception of these phenomena in society. Are some suggestions for overcoming the problems detected.

  16. Tumor Cell Anaplasia and Multinucleation Are Predictors of Disease Recurrence in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Including Among Just the Human Papillomavirus-Related Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, James S.; Scantlebury, Juliette B.; Luo, Jingqin; Thorstad, Wade L.

    2012-01-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is frequently related to high risk human papillomavirus. This tumor expresses p16, frequently has a nonkeratinizing morphology, and has improved outcomes. Despite having a good prognosis, tumors can have focal or diffuse nuclear anaplasia or multinucleation, the significance of which is unknown. From a database of 270 oropharyngeal SCCs with known histologic typing (using our established system) and p16 immunohistochemistry, all su...

  17. Health-Related Quality of Life: Expanding a Conceptual Framework to Include Older Adults Who Receive Long-Term Services and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubritsky, Cynthia; Abbott, Katherine M.; Hirschman, Karen B.; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Foust, Janice B.; Naylor, Mary D.

    2013-01-01

    For older adults receiving long-term services and supports (LTSS), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has emerged as a critical construct to examine because of its focus on components of well-being, which are affected by progressive changes in health status, health care, and social support. HRQoL is a health-focused quality of life (QOL)…

  18. [Assessment of the technology of care relations in the health services: perception of the elderly included in the family health strategy in Bambuí, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Wagner Jorge dos; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-08-01

    In the health field, technologies of care relations are in the scope of the worker-user encounter, implying intersubjectivity with the development of relationships between subjects, resulting in action. Evaluation studies synthesize knowledge produced on the consequences of using these technologies for society. This anthropological study aims to understand the perception of the elderly regarding the resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts produced in health care relationships in the context of the Family Health Strategy (ESF). The group studied consisted of 57 elderly residents in Bambui, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The model of signs, meanings and actions was used for collecting and analyzing data and the semi-structured interview was applied as a research technique. Elderly individuals assess resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts of care in the ESF as negative, with relation to the quality of user and professional interaction. The ESF is not effective and the desired change in the health care model has not occurred in practice. It repeats the centrality of the medical-drug-procedure model that treats the disease rather than the patient, perceiving old age as a disease and illness as being related to aging.

  19. Potash: a global overview of evaporate-related potash resources, including spatial databases of deposits, occurrences, and permissive tracts: Chapter S in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris, Greta J.; Cocker, Mark D.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wynn, Jeff C.; Spanski, Gregory T.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Gass, Leila; Bliss, James D.; Bolm, Karen S.; Yang, Chao; Lipin, Bruce R.; Ludington, Stephen; Miller, Robert J.; Słowakiewicz, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    Potash is mined worldwide to provide potassium, an essential nutrient for food crops. Evaporite-hosted potash deposits are the largest source of salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form, including potassium chloride, potassium-magnesium chloride, potassium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Thick sections of evaporitic salt that form laterally continuous strata in sedimentary evaporite basins are the most common host for stratabound and halokinetic potash-bearing salt deposits. Potash-bearing basins may host tens of millions to more than 100 billion metric tons of potassium oxide (K2O). Examples of these deposits include those in the Elk Point Basin in Canada, the Pripyat Basin in Belarus, the Solikamsk Basin in Russia, and the Zechstein Basin in Germany.

  20. Competitive advantage and competitive dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Milisavljević Momčilo

    2002-01-01

    Understanding competitors means locating and defining their main elements. The first element is participants - companies that compete and create a network of rivalry. Apart from our company it includes other participants in the market (investors, consumers, distributors, providers and producers of substitute and complementary products). The other element is additional value - net profit and loss which every competitor brings to the others. Measuring of additional value requires measurement of...

  1. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries (including cardiac events) in South Africa from 2008 to 2011: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Craig; Lambert, Mike I; Verhagen, Evert; Readhead, Clint; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To establish an accurate and comprehensive injury incidence registry of all rugby union-related catastrophic events in South Africa between 2008 and 2011. An additional aim was to investigate correlates associated with these injuries. Design Prospective. Setting The South African amateur and professional rugby-playing population. Participants An estimated 529 483 Junior and 121 663 Senior rugby union (‘rugby’) players (population at risk). Outcome measures Annual average incidences of rugby-related catastrophic injuries by type (cardiac events, traumatic brain and acute spinal cord injuries (ASCIs)) and outcome (full recoveries—fatalities). Playing level (junior and senior levels), position and event (phase of play) were also assessed. Results The average annual incidence of ASCIs and Traumatic Brain Injuries combined was 2.00 per 100 000 players (95% CI 0.91 to 3.08) from 2008 to 2011. The incidence of ASCIs with permanent outcomes was significantly higher at the Senior level (4.52 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0.74 to 8.30) than the Junior level (0.24 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0 to 0.65) during this period. The hooker position was associated with 46% (n=12 of 26) of all permanent ASCI outcomes, the majority of which (83%) occurred during the scrum phase of play. Conclusions The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries in South Africa between 2008 and 2011 is comparable to that of other countries and to most other collision sports. The higher incidence rate of permanent ASCIs at the Senior level could be related to the different law variations or characteristics (eg, less regular training) compared with the Junior level. The hooker and scrum were associated with high proportions of permanent ASCIs. The BokSmart injury prevention programme should focus efforts on these areas (Senior level, hooker and scrum) and use this study as a reference point for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the programme. PMID:23447464

  2. Advantages of going modular in HTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutler, H.; Lohnert, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    A multitude of problems that are encountered in large HTR power plans, constructively as well as concerning plant safety, can be related to the mere physical size of a large reactor core. In limiting the thermal power of an HTR-module to approximately 200 MW an inherent limitation of the fuel element temperature below critical values can be guaranteed for all possible core heat up accidents. Consequently, a significant failure rate of coated particles can be excluded and, hence, out of physical reasons, no intolerable fission product release from the core will ever have to be considered. The HTR-module is so qualified and very well suited for all possible plant sides which have to be taken into consideration for medium sized plants for the production of process steam and electricity. The cost investigations show considerable cost advantages for modular HTRs. For German conditions it was found that even a four-modular plant (800 MW/thermal) is competitive with a fossile-fueled plant of the same size, the specific plant costs were evaluated to be DM 4700/kW (electric). Moreover the investigations show that the increase of the power of the modular unit yields only small cost advantages, therefore in a modularized power plant it even would be possible to reduce the power of a modular unit below 200 MW without having to cope with severe economic penalties, if the distance from technological or safety limits is felt to be too small. (orig.)

  3. Positive approach: Implications for the relation between number theory and geometry, including connection to Santilli mathematics, from Fibonacci reconstitution of natural numbers and of prime numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Stein E., E-mail: stein.johansen@svt.ntnu.no [Institute for Basic Research, Division of Physics, Palm Harbor, Florida, USA and Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Social Anthropology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-12-10

    The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems.

  4. Positive approach: Implications for the relation between number theory and geometry, including connection to Santilli mathematics, from Fibonacci reconstitution of natural numbers and of prime numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Stein E.

    2014-01-01

    The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems

  5. Atomic structure of surface defects in alumina studied by dynamic force microscopy: strain-relief-, translation- and reflection-related boundaries, including their junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, G H; König, T; Heinke, L; Lichtenstein, L; Heyde, M; Freund, H-J

    2011-01-01

    We present an extensive atomic resolution frequency modulation dynamic force microscopy study of ultrathin aluminium oxide on a single crystalline NiAl(110) surface. One-dimensional surface defects produced by domain boundaries have been resolved. Images are presented for reflection domain boundaries (RDBs), four different types of antiphase domain boundaries, a nucleation-related translation domain boundary and also domain boundary junctions. New structures and aspects of the boundaries and their network are revealed and merged into a comprehensive picture of the defect arrangements. The alumina film also covers the substrate completely at the boundaries and their junctions and follows the structural building principles found in its unit cell. This encompasses square and rectangular groups of surface oxygen sites. The observed structural elements can be related to the electronic signature of the boundaries and therefore to the electronic defects associated with the boundaries. A coincidence site lattice predicted for the RDBs is in good agreement with experimental data. With Σ = 19 it can be considered to be of low-sigma type, which frequently coincides with special boundary properties. Images of asymmetric RDBs show points of good contact alternating with regions of nearly amorphous disorder in the oxygen sublattice. (paper)

  6. Is the Development of Offenders Related to Crime Scene Behaviors for Burglary? Including Situational Influences in Developmental and Life-Course Theories of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Farrington, David P

    2016-12-01

    Developmental and life-course (DLC) theories of crime aim to identify the causes and correlates of offending over the life span, focusing on the within-individual variations that result in criminal and delinquent behavior. Although there are several notable theories in the field, few contain both developmental and situational factors related to offending, and none explain why individuals commit crimes in different ways. This study aims to address these issues by developing typologies of burglars based on developmental and situational characteristics to help identify the various criminal career paths of the offenders, and how these different criminal careers may relate to the commission of offenses. Results of this study indicate that there are five different criminal career paths among the sampled burglars and four different styles of committing the same offense, and that burglars with certain criminal career features tend to commit a specific style of burglary. Through this research, we aim to extend DLC theories to create a more practical and contextual explanation of the relationship between criminal careers and the commission of offenses, and increase the level of within-individual explained variance in criminal behavior.

  7. Advantages of robotics in benign gynecologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Mireille; Kim, Jin Hee; Scheib, Stacey; Patzkowsky, Kristin

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature and discuss the advantages of robotics in benign gynecologic surgery. Minimally invasive surgery has become the preferred route over abdominal surgery. The laparoscopic or robotic approach is recommended when vaginal surgery is not feasible. Thus far, robotic gynecologic surgery data have demonstrated feasibility, safety, and equivalent clinical outcomes in comparison with laparoscopy and better clinical outcomes compared with laparotomy. Robotics was developed to overcome challenges of laparoscopy and has led to technological advantages such as improved ergonomics, visualization with three-dimensional capabilities, dexterity and range of motion with instrument articulation, and tremor filtration. To date, applications of robotics in benign gynecology include hysterectomy, myomectomy, endometriosis surgery, sacrocolpopexy, adnexal surgery, tubal reanastomosis, and cerclage. Though further data are needed, robotics may provide additional benefits over other approaches in the obese patient population and in higher complexity cases. Challenges that arose in the earlier adoption stage such as the steep learning curve, costs, and operative times are becoming more optimized with greater experience, with implementation of robotics in high-volume centers and with improved training of surgeons and robotic teams. Robotic laparoendoscopic single-site surgery, albeit still in its infancy where technical advantages compared with laparoscopic single-site surgery are still unclear, may provide a cost-reducing option compared with multiport robotics. The cost may even approach that of laparoscopy while still conferring similar perioperative outcomes. Advances in robotic technology such as the single-site platform and telesurgery, have the potential to revolutionize the field of minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Higher quality evidence is needed to determine the advantages and disadvantages of robotic surgery in benign

  8. Structuring the competitive advantage of printing company

    OpenAIRE

    Kukharuk A. D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the concept of "competitive advantage of the company" if analyzed. The concept of "structuring a competitive advantage" is suggested. The model of structuring of printing company’s competitive advantage based on fundamentals of stakeholder theory is developed.

  9. 76 FR 56262 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SBA 2011-0003] Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of change to Community Advantage Pilot... Community Advantage Pilot Program. In that notice, SBA modified or waived as appropriate certain regulations...

  10. Figures of merit and constraints from testing general relativity using the latest cosmological data sets including refined COSMOS 3D weak lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossett, Jason N.; Moldenhauer, Jacob; Ishak, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    We use cosmological constraints from current data sets and a figure of merit approach in order to probe any deviations from general relativity at cosmological scales. The figure of merit approach is used to study and compare the constraining power of various combinations of data sets on the modified gravity (MG) parameters. We use the recently refined HST-COSMOS weak-lensing tomography data, the ISW-galaxy cross correlations from 2MASS and SDSS luminous red galaxy surveys, the matter power spectrum from SDSS-DR7 (MPK), the WMAP7 temperature and polarization spectra, the baryon acoustic oscillations from Two-Degree Field and SDSS-DR7, and the Union2 compilation of type Ia supernovae, in addition to other bounds from Hubble parameter measurements and big bang nucleosynthesis. We use three parametrizations of MG parameters that enter the perturbed field equations. In order to allow for variations of the parameters with the redshift and scale, the first two parametrizations use recently suggested functional forms while the third is based on binning methods. Using the first parametrization, we find that the CMB+ISW+WL combination provides the strongest constraints on the MG parameters followed by CMB+WL or CMB+MPK+ISW. Using the second parametrization or the binning methods, we find that the combination CMB+MPK+ISW consistently provides some of the strongest constraints. This shows that the constraints are parametrization dependent. We find that adding up current data sets does not improve consistently the uncertainties on MG parameters due to tensions between the best-fit MG parameters preferred by different data sets. Furthermore, some functional forms imposed by the parametrizations can lead to an exacerbation of these tensions. Next, unlike some studies that used the CFHTLS lensing data, we do not find any deviation from general relativity using the refined HST-COSMOS data, confirming previous claims in those studies that their result may have been due to some

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANISATIONAL RESOURCES, CAPABILITIES, SYSTEMS AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raduan Che Rose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective that business organisations in particular should strive to attain is achieving a competitive advantage position relative to their competitors.. This research empirically examined the importance of and emphasis placed on organisational resources, capabilities and systems in their relationships with competitive advantage. The overall findings indicated significant, positive effects of organisational resources, capabilities and systems collectively on competitive advantage, providing support and corroboration to the resource-based view (RBV. The total variance in competitive advantage accounted for by the multiple linear regression (MLR model was 56.2%. In short, the findings from this study have not only contributed to the literature on the issue of the relationship between organisational resources, capabilities, systems and competitive advantage, but also provided vital information to both practitioners and policy makers on the subject matter.

  12. Is bilingualism losing its advantage? A bibliometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Azanza, Victor A; López-Penadés, Raúl; Buil-Legaz, Lucía; Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Adrover-Roig, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This study uses several bibliometric indices to explore the temporal course of publication trends regarding the bilingual advantage in executive control over a ten-year window. These indices include the number of published papers, numbers of citations, and the journal impact factor. According to the information available in their abstracts, studies were classified into one of four categories: supporting, ambiguous towards, not mentioning, or challenging the bilingual advantage. Results show that the number of papers challenging the bilingual advantage increased notably in 2014 and 2015. Both the average impact factor and the accumulated citations as of June 2016 were equivalent between categories. However, of the studies published in 2014, those that challenge the bilingual advantage accumulated more citations in June 2016 than those supporting it. Our findings offer evidence-based bibliometric information about the current state of the literature and suggest a change in publication trends regarding the literature on the bilingual advantage.

  13. Risks for upper respiratory infections in infants during their first months in day care included environmental and child-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjaer, Anni; Ritz, Christian; Hojsak, Iva; Michaelsen, Kim; Mølgaard, Christian

    2018-03-14

    We examined the frequency and potential risk factors for respiratory infections, diarrhoea and absences in infants during their first months in day care. This prospective cohort study comprised 269 Danish infants aged eight months to 14 months and was part of a study that examined how probiotics affected absences from day care due to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The risk factors examined were the household, child characteristics and type of day care facility. Parents registered upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), diarrhoea and day care absences on web-based questionnaires. Over a mean of 5.6 months in day care, 36% and 20% of the infants had at least one URTI or LRTI, and 60% had diarrhoeal episodes. The risk of at least one URTI was increased by previous respiratory infections, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.65, but was inversely associated with having a pet (OR: 0.43), being cared for by registered child minders compared to day care centres (OR: 0.36), birthweight (OR 0.40) and age at day care enrolment (OR: 0.64). No significant risk factors for LRTIs and diarrhoea were found. Infection risks were associated with environmental factors and factors related to the child. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Glycoprotein Enrichment Analytical Techniques: Advantages and Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, R; Zacharias, L; Wooding, K M; Peng, W; Mechref, Y

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications. Numerous biological functions are related to protein glycosylation. However, analytical challenges remain in the glycoprotein analysis. To overcome the challenges associated with glycoprotein analysis, many analytical techniques were developed in recent years. Enrichment methods were used to improve the sensitivity of detection, while HPLC and mass spectrometry methods were developed to facilitate the separation of glycopeptides/proteins and enhance detection, respectively. Fragmentation techniques applied in modern mass spectrometers allow the structural interpretation of glycopeptides/proteins, while automated software tools started replacing manual processing to improve the reliability and throughput of the analysis. In this chapter, the current methodologies of glycoprotein analysis were discussed. Multiple analytical techniques are compared, and advantages and disadvantages of each technique are highlighted. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Costs and advantages of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almoguera, R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies on nuclear energy competitiveness show that considering only the economics this option is the most economic one to generate the base load electricity in most of the countries which do not have plenty of alternative fuels, being this advantage both for the actual prices formation and for their stability on the long term. Should we add the strategic and environmental benefits linked to: Kioto emissions limits, short and long term supply security, national wealth increase due to quality and price of the supply and enhancement of related enterprises, the goodness of nuclear energy to supply a significant share of the electricity demand in most of the countries is evident. For the investors to make decisions for this option, some conditions have to be assured: regulatory stability, favourable national energy policy and expectation for the future, predictable and proven licensing process and expectation for moderate interest rates in the long term. (Author)

  16. Environmental standards provide competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chynoweth, E.; Kirshner, E.

    1993-01-01

    Quality organizations are breaking new ground with the development of international standards for environmental management. These promise to provide the platform for chemical companies wanting to establish their environmental credibility with a global audience. open-quotes It will be similar to auditing our customers to ISO 9000 close-quote, says the environmental manager for a European chemical firm. open-quote We will only want to deal with people who have got their environmental act together. And we'll be in a better competitive positions close-quote. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO;Geneva) has set up a taskforce to develop an environmental management standard, which is expected to be completed by the mid-1990s. Observers think the ISO standard will draw heavily on the British Standard Institute's (BSI;London) environmental management standard, BS7750, which will likely be the first system adopted in the world. Published last year, BS7750 has been extensively piloted in the UK (CW, Sept. 30, 1992, p. 62) and is now set to be revised before being offically adopted by BSI. The UK's Chemical Industries Association (CIA;London) is anxious to prevent a proliferation of standards, and its report on BS7750 pilot projects calls for an approach integrating quality, environment, and health and safety. But standard setters, including ISO, appear to be moving in the opposite direction. In the US, the American national Standards Institute (ANSI;Washington) has started work on an environmental management standard

  17. Nurses' creativity: advantage or disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari Isfahani, Sara; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masood; Peyrovi, Hamid; Khanke, Hamid Reza

    2015-02-01

    Recently, global nursing experts have been aggressively encouraging nurses to pursue creativity and innovation in nursing to improve nursing outcomes. Nurses' creativity plays a significant role in health and well-being. In most health systems across the world, nurses provide up to 80% of the primary health care; therefore, they are critically positioned to provide creative solutions for current and future global health challenges. The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian nurses' perceptions and experiences toward the expression of creativity in clinical settings and the outcomes of their creativity for health care organizations. A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Data were collected through in-depth semistructured interviews with 14 nurses who were involved in the creative process in educational hospitals affiliated to Jahrom and Tehran Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Four themes emerged from the data analysis, including a) Improvement in quality of patient care, b) Improvement in nurses' quality of work, personal and social life, c) Promotion of organization, and d) Unpleasant outcomes. The findings indicated that nurses' creativity in health care organizations can lead to major changes of nursing practice, improvement of care and organizational performance. Therefore, policymakers, nurse educators, nursing and hospital managers should provide a nurturing environment that is conducive to creative thinking, giving the nurses opportunity for flexibility, creativity, support for change, and risk taking.

  18. Drone Use in Monioring Open Ocean Surface Debris, Including Paired Manta and Tucker Trawls for Relateing Sea State to Vertical Debris Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, G.

    2016-02-01

    Monitoring debris at sea presents challenges not found in beach or riverine habitats, and is typically done with trawl nets of various apertures and mesh sizes, which limits the size of debris captured and the area surveyed. To partially overcome these limitations in monitoring floating debris, a Quadcopter drone with video transmitting and recording capabilities was deployed at the beginning and the end of manta trawl transects within the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre's eastern convergence zone. Subsurface tucker trawls at 10 meters were conducted at the same time as the manta trawls, in order to assess the effect of sea state on debris dispersal. Trawls were conducted on an 11 station grid used repeatedly since 1999. For drone observations, the operator and observer were stationed on the mother ship while two researchers collected observed debris using a rigid inflatable boat (RIB). The drone was flown to a distance of approximately 100 meters from the vessel in a zigzag or circular search pattern. Here we examine issues arising from drone deployment during the survey: 1) relation of area surveyed by drone to volume of water passing through trawl; 2) retrieval of drone-spotted and associated RIB spotted debris. 3) integrating post- flight image analysis into retrieved debris quantification; and 4) factors limiting drone effectiveness at sea. During the survey, debris too large for the manta trawl was spotted by the drone, and significant debris not observed using the drone was recovered by the RIB. The combination of drone sightings, RIB retrieval, and post flight image analysis leads to improved monitoring of debris at sea. We also examine the issue of the distribution of floating debris during sea states varying from 0-5 by comparing quantities from surface manta trawls to the tucker trawls at a nominal depth of 10 meters.

  19. Comparison of the oropharyngeal cavity in the Starksiini (Teleostei: Blenniiformes: Labrisomidae): taste buds and teeth, including a comparison with closely-related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishelson, Lev; Baldwin, Carole C; Hastings, Philip A

    2012-06-01

    The present study describes the distribution of taste buds and teeth in the oropharyngeal cavity of 13 species of adult (18-60 mm SL) Starksiini fishes inhabiting subtidal waters of the Neotropical region. Four types of taste buds described previously in other fish groups were observed within the oropharyngeal cavity, of which type I, situated on prominent protruding papillae, is the most common. The number of taste buds in this cavity varies considerably, ranging from ca. 202 in Starksia lepicoelia to ca. 770 in S. sluiteri. In all the studied species, taste buds are more numerous on the posterior (160-396) than on the anterior (42-294) part of the oropharyngeal cavity. The presence of different numbers of taste buds in different Starksiini species of the same standard length suggests that numbers of taste buds are not directly correlated with size and may be species-specific. Teeth are found on the premaxilla, dentary, vomer, palatine (in some species) and the upper and lower pharyngeal jaws (third pharyngobranchials and fifth ceratobranchials, respectively); the form and number of teeth and taste buds on each of these sites differs among the various species of Starksiini and between them and closely related species of the labrisomid tribes Labrisomini, Mnierpini, and Paraclinini. The results thus suggest potential systematic value in certain features of the oropharyngeal cavity for blenniiform fishes. It is also shown that benthic-feeding omnivorous fishes have higher densities of taste buds than piscivorous fishes. A possible correlation among numbers of taste buds, their positions in the oropharyngeal cavity, and other parameters is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The POP Program: the patient education advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, M; Mosher, C; Reesman, D

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, a preoperative education program was developed for total joint replacement patients in a small community hospital. The goals of the program were to increase educational opportunities for the joint replacement patients, prepare patients for hospitalization, plan for discharge needs, and increase efficiency of the orthopaedic program. Since 1992, approximately 600 patients have attended the education program. Outcomes have included positive responses from patients regarding their preparedness for surgery, increased participation in their plan of care, coordinated discharge planning, decreased length of stay, and progression across the continuum of care. A multidisciplinary approach to preparing patients for surgery allows for a comprehensive and efficient education program. Marketing of successful programs can enhance an institution's competitive advantage and help ensure the hospital's viability in the current health care arena.

  1. An exploratory randomised controlled trial of a premises-level intervention to reduce alcohol-related harm including violence in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Simon C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of a licensed premises intervention to reduce severe intoxication and disorder; to establish effect sizes and identify appropriate approaches to the development and maintenance of a rigorous research design and intervention implementation. Methods An exploratory two-armed parallel randomised controlled trial with a nested process evaluation. An audit of risk factors and a tailored action plan for high risk premises, with three month follow up audit and feedback. Thirty-two premises that had experienced at least one assault in the year prior to the intervention were recruited, match paired and randomly allocated to control or intervention group. Police violence data and data from a street survey of study premises’ customers, including measures of breath alcohol concentration and surveyor rated customer intoxication, were used to assess effect sizes for a future definitive trial. A nested process evaluation explored implementation barriers and the fidelity of the intervention with key stakeholders and senior staff in intervention premises using semi-structured interviews. Results The process evaluation indicated implementation barriers and low fidelity, with a reluctance to implement the intervention and to submit to a formal risk audit. Power calculations suggest the intervention effect on violence and subjective intoxication would be raised to significance with a study size of 517 premises. Conclusions It is methodologically feasible to conduct randomised controlled trials where licensed premises are the unit of allocation. However, lack of enthusiasm in senior premises staff indicates the need for intervention enforcement, rather than voluntary agreements, and on-going strategies to promote sustainability. Trial registration UKCRN 7090; ISRCTN: 80875696

  2. Filmless MRI. Advantages and disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorbeck, F.; Al-Zayer, F.; Jung, B.; Breitenseher, M.; Imhof, H.

    1999-01-01

    At our hospital, an average MRI examination comprises 170 images. These examinations were evaluated exclusively on digital reporting systems with two high-resolution monitors for a period of 1 year. A retrospective analysis of this reporting method in comparision with films on a conventional viewing wall was performed with subjective and objective data. Radiologists and technicians were requested to evaluate the system on a subjective scale from 1 to 5 for seven topics (image analysis, inspection, time for reporting, handling, comparison with previous reports, quality of PC laser prints, training period). Moreover, personal interviews were conducted and protocols taken. Patient and image frequency, film costs, data transfer time and amount of system failures were evaluated as objective data. The most important results were: Two thirds of the film checking radiologists prefer the conventional viewing walls over the computer monitors. However, 70% of the residents prefer using the computer monitor for reporting. Seventy percent of the interviewed radiologists considered comparison with former examinations on film very difficult. Digitizing of former MRI examinations was not a convincing method; printing on a standard PC laser printer was considered to yield insufficient quality. The different acceptance between radiologists and residents seems to be related to different experiences. The reduction in film costs (48.6%) will improve further with complete PACS installation in the whole hospital. Data transfer rates are still poor; further improvement of network performance is necessary for convenient work. One whole MRI examination and report could be stored on CD-ROM for a cost of less than 2 euros. This could be a future means of cheap archiving and documentation suitable for viewing on any PC with DICOM III viewer. Images and reports could stay with the patient as in the past. (orig.) [de

  3. Genome-wide association mapping including phenotypes from relatives without genotypes in a single-step (ssGWAS for 6-week body weight in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyu eWang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained from various methodologies for genome-wide association studies, when applied to real data, in terms of number and commonality of regions identified and their genetic variance explained, computational speed, and possible pitfalls in interpretations of results. Methodologies include: two iteratively reweighted single-step genomic BLUP procedures (ssGWAS1 and ssGWAS2, a single-marker model (CGWAS, and BayesB. The ssGWAS methods utilize genomic breeding values (GEBVs based on combined pedigree, genomic and phenotypic information, while CGWAS and BayesB only utilize phenotypes from genotyped animals or pseudo-phenotypes. In this study, ssGWAS was performed by converting GEBVs to SNP marker effects. Unequal variances for markers were incorporated for calculating weights into a new genomic relationship matrix. SNP weights were refined iteratively. The data was body weight at 6 weeks on 274,776 broiler chickens, of which 4553 were genotyped using a 60k SNP chip. Comparison of genomic regions was based on genetic variances explained by local SNP regions (20 SNPs. After 3 iterations, the noise was greatly reduced of ssGWAS1 and results are similar to that of CGWAS, with 4 out of the top 10 regions in common. In contrast, for BayesB, the plot was dominated by a single region explaining 23.1% of the genetic variance. This same region was found by ssGWAS1 with the same rank, but the amount of genetic variation attributed to the region was only 3%. These finding emphasize the need for caution when comparing and interpreting results from various methods, and highlight that detected associations, and strength of association, strongly depends on methodologies and details of implementations. BayesB appears to overly shrink regions to zero, while overestimating the amount of genetic variation attributed to the remaining SNP effects. The real world is most likely a compromise between methods and remains to

  4. Fiches Pratiques: Mots...a croiser; Profitons du cinema; Le discours rapporte; Cent ans (Practical Ideas: Words...to Cross; Let's Take Advantage of the Movies; Relating Others' Discourse; One Hundred Years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vever, Daniel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Four class activities for French language instruction are described, including a crossword puzzle exercise emphasizing French culture, use of films for developing a variety of language skills, techniques for helping students discuss others' ideas, and an exercise promoting discussion through photographs of older adults engaged in various…

  5. Creating Collaborative Advantages Through Coordination of Regional Development Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpor, Marijana

    2006-01-01

    Through the increasing importance of networking and use of participatory strategic planning approaches in the regional development practice, it seems that local and regional development theory moves from the concept of competitive advantages towards collaborative advantages. This conceptual move implies a redefinition of inter- and intra-institutional relations of the public and private sector, and therefore, calls for defining new forms of governance. The exploration of the concept of collab...

  6. Analysis of yield advantage in mixed cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, R.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage.

  7. Competitive advantage, what does it really mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Haijing de Haan; Hongjue Yan

    2013-01-01

    Competitive advantage is probably the most popular business concept today (Mooney, 2007). This article aims to investigate critically the discourse on competitive advantage, as expressed by business literature, by locating its meanings in the public higher education sector. This research reveals

  8. Strategic Positioning for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organizational learning is increasingly being considered as one of the fundamental sources of competitive advantage within the context of strategic management. However, most literature has not clearly linked organizational learning with sustainable competitive advantage. This paper, therefore, explores and discusses the ...

  9. Analisis Dampak Servant Leadership Terhadap Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Oktavia, Pek Nike

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah terdapat dampak antara Servant Leadership terhadap Competitve Advantage, Employee Empowerment dan Organizational Learning. Variabel Servant Leadership diukur dari lima indikator, yaitu altruistic calling, emotional healing, wisdom, persuasive mapping, dan organizational stewardship. Variabel Competitive Advantage diukur dari lima indikator, yaitu price/cost, quality, delivery dependability, time to market, dan product innovation. Variabel Emplo...

  10. Mechanistic Basis of Cocrystal Dissolution Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fengjuan; Amidon, Gordon L; Rodríguez-Hornedo, Naír; Amidon, Gregory E

    2018-01-01

    Current interest in cocrystal development resides in the advantages that the cocrystal may have in solubility and dissolution compared with the parent drug. This work provides a mechanistic analysis and comparison of the dissolution behavior of carbamazepine (CBZ) and its 2 cocrystals, carbamazepine-saccharin (CBZ-SAC) and carbamazepine-salicylic acid (CBZ-SLC) under the influence of pH and micellar solubilization. A simple mathematical equation is derived based on the mass transport analyses to describe the dissolution advantage of cocrystals. The dissolution advantage is the ratio of the cocrystal flux to drug flux and is defined as the solubility advantage (cocrystal to drug solubility ratio) times the diffusivity advantage (cocrystal to drug diffusivity ratio). In this work, the effective diffusivity of CBZ in the presence of surfactant was determined to be different and less than those of the cocrystals. The higher effective diffusivity of drug from the dissolved cocrystals, the diffusivity advantage, can impart a dissolution advantage to cocrystals with lower solubility than the parent drug while still maintaining thermodynamic stability. Dissolution conditions where cocrystals can display both thermodynamic stability and a dissolution advantage can be obtained from the mass transport models, and this information is useful for both cocrystal selection and formulation development. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Processing with kW fibre lasers: advantages and limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratky, A.; Schuöcker, D.; Liedl, G.

    2008-10-01

    Up-to-date fibre lasers produce multi-kw radiation with an excellent beam quality. Compared to CO2-lasers, fibre lasers have relatively low operational costs and offer a very high flexibility in production due to the beam delivery with process fibres. As a consequence, fibre lasers have attracted more and more attention. On the other hand, their use in industrial applications especially in the automotive industry is still limited to a certain extent and fibre lasers haven't replaced all other laser sources till now as it could be expected. In laser cutting, the small kerf width produced by fibre lasers should be advantageous since the heated volume is smaller compared to CO2-lasers. In fact, cutting velocities are usually much higher which is also caused by the higher absorption coefficient of most metals at the wavelength emitted by fibre lasers. Nevertheless, cutting with fibre lasers of some metals - e.g. stainless steels - is restricted to a small thicknesses of approx. 5mm. The reason for this is that the surface roughness of the edges increases dramatically with the thickness of the work piece. Applications of fibre lasers include e.g. remote welding or even remote cutting of a large variety of materials with usually excellent results. Due to the excellent beam quality the aspect ratio of the weld seam in relation to the penetration depth is quite good. In the case of thin sheet metal welding such a small beam waist is beneficial - but with thicker sheet metals it is very often disadvantageous since the preparation of samples is more complicated, costs increase and requirements on clamping devices rise. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of fibre lasers are discussed briefly. Applications of a 1.5 kW fibre laser are presented and compared to classical laser systems.

  12. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNEA Ana Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in market characteristics and the technological innovations are common and faster challenges, resulting in products, processes and technologies. The competitive advantage is volatile, difficult to obtain and more difficult to maintain and strengthened with consumers who through their individual choices polarization confirms the recognition performance and award competitive advantages, thus causing the competitive ranking of companies present in a particular market. The competitive advantage lies in the focus of the performance of companies in competitive markets and innovation is a source for obtaining and consolidating it. Companies will need to demonstrate the capacity to adapt to changes in the business environment so as to maintain the helded positions. This paper treats this aspect behavior that companies should adopt to get on the account of innovation a sustainable competitive advantage. I started of the work in the elaboration from the theory of developed by Michael Porter in his book "Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance" we applied methods listed thus trying to point out possible ways of creating competitive advantage by companies. We have presented the sources of competitive advantage and the factors on which depends its creation. Walking theoretical research revealed how lack of competitive advantage leads to a lack of competitiveness of companies and the benefits that arise with the creation of this type of asset. Among the most important benefits is to increase performances. Once the competitive advantage is achieved, it must be maintained and updated market conditions and the methods that can be created a sustainable competitive advantage represent the answers to many of the companies questions are fighting for survival in an environment of fierce competition. The implementation of methods for obtaining competitive advantages, but also exist dangers, that every company should know them

  13. The Health Advantage of a Vegan Diet: Exploring the Gut Microbiota Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Glick-Bauer, Marian; Yeh, Ming-Chin

    2014-01-01

    This review examines whether there is evidence that a strict vegan diet confers health advantages beyond that of a vegetarian diet or overall healthy eating. Few studies include vegan subjects as a distinct experimental group, yet when vegan diets are directly compared to vegetarian and omnivorous diets, a pattern of protective health benefits emerges. The relatively recent inclusion of vegan diets in studies of gut microbiota and health allows us the opportunity to assess whether the vegan g...

  14. Strategic advantages of high-rise construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaskova Natalya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods to assess the competitiveness of different types of real estate in the context of huge changes of new technological way of life don’t provide building solutions that would be correct from a strategic perspective. There are many challenges due to changes in the consumers’ behavior in the housing area. A multiplicity of life models, a variety of opportunities and priorities, traditions and new trends in construction should be assessed in terms of prospective benefits in the environment of the emerging new world order. At the same time, the mane discourse of high-rise construction mainly relates to its design features, technical innovations, and architectural accents. We need to clarify the criteria for economic evaluation of high-rise construction in order to provide decisions with clear and quantifiable contexts. The suggested approach to assessing the strategic advantage of high-rise construction and the prospects for capitalization of high-rise buildings poses new challenges for the economy to identify adequate quantitative assessment methods of the high-rise buildings economic efficiency, taking into account all stages of their life cycle.

  15. Strategic advantages of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaskova, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    Traditional methods to assess the competitiveness of different types of real estate in the context of huge changes of new technological way of life don't provide building solutions that would be correct from a strategic perspective. There are many challenges due to changes in the consumers' behavior in the housing area. A multiplicity of life models, a variety of opportunities and priorities, traditions and new trends in construction should be assessed in terms of prospective benefits in the environment of the emerging new world order. At the same time, the mane discourse of high-rise construction mainly relates to its design features, technical innovations, and architectural accents. We need to clarify the criteria for economic evaluation of high-rise construction in order to provide decisions with clear and quantifiable contexts. The suggested approach to assessing the strategic advantage of high-rise construction and the prospects for capitalization of high-rise buildings poses new challenges for the economy to identify adequate quantitative assessment methods of the high-rise buildings economic efficiency, taking into account all stages of their life cycle.

  16. Islamic Banking in Nigeria: Perceived Relative Advantage among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    We studied Islamic banking customers' segment using the religious groups in Awka ... relationship between the demographic factors that made up the participants of this study. ANOVA ..... Application of diffusion theory to analyze innovations' ...

  17. Advantages of directional hearing aid microphones related to room acoustics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, A. R.; Dreschler, W. A.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, two types of hearing aids were used. Both aids had the same frequency characteristics for frontal sound, but one employed an omnidirectional microphone and the other a directional microphone. The frequency characteristics of both hearing aids were measured for five azimuths on KEMAR

  18. The greenhouse advantage of natural gas appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombe, N.

    2000-01-01

    The life cycle report prepared recently by Energetics for the AGA, Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Natural Gas, demonstrates clearly the greenhouse advantage natural gas has over coal in generating electricity. This study also goes one step further in applying this life cycle approach to the use of space and water heating within the home. The study shows the significant green-house advantage that natural gas appliances have over electric appliances. Findings from other studies also support this claim. The natural gas suppliers are encouraged to take advantage of the marketing opportunity that these studies provide, offering the householders the fuel that will significantly reduce their contribution to greenhouse emission

  19. Exploring the sequential lineup advantage using WITNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Charles A; Gronlund, Scott D; Carlson, Curt A

    2010-12-01

    Advocates claim that the sequential lineup is an improvement over simultaneous lineup procedures, but no formal (quantitatively specified) explanation exists for why it is better. The computational model WITNESS (Clark, Appl Cogn Psychol 17:629-654, 2003) was used to develop theoretical explanations for the sequential lineup advantage. In its current form, WITNESS produced a sequential advantage only by pairing conservative sequential choosing with liberal simultaneous choosing. However, this combination failed to approximate four extant experiments that exhibited large sequential advantages. Two of these experiments became the focus of our efforts because the data were uncontaminated by likely suspect position effects. Decision-based and memory-based modifications to WITNESS approximated the data and produced a sequential advantage. The next step is to evaluate the proposed explanations and modify public policy recommendations accordingly.

  20. Measuring Coding Intensity in Medicare Advantage - SUPP.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In 2004, Medicare implemented a risk-adjustment system that pays Medicare Advantage (MA) plans based on diagnoses reported for their enrollees, giving the plans an...

  1. AquAdvantage Salmon Genetically modified organism

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Saurí, Ester; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Facultat de Veterinària

    2014-01-01

    Póster AquAdvantage Salmon is a genetically modified organism developed by AquBounty Technologies. The objective of this transgenic organism is to increase the growth rate to obtain the same of conventional salmon faster.

  2. Tanzania's Revealed Comparative Advantage and Structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    example, the contribution from vegetable products fell by 7%, and that from textiles .... 43 -‐ Furskins and artificial fur, manufactures thereof ... example, while Tanzania has comparative advantage in raw hides and skins (see Figure 6), it.

  3. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    PRUNEA Ana Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Rapid changes in market characteristics and the technological innovations are common and faster challenges, resulting in products, processes and technologies. The competitive advantage is volatile, difficult to obtain and more difficult to maintain and strengthened with consumers who through their individual choices polarization confirms the recognition performance and award competitive advantages, thus causing the competitive ranking of companies present in a particular market. The competiti...

  4. ENTERPRISE IRELAND: Design for Competitive Advantage Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A stimulating conference bringing together world leading experts on design to address the importance of brand development strategies to achieve competitive advantage. Peter Dee - Strategic Design and Marketing Consultant, specialised in the creation of brand development strategies for Enterprise Ireland’s Design Unit. Peter was responsible for the design and development of the the brand identity for the Enterprise Ireland Design for Competitive Advantage Conference in Dublin.

  5. Advantages and risks in service standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veres Zoltán

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparing the advantages and risks in standardizing services, there can be no clear-cut answer concerning the strategy to be followed. Exploiting advantages in the long run is only worth it for a provider of a service that is able to build up a powerful brand image. However, the more successful a service concept, the stronger the temptation to imitation. The success of imitators will sooner or later bring about multibrand loyalty.

  6. Theoretical aspects of competitive advantage and competition

    OpenAIRE

    Hudakova, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    The concept of competitive advantage is well-known for many of us and a number of literary resources focused on entrepreneurship and functioning of economies deal with it, either directly or indirectly. The understanding of the term competitive advantage though sometimes varies. One can only perceive it when looking at it as a whole, a live organism that is constantly developing in a complex dynamic entrepreneurial environment, the individual parts of which do not function when separated from...

  7. Stimulus-dependent effects on right ear advantage in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smucny J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jason Smucny,1,3 Korey Wylie,3 Jason Tregellas1–31Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Research Science, Denver VA Medical, Center, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USABackground: When presented with different sounds in each ear (dichotic listening, healthy subjects typically show a preference for stimuli heard in the right ear, an effect termed "right ear advantage". Previous studies examining right ear advantage in schizophrenia have been inconsistent, showing either decreased or increased advantage relative to comparison subjects. Given evidence for enhanced semantic processing in schizophrenia, some of this inconsistency may be due to the type of stimuli presented (words or syllables. The present study examined right ear advantage in patients and controls using both words and syllables as stimuli.Methods: Right ear advantage was compared between 20 patients with schizophrenia and 17 healthy controls. Two versions of the task were used, ie, a consonant-vowel pairing task and a fused rhymed words task.Results: A significant group × task interaction was observed. Relative to healthy controls, patients showed a greater difference on the syllable-based task compared with the word-based task. The number of distractors marked during the syllable-based task was inversely correlated with score on the Global Assessment of Function Scale.Conclusion: The findings are consistent with a left hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia, but also suggest that differences may be stimulus-specific, with a relative sparing of the deficit in the context of word stimuli. Performance may be related to measures of social, occupational, and psychological function.Keywords: schizophrenia, right ear advantage, dichotic, distraction

  8. [Reconsideration of nicotine and other substance dependence: a clue from dependence-related mentation including reward, motivation, learning, delusion and hallucination toward understanding the concept of non-substance-related addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hisatsugu

    2013-11-01

    Nicotine produces core symptoms of substance dependence (craving and withdrawal) without any psychotic symptoms. The psychopharmacological structure of craving is hypothesized to be constituted by three components: the primary reinforcing property of a substance, the secondary reinforcing property of that substance (conditioned aspects of the environment, such as contextual or specific cues associated with substance taking), and the negative affective motivational property during withdrawal (i.e. the desire to avoid the dysphoric withdrawal symptoms elicits craving). Among the three components, the primary reinforcing property of a substance forms the most fundamental factor for establishing substance dependence. Sensitization or reverse tolerance observed in locomotor activity of animals, which had been believed to be a methamphetamine psychosis model, is demonstrated to reflect the establishment of conditioned reinforcement. Finally, non-substance-related addiction such as gambling, internet, and sex is discussed. From the aspect of the above hypothetical psychopharmacological structure of craving, the most significant difference between substance dependence and non-substance-related addiction is that the primary reinforcing property of non-substance reward is relatively intangible in comparison with that of a substance of abuse.

  9. Advantages and Challenges of Radiative Liquid Lithium Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    Steady-state fusion power plant designs present major divertor technology challenges, including high divertor heat flux both in steady-state and during transients. In addition to these concerns, there are the unresolved technology issues of long term dust accumulation and associated tritium inventory and safety issues. The application of lithium (Li) in NSTX resulted in improved H-mode confinement, H-mode power threshold reduction, and reduction in the divertor peak heat flux while maintaining essentially Li-free core plasma operation even during H-modes. These promising results in NSTX and related modeling calculations motivated the radiative liquid Li divertor (RLLD) concept and its variant, the active liquid Li divertor concept (ARLLD), taking advantage of the enhanced Li radiation in relatively poorly confined divertor plasmas. It has been suggested that radiation-based liquid lithium (LL) divertor concepts with a modest Li-loop could provide a possible solution for the outstanding fusion reactor technology issues such as divertor heat flux mitigation and real time dust removal, while potentially improving the reactor plasma performance. Laboratory tests are also planned to investigate the Li-T recover efficiency and other relevant research topics of the RLLD. This work supported by DoE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  10. Cognitive Advantages and Disadvantages in Early and Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, Sabra D.; Abrams, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual "after"…

  11. Variables and advantages of the polymerization process in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Andres F; Ortiz, Jairo A; Restrepo, Elizabeth; Devia Alfonso

    1998-01-01

    They are given to know the parameters that affect the polymerization process in plasma like they are: the kinetics, the electric joining, the variables related to the substrata and the interaction plasma/surface. Some advantages of the polymerization process are also presented with regard to the conventional processes

  12. Medicare Program; Revisions to Payment Policies Under the Physician Fee Schedule and Other Revisions to Part B for CY 2017; Medicare Advantage Bid Pricing Data Release; Medicare Advantage and Part D Medical Loss Ratio Data Release; Medicare Advantage Provider Network Requirements; Expansion of Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program Model; Medicare Shared Savings Program Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    This major final rule addresses changes to the physician fee schedule and other Medicare Part B payment policies, such as changes to the Value Modifier, to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services, as well as changes in the statute. This final rule also includes changes related to the Medicare Shared Savings Program, requirements for Medicare Advantage Provider Networks, and provides for the release of certain pricing data from Medicare Advantage bids and of data from medical loss ratio reports submitted by Medicare health and drug plans. In addition, this final rule expands the Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program model.

  13. The advantages of a small European Monetary Union

    OpenAIRE

    Menkhoff, Lukas; Sell, Friedrich L.

    1991-01-01

    The question whether European Monetary Union should include all the EC countries from the start or should initially be limited to a few core countries is again being discussed more intensely. What advantages would a small EMU have from an economic point of view? Which countries should be its founder members?

  14. Undermatched? School-Based Linguistic Status, College Going, and the Immigrant Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca M.; Humphries, Melissa H.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable research investigates the immigrant advantage--the academic benefit first- and second-generation students experience relative to native-born peers. However, little work examines how school-based linguistic status may influence this advantage. Contradictory patterns exist: Research identifies both an immigrant advantage and a language…

  15. Measuring coding intensity in the Medicare Advantage program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronick, Richard; Welch, W Pete

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, Medicare implemented a system of paying Medicare Advantage (MA) plans that gave them greater incentive than fee-for-service (FFS) providers to report diagnoses. Risk scores for all Medicare beneficiaries 2004-2013 and Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) data, 2006-2011. Change in average risk score for all enrollees and for stayers (beneficiaries who were in either FFS or MA for two consecutive years). Prevalence rates by Hierarchical Condition Category (HCC). Each year the average MA risk score increased faster than the average FFS score. Using the risk adjustment model in place in 2004, the average MA score as a ratio of the average FFS score would have increased from 90% in 2004 to 109% in 2013. Using the model partially implemented in 2014, the ratio would have increased from 88% to 102%. The increase in relative MA scores appears to largely reflect changes in diagnostic coding, not real increases in the morbidity of MA enrollees. In survey-based data for 2006-2011, the MA-FFS ratio of risk scores remained roughly constant at 96%. Intensity of coding varies widely by contract, with some contracts coding very similarly to FFS and others coding much more intensely than the MA average. Underpinning this relative growth in scores is particularly rapid relative growth in a subset of HCCs. Medicare has taken significant steps to mitigate the effects of coding intensity in MA, including implementing a 3.4% coding intensity adjustment in 2010 and revising the risk adjustment model in 2013 and 2014. Given the continuous relative increase in the average MA risk score, further policy changes will likely be necessary.

  16. Building Information Model: advantages, tools and adoption efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, R. G.; Naumov, A. E.

    2018-03-01

    The paper expands definition and essence of Building Information Modeling. It describes content and effects from application of Information Modeling at different stages of a real property item. Analysis of long-term and short-term advantages is given. The authors included an analytical review of Revit software package in comparison with Autodesk with respect to: features, advantages and disadvantages, cost and pay cutoff. A prognostic calculation is given for efficiency of adoption of the Building Information Modeling technology, with examples of its successful adoption in Russia and worldwide.

  17. Safety and environmental advantages of breeding blanketless fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Merola, M.; Matera, R.

    1994-01-01

    Next-step reactors will use DT cycle. However, environmental advantage will be the main chance for fusion to compete with other energy sources. The environmental problems of DT cycle due to tritium and neutron activation, are examined. Fusion commercial reactors could be based on alternative fuel cycles like D-He3. Advantages and disadvantages of this fuel cycle are outlined. All the technologies related with the self-breeding of tritium and the concept of breeding blanket itself may be not reactor relevant. In the frame of the Next-step studies, the potential advantages of intermediate DT devices without breeding blanket are discussed. Simplified design, lower cost, higher safety are the main ones. The problem of the source of tritium is examined. (author)

  18. Achieving competitive advantage through the integration of disabled architects in architectural design firms in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat Othman Ayman Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2030 strategy of sustainable development in Egypt is based on integrated goals, including Human Resource Development. Egypt has ~9,540 disabled architects, who can play an important role in achieving competitive advantage through their integration in Architectural Design Firms (ADFs. By neglecting the benefits of integrating disabled architects, ADFs encounter the risk of losing unique skills and competent personnel. This article investigates the integration of disabled architects in ADFs as an approach for achieving competitive advantage. To achieve this aim, a research methodology consisting of literature review, case studies, and survey questionnaire has been adopted, and it is designed to achieve five objectives. First, literature review is used to investigate the concepts of disabilities and competitive advantage, as well as the relation between integrating disabled architects and the achievement of competitiveness in ADFs. Second, six case studies are presented and analyzed to investigate the role and process of achieving competitive advantage in ADFs through employing disabled architects. Third, the results of a survey questionnaire are analyzed to examine the perception regarding and application of employing disabled architects as an approach for achieving competitive advantage in ADFs in Egypt. Fourth, a framework is developed to facilitate the integration of disabled architects in ADFs with the goal of achieving competitive advantage. Finally, the research findings are summarized and recommendations are put forth. The value of this research stems from the need to address the issue of lack of employment of disabled architects in ADFs and the benefits of making better use of their unique capabilities and skills toward achieving competitiveness. In addition, this research covers a controversial topic that receives scant attention in construction literature, especially in Egypt.

  19. Thermodynamic advantages of nuclear desalination through reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, K.P.; Prabhakar, S.; Tewari, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) integrated with nuclear power station has significant thermodynamic advantages since it can utilize the waste heat available in the condenser cooling circuit and electrical power from the nuclear power plant with provision for using grid power in case of exigencies and shared infrastructure. Coupling of RO plants to the reactor is simple and straightforward and power loss due to RO unit, resulting in the loss of load, does not impact reactor turbine. Product water contamination probability is also very less since it has in-built mechanical barrier. Preheat reverse osmosis desalination has many thermodynamic advantages and studies have indicated improved performance characteristics thereby leading to savings in operational cost. The significant advantages include the operational flexibility of the desalination systems even while power plant is non-operational and non-requirement of safety systems for resource utilization. This paper brings out a comprehensive assessment of reverse osmosis process as a stand-alone nuclear desalination system. (author)

  20. FSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to functions of the ne rvous system, including psycholog ical functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to functions of the nervous system, including psychological functions. This guidance has been drawn from scientific opinions......, and was released for public consultation from 17 October 2011 to 16 December 2011....

  1. ELECTRONIC BANKING ADVANTAGES FOR FINANCIAL SERVICES DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Dragos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available E-banking is a fully automatic service for traditionally banking customers products based on information technology platforms. E-banking services provide customer access to accounts, the ability to move their money between different accounts or making payments via e-channels. The advantages generated by this services have determined an accelerate developing of this industry over the entire world. This paper examines some of the advantages of electronic banking products together with the characteristic management issues generated by the implementation of this new channel for financial services delivery.

  2. THE TAX ADVANTAGES OF INCOME TAX PAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the cost of financing through financial and operational leasing due to the deductibility of depreciation and interest. The shareholders of any company aim to obtain profit and to increase their ownership equity. In order for this to happen, the company must have profit, for which a corporate tax must be paid. A good management translates into choosing the most advantageous means of financing, which will lead to paying a lower corporate tax. Leasing and the non-taxation of reinvested profits are two means through which companies can obtain significant fiscal advantages, by increasing the deductible expenses, or by paying lower taxes.

  3. Modern Paradigm of Ensuring Competitive Advantages of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Alyona O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers evolution of development of the paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise. Foreign and domestic scientists focus on individual directions of development of competitive advantages and pay insufficient attention to new management concepts – development of the information society, knowledge economy and dynamism of integration processes. The goal of the study is formation of the modern paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise with consideration of tendencies of development of the knowledge economy, information society and integration processes. Enterprise competitiveness is a synergetic characteristic, which reflects enterprise capability of dynamic response to changes of the market situation with the aim of keeping predominance over other economic subjects. Management of the future, on the basis of the management 2.0 concept, should take into account interests not only of top management and shareholders but also employees, local communities and territories and meet requirements of the society in general, individual groups of consumers and tendencies of development of managerial and information technologies. The paradigm of the modern theory of ensuring competitive advantages should include models of keeping competitive advantages in the existing markets and models of development of future markets; strategy of development of enterprise competitiveness, human capital development and efficient enterprise management.

  4. Polyploidy in haloarchaea: advantages for growth and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin eZerulla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigated haloarchaeal species, Halobacterium salinarum, Haloferax mediterranii, and H. volcanii, have all been shown to be polyploid. They contain several replicons that have independent copy number regulation, and most have a higher copy number during exponential growth phase than stationary phase. The possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea, most of which have experimental support for at least one species, are discussed. These advantages include a low mutation rate and high resistance towards X-ray irradiation and desiccation, which depend on homologous recombination. For H. volcanii, it has been shown that gene conversion operates in the absence of selection, which leads to the equalization of genome copies. On the other hand, selective forces might lead to heterozygous cells, which have been verified in the laboratory. Additional advantages of polyploidy are survival over geological times in halite deposits as well as at extreme conditions on earth and at simulated Mars conditions. Recently, it was found that H. volcanii uses genomic DNA as genetic material and as a storage polymer for phosphate. In the absence of phosphate, H. volcanii dramatically decreases its genome copy number, thereby enabling cell multiplication, but diminishing the genetic advantages of polyploidy. Stable storage of phosphate is proposed as an alternative driving force for the emergence of DNA in early evolution. Several additional potential advantages of polyploidy are discussed that have not been addressed experimentally for haloarchaea. An outlook summarizes selected current trends and possible future developments.

  5. Advantages of polarization experiments at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    We point out various spin experiments that could be done if the polarized beam option is pursued at RHIC. The advantages of RHIC for investigating several current and future physics problems are discussed. In particular, the gluon spin dependent structure function of the nucleon could be measured cleanly and systematically. Relevant experience developed in conjunction with the Fermilab Polarized Beam program is also presented

  6. Advantages of the production contractor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisvold, K.M. [Golar-Nor Offshore, Trondheim (Norway)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents some thoughts on the Production Contractor concept. It starts with an attempt to define the prerequisites for such contractorship to exist and develop, going on to examine the considerations that the oil company and the contractor respectively have to go through, and finally trying to summarize what emerges as the advantages of production contracting. Examples are given to emphasize particular points

  7. Distance learning: its advantages and disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    KEGEYAN SVETLANA ERIHOVNA

    2016-01-01

    Distance learning has become popular in higher institutions because of its flexibility and availability to learners and teachers at anytime, regardless of geographic location. With so many definitions and phases of distance education, this paper only focuses on the delivery mode of distance education (the use of information technology), background, and its disadvantages and advantages for today’s learners.

  8. On the measurement of comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, A.R.; Oosterhaven, J.

    This paper shows-that the standard measure of revealed comparative advantage (RCA), ranging from 0 to infinity, has problematic properties. Due to its multiplicative specification, it has a moving mean larger than its expected value of 1, while its distribution strongly depends on the number of

  9. On the measurement of comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Alex R.

    2001-01-01

    This article shows that the distribution of the standard measure of revealed comparative advantage (RCA), which runs from 0 to 8, has problematic properties. Due to its multiplicative specification, it has a moving mean without a useful interpretation, while its distribution depends on the number of

  10. Overview of research in the ADVANTAGE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Cosovic, Mirsad; Kalalas, Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    The European Marie Curie Project ADVANTAGE (Advanced Communications and Information processing in smart grid systems) was launched in 2014. It represents a major inter-disciplinary research project into the topic of Smart Grid technology. A key aspect of the project is to bring together and train...

  11. Advantages and disadvantages by using safety culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    Safety culture is a major issue in accident research. A recently finished ph.d.-study has evaluated the symbolic safety culture approach and found four advantages and two disadvantages. These are presented and discussed in this contribution. It is concluded that the approach can be useful...

  12. Online Shopping: Advantages over the Offline Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Joshua Chang

    2003-01-01

    The advent of the Internet as a shopping medium has enabled shoppers to gain shopping benefits such as convenience and time-saving, better information, and price savings. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the benefits of Internet shopping by identifying and discussing the advantages of Internet shopping over traditional storefront shopping.

  13. Advantages and disadvantages of developing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhixin

    1987-01-01

    To solve the problem of the shortage of electricity in China, an objective assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of generating electricity from different energy sources is necessary. Nuclear power is evaluated against hydro-, oil-, gas- and coal-power. It is proposed to develop nuclear power in a planned way as a sensible long term strategy

  14. Business Intelligence Solutions for Gaining Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence is the process for increasing the competitive advantage of a company by intelligent use of available data in decision-making. Only a revolutionary Business Intelligence solution, like the proposed portal-based, can solve the complex issues faced when evaluating decision support applications and ensures the availability of any business-critical information.

  15. [The advantage of multidisciplinary treatment of presbycusis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouccara, Didier; Madjlessi, Arach; Mosnier, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Attributable to the ageing of the hearing system, presbycusis presents a wide variability in the general population. Early detection is necessary in order to be able to provide the patient with a suitable hearing aid. Collaboration between otolaryngologists and geriatricians proves to be advantageous as a consultation for a memory complaint may be the opportunity to detect presbycusis and vice versa.

  16. Advantages of the production contractor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisvold, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents some thoughts on the Production Contractor concept. It starts with an attempt to define the prerequisites for such contractorship to exist and develop, going on to examine the considerations that the oil company and the contractor respectively have to go through, and finally trying to summarize what emerges as the advantages of production contracting. Examples are given to emphasize particular points

  17. Advantages of Intelligent SDH/SONET Networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Advantages of Intelligent SDH/SONET Networks. GMPLS simplifies network management, thus reducing operating expenses (“staff”) and minimizing errors. Same benefits as computerization of banking, accounts, etc. Auto-discovery simplifies equipment installation ...

  18. Project safety as a sustainable competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenthin, David

    2004-01-01

    To be consistently profitable, a construction company must complete projects in scope, on schedule, and on budget. At the same time, the nature of the often high-risk work performed by construction companies can result in high accident rates. Clients and other stakeholders are placing increasing pressure on companies to decrease those accident rates. Clients routinely demand copies of safety plans and evidence of past results at the "pre-qualification" or "request for proposal" stages of the procurement process. Are high accident rates and the associated costs just a part of business? Companies that deliver on scope, schedule, and budget have a competitive advantage. Is it possible for projects with low accident rates to use it as a competitive advantage? Is the value added by safety just a temporary or parity issue, or does a successful safety program offer significant advantage to the company and the client? This article concludes that in the case of a high-risk industry, such as the construction industry, an organization with a successful safety program can promote safety performance as a sustainable competitive advantage. It is a choice the company can make.

  19. Achieving a competitive advantage in managed care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, D A

    1998-02-01

    When building a competitive advantage to thrive in the managed care arena, subacute care providers are urged to be revolutionary rather than reactionary, proactive rather than passive, optimistic rather than pessimistic and growth-oriented rather than cost-reduction oriented. Weaknesses must be addressed aggressively. To achieve a competitive edge, assess the facility's strengths, understand the marketplace and comprehend key payment methods.

  20. 77 FR 67433 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... comments. SUMMARY: The Community Advantage (``CA'') Pilot Program is a pilot program to increase SBA... small businesses and entrepreneurs in underserved markets, SBA is issuing this Notice to extend the term... Pilot Program was introduced to increase the number of SBA-guaranteed loans made to small businesses in...

  1. Clinical advantages of single port laparoscopic hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae Hyun; You, Young Kyoung; Choi, Ho Joong; Hong, Tae Ho; Kim, Dong Goo

    2018-01-21

    To evaluate the clinical advantages of single-port laparoscopic hepatectomy (SPLH) compare to multi-port laparoscopic hepatectomy (MPLH). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 246 patients who underwent laparoscopic liver resection between January 2008 and December 2015 at our hospital. We divided the surgical technique into two groups; SPLH and MPLH. We performed laparoscopic liver resection for both benign and malignant disease. Major hepatectomy such as right and left hepatectomy was also done with sufficient disease-free margin. The operative time, the volume of blood loss, transfusion rate, and the conversion rate to MPLH or open surgery was evaluated. The post-operative parameters included the meal start date after operation, the number of postoperative days spent in the hospital, and surgical complications was also evaluated. Of the 246 patients, 155 patients underwent SPLH and 91 patients underwent MPLH. Conversion rate was 22.6% in SPLH and 19.8% in MPLH ( P = 0.358). We performed major hepatectomy, which was defined as resection of more than 2 sections, in 13.5% of patients in the SPLH group and in 13.3% of patients in the MPLH group ( P = 0.962). Mean operative time was 136.9 ± 89.2 min in the SPLH group and 231.2 ± 149.7 min in the MPLH group ( P started earlier in the SPLH group (1.06 ± 0.27 d after operation) than in the MPLH group (1.63 ± 1.27 d) ( P < 0.001). The mean hospital stay after operation was non-significantly shorter in the SPLH group than in the MPLH group (7.82 ± 2.79 d vs 7.97 ± 3.69 d, P = 0.744). The complication rate was not significantly different ( P = 0.397) and there was no major perioperative complication or mortality case in both groups. Single-port laparoscopic liver surgery seems to be a feasible approach for various kinds of liver diseases.

  2. First Mover Advantages in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Businesses entering early into new markets are believed to attain crucial competitive advantages over later entrants. However, this contention receives only mixed support in the empirical literature, in part because performance is measured in different ways. We reexamine the performance difference...... between early movers and followers entering new geographical markets based on a sample of foreign entrants in Poland, Hungary and Lithuania. We contrast market share with two other measures of firm performance that are based on the managers' perception of their own performance relative to their own prior...... expectations and relative to industry standards. We find that market share is strongly related to order of entry, but we did not find a positive relationship between order of entry and perceived performance. We found general support for early mover advantages in Hungary and Poland but a strongly negative...

  3. Advantages and disadvantages of interdisciplinary consultation in the prescription of assistive technologies for mobility limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Fred A; van Heerebeek, Bart; van Netten, Jaap J

    2018-03-28

    To explore the advantages and disadvantages experienced by professionals in interdisciplinary consultation involving the user, prescriber and technician in the prescription of assistive technologies for mobility limitations. Cross-sectional study. Prescribers (N = 39) and orthopaedic technicians (N = 50), who were regularly involved in an interdisciplinary consultation completed a questionnaire about advantages and disadvantages of the interdisciplinary consultation. Advantages of the interdisciplinary consultation were mentioned within all CanMEDS areas of medical practice, including better and quicker prescription of the assistive technology, shared knowledge of medical diagnosis and device possibilities, shared decision making of the device prescription and clear communication rules. Disadvantages were mentioned in the CanMEDS areas management and collaboration, including planning problems (financial) reimbursement of this type of consultation, and time efficiency. On a 10-point scale, mean (standard deviation) rates of interdisciplinary consultations were 7.9 (0.6) according to prescribers, and 7.8 (0.9) by technicians. All participants wanted to continue the interdisciplinary consultation. Prescribers and technicians in the field of assistive technologies for walking mobility limitations appreciate an interdisciplinary consultation. Advantages are found in all CanMEDS areas, whereas disadvantages only concern coordination. It should be encouraged to realize this kind of consultation in all situations where such technologies are prescribed. Implications for rehabilitation Interdisciplinary consultation involving the user, prescriber and technician to prescribe assistive technologies for mobility limitations has many advantages in all CanMEDS areas of medical practice, and few disadvantages, related to management and collaboration only. The disadvantages of interdisciplinary consultation, such as (financial) reimbursement by health insurance companies

  4. Indonesian Comparative Advantage Entering the ASEAN Economic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riandi .

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the comparative advantage of Indonesian commodities in order to enter the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC. This study uses the export data during the period of 2003-2013 among five ASEAN countries participating in the AEC, including Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. All data obtained from the UN Comtrade database following the Harmonized System (HS at the two-digit classification level. This study applies dynamic revealed comparative advantage (DRCA index developed by Edwards and Schoer (2001 which is the development of revealed comparative advantage (RCA index by Balassa (1965. The results show that Indonesia is ready to enter the AEC. From this research, there are several Indonesian main commodities which have comparative advantage in ASEAN, including fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic invertebrates ones (HS-03, edible fruit, nuts, peel of citrus fruit, melons (HS-08, oil seed, oleagic fruits, grain, seed, fruit, etc, nes (HS-12, lac, gums, resins, vegetable saps and extracts nes (HS-13, rubber and articles thereof (HS-40, paper & paperboard, articles of pulp, paper and board (HS-48, special woven or tufted fabric, lace, tapestry etc (HS-58, articles apparel, accessories, not knit or crochet (HS-62, and vehicles other than railway, tramway (HS-87. Those commodities are in line with Indonesian government export's strategy direction which mainly focuses on several sectors, including fishery, vegetable products, rubber, wood and wood products, textiles, and transportation. Therefore, Indonesian government should focus to improve those commodities in AEC. Keywords: Indonesian Comparative Advantage, Main Export Commodities, Export Strategy Direction, ASEAN Economic Community

  5. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professionals/13 Need a glossary? |Becoming familiar with medical terminology relating to the visual system may also prove helpful, especially when talking to medical professionals and reading about ... Glossary of Eye Terminology , which lists common terms that eye doctors use ...

  6. NRC program for the resolution of generic issues related to nuclear power plants. (Includes plans for the resolution of ''unresolved safety issues'' pursuant to Section 210 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    This report provides a description of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Program for the Resolution of Generic Issues Related to Nuclear Power Plants. The NRC program is of considerably broader scope than the ''Unresolved Safety Issues Plan'' required by Section 210. The NRC program does include plans for the resolution of ''Unresolved Safety Issues''; however, in addition, it includes generic tasks for the resolution of environmental issues, for the development of improvements in the reactor licensing process and for consideration of less conservative design criteria or operating limitations in areas where over conservatisms may be unnecessarily restrictive or costly

  7. Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Michael Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value.

  8. Advantages of polarization experiments at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    We point out various spin experiments that could be done if the polarized beam option is pursued at RHIC. The advantages of RHIC for investigating several current and future physics problems are discussed. In particular, the gluon spin dependent structure function of the nucleon could be measured cleanly and systematically. Relevant experience developed in conjunction with the Fermilab Polarized Beam program is also presented. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  9. COMPETITORS ACCOUNTING AS A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE TOOL

    OpenAIRE

    YÜCENURŞEN, Mehmet; DUMAN, Haluk; APAK, İbrahim; KALAV, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, it seems that businesses adopt customer-oriented marketing strategies. According to the adopted strategies to keep customer satisfaction at the highest level, businesses have been focused to developt new product, to find new customers, to improve distribution and promotion activity etc. Besides, businesses have recognized that they should analize their competitor’s activity and movement to make high profit and growth. Porter's competitive advantage that it is possib...

  10. Provable quantum advantage in randomness processing

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, H; Jennings, D; Rudolph, T

    2015-01-01

    Quantum advantage is notoriously hard to find and even harder to prove. For example the class of functions computable with classical physics actually exactly coincides with the class computable quantum-mechanically. It is strongly believed, but not proven, that quantum computing provides exponential speed-up for a range of problems, such as factoring. Here we address a computational scenario of "randomness processing" in which quantum theory provably yields, not only resource reduction over c...

  11. Manufacturing strategies for time based competitive advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yong; Ma, Shihua; Zhou, Li

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the current manufacturing strategies and practices of bus manufacturers in China, and to propose a framework of manufacturing strategies for time-based competitive advantages.\\ud Design/methodology/approach – The conceptual research framework is devised from a review of the literature, and case studies are used to investigate the manufacturing strategies and practices in place in the case companies. Data is collected through semi-stru...

  12. The Employment Advantages of Skilled Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Escobar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores whether the agglomeration of human capital leads to social employment advantages in urban labor markets of a developing country: Colombia. I estimate the social effects of human capital agglomeration by comparing employment opportunities of individuals located in urban areas in which the level of education differs. Results show that employment opportunities are higher on average in skilled urban areas. Three explanations have been offered: human capital externalities, prod...

  13. Finance, Comparative Advantage, and Resource Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Jaud, Melise; Kukenova, Madina; Strieborny, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The authors show that exported products exit the US market sooner if they violate the Heckscher-Ohlin notion of comparative advantage. Crucially, this pattern is stronger when exporting country has a well-developed banking system, measured by a high ratio of bank credit over the GDP. Banks thus push firms away from exports that are facing an uphill battle on a competitive foreign market du...

  14. Advantages and disadvantages of digital education

    OpenAIRE

    Mąkosa, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The digitization of education in Poland is spreading into more and more areas. Therefore, it becomes necessary to analyse all its aspects, both advantages and disadvantages. In the performed reflection, an attempt to present the current state of the access to computers, the Internet and e-course books in Polish schools has been made. On the basis of the secondary analysis of various recent studies as well as own research performed, it has been determined that the level of digitization of educ...

  15. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing globalization and internationalization bring huge changes to business environment, which has been changed from a lot of dispersed local markets to a single economic market. These changes make businessmen have to think about their international business strategies, such as outsourcing. This article will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing in the context of global manufacturing strategy in order to help managers handle it more effectively.

  16. Interest alignment rents and competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    M. ZOLLO; O. GOTTSCHALG

    2007-01-01

    This paper articulates a theory of the conditions under which the alignment between individual and collective interests generates sustainable competitive advantage. The theory is based on the influence of tacitness, context specificity, and causal ambiguity in the determinants of different types of motivation (extrinsic, normative intrinsic, and hedonic instinsic) under varying conditions of environmental dynamism. The analysis indicates the need to consider motivational processes as a comple...

  17. The "Private School Advantage" in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo E. Fischman

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Local actors' perceptions of curricular and management changes in two private schools and one neighboring public secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, are analyzed. An exploration was conducted of how, within an ideologically and politically pro-reform context and a widespread acceptance of the "private school advantage," principals, teachers, and students in these schools evaluated the changes (or lack of them in management, teaching, and curriculum orientations of the secondary education sector.

  18. How to Achieve a Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Adina Musetescu

    2013-01-01

    In order to succeed in any market a company has to decide which strategy is more appropriate to use, which means identifying the sources of a potential competitive advantage such as skills or resources. Superior skills in creating a special product can represent the element that is setting the company apart from its competitors. That is easily translated into a very good quality of the products. The resources of the company refer to the great number of retailers (a good distribution chain tha...

  19. The "Private School Advantage" in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo E. Fischman

    2001-01-01

    Local actors' perceptions of curricular and management changes in two private schools and one neighboring public secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, are analyzed. An exploration was conducted of how, within an ideologically and politically pro-reform context and a widespread acceptance of the "private school advantage," principals, teachers, and students in these schools evaluated the changes (or lack of them) in management, teaching, and curriculum orientations of the se...

  20. Hidden Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeau, Sébastien; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2017-02-01

    Three studies conducted among fifth and sixth graders examined how school contexts disrupt the achievement of working-class students by staging unfair comparison with their advantaged middle-class peers. In regular classrooms, differences in performance among students are usually showcased in a way that does not acknowledge the advantage (i.e., higher cultural capital) experienced by middle-class students, whose upbringing affords them more familiarity with the academic culture than their working-class peers have. Results of Study 1 revealed that rendering differences in performance visible in the classroom by having students raise their hands was enough to undermine the achievement of working-class students. In Studies 2 and 3, we manipulated students' familiarity with an arbitrary standard as a proxy for social class. Our results suggest that classroom settings that make differences in performance visible undermine the achievement of the students who are less familiar with academic culture. In Study 3, we showed that being aware of the advantage in familiarity with a task restores the performance of the students who have less familiarity with the task.

  1. Explaining Asian Americans’ academic advantage over whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The superior academic achievement of Asian Americans is a well-documented phenomenon that lacks a widely accepted explanation. Asian Americans’ advantage in this respect has been attributed to three groups of factors: (i) socio-demographic characteristics, (ii) cognitive ability, and (iii) academic effort as measured by characteristics such as attentiveness and work ethic. We combine data from two nationally representative cohort longitudinal surveys to compare Asian-American and white students in their educational trajectories from kindergarten through high school. We find that the Asian-American educational advantage is attributable mainly to Asian students exerting greater academic effort and not to advantages in tested cognitive abilities or socio-demographics. We test explanations for the Asian–white gap in academic effort and find that the gap can be further attributed to (i) cultural differences in beliefs regarding the connection between effort and achievement and (ii) immigration status. Finally, we highlight the potential psychological and social costs associated with Asian-American achievement success. PMID:24799702

  2. Explaining Asian Americans' academic advantage over whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy; Xie, Yu

    2014-06-10

    The superior academic achievement of Asian Americans is a well-documented phenomenon that lacks a widely accepted explanation. Asian Americans' advantage in this respect has been attributed to three groups of factors: (i) socio-demographic characteristics, (ii) cognitive ability, and (iii) academic effort as measured by characteristics such as attentiveness and work ethic. We combine data from two nationally representative cohort longitudinal surveys to compare Asian-American and white students in their educational trajectories from kindergarten through high school. We find that the Asian-American educational advantage is attributable mainly to Asian students exerting greater academic effort and not to advantages in tested cognitive abilities or socio-demographics. We test explanations for the Asian-white gap in academic effort and find that the gap can be further attributed to (i) cultural differences in beliefs regarding the connection between effort and achievement and (ii) immigration status. Finally, we highlight the potential psychological and social costs associated with Asian-American achievement success.

  3. Demonstration of quantum advantage in machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristè, Diego; da Silva, Marcus P.; Ryan, Colm A.; Cross, Andrew W.; Córcoles, Antonio D.; Smolin, John A.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Chow, Jerry M.; Johnson, Blake R.

    2017-04-01

    The main promise of quantum computing is to efficiently solve certain problems that are prohibitively expensive for a classical computer. Most problems with a proven quantum advantage involve the repeated use of a black box, or oracle, whose structure encodes the solution. One measure of the algorithmic performance is the query complexity, i.e., the scaling of the number of oracle calls needed to find the solution with a given probability. Few-qubit demonstrations of quantum algorithms, such as Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover, have been implemented across diverse physical systems such as nuclear magnetic resonance, trapped ions, optical systems, and superconducting circuits. However, at the small scale, these problems can already be solved classically with a few oracle queries, limiting the obtained advantage. Here we solve an oracle-based problem, known as learning parity with noise, on a five-qubit superconducting processor. Executing classical and quantum algorithms using the same oracle, we observe a large gap in query count in favor of quantum processing. We find that this gap grows by orders of magnitude as a function of the error rates and the problem size. This result demonstrates that, while complex fault-tolerant architectures will be required for universal quantum computing, a significant quantum advantage already emerges in existing noisy systems.

  4. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  5. A microbial model of economic trading and comparative advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyeart, Peter J; Simpson, Zachary B; Ellington, Andrew D

    2015-01-07

    The economic theory of comparative advantage postulates that beneficial trading relationships can be arrived at by two self-interested entities producing the same goods as long as they have opposing relative efficiencies in producing those goods. The theory predicts that upon entering trade, in order to maximize consumption both entities will specialize in producing the good they can produce at higher efficiency, that the weaker entity will specialize more completely than the stronger entity, and that both will be able to consume more goods as a result of trade than either would be able to alone. We extend this theory to the realm of unicellular organisms by developing mathematical models of genetic circuits that allow trading of a common good (specifically, signaling molecules) required for growth in bacteria in order to demonstrate comparative advantage interactions. In Conception 1, the experimenter controls production rates via exogenous inducers, allowing exploration of the parameter space of specialization. In Conception 2, the circuits self-regulate via feedback mechanisms. Our models indicate that these genetic circuits can demonstrate comparative advantage, and that cooperation in such a manner is particularly favored under stringent external conditions and when the cost of production is not overly high. Further work could involve implementing the models in living bacteria and searching for naturally occurring cooperative relationships between bacteria that conform to the principles of comparative advantage. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy in Turkey: Public Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Akyüz, Emrah

    2018-01-01

    Turkey intends tobuild three nuclear power stations in the Akkuyu, Sinopand Igneada regions to meet its increasing energy demands. This policy,however, is still a highly controversial topic in Turkey as nuclear energy hasboth advantages and disadvantages. The related literature on this topic isdivided into two groups; supporters claim that nuclear energy may decreaseTurkey's energy dependency on other countries, as it already importsapproximately 70% of its total energy demand. In contra...

  7. The Survival Advantage: Underlying Mechanisms and Extant Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Kazanas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have begun to investigate the function of memory in our evolutionary history. According to Nairne and colleagues (e.g., Nairne, Pandeirada, and Thompson, 2008; Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada, 2007, the best mnemonic strategy for learning lists of unrelated words may be one that addresses the same problems that our Pleistocene ancestors faced: fitness-relevant problems including securing food and water, as well as protecting themselves from predators. Survival processing has been shown to promote better recall and recognition memory than many well-known mnemonic strategies (e.g., pleasantness ratings, imagery, generation, etc.. However, the survival advantage does not extend to all types of stimuli and tasks. The current review presents research that has replicated Nairne et al.'s (2007 original findings, in addition to the research designs that fail to replicate the survival advantage. In other words, there are specific manipulations in which survival processing does not appear to benefit memory any more than other strategies. Potential mechanisms for the survival advantage are described, with an emphasis on those that are the most plausible. These proximate mechanisms outline the memory processes that may contribute to the advantage, although the ultimate mechanism may be the congruity between the survival scenario and Pleistocene problem-solving.

  8. Enhancement stimulants: perceived motivational and cognitive advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena P. Ilieva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants like Adderall and Ritalin are widely used for cognitive enhancement by people without ADHD, although the empirical literature has shown little conclusive evidence for effectiveness in this population. This paper explores one potential explanation of this discrepancy: the possibility that the benefit from enhancement stimulants is at least in part motivational, rather than purely cognitive. We review relevant laboratory, survey and interview research and present the results of a new survey of enhancement users with the goal of comparing perceived cognitive and motivational effects. These users perceived stimulant effects on motivationally-related factors, especially energy and motivation, and reported motivational effects to be at least as pronounced as cognitive effects, including effects on "attention."

  9. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  10. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  11. Advantages of semiconductor CZT for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Parnham, Kevin; Sundal, Bjorn; Maehlum, Gunnar; Chowdhury, Samir; Meier, Dirk; Vandehei, Thor; Szawlowski, Marek; Patt, Bradley E.

    2007-09-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe, or CZT) is a room-temperature semiconductor radiation detector that has been developed in recent years for a variety of applications. CZT has been investigated for many potential uses in medical imaging, especially in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). CZT can also be used in positron emission tomography (PET) as well as photon-counting and integration-mode x-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT). The principal advantages of CZT are 1) direct conversion of x-ray or gamma-ray energy into electron-hole pairs; 2) energy resolution; 3) high spatial resolution and hence high space-bandwidth product; 4) room temperature operation, stable performance, high density, and small volume; 5) depth-of-interaction (DOI) available through signal processing. These advantages will be described in detail with examples from our own CZT systems. The ability to operate at room temperature, combined with DOI and very small pixels, make the use of multiple, stationary CZT "mini-gamma cameras" a realistic alternative to today's large Anger-type cameras that require motion to obtain tomographic sampling. The compatibility of CZT with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-fields is demonstrated for a new type of multi-modality medical imaging, namely SPECT/MRI. For pre-clinical (i.e., laboratory animal) imaging, the advantages of CZT lie in spatial and energy resolution, small volume, automated quality control, and the potential for DOI for parallax removal in pinhole imaging. For clinical imaging, the imaging of radiographically dense breasts with CZT enables scatter rejection and hence improved contrast. Examples of clinical breast images with a dual-head CZT system are shown.

  12. Advantages of floating covers with LLDPE Liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Gomez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Using floating covers in irrigation pounds and waste dam gives many advantages. It is a very interesting investment for those place with a high evaporation ratio. this is an easy system which improves several aspects in irrigation or drinkable water reservoirs, mainly it saves water and it saves clean-works (time and cost). It is also used in waste dam to deodorization. Time ago this application was developed with PVC liners and TPO liners, now the innovation is LLDPE liners which improve mechanical properties, durability and an easier installation. This paper develops the state of art of this design technology, and the back ground of our experience. (Author)

  13. Advantages of super-light structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2009-01-01

    Super-light structures with pearl-chain reinforcement is a new revolutionary technology that opens possibilities of building load-bearing structures much cheaper and with several other advantages compared to traditional constructions of concrete and steel. Some benefits are: 1 Half price or less. 2...... Architectural expressions never seen before. 3 Material savings of more than 50 %. 4 Energy and CO2 savings of more than 50 %. 5 No Scaffolding and cheaper moulds. 6 Improved durability. 7 Extreme thermal insulation. 8 Better indoor-climate. 9 User friendly operation and maintenance. 10 Increased safety...

  14. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  15. Hiding effort to gain a competitive advantage: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Heyman, Gail D

    2018-06-01

    Previous studies with Western populations have shown that adolescents' tendency to downplay their academic effort is affected by two kinds of motives: ability-related motives (e.g., to appear competent) and social approval motives (e.g., to be popular). In this research, we test for the presence of additional competition-related motives in China, a culture placing strong emphasis on academic competition. Study 1 (N = 150) showed that, in response to a scenario in which a hard-working high-school junior hid effort from classmates, the most highly endorsed explanation was "to influence others to work less hard to maintain a competitive advantage." Study 2 (N = 174) revealed that competition-related explanations were endorsed relatively more often when the speaker and audience had similar academic rankings. This tendency was most evident when both speaker and audience were top performers, and when this was the case, participants' desire to demonstrate superiority over others was a positive predictor of endorsement of competition-related motives. Study 3 (N = 137) verified that competition-related motives were more strongly endorsed among Chinese participants than U.S. These results suggest that at least in cultures that emphasize academic competition and in contexts where competition is salient, hiding effort is often about attempting to gain strategic advantage. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Advantages of digital imaging for radiological diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapero, M. A.; Gonzalez, S.; Albillos, J. C.; Martel, J.; Rebollo, M.

    2006-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of radiological digital images in comparison with analogic ones are analyzed. We discuss three main topics: acquisition, post-procedure manipulation, and visualization, archive and communication. Digital acquisition with computed radiology systems present a global sensitivity very close to conventional film for diagnostic purposes. However, flat panel digital systems seems to achieve some advantages in particular clinical situations. A critical issue is the radiation dose-reduction that can be accomplished without reducing image quality nor diagnostic exactitude. The post-procedure manipulation allows, particularly in multiplanar modalities like CT or MR, to extract all implicit diagnostic information in the images: Main procedures are multiplanar and three-dimensional reformations, dynamic acquisitions, functional studies and image fusion. The use of PACS for visualization, archive and communication of images, improves the effectiveness and the efficiency of the workflow, allows a more comfortable diagnosis for the radiologist and gives way to improvements in the communication of images, allowing tele consulting and the tele radiology. (Author) 6 refs

  17. Cooperative resources lead to sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vieira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze how organizational resources contribute to cooperatives achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The theoretical approach of this study is the Resource Based View and VRIO model advocated by Barney and Hesterly (2007. The research was characterized as descriptive and quantitative, through data collection from secondary sources and a survey. The data collection tool was a questionnaire devised by Peacock, Sehnem and Hoffmann (2011. Data collection took place between the months of September 2014 and March 2015. The study sample was composed of a total of 215 cooperatives from across the country, divided into 13 segments. Secondary data was subjected to content analysis. The primary data was analyzed using statistical inference, namely: descriptive statistics, mean, Pearson correlation, Varimax rotation and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The main results showed that human resources are seen as important to achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. This research contributed to and enables new studies concerning the growth of cooperatives taking into account the use of internal resources.

  18. Risks of neurological and immune-related diseases, including narcolepsy, after vaccination with Pandemrix: a population- and registry-based cohort study with over 2 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, I; Granath, F; Askling, J; Ludvigsson, J F; Olsson, T; Feltelius, N

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the association between vaccination with Pandemrix and risk of selected neurological and immune-related diseases including narcolepsy. Population-based prospective cohort study using data from regional vaccination registries and national health registries. Seven healthcare regions in Sweden comprising 61% of the Swedish population. Study population of 3,347,467 vaccinated and 2,497,572 nonvaccinated individuals (vaccination coverage ≈ 60%) followed between 2009 and 2011 for 6.9 million person-years after exposure and 6.0 million person-years without exposure. First recorded diagnosis of neurological and immune-related diseases. Relative risks [hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] assessed using Cox regression, adjusted for covariates. For all selected neurological and immune-related outcomes under study, other than allergic vaccine reactions (for which we verified an expected increase in risk) and narcolepsy, HRs were close to 1.0 and always below 1.3. We observed a three-fold increased risk of a diagnosis of narcolepsy (HR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.78-4.79; that is, four additional cases per 100,000 person-years) in individuals ≤ 20 years of age at vaccination and a two-fold increase (HR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.00-4.75) amongst young adults between 21 and 30 years of age. The excess risk declined successively with increasing age at vaccination; no increase in risk was seen after 40 years of age. For a large number of selected neurological and immune-related diseases, we could neither confirm any causal association with Pandemrix nor refute entirely a small excess risk. We confirmed an increased risk for a diagnosis of narcolepsy in individuals ≤ 20 years of age and observed a trend towards an increased risk also amongst young adults between 21 and 30 years. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  19. Immediately sequential bilateral cataract surgery: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjodh; Dohlman, Thomas H; Sun, Grace

    2017-01-01

    The number of cataract surgeries performed globally will continue to rise to meet the needs of an aging population. This increased demand will require healthcare systems and providers to find new surgical efficiencies while maintaining excellent surgical outcomes. Immediately sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) has been proposed as a solution and is increasingly being performed worldwide. The purpose of this review is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of ISBCS. When appropriate patient selection occurs and guidelines are followed, ISBCS is comparable with delayed sequential bilateral cataract surgery in long-term patient satisfaction, visual acuity and complication rates. In addition, the risk of bilateral postoperative endophthalmitis and concerns of poorer refractive outcomes have not been supported by the literature. ISBCS is cost-effective for the patient, healthcare payors and society, but current reimbursement models in many countries create significant financial barriers for facilities and surgeons. As demand for cataract surgery rises worldwide, ISBCS will become increasingly important as an alternative to delayed sequential bilateral cataract surgery. Advantages include potentially decreased wait times for surgery, patient convenience and cost savings for healthcare payors. Although they are comparable in visual acuity and complication rates, hurdles that prevent wide adoption include liability concerns as ISBCS is not an established standard of care, economic constraints for facilities and surgeons and inability to fine-tune intraocular lens selection in the second eye. Given these considerations, an open discussion regarding the advantages and disadvantages of ISBCS is important for appropriate patient selection.

  20. Cognitive advantages and disadvantages in early and late bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, Sabra D; Abrams, Lise

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual after childhood (late bilinguals) can produce the cognitive advantages and disadvantages typical of early bilinguals. Participants were 30 monolingual English speakers, 30 late English-Spanish bilinguals, and 30 early Spanish-English bilinguals who completed a picture naming task (lexical access) and an attentional network task (executive function). Late and early bilinguals manifested equivalent cognitive effects in both tasks, demonstrating lexical access deficits and executive function benefits. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that cognitive effects associated with bilingualism arise as the result of proficient, habitual use of 2 languages and not of developmental changes associated with becoming bilingual during childhood.

  1. Comparative Advantages of Spin-off Firms: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Uzunca

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As predicted by evolutionary economics, historical antecedents matter when it comes to the relationship between survival of entrants and organizational capabilities. Spinoff firms provide an exemplary case of such relationship where the founders’ pre-entry capabilities that are inherited from the parent firm increases their survival chances. Looking closer and deeper to the evolutionary spinoff success mechanisms, I examine three specific genetic features which make spinoff firms more advantageous compared to other entrants; namely 1 Genotype: Transfer of blueprint, 2 Phenotype: Organizational learning, and 3 Memes: Informal relations and social capital. A detailed theoretical analysis of each mechanism prevails how they function and provide sustainable competitive advantage to spinoff firms. Testable hypotheses are provided about each mechanism.

  2. Sports drug testing using complementary matrices: Advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Tretzel, Laura; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2016-10-25

    Today, routine doping controls largely rely on testing whole blood, serum, and urine samples. These matrices allow comprehensively covering inorganic as well as low and high molecular mass organic analytes relevant to doping controls and are collecting and transferring from sampling sites to accredited anti-doping laboratories under standardized conditions. Various aspects including time and cost-effectiveness as well as intrusiveness and invasiveness of the sampling procedure but also analyte stability and breadth of the contained information have been motivation to consider and assess values potentially provided and added to modern sports drug testing programs by alternative matrices. Such alternatives could be dried blood spots (DBS), dried plasma spots (DPS), oral fluid (OF), exhaled breath (EB), and hair. In this review, recent developments and test methods concerning these alternative matrices and expected or proven contributions as well as limitations of these specimens in the context of the international anti-doping fight are presented and discussed, guided by current regulations for prohibited substances and methods of doping as established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Focusing on literature published between 2011 and 2015, examples for doping control analytical assays concerning non-approved substances, anabolic agents, peptide hormones/growth factors/related substances and mimetics, β 2 -agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, diuretics and masking agents, stimulants, narcotics, cannabinoids, glucocorticoids, and beta-blockers were selected to outline the advantages and limitations of the aforementioned alternative matrices as compared to conventional doping control samples (i.e. urine and blood/serum). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Content Analysis of Advantages and Disadvantages of Drinking Among Individuals With the Lived Experience of Homelessness and Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Susan E; Taylor, Emily; Jones, Connor; Haelsig, Laura; Grazioli, Véronique S; Mackelprang, Jessica L; Holttum, Jessica; Koker, Molly; Hatsukami, Alyssa; Baker, Madeline; Clifasefi, Seema L

    2018-01-02

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are more prevalent among people who are homeless than in the general population. Thus, homeless individuals experience disproportionately high levels of alcohol-related problems and associated publicly funded criminal justice and healthcare system utilization. Available treatment services, however, are not effective at engaging and treating this population. To better tailor treatment services to their needs, it is imperative we understand this population's perceptions of their alcohol use. The aim of this study was to provide description and relative rankings of the advantages and disadvantages of alcohol use from this population's perspectives. Participants were 44 individuals with lived experiences of AUDs and homelessness who received services at community-based agencies in Seattle, Washington. Open-ended prompts were used in interviews conducted in 2013-2014 to assess the perceived role of alcohol in participants' lives, including participants' perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of their current drinking, and a conventional content analysis was conducted. The most frequently mentioned advantages of drinking included positively and negatively reinforcing psychological reasons, perceived control over drinking, and social benefits. Physical effects, concerns about dependence on alcohol, and health problems were the most commonly mentioned disadvantages. Conclusions/importance: By documenting the perceived advantages and disadvantages of drinking among people with the lived experience of homelessness and AUDs, this study supplies information providers may use to better tailor treatment services to this multimorbid, high service-utilizing population's needs and interests.

  4. Hydrodynamic advantages of swimming by salp chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kelly R; Weihs, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Salps are marine invertebrates comprising multiple jet-propelled swimming units during a colonial life-cycle stage. Using theory, we show that asynchronous swimming with multiple pulsed jets yields substantial hydrodynamic benefit due to the production of steady swimming velocities, which limit drag. Laboratory comparisons of swimming kinematics of aggregate salps ( Salpa fusiformis and Weelia cylindrica ) using high-speed video supported that asynchronous swimming by aggregates results in a smoother velocity profile and showed that this smoother velocity profile is the result of uncoordinated, asynchronous swimming by individual zooids. In situ flow visualizations of W. cylindrica swimming wakes revealed that another consequence of asynchronous swimming is that fluid interactions between jet wakes are minimized. Although the advantages of multi-jet propulsion have been mentioned elsewhere, this is the first time that the theory has been quantified and the role of asynchronous swimming verified using experimental data from the laboratory and the field. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. The competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürerk, Ozgür; Irlenbusch, Bernd; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2006-04-07

    Understanding the fundamental patterns and determinants of human cooperation and the maintenance of social order in human societies is a challenge across disciplines. The existing empirical evidence for the higher levels of cooperation when altruistic punishment is present versus when it is absent systematically ignores the institutional competition inherent in human societies. Whether punishment would be deliberately adopted and would similarly enhance cooperation when directly competing with nonpunishment institutions is highly controversial in light of recent findings on the detrimental effects of punishment. We show experimentally that a sanctioning institution is the undisputed winner in a competition with a sanction-free institution. Despite initial aversion, the entire population migrates successively to the sanctioning institution and strongly cooperates, whereas the sanction-free society becomes fully depopulated. The findings demonstrate the competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions and exemplify the emergence and manifestation of social order driven by institutional selection.

  6. Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus eFliessbach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous (AI and disadvantageous inequity (DI. AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning fMRI experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed i hypoactivation of the ventral striatum under DI but not under AI; ii inequity induced activation of medial and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, that were stronger under DI than AI; iii correlations between subjective evaluations of DI and amygdala activity, and between AI evaluation and right ventrolateral prefrontal activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. Our data is compatible with the assumption that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns.

  7. Rethinking Marketing for Sustainable Competitive Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın KOÇAK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When formal marketing thought developed in the early 1900s, dominant perspective of marketing was about taking things “to market”. After 1950 marketing thought moved to a “market to” orientation. This orientation reflects “product dominant logic”. After radical changes in information technology, knowledge asymmetry between firm and customer is decreased and customer becomes operant resource instead of a resource to be acted on. Therefore, new marketing paradigm has been emerged and main focus moved from “value in exchange” to “value in use” and customer becomes collaborative partner. Firm can only provide value proposition. New definition of marketing comprises “customer relationship”, “share holders”, and “value creation”. Apart from evolving of marketing thought, theories of competitive advantages have been also change form industry perspective to internal resource and dynamic capabilities.

  8. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  9. STRATEGIES FOR COMPETETIVE ADVANTAGE IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Azadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite rapid and sustained development of electronic commerce, many companies doing e-business are still in the investment and brand-building phase and have yet to show a profit. However, as e-businesses shift their focus from  building a customer base to increasing revenue growth and profitability, they should reevaluate their current business strategies, if any, and develop strategies that provide a clear path to profitability. This study uses McCarthy’s four marketing mix model and Porter’s five competitive forces model to identify strategies for Internet companies that respond to the five competitive forces and thereby achieve a competitive advantage. The study provides significant new insights into the development and implementation of e-business strategies that contribute to increased profit.

  10. The environmental advantage in the competitive equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, T.J.; Blake, E.T.

    1992-01-01

    The role of environmental issues in the utility business has undergone a dramatic transition in the past few years and this new role is the basis for new definitions and new responses. Policies or products that protect the environment are now an advantage to those companies that properly capture environmental issues in their strategic planning process. This paper will focus on the underpinnings of this shift in the role of environmental protection in business and go beyond the issues of today to suggest some paradigms for the future. The current status of environmental concern is evident in the time and resources committed to environmental protection. Public officials take more proactive environmental positions; Corporations recognize environmental values in competitive equation; Citizens express willingness to pay for environmentally responsible services and products; Environmental issues tie business to the community; and Environmental planning tradeoffs are becoming more complex

  11. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  12. Sources of competitive advantage and business performance in the European meat processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    and distribution costs. Business performance was measured by applying the following indicators: return of investments, sales growth and market share. 3. The data set was subjected to conformative factor analysis and structural equation modelling using LISREL8. Based on an evaluation of the reliability values and t...... introductions and marketing mix efforts. The LSAs include variables related to national endowment of resources and industry-related factors such as for example the degree of industry concentration. The RSA measurements include relationships with retailers; relationships to suppliers; access to raw materials...... as well as their firm-specific advantages (such as product development, process development etc.) being improved by strong retail relationships. Finally, the paper supports the view that investments in process and/or product innovation will pay off in the meat processing industry....

  13. Technical and cost advantages of silicon carbide telescopes for small-satellite imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasunic, Keith J.; Aikens, Dave; Szwabowski, Dean; Ragan, Chip; Tinker, Flemming

    2017-09-01

    Small satellites ("SmallSats") are a growing segment of the Earth imaging and remote sensing market. Designed to be relatively low cost and with performance tailored to specific end-use applications, they are driving changes in optical telescope assembly (OTA) requirements. OTAs implemented in silicon carbide (SiC) provide performance advantages for space applications but have been predominately limited to large programs. A new generation of lightweight and thermally-stable designs is becoming commercially available, expanding the application of SiC to small satellites. This paper reviews the cost and technical advantages of an OTA designed using SiC for small satellite platforms. Taking into account faceplate fabrication quilting and surface distortion after gravity release, an optimized open-back SiC design with a lightweighting of 70% for a 125-mm SmallSat-class primary mirror has an estimated mass area density of 2.8 kg/m2 and an aspect ratio of 40:1. In addition, the thermally-induced surface error of such optimized designs is estimated at λ/150 RMS per watt of absorbed power. Cost advantages of SiC include reductions in launch mass, thermal-management infrastructure, and manufacturing time based on allowable assembly tolerances.

  14. The advantage of being slow: The quasi-neutral contact process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Martins de Oliveira

    Full Text Available According to the competitive exclusion principle, in a finite ecosystem, extinction occurs naturally when two or more species compete for the same resources. An important question that arises is: when coexistence is not possible, which mechanisms confer an advantage to a given species against the other(s? In general, it is expected that the species with the higher reproductive/death ratio will win the competition, but other mechanisms, such as asymmetry in interspecific competition or unequal diffusion rates, have been found to change this scenario dramatically. In this work, we examine competitive advantage in the context of quasi-neutral population models, including stochastic models with spatial structure as well as macroscopic (mean-field descriptions. We employ a two-species contact process in which the "biological clock" of one species is a factor of α slower than that of the other species. Our results provide new insights into how stochasticity and competition interact to determine extinction in finite spatial systems. We find that a species with a slower biological clock has an advantage if resources are limited, winning the competition against a species with a faster clock, in relatively small systems. Periodic or stochastic environmental variations also favor the slower species, even in much larger systems.

  15. The advantage of being slow: The quasi-neutral contact process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcelo Martins; Dickman, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    According to the competitive exclusion principle, in a finite ecosystem, extinction occurs naturally when two or more species compete for the same resources. An important question that arises is: when coexistence is not possible, which mechanisms confer an advantage to a given species against the other(s)? In general, it is expected that the species with the higher reproductive/death ratio will win the competition, but other mechanisms, such as asymmetry in interspecific competition or unequal diffusion rates, have been found to change this scenario dramatically. In this work, we examine competitive advantage in the context of quasi-neutral population models, including stochastic models with spatial structure as well as macroscopic (mean-field) descriptions. We employ a two-species contact process in which the "biological clock" of one species is a factor of α slower than that of the other species. Our results provide new insights into how stochasticity and competition interact to determine extinction in finite spatial systems. We find that a species with a slower biological clock has an advantage if resources are limited, winning the competition against a species with a faster clock, in relatively small systems. Periodic or stochastic environmental variations also favor the slower species, even in much larger systems.

  16. A Short-Term Advantage for Syngamy in the Origin of Eukaryotic Sex: Effects of Cell Fusion on Cell Cycle Duration and Other Effects Related to the Duration of the Cell Cycle-Relationship between Cell Growth Curve and the Optimal Size of the Species, and Circadian Cell Cycle in Photosynthetic Unicellular Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo Quintana, J M; Mancebo Quintana, S

    2012-01-01

    The origin of sex is becoming a vexatious issue for Evolutionary Biology. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed, based on the genetic effects of sex, on trophic effects or on the formation of cysts and syncytia. Our approach addresses the change in cell cycle duration which would cause cell fusion. Several results are obtained through graphical and mathematical analysis and computer simulations. (1) In poor environments, cell fusion would be an advantageous strategy, as fusion between cells of different size shortens the cycle of the smaller cell (relative to the asexual cycle), and the majority of mergers would occur between cells of different sizes. (2) The easiest-to-evolve regulation of cell proliferation (sexual/asexual) would be by modifying the checkpoints of the cell cycle. (3) A regulation of this kind would have required the existence of the G2 phase, and sex could thus be the cause of the appearance of this phase. Regarding cell cycle, (4) the exponential curve is the only cell growth curve that has no effect on the optimal cell size in unicellular species; (5) the existence of a plateau with no growth at the end of the cell cycle explains the circadian cell cycle observed in unicellular algae.

  17. A Short-Term Advantage for Syngamy in the Origin of Eukaryotic Sex: Effects of Cell Fusion on Cell Cycle Duration and Other Effects Related to the Duration of the Cell Cycle—Relationship between Cell Growth Curve and the Optimal Size of the Species, and Circadian Cell Cycle in Photosynthetic Unicellular Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo Quintana, J. M.; Mancebo Quintana, S.

    2012-01-01

    The origin of sex is becoming a vexatious issue for Evolutionary Biology. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed, based on the genetic effects of sex, on trophic effects or on the formation of cysts and syncytia. Our approach addresses the change in cell cycle duration which would cause cell fusion. Several results are obtained through graphical and mathematical analysis and computer simulations. (1) In poor environments, cell fusion would be an advantageous strategy, as fusion between cells of different size shortens the cycle of the smaller cell (relative to the asexual cycle), and the majority of mergers would occur between cells of different sizes. (2) The easiest-to-evolve regulation of cell proliferation (sexual/asexual) would be by modifying the checkpoints of the cell cycle. (3) A regulation of this kind would have required the existence of the G2 phase, and sex could thus be the cause of the appearance of this phase. Regarding cell cycle, (4) the exponential curve is the only cell growth curve that has no effect on the optimal cell size in unicellular species; (5) the existence of a plateau with no growth at the end of the cell cycle explains the circadian cell cycle observed in unicellular algae. PMID:22666626

  18. [Anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Indications, technique, advantages and disadvantages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M; Weidenfeld, M; Uckmann, F P

    2015-02-01

    Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for lumbar interbody fusion from L2 to the sacrum has been an established technique for decades. The advantages and disadvantages of ALIF compared to posterior interbody fusion techniques are discussed. The operative technique is described in detail. Complications and avoidance strategies are discussed. This article is based on a selective literature search using PubMed and the experience of the authors in this medical field. The advantages of ALIF compared to posterior fusion techniques are the free approach to the anterior disc space without opening of the spinal canal or the neural foramina. This gives the possibility of an extensive anterior release and placement of the largest possible cages without the risk of neural structure damage. The disadvantages of ALIF are the additional anterior approach and the related complications. The most frequent complication is due to damage of vessels. The rate of complications is significantly increased in revision surgery. The ALIF technique meaningfully expands the repertoire of the spinal surgeon especially for the treatment of non-union after interbody fusion, in patients with epidural scar tissue at the index level and spinal infections. Advantages and disadvantages should be considered when evaluating the indications for ALIF.

  19. GLOBAL COMPETITION AND ROMANIA’S NATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing products and services around us it is clear that most of them are the result of production factors, labor and capital becoming more international and increasingly less and less national. We are witnessing the globalization of markets and production, to a large global integration and interdependence, increase personalization of production and services as a result of new communication systems interaction and flexible production processes. Markets will continue to homogenize and diversify at the same time, so it is important that as a global marketer one addresses a market segment defined by income, age, and consumption habits and not by membership of a nation. The most visible and polarized is the premium segment fighting for high income clients where brand value plays an important role. Instead identification of large segments of customers offers the advantages of scale economy in production and marketing for global enterprises. Consumer profile is the dominant global consumer requesting and accepting global products and services easily. In fact, what can force an economic alignment to achieve the best performance, rather than the global consumer. The research methodology used includes literature review, comparative analysis, synthesis of data based on bibliographic resources and official documents.The aim of the paper is to highlight current models that underlie the competitive advantage of nations and assess the competitive advantage of Romania in the context of the global market. A case study is used to offer an overview of competitive advantage of Antibiotice Iasi SA, a competitive player, in a global pharmaceutical market with strong global competition. Countries moderate companies’ achievements of global efficiency objectives due to the countries’ rivalry. Romania has to understand that it is in competition with other countries in order to fulfill economic, political and social objectives. The scope in the end is the well

  20. Revealed Comparative Advantage of Services in Cariforum Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Freckleton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la importancia de las exportaciones de servicios a los países del CARIFORUM no hay muchos estudios sobre de la competitividad de las exportaciones. Este artículo examina la ventaja comparativa revelada de las exportaciones de servicios de los países del CARIFORUM. El análisis muestra que la mayoría de los países del CARIFORUM han puesto de manifiesto las ventajas comparativas en el turismo, pero también hay casos de ventaja comparativa revelada en otros servicios como transporte, seguros y servicios empresariales, servicios personales, culturales y recreativos. Los resultados sugieren que existe un potencial de CARIFORUM para diversificar las exportaciones de servicios con el fin de pro-mover el crecimiento económico y reducir la vulnerabilidad. Sin embargo, en la medida en que los países del CARIFORUM pueden tomar ventaja de las oportunidades existentes de acceso al Mercado de los servicios depende de su capacidad de mejorar la capacidad de oferta de servicios y promover la competitividad de los servicios. English: Despite the importance of services ex-ports to CARIFORUM countries there is limited research on the competitiveness of such exports. This article examines the revealed comparative advantage of services exports in CARIFORUM countries. The analysis shows that most CARIFORUM countries have revealed comparative advantage in tourism but there are also cases of revealed comparative advantage in other services including transport, insurance, business services and personal, cultural and recreational services. The results suggest that there is potential for CARIFORUM to diversify exports of services in order to promote economic growth and reduce vulnerability. However, the extent to which CARIFORUM countries can take advantage of existing market access opportunities for services depends on their ability to improve the capacity to supply services and to promote the competitiveness of services.

  1. Using integration technology as a strategic advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, P A

    1993-08-01

    The underlying premise of the Managed Competition Act previously cited is that through managed competition providers will be forced to lower care costs while increasing the level of positive care outcomes. Because it may also be that tomorrow's hospitals will find a severe rationing of technology, what can they do to prepare? Most of the systems in place today already have built within them all the necessary potential to address this premise and technology requirement with no change, no conversion, no expense for new equipment and software, and no disruption in day-to-day operations, just a little re-engineering. Today, however, these systems are similar to a 20-mule team pulling in different directions: all the power is there, but the wagon remains motionless and totally unable to reach its objective. It takes a skilled wagonmaster to bring them together, to make the mules work as a cohesive unit, to make the power of 20 mules greater than the sum of 20 mules. So it is and will be for the hospital of tomorrow. System integration is no longer a question of whether but of when. Those hospitals that use it today as a strategic advantage will be in a better position tomorrow to use it as a competitive strategic advantage in an environment that will reward low cost and high positive care outcomes and will penalize those that cannot compete. The technology is already here and economically within reach of nearly every hospital, just waiting to be used. The question that must nag all of us who want to make the health care system of America better is, Why not make the when now? Rich Helppie, president of Superior Consultant Company, summarized the solution well: The old ways will not give way to the new overnight. The re-engineering process in healthcare must evolve. Compared to the last 20 years, however, such evolution may appear to be a massive, forthright, complete, comprehensive, drastic and rapid revolution. Survival is the name of the game, and for healthcare

  2. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women’s rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women’s patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women—and in particular academic women—contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  3. Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries—the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (θGB) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe2As2 (BaFe2As2:Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (JcBGB) remained high (>1 MA cm−2) and nearly constant up to a critical angle θc of ∼9°, which is substantially larger than the θc of ∼5° for YBa2Cu3O7–δ. Even at θGB>θc, the decay of JcBGB was much slower than that of YBa2Cu3O7–δ. PMID:21811238

  4. BILATERAL COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES: INDONESIA AND MALAYSIA CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Wiwin Setyari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This studytried tolook more closely at market integration, through export prices channel, inIndonesiaandMalaysia. Severalpreviousstudiestendtorejectthe existence oflawofoneprice(LOP. The law of one price (LOP states that price a given product should be the same in different parts of the world if valued in common currency. However, empirical studies uniformly shows LOP does not describe most markets. Someimportantfactorsthat are consideredinstrumentalin this regardaretransportation costsandprice stickiness. However, there isone characteristicthat is oftenoverlookedin the discussion ofLOP, namelychanges incomparative advantage. The specific objectiveofthispaperis to look atcomparative advantagecorrelationbetween the two countriesandtheir effect onpriceconvergence. Correlationof both selected commodities –using therankspearman's test -indicates the nature ofthemutualsubstitutionof productsthatcarrythe possibility of"price competition" so thatthe pricepointtoconvergeto one another. Tests on theexportprice ofsomeselected productsinboth countriesindicatedthe occurrence ofpriceconvergence, seen from thetwoanalytical techniques: σconvergenceandco-integrationusingJohansen's test. This conclusion is generated by attempted to control the "identical assumption" is to examines prices for similar products (homogeneous using SITC 3-digit, which is produced from the "same" or close locations, with the export destination to the same trading partner

  5. Advantages and limitations of peer assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Goršak, Karmen Pižorn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines current theoretical work and research findings regarding the effectiveness of peer assessment. The main purpose of the article is to define peer asses sment and its subcategory peer feedback and to present the advantages and limitations of peer assessment derived from different research findings. In addition, conditions and strategies to successfully guarantee the benefits of peer assessment are presented. The main research studies, mentioned in this article, have been carried out in different disciplines in higher education programmes and their findings reveal positive students’ and teachers’ attitude to peer assessment as well as high correlation between peers’ and te achers’ grades. The main results of the studies show a positive effect of peer assessment on student’s active role in the process of learning and assessment, the development of social and professional skills, student’s autonomy, critical thinking, peer and selfassessment skills. Recommendations for implementing peer assessment within foreign language tea ching, as well as implications for future research work are provided.

  6. Grounding Animal Rights in Mutual Advantage Contractarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to critics and advocates of contractarianism alike, I argue that mutual advantage contractarianism entails rights and protections for animals. In section one I outline the criteria that must be met in order for an individual to qualify for moral rights on the contractarian view. I then introduce an alternative form of ‘rights,’ which I call ‘protectorate status,’ from which an individual can receive protections indirectly. In section two I suggest guidelines for assigning animal rights based on two ways of categorizing animals. On the basis of the categorization according to benefit derived, I argue that animals used for companionship, security, hunting assistance, transportation, entertainment, medical service, nourishment, or clothing will tend to qualify for basic rights against starvation, predation, and disease. On the basis of the categorization according to species, I argue that, on top of the basic rights above, dogs tend to qualify for rights against abuse, and against frivolous medical experimentation, as well as further negotiated rights. Cows have the basic rights against starvation, predation, and disease, but squirrels and bears have no rights. In section three I argue that some animals qualify for protectorate status, which would establish various protections for different animals, but would also generally prohibit cruelty towards animals.

  7. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Sugimoto

    Full Text Available We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO. Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  8. Vacuum-assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Filho, Elio Barreto de; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes da; Antunes, Nilson

    2014-01-01

    Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas.

  9. [Advantages and disadvantages of direct-to-consumer genetic tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Camilla Worm; Gerdes, Anne-Marie Axø

    2017-03-13

    Direct-to-consumer genetic tests are sold over the internet to consumers all over the world - including Denmark. No regulation of these tests has been introduced neither in Denmark nor in Europe, even though they have been on the market since 2007. Such tests have several advantages, but indeed also a long list of potential disadvantages, which are most often ignored, and among these is insufficient training of general practitioners in performing the necessary counselling but also the risk of increased expenses to unnecessary follow-up consultations.

  10. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate the results and they both validated the questionnaire. The results of the survey have determined six effective groups including product development, e-commerce, marketing planning, organizational performance, competitiveness and supply chain management.

  11. Protontherapy versus carbon ion therapy advantages, disadvantages and similarities

    CERN Document Server

    d’Ávila Nunes, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comparison analysis of two cancer treatment therapies: carbon ion therapy and protontherapy. It is divided in 5 sections. The first ones gives the reader a brief history of Radiotherapy and types of radiation. In the second section, the techniques and equipments, including new ones in development such as Cyclinac , Laser and DWA, are described. The third section describes biophysical (such as stopping power and LET) and biological (such as RBE and OER) properties, the fundamental experiments and clinical area. The fourth section presents models and the fifth section compares both techniques, showing advantages and disadvantages of each, and their similarities.

  12. ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

  13. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  14. Features of formation of competitive advantages: a strategic dimension

    OpenAIRE

    O.Р. Pashchenko

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the features of formation of competitive advantages, the depth of theoretical and methodological basis for the formation of competitive advantages at an enterprise. The author has reviewed the approaches to the formation of stable and long-term competitive advantages. The author has also overviewed the requirements which are to be met by competitive advantages of a company and the factors that affect the possibility of competitive advantages. The author develops her ow...

  15. The Impact of Air Pollution, Including Asian Sand Dust, on Respiratory Symptoms and Health-related Quality of Life in Outpatients With Chronic Respiratory Disease in Korea: A Panel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Ishihara, Yoko; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Hyun, In-Gyu

    2018-05-01

    Air pollution is a growing concern in Korea because of transboundary air pollution from mainland China. A panel study was conducted to clarify the effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in outpatients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Korea. Patients filled out a questionnaire including self-reported HR-QoL in February and were followed up in May and July. The study was conducted from 2013 to 2015, with different participants each year. Air quality parameters were applied in a generalized estimating equation as independent variables to predict factors affecting HR-QoL. Lower physical fitness scores were associated with Asian sand dust events. Daily activity scores were worse when there were high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) less than 10 μm in diameter (PM 10 ). Lower social functioning scores were associated with high PM less than 2.5 μm in diameter and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) concentrations. High NO 2 concentrations also showed a significant association with mental health scores. Weather-related cough was prevalent when PM 10 , NO 2 , or ozone (O 3 ) concentrations were high, regardless of COPD severity. High PM 10 concentrations were associated with worsened wheezing, particularly in COPD patients. The results suggest that PM, NO 2 , and O 3 cause respiratory symptoms leading to HR-QoL deterioration. While some adverse effects of air pollution appeared to occur regardless of COPD, others occurred more often and more intensely in COPD patients. The public sector, therefore, needs to consider tailoring air pollution countermeasures to people with different conditions to minimize adverse health effects.

  16. The Impact of Air Pollution, Including Asian Sand Dust, on Respiratory Symptoms and Health-related Quality of Life in Outpatients With Chronic Respiratory Disease in Korea: A Panel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyuki Nakao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Air pollution is a growing concern in Korea because of transboundary air pollution from mainland China. A panel study was conducted to clarify the effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL in outpatients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Korea. Methods Patients filled out a questionnaire including self-reported HR-QoL in February and were followed up in May and July. The study was conducted from 2013 to 2015, with different participants each year. Air quality parameters were applied in a generalized estimating equation as independent variables to predict factors affecting HR-QoL. Results Lower physical fitness scores were associated with Asian sand dust events. Daily activity scores were worse when there were high concentrations of particulate matter (PM less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10. Lower social functioning scores were associated with high PM less than 2.5 μm in diameter and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations. High NO2 concentrations also showed a significant association with mental health scores. Weather-related cough was prevalent when PM10, NO2, or ozone (O3 concentrations were high, regardless of COPD severity. High PM10 concentrations were associated with worsened wheezing, particularly in COPD patients. Conclusions The results suggest that PM, NO2, and O3 cause respiratory symptoms leading to HR-QoL deterioration. While some adverse effects of air pollution appeared to occur regardless of COPD, others occurred more often and more intensely in COPD patients. The public sector, therefore, needs to consider tailoring air pollution countermeasures to people with different conditions to minimize adverse health effects.

  17. [The precautionary principle: advantages and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    2001-04-01

    The extension of the precautionary principle to the field of healthcare is the social response to two demands of the population: improved health safety and the inclusion of an informed public in the decision-making process. The necessary balance between cost (treatment-induced risk) and benefit (therapeutic effect) underlies all healthcare decisions. An underestimation or an overestimation of cost, i.e. risk, is equally harmful in public healthcare. A vaccination should be prescribed when its beneficial effect outweighs its inevitable risk. Mandatory vaccination, such as in the case of the Hepatitis B virus, is a health policy requiring some courage because those who benefit will never be aware of its positive effect while those who are victims of the risk could resort to litigation. Defense against such accusations requires an accurate assessment of risk and benefit, which underlines the importance of expertise. Even within the framework of the precautionary principle, it is impossible to act without knowledge, or at least a plausible estimation, of expected effects. Recent affairs (blood contamination, transmissible spongiform encephalitis by growth hormone, and new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease) illustrate that in such cases the precautionary principle would have had limited impact and it is only when enough knowledge was available that effective action could be taken. Likewise, in current debates concerning the possible risks of electromagnetic fields, cellular phones and radon, research efforts must be given priority. The general public understands intuitively the concept of cost and benefit. For example, the possible health risks of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy were not ignored, but the public has judged that their advantages justify the risk. Estimating risk and benefit and finding a balance between risk and preventive measures could help avoid the main drawbacks of the precautionary principle, i.e. inaction and refusal of

  18. Competitive advantage on a warming planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred

    2007-03-01

    Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global warming's dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a warming world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's environmental record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an environmental think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging environmental harm), reputational (how a company's environmental policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors.

  19. National and International Library Collaboration: Necessity, Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Mark

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of cooperation between research library associations can be demonstrated quite clearly. Where cooperation becomes essential is where there is a common cause to champion or an initiative to pursue for the common good. Thanks in part to the power of information communications technology, research is becoming increasingly international in scope. The members of interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research teams are frequently drawn from across the world. Correspondingly, scholarly publishing (especially in medicine and the sciences is dominated by a few multinational publishers. In this context, issues that play a vital role in global scholarly communication - such as copyright, journal pricing, the managing of datasets, digital preservation and open access - are issues for the research library community everywhere in the world. Certainly there are many challenges at the local or regional level. However there are definite roles that research library associations can play most effectively at the national or international level. It is clear that by sharing expertise, building partnerships and alliances, it is possible to address common issues much more effectively than when working alone. What is special is that potentially the most powerful form of cooperation is advocacy at the national and international levels. It is essential for research library associations to work together at the political level to move their agenda forward. Examples are lobbying about copyright legislation (nationally, or within the EC or at WIPO; or promoting the cause of Open Access. The unique value of LIBER is to provide a forum and a platform for European research library associations to explore and benefit from cooperation and their shared strength.

  20. Searching for the Advantages of Virus Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul E.

    2003-02-01

    Sex (genetic exchange) is a nearly universal phenomenon in biological populations. But this is surprising given the costs associated with sex. For example, sex tends to break apart co-adapted genes, and sex causes a female to inefficiently contribute only half the genes to her offspring. Why then did sex evolve? One famous model poses that sex evolved to combat Muller's ratchet, the mutational load that accrues when harmful mutations drift to high frequencies in populations of small size. In contrast, the Fisher-Muller Hypothesis predicts that sex evolved to promote genetic variation that speeds adaptation in novel environments. Sexual mechanisms occur in viruses, which feature high rates of deleterious mutation and frequent exposure to novel or changing environments. Thus, confirmation of one or both hypotheses would shed light on the selective advantages of virus sex. Experimental evolution has been used to test these classic models in the RNA bacteriophage φ6, a virus that experiences sex via reassortment of its chromosomal segments. Empirical data suggest that sex might have originated in φ6 to assist in purging deleterious mutations from the genome. However, results do not support the idea that sex evolved because it provides beneficial variation in novel environments. Rather, experiments show that too much sex can be bad for φ6 promiscuity allows selfish viruses to evolve and spread their inferior genes to subsequent generations. Here I discuss various explanations for the evolution of segmentation in RNA viruses, and the added cost of sex when large numbers of viruses co-infect the same cell.

  1. Letter to the Editor: On "Advantages and disadvantages of stiffness instructions when studying postural control" by C.T. Bonnet: You just can't win: Advantages and disadvantages of the postural stability requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, Y; Richer, N; Jehu, D A; Polskaia, N; Saunders, D

    2016-05-01

    In the examination of postural control, instructions to stand as still as possible are common and promote a relatively unnatural sway pattern. The validity of the stability requirement is discussed in the present commentary in response to the discussion initiated by Cedrick T. Bonnet. The advantages of using the stability requirement include: evaluating unbiased postural control, reducing variability in postural sway, manipulating focus of attention, examining the ability to maintain an upright stance, and ecological validity of testing. The disadvantages include: constraining natural postural sway, increasing the complexity of the control condition, promoting an internal focus of attention, and reducing the ability to detect exploratory behaviour. After evaluating the aforementioned advantages and disadvantages, the present commentary suggests that researchers should strive to provide specific instructions to maintain feet, arm and eye position without specifically requiring participants to reduce their postural sway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Future generations of CANDU: advantages and development with passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R. B.

    2006-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) advances water reactor and CANDLT technology using an evolutionary development strategy. This strategy ensures that innovations are based firmly on current experience and keeps our development programs focused on one reactor concept, reducing risks, development costs, and product development cycle times. It also assures our customers that our products will never become obsolete or unsupported, and the continuous line of water reactor development is secure and supported into the future. Using the channel reactor advantage of modularity, the subdivided core has the advantage of passive safety by heat removal to the low- pressure moderator. With continuous improvements, the Advanced CANDU Reactor TM (ACR-1000TM) concept will likely remain highly competitive for a number of years and leads naturally to the next phase of CANDU development, namely the Generation IV CANDU -SCWR concept. This is conventional water technology, since supercritical boilers and turbines have been operating for some time in coal-fired power plants. Significant cost, safety, and performance advantages would result from the CANDU-SCWR concept, plus the flexibility of a range of plant sizes suitable for both small and large electric grids, and the ability for co-generation of electric power, process heat, and hydrogen. In CANDU-SCWR, novel developments are included in the primary circuit layout and channel design. The R and D in Canada is integrated with the Generation IV international Forum (GIF) plans, and has started on examining replaceable insulating liners that would ensure channel life, and on providing completely passive reactor decay heat removal directly to the moderator heat sink without forced cooling. In the interests of sustainability, hydrogen production by a CANDU- SCWR is also be included as part of the system requirements, where the methods for hydrogen production will depend on the outlet temperature of the reactor

  3. Competitive Advantages from Horizontal Relationships in Productive Agglomerations: perceptions of local agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pinheiro Deboçã

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper aims to assess to what extent relational view assumptions can explain competitive advantages perceived in the industrial agglomeration contexts of small businesses. Design/methodology/approach – We used qualitative research; two furniture centers, Misassol (SP and Ubá (MG, were examined through comparative data analysis. Data was collected through interviews with executives from 40 companies and 13 supporting organizations. The relational view and its assumptions point to factors that generate competitive advantage resulting from collaborative relationships between companies. Moreover, agglomerations provide intense relationships and are encouraged by governance entities. Findings – No competitive advantages clearly established due to relational gains were identified. The behavior of entrepreneurs in both centers tends strongly towards individualism. What agents identify as competitive advantages corresponds to situational or contextual factors in these centers and do not result from the realization of relational view assumptions, escaping from this paradigm. Relational gains can result only from subgroups that are formed through affinity, with no intervention from governance. Practical implications – Despite an agglomeration tendency within companies belonging to the furniture sector, a strong inclination towards individualism creates barriers to obtaining additional advantages resulting from relational gains, whether due to market regionalization, access of sales representatives, or logistics and tax costs, among other issues. However, actions in small groups are an important governance mechanism for that context. Contributions – Evaluate the assumptions of relational view and its explanatory power for competitive advantages in agglomerations of Brazilian furniture companies.

  4. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  5. Red Dirt Thinking on Remote Educational Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, John; Bat, Melodie; Osborne, Sam

    2014-01-01

    The discourse of remote education is often characterised by a rhetoric of disadvantage. This is reflected in statistics that on the surface seem unambiguous in their demonstration of poor outcomes for remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. A range of data support this view, including National Assessment Program-Literacy and…

  6. Mixed methods research in pedagogy: Characteristics, advantages and difficulties in application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matović Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixed methods research, as a new type of research, is discussed in the context of re-examining the relation between the two approaches, i.e. the possibility of not opposing, but connecting, combining and integrating them within research. The possibility to use such grounding in research as well could be quite important for pedagogy since the nature of the examined phenomena in this field is such that the majority has both quantitative and qualitative aspects. In order to explain the essence of a mixed methods research, the paper analyses its characteristics, first of all, what elements are combined, what is the nature of the relation between the combined elements and why they are combined, as well as its advantages and difficulties in application. The essential thing in a mixed methods research is the fact that combining refers to the research process as a whole, including the ontological and epistemological assumptions it is based on, which implies that the elements that are combined are understood rather broadly. The advantages and difficulties in application are considered in the context of the discussion of the possibility to combine all research elements, neutralise the limitations of quantitative and qualitative research methodology, implement the complex combining procedures etc. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179060: Modeli procenjivanja i strategije unapređivanja kvaliteta obrazovanja

  7. The health advantage of a vegan diet: exploring the gut microbiota connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick-Bauer, Marian; Yeh, Ming-Chin

    2014-10-31

    This review examines whether there is evidence that a strict vegan diet confers health advantages beyond that of a vegetarian diet or overall healthy eating. Few studies include vegan subjects as a distinct experimental group, yet when vegan diets are directly compared to vegetarian and omnivorous diets, a pattern of protective health benefits emerges. The relatively recent inclusion of vegan diets in studies of gut microbiota and health allows us the opportunity to assess whether the vegan gut microbiota is distinct, and whether the health advantages characteristic of a vegan diet may be partially explained by the associated microbiota profile. The relationship between diet and the intestinal microbial profile appears to follow a continuum, with vegans displaying a gut microbiota most distinct from that of omnivores, but not always significantly different from that of vegetarians. The vegan gut profile appears to be unique in several characteristics, including a reduced abundance of pathobionts and a greater abundance of protective species. Reduced levels of inflammation may be the key feature linking the vegan gut microbiota with protective health effects. However, it is still unclear whether a therapeutic vegan diet can be prescribed to alter the gut microflora for long-term health benefits.

  8. The Health Advantage of a Vegan Diet: Exploring the Gut Microbiota Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Glick-Bauer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This review examines whether there is evidence that a strict vegan diet confers health advantages beyond that of a vegetarian diet or overall healthy eating. Few studies include vegan subjects as a distinct experimental group, yet when vegan diets are directly compared to vegetarian and omnivorous diets, a pattern of protective health benefits emerges. The relatively recent inclusion of vegan diets in studies of gut microbiota and health allows us the opportunity to assess whether the vegan gut microbiota is distinct, and whether the health advantages characteristic of a vegan diet may be partially explained by the associated microbiota profile. The relationship between diet and the intestinal microbial profile appears to follow a continuum, with vegans displaying a gut microbiota most distinct from that of omnivores, but not always significantly different from that of vegetarians. The vegan gut profile appears to be unique in several characteristics, including a reduced abundance of pathobionts and a greater abundance of protective species. Reduced levels of inflammation may be the key feature linking the vegan gut microbiota with protective health effects. However, it is still unclear whether a therapeutic vegan diet can be prescribed to alter the gut microflora for long-term health benefits.

  9. New technologies in public relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Tworzydło

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article includes an analysis and presentation of selected examples of communication tools, which are used in companies to create and maintain relationships with internal and external environment. The problems related with definition of public relations were also discussed. The article presents the advantage and negative consequences of the use of modern tools of PR, as well.

  10. Electrophysiological explorations of the bilingual advantage: evidence from a Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2014-01-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to exhibit a performance advantage on executive control tasks, outperforming their monolingual counterparts. Although a wealth of research has investigated this 'bilingual advantage' behaviourally, electrophysiological correlates are lacking. Using EEG with a Stroop task that manipulated the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of word and colour presentation, the current study addressed two facets of the bilingual advantage. The possibility that bilinguals experience superior conflict processing relative to monolinguals (a 'conflict-specific advantage') was investigated by comparing behavioural interference effects as well as the amplitude of the Ninc, a conflict-related ERP component occurring from approximately 300-500 ms after the onset of conflict. In contrast, the hypothesis that bilinguals experience domain-general, conflict-independent enhancements in executive processing (a 'non-conflict-specific advantage') was evaluated by comparing the control condition (symbol strings) between groups. There was some significant, but inconsistent, evidence for a conflict-specific bilingual advantage. In contrast, strong evidence emerged for a non-conflict-specific advantage, with bilinguals demonstrating faster RTs and reduced ERP amplitudes on control trials compared to monolinguals. Importantly, when the control stimulus was presented before the colour, ERPs to control trials revealed group differences before the onset of conflict, suggesting differences in the ability to ignore or suppress distracting irrelevant information. This indicates that bilinguals experience superior executive processing even in the absence of conflict and semantic salience, and suggests that the advantage extends to more efficient proactive management of the environment.

  11. Electrophysiological explorations of the bilingual advantage: evidence from a Stroop task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L Coderre

    Full Text Available Bilinguals have been shown to exhibit a performance advantage on executive control tasks, outperforming their monolingual counterparts. Although a wealth of research has investigated this 'bilingual advantage' behaviourally, electrophysiological correlates are lacking. Using EEG with a Stroop task that manipulated the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA of word and colour presentation, the current study addressed two facets of the bilingual advantage. The possibility that bilinguals experience superior conflict processing relative to monolinguals (a 'conflict-specific advantage' was investigated by comparing behavioural interference effects as well as the amplitude of the Ninc, a conflict-related ERP component occurring from approximately 300-500 ms after the onset of conflict. In contrast, the hypothesis that bilinguals experience domain-general, conflict-independent enhancements in executive processing (a 'non-conflict-specific advantage' was evaluated by comparing the control condition (symbol strings between groups. There was some significant, but inconsistent, evidence for a conflict-specific bilingual advantage. In contrast, strong evidence emerged for a non-conflict-specific advantage, with bilinguals demonstrating faster RTs and reduced ERP amplitudes on control trials compared to monolinguals. Importantly, when the control stimulus was presented before the colour, ERPs to control trials revealed group differences before the onset of conflict, suggesting differences in the ability to ignore or suppress distracting irrelevant information. This indicates that bilinguals experience superior executive processing even in the absence of conflict and semantic salience, and suggests that the advantage extends to more efficient proactive management of the environment.

  12. Territory, competitive advantages and local productive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Monarca U.

    2007-01-01

    This work aims at analyzing if, as often indicated by theoretical and empirical literature, the "territory" variable shows local development dynamics. A review of the districts phenomenon has favoured the attempt to integrate modern economical trends in this consolidated productive model, with particular emphasis on firm internationalization, market globalisation and the IT developments, including business services as well. The work underlines two implication of this innovative approach: the ...

  13. Changing Patterns of Publication Productivity: Accumulative Advantage or Institutional Isomorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Eric L.; Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates two competing perspectives, accumulated advantage and institutional isomorphism, on the relationship between publication productivity and institutional hierarchy. Accumulated advantage refers to the continuing attraction of students, faculty, and research dollars to prestige universities. Institutional isomorphism denotes the tendency…

  14. Advantages and disadvantages of the animal models v. in vitro studies in iron metabolism: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Y; Díaz-Castro, J

    2013-10-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world. Special molecules have evolved for iron acquisition, transport and storage in soluble, nontoxic forms. Studies about the effects of iron on health are focused on iron metabolism or nutrition to prevent or treat iron deficiency and anemia. These studies are focused in two main aspects: (1) basic studies to elucidate iron metabolism and (2) nutritional studies to evaluate the efficacy of iron supplementation to prevent or treat iron deficiency and anemia. This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the experimental models commonly used as well as the methods that are more used in studies related to iron. In vitro studies have used different parts of the gut. In vivo studies are done in humans and animals such as mice, rats, pigs and monkeys. Iron metabolism is a complex process that includes interactions at the systemic level. In vitro studies, despite physiological differences to humans, are useful to increase knowledge related to this essential micronutrient. Isotopic techniques are the most recommended in studies related to iron, but their high cost and required logistic, making them difficult to use. The depletion-repletion of hemoglobin is a method commonly used in animal studies. Three depletion-repletion techniques are mostly used: hemoglobin regeneration efficiency, relative biological values (RBV) and metabolic balance, which are official methods of the association of official analytical chemists. These techniques are well-validated to be used as studies related to iron and their results can be extrapolated to humans. Knowledge about the main advantages and disadvantages of the in vitro and animal models, and methods used in these studies, could increase confidence of researchers in the experimental results with less costs.

  15. Selection of exterior wall using advantageousness comparison; Ulkoseinaen valinta elinkaariedullisuuden perusteella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, A.; Vesa, M.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the study was to clarify the advantageousness of six chosen exterior wall solutions and at the same time to produce the procedure the measurement of the advantageousness. The examined wall types were: (1) brick wall, (2) brick-wool-concrete wall, (2b) brick-wool-concrete wall (not plastered), (3) brick-wool-wood wall, (4) precast concrete wall, and (5) plaster-wool-concrete wall. The analysis was made to a residential construction project which is built in a frame municipality of the metropolitan area. Here the life cycle costs, environmental burdens, and other factors (the aesthetic character, image, a comfort and easy maintenance) have an affect to the advantageousness of exterior wall. The averages of appreciation of the seven members of the supervising body of this study were used as the weights of the aforementioned value factors in the comparison. The result of the analysis was that the unplastered brick-wool-concrete wall had the equal life cycle costs as the precast concrete wall (an annual cost FIM 70 per apartment floor area). They were superior in relation to other examined wall types. In turn the brick wall had the highest life cycle costs (an annual cost nearly FIM 200 per apartment floor area) from the examined wall solutions on the advantageousness measuring straightforwardly likewise. It was chosen for an examination time period for 50 years. Likewise the brick wall was the distinctly weakest solution eco-economically, irrespective of, how costs and environmental factors are weighted. The brick wall was both the most expensive and unecological from the examined exterior wall types. It had a weak ecological qualities because considerably more building material than to other examined wall types. Also it's thermal insulation capacity was the weakest. But if in the decision-making also the aesthetic character, image, the effect on the comfort, and easy maintenance of the exterior wall indeed are included in addition to the eco

  16. Seeking help for depression from family and friends: a qualitative analysis of perceived advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Crisp, Dimity A; Barney, Lisa; Reid, Russell

    2011-12-15

    People with depression often seek help from family and friends and public health campaigns frequently encourage such help seeking behaviours. However, there has been little systematically collected empirical data concerning the effects of such informal help seeking. The current study sought to investigate the views of consumers about the advantages and disadvantages of seeking support from family and friends for depression. Participants were the subset of 417 respondents to a survey, sent to 7000 randomly selected members of an Australian electoral community, who indicated that they had sought help for depression from family or friends. One item on the survey asked participants to indicate the advantages or disadvantages of seeking help from family or friends. A coding system was developed based on a content analysis of the responses to the item. Each of the responses was then coded by two raters. Respondents identified both advantages and disadvantages of seeking support from friends. The most commonly cited advantage was social support (n = 282) including emotional support (n = 154), informational support (n = 93), companionship support (n = 36) and instrumental support (n = 23). Other advantages related to family's or friend's background knowledge of the person and their circumstances (n = 72), the opportunity to offload the burden associated with depression (n = 62), the personal attributes of family and friends (n = 49), their accessibility (n = 36), and the opportunity to educate family and friends and increase their awareness about the respondent's depression (n = 30). The most commonly cited disadvantages were stigma (n = 53), inappropriate support (n = 45), the family member's lack of knowledge, training and expertise (n = 32) and the adverse impact of the help seeking on the family/friend (n = 20) and the relationship (n = 18). Family and friends are well placed to provide support which consumers perceive to be positive and which can assist them in

  17. FORMATION OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES OF ENTERPRISES IN TERMS OF GLOBALIZATION: COMPETITIVE DYNAMICS AND AN INTELLECTUAL COMPONENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Tarasenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to investigate the current state of scientific thought in relation to the formation of intellectual capital of an enterprise in the innovation process, achievement by the enterprise of corresponding competitive advantages and their protection. Methodology. The methodological basis of the article is the systematic approach, which provided a comprehensive definition of the scope of this research – intellectual property and its protection as a complex economic and legal category. This made it possible to systematically define the purpose, level of abstraction, hierarchy, forms of manifestation, and key attributes of the subject of research. Application of principles of modelling of business processes also allowed studying the influence of factors of the external environment on the sequence of information flows in the process of forming competitive advantages on the basis of intellectual property. In addition, having determined the scientific basis, the collective and local monographic studies of leading scientists concerning the specificity of the formation of competitive advantages of innovative enterprises, including on the basis of intellectual capital, were also taken into account. Results. The article studies, describes and, correspondingly, formalizes modern processes of formation of competitive advantages in the conditions of Smart Economy: knowledge management, their patenting, modern significance, and the influence of patenting on the role of intellectual property in the investigated phenomena, as well as management of relevant information flows. Practical implications. The research demonstrates ways of forming competitive advantages in the modern economy, and the results of the analysis of relevant statistics explain patterns of economic and legal processes in the field of relevant practical activities. This allows assessing the actual state of the subject of the research, determining the development

  18. Organizational Learning and Sustainable Competitive Advantages (SCA): The Nigerian Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Omotayo Oyeniyi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to test for core competencies of organizations in achieving sustainable competitive advantage within the service organizations in a developing economy like Nigeria. The paper specifically deals with the importance of organizational learning on sustainable competitive advantage and how it can be used to achieve sustainable advantage. Despite the wide spread importance attached to building sustainable competitive advantage, the relationship between organizational le...

  19. Potential Advantages of Underground Nuclear Parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Carl W.; Elkins, Ned Z.; Kunze, Jay F.; Mahar, James M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we argue that an underground nuclear park (UNP) could potentially lead to lower capital and operating cost for the reactors installed in the UNP compared to the traditional approach, which would be to site the reactors at the earth's surface at distributed locations. The UNP approach could also lead to lower waste management cost. A secondary benefit would be the increased margins of safety and security that would be realized simply as a consequence of siting the reactors underground. Lowered capital and operating cost for a UNP relative to traditional reactor siting is possible through the aggregate effect of the elimination of containment structures, in-place decommissioning, reduced physical security costs, reduced weather-related costs, reduced cost of liability insurance and reduced unit-cost for the nth reactor made possible through the continuous construction of multiple reactors at the same underground location. Other cost reductions might be possible through the transfer of the capital cost for part of the underground construction from the reactor owners to the owners of the UNP. Lower waste management cost is possible by siting the UNP at a location where there are geological and hydrological conditions suitable for hosting both the reactors and the repository for the waste from those reactors. After adequate storage and cooling, and assuming direct disposal, this would enable the spent fuel from the reactors to be transported directly to the repository and remain entirely underground during the transport process. Community concerns and transportation costs would be significantly reduced relative to current situations where the reactors are separated from the repository by long distances and populated areas. The concept for a UNP in bedded salt is used to develop a rough order of magnitude cost estimate for excavation of the reactor array portion of a UNP. Excavation costs appear to be only a small fraction of the overall power plant costs

  20. Weak strange particle production: advantages and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelescu, Tatiana; Baker, O.K.

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic strange particle production developed at Jefferson Laboratory was an important source of information on strange particle electromagnetic formfactors and induced and transferred polarization. The high quality of the beam and the detection techniques involved could be an argument for detecting strange particles in weak interactions and answer questions about cross sections, weak formfactors, neutrino properties, which have not been investigated yet. The paper analyses some aspects related to the weak lambda production and detection with the Hall C facilities at Jefferson Laboratory and the limitations in measuring the weak interaction quantities. (authors)

  1. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF STRAW-BALE BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Brojan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on general properties of straw bale as a building material which has been proven by buildings throughout the world to be an appropriate material choice. Still, there are many hesitations about using this alternative building material. The building techniques are relatively easy to learn and the performance of straw bale structures has a high value in terms of several aspects as long as general requirements are followed. The primary benefit of straw bale as a building material is its low embodied energy. It also has high thermal and sound insulation properties. Many previous research studies on straw bale building have been focused on structural stability, fire resistance and assessing moisture content in straw bales which is one of the major issues. Therefore, special attention needs to be devoted to details to insure proper building safety. Render selection is especially crucial and an extremely important step in straw bale building, not only in matters concerning moisture but also structural capacity and fire protection. A major disadvantage of straw bale construction is its lack of material research. The paper is divided into three parts in which advantages and disadvantages of such a building are discussed. In the third part, results are presented for a survey in which correspondents emphasized the advantages and disadvantages of living in a straw bale building.

  2. Child center closures: Does nonprofit status provide a comparative advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Marcus; Klein, Sacha; Freisthler, Bridget; Weiss, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Reliable access to dependable, high quality childcare services is a vital concern for large numbers of American families. The childcare industry consists of private nonprofit, private for-profit, and governmental providers that differ along many dimensions, including quality, clientele served, and organizational stability. Nonprofit providers are theorized to provide higher quality services given comparative tax advantages, higher levels of consumer trust, and management by mission driven entrepreneurs. This study examines the influence of ownership structure, defined as nonprofit, for-profit sole proprietors, for-profit companies, and governmental centers, on organizational instability, defined as childcare center closures. Using a cross sectional data set of 15724 childcare licenses in California for 2007, we model the predicted closures of childcare centers as a function of ownership structure as well as center age and capacity. Findings indicate that for small centers (capacity of 30 or less) nonprofits are more likely to close, but for larger centers (capacity 30+) nonprofits are less likely to close. This suggests that the comparative advantages available for nonprofit organizations may be better utilized by larger centers than by small centers. We consider the implications of our findings for parents, practitioners, and social policy. PMID:23543882

  3. Child center closures: Does nonprofit status provide a comparative advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Marcus; Klein, Sacha; Freisthler, Bridget; Weiss, Robert E

    2013-03-01

    Reliable access to dependable, high quality childcare services is a vital concern for large numbers of American families. The childcare industry consists of private nonprofit, private for-profit, and governmental providers that differ along many dimensions, including quality, clientele served, and organizational stability. Nonprofit providers are theorized to provide higher quality services given comparative tax advantages, higher levels of consumer trust, and management by mission driven entrepreneurs. This study examines the influence of ownership structure, defined as nonprofit, for-profit sole proprietors, for-profit companies, and governmental centers, on organizational instability, defined as childcare center closures. Using a cross sectional data set of 15724 childcare licenses in California for 2007, we model the predicted closures of childcare centers as a function of ownership structure as well as center age and capacity. Findings indicate that for small centers (capacity of 30 or less) nonprofits are more likely to close, but for larger centers (capacity 30+) nonprofits are less likely to close. This suggests that the comparative advantages available for nonprofit organizations may be better utilized by larger centers than by small centers. We consider the implications of our findings for parents, practitioners, and social policy.

  4. Systems neuroscience in Drosophila: Conceptual and technical advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, H

    2015-06-18

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is ideally suited for investigating the neural circuit basis of behavior. Due to the simplicity and genetic tractability of the fly brain, neurons and circuits are identifiable across animals. Additionally, a large set of transgenic lines has been developed with the aim of specifically labeling small subsets of neurons and manipulating them in sophisticated ways. Electrophysiology and imaging can be applied in behaving individuals to examine the computations performed by each neuron, and even the entire population of relevant neurons in a particular region, because of the small size of the brain. Moreover, a rich repertoire of behaviors that can be studied is expanding to include those requiring cognitive abilities. Thus, the fly brain is an attractive system in which to explore both computations and mechanisms underlying behavior at levels spanning from genes through neurons to circuits. This review summarizes the advantages Drosophila offers in achieving this objective. A recent neurophysiology study on olfactory behavior is also introduced to demonstrate the effectiveness of these advantages. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Achieving competitive advantage through strategic human resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottler, M D; Phillips, R L; Blair, J D; Duran, C A

    1990-01-01

    The framework presented here challenges health care executives to manage human resources strategically as an integral part of the strategic planning process. Health care executives should consciously formulate human resource strategies and practices that are linked to and reinforce the broader strategic posture of the organization. This article provides a framework for (1) determining and focusing on desired strategic outcomes, (2) identifying and implementing essential human resource management actions, and (3) maintaining or enhancing competitive advantage. The strategic approach to human resource management includes assessing the organization's environment and mission; formulating the organization's business strategy; assessing the human resources requirements based on the intended strategy; comparing the current inventory of human resources in terms of numbers, characteristics, and human resource management practices with respect to the strategic requirements of the organization and its services or product lines; formulating the human resource strategy based on the differences between the assessed requirements and the current inventory; and implementing the appropriate human resource practices to reinforce the strategy and attain competitive advantage.

  6. Alternative Conceptions: Turning Adversity into Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Annalize; Lemmer, Miriam; Gunstone, Richard

    2017-08-01

    While a vast body of research has identified difficulties in students' understanding about forces and acceleration and their related alternative conceptions, far less research suggests ways to use students' alternative conceptions to enhance conceptual understanding of a specific fundamental concept. This study focused on distinguishing between students' conceptual understanding of the Newtonian concept of gravitational acceleration being the same for all objects and students' alternative conception that heavy objects fall faster. A multiple choice questionnaire was distributed to first year physics students for three consecutive years at a university in South Africa. The results indicate that changing the direction of motion and the physics quantity asked in paired questions revealed practically significant inconsistencies in students' reasoning and conceptions. This research contributes to the body of knowledge in proposing how the alternative conception of mass-related gravitational acceleration can be used in instruction to enhance conceptual understanding of the force-mass-acceleration relationship. Understanding of this relationship not only promotes conceptual understanding of the basic Newtonian concepts of the laws of motion which forms the critical foundation on which more advanced physics courses are built, but also contributes towards students' perception of physics as a set of coherent ideas applicable in all contexts.

  7. Advantages of Information Systems in Health Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA MALLIAROU & SOFIA ZYGA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nursing Information System (NIS has been defined as “a part of a health care information system that deals with nursing aspects, particularly the maintenance of the nursing record”. Nursing Uses of Information Systems in order to assess patient acuity and condition, prepare a plan of care or critical pathway, specify interventions, document care, track outcomes and control quality in the given patient care. Patient care processes, Communication, research, education and ward management can be easily delivered using NIS. There is a specific procedure that should be followed when implementing NISs. The electronic databases CINAHL and Medline were used to identify studies for review. Studies were selected from a search that included the terms ‘nursing information systems’, ‘clinical information systems’, ‘hospital information systems’, ‘documentation’, ‘nursing records’, combined with ‘electronic’ and ‘computer’. Journal articles, research papers, and systematic reviews from 1980 to 2007 were included. In Greek Hospitals there have been made many trials and efforts in order to develop electronic nursing documentation with little results. There are many difficulties and some of them are different levels of nursing education, low nurse to patient ratios, not involvement of nurses in the phases of their implementation, resistance in change. Today’s nursing practice in Greece needs to follow others counties paradigm and phase its controversies and problems in order to follow the worldwide changes in delivering nursing care.

  8. Advantages of iron core in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettis, E.S.; Ballou, J.K.; Becraft, W.R.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Watts, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative comparison of the iron core vs air core concepts was carried out on a preliminary basis by using a representative tokamak reactor design with the following self-consistent reference parameters. In the area of plasma engineering, poloidal field and MHD equilibrium considerations with an unsaturated iron core is discussed. The question of proper poloidal field coils to maintain D-shaped plasmas of relatively high anti β (7%) with a saturated iron core is also discussed. Estimates of the required iron core size, volt seconds, magnetic flux and its influence on force loading on the superconducting toroidal field coils are shown. Conceptual designs of the mechanical structure of an iron core device are presented. Favorable impacts on the OH power supply cost and complexity are indicated

  9. Men in nursing: issues of gender segregation and hidden advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J

    1997-08-01

    The small but growing number of men in the nursing profession does not herald a progressive integration of masculine and feminine sex roles. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that even in female-dominated occupations such as nursing, patriarchal gender relations which reflect a high valuation of all that is male and masculine, play a significant role in situating a disproportionate number of men in administrative and elite specialty positions. At the heart of this gender dynamic is the need to separate the masculine from the lesser valued feminine. Male nurses do this by employing strategies that allow them to distance themselves from female colleagues and the quintessential feminine image of nursing itself, as a prerequisite to elevating their own prestige and power. They are aided in this task by patriarchal cultural institutions that create and perpetuate male advantage, as well as by women nurses themselves who, consciously or unconsciously, nurture the careers of men colleagues.

  10. COMPETITIVE DYNAMICS AND EARLY MOVER ADVANTAGES UNDER ECONOMIC RECESSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Vassolo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the recent macroeconomic instability in global markets, we examine the evolution of competitive dynamics and firm profitability when industries are subject to recessions. Although ordinary intuition leads most to view recessions as harmful, we highlight conditions under which they enhance the relative value of industry-level supply-side isolating mechanisms, thereby affording early movers significant and sustainable profit advantages vis-à-vis laggards. We observe that the distribution of firm size within the industry switches from a bi-modal distribution (i.e., one dominated by both small and large firms to a right-skewed one (i.e., dominated mostly by large firms in these contexts, thereby signaling the rise of important opportunities in the form of less rivalrous competitive contexts for survivors of recessions. We derive our results from formal modeling and multiple simulation runs.

  11. Managerial attitudes, strategic intent, environmental initiatives and competitive advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reyes Rodríguez, Juan Felipe; Ulhøi, John Parm; Madsen, Henning

    2013-01-01

    To stay at the competitive forefront successful firms have for quite a while addressed environmental issues as part of their strategy. The competitive 'imperative' is however not restricted to large enterprises entirely. This paper reports empirical findings from a series of identical surveys per...... will be provided that allows for making recommendations with regard to possible new strategic directions. Before concluding, key implications for future research, managers and other related decision-makers are briefly addressed....... performed regularly since 1999. The purpose has been to track and analyse the development of the strategic responses of SMEs in Denmark. Furthermore, identification of potential shifts in the influence of motivators and the impact on competitive advantage has also been focused. In so doing, evidence...

  12. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF TAX COMPETITION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA FELICIA CHIRCULESCU

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of globalization, economic integration and the mobility of production factors at the local and global level have been facilitated. In Europe, the process of economic and monetary integration began when barriers to the free movement of goods, capital and labor were formally abolished, although cultural barriers still exist. The need and justification of tax competition is that it can lead to greater efficiency in the use of public sector resources and more efficient allocation of capital. The main advantages of tax competition are those related to the reduction of tax rates, which can lead to boosting consumption and investment. The method used to achieve the objective is complex, from statistical and economic analyzes of fiscal data to a comparative technique at the level of the European Union. The database used is from Eurostat sources and other European Commission work on taxation in the Member States of the European Union.

  13. Advantages of being a nuclear state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadova, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : Despite of some progress in the field of nuclear non-proliferation regime at the end of the last century, de-facto nuclear countries, and the issues such as Iran's uranium enrichment activities, the nuclear program of the North Korea proves the regime is in deep crisis. Besides, as a result of rapid scientific and technological development the number of enterprises processing raw material is increasing, the import of materials containing uranium and plutonium is becoming easier and reserves and facilities are widely spread in the black market. Unimpeded access to the information and scientific literature on production of nuclear weapons becomes available, organization and purposeful participation in the events related to the nuclear technology increase, the fact of involvement of scholars and engineers from the developed countries is observed. The growth of nuclear reactors amount with the purpose of energy supply increase the demand for enriched uranium and plutonium, and this hampers the protection these substances. Furthermore, the existence of local natural reserves, the state attention to the staff training able to create nuclear weapons, the staff aware of the work with radioactive substances, the programs considering military preparation on the application of nuclear weapons and so on problems directly threaten the non-proliferation regime. Despite the concern on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons expressed by many scholars and officials, the interest and attempts of states in becoming nuclear states always increase. These interests are stipulated by objective and subjective reasons

  14. Evolutionary Advantages of Free Play During Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Greve

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In a theoretical framework of evolutionary developmental psychology, the present study investigates the assumption that free play during childhood is a condition for the development of individual adaptability, which in turn predicts, first, social success and, second, reproductive success. This hypothesis is tested in a study with 238 adults (75.9% females; 18–90 years. Participants were asked to recollect their free play experiences during childhood in detail, to report their current developmental status with respect to several aspects of social success, and to report the number of (own children. Furthermore, individual adaptability (flexibility of goal adjustment is assessed. Results show that the opportunity for free play in childhood significantly predicts both social success and individual adaptability. Social success did not predict reproductive success (number of offspring directly. However, an indirect effect to the number of offspring was found, mediated by individual adaptability. These results suggest that freely playing in childhood is connected to the development of developmental resources, in particular individual adaptability in adulthood, which, in turn, is related to reproductive success (fitness.

  15. Advantages and risks of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovszly, I.

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis and comparison of different energy resources available to human usage. The first in the row is the fossil energy, obtained by burning hydrocarbons and its effects, i.e. acid rains and global warming. A second example is that of renewable sources, like hydro energy and its effects like the problems generated by the necessary dams. Other renewables are wind energy, used on a small scale yet, basically clean, however with damaging effects like noise, and solar energy. Nuclear energy has its own risks, generated mainly by nuclear accidents. However, the mainly open cycle fuel consumption has the problem of creating radioactive nuclear waste. Safety in nuclear power plants is based on negative feed-back, the principles of single failure, diversity and depth protection, including the importance of human factor. The breakdown on April 10, 2003 at Paks PWP NPP is also analysed. It has been caused by residual heat during a maintenance process in an already stopped reactor, lacking proper cooling. (Gy.M.)

  16. Bulk delivery of explosives offers positive advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-01

    The bulk delivery of precisely-formulated explosives directly to the shothole is a safe, secure and cost effective way of bringing rock to the quarry floor. This article describes several of the latest generation of Anfo trucks. The typical Anfo truck carries ammonium nitrate and fuel oil in bulk, together with several other mix constituents, including an emulsifying agent. These are designed to form the basis of a range of emulsion-type explosives. In effect, these are water in oil emulsions where the water phase consists of droplets of a saturated solution of the oxidizing material suspended in oil. The formulations may be further tailored to the shothole requirements by the addition of oils or waxes, which can alter the viscosity of the explosive. The precise and programmable controls which determine the exact quantities of materials delivered to the mixer mean that the explosive mixtures can be tailored exactly to the requirements of the blasting operation, be it the amount of rock to be dislodged, the geological conditions, or the state of the shothole - either wet or dry. 4 systems are described in detail. 3 figs.

  17. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  18. Advantages of using gyrotron scattering for alpha particle diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woskoboinikow, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Machuzak, J.S.; Myer, R.C.; Rhee, R.Y.

    1987-07-01

    Millimeter-wave gyrotron collective Thomson scattering can be an effective diagnostic technique for the study of alpha particle behavior in ignited plasmas. The measurement of alpha particle density, velocity distribution, and alpha particle induced plasma instabilities can be accomplished with both spatial and temporal resolution. Advantages include long pulse operation which can make possible very high signal to noise ratios and use of millimeter waves which maximizes the Doppler shifted scattered signal in WHz -1 and makes possible scattering angles up to 180 0 . Extraordinary mode scattering at approximately 60 and 200 GHz would be used in TFTR and CIT respectively, and 140 GHz ordinary mode scattering in JET. 8 refs., 1 fig

  19. Advantages and Disadvantages of Four Interview Techniques in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Opdenakker

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Face-to-face interviews have long been the dominant interview technique in the field of qualitative research. In the last two decades, telephone interviewing became more and more common. Due to the explosive growth of new communication forms, such as computer mediated communication (for example e-mail and chat boxes, other interview techniques can be introduced and used within the field of qualitative research. For a study in the domain of virtual teams, I used various communication possibilities to interview informants as well as face-to-face interviews. In this article a comparison will be made concerning the advantages and disadvantages of face-to-face, telephone, e-mail and MSN messenger interviews. By including telephone and MSN messenger interviews in the comparison, the scope of this article is broader than the article of BAMPTON and COWTON (2002. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0604118

  20. The advantages of hydraulic packing extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    Today's competitive environment, coupled with industry's desire to improve the efficiency of plant maintenance and operations, has management continually seeking ways to save time, money, and, at nuclear plants, radiation exposure. One area where a tremendous improvement in efficiency can be realized is valve packing removal. For example, industry experience indicates that up to 70% of the time it takes to repack a valve can be spent just removing the old packing. In some case, the bonnets of small valves are removed to facilitate packing removal and prevent stem and stuffing box damage that can occur when using packing removal picks. In other cases, small valves are simply removed and discarded because it costs less to replace the valves than to remove the packing using conventional methods. Hydraulic packing extraction greatly reduces packing removal time and will not damage the stem nor stuffing box, thus eliminating the need for bonnet removal or valve replacement. This paper will review some of the more common problems associated with manual packing extraction techniques. It will explain how hydraulic packing extraction eliminates or greatly reduces the impact of each of the problem areas. A discussion will be provided of some actual industry operating experiences related to success stories using hydraulic packing extraction. The paper will also briefly describe the operating parameters associated with hydraulic packing extraction tools. Throughout the paper, actual operating experiences from the nuclear power, fossil power, petrochemical, and refinery industries will be used to support the conclusion that hydraulic packing extraction is an alternative that can save time, money, and exposure

  1. The competitive advantage of corporate philanthropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael E; Kramer, Mark R

    2002-12-01

    When it comes to philanthropy, executives increasingly see themselves as caught between critics demanding ever higher levels of "corporate social responsibility" and investors applying pressure to maximize short-term profits. In response, many companies have sought to make their giving more strategic, but what passes for strategic philanthropy is almost never truly strategic, and often isn't particularly effective as philanthropy. Increasingly, philanthropy is used as a form of public relations or advertising, promoting a company's image through high-profile sponsorships. But there is a more truly strategic way to think about philanthropy. Corporations can use their charitable efforts to improve their competitive context--the quality of the business environment in the locations where they operate. Using philanthropy to enhance competitive context aligns social and economic goals and improves a company's long-term business prospects. Addressing context enables a company to not only give money but also leverage its capabilities and relationships in support of charitable causes. The produces social benefits far exceeding those provided by individual donors, foundations, or even governments. Taking this new direction requires fundamental changes in the way companies approach their contribution programs. For example, philanthropic investments can improve education and local quality of life in ways that will benefit the company. Such investments can also improve the company's competitiveness by contributing to expanding the local market and helping to reduce corruption in the local business environment. Adopting a context-focused approach goes against the grain of current philanthropic practice, and it requires a far more disciplined approach than is prevalent today. But it can make a company's philanthropic activities far more effective.

  2. Practices of Weight Regulation Among Elite Athletes in Combat Sports: A Matter of Mental Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Context The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. Objective To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Design Qualitative study. Setting With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Patients or Other Participants Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Data Collection and Analysis Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Results Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete.” Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Conclusions Weight regulation has mentally important functions

  3. Practices of weight regulation among elite athletes in combat sports: a matter of mental advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Qualitative study. With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being "a real athlete." Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Weight regulation has mentally important functions extending beyond the common notion that combat-sport athletes reduce their weight merely to gain a physical edge

  4. The K Dwarf Advantage for Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Giada; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn David; Meadows, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Biosignature detection is typically studied in the context of an atmosphere in chemical disequilibrium. Oxygen (O2) and methane (CH4) are generally considered the “canonical” biosignature disequilibrium pair. However, the modern CH4 concentration poses a major detection challenge to future direct imaging telescopes, and it has been difficult for Earth to accumulate spectrally detectable quantities of O2 and CH4 over its history (Olson et al 2016, Reinhard et al 2017). Even the lower atmospheric levels of O2 typical of the Earth’s Proterozoic eon (0.01-1% of the modern O2 amount) may have resulted in a reduced photochemical lifetime of CH4 due to decreased UV shielding of CH4 (Claire et al 2006, Goldblatt et al 2006). However, while the above is true for an Earthlike planet orbiting a sunlike star, the situation changes for other stars. For instance, Segura et al (2005) found longer photochemical lifetimes for CH4 in the atmospheres of Earthlike planets orbiting M dwarfs. M dwarfs, however, present several barriers to planetary habitability including desiccation during the stellar super-luminous pre-main sequence phase (Lugar and Barnes 2015) and tidal locking. K dwarfs, which comprise about 12% of all main sequence stars, avoid these M dwarf hazards, and will be important targets for future exoplanet direct imaging missions. Using a photochemical model, we find CH4 and O2 are simultaneously detectable in the atmospheres of K dwarf planets with various O2 concentrations ranging between Proterozoic levels and modern O2 amounts. For instance, for a planet with an Earth-like CH4 surface flux (1 x 1011 molecules/cm2/s) and a Proterozoic-like O2 level (1% of modern), the planet generates a CH4 surface mixing ratio of 1x10-5 for a planet orbiting the sun, and 1.5x10-4 – an order of magnitude more CH4 – for a planet orbiting a K6V star. This is enough to produce detectable CH4 and O2 for the planet orbiting the K6V star. We discuss the implications of this

  5. Enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants exhibit growth advantages in high nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X A; Peng, Y; Li, J J; Peng, P H

    2018-03-12

    Resource amendments commonly promote plant invasions, raising concerns over the potential consequences of nitrogen (N) deposition; however, it is unclear whether invaders will benefit from N deposition more than natives. Growth is among the most fundamental inherent traits of plants and thus good invaders may have superior growth advantages in response to resource amendments. We compared the growth and allocation between invasive and native plants in different N regimes including controls (ambient N concentrations). We found that invasive plants always grew much larger than native plants in varying N conditions, regardless of growth- or phylogeny-based analyses, and that the former allocated more biomass to shoots than the latter. Although N addition enhanced the growth of invasive plants, this enhancement did not increase with increasing N addition. Across invasive and native species, changes in shoot biomass allocation were positively correlated with changes in whole-plant biomass; and the slope of this relationship was greater in invasive plants than native plants. These findings suggest that enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants retain a growth advantage in high N conditions relative to natives, and also highlight that future N deposition may increase the risks of plant invasions.

  6. Invaders do not require high resource levels to maintain physiological advantages in a temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberling, J Mason; Fridley, Jason D

    2016-04-01

    Non-native, invasive plants are commonly typified by trait strategies associated with high resource demands and plant invasions are often thought to be dependent upon site resource availability or disturbance. However, the invasion of shade-tolerant woody species into deciduous forests of the Eastern United States seems to contradict such generalization, as growth in this ecosystem is strongly constrained by light and, secondarily, nutrient stress. In a factorial manipulation of light and soil nitrogen availability, we established an experimental resource gradient in a secondary deciduous forest to test whether three common, woody, invasive species displayed increased metabolic performance and biomass production compared to six co-occurring woody native species, and whether these predicted differences depend upon resource supply. Using hierarchical Bayesian models of photosynthesis that included leaf trait effects, we found that invasive species exhibited functional strategies associated with higher rates of carbon gain. Further, invader metabolic and growth-related attributes were more responsive to increasing light availability than those of natives, but did not fall below average native responses even in low light. Surprisingly, neither group showed direct trait or growth responses to soil N additions. However, invasive species showed increased photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiencies with decreasing N availability, while that of natives remained constant. Although invader advantage over natives was amplified in higher resource conditions in this forest, our results indicate that some invasive species can maintain physiological advantages over co-occurring natives regardless of resource conditions.

  7. ORGANISATIONAL CAPABILITIES, COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND PERFORMANCE IN SUPPORTING INDUSTRIES IN VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nham Phong Tuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on applying the resource-based view (RBV of firms to explain performance in supporting industries in Vietnam. Specifically, we based our research on the comprehensive framework of RBV and reviewed previous empirical researches before deciding on adopting a dynamic capabilities approach to test relationships among organisational capabilities, competitive advantage and performance. A multivariate analysis of survey responses of 102 firms belonging to supporting industries in Vietnam indicates that the organisational capabilities are related to the competitive advantage, that the competitive advantage is related to performance, and that the competitive advantage mediates the relationship between organizational capabilities and performance. These findings have considerable implications for academics as well as practitioners. Finally, this study also provides directions for future research.

  8. Loan Products Included in the Offer of Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dedu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A bank loan is the main form of economical credit. It is for corporate activities – for medium and big companies and for retail activities – for small companies and individuals. The conditions for credit mainly depend on the quality of customers, it means their ability to perform a profitable activity and to be able to pay back the credits. For reasons which are mainly connected to marketing, bank practice has developed a large range of credit names, trying to emphasize some of the parts of the products or to take profit of some competition advantages in relation with customers’ products. We are trying to include the offer of bank loans in a typology which takes into account the law, the bank field rules and the main technical features of the offered products.

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANISATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND PERFORMANCE MODERATED BY THE AGE AND SIZE OF FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Alimin Ismadi Ismail; Haslinda Abdullah; Jegak Uli; Raduan Che Rose

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that achieving a position of competitive advantage is a necessary precursor to a firm's significant performance. This paper will empirically examine the potential moderating variables that could affect the relationship between a firm's competitive advantage and performance, namely the firms' age and size. By examining the relative moderating effects of these variables, this paper delivers valuable information to firms, specifically with regard to strategic management direct...

  10. Smart City as Framework for Creating Competitive Advantages in International Business Management

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Sofronijević; Vesna Milićević; Bojan Ilić

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the essence of the Smart City concept and opportunities for the creation of competitive advantages arising in the framework generated by this concept. Various elements of a Smart City are analysed and related to different options for economic growth and business innovation improvement. Possibilities arising from networking and clustering in Creative Cities are listed along with some details of advantages provided by a symbiosis of information and communication technologies ...

  11. The advantages of reliability centered maintenance for standby safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, R.F.; Ayazzudin, S.; Nickerson, J.H.; DeLong, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: On standby safety systems, nuclear plants have to balance the requirements of demonstrating the reliability of each system, while maintaining the system and plant availability. With the goal of demonstrating statistical reliability, these systems have extensive testing programs, which often makes the system unavailable and this can impact the plant capacity. The inputs to the process are often safety and regulatory related, resulting in programs that provide a high level of scrutiny on the systems being considered. In such cases, the value of the application of a maintenance optimization strategy, such as Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), is questioned. Part of the question stems from the use of the word 'Reliability' in RCM, which implies a level of redundancy when applied to a system maintenance program driven by reliability requirements. A deeper look at the RCM process, however, shows that RCM has the goal of ensuring that the system operates 'reliably' through the application of an integrated maintenance strategy. This is a subtle, but important distinction. Although the system reliability requirements are an important part of the strategy evaluation, RCM provides a broader context where testing is only one part of an overall strategy focused on ensuring that component function is maintained through a combination of monitoring technologies (including testing), predictive techniques, and intrusive maintenance strategies. Each strategy is targeted to identify known component degradation mechanisms. The conclusion is that a maintenance program driven by reliability requirements will tend to have testing defined at a frequency intended to support the needed statistics. The testing demonstrates that the desired function is available today. Maintenance driven by functional requirements and known failure causes, as developed through an RCM assessment, will have frequencies tied to industry experience with components and rely on a higher degree of

  12. Diplomatic advantages and threats in global health program selection, design, delivery and implementation: development and application of the Kevany Riposte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2015-05-27

    Global health programs, as supported by organizations such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), stand to make significant contributions to international medical outcomes. Traditional systems of monitoring and evaluation, however, fail to capture downstream, indirect, or collateral advantages (and threats) of intervention selection, design, and implementation from broader donor perspectives, including those of the diplomatic and foreign policy communities, which these programs also generate. This paper describes the development a new métier under which assessment systems designed to consider the diplomatic value of global health initiatives are described and applied based on previously-identified "Top Ten" criteria. The "Kevany Riposte" and the "K-Score" were conceptualized based on a retrospective and collective assessment of the author's participation in the design, implementation and delivery of a range of global health interventions related to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Responses and associated scores reframe intervention worth or value in terms of global health diplomacy criteria such as "adaptability", "interdependence", "training," and "neutrality". Response options ranged from "highly advantageous" to "significant potential threat". Global health initiatives under review were found to generate significant advantages from the diplomatic perspective. These included (1) intervention visibility and associations with donor altruism and prestige, (2) development of international non-health collaborations and partnerships, (3) adaptability and responsiveness of service delivery to local needs, and (4) advancement of broader strategic goals of the international community. Corresponding threats included (1) an absence of formal training of project staff on broader political and international relations roles and responsibilities, (2) challenges to recipient cultural and religious practices

  13. Building Competitive Advantage Through Open Innovation : A case study in the financial technology sector

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson Holm, Erik; Andersson, Felix

    2018-01-01

    The modern financial industry includes fast-changing technology, new regulations, and markets where companies at times find themselves at disadvantage. This study focuses on how organizations can build competitive advantage, particularly by drawing on the open innovation concept. We conceptualize its relationship to competitive advantage as a strategy of using and developing dynamic capabilities in business ecosystems. This view is empirically analysed through qualitative data from four organ...

  14. Does First Last: The Existence and Extent of First Mover Advantages on Spatial Networks

    OpenAIRE

    David Levinson; Feng Xie

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of first mover advantages on spatially-differentiated surface transportation networks. The literature on first mover advantages identifies a number of sources that explain their existence. However whether those sources exist on spatial networks, and how they play out with true capital immobility have been unanswered questions. By examining empirical examples including commuter rail and the Underground in London and roads in the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St....

  15. [Virtual CT-pneumocystoscopy: indications, advantages and limitations. Our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regine, Giovanni; Atzori, Maurizio; Buffa, Vitaliano; Miele, Vittorio; Ialongo, Pasquale; Adami, Loredana

    2003-09-01

    sensitivity was 77%; this was higher for pedunculated lesions (79%) than for sessile lesions (50%). The virtual technique is less invasive and tends to be associated with fewer complications than is conventional cystoscopy. It also demonstrated a good sensitivity for evaluating pedunculated lesions, allowing evaluation of the bladder base and anterior wall, sites that are commonly poorly accessible at conventional cystoscopy. Further advantages of the virtual technique include the possibility of accurately measuring the extent of the lesion and obtaining virtual images even in patients with severe urethral obstruction and active bleeding. The limitations include the inability to obtain tissue for histologic examination or to perform endoscopic resection of pedunculated lesions. The technique is less sensitive than conventional cystoscopy in the detection of sessile lesions or very small polyps (<5 mm). Furthermore, diffuse wall thickening reduces bladder distension thereby preventing optimal evaluation. The most valuable indication appears to be the follow-up of treated wall lesions. Virtual CT-pneumocystoscopy can replace conventional cystoscopy in cases with pedunculated lesions when there is no need for biopsy, when the lesions are located at the bladder base or when cystoscopic instrumentation cannot be introduced into the bladder due to stenosis. Virtual pneumocystoscopy can also be used in the follow-up of treated polypoid lesions in association with pelvic CT-angiography.

  16. LASIK vs LASEK vs PRK: advantages and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrósio, Renato; Wilson, Steven

    2003-03-01

    The advent of the excimer laser as an instrument for use in reshaping the corneal stroma was a great step forward in refractive surgery. Laser energy can be delivered on the stromal surface in the photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) procedure or deeper on the corneal stroma by the means of a lamellar surgery in which a flap is created with the microkeratome in the laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) procedure. LASIK is currently the dominant procedure in refractive surgery. The main advantage of LASIK over PRK is related to maintaining the central corneal epithelium. This increases comfort during the early post-operative period, allows for rapid visual recovery, and reduces the wound healing response. Reduced wound healing correlates with less regression for high corrections and a lower rate of complications such as significant stromal opacity (haze). PRK, however, remains as an excellent option for mild to moderate corrections, particularly for cases associated with thin corneas, recurrent erosions, or a predisposition for trauma (Martial arts, military, etc.). Recently, a modification of PRK, laser subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK), was introduced. In the LASEK procedure, an epithelial flap is created and replaced after the ablation. The benefits, if any, of the creation of an epithelial flap compared to traditional PRK are not fully appreciated. Advocates of LASEK suggest that there is less discomfort in the early postoperative period, faster visual recovery, and less haze compared to standard PRK for correction of similar levels of refractive error. Additional long-term clinical studies, along with laboratory research, will be crucial to validate these potential advantages of LASEK procedure.

  17. A Cram of E-Learning Advantages and Disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, following the exponential development of ICT, the classical method of learning has undergone numerous changes. The emergence of the Internet has accelerated these changes due to its capacity to offer multiple possibilities of access to information, instruction, all based on dynamic technologies, transparency and open dialogue. It can be well said that the Internet is turning into an arbiter for the access to education and culture, while eLearning is a new form of education that suggests itself as an alternative with a view to the needs of continuing training and knowledge. The most widely known results of this change are obvious in two learning models mediated by ICT: eLearning and Computer-assisted learning. As well as the classical models, these models imply an efficient learning process based on well-grounded cooperation and communication activities. Moreover, these models require appropriate technology and equipment. It is also important for the eLearners to have knowledge of the new technologies. The great advantage of eLearning is the abolition of formal barriers by eliminating distances, by introducing temporal flexibility and the creation of a new type of student-teacher relationship. The authors have asked the question whether the greatest advantages of this new way of learning and refreshing will still hold for those of a higher educational and financial status, thus deepening unequal opportunity of chances. A team of members of the teaching staff of "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi (UAIC and the Academy of Economic Studies of Bucharest (ASE have carried out a survey among the students of the two institutions regarding the students' perceptions, expectations and attitudes related to eLearning and the identifi-cation of the profile of the student with access to this form of education. The paper presents some of the most important findings of this research.

  18. Advantages of micronuclei analysis through images autocapturing and screen scoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, J.E.; Martínez-López, W.

    2015-01-01

    The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) test is a quantitative assay for genetic toxicity assessment. One of the advantages of the MN assay is its amenability for automation. Different type of cells has been used to evaluate genetic damage through MN assay, such as, human lymphocytes and rodent cell lines (i.e. CHO, V79, CHL and L5178Y). The MN quantification is a time consuming process and several efforts has been conducted for its automation. Some of them include an operator checking step, like PathFinder CellScan System, or are fully automated such as MNScore from MetaSytems. Usually, fully automated systems detect two or three times less MN than visual scoring. In some cases, the impact of false positive detection is reduced with a visual detection step. In the present work we have tested a combination of image autocapturing of CHOK1 cells previously treated with bleomycin (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/ml) or UVC (0, 4, 8 and 16 J/m”2 ) with a screen scoring. Capturing images using the AutoCapture option from Metafer 4 from MetaSystems (GmbH, Germany) plus screen scoring render similar results in terms of MN cells frequency than microscopic live scoring. The resultant bias from the Bland–Altman analysis was -1.1% with confidence intervals between -2.2% and -0.1%, indicating an acceptable agreement between both MN scoring method. However, the mean time devoted to live microscope scoring per sample was 159 minutes compared to 39 minutes for microscope images autocapturing and screen scoring. Therefore, it become advantageous to combine autocapturing of microscope images plus screen scoring when many samples have to be analyzed for radiological biodosimetry purposes. (authors)

  19. Selenium utilization in thioredoxin and catalytic advantage provided by selenocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moon-Jung; Lee, Byung Cheon; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2015-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a major thiol-disulfide reductase that plays a role in many biological processes, including DNA replication and redox signaling. Although selenocysteine (Sec)-containing Trxs have been identified in certain bacteria, their enzymatic properties have not been characterized. In this study, we expressed a selenoprotein Trx from Treponema denticola, an oral spirochete, in Escherichia coli and characterized this selenoenzyme and its natural cysteine (Cys) homologue using E. coli Trx1 as a positive control. 75 Se metabolic labeling and mutation analyses showed that the SECIS (Sec insertion sequence) of T. denticola selenoprotein Trx is functional in the E. coli Sec insertion system with specific selenium incorporation into the Sec residue. The selenoprotein Trx exhibited approximately 10-fold higher catalytic activity than the Sec-to-Cys version and natural Cys homologue and E. coli Trx1, suggesting that Sec confers higher catalytic activity on this thiol-disulfide reductase. Kinetic analysis also showed that the selenoprotein Trx had a 30-fold higher K m than Cys-containing homologues, suggesting that this selenoenzyme is adapted to work efficiently with high concentrations of substrate. Collectively, the results of this study support the hypothesis that selenium utilization in oxidoreductase systems is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by the rare amino acid, Sec. - Highlights: • The first characterization of a selenoprotein Trx is presented. • The selenoenzyme Trx exhibits 10-fold higher catalytic activity than Cys homologues. • Se utilization in Trx is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by Sec residue

  20. Selenium utilization in thioredoxin and catalytic advantage provided by selenocysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon-Jung [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Cheon [Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Kwang Yeon [Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Gladyshev, Vadim N. [Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kim, Hwa-Young, E-mail: hykim@ynu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-12

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a major thiol-disulfide reductase that plays a role in many biological processes, including DNA replication and redox signaling. Although selenocysteine (Sec)-containing Trxs have been identified in certain bacteria, their enzymatic properties have not been characterized. In this study, we expressed a selenoprotein Trx from Treponema denticola, an oral spirochete, in Escherichia coli and characterized this selenoenzyme and its natural cysteine (Cys) homologue using E. coli Trx1 as a positive control. {sup 75}Se metabolic labeling and mutation analyses showed that the SECIS (Sec insertion sequence) of T. denticola selenoprotein Trx is functional in the E. coli Sec insertion system with specific selenium incorporation into the Sec residue. The selenoprotein Trx exhibited approximately 10-fold higher catalytic activity than the Sec-to-Cys version and natural Cys homologue and E. coli Trx1, suggesting that Sec confers higher catalytic activity on this thiol-disulfide reductase. Kinetic analysis also showed that the selenoprotein Trx had a 30-fold higher K{sub m} than Cys-containing homologues, suggesting that this selenoenzyme is adapted to work efficiently with high concentrations of substrate. Collectively, the results of this study support the hypothesis that selenium utilization in oxidoreductase systems is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by the rare amino acid, Sec. - Highlights: • The first characterization of a selenoprotein Trx is presented. • The selenoenzyme Trx exhibits 10-fold higher catalytic activity than Cys homologues. • Se utilization in Trx is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by Sec residue.

  1. Competitive Advantage in Tourism of Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Akarapong Untong

    2013-01-01

    The competitive advantage in tourism of the countries in Southeast Asia was assessed by using coverage ratio and revealed comparative advantage (RCA). Static and dynamic analyses were applied to the data of tourism services export during 2002-2010. The results show that Cambodia, Laos PDR, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam had competitive advantages, i.e. these countries gain the surpluses more than that of the region’s. Thailand had the highest specialization in Southeast Asia but declining. M...

  2. Using IT-CMF to build Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Developing a competitive advantage, for any organization, is a key business imperative. Without some form of competitive advantage it is very difficult to compete within today’s highly dynamic market place. In order to develop competitive advantages organizations must focus on identifying and building their core capabilities. As technology’s influence is now pervasive throughout every aspect of organizational life organizations must consider the role their IT based ...

  3. Advantages of neutron scattering for biological structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenborn, B.P.

    1975-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of neutron scattering for protein crystallography, scattering from oriented systems, and solution scattering are summarized. Techniques for minimizing the disadvantages are indicated

  4. Plant circadian clocks increase photosynthesis, growth, survival, and competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Antony N; Salathia, Neeraj; Hall, Anthony; Kévei, Eva; Tóth, Réka; Nagy, Ferenc; Hibberd, Julian M; Millar, Andrew J; Webb, Alex A R

    2005-07-22

    Circadian clocks are believed to confer an advantage to plants, but the nature of that advantage has been unknown. We show that a substantial photosynthetic advantage is conferred by correct matching of the circadian clock period with that of the external light-dark cycle. In wild type and in long- and short-circadian period mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, plants with a clock period matched to the environment contain more chlorophyll, fix more carbon, grow faster, and survive better than plants with circadian periods differing from their environment. This explains why plants gain advantage from circadian control.

  5. The Advantages of Fixed Facilities in Characterizing TRU Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRENCH, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    In May 1998 the Hanford Site started developing a program for characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. After less than two years, Hanford will have a program certified by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO). By picking a simple waste stream, taking advantage of lessons learned at the other sites, as well as communicating effectively with the CAO, Hanford was able to achieve certification in record time. This effort was further simplified by having a centralized program centered on the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility that contains most of the equipment required to characterize TRU waste. The use of fixed facilities for the characterization of TRU waste at sites with a long-term clean-up mission can be cost effective for several reasons. These include the ability to control the environment in which sensitive instrumentation is required to operate and ensuring that calibrations and maintenance activities are scheduled and performed as an operating routine. Other factors contributing to cost effectiveness include providing approved procedures and facilities for handling hazardous materials and anticipated contingencies and performing essential evolutions, and regulating and smoothing the work load and environmental conditions to provide maximal efficiency and productivity. Another advantage is the ability to efficiently provide characterization services to other sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex that do not have the same capabilities. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is a state-of-the-art facility designed to consolidate the operations necessary to inspect, process and ship waste to facilitate verification of contents for certification to established waste acceptance criteria. The WRAP facility inspects, characterizes, treats, and certifies transuranic (TRU), low-level and mixed waste at the Hanford Site in Washington state. Fluor Hanford operates the $89

  6. Sustainability and strategic competitive advantage: an exploratory and bibliometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrita Dantas Gabriele

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to conduct a bibliometric analysis to understand the state of the art of academic research that relates to sustainability strategy and competitive advantage. For this, the article seeks to identify what is produced, released and knowledge generated by the scientific community related to the subject, and analyzing key trends, through a quantitative analysis of the evolution of scientific literature on the themes, vehicles publishing, centers research, leading researchers and research networks. Initially we constructed a tree of keywords in order to quest the search engines and publications on the subject and later, do the processing and analysis software with the support of EndNote ®, RefViz ® and Excel ®.Through research, we found that there was a recent increase of publications on the subject of this article, especially since 2000, and the areas of science that most published on the subject are represented by the Triple Bottom Line (environmental, social and economic, pointing out that sustainability is currently having a bias much more proactive instead of reactive. Furthermore, it was also possible to identify countries that have the highest rate of development, like the HDI and GINI index, are the pioneers in publishing this issue.

  7. Behavioral outcome including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/hyperactivity disorder and minor neurological signs in perinatal high-risk newborns at 4-6 years of age with relation to risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masuko; Aotani, Hirofumi; Hattori, Ritsuko; Funato, Masahisa

    2004-06-01

    Diagnostic problems with the criteria of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual, 4th edn, have been identified. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the minor neurological signs test (MNT) the authors had previously reported was a predictor for the criteria of ADHD or hyperactivity disorder (HD) in perinatal risk children at 4-6 years of age and what kind of risk factors related to MNT. A total of 136 children discharged from neonatal intensive care units were examined at the age of 4-6 years by a developmental neuropediatrician using both MNT and diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV ADHD/ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th edn) HD. SPSS base and professional were used for statistical analysis. On comparison of diagnostic criteria between ADHD (11.0%) and HD (27.5%), the incidence in the same subjects showed significant difference. MNT scores showed significant correlation with criteria of ADHD (P Apgar 5 in the NLBW group and toxemia of pregnancy and small for gestational age (SGA) in VLBW group were highly correlated with behavioral outcome. Minor neurological signs test score was a significant predictor for criteria of ADHD and HD. High incidences of positive MNT were suspected in not only VLBW children but also NLBW children and Apgar 5 in NLBW children and toxemia of pregnancy and SGA in VLBW children influenced behavioral outcome.

  8. The effects of greening the supplier and innovation on environmental performance and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unine van den Berg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Companies in South Africa should realise the important influence of greening their suppliers and of innovation to achieve environmental goals and competitive advantages. In order to prove this, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 75 companies from 11 industries in the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality region, South Africa. A confirmatory factor analysis was done, followed by bivariate correlations to determine the strength of association between the latent constructs. Correlations between greening the supplier, innovation, environmental performance and competitive advantages were done. The research found that a green innovative process had a significant effect on environmental performance. Green managerial innovation further had a significant correlation with competitive advantage. The primary result of the study indicated that all the constructs positively related to each other, meaning that greening suppliers, by means of green innovation, leads to an enhanced environmental performance and to competitive advantages.

  9. It was/wasn't everything I had imagined: advantages and disadvantages after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bianca Pozza Dos; Viegas, Aline da Costa; Feijó, Aline Machado; Lise, Fernanda; Schwartz, Eda

    2016-10-31

    To know the advantages and difficulties that people with chronic kidney disease experience after renal transplantation. A qualitative and descriptive study with 20 kidney transplant patients in a city in Southern Brazil, from May to July of 2013. Semi-structured interviews were used, analyzed according to the critical incident technique. The main advantages were presented in the similarity to "normal" living: advantages resulting from the kidney transplant category, related to the patient's discharge from dialysis, food and water restriction, among others. The difficulties were presented in the permanent chronic condition and the need for care category. The advantages and disadvantages depend on each person's experience. The health professionals need to understand and promote health actions that promote the uniqueness and context of renal transplant.

  10. Large- and small-size advantages in sneaking behaviour in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukio

    2012-04-01

    Sneaking tactic, a male alternative reproductive tactic involving sperm competition, is generally adopted by small individuals because of its inconspicuousness. However, large size has an advantage when competition occurs between sneakers for fertilization of eggs. Here, we suggest that both large- and small-size advantages of sneaker males are present within the same species. Large sneaker males of the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus showed a high success rate in intruding into spawning nests because of their advantage in competition among sneaker males in keeping a suitable position to sneak, whereas small sneakers had few chances to sneak. However, small sneaker males were able to stay in the nests longer than large sneaker males when they succeeded in sneak intrusion. This suggests the possibility of an increase in their paternity. The findings of these size-specific behavioural advantages may be important in considering the evolution of size-related reproductive traits.

  11. Home advantage in the Winter Olympics (1908-1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, N J; Nevill, A M; Williams, A M

    2001-02-01

    We obtained indices of home advantage, based on the medals won by competing nations, for each event held at the Winter Olympics from 1908 to 1998. These indices were designed to assess home advantage while controlling for nation strength, changes in the number of medals on offer and the performance of 'non-hosting' nations. Some evidence of home advantage was found in figure skating, freestyle skiing, ski jumping, alpine skiing and short track speed skating. In contrast, little or no home advantage was observed in ice hockey, Nordic combined, Nordic skiing, bobsled, luge, biathlon or speed skating. When all events were combined, a significant home advantage was observed (P = 0.029), although no significant differences in the extent of home advantage were found between events (P > 0.05). When events were grouped according to whether they were subjectively assessed by judges, significantly greater home advantage was observed in the subjectively assessed events (P = 0.037). This was a reflection of better home performances, suggesting that judges were scoring home competitors disproportionately higher than away competitors. Familiarity with local conditions was shown to have some effect, particularly in alpine skiing, although the bobsled and luge showed little or no advantage over other events. Regression analysis showed that the number of time zones and direction of travel produced no discernible trends or differences in performance.

  12. Blood Transfusion In Surgical Children: The Advantages And Hazards

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing opposition to blood transfusion makes the management of surgical children who require blood very challenging. This retrospective study reviews records of blood transfusion so as to determine the advantages and hazards in surgical children. The advantages and hazards of blood transfusion in surgical ...

  13. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Buhrman (Harry); L. Czekaj (Lłukasz); A. Grudka (Andrzej); M. Horodecki (Michalł); P. Horodecki (Pawelł); M. Markiewicz (Marcin); F. Speelman (Florian); S. Strelchuk (Sergii)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe obtain a general connection between a quantum advantage in communication complexity and non-locality. We show that given any protocol offering a (sufficiently large) quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics which violate

  14. Home advantage in speed skating : Evidence from individual data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, RH

    Home advantage is a well-documented phenomenon in many sports. Home advantage has been shown to exist for team sports (soccer, hockey, football, baseball, basketball) and for countries organizing sports tournaments like the Olympics and World Cup Soccer. There is also some evidence for home

  15. Home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games 1976-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014. Both country level and individual sport level analysis is conducted for this time period. Comparisons are also drawn with the Winter Olympic Games since 1992, the point from which both the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Paralympic Games have been hosted by the same nations and in the same years. Clear evidence of a home advantage effect in the Winter Paralympic Games was found at country level. When examining individual sports, only alpine skiing and cross country skiing returned a significant home advantage effect. When comparing home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games with the Winter Olympic Games for the last seven host nations (1992-2014), we found that home advantage was generally more pronounced (although not a statistically significant difference) in the case of the former. The causes of home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games are unclear and should be investigated further.

  16. Home advantage in speed skating : evidence from individual data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2003-01-01

    Home advantage is a well documented phenomena in many types of sports. Home advantage has been shown to exist for team sports (soccer, hockey, football, baseball, basketball) and for countries organizing sports tournaments like the Olympics and World Cup Soccer. There is also some evidence for home

  17. Home Field Advantage Calculation for Physical Education and Sport Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Tugbay

    2018-01-01

    It is a well-established fact that playing at home field is an advantageous condition for professional sport teams. For this reason, the home field advantage in team sports is an important issue to be explored. It is also one of the different topics that physical education and sports students can use when they want to perform performance analysis…

  18. Features of formation of competitive advantages: a strategic dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Р. Pashchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the features of formation of competitive advantages, the depth of theoretical and methodological basis for the formation of competitive advantages at an enterprise. The author has reviewed the approaches to the formation of stable and long-term competitive advantages. The author has also overviewed the requirements which are to be met by competitive advantages of a company and the factors that affect the possibility of competitive advantages. The author develops her own approach to the definition of «competitive enterprise strategy», suggests to understand the concept as the perspective of company development, the way of achieving the goals a company sets for itself guided by its policy, using internal and external competitive advantages. The author implements the model of strategic management of enterprise development based on competitive advantage creating. The suggested model will take into account the maximum possible factors that impact on the development and implementation of strategies. Due to the model risks will also be reduced. The paper determines that the important stage of enterprise development strategic management based on competitive advantage creating is the management of changes and the management of resistance to changes caused by the influence of factors of external and internal environment.

  19. Relatively high rates of G:C → A:T transitions at CpG sites were observed in certain epithelial tissues including pancreas and submaxillary gland of adult big blue® mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtenjaca, Anita; Tarnowski, Heather E; Marr, Alison M; Heney, Melanie A; Creamer, Laura; Sathiamoorthy, Sarmitha; Hill, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    With few exceptions, spontaneous mutation frequency and pattern are similar across tissue types and relatively constant in young to middle adulthood in wild type mice. Underrepresented in surveys of spontaneous mutations across murine tissues is the diversity of epithelial tissues. For the first time, spontaneous mutations were detected in pancreas and submaxillary gland and compared with kidney, lung, and male germ cells from five adult male Big Blue® mice. Mutation load was assessed quantitatively through measurement of mutant and mutation frequency and qualitatively through identification of mutations and characterization of recurrent mutations, multiple mutations, mutation pattern, and mutation spectrum. A total of 9.6 million plaque forming units were screened, 226 mutants were collected, and 196 independent mutations were identified. Four novel mutations were discovered. Spontaneous mutation frequency was low in pancreas and high in the submaxillary gland. The submaxillary gland had multiple recurrent mutations in each of the mice and one mutant had two independent mutations. Mutation patterns for epithelial tissues differed from that observed in male germ cells with a striking bias for G:C to A:T transitions at CpG sites. A comprehensive review of lacI spontaneous mutation patterns in young adult mice and rats identified additional examples of this mutational bias. An overarching observation about spontaneous mutation frequency in adult tissues of the mouse remains one of stability. A repeated observation in certain epithelial tissues is a higher rate of G:C to A:T transitions at CpG sites and the underlying mechanisms for this bias are not known. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Advantages and limitations of remotely operated sea floor drill rigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenthal, T.; Smith, D. J.; Wefer, G.

    2009-04-01

    A variety of research targets in marine sciences including the investigation of gas hydrates, slope stability, alteration of oceanic crust, ore formation and palaeoclimate can be addressed by shallow drilling. However, drill ships are mostly used for deep drillings, both because the effort of building up a drill string from a drill ship to the deep sea floor is tremendous and control on drill bit pressure from a movable platform and a vibrating drill string is poor especially in the upper hundred meters. During the last decade a variety of remotely operated drill rigs have been developed, that are deployed on the sea bed and operated from standard research vessels. These developments include the BMS (Bentic Multicoring System, developed by Williamson and Associates, operated by the Japanese Mining Agency), the PROD (Portable Remotely Operated Drill, developed and operated by Benthic Geotech), the Rockdrill 2 (developed and operated by the British geological Survey) and the MeBo (German abbreviation for sea floor drill rig, developed and operated by Marum, University of Bremen). These drill rigs reach drilling depths between 15 and 100 m. For shallow drillings remotely operated drill rigs are a cost effective alternative to the services of drill ships and have the major advantage that the drilling operations are performed from a stable platform independent of any ship movements due to waves, wind or currents. Sea floor drill rigs can be deployed both in shallow waters and the deep sea. A careful site survey is required before deploying the sea floor drill rig. Slope gradient, small scale topography and soil strength are important factors when planning the deployment. The choice of drill bits and core catcher depend on the expected geology. The required drill tools are stored on one or two magazines on the drill rig. The MeBo is the only remotely operated drill rig world wide that can use wire line coring technique. This method is much faster than conventional

  1. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment - including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of: commercially available equivalent component; modification of a commercial available component; reverse engineering of the original component; and finally, design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: Missing, misleading or no information on the original component; Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant; Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering; and Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  2. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment, including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of, (1) commercially available equivalent component, (2) modification of a commercial available component, (3) reverse engineering of the original component and finally (4) design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: 1) Missing, misleading or no information on the original component. 2) Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant. 3) Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering. 4) Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  3. Heterozygote Advantage in a Finite Population: Black Color in Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Stahler, Daniel R; Dekker, Dick

    2014-01-01

    There is a striking color polymorphism for wolves in the Yellowstone National Park where approximately half the wolves are black. The genetic basis for this polymorphism is known, and fitnesses of the genotypes are estimated. These estimates suggest that there is strong heterozygote advantage but substantial asymmetry in the fitness differences of the 2 homozygotes. Theoretically, such fitnesses in a finite population are thought to reduce genetic variation at least as fast as if there were no selection at all. Because the color polymorphism has remained at about the same frequency for 17 years, about 4 generations, we investigated whether this was consistent with the theoretical predictions. Counter to this general expectation of loss, given the initial frequency of black wolves, the theoretical expectation in this case was found to be that the frequency would only decline slowly over time. For example, if the effective population size is 20, then the expected black allele frequency after 4 generations would be 0.191, somewhat less than the observed value of 0.237. However, nearly 30% of the time the expected frequency is 0.25 or greater, consistent with the contemporary observed frequency. In other words and in contrast to general theoretical predictions, because of the short period of time in evolutionary terms and the relatively weak selection at low frequencies, the observed variation and the predicted theoretical variation are not inconsistent. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Advantages and successful use of TIG narrow-gap welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehberg, R.; Pellkofer, D.; Schmidt, J.

    1986-01-01

    Narrow-gap welding, an advancement of the mechanized TIG impulse welding process with conventional seam geometry (V-shaped and/or U-shaped welds), not only assures great economic efficiency on account of the low weld volume but also offers considerable benefits in terms of quality. Thanks to the low number of beads, the following advantages are gained: less axial and radial shrinkage which reduces the strain in the root area, total heat input and, thus, the dwell time in the critical temperature range from 500 to 800 0 C leading to a chromium depletion at the grain boundaries during the welding process is minimized which markedly reduces the sensitivity of non-stabilized steels to intercrystalline stress corrosion cracking, and a relatively favourable residual welding stress profile in the heat affected zone. The process was used successfully in the past for welds of ferritic and austenitic steel pipes in the construction of nuclear power plants and in the remote-controlled welding during the replacement of piping in plants already in operation. (orig.) [de

  5. Platelet Function Tests: Preanalytical Variables, Clinical Utility, Advantages, and Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvas, Anne-Mette; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2017-01-01

    Platelet function tests are mainly used in the diagnostic work-up of platelet disorders. During the last decade, the additional use of platelet function tests to evaluate the effect of antiplatelet therapy has also emerged in an attempt to identify patients with an increased risk of arterial thrombosis. Furthermore, platelet function tests are increasingly used to measure residual effect of antiplatelet therapy prior to surgery with the aim of reducing the risk of bleeding. To a limited extend, platelet function tests are also used to evaluate hyperaggregability as a potential marker of a prothrombotic state outside the setting of antiplatelet therapy. This multifaceted use of platelet function tests and the development of simpler point-of-care tests with narrower application have increased the use of platelet function testing and also facilitated the use of platelet function tests outside the highly specialized laboratories. The present chapter describes the preanalytical variables, which should be taken into account when planning platelet function testing. Also, the most widely used platelet function tests are introduced, and their clinical utility and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  6. Supplier relationship management leverages intellectual capital for increased competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Van Zyl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate how supplier relationship management (SRM enables the capture and creation of intellectual capital, thereby attaining and sustaining a strategic competitive advantage and increasing supply chain profitability. In order to achieve this purpose, a large part of the article is devoted to exploring the relatively new and unknown field of SRM. It is shown that an organisation must possess a thorough understanding of good supplier characteristics and of the drivers, benefits and requirements for the successful implementation of SRM, in order to enable that organisation to leverage their supplier relationships to ensure the capture of supplier expertise, patents, experiences etc. (i.e. their intellectual capital. The article then explores how the integration of technology in SRM applications can improve the efficiency of supplier collaboration and intellectual capital capture and creation. It is then demonstrated how efficient and collaborative supplier relationships improve supply chain profitability and competitiveness. Lastly, the article explores the implementation pitfalls and trends of SRM that must be constantly considered and monitored by an organisation in order to continually capture and create intellectual capital and reap the full benefits of SRM. This exploration involved an examination of contemporary literature, theories and business cases and subsequently revealed that SRM is a vital discipline/philosophy that must be implemented by any organisation wishing to achieve greater supply chain efficiency and competitiveness. This competitiveness can only be achieved through the mutual unlocking, sharing and leveraging of intellectual capital.

  7. Cognitive Advantages of Bilingual Children in Different Sociolinguistic Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Boerma, Tessel; Bosma, Evelyn; Cornips, Leonie; Everaert, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown that bilingual children outperform monolinguals on tasks testing executive functioning, but other studies have not revealed any effect of bilingualism. In this study we compared three groups of bilingual children in the Netherlands, aged 6–7 years, with a monolingual control group. We were specifically interested in testing whether the bilingual cognitive advantage is modulated by the sociolinguistic context of language use. All three bilingual groups were exposed to a minority language besides the nation’s dominant language (Dutch). Two bilingual groups were exposed to a regional language (Frisian, Limburgish), and a third bilingual group was exposed to a migrant language (Polish). All children participated in two working memory tasks (verbal, visuospatial) and two attention tasks (selective attention, interference suppression). Bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on selective attention. The cognitive effect of bilingualism was most clearly present in the Frisian-Dutch group and in a subgroup of migrant children who were relatively proficient in Polish. The effect was less robust in the Limburgish-Dutch sample. Investigation of the response patterns of the flanker test, testing interference suppression, suggested that bilingual children more often show an effect of response competition than the monolingual children, demonstrating that bilingual children attend to different aspects of the task than monolingual children. No bilingualism effects emerged for verbal and visuospatial working memory. PMID:28484403

  8. Advantages of three-dimensional treatment planning in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attalla, E.M.; ELSAyed, A.A.; ElGantiry, M.; ElTahher, Z.

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of three-dimensional (3-D) treatment planning in-patients maxilla, breast, bladder, and lung tumors to explore its potential therapeutic advantage over the traditional dimensional (2-D) approach in these diseases. Conventional two-dimensional (2-D) treatment planning was compared to three-dimensional (3-D) treatment planning. In five selected disease sites, plans calculated with both types of treatment planning were compared. The (3-D) treatment planning system used in this work TMS version 5.1 B from helax AB is based on a monte Carlo-based pencil beam model. The other treatment planning system (2-D 0, introduced in this study was the multi data treatment planning system version 2.35. For the volumes of interest; quality of dose distribution concerning homogeneity in the target volume and the isodose distribution in organs at risk, was discussed. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons between the two planning systems were made using dose volume histograms (DVH's) . For comparisons of dose distributions in real-patient cases, differences ranged from 0.8% to 6.4% for 6 MV, while in case of 18 MV photon, it ranged from 1,8% to 6.5% and was within -+3 standard deviations for the dose between the two planning systems.Dose volume histogram (DVH) shows volume reduction of the radiation-related organs at risk 3-D planning

  9. Cognitive Advantages of Bilingual Children in Different Sociolinguistic Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Boerma, Tessel; Bosma, Evelyn; Cornips, Leonie; Everaert, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown that bilingual children outperform monolinguals on tasks testing executive functioning, but other studies have not revealed any effect of bilingualism. In this study we compared three groups of bilingual children in the Netherlands, aged 6-7 years, with a monolingual control group. We were specifically interested in testing whether the bilingual cognitive advantage is modulated by the sociolinguistic context of language use. All three bilingual groups were exposed to a minority language besides the nation's dominant language (Dutch). Two bilingual groups were exposed to a regional language (Frisian, Limburgish), and a third bilingual group was exposed to a migrant language (Polish). All children participated in two working memory tasks (verbal, visuospatial) and two attention tasks (selective attention, interference suppression). Bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on selective attention. The cognitive effect of bilingualism was most clearly present in the Frisian-Dutch group and in a subgroup of migrant children who were relatively proficient in Polish. The effect was less robust in the Limburgish-Dutch sample. Investigation of the response patterns of the flanker test, testing interference suppression, suggested that bilingual children more often show an effect of response competition than the monolingual children, demonstrating that bilingual children attend to different aspects of the task than monolingual children. No bilingualism effects emerged for verbal and visuospatial working memory.

  10. Building an Online Community: Student Teachers’ Perceptions on the Advantages of Using Social Networking Services in A Teacher Education Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad HABIBI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry examined student teachers' perceptions on the advantages of using Social Networking Services (SNS in an English teacher education program at a public university in Jambi, Indonesia to ease the communication, supervision, discussion, and report submissions between supervisors and student teachers. The networking types included in the program are Whatsapp, Telegram, Email, and Google Form. The method of the research was qualitative through using focus group discussions as the technique of collecting data involving forty-two student teachers. We organized our analysis and discussion around their perceptions and the contexts in which the advantages they perceived emerge. The analyses of the texts revealed that two salient themes with their sub-themes related to the advantages of using Social Networking Services (SNS in a teacher education program were social interaction (peer discussion and platform to interact with supervisors or lecturers and learning motivation and experience supports (self-directed learning, promotes critical thinking, content engagement. Some pedagogical and social implications are also discussed.

  11. Fuel cell mining vehicles: design, performance and advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betournay, M.C.; Miller, A.R.; Barnes, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The potential for using fuel cell technology in underground mining equipment was discussed with reference to the risks associated with the operation of hydrogen vehicles, hydrogen production and hydrogen delivery systems. This paper presented some of the initiatives for mine locomotives and fuel cell stacks for underground environments. In particular, it presents the test results of the first applied industrial fuel cell vehicle in the world, a mining and tunneling locomotive. This study was part of an international initiative managed by the Fuel Cell Propulsion Institute which consists of several mining companies, mining equipment manufacturers, and fuel cell technology developers. Some of the obvious benefits of fuel cells for underground mining operations include no exhaust gases, lower electrical costs, significantly reduced maintenance, and lower ventilation costs. Another advantage is that the technology can be readily automated and computer-based for tele-remote operations. This study also quantified the cost and operational benefits associated with fuel cell vehicles compared to diesel vehicles. It is expected that higher vehicle productivity could render fuel cell underground vehicles cost-competitive. 6 refs., 1 tab

  12. Advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable platforms in drug eluting stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Granillo, Agustina; Rubilar, Bibiana; Rodriguez-Granillo, Gaston; Rodriguez, Alfredo E

    2011-03-26

    Coronary angioplasty with drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is currently the most common stent procedure worldwide. Since the introduction of DES, coronary restenosis as well as the incidence of target vessel and target lesion revascularization have been significantly reduced. However, the incidence of very late stent thrombosis beyond the first year after stent deployment has more commonly been linked to DES than to bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation. Several factors have been associated with very late stent thrombosis after DES implantation, such as delayed healing, inflammation, stent mal-apposition and endothelial dysfunction. Some of these adverse events were associated with the presence of durable polymers, which were essential to allow the elution of the immunosuppressive drug in the first DES designs. The introduction of erodable polymers in DES technology has provided the potential to complete the degradation of the polymer simultaneously or immediately after the release of the immunosuppressive drug, after which a BMS remains in place. Several DES designs with biodegradable (BIO) polymers have been introduced in preclinical and clinical studies, including randomized trials. In this review, we analyze the clinical results from 6 observational and randomized studies with BIO polymers and discuss advantages and disadvantages of this new technology.

  13. Advantages and limitations of common testing methods for antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorati, R; Valgimigli, L

    2015-05-01

    Owing to the importance of antioxidants in the protection of both natural and man-made materials, a large variety of testing methods have been proposed and applied. These include methods based on inhibited autoxidation studies, which are better followed by monitoring the kinetics of oxygen consumption or of the formation of hydroperoxides, the primary oxidation products. Analytical determination of secondary oxidation products (e.g. carbonyl compounds) has also been used. The majority of testing methods, however, do not involve substrate autoxidation. They are based on the competitive bleaching of a probe (e.g. ORAC assay, β-carotene, crocin bleaching assays, and luminol assay), on reaction with a different probe (e.g. spin-trapping and TOSC assay), or they are indirect methods based on the reduction of persistent radicals (e.g. galvinoxyl, DPPH and TEAC assays), or of inorganic oxidizing species (e.g. FRAP, CUPRAC and Folin-Ciocalteu assays). Yet other methods are specific for preventive antioxidants. The relevance, advantages, and limitations of these methods are critically discussed, with respect to their chemistry and the mechanisms of antioxidant activity. A variety of cell-based assays have also been proposed, to investigate the biological activity of antioxidants. Their importance and critical aspects are discussed, along with arguments for the selection of the appropriate testing methods according to the different needs.

  14. Advantages of a Modular Mars Surface Habitat Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Hoffman, Stephan J.; Andrews, Alida; Watts, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Early crewed Mars mission concepts developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) assumed a single, large habitat would house six crew members for a 500-day Mars surface stay. At the end of the first mission, all surface equipment, including the habitat, -would be abandoned and the process would be repeated at a different Martian landing site. This work was documented in a series of NASA publications culminating with the Mars Design Reference Mission 5.0 (NASA-SP-2009-566). The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) explored whether re-using surface equipment at a single landing site could be more affordable than the Apollo-style explore-abandon-repeat mission cadence. Initial EMC assumptions preserved the single, monolithic habitat, the only difference being a new requirement to reuse the surface habitat for multiple expedition crews. A trade study comparing a single large habitat versus smaller, modular habitats leaned towards the monolithic approach as more mass-efficient. More recent work has focused on the operational aspects of building up Mars surface infrastructure over multiple missions, and has identified compelling advantages of the modular approach that should be considered before making a final decision. This paper explores Mars surface mission operational concepts and integrated system analysis, and presents an argument for the modular habitat approach.

  15. Investigative safety science as a competitive advantage for Pharma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggs, Jonathan; Moulin, Pierre; Pognan, Francois; Brees, Dominique; Leonard, Michele; Busch, Steve; Cordier, Andre; Heard, David J; Kammüller, Michael; Merz, Michael; Bouchard, Page; Chibout, Salah-Dine

    2012-09-01

    Following a US National Academy of Sciences report in 2007 entitled "Toxicity Testing of the 21st Century: a Vision and a Strategy," significant advances within translational drug safety sciences promise to revolutionize drug discovery and development. The purpose of this review is to outline why investigative safety science is a competitive advantage for the pharmaceutical industry. The article discusses the essential goals for modern investigative toxicologists including: cross-species target biology; molecular pathways of toxicity; and development of predictive tools, models and biomarkers that allow discovery researchers and clinicians to anticipate safety problems and plan ways to address them, earlier than ever before. Furthermore, the article emphasizes the importance of investigating unanticipated clinical safety signals through a combination of mechanistic preclinical studies and/or molecular characterization of clinical samples from affected organs. The traditional boundaries between pharma industry teams focusing on safety/efficacy and preclinical/clinical development are rapidly disappearing in favor of translational safety science-centric organizations with a vision of bringing more effective medicines forward safely and quickly. Comparative biology and mechanistic toxicology approaches facilitate: i) identifying translational safety biomarkers; ii) identifying new drug targets/indications; and iii) mitigating off-target toxicities. These value-adding safety science contributions will change traditional toxicologists from side-effect identifiers to drug development enablers.

  16. Advantages and Limitations of Integrated Management System: the Theoretical Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agota Giedrė Raišienė

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of the paper is to discuss the potential benefits and to highlight the drawbacks of integrated management system for organizations that seek to improve management process.Methodology. Methods of the research were used: analysis of a scientific and special literature that presents the requirements, models and results of integrated management systems studies, and analysis of statistical data to assess actuality of integrated management systems for enterprises in Lithuania.Findings. Summarizing research findings, it should be stated that the implementation of management system integration should be based on provision of social responsibility and holistic approach to the organization. It requires the long-term united efforts of leaders in a strategic hierarchical level and high organizational maturity to ensure the fluency of the running stages of planning management system integration, preparing documentations, implementing and realizing integrated management system. Also it is necessary to purify the conception of integrated management system in organizational context. Theoretical analysis of integrated management systems show, that all of the management systems can not be well integrated in principle. They can only be partly integrated and coordinated. A need to question the level of integration of managementsystems is very important as in scientific discourse as in practice. It is important to mark, that the number of organizations, that seek to optimize management processes by implementing the integrated management systems is rapidly increasing in Lithuania, too. It shows that benefit associated with integration of management systems is apprehensible in Lithuania. Advantages of integrated management systems can certainly become even stronger if scientists and practicians join their forces in search of methods of organizational management development.Research limitations. The research limitations related to a lack of integrated

  17. Advantages and Limitations of Integrated Management System: the Theoretical Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agota Giedrė Raišienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of the paper is to discuss the potential benefits and to highlight the drawbacks of integrated management system for organizations that seek to improve management process.Methodology. Methods of the research were used: analysis of a scientific and special literature that presents the requirements, models and results of integrated management systems studies, and analysis of statistical data to assess actuality of integrated management systems for enterprises in Lithuania.Findings. Summarizing research findings, it should be stated that the implementation of management system integration should be based on provision of social responsibility and holistic approach to the organization. It requires the long-term united efforts of leaders in a strategic hierarchical level and high organizational maturity to ensure the fluency of the running stages of planning management system integration, preparing documentations, implementing and realizing integrated management system. Also it is necessary to purify the conception of integrated management system in organizational context. Theoretical analysis of integrated management systems show, that all of the management systems can not be well integrated in principle. They can only be partly integrated and coordinated. A need to question the level of integration of management systems is very important as in scientific discourse as in practice. It is important to mark, that the number of organizations, that seek to optimize management processes by implementing the integrated management systems is rapidly increasing in Lithuania, too. It shows that benefit associated with integration of management systems is apprehensible in Lithuania. Advantages of integrated management systems can certainly become even stronger if scientists and practicians join their forces in search of methods of organizational management development.Research limitations. The research limitations related to a lack of

  18. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  19. Knowledge And Knowledge Management As A Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bratić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern business environment with high turbulence and complexity, an organization’s force to create and sustain competitive advantage lies in what it knows not what it owns. Establishment of a knowledge management in organization will ensure sustainable competitive advantage because the intellectual capital has become the primary bases of core competencies and the key to superior performance. The transition from industrial to knowledge society, effective use of knowledge is one of the deciding factors in the struggle for competitiveness because it will ensure the rationality, efficiency and flexibility in operations, and only through the realization of those graphics company can gain a competitive advantage on the market.

  20. Competitive advantage for differentiation of Pereira International Free Trade Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Echeverri Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The best way to know if a company is at the heart of success is by determining its competitive advantage. For Pereira International Free Trade Zone, foreign trade platform and recent project implementation, it is important to identify its competitive advantage, so it can develop strategies for entering and staying in the market. In this research, an analysis of the five forces industry free zones was performed, the value chain of the Pereira International Free Trade Zone was defined, finally the factors that influence their competitive advantage was determined.

  1. Consumer Insight as Competitive Advantage Using Big Data and Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Veysel Ertemel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital revolution serves as a competitive advantage to businesses that are able to analyze consumer behavior in order to gain insights for their strategic advantage. After the advent of Internet, the past two decades witnessed generation of vast amount of business data. The amount of data is so huge that traditional database management system approaches falls short of managing and analyzing this data. This paper explores the characteristics of this phenomenon called Big Data together with Analytics as a tool for marketers to gain insights about consumer behavior and hence provide competitive advantage to the businesses. It also discusses some best practices as case studies.

  2. Seeking the competitive advantage: it's more than cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, S F

    1999-01-01

    Most organizations focus considerable time and energy on reducing operating costs as a way to attain marketplace advantage. This strategy was not inappropriate in the past. To be competitive in the future, however, focus must be placed on other issues, not just cost reduction. The near future will be dominated by service industries, knowledge management, and virtual partnerships, with production optimization and flexibility, innovation, and strong partnerships defining those organizations that attain competitive advantage. Competitive advantage will reside in clarifying the vision and strategic plan, reviewing and redesigning work processes to optimize resources and value-added work, and creating change-ready environments and empowered workforces.

  3. Influence of innovation in the customer-supplier re lationship on competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar Lenarčič

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available RQ: The excellence of a company is also the result of the relationship to the supplier. A good relationship is shown on the results in developing innovative ideas. In this study we were interested in the relations between the buyer and the supplier and how this effects their innovation development, which is later expressed as a competitive advantage, and if this relation effectson the creation of innovation ideas.Purpose: The purpose is to explore the relationship between suppliers and customers, their common innovative activity and the impact of joint innovation ideas in competitive advantage.Method: A literature review and a quantitative analysis with an opinion questionnaire was used in this study. Data analysis was carried out with frequency statistics and χ2-test.Results: The result shows that the relationship between buyers and suppliers has a greater impact on competitive advantage than the number of innovations.Organization: The research study impacts the customer-supplier relationship, mutual expectations and common creation of innovative ideas to increase competitive advantage. The results will be informative in adapting decisions and measures in strengthening the relationship for the creation of an innovative environment withininterpersonal relationships.Society: Society is aware of the importance of customer-supplier relations. Society will be able to obtain information on the degree of the customer-supplier mutual relationship in collaborating and developing innovative ideas, the level of awareness in the importance of innovation in the mutual relation of creating a competitive advantage.Originality: The originality of the research is to learn aboutthe impact of customer-supplier relations and on innovation as one of an organization’s competitive advantages.Limitations: The research is limited to one company and a smaller sample-size of suppliers in an organization.

  4. Carbon Monoxide in Meat and Fish Packaging: Advantages and Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncalés, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    Due to increased demands for greater expectation in relation to quality, convenience, safety and extended shelf-life, combined with growing demand from retailers for cost-effective extensions of fresh muscle foods’ shelf-life, the food packaging industry quickly developed to meet these expectations. During the last few decades, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of foods has been a promising area of research, but much remains to be known regarding the use of unconventional gases such carbon monoxide (CO). The use of CO for meat and seafood packaging is not allowed in most countries due to the potential toxic effect, and its use is controversial in some countries. The commercial application of CO in food packaging was not then considered feasible because of possible environmental hazards for workers. CO has previously been reported to mask muscle foods’ spoilage, and this was the primary concern raised for the prohibition, as this may mislead consumers. This review was undertaken to present the most comprehensive and current overview of the widely-available, scattered information about the use of CO in the preservation of muscle foods. The advantages of CO and its industrial limits are presented and discussed. The most recent literature on the consumer safety issues related to the use of CO and consumer acceptance of CO especially in meat packaging systems were also discussed. Recommendations and future prospects were addressed for food industries, consumers and regulators on what would be a “best practice” in the use of CO in food packaging. All this promotes high ethical standards in commercial communications by means of effective regulation, for the benefit of consumers and businesses in the world, and this implies that industrialized countries and members of their regulatory agencies must develop a coherent and robust systems of regulation and control that can respond effectively to new challenges. PMID:29360803

  5. Carbon Monoxide in Meat and Fish Packaging: Advantages and Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Djenane

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to increased demands for greater expectation in relation to quality, convenience, safety and extended shelf-life, combined with growing demand from retailers for cost-effective extensions of fresh muscle foods’ shelf-life, the food packaging industry quickly developed to meet these expectations. During the last few decades, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP of foods has been a promising area of research, but much remains to be known regarding the use of unconventional gases such carbon monoxide (CO. The use of CO for meat and seafood packaging is not allowed in most countries due to the potential toxic effect, and its use is controversial in some countries. The commercial application of CO in food packaging was not then considered feasible because of possible environmental hazards for workers. CO has previously been reported to mask muscle foods’ spoilage, and this was the primary concern raised for the prohibition, as this may mislead consumers. This review was undertaken to present the most comprehensive and current overview of the widely-available, scattered information about the use of CO in the preservation of muscle foods. The advantages of CO and its industrial limits are presented and discussed. The most recent literature on the consumer safety issues related to the use of CO and consumer acceptance of CO especially in meat packaging systems were also discussed. Recommendations and future prospects were addressed for food industries, consumers and regulators on what would be a “best practice” in the use of CO in food packaging. All this promotes high ethical standards in commercial communications by means of effective regulation, for the benefit of consumers and businesses in the world, and this implies that industrialized countries and members of their regulatory agencies must develop a coherent and robust systems of regulation and control that can respond effectively to new challenges.

  6. Investment in intellectual capital and achievement of the competitive advantage in hotel sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Mohammed Dahash

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the research paper is to provide some insights on the concepts of intellec-tual capital and its important dimensions alongside to investigate the possible association between intellectual capital and attainment of competitive advantage. This study focuses on Iraqi hotel industry which is an under-research area in the context of intellectual capital and its relationship with competitive advantage. An adapted questionnaire was utilized to collect the responses from top and middle level managers of four and five-star hotels in Iraq. The reliability and validity of data collec-tion instrument were measured through Cronbach’s alpha, Composite Reliability and Average Var-iance Extracted respectively. The competitive advantage was then regressed against Human, Rela-tional and Structural capital by application of Partial Least Square methodology. Results of the study showed a positive and strong connotation among intellectual capital and attainment of competitive advantage. The human capital had the highest contribution for competitive advantage in hotel sector of Iraq. The top management of hotels should take interest to develop, maintain and retain human capital to attain competitive advantage over competitors.

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANISATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND PERFORMANCE MODERATED BY THE AGE AND SIZE OF FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimin Ismadi Ismail

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that achieving a position of competitive advantage is a necessary precursor to a firm's significant performance. This paper will empirically examine the potential moderating variables that could affect the relationship between a firm's competitive advantage and performance, namely the firms' age and size. By examining the relative moderating effects of these variables, this paper delivers valuable information to firms, specifically with regard to strategic management directed toward performance and attaining a competitive advantage. This research was conducted among 127 manufacturers listed in the 2008 Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers Directory. A cross- sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire to obtain responses from the manufacturers. A two-way ANOVA shows that only the age of firms is a significant moderator in the relationship between competitive advantage and performance, and that this relationship is stronger for older firms. The size of firms does not significantly moderate the relationship between competitive advantage and performance. Despite the non-significant moderating effect of firms' size, overall, this study provides empirical support for the Resource-Based View (RBV of Malaysian manufacturers regarding the issue of competitive advantage.

  8. AN AGING POPULATION: A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE FOR COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Barešová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the most currently discussed topics, the ageing population. Population aging can be discussed from different perspectives, exploring various challenges associated with it. The authors examined marketing communications from the point of view of a target group, over age 55. The main objective of this study was to find out which marketing communication tools those over age 55 prefer, including selected aspects of printed advertising. At the same time, it was examined whether there is a different gender perspective on this issue. To find out answers to the main question of this study, we conducted quantitative research by using a questionnaire survey among the population over age 55 living in the Czech Republic (Zlín Region. The results of this study were compared with the results of a previous study conducted in 2014, focusing on the marketing communication tools targeted at the 55+ group from the point of view of companies. The research results have shown that the target groups’ most effective (preferred marketing communication tools are printed materials (leaflets and catalogues, sales promotions, competitions, club memberships, gifts, fairs, markets and fairs, and last but not least, newspapers and magazines. Based on the results, it can be said that these tools, in comparison with others, contain sufficient information that the customer can read and think about, save, and eventually return to them. At the same time, they are tools that bring a certain benefit or advantage to the customer, which can then be verified in person. If the results are compared from a gender perspective, different preferences were revealed in the selection of marketing communication tools. There were also different views on some selected aspects of printed materials. These findings can be implemented by companies and organizations in their marketing campaigns, allowing them to better reach the target group of people over age 55

  9. Views of Japanese patients on the advantages and disadvantages of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Taira, Nanako; Muranaka, Yoshimi; Miwa, Masako; Kin, Seikon; Hirai, Kei

    2013-08-01

    The preference for dialysis modalities is not well understood in Japan. This study explored the subjective views of Japanese patients undergoing dialysis regarding their treatments. The participants were receiving in-center hemodialysis (CHD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In Study 1, 34 participants (17 CHD and 17 CAPD) were interviewed about the advantages and disadvantages of dialysis modalities. In Study 2, 454 dialysis patients (437 CHD and 17 CAPD) rated the advantages and disadvantages of CHD and CAPD in a cross-sectional survey. Interviews showed that professional care and dialysis-free days were considered as advantages of CHD, while independence, less hospital visits, and flexibility were considered as advantages of CAPD. Disadvantages of CHD included restriction of food and fluids and unpleasant symptoms after each dialysis session. Catheter care was an additional disadvantage of CAPD. Survey showed that the highly ranked advantages were professional care in CHD and less frequent hospital visits in CAPD, while the highly ranked disadvantages were concerns about emergency and time restrictions in CHD, and catheter care and difficulty in soaking in a bath in CAPD. The total scores of advantages and disadvantages showed that CHD patients subjectively rated their own modality better CHD over CAPD, while CAPD patients had the opposite opinion. The results of this study indicate that the factors affecting the decision-making process of Japanese patients are unique to Japanese culture, namely considering the trouble caused to the people around patients (e.g., families, spouses, and/or caregivers).

  10. Relationships between Medicare Advantage contract characteristics and quality-of-care ratings: an observational analysis of Medicare Advantage star ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Burgess, James F; Cabral, Howard; Soria-Saucedo, Rene; Kazis, Lewis E

    2015-03-03

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) publishes star ratings on Medicare Advantage (MA) contracts to measure plan quality of care with implications for reimbursement and bonuses. To investigate whether MA contract characteristics are associated with quality of care through the Medicare plan star ratings. Retrospective study of MA star ratings in 2010. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable linear regression models assessed the relationship between 5-star rating summary scores and plan characteristics. CMS MA contracts nationally. 409 (71%) of a total of 575 MA contracts, covering 10.56 million Medicare beneficiaries (90% of the MA population) in the United States in 2010. The MA quality ratings summary score (stars range from 1 to 5) is a quality measure based on 36 indicators related to processes of care, health outcomes, access to care, and beneficiary satisfaction. Nonprofit, larger, and older MA contracts were more likely to receive higher star ratings. Star ratings ranged from 2 to 5. Nonprofit contracts received an average 0.55 (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.67) higher star ratings than for-profit contracts (P  star ratings than for-profit contracts. When comparing health plans in the future, the CMS should give increasing attention to for-profit plans with lower quality ratings and consider developing programs to assist newer and smaller plans in improving their care for Medicare beneficiaries. None.

  11. Flexibility and leadership advantages in a model with uncertain demand

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio; Pinto, Alberto A.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a differentiated Stackelberg model with demand uncertainty only for the first mover. We study the advantages of flexibility over leadership as the degree of the differentiation of the goods changes.

  12. Taking Advantage of Student Engagement Results in Student Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzie, Jillian; Hurtado, Sarah S.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter urges student affairs professionals committed to enhancing student success through data-informed decision making to take full advantage of opportunities to apply and use student engagement results.

  13. Measuring Coding Intensity in the Medicare Advantage Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In 2004, Medicare implemented a risk-adjustment system that pays Medicare Advantage (MA) plans based on diagnoses reported for their enrollees, giving the plans an...

  14. The Changing Dynamics of Military Advantage in the Information Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulcahey, Sean

    2004-01-01

    .... national security, particularly from a new form of global insurgency. The continued development and proliferation of information technology impacts the very nature of conflict and military competitive advantage. Can the U.S...

  15. Collegiate Licensing in Canada and the Statutory Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burshtein, Sheldon

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a specific provision in a Canadian statute enabling universities and other educational institutions to obtain protection and financial gain in a collegiate licensing program, an advantage not held in other countries or by other trademark licensers in Canada. (MSE)

  16. Launching a medicare advantage plan: smart planning saves headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Robert J; Mullaney, Teri L

    2007-11-01

    If you're considering setting up a Medicare Advantage plan, the following are important considerations: Financial analysis. Payment rates. Medical costs. Marketing and operational costs. Technology infrastructure. Staffing.

  17. Cognitive advantage in bilingualism: an example of publication bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Angela; Treccani, Barbara; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    It is a widely held belief that bilinguals have an advantage over monolinguals in executive-control tasks, but is this what all studies actually demonstrate? The idea of a bilingual advantage may result from a publication bias favoring studies with positive results over studies with null or negative effects. To test this hypothesis, we looked at conference abstracts from 1999 to 2012 on the topic of bilingualism and executive control. We then determined which of the studies they reported were subsequently published. Studies with results fully supporting the bilingual-advantage theory were most likely to be published, followed by studies with mixed results. Studies challenging the bilingual advantage were published the least. This discrepancy was not due to differences in sample size, tests used, or statistical power. A test for funnel-plot asymmetry provided further evidence for the existence of a publication bias. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Medicare Advantage-Part D Contract and Enrollment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Advantage (MA) - Part D Contract and Enrollment Data section serves as a centralized repository for publicly available data on contracts and plans,...

  19. Establishing knowledge management for competitive advantage in an enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Inf. Enterprises are becoming more dependent on people than ever before and in the twenty first century, an enterprise's survival and success will highly depend on the ability to manage knowledge as a source for competitive advantage. This study is concerned with the establishment of a knowledge management program that will ensure sustainable competitive advantage within the enterprise. The main problem under investigation is to assess the importance of knowledge management within an ent...

  20. Consumer Insight as Competitive Advantage Using Big Data and Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Veysel Ertemel

    2015-01-01

    Digital revolution serves as a competitive advantage to businesses that are able to analyze consumer behavior in order to gain insights for their strategic advantage. After the advent of Internet, the past two decades witnessed generation of vast amount of business data. The amount of data is so huge that traditional database management system approaches falls short of managing and analyzing this data. This paper explores the characteristics of this phenomenon called Big Data together with An...

  1. Implementation of marketing strategy: Factor of competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Krstić Ivan; Becić Sonja

    2011-01-01

    Primary objective of the company is to reach the business success. Competitors have the same objective. Only the companies that really meet the consumer's needs and demands survive in the competitive struggle. The company who succeeds in it, has the possibility to achieve the competitive advantage as well. The company has to have the adequate marketing strategy in order to fulfill the marketing objectives and achieve the competitive advantage. The marketing strategy should be flexible and pro...

  2. Advantages and disadvantages of franchising as a form of business

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesova, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the features of the development of franchising in Russia. Franchising has a number of advantages and it is a perspective form of interaction between small and large businesses. However, in taking a decision to contract with the franchise network, in addition to understanding the forms of doing business, the advantages of the system, you should also take into account that the franchise system is associated with some risks.

  3. Interconnected firms’ relationships as a source of a competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Iga Rudawska

    2010-01-01

    The mainstream economy poses the opinion that a competitive advantage lies in resources, and, consequently - in competences as well - being a share of a single company and remaining under its sole control. Recently, some researchers (e.g. Castaldo, 2007; Lavie, 2006) have revised that approach and tend to emphasise the role of other sources of competitive advantage in business strategy, which embrace new, intangible assets. Such assets are being born and developed only within the inter-firm r...

  4. CREATING A CORPORATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP STRATEGY FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    ENGİNOĞLU, Didem; ARIKAN, Cenk Laçin

    2016-01-01

    Current competitive environment is rapidly changing. In today’s business environment, organizations are having an increasingly difficult time in creating competitive advantages. The main reason for this is the ease in contemporary business life for organizations to reach the same or very similar resources. Firms need innovation to create and sustain success and effectiveness. In such a highly competitive business life, the importance of creating competitive advantages for organizations based ...

  5. Leveraging marketing capabilities into competitive advantage and export performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Q.; Sousa, C. M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – By using the dynamic capabilities (DC) theory and the theory of competitive advantage, the purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to investigate the role of marketing capabilities on the firm’s export performance. Specifically, this framework depicts the consequences of marketing capabilities and focuses on the relationships among marketing capabilities, competitive advantage, and export performance. Design/methodology/approach – The authors conduct a meta-analysis of ...

  6. Irrelevance of competitive advantage for the benefits of international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Siggel, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    International competitiveness is often regarded as crucial for the attainment of gains from trade, which may lead policy makers to subsidize exports. This view is based on confusion between the concepts of competitive and comparative advantage. The paper argues that when comparative advantage is defined and measured appropriately, not limiting it to the Ricardian and Heckscher-Ohlin models, it becomes a necessary condition for the attainment of gains from trade and it applies to all forms of ...

  7. Explaining foreign ownership by comparative and competitive advantage. Empirical evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Bellak, Christian

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the determinants of foreign ownership in manufacturing industries. Foreign ownership, according to the theory of international production, is the result of the combination of comparative and competitive advantage. An adequate examination of the ownership structure of an industry requires the ability to establish empirically the extent to which international competitiveness of firms rests on comparative and competitive advantage. Analysis is based on a...

  8. An investigation of home advantage in the Summer Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of home advantage research set in the context of para-sport events. It is this gap in the knowledge that this paper addresses by investigating the prevalence and size of home advantage in the Summer Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of nations when competing at home with their own performances away from home in the competition between 1960 and 2016. Both country-level and individual sport-level analyses were conducted for this time frame. A Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine whether there was a genuine difference in nations' performance under host and non-host conditions. Spearman's rank-order correlation was run to assess the relationship between nation quality and home advantage. Strong evidence of a home advantage effect in the Summer Paralympic Games was found at country level ( p   0.10). While our results confirm that home advantage is prevalent in the Summer Paralympic Games at an overall country level and within specific sports, they do not explain fully why such an effect does exist. Future studies should investigate the causes of home advantage in the competition and also draw comparisons with the Summer Olympic Games to explore any differences between para-sport events and able-bodied events.

  9. Assessment of a magnet system combining the advantages of cable-in-conduit forced-flow and pool-boiling magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, D.; Hassenzahl, W.; Felker, B.; Chaplin, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an idea for a magnet system that could be used to advantage in tokamaks and other fusion engineering devices. Higher performance designs, specifically newer tokamaks such as those for the international Tokamak Engineering Reactor (ITER) and Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) use Cable in Conduit Conductor (CICC) forced flow coils to advantage to meet field and current density requirements. Pool boiling magnets lack structural integrity to resist high magnetic forces since helium cooling areas must surround each conductor. A second problem is that any leak can threaten the voltage standoff integrity of the magnet system. This is because a leak can result in low-pressure helium gas becoming trapped by limited conductance in the magnet bundle and low-pressure helium has poor dielectric strength. The system proposed here is basically a CICC system, with it's inherent advantages, but bathed in higher pressure supercritical helium to eliminate the leak and voltage break-down problems. Schemes to simplify helium coolant plumbing with the proposed system are discussed. A brief historical review of related magnet systems is included. The advantages and disadvantages of using higher pressure, supercritical helium in combination with solid electrical insulation in a CICC system are discussed. Related electrical data from some previous works are compiled and discussed

  10. Quantized Advantages to a Proposed Satellite at L5 from Simulated Synoptic Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, A. M.; Petrie, G. J. D.

    2017-12-01

    The dependency the Earth and its inhabitants have on the Sun is delicate and complex and sometimes dangerous. At the NSO, we provide 24/7 coverage of the full-disk solar magnetic field used in solar forecasting, however this only includes data from the Sun's Earth facing side. Ideally we would like to have constant coverage of the entire solar surface, however we are limited in our solar viewing angle. Our project attempts to quantify the advantages of full-disk magnetograms from a proposed satellite at L5. With instrumentation at L5 we would have an additional 60 degrees of solar surface coverage not seen from Earth. These 60 degrees crucially contain the solar longitudes that are about to rotate towards Earth. Using a full-surface flux-transport model of the evolving solar photospheric field, I created a simulation of full-disk observations from Earth and L5. Using standard solar forecasting tools we quantify the relative accuracy of the Earth-Only and Earth plus L5 forecasts relative to the "ground truth" of the full surface field model, the ideal case. My results gauge exactly how much polar coverage is improved, contrast the spherical multipoles of each model, and use a Potential-Field Source-Surface (PFSS) magnetic field analysis model to find comparisons in the neutral lines and open field coverage.

  11. The Effects of Aphid Traits on Parasitoid Host Use and Specialist Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagic, Vesna; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Fründ, Jochen; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G.; Athanassiou, Christos G.; Starý, Petr; Tomanović, Željko

    2016-01-01

    Specialization is a central concept in ecology and one of the fundamental properties of parasitoids. Highly specialized parasitoids tend to be more efficient in host-use compared to generalized parasitoids, presumably owing to the trade-off between host range and host-use efficiency. However, it remains unknown how parasitoid host specificity and host-use depends on host traits related to susceptibility to parasitoid attack. To address this question, we used data from a 13-year survey of interactions among 142 aphid and 75 parasitoid species in nine European countries. We found that only aphid traits related to local resource characteristics seem to influence the trade-off between host-range and efficiency: more specialized parasitoids had an apparent advantage (higher abundance on shared hosts) on aphids with sparse colonies, ant-attendance and without concealment, and this was more evident when host relatedness was included in calculation of parasitoid specificity. More traits influenced average assemblage specialization, which was highest in aphids that are monophagous, monoecious, large, highly mobile (easily drop from a plant), without myrmecophily, habitat specialists, inhabit non-agricultural habitats and have sparse colonies. Differences in aphid wax production did not influence parasitoid host specificity and host-use. Our study is the first step in identifying host traits important for aphid parasitoid host specificity and host-use and improves our understanding of bottom-up effects of aphid traits on aphid-parasitoid food web structure. PMID:27309729

  12. Physician Reimbursement in Medicare Advantage Compared With Traditional Medicare and Commercial Health Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trish, Erin; Ginsburg, Paul; Gascue, Laura; Joyce, Geoffrey

    2017-09-01

    Nearly one-third of Medicare beneficiaries are enrolled in a Medicare Advantage (MA) plan, yet little is known about the prices that MA plans pay for physician services. Medicare Advantage insurers typically also sell commercial plans, and the extent to which MA physician reimbursement reflects traditional Medicare (TM) rates vs negotiated commercial prices is unclear. To compare prices paid for physician and other health care services in MA, traditional Medicare, and commercial plans. Retrospective analysis of claims data evaluating MA prices paid to physicians and for laboratory services and durable medical equipment between 2007 and 2012 in 348 US core-based statistical areas. The study population included all MA and commercial enrollees with a large national health insurer operating in both markets, as well as a 20% sample of TM beneficiaries. Enrollment in an MA plan. Mean reimbursement paid to physicians, laboratories, and durable medical equipment suppliers for MA and commercial enrollees relative to TM rates for 11 Healthcare Common Procedure Coding Systems (HCPCS) codes spanning 7 sites of care. The sample consisted of 144 million claims. Physician reimbursement in MA was more strongly tied to TM rates than commercial prices, although MA plans tended to pay physicians less than TM. For a mid-level office visit with an established patient (Current Procedural Terminology [CPT] code 99213), the mean MA price was 96.9% (95% CI, 96.7%-97.2%) of TM. Across the common physician services we evaluated, mean MA reimbursement ranged from 91.3% of TM for cataract removal in an ambulatory surgery center (CPT 66984; 95% CI, 90.7%-91.9%) to 102.3% of TM for complex evaluation and management of a patient in the emergency department (CPT 99285; 95% CI, 102.1%-102.6%). However, for laboratory services and durable medical equipment, where commercial prices are lower than TM rates, MA plans take advantage of these lower commercial prices, ranging from 67.4% for a walker

  13. Contingent Self-Esteem and Race: Implications for the Black Self-Esteem Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has found that despite being aware of negative stereotypes about their group and experiencing prejudice and discrimination, Blacks tend to report higher levels of self-esteem than Whites. Despite the robust nature of the Black self-esteem advantage, an adequate explanation for the higher self-esteem of Blacks relative to Whites…

  14. Compliant walking appears metabolically advantageous at extreme step lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehoon; Bertram, John E A

    2018-05-19

    Humans alter gait in response to unusual gait circumstances to accomplish the task of walking. For instance, subjects spontaneously increase leg compliance at a step length threshold as step length increases. Here we test the hypothesis that this transition occurs based on the level of energy expenditure, where compliant walking becomes less energetically demanding at long step lengths. To map and compare the metabolic cost of normal and compliant walking as step length increases. 10 healthy individuals walked on a treadmill using progressively increasing step lengths (100%, 120%, 140% and 160% of preferred step length), in both normal and compliant leg walking as energy expenditure was recorded via indirect calorimetry. Leg compliance was controlled by lowering the center-of-mass trajectory during stance, forcing the leg to flex and extend as the body moved over the foot contact. For normal step lengths, compliant leg walking was more costly than normal walking gait, but compliant leg walking energetic cost did not increase as rapidly for longer step lengths. This led to an intersection between normal and compliant walking cost curves at 114% relative step length (regression analysis; r 2  = 0.92 for normal walking; r 2  = 0.65 for compliant walking). Compliant leg walking is less energetically demanding at longer step lengths where a spontaneous shift to compliant walking has been observed, suggesting the human motor control system is sensitive to energetic requirements and will employ alternate movement patterns if advantageous strategies are available. The transition could be attributed to the interplay between (i) leg work controlling body travel during single stance and (ii) leg work to control energy loss in the step-to-step transition. Compliant leg walking requires more stance leg work at normal step lengths, but involves less energy loss at the step-to-step transition for very long steps. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Advantages of efficiency-aware smart charging strategies for PEVs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoroso, Francesco A.; Cappuccino, Gregorio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyze smart variable-rate-based charging strategies for electric vehicles. ► We consider the impact of the charging rate on the charging efficiency. ► Accounting for charging efficiency variations allows improving system performance. ► The study defines useful guidelines to develop smart battery chargers. - Abstract: Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) diffusion is expected to grow considerably over the next few years. Aiming to overcome severe grid overload problems caused by a large PEV penetration, utilities and vehicle manufactures are involved in the effort of developing ad hoc charging systems interacting in real-time with smart grids in order to implement smart energy dispatching strategies for PEVs. Strategies which take advantage of varying the charging rate during the charging process appear the most effective solution to guarantee both a full exploitation of the grid capacity and suitable degrees of user satisfaction. This work demonstrates that the actual effectiveness of variable-rate-based dispatching strategies significantly depends on the energy efficiency of the battery charging process, which is in turn strongly related to the charging rate used. Simulation results for a realistic situation show that smart efficiency-aware dispatching strategies, which take into account the actual dependence between the charging efficiency and the charging rate, allow significant improvements in both the user satisfaction and the utility profit compared with non-efficiency-aware strategies. The results of the analysis performed give useful guidelines for the development of smart-grid management policies and for the design of next-generation PEVs battery chargers and charging stations.

  16. Culture as a Determinant of Competitive Advantage in Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekuwmini Mornah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Culture plays a role in international trade much as it does in any other human activity. Attitudes and ways of life do matter even when a lucrative business opportunity exists, especially across national borders. This paper examines which aspects of culture give countries competitive edge in terms of bilateral trade performances. Specifically, do relatively higher scores in certain cultural dimensions have a deterministic effect on bilateral trade performance (terms of trade or bilateral trade balance? Methodology: We adopt empirical econometric estimation methods on trade data covering 59 countries and 29 years combined with the nine "Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE" culture dimensions, Our estimations were based on Robust Regression Analysis and Ordinary Least Squares methods. Findings: We find that indeed, certain aspects of culture enhance bilateral trade performance/competitiveness. Performance Orientation, Future Orientation, Institutional Collectivism, Gender Egalitarianism, Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance improve bilateral trade performance while Assertiveness, Humane Orientation and In-Group Collectivism impair it. Research limitations: Direct measures of international competitiveness are not readily available. So we had to adopt proxies for measuring international competitiveness. Implications: Many countries want to boost international competitiveness. However, in the current world order with multilateral trade agreements under the WTO and increased transferability of technology, governments are clipped in terms of available trade policy options. By understanding which aspects of culture promote bilateral competitiveness and performance, governments could take steps to maximize their competitiveness. For instance, when negotiating trade treaties, policy makers may benefit from the knowledge of culture's impact on competitive advantage when selecting partners. Originality/value: To

  17. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  18. Endoscopic endonasal surgery for giant pituitary adenomas: advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutourousiou, Maria; Gardner, Paul A; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Paluzzi, Alessandro; Wang, Eric W; Snyderman, Carl H

    2013-03-01

    Giant pituitary adenomas (> 4 cm in maximum diameter) represent a significant surgical challenge. Endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) has recently been introduced as a treatment option for these tumors. The authors present the results of EES for giant adenomas and analyze the advantages and limitations of this technique. The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical files and imaging studies of 54 patients with giant pituitary adenomas who underwent EES and studied the factors affecting surgical outcome. Preoperative visual impairment was present in 45 patients (83%) and partial or complete pituitary deficiency in 28 cases (52%), and 7 patients (13%) presented with apoplexy. Near-total resection (> 90%) was achieved in 36 patients (66.7%). Vision was improved or normalized in 36 cases (80%) and worsened in 2 cases due to apoplexy of residual tumor. Significant factors that limited the degree of resection were a multilobular configuration of the adenoma (p = 0.002) and extension to the middle fossa (p = 0.045). Cavernous sinus invasion, tumor size, and intraventricular or posterior fossa extension did not influence the surgical outcome. Complications included apoplexy of residual adenoma (3.7%), permanent diabetes insipidus (9.6%), new pituitary insufficiency (16.7%), and CSF leak (16.7%, which was reduced to 7.4% in recent years). Fourteen patients underwent radiation therapy after EES for residual mass or, in a later stage, for recurrence, and 10 with functional pituitary adenomas received medical treatment. During a mean follow-up of 37.9 months (range 1-114 months), 7 patients were reoperated on for tumor recurrence. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Endoscopic endonasal surgery provides effective initial management of giant pituitary adenomas with favorable results compared with traditional microscopic transsphenoidal and transcranial approaches.

  19. Belowground advantages in construction cost facilitate a cryptic plant invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joshua S; Wheaton, Christine N; Mozdzer, Thomas J

    2014-04-30

    The energetic cost of plant organ construction is a functional trait that is useful for understanding carbon investment during growth (e.g. the resource acquisition vs. tissue longevity tradeoff), as well as in response to global change factors like elevated CO2 and N. Despite the enormous importance of roots and rhizomes in acquiring soil resources and responding to global change, construction costs have been studied almost exclusively in leaves. We sought to determine how construction costs of aboveground and belowground organs differed between native and introduced lineages of a geographically widely dispersed wetland plant species (Phragmites australis) under varying levels of CO2 and N. We grew plants under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2, as well as under two levels of soil nitrogen. We determined construction costs for leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots, as well as for whole plants. Across all treatment conditions, the introduced lineage of Phragmites had a 4.3 % lower mean rhizome construction cost than the native. Whole-plant construction costs were also smaller for the introduced lineage, with the largest difference in sample means (3.3 %) occurring under ambient conditions. In having lower rhizome and plant-scale construction costs, the introduced lineage can recoup its investment in tissue construction more quickly, enabling it to generate additional biomass with the same energetic investment. Our results suggest that introduced Phragmites has had an advantageous tissue investment strategy under historic CO2 and N levels, which has facilitated key rhizome processes, such as clonal spread. We recommend that construction costs for multiple organ types be included in future studies of plant carbon economy, especially those investigating global change. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  20. The advantages of a rolling foot in human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Peter G; Collins, Steven H; Kuo, Arthur D

    2006-10-01

    The plantigrade human foot rolls over the ground during each walking step, roughly analogous to a wheel. The center of pressure progresses on the ground like a wheel of radius 0.3 L (leg length). We examined the effect of varying foot curvature on the mechanics and energetics of walking. We controlled curvature by attaching rigid arc shapes of various radii to the bottoms of rigid boots restricting ankle motion. We measured mechanical work performed on the center of mass (COM), and net metabolic rate, in human subjects (N=10) walking with seven arc radii from 0.02-0.40 m. Simple models of dynamic walking predict that redirection of COM velocity requires step-to-step transition work, decreasing quadratically with arc radius. Metabolic cost would be expected to change in proportion to mechanical work. We measured the average rate of negative work performed on the COM, and found that it followed the trend well (r2=0.95), with 2.37 times as much work for small radii as for large. Net metabolic rate (subtracting quiet standing) also decreased with increasing arc radius to a minimum at 0.3 L, with a slight increase thereafter. Maximum net metabolic rate was 6.25 W kg(-1) (for small-radius arc feet), about 59% greater than the minimum rate of 3.93 W kg(-1), which in turn was about 45% greater than the rate in normal walking. Metabolic rate was fit reasonably well (r2=0.86) by a quadratic curve, but exceeded that expected from COM work for extreme arc sizes. Other factors appear to increase metabolic cost for walking on very small and very large arc feet. These factors may include effort expended to stabilize the joints (especially the knee) or to maintain balance. Rolling feet with curvature 0.3 L appear energetically advantageous for plantigrade walking, partially due to decreased work for step-to-step transitions.