WorldWideScience

Sample records for included parent handouts

  1. Handout on shielding calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.

    1991-01-01

    In order to avoid the difficulties of the radioprotection supervisors in the tasks related to shielding calculations, is presented in this paper the basic concepts of shielding theory. It also includes exercises and examples. (author)

  2. Handout on Health: Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... against gravity. Weight-bearing exercises include jogging, aerobics, hiking, walking, stair climbing, gardening, weight training, tennis, and dancing. High-impact exercises may provide the most benefit. Bicycling and swimming are not weight-bearing exercises, ...

  3. Promoting CARE: including parents in youth suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Carole; Walsh, Elaine; Pike, Kenneth C; Herting, Jerald R

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of augmenting a youth suicide-preventive intervention with a brief, home-based parent program. A total of 615 high school youth and their parents participated. Three suicide prevention protocols, a youth intervention, a parent intervention, and a combination of youth and parent intervention, were compared with an "intervention as usual" (IAU) group. All groups experienced a decline in risk factors and an increase in protective factors during the intervention period, and sustained these improvements over 15 months. Results reveal that the youth intervention and combined youth and parent intervention produced significantly greater reductions in suicide risk factors and increases in protective factors than IAU comparison group.

  4. The Retention Challenge--Should We Include Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmell, Brandy Mallory

    2015-01-01

    University campuses continue to see an increase in the number of helicopter parents, those parents who are hovering about the campus, ready to swoop down and rescue their children at the first sign of distress (Cartmell and McCullough 2014). Retention personnel on campus questioned whether it would be possible to develop initiatives that would…

  5. Pengembangan Handout Bermuatan Kecerdasan Komprehensif untuk Materi Laju Reaksi pada Kelas XI SMA

    OpenAIRE

    ', Fatma; Holiwarni, Betty; ', Susilawati

    2016-01-01

    The quality education wold be realized with the procurement of teaching material in handout form in accordance with 2013 curriculum. This handout is should make a contain of spiritual intelligence value, social and emotional intelligence, intellectual intelligence and skil intelligence. However, the handout does not yet exist. The solution for that, was created a handout that containing comprehensive intelligence, and finally the author make a research that have to make a valid comprehensive ...

  6. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  7. Predictors of Workforce Attitudes to Including a Child Perspective in the Treatment of Mentally Ill Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Lauritzen, Camilla; Reedtz, Charlotte; Martinussen, Monica; vanDoesum, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Children of parents with a mental illness are at risk of developing mental health problems themselves (Beardslee, Versage & Gladstone, 1998; Hosman, van Doesum, & van Santvoort, 2009; Reupert & Maybery, 2007). In order to prevent children of mentally ill parents from developing serious problems, it is therefore beneficial to include a child perspective in the treatment of mentally ill parents by identifying the children of patients, and supporting patients in their parenting role. Norwegia...

  8. Impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts on power point presentations (PPT in rural Indian medical institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSHAN BHAISARE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Note taking while attending a PPT requires high activity of memory and writing process which ultimately leads to what is called “death by power point” referring to boredom and fatigue. To overcome this we planned to evaluate the impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts given prior to PPT presentations. Methods: Final year MBBS students were divided in 2 batches, batch A and batch B. For a set of lectures one batch was provided with handouts before lecture while the other batch was given lectures only. Crossover was done to avoid bias, all the lectures being given by the same presenter. At the end of each lecture, a short questionnaire of 10 Multiple Choice Question (MCQ was provided to the students. Mean scores were calculated for lectures with handouts and without handouts. Results: For a set of lectures, when batch A was provided with handouts, the mean score was 28.2; for batch B to which no handouts were given the mean score was 23.4. Similarly, for batch B when provided with handouts the mean score was 29.1, for batch A which was not provided with handouts the mean score was 24. There was an average increase of 4.2 marks. Actual gain when handouts were provided was 1.2 marks per lecture. It was more for the batch comprising of repeater students as compared to the batch of fresher students. Increase in attendance was also noted. Conclusion: Providing uncompleted handouts before a didactic lecture definitely results in increase in knowledge gain; repeater students benefit more with uncompleted handouts.

  9. Parental Preferences for the Organization of Preschool Vaccination Programs Including Financial Incentives: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Flynn PhD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish preferences of parents and guardians of preschool children for the organization of preschool vaccination services, including financial incentives. Design: An online discrete choice experiment. Participants: Parents and guardians of preschool children (up to age 5 years who were (n = 259 and were not (n = 262 classified as at high risk of incompletely vaccinating their children. High risk of incomplete vaccination was defined as any of the following: aged less than 20 years, single parents, living in one of the 20% most deprived areas in England, had a preschool child with a disability, or had more than three children. Main Outcome Measures: Participant preferences expressed as positive (utility or negative (disutility on eight attributes and levels describing the organization of preschool vaccination programs. Results: There was no difference in preference for parental financial incentives compared to no incentive in parents “not at high risk” of incomplete vaccination. Parents who were “at high risk” expressed utility for cash incentives. Parents “at high risk” of incomplete vaccination expressed utility for information on the risks and benefits of vaccinations to be provided as numbers rather than charts or pictures. Both groups preferred universally available, rather than targeted, incentives. Utility was identified for shorter waiting times, and there were variable preferences for who delivered vaccinations. Conclusions: Cash incentives for preschool vaccinations in England would be welcomed by parents who are “at high risk” of incompletely vaccinating their children. Further work is required on the optimal mode and form of presenting probabilistic information on vaccination to parents/guardians, including preferences on mandatory vaccination schemes.

  10. Analysis of general and specific combining abilities of popcorn populations, including selfed parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of general and specific combining ability effects in a diallel analysis of cross-pollinating populations, including the selfed parents, is presented in this work. The restrictions considered satisfy the parametric values of the GCA and SCA effects. The method is extended to self-pollinating populations (suitable for other species, without the selfed parents. The analysis of changes in population means due to inbreeding (sensitivity to inbreeding also permits to assess the predominant direction of dominance deviations and the relative genetic variability in each parent population. The methodology was used to select popcorn populations for intra- and inter-population breeding programs and for hybrid production, developed at the Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Two yellow pearl grain popcorn populations were selected.

  11. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Hohwü

    Full Text Available Early parental separation may be a stress factor causing a long-term alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity possibly impacting on the susceptibility to develop overweight and obesity in offspring. We aimed to examine the body mass index (BMI and the risk of overweight and obesity in children whose parents lived separately before the child was born.A follow-up study was conducted using data from the Aarhus Birth Cohort in Denmark and included 2876 children with measurements of height and weight at 9-11-years-of-age, and self-reported information on parental cohabitation status at child birth and at 9-11-years-of-age. Quantile regression was used to estimate the difference in median BMI between children whose parents lived separately (n = 124 or together (n = 2752 before the birth. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number of obese children, OR for obesity was adjusted for the a priori confounder maternal pre-pregnancy BMI only.The difference in median BMI was 0.54 kg/m2 (95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.10; 0.98 between children whose parents lived separately before birth and children whose parents lived together. The risk of overweight and obesity was statistically significantly increased in children whose parents lived separately before the birth of the child; OR 2.29 (95% CI: 1.18; 4.45 and OR 2.81 (95% CI: 1.05; 7.51, respectively. Additional, adjustment for possible intermediate factors did not substantially change the estimates.Parental separation before child birth was associated with higher BMI, and increased risk of overweight and obesity in 9-11-year-old children; this may suggest a fetal

  12. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-06-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70% of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement.

  13. Developing Statistical Physics Course Handout on Distribution Function Materials Based on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riandry, M. A.; Ismet, I.; Akhsan, H.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to produce a valid and practical statistical physics course handout on distribution function materials based on STEM. Rowntree development model is used to produce this handout. The model consists of three stages: planning, development and evaluation stages. In this study, the evaluation stage used Tessmer formative evaluation. It consists of 5 stages: self-evaluation, expert review, one-to-one evaluation, small group evaluation and field test stages. However, the handout is limited to be tested on validity and practicality aspects, so the field test stage is not implemented. The data collection technique used walkthroughs and questionnaires. Subjects of this study are students of 6th and 8th semester of academic year 2016/2017 Physics Education Study Program of Sriwijaya University. The average result of expert review is 87.31% (very valid category). One-to-one evaluation obtained the average result is 89.42%. The result of small group evaluation is 85.92%. From one-to-one and small group evaluation stages, averagestudent response to this handout is 87,67% (very practical category). Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the handout is valid and practical.

  14. Parents' views of including young boys in the Swedish national school-based HPV vaccination programme: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottvall, Maria; Stenhammar, Christina; Grandahl, Maria

    2017-02-28

    To explore parents' views of extending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme to also include boys. Explorative qualitative design using individual, face-to-face, interviews and inductive thematic analysis. 11 strategically chosen municipalities in central Sweden. Parents (n=42) who were offered HPV vaccination for their 11-12 years old daughter in the national school-based vaccination programme. The key themes were: equality from a public health perspective and perception of risk for disease . Parents expressed low knowledge and awareness about the health benefits of male HPV vaccination, and they perceived low risk for boys to get HPV. Some parents could not see any reason for vaccinating boys. However, many parents preferred gender-neutral vaccination, and some of the parents who had not accepted HPV vaccination for their daughter expressed that they would be willing to accept vaccination for their son, if it was offered. It was evident that there was both trust and distrust in authorities' decision to only vaccinate girls. Parents expressed a preference for increased sexual and reproductive health promotion such as more information about condom use. Some parents shared that it was more important to vaccinate girls than boys since they believed girls face a higher risk of deadly diseases associated with HPV, but some also believed girls might be more vulnerable to side effects of the vaccine. A vaccine offered only to girls may cause parents to be hesitant to vaccinate, while also including boys in the national vaccination programme might improve parents' trust in the vaccine. More information about the health benefits of HPV vaccination for males is necessary to increase HPV vaccination among boys. This may eventually lead to increased HPV vaccine coverage among both girls and boys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. The role of handouts, note-taking and overhead transparencies in veterinary science lectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, M W; Isaacs, G

    2002-10-01

    To study student and staff views of the role and use of handouts, note-taking and overhead transparencies in veterinary science lectures at the University of Queensland The Nominal Group Technique was used to help develop a questionnaire, which was completed by 351 students (a response rate of 84%) and 35 staff (76%) from the 5 years of the veterinary course. The data were analysed using the SAS statistical computer package. Staff and students held different views as to the frequency with which handouts should be used, their educational value, and whether they should be complete or partial. Fewer students than staff agreed that handouts discourage further reading in a subject. Almost all staff and students saw the central functions of note-taking to be provision of notes for subsequent revision and encoding information given by the lecturer. More students than staff however, considered that note-taking in lectures interferes with understanding. Staff and students held similar views as to the uses of overheads in lectures. Interestingly however, more staff than students agreed that overheads often contain too much information. Both students and staff saw the central role of note-taking as providing a set of good notes for revision. Generally students preferred that this information be provided in the form of partial or complete handouts, while staff preferred students to take notes and to read outside lectures. Surprisingly, more staff than students felt that overhead transparencies often contained too much information. Note-taking, handouts and overhead transparencies need to be linked in a coherent educational strategy to promote effective learning.

  16. The Practicality of Statistical Physics Handout Based on KKNI and the Constructivist Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, S. Y.; Afrizon, R.

    2018-04-01

    Statistical physics lecture shows that: 1) the performance of lecturers, social climate, students’ competence and soft skills needed at work are in enough category, 2) students feel difficulties in following the lectures of statistical physics because it is abstract, 3) 40.72% of students needs more understanding in the form of repetition, practice questions and structured tasks, and 4) the depth of statistical physics material needs to be improved gradually and structured. This indicates that learning materials in accordance of The Indonesian National Qualification Framework or Kerangka Kualifikasi Nasional Indonesia (KKNI) with the appropriate learning approach are needed to help lecturers and students in lectures. The author has designed statistical physics handouts which have very valid criteria (90.89%) according to expert judgment. In addition, the practical level of handouts designed also needs to be considered in order to be easy to use, interesting and efficient in lectures. The purpose of this research is to know the practical level of statistical physics handout based on KKNI and a constructivist approach. This research is a part of research and development with 4-D model developed by Thiagarajan. This research activity has reached part of development test at Development stage. Data collection took place by using a questionnaire distributed to lecturers and students. Data analysis using descriptive data analysis techniques in the form of percentage. The analysis of the questionnaire shows that the handout of statistical physics has very practical criteria. The conclusion of this study is statistical physics handouts based on the KKNI and constructivist approach have been practically used in lectures.

  17. Individualized Education Programs for Students with Autism: Including Parents in the Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    The involvement of parents in developing individualized education programs (IEPs) for their children with autism is discussed. Essential components of IEP documents are outlined, and strategies that professionals can use to promote significant family involvement are considered. (Author/SW)

  18. Responses to Including Parents in Teacher Evaluation Policy: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Erica; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2018-01-01

    The intersection of development in family and school settings has been well established and education policies have begun to promote ways to bridge the two contexts (i.e. teacher evaluations). For this manuscript, authors focus on how teachers and principals used a state educator evaluation policy to position parents as authorities on education.…

  19. Understanding the Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Staff Workshop Handout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early Childhood Today, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In his "Theory of Multiple Intelligences," Dr. Howard Gardner expands the concept of intelligence to include such areas as music, spatial relations, and interpersonal knowledge in addition to the traditional view of two intelligences--mathematical and linguistic. Using biological as well as cultural research, Gardner formulated a list of seven…

  20. SB certification handout material requirements, test methods, responsibilities, and minimum classification levels for mixture-based specification for flexible base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    A handout with tables representing the material requirements, test methods, responsibilities, and minimum classification levels mixture-based specification for flexible base and details on aggregate and test methods employed, along with agency and co...

  1. PENGEMBANGAN HANDOUT BERBASIS KONTEKSTUAL PADA PELAJARAN BIOLOGI MATERI BIOTEKNOLOGI UNTUK SISWA KELAS XII SMK NEGERI 02 BATU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fega Rahmayani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The teaching learning activity in SMK is inappropriate with the purpose of teaching and learning in SMK, which the students are taught to be able to apply the materials in the real life. Teaching material is taken from the biology book of SMA that the content is theoretically, so the explanation on the material is unsuitable and not applicative that makes the student less in ability and skill for application in daily life. From the problem above, this research purpose on developing the contextual basic handout of the biological course in biotechnology material in SMK N 02 Batu.This research is developing research based on research and development by Sugiyono’s model that use a few developing steps, those are: (1 Potential and problem, (2 Collecting data, (3 Product design, (4 Validation design, (5 Design revision, (6 Try out the product, (7 Product revision. The data collecting methods is using validation from the expert of handout, material expert and try out to the study club. The technique of analyze data using quantitative and qualitative data. The result of quantitative data is the percentage of handout product value that classify in the handout quality and the result of qualitative data come from comment and advise of validator and try out in SMK.The result quality of the handout found that the developing contextual basic handout reach out the good quality after following the procedure of validation with percentage 80.90% and try out to the student that use the handout with percentage very good, 97.75% and get the positive respond from student with percentage 90.82%. From the whole of the contextual basic handout have a good quality and appropriate in use for teaching material of Biology in teaching learning process in SMK N 02 Batu.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF INQUIRY TRAINING ASSIST MEDIA OF HANDOUT AND ATTITUDE SCIENTIFIC TOWARDS SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS IN PHYSICS STUDENTS

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    Halimatus Sakdiah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research has described difference: (1 skill of student science process between inquiry training assist media of handout and direct instruction, (2 skill of student science process between student possess attitude scientific upon and under of mean, and (3 interaction of inquiry training assist media handout and direct instruction with attitude scientific increase skill of student science process. Type of this research is experiment quasi, use student of senior high school Private sector of  Prayatna as population and chosen sample by cluster sampling random. The instrument used essay test base on skill of science process which have valid and reliable. Data be analysed by using ANAVA two ways. Result of research show that any difference of skill of student science process (1 between inquiry training assist media of handout and direct instruction, where inquiry training assist media of handout better then direct instruction, (2 between student possess attitude scientific upon and under of mean, where possess attitude scientific upon of mean better then student possess attitude scientific under of mean and (3 any interaction between inquiry training assist media of handout and direct instruction with attitude scientific increase skill of student science process, where interaction in class direct instruction better then inquiry training assist media of handout.

  3. Hand-out: SFOE research conference on traffic technology and accumulators; Handout BFE-Forschungstagung Technologiebereich Verkehr Technologiebereich Akkumulatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive collection contains presentation slides presented at a research conference organised by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) at the Federal Institute of Science and Technology in Zurich in February 2004. Apart from two presentations on the future of the 'SwissEnergy' programme and research in the EU, fifteen further presentations are included. These cover the 'Cleaner Drive' project, the influence of lightweight electric vehicles on mobility behaviour, the advantages of 'EcoDrive' in the year 2010, results of a study on 'park-and-ride' facilities, the CO{sub 2}-effect, innovation, the possibilities offered by S-Cap capacitors and 'Sun Fuels'. Further contributions include the 'Downhill Coaster', weather-protection for bicycles, natural-gas fuelled buses, the operation of an Otto-motor using a petrol / natural gas / reformer gas mix, usage and optimisation of the 'Zebra' battery, innovative vehicles for the 'Novatlantis'-pilot region in Basle and a contribution on climate protection in the aviation area.

  4. A model for optimal offspring size in fish, including live-bearing and parental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Auer, Sonya K; Reznick, David N

    2011-05-01

    Since Smith and Fretwell's seminal article in 1974 on the optimal offspring size, most theory has assumed a trade-off between offspring number and offspring fitness, where larger offspring have better survival or fitness, but with diminishing returns. In this article, we use two ubiquitous biological mechanisms to derive the shape of this trade-off: the offspring's growth rate combined with its size-dependent mortality (predation). For a large parameter region, we obtain the same sigmoid relationship between offspring size and offspring survival as Smith and Fretwell, but we also identify parameter regions where the optimal offspring size is as small or as large as possible. With increasing growth rate, the optimal offspring size is smaller. We then integrate our model with strategies of parental care. Egg guarding that reduces egg mortality favors smaller or larger offspring, depending on how mortality scales with size. For live-bearers, the survival of offspring to birth is a function of maternal survival; if the mother's survival increases with her size, then the model predicts that larger mothers should produce larger offspring. When using parameters for Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata, differences in both growth and size-dependent predation are required to predict observed differences in offspring size between wild populations from high- and low-predation environments.

  5. Comparative effectiveness of videotape and handout mode of instructions for teaching exercises: skill retention in normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Garima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teaching of motor skills is fundamental to physical therapy practice. In order to optimize the benefits of these teaching and training efforts, various forms of patient education material are developed and handed out to patients. One very important fact has been overlooked. While comparative effectiveness of various modes of instruction has been studied in adults, attention has not been paid to the fact that learning capabilities of children are different from that of adults. The intent of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of video and handout mode of instructions specifically on children. Methods A total of 115 normal elementary-age children aged 10 to 12 years of age were studied. The children were randomized into two groups: A the video group, and B the handout group. The video group viewed the video for physical therapy exercises while the handout group was provided with paper handouts especially designed according to the readability of their age group. Results Statistical analysis using the student's't' test showed that subjects of both the video and handout groups exhibited equal overall performance accuracy. There was no significant difference between the groups both in acquisition and retention accuracy tests. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that if the readability and instructional principles applicable to different target age groups are strictly adhered to, then both video as well as handout modes of instructions result in similar feedback and memory recall in ten to twelve year-old children. Principles of readability related to the patient age are of utmost importance when designing the patient education material. These findings suggest that the less expensive handouts can be an effective instructional aid for teaching exercises to children with various neuromuscular, rheumatic, and orthopedics conditions and the most costly videotape techniques are not necessarily better.

  6. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.

  7. The Application of Inquiry Learning Methods with Handout: Impact on Student Learning Outcomes on Physics at SMAN 1 Batang Anai Padang Pariaman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelfi Erlinda

    2016-10-01

    Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi belum optimalnya pembelajaran fisika, sehingga menyebabkan rendahnya hasil belajar siswa. Salah satu cara yang dapat dilakukan untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut adalah menggunakan metode pembelajaran inkuiri disertai handout. Rumusan masalah dalam penelitian ini Apakah terdapat pengaruh penerapan metode pembelajaran inkuiri disertai handout terhadap hasil belajar fisika siswa kelas X MIA SMAN 1 Batang Anai. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh penerapan metode pembelajaran inkuiri disertai handout. Populasi penelitian adalah semua siswa kelas X MIA SMAN I Batang Anai yang terdaftar dalam Tahun Pelajaran 2014/2015. Instrumen yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah tes objektif dan lembar observasi. Uji analisis data yang digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis adalah uji t. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah terdapat pengaruh penerapan metode pembelajaran inkuiri disertai handout terhadap hasil belajar fisika siswa kelas X MIA SMAN 1 Batang Anai. Kata kunci: metode pembelajaran inquri, handout, hasil pembelajaran

  8. Potensi Pengembangan Bahan Ajar: Handout Pada Pembelajaran IPA SMP Berbasis Penelitian Pengaruh Konsentrasi Nutrisi Ab Mix Pada Pertumbuhan Tanaman Bayam (Amaranthus Tricolor L.) Dengan Teknik Hidroponik Sistem Wick

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Rayshatico Perdana; Wulandari, Sri; Fauziah, Yuslim

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of nutrient concentrations on plant growth AB Mix the spinach with hydroponic techniques wick system as well as the design for the development of learning handout on SMP IPA in March-May 2016. The study was carried out by two phases: an experiment: the effect of nutrient concentrations AB Mix the spinach plant growth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) with hydroponic techniques and the wick system design stage handout science teaching junior high school....

  9. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  10. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Are Minimally Verbal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…

  11. The Effects of a Family Support Program Including Respite Care on Parenting Stress and Family Quality of Life Perceived by Primary Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…

  12. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed.

  13. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  14. Preparation of a continuative brochure as supplement to the evaluation hand-out for the assessment of study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmy, S.; Gollnick, F.; Driessen, S.; Schmidt, M.; Gross, D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 the Federal Office for Radiation Protection gave the responsibility to the Department of History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine (Institut GTE Med) in Aachen for the project ''Creating a practical hand-out for the assessment of study results for employees of local governments'' (FM 8855). The manual serves as a practical way for the qualitative evaluation of texts for persons who deal with the topics Mobile Communication and Health (for example communities or government agencies) in their profession. The main objective of the manual is to aid users in performing a faster and more efficient evaluation of texts by answering the containing questions. This approach is purely functional and precludes the placement of deeper information. At this point the new project FM 8862 started by ''Creating a continuative brochure in addition to the hand-out for the assessment of study results''. It continued the previous project FM 8855 to further develop the information which was up to this point purely functional. The brochure presents the issues in an overall context and provides valuable background knowledge. As a result, possible users get in a more casual and clear manner a deeper understanding of the evaluating of texts. It should be possible for a user to better evaluate texts and by obtaining arguments, thus being better prepared to engage with interested Laymen in an objective discussion. The brochure was submitted together with the existing manual for a practical test, which was attended by 21 target group-specific subjects. The study tested in detail the intelligibility, clarity, applicability, and the support of the brochure. The feedback of the test participants were then used as basis for the final optimization of the brochure. Project participants belong to the Department of History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine and the Research Center for Bioelectromagnetic Interaction of the RWTH Aachen University (femu).

  15. Successful Approaches to Helping Students--Including English Learners--Succeed in Elementary School. Parent Guide = Enfoques exitosos para ayudar a los estudiantes--incluyendo a los que aprenden ingles--a triunfar en la escuela primaria. Guia de padres

    Science.gov (United States)

    EdSource, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This guide informs parents about some instructional practices that work well for all elementary school students, in particular English learners. It includes questions parents can ask teachers and principals to help them understand how their children's school approaches teaching and learning. Both English and Spanish versions of the document are…

  16. The Effects of a Prenatal Course Including PREP for Effective Family Living on Self-Esteem and Parenting Attitudes of Adolescents: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Rachelle D.; Nystul, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    Questionnaires administered to three groups--one treatment, two comparison--of adolescent females indicated no significant difference in self-concept among the three groups. Significant differences were found in parental attitudes, with the treatment group scoring higher on democratic parenting attitudes than the other two groups. (RJM)

  17. Including Parents in the Continuum of School-Based Mental Health Services: A Review of Intervention Program Research from 1995 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Linda Raffaele; Ogg, Julia; Loker, Troy; Fefer, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors reviewed journal articles published between 1995 and 2010 that described student mental health interventions involving parents delivered in school settings. Their review identified 100 articles describing 39 interventions. On the basis of participant selection criteria provided by the authors of the reviewed articles,…

  18. Comparison of parental and adolescent views on the confidential interview and adolescent health risk behaviors within the gynecologic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman, Gylynthia E; Mackey, Eleanor; Tefera, Eshetu; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2018-03-23

    To explore parental and adolescent views on the confidential interview in the gynecologic setting and compare adolescent reported risk-taking behaviors with parental perception. Anonymous surveys were administered separately to parents/guardians and adolescents between the ages of 11-17. Information pertaining to the patient's Tanner stage and reason for visit was obtained from the provider. This first phase served as the usual care group. In the second phase of the study, surveys were once again distributed after a brief educational intervention. Linear regression analysis, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Fisher exact test were used where appropriate. Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology clinics in two tertiary hospitals INTERVENTION: Brief educational handout on key concepts of the confidential interview MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parental perception of the confidential interview and adolescent risk- taking behaviors RESULTS: A total of 248 surveys were included in the final analysis, which accounts for 62 adolescent and parent/guardian pairs in each group. The majority of parents and adolescents reported perceived benefit to the confidential interview. However, parents were less likely to rate benefits of private time specifically for their own adolescent and less than half of parents believed that adolescents should have access to private time in the gynecologic setting. Both parents/guardians and adolescents feared that the confidential interview would limit the parent's ability to take part in decision-making. The low support for confidential time for their adolescent was not different in the usual care group as compared to the intervention group, although there was a trend toward parental acceptance with increased adolescent age. Adolescents were consistently more likely to report more risk-taking behaviors than their parents perceived. There is a discord between parental perception and adolescent reports of risk taking behaviors. This is coupled with a lack of

  19. Expectations and Anticipations of Middle and High School Special Education Teachers in Preparing Their Students with Intellectual Disability for Future Adult Roles Including Those as Partner and Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Through a series of individual ethnographic interviews and focus groups, I explored the expectations and anticipations of middle and high school special education teachers as they carry out their professional charge of educating their students with intellectual disability for lives in the least restrictive environment, including possible adult…

  20. Teacher Perceptions about the Importance of Parental Involvement for Included Students with Learning Disabilities in New York Metropolitan Area Orthodox Yeshivas and Day Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Goldie Eichorn

    2010-01-01

    The population of students attending Jewish day schools includes an increasing number of students with exceptional needs. How Jewish schools meet the needs of these students is an important question. Inclusive education is a service model predicated on legal and philosophical mores as well as pedagogical and psychological findings. The quality of…

  1. An open trial of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychological distress in parents of children after end of treatment for childhood cancer including a cognitive behavioral conceptualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ljungman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective A subgroup of parents of children who have been treated for childhood cancer report high levels of psychological distress. To date there is no empirically supported psychological treatment targeting cancer-related psychological distress in this population. The aim of the current study was to test the feasibility and preliminarily evaluate the effect of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for parents of children after the end of treatment for childhood cancer. A secondary aim was to present a cognitive behavioral conceptualization of cancer-related distress for these parents. Methods An open trial was conducted where 15 parents of children who had completed successful treatment for cancer three months to five years earlier and who reported psychological distress related to a child’s previous cancer disease were provided CBT at a maximum of 15 sessions. Participants were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and three-month follow-up using self-reported psychological distress (including posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS, depression, and anxiety and the diagnostic Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Feasibility outcomes relating to recruitment, data collection, and delivery of the treatment were also examined. Individual case formulations for each participant guided the intervention and these were aggregated and presented in a conceptualization detailing core symptoms and their suggested maintenance mechanisms. Results A total of 93% of the participants completed the treatment and all of them completed the follow-up assessment. From baseline to post-assessment, parents reported significant improvements in PTSS, depression, and anxiety with medium to large effect sizes (Cohen’s d = 0.65–0.92. Results were maintained or improved at a three-month follow-up. At baseline, seven (47% participants fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and four (29% fulfilled the criteria for

  2. An open trial of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychological distress in parents of children after end of treatment for childhood cancer including a cognitive behavioral conceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, Lisa; Cernvall, Martin; Ghaderi, Ata; Ljungman, Gustaf; von Essen, Louise; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2018-01-01

    A subgroup of parents of children who have been treated for childhood cancer report high levels of psychological distress. To date there is no empirically supported psychological treatment targeting cancer-related psychological distress in this population. The aim of the current study was to test the feasibility and preliminarily evaluate the effect of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for parents of children after the end of treatment for childhood cancer. A secondary aim was to present a cognitive behavioral conceptualization of cancer-related distress for these parents. An open trial was conducted where 15 parents of children who had completed successful treatment for cancer three months to five years earlier and who reported psychological distress related to a child's previous cancer disease were provided CBT at a maximum of 15 sessions. Participants were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and three-month follow-up using self-reported psychological distress (including posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, and anxiety) and the diagnostic Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Feasibility outcomes relating to recruitment, data collection, and delivery of the treatment were also examined. Individual case formulations for each participant guided the intervention and these were aggregated and presented in a conceptualization detailing core symptoms and their suggested maintenance mechanisms. A total of 93% of the participants completed the treatment and all of them completed the follow-up assessment. From baseline to post-assessment, parents reported significant improvements in PTSS, depression, and anxiety with medium to large effect sizes (Cohen's d = 0.65-0.92). Results were maintained or improved at a three-month follow-up. At baseline, seven (47%) participants fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and four (29%) fulfilled the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder, compared to

  3. Construct validity and parent-child agreement of the six new or modified disorders included in the Spanish version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia present and Lifetime Version DSM-5 (K-SADS-PL-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Francisco R; Rosetti, Marcos F; Rodríguez-Delgado, Andrés; Villavicencio, Lino R; Palacio, Juan D; Montiel, Cecilia; Mayer, Pablo A; Félix, Fernando J; Larraguibel, Marcela; Viola, Laura; Ortiz, Silvia; Fernández, Sofía; Jaímes, Aurora; Feria, Miriam; Sosa, Liz; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; Ulloa, Rosa E

    2018-06-01

    Changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) incorporate the inclusion or modification of six disorders: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder and Binge Eating Disorder. The objectives of this study were to assess the construct validity and parent-child agreement of these six disorders in the Spanish language Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL-5) in a clinical population of children and adolescents from Latin America. The Spanish version of the K-SADS-PL was modified to integrate changes made to the DSM-5. Clinicians received training in the K-SADS-PL-5 and 90% agreement between raters was obtained. A total of 80 patients were recruited in four different countries in Latin America. All items from each of the six disorders were included in a factor analysis. Parent-child agreement was calculated for every item of the six disorders, including the effect of sex and age. The factor analysis revealed 6 factors separately grouping the items defining each of the new or modified disorders, with Eigenvalues greater than 2. Very good parent-child agreements (r>0.8) were found for the large majority of the items (93%), even when considering the sex or age of the patient. This independent grouping of disorders suggests that the manner in which the disorders were included into the K-SADS-PL-5 reflects robustly the DSM-5 constructs and displayed a significant inter-informant reliability. These findings support the use of K-SADS-PL-5 as a clinical and research tool to evaluate these new or modified diagnoses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Handout on Health: Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manipulation . Professionals use their hands to adjust or massage the spine or nearby tissues. Transcutaneous electrical nerve ... to the bones in the spine or by osteoporosis. Degenerative disk disease , or damage to the spine’s ...

  5. Parent-child interaction: Does parental language matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashe, Atara; Atzaba-Poria, Naama

    2016-11-01

    Although parental language and behaviour have been widely investigated, few studies have examined their unique and interactive contribution to the parent-child relationship. The current study explores how parental behaviour (sensitivity and non-intrusiveness) and the use of parental language (exploring and control languages) correlate with parent-child dyadic mutuality. Specifically, we investigated the following questions: (1) 'Is parental language associated with parent-child dyadic mutuality above and beyond parental behaviour?' (2) 'Does parental language moderate the links between parental behaviour and the parent-child dyadic mutuality?' (3) 'Do these differences vary between mothers and fathers?' The sample included 65 children (M age  = 1.97 years, SD = 0.86) and their parents. We observed parental behaviour, parent-child dyadic mutuality, and the type of parental language used during videotaped in-home observations. The results indicated that parental language and behaviours are distinct components of the parent-child interaction. Parents who used higher levels of exploring language showed higher levels of parent-child dyadic mutuality, even when accounting for parental behaviour. Use of controlling language, however, was not found to be related to the parent-child dyadic mutuality. Different moderation models were found for mothers and fathers. These results highlight the need to distinguish parental language and behaviour when assessing their contribution to the parent-child relationship. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Puntos Basicos para Padres: Apoyo Padre a Padre (Basics for Parents: Parent to Parent Support).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, Betsy

    This Spanish language information brief describes the Parent to Parent Program, which provides information and one-to-one emotional support to parents of children with special needs. The program trains experienced parents in the program and matches them with similar parents new to the program. Benefits of the program include: (1) providing parents…

  7. Parenting style, parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.

  8. An open trial of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychological distress in parents of children after end of treatment for childhood cancer including a cognitive behavioral conceptualization

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Ljungman; Martin Cernvall; Ata Ghaderi; Gustaf Ljungman; Louise von Essen; Brjánn Ljótsson

    2018-01-01

    Objective A subgroup of parents of children who have been treated for childhood cancer report high levels of psychological distress. To date there is no empirically supported psychological treatment targeting cancer-related psychological distress in this population. The aim of the current study was to test the feasibility and preliminarily evaluate the effect of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for parents of children after the end of treatment for childhood cancer...

  9. Parenting and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Tamsen; Netsi, Elena; Redinger, Stephanie; Stein, Alan

    2017-06-01

    With the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission the development of HIV-negative children with HIV-positive parents has become an important focus. There is considerable evidence that children's developmental risk is heightened because a parental HIV-diagnosis is associated with a range of potential problems such as depression, stigma and financial difficulties. Up to a third of children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are cared for by an HIV-positive parent or caregiver. We review the mechanisms by which HIV affects parenting including its negative effects on parental responsiveness in the early years of parenting and parental avoidant coping styles and parenting deficits in the later years. We describe low-cost parenting interventions suited for low resourced HIV endemic settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. What matters most - what parents model or what parents eat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Amber E; Martin, Chantel L; Ward, Dianne S

    2018-03-28

    Parents have a strong influence on their children's eating habits; however, researchers struggle to identify which food parenting practices to recommend. This study examined the influence of parents modeling of healthy eating ("parent role modeling") and parents' actual food intake ("parent dietary intake") on child diet quality, and explored whether these practices work together to influence children's diets. Baseline data from a larger intervention trial were used for this analysis. The sample included parents of preschool-age children from households with at least one overweight parent. The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire was used to assess parent modeling of healthy eating ("healthy modeling"). Three days of dietary recalls were used to collect parents' report of their own intake and their children's intake (excluding food at child care). Associations between parent healthy modeling and parent intake of healthy and unhealthy foods were explored using Pearson correlations. Associations between parent healthy modeling and parent Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score on child HEI score were examined with linear regression. Additionally, the interaction between parent healthy modeling and HEI score on child HEI score was tested. Parent healthy modeling was significantly correlated with parent intake of healthy foodsLinear regression showed a significant association between parent modeling and child HEI score, even after controlling for parent diet (β = 3.08, SE = 0.87, p parents had high parent healthy modeling scores had higher HEI scores (mean = 61.5 ± 10.4) regardless of parent HEI score. We did not find evidence that parent healthy modeling and diet quality interact to influence child diet quality. Parents' healthy modeling is an important practice in influencing children's diet quality, possibly more so than the quality of parents' diets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...

  12. Parental Involvement in Norwegian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jan Merok

    2012-01-01

    This article examines findings on key challenges of school-parent relations in Norway. The review is based on recent large-scale studies on several issues, including formalized school-parent cooperation, parental involvement in the pedagogical discourse, and teacher perspectives on the parents' role in the school community. Findings suggest a…

  13. Preparation of a continuative brochure as supplement to the evaluation hand-out for the assessment of study results; Erstellung einer weiterfuehrenden Broschuere als Ergaenzung zur Handreichung der Beurteilung von Studienergebnissen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmy, S.; Gollnick, F.; Driessen, S.; Schmidt, M.; Gross, D.

    2015-08-15

    In 2013 the Federal Office for Radiation Protection gave the responsibility to the Department of History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine (Institut GTE Med) in Aachen for the project ''Creating a practical hand-out for the assessment of study results for employees of local governments'' (FM 8855). The manual serves as a practical way for the qualitative evaluation of texts for persons who deal with the topics Mobile Communication and Health (for example communities or government agencies) in their profession. The main objective of the manual is to aid users in performing a faster and more efficient evaluation of texts by answering the containing questions. This approach is purely functional and precludes the placement of deeper information. At this point the new project FM 8862 started by ''Creating a continuative brochure in addition to the hand-out for the assessment of study results''. It continued the previous project FM 8855 to further develop the information which was up to this point purely functional. The brochure presents the issues in an overall context and provides valuable background knowledge. As a result, possible users get in a more casual and clear manner a deeper understanding of the evaluating of texts. It should be possible for a user to better evaluate texts and by obtaining arguments, thus being better prepared to engage with interested Laymen in an objective discussion. The brochure was submitted together with the existing manual for a practical test, which was attended by 21 target group-specific subjects. The study tested in detail the intelligibility, clarity, applicability, and the support of the brochure. The feedback of the test participants were then used as basis for the final optimization of the brochure. Project participants belong to the Department of History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine and the Research Center for Bioelectromagnetic Interaction of the RWTH Aachen University (femu).

  14. Relationships among Parenting Practices, Parental Stress, Child Behaviour, and Children's Social-Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Nicole R.; Snyder, Gregory; Petersen, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    The present study included observational and self-report measures to examine associations among parental stress, parental behaviour, child behaviour, and children's theory of mind and emotion understanding. Eighty-three parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children participated. Parents completed measures of parental stress, parenting (laxness,…

  15. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.

  16. Parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress and child behaviour before and after a parenting programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Linda; Kendall, Sally

    2012-10-01

    To explore whether changes in parenting self-efficacy after attending a parenting programme are related to changes in parenting stress and child behaviour. Adverse parenting is a risk factor in the development of a range of health and behavioural problems in childhood and is predictive of poor adult outcomes. Strategies for supporting parents are recognised as an effective way to improve the health, well-being and development of children. Parenting is influenced by many factors including the behaviour and characteristics of the child, the health and psychological well-being of the parent and the contextual influences of stress and support. Parenting difficulties are a major source of stress for parents, and parenting self-efficacy has been shown to be an important buffer against parenting stress. In all, 63 parents who had a child under the age of 10 years took part in the research. Of those, 58 returned completed measures of parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress and child behaviour at the start of a parenting programme and 37 at three-month follow-up. Improvements in parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress were found at follow-up, but there was less evidence for improvements in child behaviour. The findings clearly suggest a relationship between parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress; parents who are feeling less efficacious experience higher levels of stress, whereas greater parenting self-efficacy is related to less stress. This study adds to the evidence that parent outcomes may be a more reliable measure of programme effectiveness than child outcomes at least in the short term.

  17. Parent training support for intellectually disabled parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Esther; Hutchfield, Jemeela; Thomae, Manuela; Gustafsson, Carina

    2010-06-16

    included studies, with limited information available to assess possible bias and to fully assess the findings of one included study. Whilst the evidence presented here does seem promising with regard to the ability of such interventions to improve parenting knowledge and skill in this population, there is a need for larger RCTs of interventions before conclusions can be drawn about the effectiveness of parent training for this group of parents.

  18. Parents' Involvement in Children's Lives in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-12-17

    Dec 17, 2012 ... urban areas, why are single parent families and divorce on the rise; why are ... Understanding such issues as child-parent relations, parenting styles, ..... psychosocial challenges, including low self esteem, early marriages, ...

  19. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Parenting Role's Tasks as Parents of Healthy and Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Riyahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks as parents of healthy and disabled children younger than 7 years old in Iran (Arak. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 120 parents of healthy children and 120 parents of disabled children with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. T-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between parents of healthy and disabled children based on studied variables including child age, parent age, child gender, parent education, family economic status, history of trauma and seizure in children was applied to perform the role of parents. Results: There was a significant difference of parent role in both groups of parents. There was observed a significant relationship between role of healthy children's parents and age of child (r=0.21, P=0.016, but not observed in disabled children's parents. In healthy children, there was no significant correlation between parent's role and maternal age. In contrast, in disabled children, there was found a significant difference (P= 0.04 with correlation coefficient of -0.18 representing the inverse relationship. Moreover, no relationship was found between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks in the group of disabled children (P>0.05. Conclusion The performance of tasks of parenting role in two groups of parents of healthy children and disabled ones in four areas of primary care, education, leisure and improving cognitive level had significant difference. This difference in the area of improving the cognitive level was higher. Due to complications of disability, parents of these children pay more attention to other areas of care except of improving cognitive level. Therefore presence of disabled child has negative effect on the balance of the

  1. Parent Involvement Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arna

    This handbook on parent involvement, designed to be used with preschool programs, was developed by the Jefferson County Public Schools in Lakewood, Colorado. Included are: (1) a general statement about parent involvement in an early childhood program, (2) a description of the Jefferson County Early Childhood Program, (3) a description of the…

  2. Parenting: An Ecological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Tom, Ed.; Okagaki, Lynn, Ed.

    This book examines various aspects of parenting and influences on parents, including such key contexts affecting child development as school, neighborhood, and culture. After a forward by Urie Bronfenbrenner and a preface by Tom Luster and Lynn Okagaki, which together help to introduce the topics to be discussed, the book is divided into nine…

  3. Evolution and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardwick, Judith M.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the theory and research on the physiological or genetic origins of parenting behavior, noting that an ethological or evolutionary analysis of parenting behavior supports the idea that primates, including man, have evolved psychological structures which are particularly adapted to respond to cues from young children. (Author/JM)

  4. Invitations to Life's Diversity. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about diversity and classification of living things which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in…

  5. Adolescents' aggression to parents: longitudinal links with parents' physical aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R

    2014-11-01

    To investigate whether parents' previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents' subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents' concurrent physical aggression (CPA) and to investigate whether adolescents' emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1-3 on four types of parents' PPA (mother to adolescent, father to adolescent, mother to father, and father to mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents' emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression and on parents' CPA. Parents' PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15-1.6, p controlling for adolescents' sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents' CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82-17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents' parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0-3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated the effects. Adolescents' parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents' physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early signal of aggression into adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Society for

  6. Parenting stress and child behaviour problems among parents with intellectual disabilities: the buffering role of resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelder, H.M.; Hodes, M.W.; Kef, S.; Schuengel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parents with intellectual disabilities (ID) are at risk for high levels of parenting stress. The present study evaluated resources, including parental adaptive functioning, financial resources and access to a support network, as moderators of the association between child behaviour

  7. Socialization Values and Parenting Practices as Predictors of Parental Involvement in Their Children's Educational Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikas, Eve; Tulviste, Tiia; Peets, Kätlin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental socialization values (including inconsistency in values), parenting practices, and parental involvement in their children's education. Altogether 242 Estonian mothers and fathers of first-grade children

  8. Parenting Seminars for Divorcing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Barry B.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles the parenting seminars and counseling services for divorcing parents offered by the Children of Separation and Divorce Center, a community service agency in Maryland. The seminars are designed to help parents adjust to divorce and understand the needs of their children during and after the divorce process. (MDM)

  9. Parental Socialization of Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is n...

  10. Parental efficacy, parental monitoring efficacy, and monitoring among Asian-Indian parents of adolescents living in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Chitra; Montemayor, Raymond

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between parental efficacy and a new concept entitled parental monitoring efficacy, and to examine the association between parental monitoring efficacy and monitoring. We conducted two studies on two samples of Asian-Indian parents and adolescents living in Chennai, India. In the first study of 241 parents of adolescents in grades, 9-12, we constructed a new measure of parental efficacy that included two factors. The first factor, responding competently to negative adolescent behavior was more strongly predictive of parental monitoring efficacy than the second factor, instilling positive behavior. In the second study of 215 parents and adolescents in grades 10 and 12, parental monitoring efficacy predicted monitoring, especially adolescent disclosure and parental control. The importance of parental control as a monitoring technique among traditional Indian parents was discussed. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Good-parent beliefs of parents of seriously ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feudtner, Chris; Walter, Jennifer K; Faerber, Jennifer A; Hill, Douglas L; Carroll, Karen W; Mollen, Cynthia J; Miller, Victoria A; Morrison, Wynne E; Munson, David; Kang, Tammy I; Hinds, Pamela S

    2015-01-01

    Parents' beliefs about what they need to do to be a good parent when their children are seriously ill influence their medical decisions, and better understanding of these beliefs may improve decision support. To assess parents' perceptions regarding the relative importance of 12 good-parent attributes. A cross-sectional, discrete-choice experiment was conducted at a children's hospital. Participants included 200 parents of children with serious illness. Ratings of 12 good-parent attributes, with subsequent use of latent class analysis to identify groups of parents with similar ratings of attributes, and ascertainment of whether membership in a particular group was associated with demographic or clinical characteristics. The highest-ranked good-parent attribute was making sure that my child feels loved, followed by focusing on my child's health, making informed medical care decisions, and advocating for my child with medical staff. We identified 4 groups of parents with similar patterns of good-parent-attribute ratings, which we labeled as: child feels loved (n=68), child's health (n=56), advocacy and informed (n=55), and spiritual well-being (n=21). Compared with the other groups, the child's health group reported more financial difficulties, was less educated, and had a higher proportion of children with new complex, chronic conditions. Parents endorse a broad range of beliefs that represent what they perceive they should do to be a good parent for their seriously ill child. Common patterns of how parents prioritize these attributes exist, suggesting future research to better understand the origins and development of good-parent beliefs among these parents. More important, engaging parents individually regarding what they perceive to be the core duties they must fulfill to be a good parent may enable more customized and effective decision support.

  12. Examining Multiple Parenting Behaviors on Young Children's Dietary Fat Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Christina M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Crespo, Noe C.; Lopez, Nanette V.; Zive, Michelle Murphy; Corder, Kirsten; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the association between parenting and children's dietary fat consumption, this study tested a comprehensive model of parenting that included parent household rules, parent modeling of rules, parent mediated behaviors, and parent support. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Baseline data from the "MOVE/me Muevo"…

  13. A Home Economist Speaks Out: Need for a Parenting Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolny, Candice

    1996-01-01

    Social trends indicating change in family structure and roles, more single-parent and blended families, and the important role of parents in socialization demonstrate the need for parenting education. A parenting course should include understanding of healthy family life and parental roles, parenting styles, child development, and parenting…

  14. [Parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes

    2008-02-01

    Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices.

  15. Adoptive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh

    2017-06-01

    Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. "I do not have time. Is there a handout I can use?": combining physicians' needs and behavior change theory to put physical activity evidence into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R E; McArthur, C; Papaioannou, A; Cheung, A M; Laprade, J; Lee, L; Jain, R; Giangregorio, L M

    2017-06-01

    Guidelines for physical activity exist and following them would improve health. Physicians can advise patients on physical activity. We found barriers related to physicians' knowledge, a lack of tools and of physician incentives, and competing demands for limited time with a patient. We discuss interventions that could reduce these barriers. Uptake of physical activity (PA) guidelines would improve health and reduce mortality in older adults. However, physicians face barriers in guideline implementation, particularly when faced with needing to tailor recommendations in the presence of chronic disease. We performed a behavioral analysis of physician barriers to PA guideline implementation and to identify interventions. The Too Fit To Fracture physical activity recommendations were used as an example of disease-specific PA guidelines. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted with physicians and nurse practitioners in Ontario, stratified by type of physician, geographic area, and urban/rural, and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers coded data and identified emerging themes. Using the behavior change wheel framework, themes were categorized into capability, opportunity and motivation, and interventions were identified. Fifty-nine family physicians, specialists, and nurse practitioners participated. Barriers were as follows: Capability-lack of exercise knowledge or where to refer; Opportunity-pragmatic tools, fit within existing workflow, available programs that meet patients' needs, physical activity literacy and cultural practices; Motivation-lack of incentives, not in their scope of practice or professional identity, competing priorities, outcome expectancies. Interventions selected: education, environmental restructuring, enablement, persuasion. Policy categories: communications/marketing, service provision, guidelines. Key barriers to PA guideline implementation among physicians include knowledge on where to refer or what to say, access to

  17. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  18. Birth and Adoptive Parent Antisocial Behavior and Parenting: A Study of Evocative Gene-Environment Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M; Burt, S Alexandra; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2017-03-01

    Negative parenting is shaped by the genetically influenced characteristics of children (via evocative rGE) and by parental antisocial behavior; however, it is unclear how these factors jointly impact parenting. This study examined the effects of birth parent and adoptive parent antisocial behavior on negative parenting. Participants included 546 families within a prospective adoption study. Adoptive parent antisocial behavior emerged as a small but significant predictor of negative parenting at 18 months and of change in parenting from 18 to 27 months. Birth parent antisocial behavior predicted change in adoptive father's (but not mother's) parenting over time. These findings highlight the role of parent characteristics and suggest that evocative rGE effects on parenting may be small in magnitude in early childhood. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Parental fatigue and parenting practices during early childhood: an Australian community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, A R; Giallo, R; Rose, N

    2012-09-01

    Parenting behaviours are influenced by a range of factors, including parental functioning. Although common, the influence of parental fatigue on parenting practices is not known. The first aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fatigue and parenting practices. The second aim was to identify parental psychosocial factors significantly associated with fatigue. A sample of 1276 Australian parents, of at least one child aged 0-5 years, completed a survey. Demographic, psychosocial (social support, coping responses) and parental sleep and self-care information was collected. Hierarchical regression was performed to assess the contribution of fatigue (modified Fatigue Assessment Scale) to parental practices (warmth, irritability and involvement), and parenting experiences (Parenting Stress Index, Parenting Sense of Competence Scale). Hierarchical multiple regression assessed the contribution of a range of parental sleep, psychosocial (social support, coping responses) and self-care variables to fatigue when demographic characteristics were held constant. Higher fatigue was significantly associated with lower parental competence (β=-0.17, P parenting stress (β= 0.21, P parent-child interactions (β= 0.11, P parental fatigue, including inadequate social support, poorer diet, poorer sleep quality and ineffective coping styles including self-blame and behaviour disengagement. Fatigue is common, and results suggest that fatigue contributes to adverse parental practices and experiences. However, possible risk factors for higher fatigue were identified in this study, indicating opportunities for intervention, management and support for parents. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. School Dropouts in Hong Kong: Parents' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yuk King

    2011-01-01

    Chinese parenting emphasises parents' responsibility in training and governing children's appropriate and expected behaviors, including good academic performance. As reflected by the Attendance Ordinance and the strong involvement of parents in children's study, there is continuous emphasis on parental responsibility in children's education in…

  1. Social class and parental investment in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauthier, A.H.; Scott, Robert A.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    This essay critically reviews the literature on social class differences in parental investment in children including differences in (i) parenting practices or behavior; (ii) parenting styles, logics, and strategies; and (iii) parenting values and ideologies. The essay reveals how structural and

  2. Parental Socialization of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L

    1998-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children's emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children's emotions, (b) socializers' discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers' expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children's emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children's expression of emotion are associated with children's negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed.

  3. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  4. Parent Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    and parents say given these assumptions? Which management responsibility is addressed through such training of the difficult conversation?  My conclusions are, briefly, that the difficult conversation is more correctly to be called an impossible conversation. It is an asking for the parent's consent...

  5. Do parents of obese children use ineffective parenting strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; West, Felicity

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown mixed findings about the relationship between parenting style and child lifestyle outcomes. This paper describes a cross-sectional study that aimed to clarify the relationship between ineffective parenting and childhood obesity by using multiple measures of child and family functioning. Sixty-two families with an obese child (aged four to 11 years) were matched with 62 families with a healthy weight child on key sociodemographic variables. Significant differences were found on several measures, including general parenting style, domain-specific parenting practices, and parenting self-efficacy (d = .53 to 1.96). Parents of obese children were more likely to use permissive and coercive discipline techniques, and to lack confidence in managing children's lifestyle behaviour. In contrast, parents of healthy weight children were more likely to implement specific strategies for promoting a healthy lifestyle.

  6. Prematurity and parental self-efficacy: the Preterm Parenting & Self-Efficacy Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Claire; Whittingham, Koa; Boyd, Roslyn; Sanders, Matthew; Colditz, Paul

    2012-12-01

    There is a lack of research investigating parental self-efficacy in parents of infants born preterm as well as a paucity of parental self-efficacy measures that are domain-specific and theoretically grounded. This study aimed to compare parental self-efficacy in parents of infants born term, preterm and very preterm as well as to test whether parental self-efficacy mediates the relationship between psychological symptoms and parental competence. In order to achieve this, a new measure of parental self-efficacy and parental competence relevant for the preterm population and consistent with Bandura's (1977, 1986, 1989) conceptualisation of self-efficacy was developed. Participants included 155 parents, 83 of whom were parents of very preterm (GAparents of preterm (GAparents of term born infants. Parents completed the Preterm Parenting & Self-Efficacy Checklist (the new measure), Family Demographic Questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. This initial study indicates that the Preterm Parenting & Self-Efficacy Checklist has adequate content validity, construct validity, internal consistency and split half reliability. Contrary to expectations, parents of very preterm infants did not report significantly lower overall levels of parental self-efficacy or significantly higher levels of psychological symptoms compared to parents of preterm and term infants. Parental self-efficacy about parenting tasks mediated the relationship between psychological symptoms and self perceived parental competence as predicted. Clinical implications of the results and suggestions for future research are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A phenomenologic investigation of pediatric residents' experiences being parented and giving parenting advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, A C; Shawler, P M; Blackmon, D L; DeGrace, E W; Wolraich, M L

    2016-09-01

    Factors surrounding pediatricians' parenting advice and training on parenting during residency have not been well studied. The primary purpose of this study was to examine pediatric residents' self-reported experiences giving parenting advice and explore the relationship between parenting advice given and types of parenting residents received as children. Thirteen OUHSC pediatric residents were individually interviewed to examine experiences being parented and giving parenting advice. Phenomenological methods were used to explicate themes and secondary analyses explored relationships of findings based upon Baumrind's parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive). While childhood experiences were not specifically correlated to the parenting advice style of pediatric residents interviewed, virtually all reported relying upon childhood experiences to generate their advice. Those describing authoritative parents reported giving more authoritative advice while others reported more variable advice. Core interview themes related to residents' parenting advice included anxiety about not being a parent, varying advice based on families' needs, and emphasis of positive interactions and consistency. Themes related to how residents were parented included discipline being a learning process for their parents and recalling that their parents always had expectations, yet always loved them. Pediatric residents interviewed reported giving family centered parenting advice with elements of positive interactions and consistency, but interviews highlighted many areas of apprehension residents have around giving parenting advice. Our study suggests that pediatric residents may benefit from more general educational opportunities to develop the content of their parenting advice, including reflecting on any impact from their own upbringing.

  8. 'Mixed blessings': parental religiousness, parenting, and child adjustment in global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Lansford, Jennifer E; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Steinberg, Laurence; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2017-08-01

    Most studies of the effects of parental religiousness on parenting and child development focus on a particular religion or cultural group, which limits generalizations that can be made about the effects of parental religiousness on family life. We assessed the associations among parental religiousness, parenting, and children's adjustment in a 3-year longitudinal investigation of 1,198 families from nine countries. We included four religions (Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, and Islam) plus unaffiliated parents, two positive (efficacy and warmth) and two negative (control and rejection) parenting practices, and two positive (social competence and school performance) and two negative (internalizing and externalizing) child outcomes. Parents and children were informants. Greater parent religiousness had both positive and negative associations with parenting and child adjustment. Greater parent religiousness when children were age 8 was associated with higher parental efficacy at age 9 and, in turn, children's better social competence and school performance and fewer child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. However, greater parent religiousness at age 8 was also associated with more parental control at age 9, which in turn was associated with more child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. Parental warmth and rejection had inconsistent relations with parental religiousness and child outcomes depending on the informant. With a few exceptions, similar patterns of results held for all four religions and the unaffiliated, nine sites, mothers and fathers, girls and boys, and controlling for demographic covariates. Parents and children agree that parental religiousness is associated with more controlling parenting and, in turn, increased child problem behaviors. However, children see religiousness as related to parental rejection, whereas parents see religiousness as related to parental efficacy and warmth, which have different

  9. Parenting and Children's Internalizing Symptoms: How Important are Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Cathy M; van Steensel, Francisca J A; Bögels, Susan M

    Parenting behaviors are associated with children's internalizing symptoms, however, it is not often examined which factors could possibly influence this relationship. The goals of this study were twofold. One goal was to examine whether the association between parenting and children's internalizing symptoms would increase if parenting behaviors were assessed behaviorally and in a context where the child displayed specific anxious behaviors. Another goal was to examine whether this relationship was influenced by the age and gender of the child, and by possible parenting differences between mothers and fathers. These questions were examined in a sample of 211 children aged 4-12 years; 140 community children and 71 clinically referred anxious children. Parents completed questionnaires regarding children's internalizing symptoms and parenting behaviors (positive reinforcement, punishment, force, reinforcement of dependency, and modeling/reassurance). In line with expectations, more punishment and less modeling/reassurance by parents were related to more internalizing symptoms in children. Child gender, child age, parent gender and clinical anxiety status were not found to influence the relationship between parenting and children's internalizing symptoms. Our results suggest that paternal parenting is as important as maternal parenting with respect to children's internalizing symptoms, and therefore, fathers could be included in child treatment as well.

  10. Parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parent-Teacher Associations and other community groups can play a significant role in helping to establish and run refugee schools; their involvement can also help refugee adults adjust to their changed circumstances.

  11. Parenting Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Parenting Conflicts Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print ...

  12. Parental Divorce and Generalized Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Viitanen, Tarja

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of parental divorce during childhood on generalized trust later on in life using Australian HILDA panel data. The dependent variable is composed of answers to the statement: “Generally speaking, most people can be trusted”. The main explanatory variables include the occurrence of parental divorce for the whole sample and the age at which parents divorced for the sub-sample. The analysis is conducted using random effects ordered probit, correlated random effects ...

  13. Parents' Networking Strategies: Participation of Formal and Informal Parent Groups in School Activities and Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanat, Carolyn L.

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined parent groups' involvement in school activities and their participation in decision making. Research questions included the following: (1) What is the nature of parent groups in schools? (2) What activities and issues gain parent groups' attention and participation? (3) How do parent groups communicate concerns about…

  14. Parent Involvement: Perceptions of Recent Immigrant Parents in a Suburban School District, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Bu-Hyun; Park, Duk-Byeong

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the perceptions of immigrant parents regarding their school's efforts to encourage three types of parent involvement: Parenting, Communicating, and Learning at Home. The sample includes 106 immigrant parents with children who were enrolled in English Language Learners programmes at 10 schools in a suburban school…

  15. Influence of Parenting Factors on Childhood Social Anxiety: Direct Observation of Parental Warmth and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rork, Kristine E.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the association of parenting behaviors and social anxiety in children. Three parental factors--including parental socialization, control, and warmth--were investigated in a sample of 31 two-parent families. Rather than solely relying upon retrospective questionnaires, this study incorporated direct…

  16. Maintaining Parental Involvement in Their Children's Education: Examining Parent and Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ailia S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of teachers and parents and factors that developed and maintained parental involvement among middle and high school parents. The research included eight teachers (four middle school teachers and four high school teachers) and eight parents (four whose children were in middle school and four…

  17. Parental Employment and Child Behaviors: Do Parenting Practices Underlie These Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzic, Renata; Magee, Christopher A.; Robinson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether hours of parental employment were associated with child behaviors via parenting practices. The sample included 2,271 Australian children aged 4-5 years at baseline. Two-wave panel mediation models tested whether parenting practices that were warm, hostile, or characterized by inductive reasoning linked parent's hours of…

  18. Democratic parenting: paradoxical messages in democratic parent education theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Shlomit; Gastil, John

    2013-06-01

    Some prominent parent education theories in the United States and other Western countries base their educational viewpoint explicitly on democratic values, such as mutual respect, equality and personal freedom. These democratic parenting theories advocate sharing power with children and including them in family decision making. This study presents a textual analysis of two such theories, the Adlerian model of parent education and the Parent Effectiveness Training (PET) model, as they are embodied in two original bestselling textbooks. Through content and argumentation analysis of these influential texts, this study examines the paradoxes inherent in these two theories when they articulate how to implement fully democratic principles within the parent-child relationship. We discover that in spite of their democratic rationale, both books offer communication practices that guide the child to modify misbehaviour, enforce parental power, and manipulate the child to make decisions that follow parental judgment, and thus do not endorse the use of a truly democratic parenting style. We suggest, as an alternative to the democratic parenting style, that parents be introduced to a guardianship management style, in which they do not share authority with children, but seek opportunities for enabling children to make more autonomous decisions and participate in more family decision making.

  19. Talk Time. Communicate Effectively with Parents, and Maximize Students' Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents suggestions for how teachers can build positive, strong relationships with parents or caregivers, including: telephone parents before an open house or in-person meeting; start the first conference by asking parents to share what is happening at home; be aware of different cultures, values, and parenting styles; and enlist parent input.…

  20. Parenting stress and child behaviour problems among parents with intellectual disabilities: the buffering role of resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meppelder, M; Hodes, M; Kef, S; Schuengel, C

    2015-07-01

    Parents with intellectual disabilities (ID) are at risk for high levels of parenting stress. The present study evaluated resources, including parental adaptive functioning, financial resources and access to a support network, as moderators of the association between child behaviour problems and parenting stress. A total of 134 parents with ID and their children (ages 1-7 years) were recruited from 10 Dutch care organisations. Questionnaires were administered to the parents to obtain information on parenting stress in the parent and child domain, financial resources and their support network. Teachers and care workers reported on child behaviour problems and parental adaptive functioning, respectively. Parents experienced more stress with regard to their children than towards their own functioning and situation. Parenting stress was less in parents who were not experiencing financial hardship. Child behaviour problems were associated with high child-related parenting stress, not parent-related parenting stress. Large support networks decreased the association between child behaviour problems and child-related parenting stress. Financial resources did not significantly moderate the association. Parenting stress among parents with ID is focused on problems with the child, especially when little social support is available. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Authoritative parenting and drug-prevention practices: implications for antidrug ads for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T; Quick, Brian L; Atkinson, Joshua; Tschida, David A

    2005-01-01

    This research employed the theory of reasoned action to investigate the role of authoritative parenting in 3 drug-prevention behaviors: (a) parental monitoring, (b) parent-child discussions, and (c) awareness of the child's environment. A phone survey of 158 parents of adolescents in 7th, 9th, and 11th grades revealed that authoritative parenting was correlated with parenting practices that reduce the likelihood of adolescent drug use, including discussing family rules about drugs, discussing strategies to avoid drugs, discussing those in trouble with drugs, parental monitoring, knowing the child's plans for the coming day, and personally knowing the child's friends well. Additionally, authoritative parenting moderated the attitude-behavioral intention relation for parental monitoring and awareness of the child's environment, with the weakest relation detected for low-authoritative parents. The utility of these findings in helping design and target antidrug messages for parents more effectively is discussed.

  2. Parents in Reading; Parents' Booklet (Folleto Para Los Padres).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, Roy

    Developed for Idaho's original Parents in Reading program, this booklet is designed for use by parents of preschool and elementary school students. Topics are discussed in both English and Spanish and include: reading, listening, and talking to children; controlling television viewing; using numbers with children; children's muscles and movements;…

  3. [A case of parental alienation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The clinical term "Parental Alienation Syndrome" (PAS) was introduced in 1984 by Richard Gardner, an American psychiatrist. Gardner described PAS and its symptoms, as a personality disorder, which appears chiefly in connection to child custody disputes wherein a child turns suddenly and massively against the non-custodial parent without reasonable grounds for doing so. This action by the child is a result of the custodial parent's emotionally abusive attempts to incite the child against the non-custodial parent.Where the child's rejection is based on some real past experience, there is not PAS. PAS only occurs as a result of the custodial parent's actions. Despite intensive effort, PAS was not included in the new DSM-V. In this case, a particularly impressive case history of parental alienation is described and discussed.

  4. Parental affectionless control and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goschin, Simona; Briggs, Jessica; Blanco-Lutzen, Sally; Cohen, Lisa J; Galynker, Igor

    2013-10-01

    Although poor parental bonding is a known risk factor for suicidality, current literature is inconsistent about the relative role of low parental care and parental overprotection, as well as the combination of the two, termed "affectionless control". This review presents the current state of knowledge of the relationship between suicidality and these two aspects of parental bonding. The computerized databases Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO, PsychLit, and Google Scholar were searched using combinations of the following keywords: suicidality, suicide, suicide attempt, suicidal behavior, parental bonding, and parental bonding instrument. Using the results, we reviewed the reports on the relationship between suicidality and parental bonding as measured by validated parental bonding instruments. Twelve papers were analyzed. All of them used the parental bonding instrument (PBI) and one used both the PBI and the object representation inventory (ORI). Most reports agreed that, in mothers, either lack of maternal care and/or overprotection was associated with an increase in suicidal behavior, while in fathers only low care was consistently associated with suicidality. This lack of constancy with regard to the effect of paternal overprotection appears to be due to cultural differences in fathers' role in child rearing. With these differences acknowledged, affectionless control in both parents emerges as the parenting style most strongly associated with suicidal behavior. Common methodological problems included low numbers of subjects, inconsistent control groups, and the lack of a uniform definition of suicidality. Despite methodological limitations, current literature consistently indicates that parental affectionless control is associated with suicidal behavior. Recognizing affectionless control as a risk factor for suicide and developing early interventions aimed at modifying affectionless and overprotective parenting style in families with a history of affective disorders

  5. The Student and His Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Ellen; Kennedy, C. E.

    1970-01-01

    Responses to questionnaire to parents indicate that they want to know what is happening in the lives of their students, and students want them to know and understand. It is conceivable that the arena of personnel work may well extend to include more work with parents. (Author)

  6. Parental Power and Adolescents' Parental Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acock, Alan C.; Yang, Wen Shan

    1984-01-01

    Combines McDonald's social power of parental identification with sex-linked models of parental identification to account for the identification of daughters (N=199) and sons (N=147) with their parents. Found that because of a halo effect, a gain in identification with one parent is not at the other parent's expense. (JAC)

  7. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  8. Parent-child relationships in Type 1 diabetes: associations among child behavior, parenting behavior, and pediatric parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweenie, Rachel; Mackey, Eleanor R; Streisand, Randi

    2014-03-01

    Interactions between parents and children can influence behavioral and emotional functioning related to Type 1 diabetes (T1D), yet have been relatively unexplored during preadolescence. The present study examined associations among child problem behaviors, critical parenting behaviors, and pediatric parenting stress in a sample of preadolescent youth with T1D. Data are available from 86 preadolescent-parent dyads who participated in the initial baseline assessment of a randomized controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy of an adherence promotion program. Measures included the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, the Diabetes Family Behavior Checklist, and the Pediatric Inventory for Parents. After controlling for significant demographic and medical characteristics, parents who reported their child's behavior as more problematic reported more difficulty with pediatric parenting stress, which was also associated with more child-reported critical parenting behaviors. Child problem behaviors and critical parenting behaviors were associated with one another, partially via their association with increased pediatric parenting stress. Potential clinical applications include interventions geared toward helping parents manage difficult child behaviors as well as cope with pediatric parenting stress, with the ultimate goal of improving the parent-child relationship and management of T1D.

  9. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  10. Future Directions in Parent Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, May

    This paper suggests goals for future research programs in parent education. Suggestions include: (1) developing and replicating long-term studies of the effects of parent education, (2) examining the antecedents of adult behavior disorders to plan parenting programs that aim at preventing such disorders, (3) replacing deficit models of parenting…

  11. Parents are Teachers: A Child Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Wesley C.

    This manual is designed to help parents apply reinforcement theory in managing their children. The program explains how parents can systematically use consequences to teach children in positive ways. Units include: When to Reinforce; How to Reinforce; Reinforcement and Punishment in Everyday Life; and Why Parents (and Teachers) Goof; the Criticism…

  12. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  13. Parents' concern about their children's weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M; Byrne, Susan M; Zubrick, Stephen R; Davis, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    Firstly, to investigate the degree of concern parents feel about their children's weight (parental concern). Secondly, to identify factors that influence this concern, and to test a model of parental concern using structural equation modeling. A total of 347 non-overweight, overweight, and obese children (aged 6-13; Mean = 9.5, SD = 1.8) and their parents. Children and their parents attended an assessment session during which they were weighed and measured. Parents were administered a structured interview, which included the Eating Disorder Examination, and completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (parent proxy), and the Children's Body Image Scale. Eighty-two percent of parents of overweight children, and 18% of parents of obese children reported little parental concern. Higher parental concern was associated with higher child Body Mass Index, less parental underestimation of child body size, and lower child health-related quality of life. Interventions targeting childhood obesity should aim to optimise parental concern by reducing parents' underestimation of child body size and increasing their awareness of the effects of overweight and obesity on children's health and quality of life.

  14. A Step Forward in the Conceptualization and Measurement of Parental Burnout: The Parental Burnout Assessment (PBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Brianda, Maria-Elena; Mikolajczak, Moïra

    2018-01-01

    So far, the conceptualization and measurement of parental burnout have been deduced from those of job burnout. As a result, it is unclear whether current measures of parental burnout constitute the best representation of the parental burnout construct/syndrome: the possibility cannot be excluded that some dimensions ought to be added, which would change the structure and definition of parental burnout. In this study, the conceptualization and measurement of parental burnout were approached using an inductive method, in which the parental burnout phenomenon was (re)constructed based solely on the testimonies of burned-out parents. Items extracted from their testimonies were presented to a sample of French-speaking and English-speaking parents ( N = 901) and submitted to factor analyses. An identifiable parental burnout syndrome including four dimensions was found (exhaustion in one's parental role, contrast with previous parental self, feelings of being fed up with one's parental role and emotional distancing from one's children). The resulting instrument, the Parental Burnout Assessment (PBA) presents good validity. Factorial invariance across gender and languages was also found. Finally, the results of this study replicate previous findings that psychological traits of the parents, parenting factors, and family functioning account for more variance in parental burnout than sociodemographic factors.

  15. Factors associated with parent concern for child weight and parenting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Karissa L; Welk, Gregory; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Yang, Shu; Kim, Jae-Kwang

    2015-06-01

    A parent's perception about their child's overweight status is an important precursor or determinant of preventative actions. Acknowledgment of, and concern for, overweight may be moderated by the parent's own weight status whereas engaging in healthy behaviors at home may promote healthy weight status. It is hypothesized that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and acknowledge overweight in their own children whereas heavier parents may report more concern about child weight. A total of 1745 parents of first- through fifth-grade students completed a questionnaire assessing reactions to a school BMI report and perceptions about BMI issues. Specific items included perceptions of child's weight status, concern for child weight status, and preventive practices. Parents also provided information about their own weight status. Relationships between measured child weight, perceived child weight, parent weight, parent concern, and healthy behaviors were examined. Overweight parents were more likely to identify overweight in their child and report concern about their child's weight. Concern was higher for parents of overweight children than of normal weight children. Normal weight parents and parents of normal weight children reported more healthy behaviors. Results support the hypothesis that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and that overweight parents are more likely to report concern about child weight. However, overweight parents are also more likely to acknowledge overweight status in their own child. Future research should examine links between parent concern and actual pursuit of weight management assistance.

  16. Authoritative Parenting Among Immigrant Chinese Mothers of Preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Leung, Christy Y. Y.; Tahseen, Madiha; Schultz, David

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were: (a) to examine authoritative parenting style among Chinese immigrant mothers of young children, (b) to test the mediational mechanism between authoritative parenting style and children’s outcomes; and (c) to evaluate 3 predictors of authoritative parenting style (psychological well-being, perceived support in the parenting role, parenting stress). Participants included 85 Chinese immigrant mothers and their preschool children. Mothers reported on their parenting ...

  17. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  18. Parental Involvement In Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, E. Lamonte

    1976-01-01

    Play therapy acts as a medium of expression for children. The purpose of this article is to outline a methodological approach as well as to emphasize the necessity of including the parent in the play therapy situation. (Author)

  19. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  20. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  1. Explaining use of food parenting practices: the importance of predisposing factors and parental cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus Wm; van Assema, Patricia; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2017-09-01

    The high energy intake from energy-dense foods among children in developed countries is undesirable. Improving food parenting practices has the potential to lower snack intakes among children. To inform the development of interventions, we aimed to predict food parenting practice patterns around snacking (i.e. 'high covert control and rewarding', 'low covert control and non-rewarding', 'high involvement and supportive' and 'low involvement and indulgent'). A cross-sectional survey was conducted. To predict the patterns of food parenting practices, multinomial logistic regression analyses were run with 888 parents. Predictors included predisposing factors (i.e. parents' and children's demographics and BMI, parents' personality, general parenting, and parenting practices used by their own parents) and parents' cognitions (i.e. perceived behaviour of other parents, subjective norms, attitudes, self-efficacy and outcome expectations). The Netherlands (October-November 2014). Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 years old. After backward elimination, nineteen factors had a statistically significant contribution to the model (Nagelkerke R 2=0·63). Overall, self-efficacy and outcome expectations were among the strongest explanatory factors. Considering the predisposing factors only, the general parenting factor nurturance most strongly predicted the food parenting clusters. Nurturance particularly distinguished highly involved parents from parents employing a pattern of low involvement. Parental cognitions and nurturance are important factors to explain the use of food parenting practices around snacking. The results suggest that intervention developers should attempt to increase self-efficacy and educate parents about what constitute effective and ineffective parenting practices. Promoting nurturance might be a prerequisite to achieve prolonged change.

  2. Neurobiological basis of parenting disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Louise K; Harris, Melissa; Allen, Joanne

    2011-02-01

    It has been proposed that early attachment relationships shape the structure and reactivity of social brain structures that underlie later social capacities. We provide a review of the literature surrounding the development of neurological regulatory systems during infancy and outline recent research suggesting these systems go on to underlie adaptive parental responses. We review evidence in the peer-reviewed psychiatric literature including (i) observational human literature on the neurobiological and social sequelae of early parenting experiences, (ii) experimental animal literature on the effects of early maternal care on neurological development, (iii) experimental animal literature on the neurobiological underpinnings of parenting behaviours, (iv) observational and fMRI evidence on the neurobiological correlates of parenting behaviours, (v) functional and volumetric imaging studies on adults affected by borderline personality disorder. The development of infant regulatory systems is influenced by early parenting experiences. These frontolimbic regulatory systems are also heavily implicated in normal parental responses to infant cues. These frontolimbic disturbances are also observed in studies of borderline personality disorder; a disorder associated with poor emotional regulation, early trauma and disturbed parenting. While the current literature is limited to animal models of abnormal care giving, existing disorders associated with deficits in regulatory capacity and abnormal frontolimbic functioning may yet provide a human model of the neurobiology of parenting disturbance.

  3. Current research on parenting styles, dimensions, and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G

    2017-06-01

    For decades, parenting has been characterized in terms of broad global styles, with authoritative parenting seen as most beneficial for children's development. Concerns with greater sensitivity to cultural and contextual variations have led to greater specificity in defining parenting in terms of different parenting dimensions and greater consideration of the role of parenting beliefs in moderating links between parenting and adjustment. New research includes 'domain-specific' models that describe parents as flexibly deploying different practices depending on their goals, children's needs, and the types of behaviors towards which parenting is directed. These trends are described, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Family structure and park use among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yingling; French, Simone A; Das, Kirti V

    2012-11-01

    Despite the increasingly diversified family structure in the U.S., little research examines differences in park use between nontraditional and traditional family structures. This study examines family-structure differences in parent park use. It was hypothesized that working single parents and dual-worker parents have lower levels of park use than parents in two-parent, single-worker families. Data from a 2010 park-use survey in three urban neighborhoods in Minneapolis MN (N=261 parents) were analyzed in 2012. Multiple variables of park use were developed, including recalled measures over the past 3 days and over the past year. Family-structure differences in these variables were examined using multivariate regression analyses. After controlling for spatial clustering effects and confounding factors, working single parents reported 32.6% (pparents in two-parent, single-worker families. Dual-worker parents did not report fewer park visits in the past 3 days than parents in two-parent, single-worker families, yet the length of time they spent in parks during these visits was 41.5% (psingle parents and dual-worker parents is needed in descriptive and intervention research aiming to promote park use among families with children. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Parental knowledge of adolescent activities: links with parental attachment style and adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason D; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Lejuez, C W; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-04-01

    Parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents' attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents' alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (M age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in 2-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers' and fathers' insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all 3 reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers' and fathers' attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The influence of mothers' and fathers' parenting stress and depressive symptoms on own and partner's parent-child communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnet, Koen; Wouters, Edwin; Mortelmans, Dimitri; Pasteels, Inge; De Backer, Charlotte; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Van Hiel, Alain

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how parenting stress and depressive symptoms experienced by mothers and fathers influence their own (actor effects) and the partner's (partner effects) parent-child communication. Based on the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, data from 196 families were analyzed, with both parents rating their parenting stress and depressive feelings, and parents as well as children rating the open parent-child communication. Actor effects were found between parenting stress and open parent-child communication, whereas partner effects were prominent between depressive symptoms and open parent-child communication. The results provide no evidence for gender differences in the strength of the pathways to open parent-child communication. Our findings demonstrate the need to include both parents in studies on parent-child communication to enhance our understanding of the mutual influence among family members. © FPI, Inc.

  7. Evaluating a brief parental-education program for parents of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, B C; Janz, P C; Fox, R A

    1998-06-01

    The effectiveness of a brief parental-education program for 40 families with very young children was studied. Families were assigned to either a parental-education or waiting-list control group. The parental-education program included information and strategies drawn from developmental and cognitive psychology and social learning theory. Analysis showed that participating parents significantly reduced their use of corporal and verbal punishment, changed their parenting attitudes, and improved their perceptions of their children's behavior in comparison to the control group. Effects were maintained at six weeks follow-up. Results supported tailoring parental-education programs to the unique needs of participants.

  8. Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

  9. Parenting style and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Kristin Koetting; Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C

    2002-06-01

    the strength of the relationship between parenting style and adolescent smoking, teaching positive parenting, including facilitating intimate yet autonomous relationships, may be considered as part of smoking prevention and cessation programs.

  10. Successful Therapist-Parent Coaching: How In Vivo Feedback Relates to Parent Engagement in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Miya L; Niec, Larissa N; Peer, Samuel O; Jent, Jason F; Weinstein, Allison; Gisbert, Patricia; Simpson, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Although behavioral parent training is considered efficacious treatment for childhood conduct problems, not all families benefit equally from treatment. Some parents take longer to change their behaviors and others ultimately drop out. Understanding how therapist behaviors impact parental engagement is necessary to improve treatment utilization. This study investigated how different techniques of therapist in vivo feedback (i.e., coaching) influenced parent attrition and skill acquisition in parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT). Participants included 51 parent-child dyads who participated in PCIT. Children (age: M = 5.03, SD = 1.65) were predominately minorities (63% White Hispanic, 16% African American or Black). Eight families discontinued treatment prematurely. Therapist coaching techniques during the first session of treatment were coded using the Therapist-Parent Interaction Coding System, and parent behaviors were coded with the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System, Third Edition. Parents who received more responsive coaching acquired child-centered parenting skills more quickly. Therapists used fewer responsive techniques and more drills with families who dropped out of treatment. A composite of therapist behaviors accurately predicted treatment completion for 86% of families. Although group membership was correctly classified for the treatment completers, only 1 dropout was accurately predicted. Findings suggest that therapist in vivo feedback techniques may impact parents' success in PCIT and that responsive coaching may be particularly relevant.

  11. Parental monitoring protects against the effects of parent and adolescent depressed mood on adolescent drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lourah M; Becker, Sara J; Spirito, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    Parental monitoring is a well-established protective factor for adolescent drinking. This study examined whether parental monitoring protected against three common risk factors for alcohol use in a sample of high-risk adolescents: parental depressed mood, adolescent depressed mood, and parental alcohol use. Participants included 117 adolescents (mean age=15.5; 52% female) who presented to the hospital emergency department due to an alcohol-related event and their primary parent/guardian. Adolescents completed self-report measures of alcohol use frequency, depressed mood, and parental monitoring, while parents completed self-report measures of problematic alcohol use and depressed mood. Hierarchical regression confirmed that parental monitoring was associated with lower frequency of adolescent alcohol use, even after controlling for the three risk factors. Significant interactions were found between parental monitoring and both adolescent and parental depressed mood. Parental monitoring had significant protective effects against drinking frequency among adolescents with higher levels of depressed mood, but not among adolescents with lower levels of depressed mood. By contrast, parental monitoring only had protective effects among those parents with lower levels of depressed mood. Parental problematic alcohol use did not affect the relationship between parental monitoring and adolescent alcohol use. Our results suggest that adolescents with high levels of depressed mood may be more likely to benefit from parental monitoring, whereas parents with high levels of depressed mood may be less likely to monitor effectively. Interventions targeting parental monitoring in high-risk adolescents should take into account the influence of both adolescent and parental depressed mood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Proactive Parent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Sharel; Backlund, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Presents examples of teacher-parent interactions designed to help teachers communicate with parents. The scenarios involve a teacher communicating with parents about a struggling student, a teacher communicating with parents about a student's behavior problems, and a teacher attempting to communicate with a confrontational parent. Teacher prompts…

  13. Educating Parents on Developmentally Age-Appropriate Learning in Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mitzi C.

    This practicum paper reports on a project undertaken to enhance the knowledge of age-appropriate learning for parents of 3-year-old preschoolers. The project implemented a variety of techniques and strategies to improve parent knowledge, including parent education classes, a monthly newsletter for parents that addressed current research on…

  14. 34 CFR 300.612 - Notice to parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice to parents. 300.612 Section 300.612 Education... § 300.612 Notice to parents. (a) The SEA must give notice that is adequate to fully inform parents about... parents and children regarding this information, including the rights under FERPA and implementing...

  15. Reconceptualization of the Authoritarian Parenting Style and Parental Control: Some Initial Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    This study compared standard conceptualizations for parenting style, parental involvement in school, and parents' socialization goals with alternative conceptualizations, in relation to children's academic achievement. Specifically, the study asked: (1) whether ethnicity is predictive of achievement scores when included in analyses involving the…

  16. Teen Mothers Parenting their Own Teen Offspring: The Moderating Role of Parenting Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Laura; Holmbeck, Grayson; Paikoff, Roberta; Bryant, Fred B.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting support moderated relations between age of mother at childbirth and parental responsiveness and monitoring. The sample included 212 African American families living in urban public housing; offspring were entering adolescence when data were collected. Parenting support was measured by assessing the…

  17. Guidelines for Successful Parent Involvement: Working with Parents of Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Kelli E.; Diliberto, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    According to the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA), school systems must ensure that the individualized education program (IEP) team includes the parent of the child with a disability. Teachers often report the challenges of getting parents to attend IEP meetings often assuming parents' lack of interest with involvement…

  18. Associations among Child Perceptions of Parenting Support, Maternal Parenting Efficacy and Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A.; de Baca, Tomas Cabeza; Jordan, Ashley; Tilley, Elizabeth; Ellis, Bruce J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children and parents often rely on the support provided by non-parental adults such as extended family members. Expanding conceptualizations of social support beyond traditional nuclear family paradigms to include non-parental adults may be particularly relevant to identifying family strengths among economically disadvantaged and…

  19. Rural parents, teenagers and alcohol: what are parents thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melissa L; Ward, Bernadette; Munro, Geoffrey; Snow, Pamela; Ellis, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental role of alcohol in the lives of young Australians is mirrored in the level of drinking by adolescents. In 2001, more than one in four Australian adolescents aged 14-19 years consumed alcohol weekly. Teenagers in rural areas are more likely to consume alcohol than their metropolitan counterparts. Parents are key 'gatekeepers' of adolescent behaviour and as such are a salient group to consider in relation to adolescent alcohol use. The aim of this study was to explore parents' attitudes, beliefs, concerns and receptiveness to harm minimisation strategies with respect to teenage use of alcohol. A convenience sample of parents with adolescent children attended a series of focus groups across the north and north-western area of the State of Victoria, Australia. Schools were approached to advertise the project and invite parents to participate. Snowball sampling was used to enhance recruitment. Parents described patterns of alcohol use such as 'drinking to get drunk' and the influence of both parents and peers on the consumption of alcohol by adolescents. Few parents were concerned about the long-term risks of alcohol use by teenagers; rather they were more concerned about the short-term harms, for example, road trauma and other accidents and risky behaviours such as binge drinking. Parents indicated that they perceived alcohol to be less harmful than other drugs and many indicated that alcohol was often not perceived to be a drug. A number of strategies were adopted by parents to negotiate teenagers' drinking and to minimise the risks associated with alcohol use. These included transporting teenagers to parties, providing teenagers with a mobile phone, setting clear guidelines about alcohol use and/or providing teenagers with a small amount of alcohol. These were seen by parents as strategies for reducing the risks associated with alcohol consumption. Many parents reported that they do not feel well informed about alcohol use and how and when to use harm

  20. Black Hawk Down?: Establishing Helicopter Parenting as a Distinct Construct from Other Forms of Parental Control during Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Nelson, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to establish a measure of helicopter parenting that was distinct from other forms of parental control, and to examine parental and behavioral correlates of helicopter parenting. Participants included 438 undergraduate students from four universities in the United States (M[subscript age] = 19.65, SD = 2.00,…

  1. Web-Based Parenting Support: Development of the COPING Confident Parenting Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Hutchings

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Parents have the most significant impact on children’s development and the key parenting factors that promote child development and wellbeing are well known. Furthermore, many behavioural, social and emotional problems in children are associated with poor parenting practices. Parenting interventions that address parental skill deficits and teach positive parenting principles based on social learning theory are effective and are the recommended treatment for conduct disorder. Alongside the development of treatment programmes, universal parenting programmes have been developed; many present the same core parenting principles but their rationales vary from promoting children’s development to addressing common behavioural challenges and the evidence for these programmes is less well established. Most parents now have internet access and are making daily use of it, including seeking advice on parenting matters but that advice is often anecdotal and lacking evidence. In the meantime, a small number of web-based programmes, including parenting programmes have been developed and evaluated. This paper summarises the rationale for web-based universal programmes to support parents and briefly describes the history, content and a summary of the initial research on the COPING (confident parent internet guide programme developed by the authors. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions.

  2. Parenting while Being Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

  3. Nursemaid's Elbow (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... For Parents / Nursemaid's Elbow Print About Nursemaid's Elbow Toddlers and preschoolers are at risk for a common ...

  4. Parents' perfectionism and its relation to child rearing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greblo, Zrinka; Bratko, Denis

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between parents' perfectionism and self-reported parenting behaviors. The study included 786 parents (417 mothers and 369 fathers) of high school students. Results showed that parents' positive and negative perfectionism were differently related to specific forms of child rearing practices. Namely, positive perfectionism was positively, while negative perfectionism was negatively related to parental acceptance for both mothers and fathers. Mothers' and fathers' negative perfectionism was positively related to parental criticism and permissiveness. In addition, fathers' positive perfectionism was negatively associated with permissive child rearing practices. After controlling for background variables, parents' positive and negative perfectionism explained significant amounts of variance in all self-reported parenting dimensions for fathers and significantly accounted for the variance of parental acceptance and criticism for mothers. According to our findings, parents' perfectionism might have an important role in shaping parenting behaviors. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Parents' common pitfalls of discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witoonchart, Chatree; Fangsa-ard, Thitiporn; Chaoaree, Supamit; Ketumarn, Panom; Kaewpornsawan, Titawee; Phatthrayuttawat, Sucheera

    2005-11-01

    Problems of discipline are common among parents. These may be the results of the parents' pitfalls in disciplining their children. To find out common pitfalls of parents in disciplining their children. Parents of students with ages ranged between 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, were selected by random sampling. Total number of 1947 children ages between 60-72 months were recruited. Parents of these children were interviewed with a questionnaire designed to probe into problems in child rearing. There hindered and fifty questionnaires were used for data analyses. Parents had high concerns about problems in discipline their children and needed support from professional personnel. They had limited knowledge and possessed lots of wrong attitude towards discipline. Common pitfalls on the topics were problems in, 1) limit setting 2) rewarding and punishment 3) supervision on children watching TV and bedtime routines. Parents of children with ages 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, had several common pitfalls in disciplining their children, including attitude, knowledge and practice.

  6. Teenage parents and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J

    1996-06-18

    Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development.

  7. Parental overprotection revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1993-01-01

    Dimensions of parental overprotection are clarified in a critical review of the research and clinical literature. An indulgent style of parenting is distinguished from an overprotective parent-child relationship. Differential antecedents and outcomes are proposed for each of these forms of parent-child interaction. Measures of protection are reviewed. A new conceptual model of parental overprotection is presented which takes into account child, parent, family, socio-cultural, environmental and resiliency factors. Directions for future research are suggested.

  8. Perceived parenting style and adolescent adjustment: revisiting directions of effects and the role of parental knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan; Ozdemir, Metin

    2012-11-01

    In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have used measures of parental behavioral control that are questionable because they include measures of parental knowledge. The goals of this study were to determine whether including knowledge items might have affected results of past studies and to test the unidirectional assumption. Data were from 978 adolescents participating in a longitudinal study. Parenting-style and adolescent adjustment measures at 2 time points were used, with a 2-year interval between time points. A variety of internal and external adjustment measures were used. Results showed that including knowledge items in measures of parental behavioral control elevated links between behavioral control and adjustment. Thus, the results and conclusions of many of the most highly cited studies are likely to have been stronger than if the measures had focused strictly on parental behavior. In addition, adolescent adjustment predicted changes in authoritative and neglectful parenting styles more robustly than these styles predicted changes in adolescent adjustment. Adolescent adjustment also predicted changes in authoritativeness more robustly than authoritativeness predicted changes in adjustment. Thus, parenting style cannot be seen as independent of the adolescent. In summary, both the theoretical premises of parenting-style research and the prior findings should be revisited.

  9. Amblyopia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  10. When Parents Argue

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  11. Chlamydia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  12. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  13. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  14. Syphilis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  15. Chemotherapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  16. Yersiniosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  17. Amebiasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  18. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  19. Scarlet Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  20. Headaches (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  1. Strep Throat (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  2. Tourette Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  3. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ...

  4. Sinusitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  5. Laryngoscopy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  6. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  7. Ultrasound: Pelvis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  8. Eczema (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  9. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  10. English Validation of the Parental Socialization Scale?ESPA29

    OpenAIRE

    Mart?nez, Isabel; Cruise, Edie; Garc?a, ?scar F.; Murgui, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Parenting styles have traditionally been studied following the classical two-dimensional orthogonal model of parental socialization. The Parental Socialization Scale ESPA29 is used to measure the four styles of parental socialization through the acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition dimensions. The ESPA29 scale is a developmentally appropriate measure of parenting styles, which has been validated in several languages including Spanish, Italian, and Brazilian Portuguese. In this stu...

  11. Parenting Styles and Child Outcomes in Puerto Rican Families

    OpenAIRE

    Colón, Jeisianne Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate observed parenting styles among Puerto Rican parents living in Puerto Rico. Participants included 51 families with a child between the ages of 6 and 11. Families engaged in different behavioral observational tasks. Observations were coded for parenting dimensions and family parenting styles in order to determine its relationship to child outcomes. The Parenting Styles Observation Rating Scale was used to code the observations and the Child Behavior Ch...

  12. A smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment of parental behavioral consistency: Associations with parental stress and child ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, James J; Lansford, Jennifer E

    2018-04-02

    Inconsistent parental discipline is a robust correlate of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, but few studies have considered the role of inconsistent positive parenting on ADHD, as well as the effects of stress on negative and positive parental consistency. This study advanced a novel ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using participant smartphones to measure parental consistency, and examined its associations with family, social, and parenting-related dimensions of stress and child ADHD symptoms. Participants were 184 kindergartners with and without ADHD and their parents. Harsh and warm dimensions of parental behavior were assessed using questionnaires, observations, and an EMA administered through parents' smartphones, which measured parent-child behaviors every day for a period of 1 week. Family, social, and parenting-related stress were assessed from questionnaires, and child ADHD symptoms were assessed from a fully structured diagnostic interview with the parent. Child ADHD symptoms were associated with variability in warm parenting behaviors, and higher levels of parenting-related stress were related to greater variability in harsh parenting behaviors. No significant interactions were detected between parental stress and child ADHD on parental variability. These findings suggest that different factors influence the consistency in parenting behavior, depending on whether positive parenting or negative parenting is assessed. Parent-based treatment programs for children with ADHD should include a stronger focus on reducing stress from parenting (e.g., teaching coping skills for parents), as this may lead to greater consistency in parental behavior more generally, and presumably better child outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Can technology and the media help reduce dysfunctional parenting and increase engagement with preventative parenting interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calam, Rachel; Sanders, Matthew R; Miller, Chloe; Sadhnani, Vaneeta; Carmont, Sue-Ann

    2008-11-01

    In an evaluation of the television series "Driving Mum and Dad Mad," 723 families participated and were randomly assigned to either a standard or technology enhanced viewing condition (included additional Web-support). Parents in both conditions reported significant improvements from pre- to postintervention in their child's behavior, dysfunctional parenting, parental anger, depression, and self-efficacy. Short-term improvements were maintained at 6-months follow-up. Regressions identified predictors of program outcomes and level of involvement. Parents who watched the entire series had more severe problems at preintervention and high sociodemographic risk than parents who did not watch the entire series. Few sociodemographic, child, or parent variables assessed at preintervention predicted program outcomes or program engagement, suggesting that a wide range of parents from diverse socioeconomic status benefited from the program. Media interventions depicting evidence-based parenting programs may be a useful means of reaching hard to engage families in population-level child maltreatment prevention programs.

  14. Child behaviour problems, parenting behaviours and parental adjustment in mothers and fathers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Wells, Michael B; Sarkadi, Anna

    2014-11-01

    We aim to examine the relationship between child behavioural problems and several parental factors, particularly parental behaviours as reported by both mothers and fathers in a sample of preschool children in Sweden. Participants were mothers and fathers of 504 3- to 5-year-olds that were recruited through preschools. They completed a set of questionnaires including the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, Parenting Scale, Parent Problem Checklist, Dyadic Adjustment Scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Correlational analyses showed that parent-reported child behaviour problems were positively associated with ineffective parenting practices and interparental conflicts and negatively related to parental competence. Regression analyses showed that, for both mothers and fathers, higher levels of parental over-reactivity and interparental conflict over child-rearing issues and lower levels of parental satisfaction were the most salient factors in predicting their reports of disruptive child behaviour. This study revealed that swedish parents' perceptions of their parenting is related to their ratings of child behaviour problems which therefore implies that parent training programs can be useful in addressing behavioural problems in Swedish children. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  15. An evaluation of a behavioural parenting intervention for parents of gifted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew

    2009-06-01

    Parents of gifted children identify a need for tailored parenting support, and gifted children have unique requirements and vulnerabilities. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a tailored behavioural parenting intervention, for enhancing the parenting skills of parents of gifted children and to assess the effect of these changes on the behavioural and emotional adjustment of their gifted child. A randomised controlled trial of tailored Group Triple P - Positive Parenting Program was conducted with 75 parents of children identified as gifted. Results indicated significant intervention effects for the number and frequency of parent reported child behaviour problems, as well as hyperactivity in the intervention group, relative to a waitlist control. Parents also reported significant improvements in their own parenting style, including less permissiveness, harshness, and verbosity when disciplining their child. No intervention effects were evident for teacher reports, except for a trend in relation to hyperactivity. This study demonstrated that a tailored behavioural parenting intervention is effective and acceptable for parents of gifted children, and thus has clinical implications for the delivery of parenting interventions for this population.

  16. Parental Monitoring, Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sex, and Sexual Risk among Young Men who Have Sex with Men

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Brian C.; Huebner, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication about sex protect against HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among heterosexual adolescents, but it is unknown if these findings generalize to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Sexual orientation-specific stressors, including “coming out” to parents, complicate the family context of YMSM. We examined associations between parental monitoring, communication about sex, outness to cohabitating parents, and sexual behaviors. Ethnically d...

  17. Parental responsibility beliefs: associations with parental anxiety and behaviours in the context of childhood anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetroaia, Adela; Hill, Claire; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-12-01

    High levels of parental anxiety are associated with poor treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Associated parental cognitions and behaviours have been implicated as impediments to successful treatment. We examined the association between parental responsibility beliefs, maternal anxiety and parenting behaviours in the context of childhood anxiety disorders. Anxious and non-anxious mothers of 7-12 year old children with a current anxiety disorder reported their parental responsibility beliefs using a questionnaire measure. Parental behaviours towards their child during a stressor task were measured. Parents with a current anxiety disorder reported a greater sense of responsibility for their child's actions and wellbeing than parents who scored within the normal range for anxiety. Furthermore, higher parental responsibility was associated with more intrusive and less warm behaviours in parent-child interactions and there was an indirect effect between maternal anxiety and maternal intrusive behaviours via parental responsibility beliefs. The sample was limited to a treatment-seeking, relatively high socio-economic population and only mothers were included so replication with more diverse groups is needed. The use of a range of stressor tasks may have allowed for a more comprehensive assessment of parental behaviours. The findings suggest that parental anxiety disorder is associated with an elevated sense of parental responsibility and may promote parental behaviours likely to inhibit optimum child treatment outcomes. Parental responsibility beliefs may therefore be important to target in child anxiety treatments in the context of parental anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Beliefs regarding child anxiety and parenting competence in parents of children with separation anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herren, Chantal; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2013-03-01

    Despite the fact that numerous developmental models have highlighted the role of parental cognitive processes in connection with anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, the role of parents' beliefs about their children and parenting remains largely unexplored. This study investigated the specific association between parental beliefs and child separation anxiety. Parents of children with a diagnosis of Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) reported on beliefs and expectations related to their child's fears and own parenting competence. To study the potential specificity of relationships, a clinical control group of mothers of children with social phobia (SoP) and a group of mothers of children without a mental disorder (healthy controls, HC) were included. Results indicated that parents of anxious children had significantly higher levels of dysfunctional beliefs than the parents in the HC group. Mothers of children with SAD showed lower levels of parenting self-efficacy than mothers of children with SoP. They also demonstrated lower parenting self-efficacy and satisfaction compared to mothers of healthy children. Parental dysfunctional beliefs about child anxiety and paternal parenting self-efficacy were significantly positively associated with child anxiety. The effects remained significant after controlling for parental anxiety and depression. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study, causality of the found effects cannot be inferred. Data suggest that children's anxiety and parents' beliefs about their child's anxiety, coping skills and parenting are strongly associated. Further research is needed to investigate whether addressing parental cognitions in addition to parents' anxiety may improve prevention and intervention of child anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Parents know best, but are they accurate? Parental normative misperceptions and their relationship to students' alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F; Lac, Andrew; Ehret, Phillip J; Kenney, Shannon R

    2011-07-01

    Parents often look to other parents for guidance, but how accurate are their perceptions? Expanding on existing normative literature to include parents of college students, this study first sought to determine whether parents accurately estimated the attitudes of other parents concerning their college student's alcohol-related behaviors. The effect of these (mis)perceived injunctive norms on the alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors of the parents' own children was then examined. Participants were 270 college student-parent dyadic pairs who completed independent online surveys. The student sample was 59% female; the parent sample was 78% female. A structural equation model demonstrated that parents significantly overestimated other parents' approval of alcohol use by their respective child and, further, that these misperceptions strongly influenced parental attitudes toward their own child's drinking. Parental attitudes were subsequently found to be significantly associated with their child's attitudes toward drinking but were only marginally associated with the child's actual drinking, thereby underscoring the mediational effect of the child's attitudes. This is the first study to document the influence of parental normative misperceptions regarding alcohol use by their college-age children, reinforcing the importance of parental attitudes on children's alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors in college. These findings support the need to complement student-based interventions with parent-based interventions aimed at increasing parental awareness and involvement. Further, the current findings indicate that normative interventions targeting parents offer a promising avenue by which to indirectly and positively influence college students' alcohol use.

  20. Iranian parent-staff communication and parental stress in the neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour, Marzieh; Alavi, Mousa; Azizi, Fatemeh; Als, Heidelise; Armanian, Amir Mohmmad

    2017-01-01

    The birth of an infant requiring hospitalization in the neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) uniformly is reported to be stressful for parents and family members. This study aimed to determine parent-staff communication in the NICU and its relationship to parent stress. Two hundred and three Iranian parents with preterm infants hospitalized in the NICU participated in this descriptive-correlational study. The participants were selected by the quota sampling method. Data collected included a three-part: questionnaire, the first part covered demographic parent and infant information, the second was the Parent-Staff Communication Scale (the score of which ranged from 0 to 180), and the third was the Parental Stress Scale (the score of which ranged from 0 to 102). Descriptive and inferential statistics including the Pearson's correlation coefficient test were applied to the data, using SPSS software Version 16. This study revealed that fathers and mothers' stress and communication scores were almost comparable and both higher than expected. The total mean score of the two main variables, i.e., parent-staff communication and parental stress were, respectively, 100.72 ± 18.89 and 75.26 ± 17.6. A significant inverse correlation was found between parental stress and parent-staff communication scores ( r = -0.144, P = 0.041). Based on this study finding showed that better parent-staff communication is related to lower parent stress scores, it is recommended that nurses and physicians receive specific skill training for the establishment of effective parent-staff communication. It is anticipated that such improved staff skills will help decrease parent stress and therewith likely promote parent and infant health in the NICU.

  1. Preoperative parental information and parents' presence at induction of anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuto, M; Rosano, G; Rizzo, G; Disma, N; Raciti, L; Sciuto, O

    2006-06-01

    Preoperative preparation of paediatric patients and their environment in order to prevent anxiety is an important issue in paediatric anaesthesia. Anxiety in paediatric patients may lead to immediate negative postoperative responses. When a child undergoes surgery, information about the child's anaesthesia must be provided to parents who are responsible for making informed choices about healthcare on their child's behalf. A combination of written, pictorial, and verbal information would improve the process of informed consent. The issue of parental presence during induction of anaesthesia has been a controversial topic for many years. Potential benefits from parental presence at induction include reducing or avoiding the fear and anxiety that might occur in both the child and its parents, reducing the need for preoperative sedatives, and improving the child's compliance even if other studies showed no effects on the anxiety and satisfaction level. The presence of other figures such as clowns in the operating room, together with one of the child's parents, is an effective intervention for managing child and parent anxiety during the preoperative period.

  2. Young Teens (12-14 years of age)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are a few tips to help protect your child: Make sure your teen knows about the importance of wearing seatbelts. Motor vehicle crashes are the ... your baby grows, including parenting tips. Patient/parent education handouts ... for your child’s regular check-up visit with your healthcare provider ...

  3. The role of co-parenting alliance as a mediator between trait anxiety, family system maladjustment, and parenting stress in a sample of non-clinical Italian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Sciandra, Andrea; Finos, Livio; Mazzeschi, Claudia; Riso, Daniela Di

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of co-parenting alliance in mediating the influence of parents' trait anxiety on family system maladjustment and parenting stress. A sample of 1606 Italian parents (803 mothers and 803 fathers) of children aged one to 13 years completed measures of trait anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y), co-parenting alliance (Parenting Alliance Measure), family system maladjustment (Family Assessment Measure-III), and parenting stress (Parenting Stress Inventory-Short Form). These variables were investigated together comparing two structural equations model-fitting including both partners. A model for both mothers and fathers was empirically devised as a series of associations between parent trait anxiety (independent variable), family system maladjustment and parenting stress (dependent variables), mediated by co-parenting alliance, with the insertion of cross predictions between mothers and fathers and correlations between dependent variables for both parents. Results indicated that the relation between mothers and fathers' trait anxiety, family system maladjustment and parenting stress was mediated by the level of co-parenting alliance. Understanding the role of couples' co-parenting alliance could be useful during the family assessment and/or treatment, since it is an efficient and effective tool to improve the family system maladjustment and stress.

  4. Talking to Parents About Adolescent Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Amie M; Murray, Pamela J

    2017-04-01

    This article is intended as a resource for pediatric providers to help them guide parents in increasing the quantity and quality of their communication about sexuality. The article provides an overview of the best practices associated with parent-adolescent communication about major topics related to sexuality (eg, masturbation, contraception, romantic relationships). In additionally, the article includes concrete suggestions for parents to improve their communication with teens as well as resources for further guidance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Parental knowledge and adolescents' risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Albertos, A. (Aranzazu); Osorio, A. (Alfonso); Lopez-del-Burgo, C. (Cristina); Carlos, S. (Silvia); Beltramo, C. (Carlos); Trullols, F. (Fernando)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study whether parental knowledge of adolescents’ activities varies according to socio-demographic variables, and we analyze the possible association between parental knowledge patterns and certain risk behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with representative samples of high-school students in Peru and El Salvador. A questionnaire assessed risk behaviors, as well as possible determinants, including parental knowledge. The questionnaire was answere...

  6. Examining Evidence for Autonomy and Relatedness in Urban Inuit Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Kelly E.; Hastings, Paul D.; Smylie, Janet K.; Prince, Conrad

    2013-01-01

    Inuit have experienced significant lifestyle changes in the past 50 years. Most recently, urbanization has resulted in greater numbers of Inuit living in urban centres in southern Canada. Little is known about Inuit parenting, and nothing has been published on Inuit parenting in an urban context. The present study sought to address this gap by describing the parenting of Inuit living in a large Canadian city and examining emergent themes for evidence of autonomy and relatedness. In partnership with the Tungasuvvingat Inuit Family Resource Centre, 39 Inuit parents completed an interview about their parenting experiences. Based on interviews, major parenting themes included: child characteristics; parenting behaviours and beliefs; affection and love; stressors; and responsive and respectful parenting. The majority of parenting themes linked to relatedness, although there was evidence of autonomy in both parenting behaviours and child characteristics. Results are interpreted in light of the autonomy–relatedness framework and theoretical implications of findings are discussed. PMID:23946698

  7. Parenting paradox: parenting after infant loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warland, Jane; O'Leary, Joann; McCutcheon, Helen; Williamson, Victoria

    2011-10-01

    to gain an in-depth understanding of the parenting experiences of bereaved parents in the years following an infant death. an exploratory qualitative study. semi-structured interview in the participants' homes. Data were collected over a five-month period in 2008 and analysed using thematic analysis. a purposive sample of 13 bereaved parents (10 mothers and three fathers) was used. Parents who had accessed the support services offered by two bereavement support agencies were recruited. Participants were asked to describe their experiences of raising their subsequent child. Interviews were conducted when the next born child was at least three years of age. the parents described a 'paradoxical' parenting style where they were trying to parent using two diametrically opposed unsustainable options. For example, they described trying to hold their subsequent child emotionally close but aloof at the same time. the results from this study indicate that the impact of a loss of an infant has far-reaching consequences on subsequent parenting. Support and early intervention at the time of the stillbirth and subsequent pregnancy are likely to be useful. However, further research is required to determine the extent to which early intervention can alter the tendency towards bereaved parents adopting a paradoxical parenting style. The impact of this style on mental health and the emotional health and well-being of the next born child/ren after perinatal loss should also be further examined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Parents as passengers during pediatric transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M M; Holditch-Davis, D; Brunssen, S

    1997-01-01

    The transport environment presents a unique setting in which the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of passengers accompanying a patient must be assessed carefully. The purpose of this study was to describe the current practice of including parents as passengers during pediatric interfacility transport. One-hundred-eighty-eight critical care transport programs in the United States responded to a voluntary mail survey, providing information about current policies, practices, and crew perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of carrying parents as passengers. Extra seating for passengers was available in 96% of ambulances, 86% of fixed-wing aircraft, and 54% of helicopters used for pediatric transport. Parents traveled as passengers in all types of vehicles; most frequently in ambulances and fixed-wing aircraft. Twenty percent of helicopter programs allowed parent passengers on more than half of their pediatric transports in this vehicle. Advantages of parent passengers included emotional benefit for the parent and child, availability of parents for history and consent, good public relations, and having the parent present if the child dies. Disadvantages included potential parent anxiety, crew distraction, and space limitations. This study reflects the widely diverse policies, practices, and opinions relevant to this topic and confirms a need for further study.

  9. Adolescent-parent attachment as a mediator of relations between parenting and adolescent social behavior and wellbeing in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mengfei; Hardy, Sam A; Olsen, Joseph A; Nelson, David A; Yamawaki, Niwako

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine links between parenting dimensions (authoritative parenting, psychological control, and parental authority) and adolescent wellbeing (self-esteem, autonomy, and peer attachments) as mediated by parent-teen attachment, among Chinese families. The sample included 298 Chinese adolescents, ages 15-18 years (M(age) = 16.36, SD = .68; 60% female). The mediation model was examined using path analyses (one model with parental authority as overprotection, and one with it as perceived behavioral control). To improve model fit a direct path was added from authoritative parenting to autonomy. Authoritative parenting was positively predictive of attachment, while psychological control and overprotection (but not behavioral control) were negative predictors. In turn, adolescent-parent attachment was positively related to the three outcomes. Lastly, the model paths did not differ by adolescent gender. These findings suggest that parenting behaviors may play a crucial role in adolescent social behaviors and wellbeing via adolescent-parent attachment.

  10. Parental involvement in interventions to improve child diet and prevent disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parents influence children's dietary intake in part through general parenting styles, feeding styles, and/or food parenting practices. Interventions aimed at improving child diet often include parent components. A systematic review was conducted to assess the effect of targeting parenting styles and...

  11. The views of parents who experience intergenerational poverty on parenting and play: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R L; Stagnitti, K; Lewis, A J; Pépin, G

    2015-11-01

    There is minimal literature on how parents experiencing intergenerational poverty view their role as parents and the value they place on children's play. The objective of this study was to examine how these parents view their parenting role and their beliefs about children's play. Thirteen mothers of preschool-aged children who experienced intergenerational poverty were recruited to the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and were analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Parents described their role as guiding their children to become 'good' people, to teach them skills and provide a routine within the home. There were two disconnections in the data including the view that whilst parenting was hard and lonely, it was also a private matter and participants preferred not to seek support. A second disconnection was in terms of their beliefs about play. Parents believed that whilst play was valuable to their child's development, it was not their role to play with children. However, if parents did play with their child, they noticed positive changes in their child's behaviour. The views of parents who experienced intergenerational poverty were similar to other reported findings in parenting studies. However, the current sample differed on not seeking help for support as well as not seeing their role as playing with their children, even though occasions of joining their child in play were associated with a positive change in their relationship with their child. This has implications for communicating about parenting issues with parents who have experienced intergenerational poverty. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Parent and adolescent effects of a universal group program for the parenting of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Joanna Ting Wai; Bullen, Pat; Farruggia, Susan P; Dittman, Cassandra K; Sanders, Matthew R

    2015-05-01

    There is growing support for the large-scale implementation of parenting programs for the prevention of child behavior disorders and child maltreatment in younger children. However, there is only limited evidence on the efficacy of parenting programs in modifying risk and protective factors relating to adolescent behavior problems. This study examined the efficacy of Group Teen Triple P (GTTP), an eight-session parenting program specifically designed for parents of young adolescents. Seventy-two families with adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years were randomly assigned to either GTTP (n = 35) or a care as usual (CAU) control condition (n = 37). Compared to CAU parents, parents who received GTTP reported significant improvements in parenting practices, parenting confidence, the quality of family relationships, and fewer adolescent problem behaviors at post-intervention. Several of the parent-reported effects were corroborated by reports from adolescents, including decreases in parent-adolescent conflict and increases in parental monitoring. Adolescents whose parents participated in GTTP also reported significantly fewer behavioral problems than adolescents in the CAU condition. Many of these improvements were maintained at 6-month follow-up.

  13. Parents-CARE: a suicide prevention program for parents of at-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Carole

    2013-02-01

    Families play an important role in youth suicide prevention, as both a source of protection and a source of risk, and thus are an important target for adolescent suicide prevention programs. This article describes in detail Parents-CARE, a brief youth suicide prevention program for parents, for which effectiveness has been demonstrated. Engaging parents in preventive intervention can be challenging; therefore, the feasibility, acceptability, and relevance of the program to parents are examined. A total of 289 households participated in Parents-CARE. Parent attendance data and parent and interventionist process data are utilized to demonstrate the positive response by parents to the program. The Parents-CARE program was highly attended, and ratings demonstrate that parents were engaged in the program. Ratings show parents found the program both acceptable and relevant. Hence, the program described is promising for clinicians working with at-risk youth as they seek brief, accessible, and effective interventions that include parents in order to amplify the effects of an individual intervention approach. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Parent-to-Parent Program in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kae

    2018-01-01

    Parent-to-parent programs provide emotional and informational support to parents of children with special needs by matching trained and experienced parents with parents needing support. This study examined the implementation and effects of a Parent-to-Parent Program in Taiwan that supported 3 families of youngsters with special needs. Based on the…

  15. If Your Child Has a Heart Defect (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español If Your Child Has a Heart Defect KidsHealth / For Parents / If ... has any of these symptoms. Caring for Your Child Parenting kids with heart defects includes learning about ...

  16. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the Five-Factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the five personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process. PMID:21443335

  17. Consequences of Parenting on Adolescent Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Hancock Hoskins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, substantial gains have been made in our understanding of the influence of parenting behaviors and styles on adolescent emotional and behavioral outcomes. Empirical work focusing on the associations between parenting and adolescent outcomes is important because the influence of parenting during adolescence continues to affect behaviors into adulthood. Additionally, there has been considerable attention paid to the mechanisms that shape parenting that then influence adolescent outcomes. For instance, researchers have found that neighborhood conditions moderated the association between parenting and adolescent development. In this paper, several covariates and contextual effects associated with parenting and adolescent outcomes will be discussed. Also, parental behaviors, parental styles and adolescent outcomes are discussed in this literature review. This review provides an assessment of the literature on parenting and adolescent outcomes from the past decade and includes advancements in parenting research. The review concludes with a summary of major research findings, as well as a consideration of future directions and implications for practice and policy.

  18. Parent-child relationship disorders. Part II. The vulnerable child syndrome and its relation to parental overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Shonkoff, J P; Metz, W P; Edelbrock, C

    1995-08-01

    Parents who are excessively concerned about their child's health are often characterized as being overprotective. We hypothesized that parental overprotection is independent of parental perception of child vulnerability to illness or injury despite their presumed interchangeability. A community-based sample of 892 parents (92% white, 84% married, 88% middle-upper socioeconomic status, 90% mothers) completed a three-part protocol (clinical background data, the Child Vulnerability Scale, and the Parent Protection Scale). Correlates of high parental perception of child vulnerability included a medical condition in the child, a history of life-threatening illness or injury, and the child being seen for a sick visit. Correlates of high parental overprotection included younger age of child and parent. Only 20% of those parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective.

  19. A model of parental distress and factors that mediate its link with parental monitoring of youth diabetes care, adherence, and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elizabeth M; Weaver, Patrick; Chen, Rusan; Streisand, Randi; Holmes, Clarissa S

    2016-12-01

    Parental monitoring of adolescents' diabetes self-care is associated with better adherence and glycemic control (A1c). A number of parent-level factors are associated with higher levels of parental monitoring, including lower levels of parental distress (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety), as well as higher levels of parental self-efficacy for diabetes management and authoritative parenting. Often studied in isolation, these factors may be best considered simultaneously as they are interrelated and are associated with parental monitoring and youth adherence. Structural equation modeling with a cross-sectional sample of 257 parent/youth (aged 11-14) dyads: (a) examined a broad model of parental factors (i.e., parental distress, parental diabetes self-efficacy, authoritative parenting), and (b) assessed their relation to parental monitoring, youth adherence, and A1c. Post hoc analyses of variance (ANOVAs) evaluated clinical implications of daily parental monitoring. Parental distress was not related directly to parental monitoring. Instead less distress related indirectly to more monitoring via higher parental self-efficacy and more authoritative parenting which, in turn, related to better adherence and A1c. Higher parental self-efficacy also related directly to better youth adherence and then to better A1c. Clinically, more parental monitoring related to more daily blood glucose checks and to better A1c (8.48% vs. 9.17%). A broad model of parent-level factors revealed more parental distress was linked only indirectly to less monitoring via lower parental self-efficacy and less authoritative parenting. Behaviorally, more parental monitoring related to better adherence and to clinically better A1c in adolescents. Further study of parent-level factors that relate to parental distress and monitoring of adherence appears warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The paediatrician and middle childhood parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Peter D; Wong, Jonathan P; van den Heuvel, Meta; Feller, Andrea E; Silver-Cohen, Justine; Talarico, Susanna; Humphreys, Joanna; Ford-Jones, Lee

    2017-03-01

    The 'forgotten years' of middle childhood, from age 6 to 12, represent a critical period in child development. Emotional, social and physical development during this time have a lifelong impact on health and adult contributions to society. Mental health conditions have displaced physical illness as the leading childhood disability. Positive parenting can improve child behaviour, prevent early-onset conduct problems and provide a buffer from adverse childhood events resulting in decreased toxic stress and improved health. Medical homes can play a key role in supporting parents with positive parenting skills that are practical, evidence-based and useful in everyday life. Paediatricians need to explore the domains that promote healthy development, including caring environments, fundamental needs and nurturing relationships. Our objective is to promote high-quality positive parenting through middle childhood by identifying opportunities for paediatricians to frame parenting discussions in the context of development, behaviour and safety and to provide access to valuable parenting resources.

  1. Parental discipline behaviours and beliefs about their child: associations with child internalizing and mediation relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskey, B J; Cartwright-Hatton, S

    2009-09-01

    Internalizing disorders of childhood are a common and disabling problem, with sufferers at increased risk of subsequent psychiatric morbidity. Several studies have found associations between parenting styles and children's internalizing, although few have considered the role of parental discipline. Parental discipline style may exert an effect on children's internalizing symptoms. Anxiety and depression are reliably found to run in families and parental anxiety has been shown to effect parenting behaviour. This study set out to examine the links between parental anxiety, parental discipline style and child internalizing symptoms. Eighty-eight parents of children aged 4-10 years were recruited through primary schools. All parents completed questionnaires including measures relating to: adult anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait version, Penn State Worry Questionnaire), parental depression (Beck Depression Inventory - Fastscreen), parental discipline (The Parenting Scale), parenting-related attributions (Parenting Attitudes, Beliefs and Cognitions Scale) and child psychological morbidity (Child Behaviour Checklist 4-18 version). Significant correlations were found between both parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with ineffective discipline and negative beliefs about parenting. Particularly strong correlations were found between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with harsh discipline. Parents of anxious/withdrawn children were more likely to hold negative beliefs about their child. The link between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms was mediated by harsh discipline. The link between parental anxiety and harsh discipline was mediated by parental beliefs about the child. Discipline style may be an important factor in the relationship between parent anxiety and child internalizing symptoms.

  2. Effective Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or were there other demands (such as long hours at work) that kept you from being as involved as ... and other important aspects of your life. Your career and occupation Your relationships at work Your living conditions, including your home and neighborhood ...

  3. Foster parenting, human imprinting and conventional handling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the present study indicates that improvements can be made by adopting alternative approaches. Further studies are needed to ascertain how foster parenting and imprinting may be utilized to optimize chick performance, including the long-term consequences of these practices. Keywords: Parental care, Struthio camelus, ...

  4. Parental care in Hemisus (Anura: Hemisotidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parental care in Hemisus (Anura: Hemisotidae). DE van Dijk clo Department of Zoology, University of Stelienbosch,. Stelienbosch, 7600 South Africa. Received 18 December 1996; accepted J J February 1997. Accounts of parental care in Anura frequently include mention of the South African frog genus Hemisus and derive ...

  5. Parenting the Chinese Way in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Echo H.; Hertberg-Davis, Holly

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates a case study on two Chinese American families with gifted children, and the major topic focuses on the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the Chinese parents who lived in America, and research questions include the daily…

  6. Parental experiences of early postnatal discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid; Danbjørg, Dorthe B.; Aagaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    that included both parents, having influence on time of discharge, and getting individualised and available support focused on developing and recognising their own experiences of taking care of the baby. Conclusions and implications for practice the new parents׳ experiences of early discharge and becoming...

  7. Engaging Parents through Better Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Matthew A. Kraft, an assistant professor of education and economics at Brown University, highlights new research showing that frequent, personalized outreach to parents can boost parent engagement and student achievement. He offers tips on how schools can create infrastructures, including digital technology tools, to better support such…

  8. Reasons Parents Exempt Children from Receiving Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Callister, Lynn C.; Cahoon, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    School nurses are on the front lines of educational efforts to promote childhood vaccinations. However, some parents still choose to exempt their children from receiving vaccinations for personal reasons. Studying the beliefs of parents who exempt vaccinations allows health care workers, including school nurses, to better understand parental…

  9. Parental authority questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.

  10. Parenting and feeding behaviors associated with school-aged African American and White children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polfuss, Michele Lynn; Frenn, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity is multifactorial and difficult to treat. Parenting and feeding behaviors have been shown to influence a child's weight status. Most prior studies have focused on preschool-aged White children. Additional complicating factors include parents' inability to accurately identify their child's abnormal weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors used by 176 African American and White parents of school-age children were examined. Assessment included (a) identifying what behaviors were reported when parent expressed concern with child's weight and (b) the relationship of these behaviors on child's body mass index percentile (BMI%), considering ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and parent's body mass index (BMI). Findings included African American parents and parents concerned about their child's weight exhibited increased controlling/authoritarian parenting and feeding behaviors. Parents were able to accurately identify their child's weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors played a significant role in the children's BMI% even when controlling for ethnicity, SES, and parent's BMI.

  11. Authoritative parenting among immigrant Chinese mothers of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Charissa S L; Leung, Christy Y Y; Tahseen, Madiha; Schultz, David

    2009-06-01

    The goals of this study were: (a) to examine authoritative parenting style among Chinese immigrant mothers of young children, (b) to test the mediational mechanism between authoritative parenting style and children's outcomes; and (c) to evaluate 3 predictors of authoritative parenting style (psychological well-being, perceived support in the parenting role, parenting stress). Participants included 85 Chinese immigrant mothers and their preschool children. Mothers reported on their parenting style, psychological well-being, perceived parenting support and stress, and children's hyperactivity/attention. Teacher ratings of child adjustment were also obtained. Results revealed that Chinese immigrant mothers of preschoolers strongly endorsed the authoritative parenting style. Moreover, authoritative parenting predicted increased children's behavioral/attention regulation abilities (lower hyperactivity/inattention), which then predicted decreased teacher rated child difficulties. Finally, mothers with greater psychological well-being or parenting support engaged in more authoritative parenting, but only under conditions of low parenting stress. Neither well-being nor parenting support predicted authoritative parenting when parenting hassles were high. Findings were discussed in light of cultural- and immigration-related issues facing immigrant Chinese mothers of young children. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Science homework with video directions for parents: The impact on parental involvement and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Kathy L.

    The benefits of effective parental involvement in education have been well documented and can be far reaching. When educators make an effort to involve families, parental involvement can be even more meaningful. Homework is a commonly practiced and accepted connection between school and home and affords parents many opportunities to interact with their children on educational endeavors. However, parental involvement may be limited because educators do not reach out to parents, parents feel their children do not need their help, or parents are unfamiliar with the content and therefore unable to help. The purpose of this study was too develop and implement a tool to enhance parental involvement and academic achievement of fourth grade science students. The tool used in this study was a weekly science video to be viewed by parents when it accompanied science homework assignments. To begin, the researcher created six science videos for parents to watch that supplemented weekly homework assignments. Consequently, the researcher set up treatment and comparison groups to test the effectiveness of the supplemental videos in terms of parental involvement and academic achievement. A mixed methods approach was used to collect data from parents and students throughout the study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data was collected throughout this study from both parents and students. Additionally, data was collected from a variety of sources including baseline, midpoint, and endpoint surveys; scores on homework assignments; and focus group interview sessions with parents and students. Data analysis revealed an overall positive impact on parental involvement and academic achievement when the videos were utilized.

  13. Exhausted Parents: Development and Preliminary Validation of the Parental Burnout Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Raes, Marie-Emilie; Mikolajczak, Moïra

    2017-01-01

    Can parents burn out? The aim of this research was to examine the construct validity of the concept of parental burnout and to provide researchers which an instrument to measure it. We conducted two successive questionnaire-based online studies, the first with a community-sample of 379 parents using principal component analyses and the second with a community- sample of 1,723 parents using both principal component analyses and confirmatory factor analyses. We investigated whether the tridimensional structure of the burnout syndrome (i.e., exhaustion, inefficacy, and depersonalization) held in the parental context. We then examined the specificity of parental burnout vis-à-vis professional burnout assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory, parental stress assessed with the Parental Stress Questionnaire and depression assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The results support the validity of a tri-dimensional burnout syndrome including exhaustion, inefficacy and emotional distancing with, respectively, 53.96 and 55.76% variance explained in study 1 and study 2, and reliability ranging from 0.89 to 0.94. The final version of the Parental Burnout Inventory (PBI) consists of 22 items and displays strong psychometric properties (CFI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.06). Low to moderate correlations between parental burnout and professional burnout, parental stress and depression suggests that parental burnout is not just burnout, stress or depression. The prevalence of parental burnout confirms that some parents are so exhausted that the term “burnout” is appropriate. The proportion of burnout parents lies somewhere between 2 and 12%. The results are discussed in light of their implications at the micro-, meso- and macro-levels. PMID:28232811

  14. Exhausted Parents: Development and Preliminary Validation of the Parental Burnout Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Roskam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Can parents burn out? The aim of this research was to examine the construct validity of the concept of parental burnout and to provide researchers which an instrument to measure it. We conducted two successive questionnaire-based online studies, the first with a community-sample of 379 parents using principal component analyses and the second with a community- sample of 1,723 parents using both principal component analyses and confirmatory factor analyses. We investigated whether the tridimensional structure of the burnout syndrome (i.e., exhaustion, inefficacy, and depersonalization held in the parental context. We then examined the specificity of parental burnout vis-à-vis professional burnout assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory, parental stress assessed with the Parental Stress Questionnaire and depression assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The results support the validity of a tri-dimensional burnout syndrome including exhaustion, inefficacy and emotional distancing with, respectively, 53.96 and 55.76% variance explained in study 1 and study 2, and reliability ranging from 0.89 to 0.94. The final version of the Parental Burnout Inventory (PBI consists of 22 items and displays strong psychometric properties (CFI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.06. Low to moderate correlations between parental burnout and professional burnout, parental stress and depression suggests that parental burnout is not just burnout, stress or depression. The prevalence of parental burnout confirms that some parents are so exhausted that the term “burnout” is appropriate. The proportion of burnout parents lies somewhere between 2 and 12%. The results are discussed in light of their implications at the micro-, meso- and macro-levels.

  15. Talking to children about parental mental illness: The experiences of well parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Divya; Navaneetham, Janardhana

    2018-06-01

    Children of parents with mental illness are not routinely included in psychoeducational and supportive family interventions provided by adult mental health systems. The family, therefore, is an important and, sometimes, the only source of information and support for them. To understand the experiences of well parents in talking to their children about parental mental illness. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of the experiences of well parents in talking to their children about parental mental illness. Ten well parents whose spouses were diagnosed with a severe mental illness participated in the study. Socio-demographic information, family details and history of the spouse's mental illness along with their experiences of talking to children about parental mental illness, the perceived risks and benefits, challenges they faced and the role of others in the process were recorded. Qualitative data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The themes of 'distancing children from parental mental illness', 'avoiding conversations about the illness', 'giving and receiving emotional support', 'providing explanations of the illness' and 'regulating other sources of information' show the complex ways in which well parents influence their children's understanding of parental mental illness. The findings are examined in the background of what is known about this topic from the perspective of children or of the parent with illness. Possible ways to support well parents in families affected by parental mental illness are discussed. This study is a step forward in the understanding of how families talk to children about parental mental illness and provides the perspective of the well parent.

  16. Do peers' parents matter? A new link between positive parenting and adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Michael J; Feinberg, Mark E; Osgood, D Wayne; Moody, James

    2012-05-01

    Although studies have demonstrated that an adolescent's parents and friends both influence adolescent substance use, it is not known whether the parenting experienced by one's friends also affects one's own use. Drawing on conceptions of shared parenting and the tenets of coercion theory, we investigated the extent to which three domains of parenting behaviors (parental knowledge, inductive reasoning, and consistent discipline) influenced the alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use of not only their own adolescent children but also of members of their adolescents' friendship groups. Analyses of friendship nominations within each of two successive ninth-grade cohorts in 27 Iowa and Pennsylvania schools (N = 7,439 students, 53.6% female) were used to identify 897 friendship groups. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to examine prospective associations between 9th-grade friendship group-level parenting behaviors and adolescent self-reported alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in 10th grade. Adolescent substance use in 10th grade was significantly related to parenting behaviors of friends' parents, after controlling for adolescents' reports of their own substance use and their own parents' behaviors at the 9th grade level. These associations were particularly strong for parents' knowledge about their children and use of inconsistent discipline strategies. Significant interaction effects indicated that these relationships were strongest when adolescents received positive parenting at home. Some, but not all, of the main effects of friends' parents' parenting became nonsignificant after friends' substance use in ninth grade was included in the model. The findings suggest that the parenting style in adolescents' friends' homes plays an important role in determining adolescent substance use. Implications of the joint contribution of parents and peers for prevention and intervention are discussed.

  17. Parenting children with down syndrome: An analysis of parenting styles, parenting dimensions, and parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B Allyson; Conners, Frances; Curtner-Smith, Mary Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Effective parenting is vital for a child's development. Although much work has been conducted on parenting typically developing children, little work has examined parenting children with Down syndrome. The purpose of the current study was to compare the parenting styles and dimensions in mothers of children with DS and mothers of TD children. Thirty-five mothers of children with DS and 47 mothers of TD children completed questionnaires about parenting, parental stress, child behavior problems, and child executive function. We found that mothers of children with DS use an authoritative parenting style less and a permissive parenting style more than mothers of TD children. Additionally, we found that mothers of children with DS use reasoning/induction and verbal hostility less and ignoring misbehavior more than mothers of TD children. All of these differences, except for those of reasoning/induction, were at least partially accounted for by the higher levels of parental stress in the DS group. Parenting interventions should be focused on reducing parental stress and training mothers to parent under stress in an effort to improve parenting techniques, which would, in theory, improve long-term child outcomes for children with DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions, and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play)…

  19. Parents Are Community Workers Too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Scott

    The field tested instructional unit is designed around the premise that one of the best places for students exploring the "world of work" is in their own homes with their own parents. Activities involving language arts, social studies, listening skills, speaking skills, and art are included. The unit takes approximately 10 hours teaching time and…

  20. Parenting children with diabetes: exploring parenting styles on children living with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherifali, Diana; Ciliska, Donna; O'Mara, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which parenting styles is associated with diabetes control in children (aged 5-12 years) with type 1 diabetes, and on child and parent quality of life. Data were collected from a total of 216 parent and child dyads, from 4 pediatric diabetes clinics in southern Ontario, using a cross-sectional survey methodology. Each parent and child independently completed the questionnaires. The study instruments included the Parenting Dimensions Inventory, Pediatric Quality of Life (diabetes specific), and chart reviews for glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) levels. The results of the study demonstrated that parenting styles were not correlated with diabetes control and were weakly correlated with quality of life. Most parents reported behaviors of authoritative or democratic parenting. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) for children in the study was slightly above optimal target range, at 8.4%. Parental education had a weak negative correlation with diabetes control. Parenting styles are not associated with diabetes control and quality of life in children with type 1 diabetes. However, further research should assess the impact of the determinants of parenting on children with type 1 diabetes and quality of life.

  1. Factors Underlying the Relationship Between Parent and Child Grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, David J; Cipriano, Madeline R

    2017-01-01

    The death of a parent in a child's life is a significant risk factor for later mental and physical health problems. While much has been written about the surviving parent's functioning and its effects on their bereaved children, little work has been done to look into factors underlying this effect such as how the parent copes. The present study recruited 38 parent-child dyads from a community-based grief support center. Parent and child, independently, completed various measures of emotional functioning, including grief symptoms and coping such as social support and locus of control. The results indicated that parental coping did have an impact on children's grief symptoms. This represents a unique view of adaptation in bereaved children: Parental coping strategies can have an impact on the child, independent of the child's coping strategies. By focusing on parent coping, we have highlighted another possible pathway through which parental functioning affects children's grief.

  2. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & ... Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & Cooking Health Problems Illnesses & Injuries Relax & Unwind People, Places & Things ...

  3. Parental Involvement in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tessa

    1979-01-01

    Arguments in favor of increased parental involvement, particularly in nursery education, are presented. Opposition to participation from parents and teachers is discussed and specific areas in which cooperation might be possible are suggested along with different levels of participation. (JMF)

  4. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  5. Naps (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... during a 24-hour period. For example, one toddler may sleep 13 hours at night with only ...

  6. Playground Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... designed for three different age groups: infants and toddlers under 2, 2- to 5-year-olds (preschoolers), ...

  7. Toxocariasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... with a pet dog or cat (wash a toddler's hands yourself) discourage toddlers from putting dirty hands ...

  8. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Separation Anxiety KidsHealth / For Parents / Separation Anxiety What's in this ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  9. PARENTS ATTITUDE: INCLUSIVE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Blagoj Dimitrova-Radojicic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the attitudes of parents of “normal” developing children toward the inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream education in Macedonia. Specifically, the study was aimed to explore the similarities and differences in the attitudes of two groups of parents: a group of parents of preschool children and a group of parents of school age children. Participants included 88 parents. Generally, many of the parents accept inclusive education, but most of them still think the special school is better place for education of children with disability.

  10. A Study of the Relationship of Parenting Styles, Child Temperament, and Operatory Behavior in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Amanda K; Wilson, Stephen; Thikkurissy, S

    2018-05-11

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of the child's temperament, parenting styles, and parents' prediction of their child's behavior in the dental setting. Subjects were healthy children 4-12 years of age attending a dental clinic. A Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) was given to parents to determine their parenting style. Parents completed the Emotionality, Activity, Sociability Temperament (EAS) survey to measure their child's temperament. Parents were asked to predict their child's behavior using the Frankl Scale. Data analysis included 113 parent/child dyads. Parents accurately predicted their child's behavior 58% of the time. Significant correlations were noted between parent's predictions of behavior and emotionality (r = -.497, p behavior and emotionality (r = -.586, p Parenting style scores did not correlate to predicted or actual behavior; however, categories of PSDQ were related to parental predictions of behavior. Relationships between temperament and parenting may aid in predicting children's behavior in the operatory.

  11. Parenting an overweight or obese teen; issues and advice from parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N.; Feldman, Shira; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Objective This qualitative study addresses: 1) What challenges do parents of overweight adolescents face? 2) What advice do parents of overweight adolescents have for other parents? Design One-on-one interviews were conducted with 27 parents of overweight or previously overweight adolescents Setting Medical clinic at the University of Minnesota Participants 27 parents of adolescents (12-19 years) who were either currently or previously overweight recruited from the community Main Outcome Measures. Qualitative interviews related to parenting overweight adolescents Analysis Content analysis was used to identify themes regarding parental experiences. Results Issues most frequently mentioned: 1) uncertainty regarding effective communication with adolescent about weight-related topics, 2) inability to control adolescent’s decisions around healthy eating and activity behaviors, 3) concern for adolescent’s well-being, 4) parental feeling of responsibility/guilt. Parental advice most often provided included: 1) setting up healthy home environment, 2) parental role modeling of healthy behaviors, and 3) providing support/encouragement for positive efforts. Conclusions Topics for potential intervention development include communication and motivation of adolescents regarding weight-related topics, appropriate autonomy, and addressing negative emotions concerning the adolescent’s weight status. Targeting these topics could potentially improve acceptability and outcomes for treatments. PMID:22770833

  12. Managing childhood chronic illness: parent perspectives and implications for parent-provider relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Lyn; Uding, Nancy; Trahms, Cristine M; Villareale, Nanci; Kieckhefer, Gail M

    2009-12-01

    When children have special health care needs, parents assume the roles of care coordinator, medical expert, and systems advocate as well as their typical parenting roles. They face many challenges in managing their child's chronic condition in the context of everyday life. Health care providers are uniquely positioned to assist parents in meeting those challenges and to promote parent competency and confidence in their child's care. The data for this analysis were collected during classes for parents of children with chronic conditions who took part in a randomized controlled study of a curriculum's effectiveness. During facilitated discussions, parents discussed challenges they faced and generated strategies they found helpful. Qualitative data analysis revealed dominant themes across subject areas. Challenges included social isolation, strained relationships and ongoing frustrations with health care and educational systems. Helpful strategies focused on being prepared, connecting with peers, becoming an advocate, developing partnerships and caring for one's self. Implications for health care providers include: understanding common challenges parents face; promoting parent-to-parent connections; and building partnerships with parents and their children with special needs.

  13. A systematic review of parenting interventions for traumatic brain injury: child and parent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Felicity Louise; Whittingham, Koa; Boyd, Roslyn; Sofronoff, Kate

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of parenting interventions on child and parent behavioral and emotional outcomes for parents of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Systematic searches of 5 databases. Included studies were assessed for quality, and relevant data were extracted and collated. Eight articles met inclusion criteria, reporting 6 trials of interventions involving parent training for parents of children with TBI. Only 1 pre-post study trialed a version of a traditional parenting intervention. The remaining studies involved a multicomponent family problem-solving intervention. Each trial found a statistically significant intervention effect for at least 1 outcome measure. Interventions that train parents may be a useful approach to alleviate behavioral and emotional disturbances after pediatric TBI. Some evidence suggests that these interventions may help to improve parenting skill and adjustment. However, all identified studies included interventions with multiple treatment components, so the effects attributable to parent training alone remain undetermined. Further quality trials are needed to assess the unique effectiveness of parenting interventions in this population.

  14. New Parent Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and tactics to help keep children and families healthy, safe and strong. MilParent Power is Help for Parents May 22, 2018 @ 9: ... that’s your job — helping your kids cope in healthy ways to changing circumstances. 6 Tips to Harness Your MilParent Power March 15, 2018 @ 10:42 AM | 4 Min ...

  15. Children of Incarcerated Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Charlene Wear

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes what is known about the children of incarcerated parents in California. The report estimates the number of children in California who have parents in the state's criminal justice system (jail, prison, parole, and probation) and summarizes key findings from the research literature on the impact of parental arrest and…

  16. The Parent Loan Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Marian; Supiano, Beckie; Fuller, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    As the cost of college has spiraled ever upward and median family income has fallen, the loan program, called Parent PLUS, has become indispensable for increasing numbers of parents desperate to make their children's college plans work. Last year the government disbursed $10.6-billion in Parent PLUS loans to just under a million families. Even…

  17. Parenting after Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

  18. Understanding the association between authoritative parenting and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Brian C; Gerlach, Karen K

    2006-03-01

    Research on adolescent cigarette smoking has attempted to measure the role of parents in preventing smoking experimentation and uptake. However, aspects of parental influence have often been limited to parental smoking behavior or antismoking socialization. Only a limited number of studies considered the hypothesis that the influence of parenting on adolescent current cigarette smoking may extend beyond parental behavior and antismoking socialization to consider broader measures of the parent-child relationship, such as parenting style. The sample was nationally representative and included 17,287 high school students nationwide. Data were used to categorize the parenting style--authoritative, permissive, autocratic, and unengaged--experienced by each respondent. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between parenting style and adolescent current cigarette smoking. Authoritative parenting was associated with a reduction in the odds of adolescent current cigarette smoking (OR: 0.74, 99% CI: 0.58, 0.95). When authoritative parenting is simultaneously considered with believing parents' opinions about smoking are important, authoritative parenting was no longer a significant correlate of adolescent current cigarette smoking, while believing parents' opinions about smoking are important was associated with a 45% (99% CI: 0.48, 0.64) reduction in the odds of adolescent current cigarette smoking. Authoritative parenting was associated with a more than three-fold increase (OR: 3.65, 99% CI: 2.87, 4.66) in the odds of believing parents' opinions about smoking are important. Interventions may want to educate parents about authoritative parenting, which includes the importance of having appropriate and routine conversations with their children, requiring chores, and implementing general rules and boundaries.

  19. Parental Break-Ups and Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Agnete S.; Dich, Nadya; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Parental break-up is wide spread, and the effects of parental break-up on children’s well-being are known. The evidence regarding child age at break-up and subsequent family arrangements is inconclusive. Aim: to estimate the effects of parental break-up on stress in pre-adolescent chi......Background: Parental break-up is wide spread, and the effects of parental break-up on children’s well-being are known. The evidence regarding child age at break-up and subsequent family arrangements is inconclusive. Aim: to estimate the effects of parental break-up on stress in pre......-adolescent children with a specific focus on age at break-up and post-breakup family arrangements. Methods: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Participants included 44 509 children followed from birth to age 11. Stress was self-reported by children at age 11, when the children also reported...... on parental break-up and post break-up family arrangements. Results: Twenty-one percent of the children had experienced a parental break-up at age 11, and those who had experienced parental break-up showed a higher risk of stress (OR:1.72, 95%CI:1.55;1.91) regardless of the child’s age at break-up. Children...

  20. Health Literacy Among Parents of Newborn Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackley, Amy; Winter, Michael; Guillen, Ursula; Paul, David A.; Locke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Health Literacy is the ability to obtain, process, and understand health information to make knowledgeable health decisions. PURPOSE To determine baseline health literacy of NICU parents at a tertiary care hospital during periods of crucial information exchange. METHODS Health Literacy of English speaking NICU parents was assessed using the Newest vital Sign (NVS) on admission (n=121) and discharge (n=59). A quasi-control group of well newborn (WBN) parents (n=24) and prenatal obstetric clinic (PRE) parents (n=18) were included. A single, Likert-style question measured nurse’s assessment of parental comprehension with discharge teaching. Suspected limited health literacy (SLHL) was defined as NVS score of ≤3. FINDINGS / RESULTS Forty-three percent of parents on NICU admission and 32% at NICU discharge had SLHL (pNICU parents and 25% of WBN parents with SLHL at time of admission/infant birth had a college education. Nurse subjective measurement of parental comprehension of discharge instructions was not correlated to the objective measurement of health literacy (p=0.26). IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE SLHL is common during peak time periods of complex health discussion in the NICU, WBN, and PRE settings. NICU providers may not accurately gauge parent’s literacy status. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH Methods for improving health communication are needed. Studies should evaluate SLHL in a larger NICU population and across different languages and cultures. PMID:27391562

  1. Evaluation of a Blog Based Parent Involvement Approach by Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcinar, Zehra; Ekizoglu, Nihat

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of parent involvement in children's education, research clearly shows that it is difficult to effectively involve parents. This study aims to capture parents' views of a Blog Based Parent Involvement Approach (BPIA) designed to secure parent involvement in education by strengthening school-parent communication. Data…

  2. Parenting Beliefs, Parental Stress, and Social Support Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee

    2012-01-01

    The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…

  3. Personality and Parenting Style in Parents of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huver, Rose M. E.; Otten, Roy; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian,…

  4. 5 CFR 1651.7 - Parent or parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parent or parents. 1651.7 Section 1651.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.7 Parent or parents. If the account is to be paid to the participant's parent or parents under § 1651.2(a)(4), the following...

  5. Intergenerational Transmission of Harsh Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined harsh parenting across generations by means of parents' and adolescents' reports. Found that grandparents who had engaged in aggressive parenting produced parents who used similar practices. Harsh discipline of male children was a function of socioeconomic characteristics. (BC)

  6. Relationships between Parenting Styles and the Academic Performance of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Jewrell; Mullis, Ann K.; Fortner, Lauren A.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between parenting styles, academic performance, and the mediating effects of motivation, goal orientation, and self-efficacy were examined. One hundred forty-eight high school students participated, including 58 males and 90 females. The Parenting Style/Parental Involvement Questionnaire was used to measure students' perceptions of…

  7. Teen and Parent Perceptions of a Secondary School Family Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonely, Heather M.; Klein, Shirley R.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescent and parent focus groups were conducted to do a needs assessment and discover possible topics for a secondary school family class. Results included identifying teen and parent family-related needs and societal concerns; discovering where teens currently learn about family life; and receiving teen and parent feedback about a proposed…

  8. 45 CFR 233.101 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.101... unemployed parents. (a) Requirements for State Plans. Effective October 1, 1990 (for Puerto Rico, American... children of unemployed parents. A State plan under title IV-A for payment of such aid must: (1) Include a...

  9. 45 CFR 233.100 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.100... unemployed parents. (a) Requirements for State Plans. If a State wishes to provide AFDC for children of unemployed parents, the State plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act must: (1) Include a definition...

  10. Parents: How to Make Discipline Work for You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gloria

    1985-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing parents is disciplining children. Discipline is not controlling or imposing a parent's will upon children. It is a positive way of helping and guiding children to achieve self-discipline. Discipline tips for parents are included. (MT)

  11. Parents Exhibit Children's Progress at a Poster Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, Corrine R.; Williams, Gladys

    1997-01-01

    Describes a program of New York's Keller School (a school for toddlers and preschoolers with communication, cognitive, and emotional disorders), which promotes meaningful family involvement through parent education. Activities to promote parent participation are described, including an annual poster session to present the parents' own data on…

  12. Parental Participation and Partnership in Pre-school Provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, Hugh; Howe, Christine; Cheyne, Bill; Terras, Melody; Rattray, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Investigated parents' and staff opinions about parental participation in their child's preschool, including perceived available options for partnership. Found that parental needs for participation were largely satisfied by the opportunities offered in the play group sector but not in local authority and private nurseries. Found three areas in…

  13. Dispelling Myths about Latino Parent Participation in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiocho, Alice M. L.; Daoud, Annette M.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted to discuss and dispel commonly held myths about Latino parents' involvement in their children's education. Differences between teacher perceptions of Latino parent involvement and parents' understanding of their roles in supporting their children's education--including the learning and use of the English…

  14. Child-to-Parent Violence: Emotional and Behavioral Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Child-to-parent violence (CPV) includes acts committed by a child to intentionally cause physical, psychological, or financial pain to a parent. Available data indicate increasing rates of CPV in Spain, which have been attributed to a tendency toward more permissive parenting styles and changes in the power cycles within the families. The primary…

  15. Assessing the Psychosocial Problems In Parenting Sickle-Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess the psycho social problems encountered in parenting sickle-cell children in Enugu. Method: The subjects include all parents, guardian, foster parents of sickle cell children who have the responsibility of caring for sickle-cell children and who have attended the sickle-cell clinic of the UNTH between June to ...

  16. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…

  17. Grandparents as Parents: A Primer for Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Dianne

    An increasing number of American grandparents, from all socioeconomic and ethnic groups, have taken on the role of surrogate parents to their grandchildren. Reasons behind this trend involve a variety of family circumstances, including the death of one or both parents, parental abandonment, the high incidence of divorce, an increase in the number…

  18. What Does Whole Child Education Mean to Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Molly

    2011-01-01

    To learn more about how parents understand the whole child approach to education, ASCD commissioned KRC Research to conduct a study that included parent focus groups in Richmond, Virginia; and Columbus, Ohio, as well as a survey of 800 parents across the United States to identify their perceptions of what a whole child education is, how it is…

  19. Parental anxiety and quality of life of epileptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Ji, Cheng-Ye; Qin, Jiong; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence of parental anxiety associated with epileptic children, and to explore whether and how this specific condition affects children's quality of life (QOL), and what are the significant determinants for parental anxiety. Three hundred and forty parents whose children were affected with known epilepsy were enrolled in the study. Questionnaires for quality of life in childhood epilepsy (QOLCE), and hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) of parents were used to collect demographic data of both children and their parents, as well as clinical manifestations of epilepsy and family status. Parental anxiety (of any severity) was observed in 191 subjects at interview, giving a prevalence rate of 56.2%. Of the 191 subjects, 18.5% reported mild anxiety, 24.4% moderate anxiety, and 13.2% severe anxiety. Factors associated with parental anxiety included frequency of seizure in children, average monthly income per person and parents' knowledge about epilepsy (P < 0.05). Parental anxiety significantly (P = 0.000) correlated with quality of life of children with epilepsy. Parents of children with epilepsy are at high risk of having anxiety. Factors associated with parental anxiety originate both from children and from parents. Parental anxiety is significantly related with children's QOL. It is important for experts concerned to recognize such a relationship to improve the QOL of children and their parents.

  20. Parenting Culture Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ellie J.; Faircloth, Charlotte; Macvarish, Jan; Bristow, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    Why do we live at a time when the minutiae of how parents raise their children – how they feed them, talk to them, play with them or discipline them – have become routine sources of public debate and policy making? Why are there now so-called 'parenting experts', and social movements like Attachment Parenting, telling us that 'science says' what parents do is the cause of and solution to social problems? \\ud \\ud Parenting Culture Studies provides in-depth answers to these features of contempo...

  1. Cultural Expectations and Parental Involvement in Early Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith, Stephens; Richard, Blight

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the involvement of parents in early literacy in Japanese and Australian primary schools. While both schools valued support from parents in the education process, different cultural expectations are evident in each system. A number of significant areas are discussed, including traditional domestic situations in Japan, changing work cultures in Australia, education and maternal duties, higher expectations in Japan, parents supporting homework activities, parents supporti...

  2. Conferencias de padres-educadores: Sugerencias para los padres (Parent-Teacher Conferences: Suggestions for Parents). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ann-Marie

    Parent-teacher conferences sometimes become a cause for concern for everyone involved. This Spanish-language ERIC Digest outlines ways to improve communication during parent-teacher conferences. Suggestions are offered to help parents participate more effectively in conferences, including identifying what is being done to help a child overcome a…

  3. Parenting Styles and Practices of Latino Parents and Latino Fifth Graders' Academic, Cognitive, Social, and Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabagchourian, John J.; Sorkhabi, Nadia; Quach, Wendy; Strage, Amy

    2014-01-01

    A vast literature documents a host of advantages conferred upon middle class European American children whose parents employ an authoritative style of parenting, including enhanced academic achievement and positive behavioral outcomes. The literature is much less clear about the relationship between parental authority style and child outcomes in…

  4. Parental rearing as a function of parent's own, partner's, and child's anxiety status: fathers make the difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Bamelis, L.; van der Bruggen, C.

    2008-01-01

    Parents of children with anxiety disorders are found to be over controlling and more rejecting in parent-child interactions than parents of control children. However, most studies included mothers, and the rearing behaviour of fathers of anxious children is largely unknown. Also, it remains unclear

  5. What's New in Software? Videocassettes for Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Carolyn N.

    1989-01-01

    Videocassettes useful in creating educational environments in the home are described, focusing specifically on the areas of parenting and living skills, literature for the primary and intermediate grades, and social studies. A list of 66 recommended videocassettes is included. (JDD)

  6. Parental Alienation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Torun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Children who have been programmed by one parent to be alienated from the other parent are commonly seen in the context of child-custody disputes. Its primary manifestation is the child’s campaign of denigration against a parent, a campaign that has no justification. It is said to result from a combination of a programming (brainwashing parent’s indoctrinations and the child’s own contributions to the vilification of the targeted parent. Many evaluators use the term parental alienation syndrome to refer to the disorder engendered in such children. However, there is significant controversy going on about the validity of parental alienation syndrome. The purpose of this article has been to describe and help to differentiate parental alienation syndrome and abuse for mental health professionals working in the field, and discuss the arguments about the validity of this syndrome.

  7. The Investigation of Parents' Interactions and Their Children's Learning Levels at Parental Coaching Carried out over Social Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Gülten Feryal

    2018-01-01

    The study aims to provide academic and affective support for children's learning by using teacher-parent collaboration through parental coaching realized via social network. This parental coaching includes three phases: preparation, implementation and evaluation. The participants of the study are 16 parents and their children. The data of the…

  8. Parenting and Childhood Chronicity: making visible the invisible work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Lynne D

    2002-12-01

    The work required to raise a child with a chronic illness or disability is above and beyond that of raising a typical child. This article presents a model, Parenting and Childhood Chronicity (PACC), that was developed during an interpretive study with 43 parents of 34 children (aged 15 months to 16 years) with various chronic conditions, is presented. "Special needs parenting" describes the additional care that a child needs and includes medical care, parenting plus, and working the systems. "Minimizing consequences" reflects the struggle to balance the rest of family life and includes parenting siblings, maintaining relationships, and keeping yourself going. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  9. Harsh parenting, physical health, and the protective role of positive parent-adolescent relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Conger, Rand D; Gonzales, Joseph E; Merrick, Melissa T

    2016-05-01

    Harsh, abusive and rejecting behavior by parents toward their adolescents is associated with increased risk of many developmental problems for youth. In the present study we address behaviors of co-parents that might help disrupt the hypothesized health risk of harsh parenting. Data come from a community study of 451 early adolescents followed into adulthood. During early adolescence, observers rated both parents separately on harshness towards the adolescent. Adolescents reported on their physical health at multiple assessments from age 12 through age 20, and on parental warmth. Harsh parenting predicted declines in adolescent self-reported physical health and increases in adolescent body mass index (BMI). Although the health risk associated with harshness from one parent was buffered by warmth from the other parent, warmth from the second parent augmented the association between harshness from the first parent and change over time in adolescent BMI. As appropriate, preventive interventions should include a focus on spousal or partner behaviors in their educational or treatment programs. Additional research is needed on the association between self-reported physical health and BMI in adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Parental food involvement predicts parent and child intakes of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohly, Heather; Pealing, Juliet; Hayter, Arabella K M; Pettinger, Clare; Pikhart, Hynek; Watt, Richard G; Rees, Gail

    2013-10-01

    In order to develop successful interventions to improve children's diets, the factors influencing food choice need to be understood. Parental food involvement - the level of importance of food in a person's life - may be one of many important factors. The aim of this study was to determine whether parental food involvement is associated with parents' and children's diet quality. As part of an intervention study, 394 parents with children aged between 18 months and 5 years were recruited from children's centres in Cornwall and Islington, UK. Questionnaires were used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, parents' diets, and attitudes towards food including food involvement. Children's diets were assessed using the multiple pass 24 h recall method. Parents reported low intakes of fruits and vegetables and high intakes of sugary items for themselves and their young children. Parental food involvement was strongly correlated with consumption of fruits and vegetables (amount and diversity) for both parents and children. Correlations with consumption of sugary drinks and snacks/foods were not significant. These findings indicate that parental food involvement may influence consumption of fruits and vegetables, more so than sugary items. Further research is needed to investigate how parental food involvement could mediate dietary changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Parenting styles and conceptions of parental authority during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, J G

    1995-04-01

    Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 110 primarily white, middle-class sixth, eighth, and tenth graders (M = 11.98, 13.84, and 16.18 years of age) and their parents (108 mothers and 92 fathers). Parents judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated family conflict and rules regarding 24 hypothetical moral, conventional, personal, multifaceted (containing conventional and personal components), prudential, and friendship issues. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Parents' parenting styles differentiated their conceptions of parental authority, but adolescents' perceptions did not. Differences were primarily over the boundaries of adolescents' personal jurisdiction. Furthermore, conceptions of parental authority and parenting styles both contributed significantly to emotional autonomy and adolescent-parent conflict. The implications of the findings for typological models of parenting and distinct domain views of social-cognitive development are discussed.

  12. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting.

  13. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting.

  14. Parents' work patterns and adolescent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Alfred; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth

    2009-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that non-standard work schedules undermine the stability of marriage and reduce family cohesiveness. Limited research has investigated the effects of parents working non-standard schedules on children's health and wellbeing and no published Australian studies have addressed this important issue. This paper contributes to bridging this knowledge gap by focusing on adolescents aged 15-20 years and by including sole parent families which have been omitted in previous research, using panel data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. Multilevel linear regression models are estimated to analyse the association between parental work schedules and hours of work and measures of adolescents' mental health derived from the SF-36 Health Survey. Evidence of negative impacts of parents working non-standard hours upon adolescent wellbeing is found to exist primarily within sole parent families.

  15. Parenting Needs of Urban, African American Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L

    2015-07-01

    Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. A survey of parental self-efficacy experiences: maximising potential through health visiting and universal parenting support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Karen A; Cowley, Sarah

    2012-11-01

    To examine parental self-efficacy experiences for users of a parenting support programme and consider the pertinence of self-efficacy theory to health visiting (public health nursing) practice. Commonly, successful parenting training programmes are underpinned by social learning principles and aim to strengthen parental self-efficacy. However, research examining programme effectiveness rarely discusses how self-efficacy outcomes are achieved. A descriptive survey was completed as the first part of a realistic evaluation study examining how a UK parenting support programme worked. The first part of the realistic evaluation involved validating outcome measures (the Parenting Self-Agency Measure and Self-Efficacy for Parenting Tasks Index subscales) and administering a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was completed by adults accessing a parenting support programme during a 10-month period (n = 168). Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.   Women were the main users of the programme, which included informal drop-in groups as well as more formalised health visiting services and parenting training courses. The Parenting Self-Agency Measure results indicated good general parental self-efficacy; however, the task-specific Self-Efficacy for Parenting Tasks Indexes scales suggested that parents were less self-efficacious in disciplining children. Lower self-efficacy scores correlated with high ratings for 'feeling tired', 'receiving negative comments' and 'giving-in to a child's demands'. Study results indicate that the domain general and task-specific measures provide different, but helpful, insights into parental self-efficacy experiences. By identifying factors associated with the levels of general and task-specific parental self-efficacy, health visitors can gain a fuller appreciation of support needs. To maximise potential through parenting support, attention should be given to addressing factors associated with poorer self

  17. Psychological adjustment among left-behind children in rural China: the role of parental migration and parent-child communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S; Li, X; Lin, D; Xu, X; Zhu, M

    2013-03-01

    Left-behind children refer to those rural children who are under 18 years of age and are left at home when both or one of their parents migrate to urban area for work. Recent findings showed that left-behind children were disadvantaged by developmental, emotional and social problems. A sample of 1165 rural children and adolescents were recruited to examine the characteristics of left-behind children and explore the differences in psychological adjustment (including satisfaction, loneliness and happiness) by patterns of parental migration (i.e. no parent migrating, one parent migrating or two parents migrating) and the level of parent-child communication in rural China. (1) Compared with children with one parent migrating, children with two parents migrating were separated from their parents at younger ages, for longer periods, and saw their migrant parents less frequently. (2) Children with two parents migrating reported the lowest level of satisfaction among the three groups of rural children. Both groups of children with one or two parents migrating experienced more loneliness compared with children with no parent migrating. There were no significant differences in school satisfaction and happiness among the three groups. (3) The children who reported a higher level of parent-child communication also reported a higher level of life and school satisfaction and happiness, and no differences in loneliness were found by levels of parent-child communication. These results indicate that loneliness was the most common and important experience of left-behind children. Parent-child communication is important for the development of all rural children, including those who were left behind by their migrant parents. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. What's the fuss about? Parent presentations of fussy eating to a parenting support helpline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly A; Ria-Searle, Bonnie; Jansen, Elena; Thorpe, Karen

    2018-06-01

    To characterise parent presentations of fussy eating and mealtime interactions at a point of crisis, through analyses of real-time recordings of calls to a parenting helpline. Qualitative analysis included an inductive thematic approach to examine clinical parent presentations of fussy eating and derive underlying themes relating to mealtime interactions. Calls made to the Child Health Line regarding feeding concerns were recorded and transcribed verbatim. From a corpus of 723 calls made during a 4-week period in 2009, twelve were from parents of children aged 6-48 months. Parents of infants (≤12 months, n 6) presented feeding concerns as learning challenges in the process of transitioning from a milk-based to a solid-based diet, while parents of toddlers (13-48 months, n 6) presented emotional accounts of feeding as an intractable problem. Parents presented their child's eating behaviour as a battle (conflict), in which their children's agency over limited intake and variety of foods (child control) was constructed as 'bad' or 'wrong'. Escalating parent anxiety (parent concern) had evoked parent non-responsive feeding practices or provision of foods the child preferred. Real-time descriptions of young children's fussy eating at a time of crisis that initiated parents' call for help have captured the highly charged emotional underpinnings of mealtime interactions associated with fussy eating. Importantly, they show the child's emerging assertion of food autonomy can escalate parents' emotional distress that, in the short term, initiates non-responsive feeding practices. The current study identifies the importance of educational and emotional support for parents across the period of introducing solids.

  19. Day-to-day inconsistency in parent knowledge: links with youth health and parents' stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; McHale, Susan M; Davis, Kelly D; Kossek, Ellen Ernst

    2015-03-01

    Considerable evidence documents the linkages between higher levels of parental knowledge about youth activities and positive youth outcomes. This study investigated how day-to-day inconsistency in parental knowledge of youth activities was linked to youth behavioral, psychological, and physical health and parents' stress. Participants were employees in the Information Technology Division of a Fortune 500 company and their children (N = 129, mean age of youth = 13.39 years, 55% female). Data were collected from parents and youth via separate workplace and in-home surveys as well as telephone diary surveys on eight consecutive evenings. We assessed day-to-day inconsistency in parental knowledge across these eight calls. Parents differed in their knowledge from day to day almost as much as their average knowledge scores differed from those of other parents. Controlling for mean levels of knowledge, youth whose parents exhibited more knowledge inconsistency reported more physical health symptoms (e.g., colds and flu). Knowledge inconsistency was also associated with more risky behavior for girls but greater psychological well-being for older adolescents. Parents who reported more stressors also had higher knowledge inconsistency. Assessing only average levels of parental knowledge does not fully capture how this parenting dimension is associated with youth health. Consistent knowledge may promote youth physical health and less risky behavior for girls. Yet knowledge inconsistency also may reflect normative increases in autonomy as it was positively associated with psychological well-being for older adolescents. Given the linkages between parental stress and knowledge inconsistency, parent interventions should include stress management components. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Palin Parent Rating Scales: Parents' Perspectives of Childhood Stuttering and Its Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Sharon K.; Davis, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study is to explore the psychometric properties of the Parent Rating Scales-V1 (S. K. Millard, S. Edwards, & F. M. Cook, 2009), an assessment tool for parents of children who stutter, and to refine the measure accordingly. Method: We included 259 scales completed prior to therapy. An exploratory factor analysis…

  1. "Doing the Job as a Parent": Parenting Alone, Work, and Family Policy in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Michelle; Coen, Liam; Bradley, Ciara; Rau, Henrike

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of family life in Ireland have focused on changes in "traditional" family structures, including the increase in one-parent families. This article illustrates the impact dominant conceptions in Irish society that privilege the family based on marriage have on one-parent family policy. The authors focus on two key areas of…

  2. Consequences of Parental Divorce for Adult Children's Support of Their Frail Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen

    2008-01-01

    Using three waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study, I examined the association of parental divorce and remarriage with the odds that biological, adult children give personal care and financial assistance to their frail parents. The analysis included 5,099 adult children in the mother sample and 4,029 children in the father sample.…

  3. Parental Expression of Disappointment: Should It Be a Factor in Hoffman's Model of Parental Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Renee B.; Gibbs, John C.

    2007-01-01

    The authors addressed whether parental expression of disappointment should be included as a distinct factor in M. L. Hoffman's (2000) well-established typology of parenting styles (induction, love withdrawal, power assertion). Hoffman's 3-factor model, along with a more inclusive 4-factor model (induction, love withdrawal, power assertion, and…

  4. Parent-to-Child Aggression among Asian American Parents: Culture, Context, and Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna S.; Takeuchi, David T.; Alegria, Margarita

    2006-01-01

    We examined correlates of lifetime parent-to-child aggression in a representative sample of 1,293 Asian American parents. Correlates examined included nativity, indicators of acculturation, socioeconomic status, family climate, and stressors associated with minority status. Results revealed that Asian Americans of Chinese descent and those who…

  5. Political Alienation in Adolescence: Associations with Parental Role Models, Parenting Styles, and Classroom Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniewosz, Burkhard; Noack, Peter; Buhl, Monika

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined how parental political attitudes, parenting styles, and classroom characteristics predict adolescents' political alienation, as feelings about the individual's ability to affect the political system's performance at the individual level. Participants were 463 families that included mothers, fathers, and their adolescent…

  6. Is Separation Anxiety in Adolescents and Parents Related to Parental Differentiation of Self?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ora; Miller, Paul; Yitzhak, Meital

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between separation anxiety in adolescents after their transition to middle school, on the one hand, and differentiation of self and separation anxiety in their parents, on the other hand. The sample included 88 adolescents from northern Israel, together with their biological parents. Adolescents'…

  7. Parent Training among Ethnic Minorities: Parenting Practices as Mediators of Change in Child Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorknes, Ragnhild; Kjobli, John; Manger, Terje; Jakobsen, Reidar

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined parenting practices as mediators of changes in child conduct problems in ethnic minority families participating in Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO). The participants included 96 Somali and Pakistani immigrant mothers and their children living in Norway. The families were randomized to PMTO or a waiting-list…

  8. Maternal depressive symptomatology and parenting behavior: exploration of possible mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Alyson C; Hoza, Betsy; Arnold, L Eugene; Pelham, William E; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Timothy; Jensen, Peter S

    2007-10-01

    Possible mediators of the relation between maternal depressive symptomatology and parenting behavior were examined for 96 children with ADHD and their mothers drawn from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) as part of an add-on investigation conducted by two of the six MTA sites. General cognitions (i.e., maternal locus of control and self-esteem) and parenting-specific factors (i.e., maternal parenting efficacy and parenting stress) were examined as possible mediators. Findings provide initial support that maternal parenting stress, as well as maternal locus of control and self-esteem mediate the relation between maternal depressive symptomatology and parenting behavior. This provides support for the argument that some families of children with ADHD may benefit from an expanded version of parent management training that includes sessions directly targeting affective and cognitive factors in parents, similar to treatment programs used to treat childhood conduct problems.

  9. An exploratory study of 2 parenting styles and family health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Emma M; Williams, Joel; Thompson, Kirsten; Johnson, Knowlton; Bright, Mikia; Karam, Eli; Jones, V Faye

    2013-07-01

    To examine the relationships between 2 parenting styles and family nutrition and physical activity. Parents of elementary/primary school children in the southeastern United States (N = 145) completed surveys regarding family relationships and health behaviors. Parents exhibiting a laissez-faire parenting style reported lower levels of family nutrition and physical activity. In addition, parent BMI moderated the relationship between laissez-faire parenting and these health behaviors. This study indicates that family-oriented nutrition and physical activity programs may benefit from including a focus on decreasing laissez-faire parenting, as well as helping overweight parents reduce their BMIs.

  10. Childhood Parental Loss and Adult Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrka, Audrey R.; Wier, Lauren; Price, Lawrence H.; Ross, Nicole; Anderson, George M.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Several decades of research link childhood parental loss with risk for major depression and other forms of psychopathology. A large body of preclinical work on maternal separation and some recent studies of humans with childhood parental loss have demonstrated alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function which could predispose to the development of psychiatric disorders. Methods Eighty-eight healthy adults with no current Axis I psychiatric disorder participated in this study. Forty-four participants experienced parental loss during childhood, including 19 with a history of parental death and 25 with a history of prolonged parental separation. The loss group was compared to a matched group of individuals who reported no history of childhood parental separation or childhood maltreatment. Participants completed diagnostic interviews and questionnaires and the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test. Repeated measures general linear models were used to test the effects of parental loss, a measure of parental care, sex, and age on the hormone responses to the Dex/CRH test. Results Parental loss was associated with increased cortisol responses to the test, particularly in males. The effect of loss was moderated by levels of parental care; participants with parental desertion and very low levels of care had attenuated cortisol responses. ACTH responses to the Dex/CRH test did not differ significantly as a function of parental loss. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that early parental loss induces enduring changes in neuroendocrine function. PMID:18339361

  11. Parental rearing practices from the perspective of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuković Slađana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the phenomenon of parenting in families with adolescents. Special emphasis is placed on the exploration of the concept of parenting rearing practices through the dimensions of parental emotional warmth, control and monitoring. Based on that, starting from the standpoint about the importance of child's perception of parental behaviour, this paper presents the results of the research aimed at examining adolescents' view of parental rearing practices. The instrument used in the research consisted of three subscales (emotional warmth, monitoring, control, as well as the questions about socio-demographic variables. The sample included 154 second grade students of secondary school, i.e. adolescents. The findings have shown that adolescents perceived parental warmth as the most present and parental monitoring and control as less present parental rearing practice. Mother's parental rearing practices were perceived as significantly more present compared to those of the father. Also, it was found that the gender of respondents is a significant variable in the perception of parental rearing practices, while family characteristics (family social status, family structure, parent's educational level and the number of children in the family have not been proved as statistically significant variables. The concluding part emphasizes the need for further research of the factors that determine father's role in the family with adolescents, and the need to develop parent's awareness of the benefits related to adolescent's self-disclosure in the process of parental monitoring.

  12. The effectiveness of mindful parenting programs in promoting parents' and children's wellbeing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townshend, Kishani; Jordan, Zoe; Stephenson, Matthew; Tsey, Komla

    2016-03-01

    The rationale for undertaking this review was to investigate a potential strategy to address the rising prevalence of child and adolescent mental health disorders. The central tenants of mindful parenting appear to be emotional awareness, emotional regulation, attention regulation, intentionality and non-judgmental acceptance. The primary objective of this review was to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of mindful parenting programs in promoting children's, adolescents' and parents' wellbeing, particularly in relation to the intensity of symptoms associated with internalizing (depression, anxiety, stress) and externalizing (conduct) disorders. The secondary objective was to evaluate how effective mindful parenting programs are in improving emotional regulation, attention regulation, quality of the parent-child relationship, resilience and mindfulness of the children, adolescents and parents. Children aged between 0 and 18 years and their parents who have completed a mindful parenting program were the focus of this review. Mindful parenting programs included in this review had a minimum duration of one to two hours per week for 6 to 8 weeks, delivered in a group format, by a facilitator with appropriate training. It included parenting programs that drew upon mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive behavior therapy, dialectical behavior therapy or acceptance commitment therapy. The comparator was the control or waitlist conditions. This review focused on randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of mindful parenting programs. Primary outcomes were wellbeing or intensity of symptoms associated with internalizing disorders (depression, anxiety, stress) and externalizing disorders (conduct disorders) in children, adolescents and parents. Secondary outcomes were emotional regulation, quality of the parent-child relationship, resilience and mindfulness of the children, adolescents and

  13. Parent and Adolescent Reports of Parenting When a Parent Has a History of Depression: Associations with Observations of Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; Seehuus, Martin; Compas, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the congruence of parent and adolescent reports of positive and negative parenting with observations of parent-adolescent interactions as the criterion measure. The role of parent and adolescent depressive symptoms in moderating the associations between adolescent or parent report and observations of parenting also was examined. Participants were 180 parents (88.9% female) with a history of clinical depression and one of their 9-to-15 year old children (49.4% female...

  14. Psychological control by parents is associated with a higher child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P J; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike

    2011-10-01

    In this examination of the association between parenting style and child weight, the neglected concept of 'psychological control' has been added to the generally accepted parenting dimensions 'support' and 'behavioural control'. Also explored is whether the potential association between parenting and child weight is moderated by socio-demographic variables (child's age/ethnicity, and parent's education level). A cross-sectional study was performed among 1,665 parent-child dyads. The children's mean age was 8 years. Their height and weight were measured to calculate their body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure the three parenting dimensions. Based on these dimensions, five parenting styles were defined: the authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, neglecting and rejecting parenting style. Child BMI z-scores were regressed on parenting style, adjusting for parental BMI, child ethnicity, and parent's education level. Rejecting parenting, characterized by high psychological control, low support and low behavioural control, is the only parenting style significantly related to child BMI z-scores (β = 0.074, p parenting, this study has further elucidated the mechanisms whereby parenting may affect child weight. Demonstrating that 'rejecting parenting' is associated with a higher child weight, emphasizes the need for longitudinal studies in which parenting style is measured three-dimensionally. Potential mediating effects of parental feeding style and children's eating style, as well as age moderation, should be included in these studies.

  15. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  16. Parenting a Child with Phenylketonuria: An Investigation into the Factors That Contribute to Parental Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Olivia; Medford, Emma; Hare, Dougal J

    2018-04-20

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic condition that can lead to the onset of intellectual disabilities if not strictly managed through a low-protein diet. Parents are responsible for supervising their child's treatment for PKU, which may impact on their experience of distress. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the factors that contribute to distress in parents who care for a child with PKU, distinct from parents in the general population. Thirty-eight parents of children and adolescents with PKU and 32 parents in the general population completed the questionnaires measuring parental psychological resilience, child behaviour problems, perceived social support and distress. Parents of children with PKU also completed measures of their child's care dependency and behaviour related to developmental and intellectual disabilities. The findings revealed no statistically significant differences in distress between the groups, but parents of children with PKU reported more child behaviour problems. Multiple regression analysis identified that parental psychological resilience and child anxious behaviour explained 35% of the variance in distress for parents of children with PKU. By comparison, parental psychological resilience and generic child behaviour only accounted for 19% of the variance in distress for parents in the general population. This has implications for developing interventions in clinical settings that aim to reduce parents' distress by enhancing their psychological resilience and supporting them to manage child behaviour difficulties, particularly anxious behaviour. Future research should include larger, more diverse samples and use longitudinal study designs.

  17. Personality and parenting style in parents of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huver, R.M.E.; Otten, R.; Vries, H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived

  18. Parental Involvement in Mathematics: Giving Parents a Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, S.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why parents become involved in their children's education is crucial in strengthening the relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement. The present study focuses on the parental role construction and parental self-efficacy. The resulting trends suggest that parents, regardless of their self-efficacy, may assume…

  19. Parenting Training for Intellectually Disabled Parents: A Cochrane Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Esther; Thomae, Manuela; Hutchfield, Jemeela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a Cochrane/Campbell systematic review of the evidence on the effect of parent training to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disability with usual care or with a control…

  20. Parenting Styles and Conceptions of Parental Authority during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1995-01-01

    Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 100 mostly white, middle-class, 6th, 8th, and 10th graders and their parents. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Differences were primarily over the…

  1. Parents' Perspectives on Parental Notification of College Students' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosden, Merith; Hughes, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Although many colleges and universities use "parental notification" to inform parents of students' alcohol use, the impact of this intervention on student and parent behavior is unclear. Surveys were obtained from 326 parents of university undergraduates, 56 of whom had received a notification. Parent responses to the notification were…

  2. Reproductive 'surrogacy' and parental licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Christine

    2015-06-01

    A serious moral weakness of reproductive 'surrogacy' is that it can be harmful to the children who are created. This article presents a proposal for mitigating this weakness. Currently, the practice of commercial 'surrogacy' operates only in the interests of the adults involved (the gestator and the commissioning individuals who employ her), not in the interests of the child who is created. Whether 'surrogacy' is seen as the purchase of a baby, the purchase of parental rights, or the purchase of reproductive labor, all three views share the same significant flaws. They endorse the transfer, for a fee, of the infant from the woman who gestated it to those who commissioned it, but without justifying such a transfer; they fail to demonstrate that the commissioners have any entitlement to the infant, or, for that matter, suitability to be the infant's parents; and they fail to take any notice of the infant's needs, interests, and wellbeing. A mere genetic connection is not enough to establish that the commissioners are entitled to receive the baby or that they are competent to raise it. Their good intentions, however caring, are not enough. Therefore, just as in the practice of adoption, there should be a formal institutionalized system for screening and licensing the prospective social parents, which would make the infant's needs, interests, and wellbeing paramount. I reply to several potential objections to this proposal, including the objection that genetic parents who raise their own child are not screened and licensed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Psychological interventions for parents of children and adolescents with chronic illness

    OpenAIRE

    Eccleston, Chris; Palermo, T M; Fisher, Emma; Law, E

    2012-01-01

    Psychological therapies have been developed for parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Such therapies include parent only or parent and child/adolescent, and are designed to treat parent behaviour, parent mental health, child behaviour/disability, child mental health, child symptoms and/or family functioning. No comprehensive, meta-analytic reviews have been published in this area. To evaluate the effectiveness of psychological therapies that include coping strategies for...

  4. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First ...

  5. Development of the General Parenting Observational Scale to assess parenting during family meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; Dickstein, Susan; Jelalian, Elissa; Boutelle, Kerri; Seifer, Ronald; Wing, Rena

    2015-04-10

    There is growing interest in the relationship between general parenting and childhood obesity. However, assessing general parenting via surveys can be difficult due to issues with self-report and differences in the underlying constructs being measured. As a result, different aspects of parenting have been associated with obesity risk. We developed a more objective tool to assess general parenting by using observational methods during a mealtime interaction. The General Parenting Observational Scale (GPOS) was based on prior work of Baumrind, Maccoby and Martin, Barber, and Slater and Power. Ten dimensions of parenting were included; 4 were classified in the emotional dimension of parenting (warmth and affection, support and sensitivity, negative affect, detachment), and 6 were classified in the behavioral dimension of parenting (firm discipline and structure, demands for maturity, psychological control, physical control, permissiveness, neglect). Overweight children age 8-12 years old and their parent (n = 44 dyads) entering a weight control program were videotaped eating a family meal. Parents were coded for their general parenting behaviors. The Mealtime Family Interaction Coding System (MICS) and several self-report measures of general parenting were also used to assess the parent-child interaction. Spearman's correlations were used to assess correlation between measures. The emotional dimensions of warmth/affection and support/sensitivity, and the behavioral dimension of firm discipline/structure were robustly captured during the family meals. Warmth/affection and support/sensitivity were significantly correlated with affect management, interpersonal involvement, and communication from the MICS. Firm discipline/structure was inversely correlated with affect management, behavior control, and task accomplishment. Parents who were older, with higher educational status, and lower BMIs were more likely to display warmth/affection and support/sensitivity. Several

  6. The agreement between parent-reported and directly measured child language and parenting behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon K Bennetts

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parenting behaviors are commonly targeted in early interventions to improve children’s language development. Accurate measurement of both parenting behaviors and children’s language outcomes is thus crucial for sensitive assessment of intervention outcomes. To date, only a small number of studies have compared parent-reported and directly measured behaviors, and these have been hampered by small sample sizes and inaccurate statistical techniques, such as correlations. The Bland-Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression represent more reliable alternatives because they allow us to quantify fixed and proportional bias between measures. In this study, we draw on data from two Australian early childhood cohorts (N= 201 parents and slow-to-talk toddlers aged 24 months; and N=218 parents and children aged 6-36 months experiencing social adversity to (1 examine agreement and quantify bias between parent-reported and direct measures, and (2 to determine socio-demographic predictors of the differences between parent-reported and direct measures. Measures of child language and parenting behaviors were collected from parents and their children. Our findings support the utility of the Bland-Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression in comparing measurement methods. Results indicated stronger agreement between parent-reported and directly measured child language, and poorer agreement between measures of parenting behaviors. Child age was associated with difference scores for child language; however the direction varied for each cohort. Parents who rated their child’s temperament as more difficult tended to report lower language scores on the parent questionnaire, compared to the directly measured scores. Older parents tended to report lower parenting responsiveness on the parent questionnaire, compared to directly measured scores. Finally, speaking a language other than English was associated with less responsive parenting behaviors on the

  7. Parenting stress in mothers of children with an intellectual disability: the effects of parental cognitions in relation to child characteristics and family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassall, R; Rose, J; McDonald, J

    2005-06-01

    Recent theories of stress and coping in parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) emphasize the importance of cognitive appraisals in influencing parents' levels of stress and their adaptations to difficulties presented by the children. This study investigated the relationships between parental cognitions, child characteristics, family support and parenting stress. The aspects of cognitions studied were: parenting self-esteem (including efficacy and satisfaction) and parental locus of control. The group studied consisted of 46 mothers of children with ID. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Maladaptive Behavior Domain were administered by interview. Mothers also completed four questionnaires: the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened form of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index (Short Form). Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, partial correlations and a regression analysis. The results indicated that most of the variance in parenting stress was explained by parental locus of control, parenting satisfaction and child behaviour difficulties. Whilst there was also a strong correlation between family support and parenting stress, this was mediated by parental locus of control. The results demonstrate the potential importance of parental cognitions in influencing parental stress levels. It is argued that these results have implications for clinical interventions for promoting parents' coping strategies in managing children with ID and behavioural difficulties.

  8. Perceived child behaviour problems, parenting stress, and marital satisfaction: comparison of new arrival and local parents of preschool children in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shirley S L; Leung, Cynthia; Chan, Ruth

    2007-10-01

    To compare parental perception of child behaviour problems, parenting stress, and marital satisfaction in new arrival and local parents. Cross-sectional survey; semi-structured interview. Maternal and Child Health Centres, social service centres, preschools. Parents of preschool children, including new arrival parents and local parents. Child behaviour problems, parenting stress, and marital satisfaction. After controlling for socio-economic factors, new arrival parents were more troubled by their children's behaviour problems and their parent-child interactions were more dysfunctional than those of local parents. There were no differences in parent-reported severity of child behaviour problems, parental distress, and marital satisfaction. New arrival parents reported difficulties in adapting to the new living environment and lack of social support. New arrival parents were more troubled by their children's behaviour, and their parent-child interactions were more dysfunctional than those of local parents. These might in part be related to their settlement difficulties. Parenting programmes should address their specific settlement needs.

  9. Religiosity and parenting: recent directions in process-oriented research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Cummings, E Mark

    2017-06-01

    Most faith traditions, in principle, promote family life and positive parent-child relationships. In recent years, research has moved beyond questions of whether religion supports positive parenting towards addressing more nuanced process-oriented questions, including how, why, and when religion is linked with adaptive or maladaptive parenting. Relations between religion and multiple specific parenting behaviors (e.g., involvement, warmth, authoritative parenting, communication) are identified, including contexts for when and why relations between religion and parenting are adaptive or maladaptive. A next step for research is the development and testing of theoretical models to more comprehensively account for process relations between religion and parenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mindfulness and parenting distress among parents of children with disabilities: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmad; Ahmad, Muayyad

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for management of parenting distress in parents of children with disabilities. A narrative review was conducted. A search protocol was conducted using Google Scholar, EBSCO, Pubmed, CINAHL, Ovid, and PsycINFO databases up to September 1, 2016. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including MBIs and combined mindfulness and other interventions. Targeted outcomes included in this review were parenting stress and psychological distress. Most of the reviewed papers reported positive role of MBIs to manage parenting distress. The results of this first review on the topic provide preliminary support for the efficacy of MBIs for supporting parents of children with disabilities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Parental attitudes towards the uptake of smoking by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Marewa; Paynter, Janine; Wong, Grace; Scragg, Robert; Nosa, Vili; Freeman, Becky

    2006-08-01

    Factors related to parental smoking and parenting practice have a big effect on adolescent smoking. More in-depth information about these relationships can be used to inform interventions. This study investigated Maori, Pacific Islander, New Zealand European and Asian parent attitudes and practices in relation to smoking uptake in children. Parents of children aged 8-15 years, recruited through the researchers' community networks and the media, participated in focus groups or interviews run by ethnically matched facilitators. Areas addressed included parents' beliefs about children smoking, their actions, and their suggestions for tobacco control activities. The data were analysed thematically. Parents believed that parental smoking, peer pressure and smoking role models in the media influenced smoking uptake in children. They said they would be disappointed if their children started smoking, but their confidence in influencing them varied. Many talked to their children about the health consequences of smoking, including their own negative perceptions of smoking and smokers. Most had smoke-free homes. The parents who smoked tried to avoid smoking around children. There was a good deal of commonality across the different ethnic groups. Important differences related to the provision of interventions. Parents believed in the value of a smoke-free lifestyle and wanted to protect their children from smoking. Important strategies to prevent smoking in children may include supporting parents to quit, informing them that discouraging children of any age from smoking can be effective, and providing culturally appropriate education and resources to facilitate parent/child communication about smoking.

  12. Parent assessment of medical student skills in ambulatory pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Persson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Partnership with parents is a vital part of pediatric medical education, yet few studies have examined parent attitudes towards learners in pediatric settings. Methods: Questionnaires were used to determine parent and student assessment of professional and clinical skills (primary outcome and parent attitudes towards 3rd year medical students (secondary outcome at the University of Alberta. Chi Square, Kendall’s Tau and Kappa coefficients were calculated to compare parent and student responses in 8 areas: communication, respect, knowledge, listening, history taking, physical examination, supervision, and overall satisfaction. Results: Overall satisfaction with medical student involvement by parents was high: 56.7% of all parents ranked the encounter as ‘excellent’. Areas of lesser satisfaction included physician supervision of students. Compared to the parent assessment, students tended to underrate many of their skills, including communication, history taking and physical exam. There was no relationship between parent demographics and their attitude to rating any of the students’ skills. Conclusions: Parents were satisfied with medical student involvement in the care of their children. Areas identified for improvement included increased supervision of students in both history taking and physical examination. This is one of the largest studies examining parent attitudes towards pediatric students. The results may enhance undergraduate curriculum development and teaching in pediatric ambulatory clinics and strengthen the ongoing partnership between the community and teaching clinics.

  13. Parenting begets parenting: A neurobiological perspective on early adversity and the transmission of parenting styles across generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomanowska, A M; Boivin, M; Hertzman, C; Fleming, A S

    2017-02-07

    The developing brains of young children are highly sensitive to input from their social environment. Nurturing social experience during this time promotes the acquisition of social and cognitive skills and emotional competencies. However, many young children are confronted with obstacles to healthy development, including poverty, inappropriate care, and violence, and their enhanced sensitivity to the social environment means that they are highly susceptible to these adverse childhood experiences. One source of social adversity in early life can stem from parenting that is harsh, inconsistent, non-sensitive or hostile. Parenting is considered to be the cornerstone of early socio-emotional development and an adverse parenting style is associated with adjustment problems and a higher risk of developing mood and behavioral disorders. Importantly, there is a growing literature showing that an important predictor of parenting behavior is how parents, especially mothers, were parented themselves. In this review, we examine how adversity in early-life affects mothering behavior in later-life and how these effects may be perpetuated inter-generationally. Relying on studies in humans and animal models, we consider evidence for the intergenerational transmission of mothering styles. We then describe the psychological underpinnings of mothering, including responsiveness to young, executive function and affect, as well as the physiological mediators of mothering behavior, including hormones, brain regions and neurotransmitters, and we consider how development in these relevant domains may be affected by adversity experienced in early life. Finally, we explore how genes and early experience interact to predict mothering behavior, including the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. Understanding how adverse parenting begets adverse parenting in the next generation is critical for designing interventions aimed at preventing this intergenerational cycle of early adversity

  14. Associations between child emotional eating and general parenting style, feeding practices, and parent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Abby; Rhee, Kyung; Peterson, Carol B; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-09-01

    Emotional eating is the tendency to eat in response to negative emotions. Prior research has identified a relationship between parenting style and child emotional eating, but this has not been examined in clinical samples. Furthermore, the relationship between specific parenting practices (e.g., parent feeding practices) and child emotional eating has not yet been investigated. The current study examined relationships between child emotional eating and both general and specific parenting constructs as well as maternal symptoms of depression and binge eating among a treatment-seeking sample of overweight children. Participants included 106 mother-child dyads who attended a baseline assessment for enrollment in a behavioral intervention for overeating. Ages of children ranged from 8 to 12  years old. Mothers completed self-report measures of their child's emotional eating behavior, their own feeding practices, and symptoms of depression and binge eating. Children completed a self-report measure of their mothers' general parenting style. A stepwise regression analysis was conducted to identify the parent variable that was most strongly related to child emotional eating, controlling for child age and gender. Emotional feeding behavior (i.e., a tendency to offer food to soothe a child's negative emotions) was the parent factor most significantly related to child emotional eating. Findings suggest that emotional feeding practices in parents may be related to emotional eating in children. Treatment with overweight children who engage in emotional eating may be improved by targeting parent feeding practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparing the Parenting Role Tasks in Parents of Children with Mental/Physical Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Riyahi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The role of parents during childhood is very important. Imbalances in parenting roles may cause severe emotional and physical injuries in children. The current study aimed at comparing parenting role tasks in parents of children who affected to mental/physical disabilities. Materials and Methods In the current cross sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 230 married couples with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. The parenting role tasks were compared between mothers and fathers. Independent t-test, chi square and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between fathers and mothers based on studied variables including demographic variables, types of child disabilities and history of trauma and seizure. Results Among enrolled children, 49 (21.3% had mental and 99 (43% affecting to physical disabilities. A significant difference regarding the parenting role tasks between mothers and fathers; therefore, the mean score of mothers for parenting role tasks was significantly higher than that of fathers regarding different variables such as demographic data, seizure, trauma, and the type of disabilities in the child (P

  16. Perceived Parental Styles and Adult Separation Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başbuğ, Sezin; Cesur, Gizem; Durak Batıgün, Ayşegül

    2017-01-01

    The Mediating Role of Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions OBJECTIVE: This study primarily aimed to determine whether perceived parental styles and interpersonal cognitive distortions are predictors of adult separation anxiety. Further, this study aimed to examine the mediating role of interpersonal cognitive distortions in the relationship between perceived over-permissive/boundless parental styles and adult separation anxiety in university students. This study included 444 university students (281 female (63,3%) and 163 male (36,7%) with a mean age of sample 21,02 years (SS = 1,70). The Demographic Information Form, Young Parenting Inventory, Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale, and Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire were used. The regression analyses revealed that the age of the participants and their percieved controlling/shaping father parenting style negatively predicted adult separation anxiety, while percieved over-permissive/boundless mother parenting style, exploitative/abusive and overprotective/anxious father parenting styles and the subscales of the interpersonal cognitive distortions scale positively predicted adult separation anxiety. As hypothesized, data from this study reveal that subscales of the interpersonal cognitive distortions scale play a full mediating role in the relationship between over-permissive/boundless parenting styles and adult separation anxiety. Results indicate that the perceived over-permissive/boundless parenting style positively predicts adult separation anxiety symptoms by distorting interpersonal cognitions. Furthermore, the over-permissive parenting style and lack of boundaries and/or discipline lead to similar adverse effects as do authoritarian and normative parenting. To our knowledge, there are very few studies investigating adult separation anxiety symptoms in Turkey. Therefore, our current study provides practical information to mental health professionals regarding adult separation anxiety symptoms, which

  17. Lifestyle and cancer: effect of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Kari; Chen, Bowang

    2006-12-01

    According to previous studies, divorced individuals have increased risks of cancers related to alcohol and tobacco consumption and sexual habits, but the increases are balanced with decreased risks of many common cancers. In the present study, cancer risks were analyzed for 0-70-year-old offspring of divorced parents, on the basis the Swedish Family-Cancer Database with cancer data from the years 1958 to 2002. We calculated standardized incidence ratios for cancer among offspring of divorced parents (19,000 cancer patients) and compared them with offspring of stably married parents (121,000 cancer patients). Standardized incidence ratios were adjusted for many factors, including socio-economic status. Offspring of divorced parents were divided into groups depending on whether their mothers, fathers or both had had children with different partners. Offspring of divorced parents had an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract, esophageal, anal, pancreatic, lung and cervical cancers. Decreased risks were noted for Hodgkin's disease and bone cancer. For Hodgkin's disease, the data suggest protective effects through early exposure to childhood pathogens but for bone cancer mechanisms remain to be established. The overall cancer risk for offspring of divorced parents was at or above unity. The results show that offspring of divorced parents have increased cancer risks at tobacco-related, alcohol-related and sex-related sites, in analogy to their parent, but they lack decreased risks at common sites, experienced by their parents. Divorce is becoming increasingly common in many countries and any deviant cancer patterns among offspring of divorced parents will have an impact on the population risk.

  18. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  19. Parent and child psychopathology and suicide attempts among children of parents with alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Kenneth R; Bossarte, Robert M; Lu, Naiji; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Chan, Grace; Wyman, Peter; Tu, Xin M; Goldston, David B; Houston, Rebecca J; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Hesselbrock, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    Parents with psychopathology such as alcohol use disorder (AUD) that confers risk for suicide attempt (SA) may have children who are more likely to develop such psychopathology and to attempt suicide, suggesting that risk may be "transmitted" from parents to children. We examined this phenomenon during the transition from childhood to adolescence, when risk for SA increases dramatically. A cohort of 418 children were examined at average age 9.4 (range 7-14) years at enrollment (Time 1, childhood) and approximately 5 years later, prior to reaching age 18 (Time 2, adolescence). One or both biological parents, oversampled for AUD, were also interviewed. Structural equation models (SEM) examined father-child, mother-child, and either/both parent-child associations. The primary outcome was SA over follow-up among offspring, assessed at Time 2. As hypothesized, parental antisocial personality disorder predicted conduct disorder symptoms in offspring both during childhood and adolescence (parent-child model, father-child model) and maternal AUD predicted conduct disorder symptoms during childhood (mother-child model). However, we did not find evidence to support transmission of depression from parents to offspring either during childhood or adolescence, and parent psychopathology did not show statistically significant associations with SA during adolescence. In conclusion, we conducted a rare study of parent-to-child "transmission" of risk for SA that used a prospective research design, included diagnostic interviews with both parents and offspring, and examined the transition from childhood to adolescence, and the first such study in children of parents with AUD. Results provided mixed support for hypothesized parent-child associations.

  20. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  1. Parenting Processes and Aggression: The Role of Self-Control among Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Cok, Figen

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the direct and indirect relationships between parenting processes (parental closeness, parental monitoring, and parental peer approval), low self-control, and aggression. Participants were 546 adolescents aged 14-18 attending state high schools in Turkey. Participants completed a questionnaire that included measures of…

  2. Impact of Children's Identified Disability Status on Parent and Teacher Behavior Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwehr, Ethan; Bocanegra, Joel O.; Kwon, Kyongboon; Sheridan, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was an examination of the possible influence of a child's pre-identified disability on parent and teacher behavior ratings and whether a child's disability status affected parent ratings, when controlling for parenting stress. The sample included 206 kindergarten through third grade students and their teachers and parents from a…

  3. The Effect of Parental Involvement and Encouragement on Preschool Children's Symbolic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Podlesek, Anja

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the ways in which parents engage in play with their children within the family context and to establish which parental play behaviour predicts the play behaviour of their children during interactive play with toys. The sample included 58 children from 2;6 to 6 years old and their parents. The parent-child…

  4. The Effects of Social Norms on Parents' Reading Behaviour at Home with Their Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgate, Orla; Ginns, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Currently, parental involvement research considers parents as individuals, and gives little consideration to them as a collective body, including how, as a group, they might influence each other. This study examined the influence of parent social norms on parents' home reading behaviour with their child. Two quasi-experiments conducted in two…

  5. Group treatment for parents of the adult mentally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, C S; Greer, K; Scott, J; Beck, J C

    1982-07-01

    Support and education groups for the families of the mentally ill have been in existence for at least 20 years. The authors describe a group treatment program established in 1979 for parents of chronically mentally ill individuals living in the community. The goal was to help parents become less overprotective, critical, and hostile so that clients would relapse less frequently and improve their social functioning during their time in the community. The groups provided parents with information and support. Some of the results of the groups include the implementation of new hospital procedures, more effective parenting, and a parent-initiated alliance on behalf of the mentally ill in the locality.

  6. Acceptability of HPV vaccine implementation among parents in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Proma; Tanner, Amanda E; Gravitt, Patti E; Vijayaraghavan, K; Shah, Keerti V; Zimet, Gregory D; Study Group, Catch

    2014-01-01

    Due to high cervical cancer rates and limited research on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability in India, the research team examined parental attitudes toward HPV vaccines. Thirty-six interviews with parents were conducted to assess sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related knowledge and HPV-specific vaccine awareness and acceptability. Despite limited knowledge, parents had positive views toward HPV vaccines. Common barriers included concerns about side effects, vaccine cost, and missing work to receive the vaccine. Parents were strongly influenced by health care providers' recommendations. Our findings suggest that addressing parental concerns, health worker training and polices, and efforts to minimize cost will be central to successful HPV vaccine implementation.

  7. Parental Divorce, Parental Religious Characteristics, and Religious Outcomes in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Ellison, Christopher G

    2012-12-01

    Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one's custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family-but not a stepparent family-is positively associated with religious disaffiliation and religious switching and negatively associated with regular religious attendance. Accounting for parental religious characteristics, however, explains sizable proportions of these relationships. Accounting for parental religious affiliation and attendance, growing up with a single parent does not significantly affect religious attendance. Parental religiosity also moderates the relationship between growing up with a single parent and religious attendance: being raised in a single-parent home has a negative effect on religious attendance among adults who had two religiously involved parents.

  8. Screening parents during child evaluations: exploring parent and child psychopathology in the same clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidair, Hilary B; Reyes, Jazmin A; Shen, Sa; Parrilla-Escobar, Maria A; Heleniak, Charlotte M; Hollin, Ilene L; Woodruff, Scott; Turner, J Blake; Rynn, Moira A

    2011-05-01

    Children of depressed and/or anxious parents are at increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders. Little research has focused on screening parents bringing their children for psychiatric evaluation, and few studies have included fathers or Hispanic children. This study had the following aims: 1) to identify current symptom rates in parents bringing their children for evaluation; and 2) to determine whether parental symptoms were associated with children's symptoms, diagnoses, and functioning. The sample included 801 mothers, 182 fathers, and 848 children (aged 6 through 17 years). The majority (55.66%) were Hispanic, who attended a child and adolescent psychiatric evaluation service. Parent and child symptoms were assessed via parental reports. Children's diagnoses and functioning were determined by clinicians. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine whether severity of parental symptoms was associated with clinical child variables adjusting for child and parent demographic variables. In all, 18.80% of mothers and 18.42% of fathers reported elevated internalizing symptoms. Maternal symptoms were significantly associated with problems in children's functioning and children's anxiety, depression, and oppositional/conduct diagnoses; but not attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Adjusting for parental and child demographics had a reduction on the effect of maternal symptoms on child depression. Paternal symptoms and functioning were positively associated with children's diagnoses, but the associations were smaller and not significant. Both parents' symptoms were significantly associated with children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. However, these significant effects were not moderated by marital status or child ethnicity. This study highlights the importance of screening parents when their children receive a psychiatric evaluation. The findings support the development of mental health services that address psychiatric needs of the

  9. Note-taking and Handouts in The Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Elizabeth Moore; Cain, Jeff

    2015-09-25

    Most educators consider note-taking a critical component of formal classroom learning. Advancements in technology such as tablet computers, mobile applications, and recorded lectures are altering classroom dynamics and affecting the way students compose and review class notes. These tools may improve a student's ability to take notes, but they also may hinder learning. In an era of dynamic technology developments, it is important for educators to routinely examine and evaluate influences on formal and informal learning environments. This paper discusses key background literature on student note-taking, identifies recent trends and potential implications of mobile technologies on classroom note-taking and student learning, and discusses future directions for note-taking in the context of digitally enabled lifelong learning.

  10. Note-taking and Handouts in The Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Stacy, Elizabeth Moore; Cain, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Most educators consider note-taking a critical component of formal classroom learning. Advancements in technology such as tablet computers, mobile applications, and recorded lectures are altering classroom dynamics and affecting the way students compose and review class notes. These tools may improve a student’s ability to take notes, but they also may hinder learning. In an era of dynamic technology developments, it is important for educators to routinely examine and evaluate influences on f...

  11. Bush blasts 'filth' on TV, school condom handouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-18

    President Bush complained yesterday about the "filth and indecent material" that Americans are exposed to through televised trials. Mr. Bush also criticized programs to combat AIDS that give condoms to teenagers and clean needles to drug addicts. He said such efforts undermine traditional values. He expressed hope that Earvin "Magic" Johnson's revelation that he is HIV positive "will teach people that wayward lifestyles or just kind of unsafe sex at random is not the way it ought to work." Mr. Bush made the comments in a series of satellite television interviews with ABC affiliates in major cities. In an apparent reaction to graphic testimony at the recent Palm Beach rape trial of William Kennedy Smith, Mr. Bush said, "I think the American people have a right to be protected against some of these excesses." Mr. Smith, a nephew of Sen. Edward M. Kennedy, D-Mass., was acquitted last week. The Cable News Network and Court TV provided virtually gavel-to-gavel coverage. Mr. Bush took a dim view of a plan to distribute condoms to juniors and seniors in Philadelphia city high schools as part of a program to combat acquired immune deficiency syndrome. "This is a disease that can be controlled for the most part by individual behavior," Mr. Bush said. "Indeed, I must tell you I'm worried about it. I'm worried about so much filth and indecent material coming in through the airwaves and through these trials into people's homes," he said. full text

  12. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  13. Building Relationships with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullaj, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Communicating with parents may seem like one more task on top of an overwhelming workload, but creating a positive relationship with parents has many benefits for all involved. The author discusses the steps to creating these relationships and communicating with families.

  14. Handling "Helicopter Parents"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    Once upon a time, parents would help their children move into dorm rooms and apartments, then wave good-bye for the semester. Not anymore. Baby boomers have arguably been more involved in their children's educations--and their lives in general--than any preceding generation of parents, university observers say. And boomers see no reason why that…

  15. Parenting, Pressures and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Graham W.

    2000-01-01

    In the 1990s, parenting became a difficult effort to balance work demands with children's needs. However, Canadian and U.S. government policies have not met changing family needs for child care, other services, paid parental leave, and work flexibility. Canada's long-awaited National Children's Agenda has the potential to modernize family policy…

  16. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ...

  17. Parents, Peers and Pot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, Marsha

    This book looks at the problem of drug abuse, particularly the use of marihuana by children ages 9 to 14, and describes one strategy parents can use to prevent drug use by their children. On the premise that nonmedical drug use is not acceptable for children, parents need to provide guidance and exercise discipline with respect to drug use among…

  18. Pinterest for Parent Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routh, Brianna; Langworthy, Sara; Jastram, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    As more parents are using the Internet to answer their questions, Extension needs to provide practical, research-based resources in an accessible format. Pinterest is a platform that can be used by Extension educators to provide continued education and make reputable resources more discoverable for parents. Based on Knowles adult learning theory…

  19. Gay and Lesbian Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Gay and Lesbian Parents Page Content Article Body I am gay. Should I worry how this will affect my children? Millions of children have one or more gay and/or lesbian parents. For some children, having ...

  20. Sexism in Parenting Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrain, John D.

    1977-01-01

    Parental roles, as delineated in many of the popular parenting manuals on the market, are reviewed and assessed. It is concluded that the vast majority of authors of child-rearing guides implicity or explicitly endorse the traditional roles of father as the dominant breadwinner and mother as the nurturant caretaker. (Author)

  1. Codependency and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.

    1992-01-01

    College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…

  2. Parents on education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lex Herweijer; Ria Vogels

    2004-01-01

    Original title: Ouders over opvoeding en onderwijs. The position of parents with regard to children' education has been changing in recent years: the government believes that they should have a major influence on what happens at their children's school, and also that parents and schools should

  3. Parental knowledge is an environmental influence on adolescent externalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Narusyte, Jurgita; Lichtenstein, Paul; Ganiban, Jody M; Spotts, Erica L; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2015-02-01

    There is evidence both that parental monitoring is an environmental influence serving to diminish adolescent externalizing problems and that this association may be driven by adolescents' characteristics via genetic and/or environmental mechanisms, such that adolescents with fewer problems tell their parents more, and therefore appear to be better monitored. Without information on how parents' and children's genes and environments influence correlated parent and child behaviors, it is impossible to clarify the mechanisms underlying this association. The present study used the Extended Children of Twins model to distinguish types of gene-environment correlation and direct environmental effects underlying associations between parental knowledge and adolescent (age 11-22 years) externalizing behavior with a Swedish sample of 909 twin parents and their adolescent offspring and a US-based sample of 405 White adolescent siblings and their parents. Results suggest that more parental knowledge is associated with less adolescent externalizing via a direct environmental influence independent of any genetic influences. There was no evidence of a child-driven explanation of the association between parental knowledge and adolescent externalizing problems. In this sample of adolescents, parental knowledge exerted an environmental influence on adolescent externalizing after accounting for genetic influences of parents and adolescents. Because the association between parenting and child development originates in the parent, treatment for adolescent externalizing must not only include parents but should also focus on altering their parental style. Thus, findings suggest that teaching parents better knowledge-related monitoring strategies is likely to help reduce externalizing problems in adolescents. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. Perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi N

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nana Takahashi, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata, Koichi Otani Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan Objective: Depressed patients are prone to perceive that they were exposed to affectionless control by parents. Meanwhile, high neuroticism is a well-established risk factor for developing depression. Therefore, this study examined whether perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism.Methods: The subjects were 664 healthy Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental care and protection were assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument. Parental rearing was categorized into either optimal parenting (high care/low protection or three dysfunctional parenting styles including affectionless control (low care/high protection. Neuroticism was evaluated by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised.Results: The subjects with paternal affectionless control had higher neuroticism scores than those with paternal optimal parenting. Similar tendency was observed in maternal rearing. Neuroticism scores increased in a stepwise manner with respect to the increase in the number of parents with affectionless control.Conclusion: The present study shows that perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism, suggesting that this parental style increases neuroticism in recipients. Keywords: parenting, attachment, personality, vulnerability, depression, PBI, NEO PI-R

  5. Validity of the Parental Burnout Inventory Among Dutch Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bakel, Hedwig J A; Van Engen, Marloes L; Peters, Pascale

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Parental Burnout Inventory (PBI) in a Dutch sample of working parents. The Dutch version of the PBI and questionnaires about work were administered to 627 working parents, with at least one child living at home. We investigated whether the tri-dimensional structure of the PBI held in a sample of male and female employed parents. Furthermore, we examined the relationships between PBI and the constructs work-related burnout, depressive mood, parenting stress and work-family conflict, which we assessed with widely used and validated instruments, i.e., emotional exhaustion [a subscale of the Dutch version of Maslach's Burnout Inventory], a Dutch Parental Stress Questionnaire and Work-Family Conflict. The results support the validity of a tri-dimensional parental burnout syndrome, including exhaustion, distancing and inefficacy. Low to moderate correlations between parents' burnout symptoms and professional exhaustion, parenting stress, depressive complaints and work-family conflict experiences were found, suggesting that the concept of PBI differs significantly from the concepts of job burnout, depression and stress, respectively. The current study confirms that some parents are extremely exhausted by their parental role. However, the number of Dutch employees reporting extreme parental burnout is rather low.

  6. Actividades Para Padres: A Parent Handbook (Activities for Parents: A Parent Handbook).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca, Benjamin

    Thirty Mora, New Mexico parents attended a 13-session parent involvement workshop (The Mora Adventure) designed to help parents foster successful school experiences through non-school activities with their children. A parent involvement model was used as the basis of the workshop in which the parents developed more effective communication skills;…

  7. Foster Parents' Involvement in Authoritative Parenting and Interest in Future Parenting Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Kraemer, Linda K.; Bernard, Amy L.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2007-01-01

    We surveyed 191 Southwest Ohio foster parents regarding their involvement in authoritative parenting and interest for additional parenting education. Our results showed that most respondents reported using an authoritative parenting style and were interested in receiving future training. Involvement in authoritative parenting differed…

  8. Parental Cognitions, Parental Behavior, and the Child's Understanding of the Parent-Child Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekovic, Maja; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Studied the relationship of parental reasoning complexity to parental behavior during parent-child interactions, and the effect of this relationship on children's social cognitions. Results indicate that parental reasoning complexity is related to parental behaviors of restrictive control, authoritative control, and support, which, in turn, are…

  9. Parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rodenburg (Gerda); A. Oenema (Anke); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the association between parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1762 parent-child dyads. Mean age of the children was 8. years. One parent completed

  10. Parents who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmøller, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Parents who use drugs parent in a context of heightened concern regarding the damaging effects of parental drug use on child welfare and family life. Yet there is little research exploring how parents who use drugs account for such damage and its limitation. We draw here upon analyses of audio......-recorded depth qualitative interviews, conducted in south-east England between 2008 and 2009, with 29 parents who use drugs. Our approach to thematic analysis treated accounts as co-produced and socially situated. An over-arching theme of accounts was 'damage limitation'. Most damage limitation work centred...... on efforts to create a sense of normalcy of family life, involving keeping drug use secret from children, and investing heavily in strategies to maintain ambiguity regarding children's awareness. Our analysis highlights that damage limitation strategies double-up in accounts as resources of child protection...

  11. Parenting stress and affective symptoms in parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yun; Du, YaSong; Li, HuiLin; Zhang, XiYan; An, Yu; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2015-10-01

    We examined parenting stress and mental health status in parents of autistic children and assessed factors associated with such stress. Participants were parents of 188 autistic children diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria and parents of 144 normally developing children. Parents of autistic children reported higher levels of stress, depression, and anxiety than parents of normally developing children. Mothers of autistic children had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than that did parents of normally developing children. Mothers compared to fathers of autistic children were more vulnerable to depression. Age, behavior problems of autistic children, and mothers' anxiety were significantly associated with parenting stress.

  12. Parent and child asthma illness representations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonney, Jennifer T; Gerald, Lynn B; Insel, Kathleen C

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to synthesize the current literature on parent and child asthma illness representations and their consequent impact on parent-child asthma shared management. This systematic review was conducted in concordance with the PRISMA statement. An electronic search of five computerized databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane, and EMBASE) was conducted using the following key words: asthma, illness representation, and child. Due to the limited number of articles identified, the search was broadened to include illness perceptions as well. Studies were included if they were specific to asthma and included parent and/or child asthma illness representations or perception, were published after 2000, and available in English. Fifteen articles were selected for inclusion. All of the articles are descriptive studies that used cross-sectional designs. Seven of the studies used parent and child participants, eight used parents only, and none used only child participants. None of the selected studies describe child asthma illness representations, and only three describe parental asthma illness representations. Domains of illness representations, including symptoms, timeline, consequences, cause, and controllability were described in the remaining articles. Symptoms and controllability appear to have the most influence on parental asthma management practices. Parents prefer symptomatic or intermittent asthma management and frequently cite concerns regarding daily controller medication use. Parents also primarily rely on their own objective symptom observations rather than the child's report of symptoms. Asthma illness representations are an important area of future study to better understand parent-child shared asthma management.

  13. Procedimientos Comunes de Operacion Para Juntas Responsabilidades y Derechos del Presidente, Vice Presidente, Secretaria, y Miembros (Standard Procedures of Operation for Meetings, Rights, and Responsibilities of the President, Vice President, Secretary, and Members).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ramon

    Of use to Parent Advisory Committees, this Spanish-English handout briefly describes the standard procedures used to conduct meetings and outlines the duties of committee officers and members. The pamphlet describes the standard order of business at a meeting, including calling a meeting to order, roll call, minutes, reports, unfinished and new…

  14. About Teen Suicide (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thoughts. Teens going through major life changes (parents' divorce, moving, a parent leaving home due to military service or parental separation, financial changes) and those who are victims of ...

  15. Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?: Adolescent Interpretations of Parental Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Diana S; Miller-Day, Michelle; Raup-Krieger, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Parents are powerful socialization agents for children and as children reach adolescence parental role models, among other sources of influence, become particularly salient in adolescents' decision-making regarding initiation of substance use. Open parent-adolescent communication about substances is associated with less substance use by adolescents; however, it is unclear how youth interpret anti-drug use messages from their parents, especially if the parents engage in legal and/or illicit substance use themselves. Framed by social learning theory and social constructionism, this study analyzed in-depth interviews with 108 adolescents about personal experiences with substance use, family communication about substance use, and adolescent interpretations of parental use. Emergent themes in the data include : positive parental influence , parental contradictions , and negative outcomes of use . Prevalence of parental use-regardless of legality, rarity of explicit communication about parental use, and various interpretations of parental use are discussed.

  16. A Latent Profile Analysis of Latino Parenting: The Infusion of Cultural Values on Family Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayón, Cecilia; Williams, Lela Rankin; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Ayers, Stephanie; Kiehne, Elizabeth

    The purpose of the present study was to (a) examine how acculturation and social support inform Latinos' parenting behaviors, controlling for gender and education; (b) describe parenting styles among Latino immigrants while accounting for cultural elements; and (c) test how these parenting styles are associated with family conflict. A 3 step latent profile analysis with the sample ( N = 489) revealed best fit with a 4 profile model ( n = 410) of parenting: family parenting ( n = 268, 65%), child-centered parenting ( n = 68, 17%), moderate parenting ( n = 60, 15%), and disciplinarian parenting ( n = 14, 3%). Parents' gender, acculturation, and social support significantly predicted profile membership. Disciplinarian and moderate parenting were associated with more family conflict. Recommendations include integrating culturally based parenting practices as a critical element to family interventions to minimize conflict and promote positive youth development.

  17. Engaging Parents to Promote Children's Nutrition and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Dipti A; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Ramsay, Samantha; McBride, Brent; Srivastava, Deepa; Murriel, Ashleigh; Arcan, Chrisa; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M

    2017-03-01

    Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks as a framework, this study examined childcare providers' (Head Start [HS], Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP] funded, and non-CACFP) perspectives regarding communicating with parents about nutrition to promote children's health. Qualitative. State-licensed center-based childcare programs. Full-time childcare providers (n = 18) caring for children 2 to 5 years old from varying childcare contexts (HS, CACFP funded, and non-CACFP), race, education, and years of experience. In-person interviews using semi-structured interview protocol until saturation were achieved. Thematic analysis was conducted. Two overarching themes were barriers and strategies to communicate with parents about children's nutrition. Barriers to communication included-(a) parents are too busy to talk with providers, (b) parents offer unhealthy foods, (c) parents prioritize talking about child food issues over nutrition, (d) providers are unsure of how to communicate about nutrition without offending parents, and (e) providers are concerned if parents are receptive to nutrition education materials. Strategies for communication included-(a) recognize the benefits of communicating with parents about nutrition to support child health, (b) build a partnership with parents through education, (c) leverage policy (federal and state) to communicate positively and avoid conflict, (d) implement center-level practices to reinforce policy, and (e) foster a respectful relationship between providers and parents. Policy and environmental changes were recommended for fostering a respectful relationship and building a bridge between providers and parents to improve communication about children's nutrition and health.

  18. A controlled clinical evaluation of the Parents Plus Children's Programme for parents of children aged 6-12 with mild intellectual disability in a school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Ailish; Raghallaigh, Ciara Ní; Cuppage, Jennifer; Coyle, Sadhbh; Sharry, John

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the parent training, Parents Plus Children's Programme (PPCP) as an intervention for parents of children with mild intellectual disabilities. Participants were parents of children, aged six to 12, attending a special school for children with mild general learning disability (n = 29). Minor programme adaptations were made. Pre and post-assessment included the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Parenting Stress Index, the Kansas Parent Satisfaction Scale and parent identified personal and child-related goals. A significant reduction in clinical range scores for treatment group participants (n = 16) was observed. Conversely, clinical range scores for control group participants (n = 13) increased, or remained elevated. These preliminary results suggest that PPCP may be successfully delivered as a routine community-based intervention and aid to prevent and reduce behavioural problems, reduce parent stress and increase parent confidence and satisfaction. Further investigation of programme effectiveness for parents of children with developmental disability is warranted.

  19. Engaging Parents in Parent Engagement Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Steven; List, John; Metcalfe, Robert; Sadoff, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, policymakers, and educators have long recognized the role of parents in shaping student achievement. A large body of observational studies documents the strong relationship between family background and educational outcomes, but to date there have been very few experimental studies in this area. In this study, the authors offer a…

  20. Determinants of harsh parenting in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías-Armenta, M; McCloskey, L A

    1998-04-01

    This paper presents a structural model of the determinants of harsh parenting among Mexican mothers. One hundred five mothers (46 from the community; 59 referred to agencies for child maltreatment) were recruited from Sonora (Northern) Mexico and interviewed. In this model the use of physical punishment was explained by (1) authoritarian parenting style (mothers' beliefs concerning the effective use of physical punishment and mothers' lack of disciplinary skills) and (2) family dysfunction (a latent variable constructed from reports of interspousal violence and the parents' use of alcohol and drugs). In addition, the indirect effects of demographic and historical variables on harsh parenting was included. The findings show that the most important factor influencing the use of physical punishment in these families was authoritarian parenting style, exerting a significant direct effect on the mothers' reports of their use of harsh punishment. Family dysfunction had an indirect effect through parenting style. Some sociodemographic variables also indirectly influenced the use of beliefs maternal punishment It is concluded that cultural beliefs play a major role in parenting within the framework of Mexican family relations.

  1. Black Hawk down? Establishing helicopter parenting as a distinct construct from other forms of parental control during emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Nelson, Larry J

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to establish a measure of helicopter parenting that was distinct from other forms of parental control, and to examine parental and behavioral correlates of helicopter parenting. Participants included 438 undergraduate students from four universities in the United States (M(age) = 19.65, SD = 2.00, range = 18-29; 320 women, 118 men), and at least one of their parents. Analyses revealed that helicopter parenting loaded on a separate factor from both behavioral and psychological control, and that helicopter parenting was positively associated with behavioral and psychological control, but not at levels suggesting complete overlap. Results also revealed that helicopter parenting was positively associated with parental involvement and with other positive aspects of the parent-child relationship; but negatively associated with parental autonomy granting and school engagement. Discussion focuses on the implications of helicopter parenting for healthy development during emerging adulthood. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gay and Bisexual Adolescent Boys' Perspectives on Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Parenting Practices Related to Teen Sex and Dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; Thomann, Matthew; Coventry, Ryan; Macapagal, Kathryn; Mustanski, Brian; Newcomb, Michael E

    2017-12-26

    Close parent-adolescent relationships and specific parenting practices (e.g., communication about sex, monitoring) are associated with reduced sexual risk behavior among heterosexual youth. Despite gay/bisexual male youth being at increased risk of HIV, little is known about parental influences on their sexual behavior. As such, the goal of the current study was to examine parent-adolescent relationships and parenting practices related to teen sex and dating from the perspective of gay/bisexual adolescent boys. Online focus groups were conducted with 52 gay/bisexual male youth ages 14-17 years. Most gay/bisexual adolescent boys felt that their sexual orientation had an influence on their relationships with their parents and discussions about sex/dating. Although some felt that their relationships improved after coming out, a larger percentage reported that it put strain on their relationships. Discussions about sex/dating generally decreased after coming out, but some youth described positive conversations with their parents. Many reported that their parents struggled with whether or not to adapt parenting practices (e.g., rules about dating) after they came out. Youth consistently noted that parent-adolescent relationships and parenting practices depended on the adolescent's level of outness. Findings have important implications for refining HIV prevention programs for gay/bisexual adolescent boys, especially interventions that include parents.

  3. What to include in your birth plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - birth plan ... Birth plans are guides that parents-to-be make to help their health care providers best support them during ... things to consider before you make a birth plan. This is a great time to learn about ...

  4. Personality and parenting style in parents of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huver, Rose M E; Otten, Roy; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-06-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved) from scores on the underlying dimensions of support and strict control. Regression analyses were used to determine which personality traits were associated with parenting dimensions and styles. As regards dimensions, the two aspects of personality reflecting interpersonal interactions (extraversion and agreeableness) were related to supportiveness. Emotional stability was associated with lower strict control. As regards parenting styles, extraverted, agreeable, and less emotionally stable individuals were most likely to be authoritative parents. Conscientiousness and openness did not relate to general parenting, but might be associated with more content-specific acts of parenting.

  5. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  6. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  7. Parental insightfulness: retrospect and prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren-Karie, Nina; Oppenheim, David

    2018-06-01

    We open this introductory paper to the special issue with the theoretical and clinical roots of the insightfulness concept. Next, the Insightfulness Assessment (IA) is presented, followed by a review of key empirical findings supporting the IA. The central points in the papers in this special issue are reviewed next. These include the use of the IA with parents of children ranging in age from infancy to adolescence, its applicability outside the parent-child relationship (e.g. insightfulness toward a close friend), its use with high-risk mothers, and the usefulness of insightfulness both as a continuous and a categorical measure. The clinical applications of the IA are discussed, and we close with future directions for IA research.

  8. Are parents eating their greens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grønhøj, Alice

    2014-01-01

    /implications - The consumption data is limited to self-report. Practical implications - The results indicate that parents can be influenced indirectly by school-based interventions targeted at their children. Future interventions should include the family with the intent to support positive interaction that might further......Purpose - We study the extent of change in parents’ fruit and vegetable consumption during a period when their children participate in a school-based healthy eating intervention. Design/methodology/approach - 256 12-year old Danish schoolchildren took part in a text-message feedback intervention...... promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. One parent of each child filled out self-administered questionnaires at three points during the 40-week long study period. In the questionnaire, stated consumption, perceived influence factors on their consumption and self-efficacy and self-regulation were measured...

  9. A Preliminary Investigation of the Relationship between Parenting, Parent-Child Shared Reading Practices, and Child Development in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Casey A.; Stacks, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relations between parenting, shared reading practices, and child development. Participants included 28 children (M = 24.66 months, SD = 8.41 months) and their parents. Measures included naturalistic observations of parenting and shared reading quality, assessments of child cognitive and language development, and home reading…

  10. Parental bonding after preterm birth: child and parent perspectives in the Helsinki study of very low birth weight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyhälä, Riikka; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Lahti, Jari; Hovi, Petteri; Strang-Karlsson, Sonja; Andersson, Sture; Eriksson, Johan G; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Kajantie, Eero

    2011-02-01

    To examine whether parenting behavior recalled by very low birth weight (VLBW) adults or their parents differs from that of term-born control subjects or their parents. A total of 164 VLBW and 172 control adults (mean age 22.5 years, SD 2.2) assessed retrospectively the parenting behavior of their parents by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which includes dimensions of care, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. A subgroup of 190 mothers and 154 fathers assessed their own parenting behavior by the Parent Behavior Inventory, which includes dimensions of supportive and hostile parenting. The VLBW women assessed their mothers as more protective and authoritarian than the control women. The VLBW and control men did not differ from each other. Both mothers and fathers of the VLBW adults assessed their own parenting as more supportive than those of the control subjects. Preterm birth at VLBW may promote a more protective, as well as more supportive, parenting style. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. von Willebrand Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  12. Childhood Cancer: Leukemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  13. Dealing with Cuts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  14. Parental Influences on Children's Self-Regulation of Energy Intake: Insights from Developmental Literature on Emotion Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie A. Frankel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article examines the role of parents in the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake. Various paths of parental influence are offered based on the literature on parental influences on children's emotion self-regulation. The parental paths include modeling, responses to children's behavior, assistance in helping children self-regulate, and motivating children through rewards and punishments. Additionally, sources of variation in parental influences on regulation are examined, including parenting style, child temperament, and child-parent attachment security. Parallels in the nature of parents' role in socializing children's regulation of emotions and energy intake are examined. Implications for future research are discussed.

  15. Psychosocial implications of disorders of sex development treatment for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Amy B

    2017-01-01

    Historically, studies of caregivers of children with disorders of sex development (DSD) have been limited. Recent data reveal that parents of young children with DSD report increased stress, anxiety, depression, and decreased quality of life in ways that are similar to parents of children with other types of chronic illnesses. Also similar to other chronic illnesses of childhood, parents of children with DSD exhibit overprotective parenting and perceive their child as being vulnerable. These emotions and behaviors exhibited by parents are concerning as they may limit an affected child's emotional and social development over time. Perhaps, more unique to the situation of DSD is the perceived, or real, child-focused stigma experienced by parents of children with DSD. Interventions to improve parents' psychosocial adaptation to their child's medical condition, including coaching in how to discuss their child's condition in a manner that makes them feel safe and supported, are needed to optimize outcomes for families.

  16. Review of parental activation interventions for parents of children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, M; Krischer, A; Stolley, M; Magaña, S; Martin, M

    2018-05-01

    A large number of U.S. children are identified as having special health care needs (CSHCN). Despite parents' central role in managing their child's needs, many parents report difficulties in navigating service systems, finding information about their child's condition, and accessing health care and community resources. Therefore, there is a need for interventions that "activate" parents of children with special health care needs to increase their knowledge, skills, and confidence in managing, coordinating, and advocating for their child's needs. This study sought to review the existing literature and examine the effects of parent support interventions that focus on parental activation either in part or whole, on child, parent, or family outcomes. Specific aims included (a) summarizing the nature and content of interventions; (b) describing changes in relevant outcomes; (c) identifying limitations and making recommendations for future research. Following electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO via ProQuest, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health via EBSCO, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) via ProQuest, The Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Methodology Register), and Google Scholar. Twenty-two studies were selected, data were extracted, and quality was assessed using standardized procedures. Five intervention categories were identified: parent-to-parent supports, psycho-educational groups, content-specific groups, community health worker model, and self-management-based interventions. Although most studies showed positive effects of the intervention, evidence was inconsistent for parental outcomes such as self-efficacy, confidence, strain, depression, and perceived social support. Evidence was more consistent in showing improvement in parent coping and in use of community-based services and resources. There is a need to boost active

  17. Emotional And Behavioral Problems of Single Parent Vs. Two Parent Children: Imam Khomeini Charity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hajebi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this survey is to compare the emotional and behavioral problems of children with only one parent versus those from two-parent families. We analyzed behavioral problems such as aggression, delinquency and socialization issues, as well as emotional problems such as depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints.Methods: Using a multi-stage cluster sampling, 10 of the 20 geographic regions covered by Imam Khomeini Charity were selected. Using systematic random sampling, 460 families with children aged 4-18 years were selected. All children were evaluated using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL to determine behavioral and emotional problems. Logistic regression tests were conducted to measure the effects variables, including age, gender, number of parents in the family, psychiatric history of each child and history of parental psychiatric treatment, on the internalizing, externalizing and total CBCL scores. A cut-off score of 64 was used to convert raw scores.Results: No differences were observed in CBCL subscales between single-parent children vs. children of two-parent families.Conclusion: Regarding the two-parent families among the study population, the results could not be generalized. As these families have qualified for assistance, the father cannot manage the family because of his disability, such as physical or mental problems. This minimizes the effect of having a father in a two-parent family, rendering them similar to single-parent families. Thus, differences were not observed between the two types of families. Further studies are necessary to compare single-parent families with two-parent families among the community.

  18. Parenting and Digital Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Radesky, Jenny; Collier, Kevin M; Gentile, Douglas A; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Nathanson, Amy I; Rasmussen, Eric E; Reich, Stephanie M; Rogers, Jean

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the family dynamic surrounding media use is crucial to our understanding of media effects, policy development, and the targeting of individuals and families for interventions to benefit child health and development. The Families, Parenting, and Media Workgroup reviewed the relevant research from the past few decades. We find that child characteristics, the parent-child relationship, parental mediation practices, and parents' own use of media all can influence children's media use, their attitudes regarding media, and the effects of media on children. However, gaps remain. First, more research is needed on best practices of parental mediation for both traditional and new media. Ideally, this research will involve large-scale, longitudinal studies that manage children from infancy to adulthood. Second, we need to better understand the relationship between parent media use and child media use and specifically how media may interfere with or strengthen parent-child relationships. Finally, longitudinal research on how developmental processes and individual child characteristics influence the intersection between media and family life is needed. The majority of children's media use takes place within a wider family dynamic. An understanding of this dynamic is crucial to understanding child media use as a whole. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Parents' satisfaction with pediatric ambulatory anesthesia in northeast of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonmak, Suhattaya; Boonmak, Polpun; Pothiruk, Kittawan; Hoontanee, Nattakhan

    2009-12-01

    Study the satisfaction of parents with ambulatory anesthesia and associated factors, including characteristics of the patients and their parents. This was a prospective, descriptive, observation study. The authors included children who were scheduled for ambulatory anesthetic service between birth and 14 years of age and attended at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand. The authors excluded patients whose parents could not be reached by telephone. Before anesthesia, the authors recorded the patients and parents' characteristics, level of information perception (pre-, peri- and post-anesthesia and complications). After anesthesia, the anesthesia technique and any complications were recorded. The day after anesthesia, the authors made phone calls to the patients to record the parents' satisfaction score (viz, of overall, pre-, peri- and post-anesthesia care, and information about the level of patient care at home), and any anesthesia related complications. Ninety-two patients and their parents were included in the present study. Overall parents 'satisfaction with the anesthesia service was 96.7% (i.e., 89/92) (95% CI 90.8-99.3). Parents' satisfaction with pre- and peri-anesthesia care was 100% (95% CI 96.1-100) and 97.9% (95% CI 92.4-99.7), respectively. Parents' satisfaction with the PACU care and information of patient care at home was 96.7% (95% CI 90.8-99.3) and 91.3% (95% CI 83.6-96.2), respectively. Associated factors where parents were dissatisfied included PACU care satisfaction (i.e., relative risk 22.5 (95% CI 3.2-158)) and patient care information at home (i.e., relative risk 13.3 (95% CI 1.3-136.0)). The present study showed a high level of parents' satisfaction. Parents' dissatisfaction associated with PACU care and information about post anesthesia care at home. Additionally information on parents' characteristics provides invaluable data for improving pediatric ambulatory anesthesia in Srinagarind Hospital.

  20. Assessment of parental understanding of paediatric medical prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiqua Anjum, Nasir Mohiuddin M, Narayan Reddy U, Narsing Rao J, Sana Afreen, Mir S Adil, Javeedullah M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical prescriptions are bound to be misinterpreted by patients and pharmacists if not properly conveyed. Pediatric prescriptions differ from adult prescriptions having wide variation in doses and formulations. There is a need to evaluate the lacunae in the parental understanding of pediatric prescriptions. Aims and objective: To evaluate the parental understanding of pediatric prescription and to evaluate the adequacy of communication with the physician and pharmacist regarding the same. Material and methods: 550 parents were enrolled and their literacy level was noted. They were subjected to modify MUSE questionnaire. Physician’s prescription was analyzed in terms of ease of understanding by parents. These parents were followed up till the pharmacies and the pharmacist understanding of prescription was analyzed and their communication with parents regarding drug usage was noted. Finally, ease of usage of drugs by parents was noted. Results: MUSE scale was modified to suit pediatric prescription understanding by parents and also additional questions were asked to include complete parental understanding of doctor’s prescription. Majority of parents failed to completely understand the written prescription. Though around 80% of pharmacist could understand the prescription, their communication with parents was poor resulting in difficulty for parents to even enquire about medicines from them. Parental overall understanding of prescription increased with their literacy levels. Conclusion: Not all prescriptions are completely understood by parents as well as a pharmacist. This can lead to misuse of drugs. Efforts to explain the drug usage are not adequate enough from the doctor or the pharmacist. While communicating literacy levels of parents is not being considered which may further worsen the understanding ability

  1. What influences parents' decisions to limit or withdraw life support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Mahesh; Meert, Kathleen L; Sarnaik, Ashok P

    2005-09-01

    Decisions to forgo life support from critically ill children are commonly faced by parents and physicians. Previous research regarding parents' perspectives on the decision-making process has been limited by retrospective methods and the use of closed-ended questionnaires. We prospectively identified and described parents' self-reported influences on decisions to forgo life support from their children. Deeper understanding of parents' views will allow physicians to focus end-of-life discussions on factors important to parents and help resolve conflicts. Prospective, qualitative pilot study. Pediatric intensive care unit of a university-affiliated children's hospital. A total of 14 parents of ten children whose pediatric intensive care unit physician had made a recommendation to limit or withdraw life support. : In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with parents during their decision-making process. Factors influencing the parents in this study in their decision to forgo life support included their previous experience with death and end-of-life decision making for others, their personal observations of their child's suffering, their perceptions of their child's will to survive, their need to protect and advocate for their child, and the family's financial resources and concerns regarding life-long care. Parents in this study expressed the desire to do what is best for their child but struggled with feelings of selfishness, guilt, and the need to avoid agony and sorrow. Physician recommendations, review of options, and joint formulation of a plan helped parents gain a sense of control over their situation. Parents of eight children agreed to forgo life support and parents of two did not. Prospective interviews with open-ended questions identified factors influencing parents' decision making not previously described in the critical care literature such as parents' past experiences with end-of-life decisions and their anticipated emotional adjustments and

  2. Parents' difficulties with decisions about childhood immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Helen; Campion-Smith, Charles; Thomas, Sarah; Ward, William

    2008-10-01

    Uptake of childhood immunisation fluctuates in the UK. Convenience, access and parents' relationships with professionals influence uptake. This study explores the decision-making by parents about their children's immunisation through focus groups with analysis to identify categories of concern. Issues raised in focus groups included fear, risk, anger, worry and guilt, confusion, difficulty of decision-making and trust of professionals. The parents of completely and incompletely immunised children shared areas of concern, but there were also significant differences. There was a subset of parents of incompletely immunised children who had decided that their children would not have full immunisation, and this group had little trust in information provided by healthcare professionals. Simply providing more information is unlikely to change their decision.

  3. Inequalities in Parental Spending on Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino Kornrich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates inequality in parental spending on young children over the period from 1972 to 2010. I find increased spending among parents at the top of the income distribution but little change among parents at the bottom of the income distribution. The gap in spending is equally attributable to increased spending on center-based care for preschool-age children and spending on enrichment goods and activities. The article examines potential causes of increased spending, including income, parental education, and wife’s work status, using decomposition analysis. Results indicate that higher incomes are the largest cause of the increased gap in spending but that increases in wife’s earnings, college completion, and wife’s work hours are also important for growth in spending.

  4. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Geest, K. E.; Mérelle, S. Y. M.; Rodenburg, G.; Van de Mheen, D.; Renders, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the ...

  5. Influence of adult attachment insecurities on parenting self-esteem: the mediating role of dyadic adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Vincenzo; Bianco, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents’ self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent-child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem.Methods: The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects) of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0 to 6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close R...

  6. Intergenerational support, satisfaction with parent-child relationship and elderly parents' life satisfaction in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chenhong; Kwok, Chi Leung; Law, Yik Wa; Yip, Paul S F; Cheng, Qijin

    2018-01-22

    This study examines in what exchange patterns that three types of intergenerational support are associated with elderly parents' life satisfaction, and whether elderly parents' evaluation on parent-child relationship plays a mediation role on those associations. Data were drawn from Hong Kong Panel Survey for Poverty Alleviation. Respondents aged 65 and over were included ( N=504). Three types of support, namely, daily-living, financial, and emotional support were examined in four patterns-the over-benefited , under-benefited , reciprocal and no flow of exchange. A multivariable linear regression was applied to investigate the association between pattern of intergenerational exchange and life satisfaction, and mediation analysis was employed to examine the mediating role of satisfaction with parent-child relationship on their associations. Elderly parents were less satisfied with their lives when they had no flow of exchange in daily-living support, and more satisfied when they were under-benefited in financial support, and over-benefited or reciprocal in emotional support. Elderly parents' satisfaction with parent-child relationship mediated the association between exchange of emotional support and life satisfaction; but not the association between daily-living or financial support and life satisfaction. Different types of intergenerational support are associated with elderly parents' life satisfaction in different patterns.

  7. The Role of Unconditional Parental Regard in Autonomy-Supportive Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Guy; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Assor, Avi

    2016-12-01

    Two studies explored the role of parents' unconditional positive regard (UCPR) as perceived by adolescents and young adults in promoting the effectiveness of specific parenting practices that may support offspring's academic autonomous motivation. Study 1 tested the hypothesis that UCPR predicts rationale-giving and choice-provision practices and, at the same time, moderates their relations with adolescents' autonomous motivation. Study 2 replicated the association between UCPR and the parental practices, and further explored the role of parents' authenticity as an antecedent of UCPR and parental autonomy support. Study 1 included 125 adolescents and Study 2 considered 128 college-students and their mothers. The offspring reported on their perceptions of their mothers and on their autonomous motivation, and the mothers reported on their sense of authenticity. Both studies found consistent associations between UCPR and parenting practices that may support autonomous motivation. Moreover, Study 1 demonstrated that the rationale giving and choice provision were more strongly related to adolescents' autonomous motivation when adolescents perceived mothers as high on UCPR. Finally, Study 2 demonstrated that mothers' authenticity predicted UCPR, which in turn was related to autonomy-supportive parenting. Findings support the assumption that parents' autonomy-supportive practices are more effective when accompanied by UCPR. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Parental sedentary restriction, maternal parenting style, and television viewing among 10- to 11-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Davison, Kirsten K; Thompson, Janice L; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Fox, Kenneth R

    2011-09-01

    To examine whether parenting styles or practices were associated with children's television (TV) viewing. A total of 431 parent-child dyads (10- to 11-year-old children) from Bristol, United Kingdom, were included. Child and parent TV viewing were self-reported and categorized as 4 hours/day. Children reported maternal parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, or permissive). Child-reported maternal and paternal sedentary restriction scores were combined to create a family-level restriction score. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether child TV viewing was predicted by parenting style or family restriction. A greater proportion of children with permissive mothers watched >4 hours of TV per day, compared with children with authoritarian or authoritative mothers (P = .033). A greater proportion of children for whom both parents demonstrated high restriction watched 4 hours (vs 4 hours of TV per day was 5.2 times higher for children with permissive (versus authoritative) mothers (P = .010). Clinicians need to talk directly with parents about the need to place limitations on children's screen time and to encourage both parents to reinforce restriction messages.

  9. Adolescents' prospective screen time by gender and parental education, the mediation of parental influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totland, Torunn H; Bjelland, Mona; Lien, Nanna; Bergh, Ingunn H; Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Grydeland, May; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Andersen, Lene F

    2013-07-06

    The present study investigated associations in gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' time spent on television and video viewing (TV/DVD), and computer and electronic game use (PC/games) at the ages of 11 and 13 years. Possible mediating effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the relationship between parental education and adolescents' prospective TV/DVD and PC/game time were further examined. A total of 908 adolescents, participating at both ages 11 and 13 years in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007-2009), were included in the analyses. Data on adolescents', mothers' and fathers' self reported time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games were measured at both time points by questionnaires. Correlation coefficients were used to examine gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' reports. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated possible mediation effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents' time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games between the ages of 11 and 13 years. Correlations of screen time behaviours in gender dyads of parents and adolescents showed significant associations in time spent on TV/DVD at the age of 11 and 13 years. Associations between mothers and sons and between fathers and daughters were also observed in time spent on PC/games at the age of 11 years. Maternal and paternal modelling was further found to mediate the relationship between parental education and adolescents' prospective TV/DVD time between the ages of 11 and 13 years. No mediation effect was observed for parental regulation, however a decrease in both maternal and paternal regulation at the age of 11 years significantly predicted more TV/DVD time among adolescents at the age of 13 years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships were observed in gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' screen time behaviours at the ages of 11 and 13 years, and further

  10. Family and relationship influences on parenting behaviors of young parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Trace; Murphy, Alexandrea; Lewis, Jessica; Divney, Anna; Albritton, Tashuna; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick

    2014-02-01

    Assess the influence of relationship and family factors during pregnancy on parenting behavior 6 months postpartum among low-income young parents. Some 434 young expectant couples were recruited from obstetrics clinics during pregnancy and followed 6 months postpartum. Using a series of general estimating equations to control for the correlated nature of the data, we assessed the influence of relationship factors (e.g., relationship satisfaction, attachment) and family factors (e.g., family functioning, family history) during pregnancy on parenting (e.g., parenting involvement, time spent caregiving, parenting experiences, and parenting sense of competence) 6 months postpartum controlling for covariates. Relationship functioning related to parenting involvement, caregiving, parenting experiences, and parenting sense of competence. In addition, several family factors related to parenting. Mother involvement during childhood was related to more parenting involvement, parenting positive experiences, and parenting sense of competence. History of being spanked as a child related to less time spent caregiving and less positive life change from being a parent. Further, gender significantly moderated the associations between relationship and family factors and parenting behavior. Male parenting behavior was more influenced by relationship and family factors than female parenting. This study suggests the importance of relationship and family contexts for parenting behaviors of young mothers and fathers, highlighting the potential utility of involving both young mothers and fathers in parenting programs, and developing interventions that focus on strengthening young parents' romantic relationships and that address negative parenting experienced during childhood. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Internet Use by Parents of Children With Rare Conditions: Findings From a Study on Parents' Web Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Honor; Tracey, Catherine; Begley, Thelma; King, Carole; Lynch, Aileen M

    2017-02-28

    their child's condition. The evolving and ever increasing parent-to-parent support systems via social media are impacting on parents' capacity to manage their children. Implications for practice include health care professionals' response to this knowledge and capacity shift, and the significance of these changes when interacting with parents. The key message of this study was that parents of children with rare conditions are habitual users of the Internet to source information about their children's conditions. Social media, especially Facebook, has an increasing role in the lives of these parents for information and support. Parents' interest in information gathering and sharing includes a desire for shared dialogue with health care professionals. ©Honor Nicholl, Catherine Tracey, Thelma Begley, Carole King, Aileen M Lynch. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 28.02.2017.

  12. Parent-Child Communication and Parental Involvement in Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Tatiana M.; Cardemil, Esteban V.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the associations among parent-child relationship characteristics, acculturation and enculturation, and child externalizing symptoms in a sample of 40 Latino parent-adolescent dyads. Specifically, the associations between parent-child relationship characteristics (i.e., communication and parental involvement) and adolescents'…

  13. Managing "Spoiled Identities": Parents' Experiences of Compulsory Parenting Support Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    While recent years have seen a rapid growth of research exploring the usefulness of parenting support programmes, no empirical research to date has specifically explored experiences of compulsory parenting support. The present study examines the narrative accounts of 17 parents who, through a Parenting Order, were made to participate in such…

  14. Teacher and parent experiences of parent-teacher conferences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    teachers are seldom trained to interact with parents, and both parents and teachers often find such encounters stressful and ineffective. This paper investigates parent and teacher perspectives on the parent-teacher conference through a qualitative inquiry. This is framed by the contributions of ecological theorists to home- ...

  15. Who's doing the talking? Teacher and parent experiences of parent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common form of direct communication between parents and teachers in schools worldwide is the parent-teacher conference. Purposeful parent-teacher conferences afford the teacher and the parent the opportunity to address a particular topic related to the child, such as academic progress and behaviour.

  16. Patterns of Parenting during Adolescence: Perceptions of Adolescents and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.; Sputa, Cheryl L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores differences in maternal and paternal parenting styles and involvement, the differences between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and involvement, and changes in parenting style and involvement between the adolescents' 9th and 12th grade years. Subjects were 244 ninth graders from the Southeast and Midwest. Discusses…

  17. Influence of Permissive Parenting on Youth Farm Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnah, Hamida A; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2016-01-01

    Farm youth continue to experience high rates of injuries and premature deaths as a result of agricultural activities. Increased parental permissiveness is positively associated with many different types of high-risk behaviors in youth. This study explored whether permissive parenting (fathering and mothering) predicts youth unsafe behaviors on the farm. Data were analyzed for 67 youth and their parents. Families were recruited from a statewide farm publication, through youth organizations (i.e., FFA [Future Farmers of America]), local newspapers, farmer referrals, and through the Cooperative Extension Network. Hierarchical multiple regression was completed. Results revealed that fathers and mothers who practiced lax-inconsistent disciplining were more likely to have youth who indulged in unsafe farm behaviors. Key hypotheses confirmed that permissive parenting (lax-inconsistent disciplining) by parents continued to predict youth unsafe farm behaviors, even after youth age, youth gender, youth personality factor of risk-taking, and father's unsafe behaviors (a measure associated with modeling) were all taken into account. A key implication is that parents may play an important role in influencing youth farm safety behaviors. Parents (especially fathers) need to devote time to discuss farm safety with their youth. Farm safety interventions need to involve parents as well as address and respect the culture and values of families. Interventions need to focus not only on safe farm practices, but also promote positive parenting practices, including increased parent-youth communication about safety, consistent disciplining strategies, and increased monitoring and modeling of safe farm behaviors by parents.

  18. Parental decision making involvement and decisional conflict: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Laura; Kryworuchko, Jennifer; Saarimaki, Anton; Lawson, Margaret L

    2017-06-13

    Decisional conflict is a state of uncertainty about the best treatment option among competing alternatives and is common among adult patients who are inadequately involved in the health decision making process. In pediatrics, research shows that many parents are insufficiently involved in decisions about their child's health. However, little is known about parents' experience of decisional conflict. We explored parents' perceived decision making involvement and its association with parents' decisional conflict. We conducted a descriptive survey study in a pediatric tertiary care hospital. Our survey was guided by validated decisional conflict screening items (i.e., the SURE test). We administered the survey to eligible parents after an ambulatory care or emergency department consultation for their child. Four hundred twenty-nine respondents were included in the analysis. Forty-eight percent of parents reported not being offered treatment options and 23% screened positive for decisional conflict. Parents who reported being offered options experienced less decisional conflict than parents who reported not being offered options (5% vs. 42%, p conflict after their clinical consultation. Involving parents in the decision making process might reduce their risk of decisional conflict. Evidence based interventions that support parent decision making involvement, such as shared decision making, should be evaluated and implemented in pediatrics as a strategy to reduce parents' decisional conflict.

  19. Validity of the Parental Burnout Inventory Among Dutch Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig J. A. Van Bakel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to validate the Parental Burnout Inventory (PBI in a Dutch sample of working parents. The Dutch version of the PBI and questionnaires about work were administered to 627 working parents, with at least one child living at home. We investigated whether the tri-dimensional structure of the PBI held in a sample of male and female employed parents. Furthermore, we examined the relationships between PBI and the constructs work-related burnout, depressive mood, parenting stress and work-family conflict, which we assessed with widely used and validated instruments, i.e., emotional exhaustion [a subscale of the Dutch version of Maslach’s Burnout Inventory], a Dutch Parental Stress Questionnaire and Work-Family Conflict. The results support the validity of a tri-dimensional parental burnout syndrome, including exhaustion, distancing and inefficacy. Low to moderate correlations between parents’ burnout symptoms and professional exhaustion, parenting stress, depressive complaints and work-family conflict experiences were found, suggesting that the concept of PBI differs significantly from the concepts of job burnout, depression and stress, respectively. The current study confirms that some parents are extremely exhausted by their parental role. However, the number of Dutch employees reporting extreme parental burnout is rather low.

  20. Underdosing of acetaminophen by parents and emergency department utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D; Scolnik, Dennis

    2004-02-01

    Fever is a common reason for parents to seek medical attention for their children. We conducted this study to document accuracy of parental administration of acetaminophen and to identify if parents who did not give an optimal dose would have decided not to come to the emergency department (ED) if the fever had diminished at home. A cross-sectional study including 248 caregivers of children who had a chief complaint of fever and had been given acetaminophen in the preceding 24 hours were interviewed. Enrollment was 86%. One hundred parents (47%) gave acetaminophen in the recommended dose, 26 parents (12%) gave an overdose, and 87 (41%) gave an underdose of acetaminophen. Half of the parents (54%) would not have come to the ED if the fever had subsided after using the antipyretic treatment at home. Children with significantly higher maximal temperature at home would not have been taken to the ED if fever had subsided. Parents who speak English as the primary language at home gave the recommended dose of acetaminophen more frequently than non-English-speaking parents. A significant portion of our population gives an underdose of acetaminophen, reflecting lack of knowledge or misuse. Based on parental reports, the majority of visits for fever might have been prevented, if parents had been successful in their effort to reduce temperature to below of what they considered as fever, but factors other than underdosing of acetaminophen probably encourage parents of febrile children to visit the ED.

  1. [Muenster Parental Programme--Feedback from Parents: How do parents evaluate an early intervention programme for improving the communication with their baby or toddler with hearing impairment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanemann, R; Reichmuth, K; am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, A

    2016-02-01

    With the implementation of the UNHS, early educational services' existing concepts of early intervention have to be adapted to the situation and needs of families with a preverbal child who is deaf or hard of hearing. The Muenster Parental Programme (MPP), a module in early family-centered intervention, fulfils this requirement. We report feedback from participating parents regarding processes and outcomes of the MPP. The self-developed questionnaire was checked for its suitability as feedback instrument for measuring parental satisfaction with the MPP. 29 parents who participated in the MPP assessed the programme by using the standardised FBB and the self-developed questionnaire FB-MEP, which is specific to the MPP. Using the FBB, 96% of parents judged the MPP to be good or very good. With the FB-MEP, parents rated setting, contents and didactics as highly as they did using the FBB (r = 0.7, p parents judged both the contact and exchange with other affected parents, and the specific individual support for communicating with their child (including video feedback) as especially helpful. The results reflect parents' high level of satisfaction with the setting, content, didactics and individual benefit gained by their child and themselves from the MPP. The parents are aware of the efficacy of the MPP, which was shown in the controlled intervention study. The self-developed questionnaire FB-MEP was shown to be a suitable instrument for quality assurance measurements of the MPP.

  2. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth / For Parents / Obstructive Sleep Apnea What's ... How Is Sleep Apnea Treated? Print What Is Sleep Apnea? Brief pauses in breathing during sleep are ...

  3. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Physical Therapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Physical Therapy Print en español Terapia física Physical Therapy Basics Doctors often recommend physical therapy (PT) ...

  4. Hernias (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... look like inguinal hernias, but are not: A communicating hydrocele is similar to a hernia, except that ... reviewed: September 2016 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Medical Care and Your Newborn Undescended ...

  5. Ebola (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Ebola KidsHealth / For Parents / Ebola What's in this article? ... take precautions to avoid becoming infected. What Is Ebola? Ebola, or Ebola hemorrhagic fever ( Ebola HF) , is ...

  6. Polio (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Polio KidsHealth / For Parents / Polio What's in this article? ... of fluids and bed rest. The Future of Polio Health groups are working toward wiping out polio ...

  7. Fire Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fire Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Fire Safety What's in ... event of a fire emergency in your home. Fire Prevention Of course, the best way to practice ...

  8. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Brain Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Brain Tumors What's in ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  9. Mononucleosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Mononucleosis KidsHealth / For Parents / Mononucleosis What's in this article? ... and Sports Complications Prevention and Treatment Print About Mononucleosis Kids and teens with mononucleosis (mono) can have ...

  10. Sore Throat (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... another illness, like a cold , the flu , or mononucleosis . They also can be caused by a strep ... topic for: Parents Kids Teens Strep Throat Coughing Mononucleosis Strep Test: Rapid Strep Test: Throat Culture Flu ...

  11. ECG Electrocardiogram (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español ECG (Electrocardiogram) KidsHealth / For Parents / ECG (Electrocardiogram) Print en ... whether there is any damage. How Is an ECG Done? There is nothing painful about getting an ...

  12. Fibromyalgia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... think about their condition helps improve their symptoms. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) , a therapy used by mental health professionals, ... reviewed: October 2015 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Childhood Stress Physical ...

  13. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Parents / Broken Bones What's in this ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  14. Immunotherapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Immunotherapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Immunotherapy What's in this article? ... Types of Immunotherapy Side Effects Outlook Print About Immunotherapy Immunotherapy, also known as targeted therapy or biotherapy, ...

  15. Understanding Puberty (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Understanding Puberty KidsHealth / For Parents / Understanding Puberty What's in this ... your child through all the changes? Stages of Puberty Sure, most of us know the telltale signs ...

  16. Cradle Cap (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cradle Cap (Infantile Seborrheic Dermatitis) KidsHealth / For Parents / Cradle Cap ( ... many babies develop called cradle cap. About Cradle Cap Cradle cap is the common term for seborrheic ...

  17. Surrogacy: the parents' story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpeter, Christine B

    2002-08-01

    This qualitative study explored the experiences of 26 parents who were involved in surrogate parenting arrangements in a California-based surrogacy program. Participants were mostly white (n = 23). married (n = 25), females (n = 24), with high levels of education and income. The mean age at the time of the first child's birth was 39 yr. (SD = 5.06). The majority of parents reported having one (n = 10) or two (n = 8) children. All subjects reported infertility as their reason to explore surrogacy as a method of building a family. 18 participants chose in vitro fertilization as heir method of conception. Telephone interviews explored their decision-making, ethod of fertilization, their relationship with their surrogate, and the support that they received during the surrogacy process. Results indicate that parents were able to nticipate some potential pitfalls prior to their experience but did not realize the imortance of other potential difficulties. A conceptual model is presented with implications for helping professionals.

  18. Pinworm (for Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Pinworm KidsHealth / For Parents / Pinworm Print en español Oxiuros (lombrices intestinales) What Is a Pinworm Infection? Pinworm is an intestinal infection caused by ...

  19. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The ...

  20. Hemophilia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hemophilia KidsHealth / For Parents / Hemophilia What's in this article? ... everyday mishaps are cause for concern. What Is Hemophilia? Hemophilia is a disease that prevents blood from ...

  1. Toxoplasmosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Toxoplasmosis KidsHealth / For Parents / Toxoplasmosis What's in this article? ... t show any signs of a toxoplasmosis infection.) Toxoplasmosis in Kids In kids, toxoplasmosis infections can be: ...

  2. Vitiligo (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Vitiligo KidsHealth / For Parents / Vitiligo What's in this article? ... every bit as healthy as everyone else. About Vitiligo Vitiligo (vih-tih-LY-go) is a skin ...

  3. Testicular Torsion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Kids Teens Hernias Ultrasound: Scrotum Undescended Testicles Male Reproductive System PQ: I have a lump on one of ... to Do a Testicular Self-Exam (Slideshow) Varicocele Male Reproductive System Testicular Torsion View more About Us Contact Us ...

  4. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Stones KidsHealth / For Parents / Kidney Stones What's in ... other treatments to help remove the stones. How Kidney Stones Form It's the kidneys' job to remove ...

  5. Anemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Anemia What's in this article? ... Deficiency Anemia in My Kids? Print What Is Anemia? Anemia is when the level of healthy red ...

  6. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  7. Tips for Divorcing Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents and kids, and watching for signs of stress can help prevent problems developing. Getting Help Figure out how ... Move Helping Your Child Through a Divorce Childhood Stress How Can I Help My Child Cope With Divorce? How Can I ...

  8. Spider Bites (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español First Aid: Spider Bites KidsHealth / For Parents / First Aid: Spider Bites ... rare. Signs and Symptoms Of a brown recluse spider bite: red blister in the center with surrounding ...

  9. Sepsis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sepsis KidsHealth / For Parents / Sepsis What's in this article? ... When to Call the Doctor Print What Is Sepsis? Sepsis is when the immune system responds to ...

  10. Parent-Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Strandgaard

    2016-01-01

    of parents as co-consumers prevailed despite radical changes in views on children’s media consumption. In particular, I examine the shared inter-Scandinavian socio-cultural contexts that structured the changing professional and political groups’ pressure on parents to perform according to their norms......In this article, I examine change and continuity in conceptions of parental agency in public debates about children’s media consumption in Scandinavia, 1945-1975. During this period, public debates about the various kinds of media products children consumed were dominated by different groups....... However, a strong continuity in the debates was the negative influence parents were seen as having on children’s media consumption due to their lack of insight and interest in the topic. Drawing upon recent works on children’s media, consumption and enculturation, I analyse why the negative description...

  11. Allergy Shots (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Allergy Shots KidsHealth / For Parents / Allergy Shots What's in ... to help a child deal with them. Why Allergy Shots Are Used An allergy occurs when the ...

  12. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... diabetes. More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Diabetes Center Diabetes: Marco's Story (Video) Diabetes: Grace's ...

  13. Parental Investments in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Esping-Andersen, Gösta

    This study examines parental time investment in their children, distinguishing between developmental and non-developmental care. Our analyses centre on three influential determinants: educational background, marital homogamy, and spouses’ relative bargaining power. We find that the emphasis...

  14. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general, fami......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  15. Parenting styles and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Does the economy influence the way people bring up their children? How can we determine and measure a child’s utility? How can parenting styles be categorized in an economic model? These are the questions that Professor Fabricio Zilibotti of the University of Zurich addressed in his honorary lecture ‘Parenting with Style’, which he delivered at the April International Academic Conference during the 5th LCSR international workshop ‘Social and Cultural Changes in Cross-National Perspective: Sub...

  16. Parental Divorce, Parental Religious Characteristics, and Religious Outcomes in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Uecker, Jeremy E.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one’s custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family—but not a stepparent family—is positively associa...

  17. Reflections on Parental Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela LUPŞAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The movement in the European Union territory of the family members de jure or de facto - parents married or not, on the one hand, and their children, on the other hand, the birth of litigation related to the content, exercising or limiting the parental authority in the event at least one holder of parental authority is in a Member State other than where the minor child is, and the interest of achieving a good administration of justice within the European Union, led to the development of Community instruments in the area of parental authority, which has provisions on conflicts of jurisdiction, conflict of laws, recognition and enforceability, enforcement, legal aid and cooperation between central authorities, designating the applicable law. In the first part of the study we have analyzed the rules of jurisdiction by establishing the jurisdiction of the court hearing with an application for parental responsibility, whether there are pending divorce proceeding or not. In the second part of the study, we have limited the analysis to the rules applicable to the law causes that have as object parental authority.

  18. Implications of antisocial parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children.

  19. Family socialization of adolescent's self-reported cigarette use: the role of parents' history of regular smoking and parenting style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah E; Jones, Deborah J; Olson, Ardis L; Forehand, Rex; Gaffney, Cecelia A; Zens, Michael S; Bau, J J

    2007-05-01

    To examine the main and interactive effects of parental history of regular cigarette smoking and parenting style on adolescent self-reported cigarette use. Predictors of adolescent self-reported cigarette use, including parents' history of regular cigarette smoking and two dimensions of parenting behavior, were analyzed in a sample of 934 predominately Caucasian (96.3%) parent-adolescent dyads. Families were drawn from the control group of a randomized control trial aimed at preventing adolescent substance use. In addition to the main effects of parents' history of regular smoking and parental warmth, logistic regression analysis revealed that the interaction of these two variables was associated with adolescent self-reported cigarette use. Parental warmth was associated with a decreased likelihood of the adolescent ever having smoked a cigarette; however, this was true only if neither parent had a history of regular cigarette smoking. Findings suggest that adolescent smoking prevention programs may be more efficacious if they address both parental history of regular smoking and parenting behavior.

  20. Associations linking parenting styles and offspring personality disorder are moderated by parental personality disorder, evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui Green; Huang, Yueqin; Liu, Zhaorui; Liu, Baohua

    2011-08-30

    The aim of the study is to examine the association linking parenting and personality disorder controlling for parental personality disorder, and whether this association is moderated by parental PD. Data were from community-dwelling high school students aged 18 and above and their parents living in Beijing, China. A total of 181 cases and 2,605 controls were included in this study. Personality disorder in students was assessed via a two-stage approach, Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire as a screening tool and International Personality Disorder Examination as the diagnostic tool. Information about parenting was collected from students using Egna Minnen av. Betraffande Uppfostran. Negative parenting styles, e.g. rejective or over-protective parenting, were found to be associated with the occurrence of personality disorder. Conflictive parenting styles were also found to be associated with personality disorder. Generally stronger associations were found for students with parental personality disorder as compared to students without parental personality disorder. Findings from this study support the role of parenting in the occurrence of PD, especially for children with family history of personality disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Socioeconomic status and child mental health: the role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe, Tormod; Sivertsen, Børge; Heiervang, Einar; Goodman, Robert; Lundervold, Astri J; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices as mediators of the association between familial socioeconomic status (SES) and child mental health problems. The sample included 2,043 5th-7th graders (50.7 % female) participating in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study. Children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, parents reported family economy and education level, emotional well-being (measured with the Everyday Feelings Questionnaire), and the use of negative disciplinary and affirmative parenting practices (measured using the Family Life Questionnaire). Path analyses were conducted to examine the associations between SES and externalizing and internalizing problems. Results supported a model where family economy was associated with externalizing problems through parental emotional well-being and parenting practices, whereas maternal education level was associated with externalizing problems through negative discipline. The direct association between paternal education level and externalizing problems was not mediated by parenting. For internalizing problems, we found both direct associations with family economy and indirect associations with family economy through parental emotional well-being and parenting. The results suggest that parental emotional well-being and parenting practices are two potential mechanisms through which low socioeconomic status is associated with child mental health problems.

  2. Differential Influences of Parenting Dimensions and Parental Physical Abuse during Childhood on Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mößle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1 female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2 male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3 this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status.

  3. Differential Influences of Parenting Dimensions and Parental Physical Abuse during Childhood on Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mößle, Thomas; Kliem, Sören; Lohmann, Anna; Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk

    2017-03-07

    Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1) female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2) male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3) this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status.

  4. Do You Recognize This Parent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Edna

    1997-01-01

    Suggests effective ways to work with parents who may be permissive, busy, detached, overprotective, or negative. Recommends that child care professionals be sensitive and understanding, recognize other demands on parents' time and communicate competitively with them, use terms parents understand, accept various levels of parental involvement, be…

  5. Parent and adolescent reports of parenting when a parent has a history of depression: associations with observations of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; Seehuus, Martin; Compas, Bruce E

    2014-02-01

    The current study examined the congruence of parent and adolescent reports of positive and negative parenting with observations of parent-adolescent interactions as the criterion measure. The role of parent and adolescent depressive symptoms in moderating the associations between adolescent or parent report and observations of parenting also was examined. Participants were 180 parents (88.9 % female) with a history of clinical depression and one of their 9-to-15 year old children (49.4 % female). Parents and adolescents reported on parenting skills and depressive symptoms, and parenting was independently observed subsequently in the same session. Findings indicated adolescent report of positive, but not negative, parenting was more congruent with observations than parent report. For negative parenting, depressive symptoms qualified the relation between the parent or adolescent report and independent observations. For parents, higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with more congruence with observed parenting (supporting a depressive realism hypothesis) whereas an opposite trend emerged for adolescents (providing some supporting evidence for a depression-distortion hypothesis).

  6. Parents, Teens, and Online Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Mary; Cortesi, Sandra; Gasser, Urs; Lenhart, Amanda; Duggan, Maeve

    2012-01-01

    Most parents of teenagers are concerned about what their teenage children do online and how their behavior could be monitored by others. Some parents are taking steps to observe, discuss, and check up on their children's digital footprints. A new survey of 802 parents and their teens shows that: (1) 81% of parents of online teens say they are…

  7. Parent and Adolescent Reports of Parenting When a Parent Has a History of Depression: Associations with Observations of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; Seehuus, Martin; Compas, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the congruence of parent and adolescent reports of positive and negative parenting with observations of parent-adolescent interactions as the criterion measure. The role of parent and adolescent depressive symptoms in moderating the associations between adolescent or parent report and observations of parenting also was examined. Participants were 180 parents (88.9% female) with a history of clinical depression and one of their 9-to-15 year old children (49.4% female). Parents and adolescents reported on parenting skills and depressive symptoms, and parenting was independently observed subsequently in the same session. Findings indicated adolescent report of positive, but not negative, parenting was more congruent with observations than parent report. For negative parenting, depressive symptoms qualified the relation between the parent or adolescent report and independent observations. For parents, higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with more congruence with observed parenting (supporting a depressive realism hypothesis) whereas an opposite trend emerged for adolescents (providing some supporting evidence for a depression-distortion hypothesis). PMID:23851629

  8. Parent and Child Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Kim F.; And Others

    The Parent and Child Education Program (PACE) is a pilot program, developed in Kentucky, to provide adult, early childhood and parent education. PACE targets families that have one or both parents without a high school diploma or equivalency certificate and one child three or four years of age. Parents and children ride the bus to school together,…

  9. Active Parenting Now: Program Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Michael H.

    Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…

  10. Parenting stress among parents of children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Francesco; Operto, Francesca Felicia; De Giacomo, Andrea; Margari, Lucia; Frolli, Alessandro; Conson, Massimiliano; Ivagnes, Sara; Monaco, Marianna; Margari, Francesco

    2016-08-30

    In recent years, studies have shown that parents of children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDDs) experience more parenting stress than parents of typically developing children, but the relation between the type of disorders and parenting stress is far from clear. The purpose of this study was to compare the parenting stress experienced by parents of 239 children with Specific Learning Disorders (SpLD), Language Disorders (LD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and typical development (TD). Parents of children with NDDs experience more parenting stress than those of children who have TD. Although, parents of children with ASD or ADHD report the most high scores of parenting stress, also the parents of children with SpLD or LD report higher parental stress compared with parent of children without NDDs. Another interesting finding was that IQ level or emotional and behavioral problems are associated with the higher levels of parenting stress. This study suggest that parent, both mothers and fathers, of children with different type of NDDs should be provided with interventions and resources to empower them with the knowledge and skills to reduce their stress and to enhance their quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Digital Parenting and Changing Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl KABAKÇI YURDAKUL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies are developing rapidly. Developing technologies are integrated in many fields of life. This situation facilitated almost all fields of life. Owing to integration process, children’s technology use and adaption is easy compare to their parents. But technology use and adaption brings several disadvantages for children. Computer and the Internet have been used nearly all home in about last five years. Parents who were worried about their children when they played outside are worried about their children when they are on net at home. Due to these developments, parenting notion has gain new different dimensions and parenting roles are changed. Parents should now be digital parent, the Internet Parent or online parent. In this paper Digital Parenting is examined and described in additon to thisdigital parenting roles are determined. Based on these roles recommendations are presented for future studies and practices

  12. Parent and child physical activity and sedentary time: Do active parents foster active children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockman Rowan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has many positive effects on children's health while TV viewing has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Many children do not meet physical activity recommendations and exceed TV viewing guidelines. Parents are likely to be an important influence on their children's behaviour. There is an absence of information about the associations between parents' and children's physical activity and TV viewing. Methods Year 6 children and their parent were recruited from 40 primary schools. Results are presented for the 340 parent-child dyads with accelerometer data that met a ≥ 3 day inclusion criteria and the 431 parent-child dyads with complete self-reported TV viewing. Over 80% of the dyads with valid TV viewing data included mothers and their child. Mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA, minutes of sedentary time per day and counts per minute were assessed by accelerometer. Self-reported hours of TV viewing were coded into 3 groups (4 hours per day. Linear and multi-nominal regression models were run by child gender to examine parent-child associations. Results In linear regression models there was an association for the overall sedentary time of girls and their parents (t = 2.04. p = .020 but there was no association between girls' and parents' physical activity. There were no associations between parents' and boys' sedentary or physical activity time. For girls, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, (reference = 2 hours of TV per day, was 3.67 times higher if the girl's parent watched 2-4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.037. For boys, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, was 10.47 times higher if the boy's parent watched more than 4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.038. Conclusions There are associations in the sedentary time of parents and daughters. Higher parental TV viewing was associated with an increased risk of high levels of TV viewing for both boys

  13. The Incredible Years Parent-Toddler Programme and parental language: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, N; Hutchings, J; Baker-Henningham, H

    2015-01-01

    Parental language is associated with children's later language development. Parenting programmes, based on social learning theory, enhance a range of parenting behaviours, yet there is limited evidence for their effect on parental language. To assess the benefits of a behavioural-based parenting programme, which features components of language and communication, to enhance parental language. Parents of toddlers, aged 12 to 36 months, were recruited from eight Flying Start early intervention centres across Wales. Participants were randomised 2:1 either to a parenting programme (n = 60) or to a wait-list control group (n = 29). Researchers were blind to participant allocation throughout the trial. Fifteen-minute video-recorded observations of parents and children interacting during free-play, both at a pre-intervention and at 6-month follow-up, provided the data for the study. Five observed measures of parental language were assessed; quantity and variety, encouraging, critical, child-led and parent led interactions. The Incredible Years Parent-Toddler Programme (IYPTP) is a 12-week group-based behavioural intervention that teaches effective relationship and behavioural management skills including social, emotional and persistence coaching to enable parents to better support their children's development. Of 89 dyads that completed pre-intervention assessments 81 (54 intervention and 27 control) met the criteria for the current study. Intention to treat analysis indicated that child-led language interactions significantly benefited from the intervention [regression coefficient (B) = -1.44, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = -2.59 to -0.29, P = 0.015, effect size (ES) = 0.47] and a positive trend for encouraging language in favour of the intervention sample was evident. Per-protocol sample analysis replicated these findings with encouraging language reaching statistical significance (B = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.11 to 2.03, P = 0.03, ES = 0.52). No further benefits were evident

  14. Parent and child physical activity and sedentary time: do active parents foster active children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Thompson, Janice L

    2010-04-15

    Physical activity has many positive effects on children's health while TV viewing has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Many children do not meet physical activity recommendations and exceed TV viewing guidelines. Parents are likely to be an important influence on their children's behaviour. There is an absence of information about the associations between parents' and children's physical activity and TV viewing. Year 6 children and their parent were recruited from 40 primary schools. Results are presented for the 340 parent-child dyads with accelerometer data that met a > or = 3 day inclusion criteria and the 431 parent-child dyads with complete self-reported TV viewing. Over 80% of the dyads with valid TV viewing data included mothers and their child. Mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), minutes of sedentary time per day and counts per minute were assessed by accelerometer. Self-reported hours of TV viewing were coded into 3 groups (4 hours per day. Linear and multi-nominal regression models were run by child gender to examine parent-child associations. In linear regression models there was an association for the overall sedentary time of girls and their parents (t = 2.04. p = .020) but there was no association between girls' and parents' physical activity. There were no associations between parents' and boys' sedentary or physical activity time. For girls, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, (reference = 2 hours of TV per day), was 3.67 times higher if the girl's parent watched 2-4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.037). For boys, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, was 10.47 times higher if the boy's parent watched more than 4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.038). There are associations in the sedentary time of parents and daughters. Higher parental TV viewing was associated with an increased risk of high levels of TV viewing for both boys and girls. There were no associations between the time that

  15. Determinants of Authoritative Parenting Style in Iranian Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Bahrami; Behrooz Dolatshahi; Abbas Pourshahbaz; Parvaneh Mohammadkhani

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The primary goal of this study was to identify the determinants of mother’s authoritative parenting style upon the ecological model of parenting. There are some factors involved in this model such as a parent (i.e. developmental history, personality), and child characteristics (i.e. temperament and developmental issues) and environmental factors. Methods: The statistic population of this study includes mothers in Tehran having preschool children between 4–6 years ol...

  16. Quality of Life of Parents of Children with Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Marciniak; Adam Reich; Jacek C. Szepietowski

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic dermatitis in children. The influence of AD on quality of life of parents of children with AD was studied using the Family Dermatology Life Quality Index (FDLQI). Fifty children with AD were included in the study (age range 2–24 months) together with their parents. Children’s AD was found to influence the quality of life of both parents; however, it had a more significant influence on quality of life of moth...

  17. Mindfulness and fear of hypoglycaemia in parents of children with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalders, J.; Hartman, E.; Nefs, G.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: To identify the sociodemographic and clinical correlates of fear of hypoglycaemia among parents of children (aged 4-18 years) with Type 1 diabetes and to examine the relationships between parental fear of hypoglycaemia, mindfulness and mindful parenting. Methods: Sociodemographic, self......-reported clinical and psychological data were extracted from the cross-sectional Diabetes MILES Youth - The Netherlands dataset. Questionnaires included the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey - Parent Worry (parental fear of hypoglycaemia), the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory - Short version (mindfulness......) and the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (mindful parenting). Results: A total of 421 parents (359 mothers) participated. Hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that greater parental fear of hypoglycaemia was related to younger parental age, low educational level, non-Dutch nationality, more...

  18. Parental involvement and association with adolescents’ fruit and vegetable intake at follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Ellegaard; Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Aarestrup, Anne Kristine

    2016-01-01

    involvement was found among 30.5 %, 29.6 % and 39.4 % of the students respectively. Parental involvement was highest among women. More men agreed that the parental newsletters provided new information. Students with a medium and high level of parental involvement ate 47.5 and 95.2 g more FV per day compared...... (≈13- year-olds) in the school year 2010/11. The study included a school component: free FV in class and curricular activities; a local community component: fact sheets for sports- and youth clubs; and a parental component: presentation of Boost at a parent-school meeting, 6 newsletters to parents, 3...... guided student-parent curricular activities, and a student-parent Boost event. Study population: Students whose parent replied to the follow-up survey (n = 347). Data: Questionnaire data from students, parents and teachers at 20 intervention schools. Process evaluation measures: dose delivered, dose...

  19. Social discomfort in preadolescence: predictors of discrepancies between preadolescents and their parents and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated whether salient preadolescent behaviors and experiences predicted parents' and teachers' underestimation of preadolescents' shyness. Participants included a community sample of 129 fifth and sixth graders, along with one parent and teacher per preadolescent. Preadolescents, parents, and teachers provided reports about preadolescents' shyness, and parents and teachers rated preadolescents' prosocial and aggressive behaviors, peer victimization experiences, and academic performance. Results indicated that parent- and teacher-reported prosocial behavior, teacher-reported aggressive behavior, and parent-reported peer victimization were associated with lower parent and teacher reports of preadolescent shyness, relative to preadolescent reports, controlling for demographic variables and parent stress. Additionally, higher parent-reported academic performance was associated with lower teacher reports of preadolescent shyness, compared to preadolescent reports. These findings suggest that preadolescents with higher levels of relatively conspicuous behaviors and experiences feel more shyness than their parents and teachers report.

  20. Parental presence or absence during paediatric burn wound care procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egberts, Marthe R; de Jong, Alette E E; Hofland, Helma W C; Geenen, Rinie; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2017-12-18

    Differing views on benefits and disadvantages of parental presence during their child's wound care after burn injury leave the topic surrounded by controversies. This study aimed to describe and explain parents' experiences of their presence or absence during wound care. Shortly after the burn event, 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of children (0-16 years old) that underwent hospitalization in one of the three Dutch burn centers. Eighteen of these parents also participated in follow-up interviews three to six months after discharge. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Analyses resulted in themes that were integrated into a model, summarizing key aspects of parental presence during wound care. These aspects include parental cognitions and emotions (e.g., shared distress during wound care), parental abilities and needs (e.g., controlling own emotions, being responsive, and gaining overall control) and the role of burn care professionals. Findings emphasize the distressing nature of wound care procedures. Despite the distress, parents expressed their preference to be present. The abilities to control their own emotions and to be responsive to the child's needs were considered beneficial for both the child and the parent. Importantly, being present increased a sense of control in parents that helped them to cope with the situation. For parents not present, the professional was the intermediary to provide information about the healing process that helped parents to deal with the situation. In sum, the proposed model provides avenues for professionals to assess parents' abilities and needs on a daily basis and to adequately support the child and parent during wound care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Parental alienation: the impact on men's mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo

    2015-11-13

    Parental alienation is defined as a mental state in which a child, usually one whose parents are engaged in a high-conflict separation or divorce, allies himself strongly with one parent (the preferred parent) and rejects a relationship with the other parent (the alienated parent) without legitimate justification. Parental alienation may affect men's mental health: a) parental alienation negatively influences mental health of male children and adolescents who are victims of parental alienation. Alienated children/adolescents display guilt, sadness, and depressed mood; low self-esteem and lack of self-confidence; distress and frustration; lack of impulse control, substance abuse and delinquent behavior; separation anxiety, fears and phobias; hypochondria and increased tendency to develop psychosomatic illness; suicidal ideation and suicide attempt; sleep and eating disorders; educational problems; enuresis and encopresis; b) parental alienation negatively affects the mental health of adult men who were victims of parental alienation when they were children and/or adolescents. Long-term effects of parental alienation include low self-esteem, depression, drug/alcohol abuse, lack of trust, alienation from own children, divorce, problems with identity and not having a sense of belonging or roots, choosing not to have children to avoid being rejected by them, low achievement, anger and bitterness over the time lost with the alienated parent; c) parental alienation negatively influences mental health of men who are alienated from their children. Fathers who have lost some or all contact with their children for months or years following separation or divorce may be depressed and suicidal.

  2. Psychosocial Implications of DSD Treatment for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Amy B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the review Historically, studies of caregivers of children with DSD have been limited. Recent findings Recent data reveal that parents of young children with DSD report increased stress, anxiety, depression and decreased quality of life (QoL) in ways that are similar to parents of children with other types of chronic illnesses. Also similar to other chronic illnesses of childhood, parents of children with DSD exhibit overprotective parenting and perceive their child as being vulnerable. These emotions and behaviors exhibited by parents are concerning as they may limit an affected child’s emotional and social development over time. Perhaps more unique to the situation of DSD is the perceived, or real, child-focused stigma experienced by parents of children with DSD. Summary Interventions to improve parents’ psychosocial adaptation to their child’s medical condition, including coaching in how to discuss their child’s condition in a manner that makes them feel safe and supported, are needed to optimize outcomes for families. PMID:27584026

  3. The children of mentally ill parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattejat, Fritz; Remschmidt, Helmut

    2008-06-01

    The children of mentally ill parents have a higher risk of developing mental illnesses themselves over the course of their lives. This known risk must be taken into account in the practical provision of health care. Selective literature review. The increased psychiatric risk for children of mentally ill parents is due partly to genetic influences and partly to an impairment of the parent-child interaction because of the parent's illness. Furthermore, adverse factors are more frequent in these families, as well as a higher risk for child abuse. Genetic and psychosocial factors interact with one another. For example, genetic factors moderate environmental effects; that is, the effect of adverse environmental factors depends on the genetic substrate. Preventive measures for children of mentally ill parents urgently need improvement. In this article, positively evaluated programs of preventive measures are discussed. Essential prerequisites for success include appropriate, specialized treatment of the parental illness, psychoeducative measures, and special support (e.g. self-help groups) as indicated by the family's particular needs.

  4. Rights and duties in parenting practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Solans

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this presentation is to present the results of three qualitative research on the exercise of rights and duties on Parenting Practices (PP, held in Buenos Aires, Argentina. They included interviews with mothers of children with Unsatisfied Basic Needs concretized between 2009 and 2013. Their analysis revealed that in this set of households were carried out three types of PP: imposition, guide and free will, the latter was the most used. As part of this practice, children managed their hours of sleep, wakefulness and leisure, without the intervention of their parents. It was noted, for example, that children over 10 years decided on matters concerning their schooling, absenting progressively to school, to abandonment. These practices were respected by their parents. By default, the postponement of pleasure (tolerance to frustration will not be exercised: they let children do at will. A trend of teenage pregnancy and the formation of pairs of children between 14-16 years with parental consent was also noted. In this sense, even when children lived in a house in contact with their parents, with a supply of food and available school, the indiscriminate exercise of free will put children's health at risk and full development, curtailing their rights. We recommend further studies such timely interventions to promote programs and projects designed to guide parents on issues related to the development of children as subjects of Rights and Duties.

  5. [New parenting education in maternal child nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jih-Yuan

    2009-12-01

    Taiwan society is today typified by low birth rates amongst Taiwanese and a rising number of children born to immigrant and trans-cultural marriage families. Unhealthy behavior and anxiety on the part of pregnant women increase postpartum depression and complications and negatively affect neonatal heath. Such may further negatively impact upon romantic feelings between the new parents and the nascent parent-child relationship. New parenting education is a proactive and innovative strategy that may be used to improve maternal and child health. Therefore, it is worthy to explore how best to achieve cost-effective education interventions. First, the importance of new parenting education and its influence factors must be understood. Factors of women's health and nursing responsibilities potentially addressed by new parenting education include pregnancy complications, fetal death and malformation, accidents and traumas during childhood and adolescence, childhood obesity, and pediatric health-care delivery systems. It is the responsibility of nursing professionals to collect and interpret information on health promotion, disease prevention and childcare in cooperation with other disciplines. Nurses are also responsible to participate in family education and services that target new parents. Therefore, nursing professionals participate in planning and intervention actions related to health promotion, develop support group and counseling centers, collect and organize relevant information, and develop family education and health promotion models. Achieving preventive health service goals while maintaining family competencies and empowerment is an essential aspect of the parenthood mission and vision.

  6. Communicating with parents about vaccination: a framework for health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leask, Julie; Kinnersley, Paul; Jackson, Cath; Cheater, Francine; Bedford, Helen; Rowles, Greg

    2012-09-21

    A critical factor shaping parental attitudes to vaccination is the parent's interactions with health professionals. An effective interaction can address the concerns of vaccine supportive parents and motivate a hesitant parent towards vaccine acceptance. Poor communication can contribute to rejection of vaccinations or dissatisfaction with care. We sought to provide a framework for health professionals when communicating with parents about vaccination. Literature review to identify a spectrum of parent attitudes or 'positions' on childhood vaccination with estimates of the proportion of each group based on population studies. Development of a framework related to each parental position with determination of key indicators, goals and strategies based on communication science, motivational interviewing and valid consent principles. Five distinct parental groups were identified: the 'unquestioning acceptor' (30-40%), the 'cautious acceptor' (25-35%); the 'hesitant' (20-30%); the 'late or selective vaccinator' (2-27%); and the 'refuser' of all vaccines (parents' readiness to vaccinate. In all encounters, health professionals should build rapport, accept questions and concerns, and facilitate valid consent. For the hesitant, late or selective vaccinators, or refusers, strategies should include use of a guiding style and eliciting the parent's own motivations to vaccinate while, avoiding excessive persuasion and adversarial debates. It may be necessary to book another appointment or offer attendance at a specialised adverse events clinic. Good information resources should also be used. Health professionals have a central role in maintaining public trust in vaccination, including addressing parents' concerns. These recommendations are tailored to specific parental positions on vaccination and provide a structured approach to assist professionals. They advocate respectful interactions that aim to guide parents towards quality decisions.

  7. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (pfamily types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (pfamily with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of family type and parental depressive symptoms on adolescent functioning. Older and female adolescents deserve particular attention.

  8. The Relations between Parents' Smoking, General Parenting, Parental Smoking Communication, and Adolescents' Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Vermulst, Ad A.; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether the associations between general parenting practices (i.e., support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and parental smoking on the one hand and older and younger siblings' smoking on the other were mediated by parental smoking communication (i.e., frequency and quality of parent-adolescent…

  9. The Influences of the Sixth Graders' Parents' Internet Literacy and Parenting Style on Internet Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Shih, Ru-Chu; Liu, Hung-Tzu; Guo, Yuan-Chang; Tseng, Kuo-Hung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the sixth grade students' parents' Internet literacy and parenting style on Internet parenting in Kaohsiung County in Taiwan. Upon stratified cluster sampling, a total of 822 parents from 34 classes in 28 schools participated in this study. The descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used to analyze the responses…

  10. When a Parent Is Away: Promoting Strong Parent-Child Connections during Parental Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeary, Julia; Zoll, Sally; Reschke, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    How does a parent stay connected with an infant or toddler during a prolonged separation? Research has shown how important early connections are for child development. When a parent is not present physically, there are strategies that military parents have been using to keep a parent and child connected, promoting mindfulness. Because infants and…

  11. Compassionate Parenting as a Key to Satisfaction, Efficacy and Meaning among Mothers of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examine the role of compassionate and self-image parenting goals in the experience of mothers of children with autism. In Study 1, a comparison sample was included. Study 1 included measures of parenting goals, life satisfaction, family life satisfaction, parenting satisfaction, and meaning in life. Study 2 incorporated a measure of…

  12. Parental Perceptions of Life Context Variables for Involvement in Their Young Children's Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Ali Kemal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover Turkish parents' perceptions of life context variables, including personal knowledge and skills and personal time and energy for involvement activities in their young children's education. The scales used in this study were based on parents' self-report, and included: (1) Parental Perceptions of Personal…

  13. DIFFERENCE IN THE INTENSITY OF DEPRESSION BETWEEN PARENTS HAVING CHILDREN WITH CONDUCT DISORDER AND PARENTS HAVING NORMAL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Bindu Meethale Veettil; Sheeba Damodar; Jayadevan Sreedharan; Vimal Rohan K; Jayasree Ananda Bhavan Kumaran

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Parents experience psychological trauma if they recognise that their children are having conduct disorder, which is unacceptable to the society and against the social norms. The intensity of depression in parents having children with conduct disorder is included in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS Exploratory research was used in this study as the method of study. A sample was selected from parents having children with conduct disorder reported in various psychia...

  14. Parenting interventions in tic disorders: an exploration of parents' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G; Wittkowski, A; Butler, H; Hedderly, T; Bunton, P

    2015-05-01

    Parents of children with tic disorders (e.g. Tourette syndrome) experience multiple challenges and stresses, which can impact on family functioning, children's well-being and could indirectly affect tic severity. Parenting interventions have been recommended for tic disorder populations; however, little is known about parents' views. The views of parents of children with tic disorders were sought. Using Q-methodology, 23 parents provided their opinions regarding the acceptability, effectiveness, feasibility and utility of parenting interventions. Four factors emerged, representing four groups of parents with similar opinions. Although all factors evidenced support for parenting interventions, subtle differences emerged between factors regarding the endorsed content, barriers and delivery of interventions. Results indicate a perceived clinical need for parenting interventions and provide guidance to further develop and implement such interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Derecho u Obligacion?: Parents' and Youths' Understanding of Parental Legitimacy in a Mexican Origin Familial Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Leticia

    2007-01-01

    This study draws from a social domain framework to explore judgments of parental authority in a Mexican origin familial context. The sample included 277 ninth-grade youth (M = 14.53 years, SD = 0.61) and one of each of their parents. The average age of mothers was 39.88 years (SD = 5.85), and for fathers it was 41.65 years (SD = 5.51). As…

  16. Understanding "Tiger Parenting" Through the Perceptions of Chinese Immigrant Mothers: Can Chinese and U.S. Parenting Coexist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Charissa S L; Leung, Christy Y Y; Zhou, Nan

    2013-03-01

    How Chinese immigrant mothers perceive "Chinese" and "U.S." parenting and changes in their parenting postmigration remains unclear, despite recent interest in Chinese parenting particularly in response to A. Chua's (2011) controversial book on "Tiger Mothers". The present study addressed this issue by examining the parenting beliefs and practices of Chinese immigrant mothers through qualitative interviews. Participants included 50 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers (mean age = 38.39 years; SD = 5.19) with a 3- to 6-year-old child. Mothers had been in the U.S. for an average of 10.20 years and were interviewed regarding their perceptions of the contrasts between typical Chinese and U.S. parenting, the strengths of Chinese and U.S. parenting, and what changes (if any) occurred in their own parenting after they migrated to the U.S. Mothers identified key differences between the parenting in the 2 cultures across 4 themes. Importantly, mothers endorsed different aspects of parenting from both cultures and attempted to achieve a balance between supporting their child's development of autonomy and individuality versus maintaining a sense of relatedness and familism in their parenting, contrary to Chua's (2011) portrayal of rigid "Chinese parenting." With regard to their parenting acculturation, mothers discussed having to be flexible across different areas of their parenting in order to accommodate the cultural values of the larger societal context and promote their child's development in the U.S. These complex dynamics highlighted the challenges that Chinese immigrant mothers face as they adapt and adjust to the new cultural context, and how their parenting beliefs and practices acculturate.

  17. DIFFERENCE IN THE INTENSITY OF DEPRESSION BETWEEN PARENTS HAVING CHILDREN WITH CONDUCT DISORDER AND PARENTS HAVING NORMAL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Meethale Veettil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Parents experience psychological trauma if they recognise that their children are having conduct disorder, which is unacceptable to the society and against the social norms. The intensity of depression in parents having children with conduct disorder is included in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS Exploratory research was used in this study as the method of study. A sample was selected from parents having children with conduct disorder reported in various psychiatric settings in Kerala, India, and also from parents having normal children. Random sampling was used for selecting the sample. All the parents of children diagnosed with conduct disorder in the age group of 6 to 12 reported in the psychiatric settings on a random day is selected as sample. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Depression in parents affect their skills in caregiving, support to their children, nurturance and it will affect proper development of children physically and mentally. Similarly, conduct disorder in children will affect their parents mental and social functioning and their life functioning and the parents maybe suffering from depression. Mothers of children with conduct disorders are reported to have exhibit more depressed and they show very poor parenting skills and negative interactions with their children compared to normal mothers. Parents having children with conduct disorder did have higher intensity of depression compared to parents having normal children. CONCLUSION The study hopes to make contributions in identifying the intensity of depression in parents having children with conduct disorder and it’s serious and least recognised impact on their parents. The study will also help to find out the areas in which parents need intervention and to decide which type of therapy will be more helpful to the family as a whole. Identifying and understanding the relevant and feasible components of therapy can then facilitate

  18. Parenting program versus telephone support for Mexican parents of children with acquired brain injury: A blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Clara; Catroppa, Cathy; Hearps, Stephen J C; Yáñez-Téllez, Guillermina; Prieto-Corona, Belén; de León, Miguel A; García, Antonio; Sandoval-Lira, Lucero; Anderson, Vicki

    2017-09-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) during childhood typically causes behavior problems in the child and high levels of stress in the family. The aims of this study are: (1) to investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of a parenting intervention in improving behavior and self-regulation in Mexican children with ABI compared to telephone support; (2) to investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of a parenting intervention in improving parenting skills, parent self-efficacy and decreasing parental stress in parents of children with ABI compared to telephone support. Our secondary aims are (1) to explore the impact that parent characteristics have on the intervention outcomes; (2) to investigate if changes are maintained 3 months after the intervention. The research design is a blind randomized controlled trial (RCT). Eligible participants include children with a diagnosis of ABI, between 6 and 12 years of age, and their parents. Sixty-six children and their parents will be randomly allocated to either a parenting program group or telephone support group. The parenting program involves six face-to-face weekly group sessions of 2.5 h each. Participants in the control group receive an information sheet with behavioral strategies, and six weekly phone calls, in which strategies to improve academic skills are provided. Children and their parents are evaluated by blind assessors before the intervention, immediately after the intervention and 3-months post-intervention. This study will be the first to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a parenting program for Mexican parents of children with ABI. ACTRN12617000360314.

  19. Supporting Parents' Pain Care Involvement With Their Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Qualitative Interpretive Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettle, Amanda; Latimer, Margot; Fernandez, Conrad; Hughes, Jean

    Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia experience pain from the disease, treatment, and procedures. Parents can be effective in managing their child's pain, but little is systematically known about how they do this. Appreciative inquiry was used to frame the study within a strengths-based lens and interpretive descriptive methods were used to describe pain sources, parents' pain care role, and key structures supporting parents pain care involvement. Eight paediatric oncology clinic nurses and 10 parents participated. Six key themes per group were identified. Parent themes included establishing therapeutic relationships, relearning how to care for my child, overcoming challenges and recognizing pain, learning parent specific strategies, empowering to take active pain care role, and maintaining relationships. Nurse themes included establishing therapeutic relationships, preparing parents to care for their child, facilitating pain assessment, teaching parents best pain care, empowering parents, and maintaining relationships. These findings can be used to guide clinical practice and future research.

  20. Parents and Young Children with Disabilities: The Effects of a Home-Based Music Therapy Program on Parent-Child Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yen-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Responsive parenting style and synchronous parent-child interactions have a positive impact on children in terms of language, cognitive, and social-emotional development. Despite widely documented benefits of music therapy on parent-child interactions, empirical evidence for the effects of music therapy on parent-child synchrony is lacking. To examine effects of parent-child dyads' participation in a six-week home-based music therapy program on parent response, child initiation, and parent-child synchrony, as well as parents' daily use of musical activities with their child. Twenty-six parent-child dyads participated in this pretest-posttest within-subject single-group design study. Participating dyads included parents and their child with disabilities or developmental delays (ages 1-3 years inclusive). Parent-child dyads participated in a home-based music therapy program that included six weekly 40-minute sessions, and incorporated five responsive teaching strategies (i.e., affect, match, reciprocity, shared control, and contingency). Observational data were recorded for parent-child interactions and parent-child synchrony. Parents' positive physical and verbal responses, as well as children's positive verbal initiations, increased significantly pre- to post-intervention; however, children's positive physical initiations did not increase significantly. Parent-child synchrony also improved significantly pre- to post-intervention. Findings support the use of home-based music therapy programs to facilitate parent-child interactions in the areas of parental responsiveness and child-initiated communication, as well as parent-child synchrony. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Parental feeding practices predict authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W

    2008-07-01

    Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles

  2. Improving positive parenting skills and reducing harsh and abusive parenting in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knerr, Wendy; Gardner, Frances; Cluver, Lucie

    2013-08-01

    Family and youth violence are increasingly recognized as key public health issues in developing countries. Parenting interventions form an important evidence-based strategy for preventing violence, both against and by children, yet most rigorous trials of parenting interventions have been conducted in high-income countries, with far fewer in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This systematic review, conducted in line with Cochrane Handbook guidelines, investigated the effectiveness of parenting interventions for reducing harsh/abusive parenting, increasing positive parenting practices, and improving parent-child relationships in LMICs. Attitudes and knowledge were examined as secondary outcomes. A range of databases were systematically searched, and randomized trials included. High heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis, but characteristics of included studies were described according to type of delivery mode and outcome. Twelve studies with 1580 parents in nine countries reported results favoring intervention on a range of parenting measures. The validity of results for most studies is unclear due to substantial or unclear risks of bias. However, findings from the two largest, highest-quality trials suggest parenting interventions may be feasible and effective in improving parent-child interaction and parental knowledge in relation to child development in LMICs, and therefore may be instrumental in addressing prevention of child maltreatment in these settings. Given the well-established evidence base for parenting interventions in high-income countries, and increasingly good evidence for their applicability across cultures and countries, there is now an urgent need for more rigorously evaluated and reported studies, focusing on youth outcomes as well as parenting, adapted for contexts of considerable resource constraints.

  3. Children's violent television viewing: are parents monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Brenner, Ruth A; Wright, Joseph L; Sachs, Hari Cheryl; Moyer, Patricia; Rao, Malla R

    2004-07-01

    Violent media exposure has been associated with aggressive behavior, and it has been suggested that child health professionals counsel families on limiting exposure. Effective violence prevention counseling requires an understanding of norms regarding parental attitudes, practices, and influencing factors. Both theories of reasoned action and planned behavior emphasize that subjective norms and attitudes affect people's perceptions and intended behavior. Few data exist on violent television viewing and monitoring from a cross-section of families. By understanding the spectrum of parental attitudes, community-sensitive interventions for violence prevention can be developed. The objective of this study was to assess attitudes about and monitoring of violent television viewing from the perspective of parents. An anonymous self-report assisted survey was administered to a convenience sample of parents/guardians who visited child health providers at 3 sites: an urban children's hospital clinic, an urban managed care clinic, and a suburban private practice. The parent questionnaire included questions on child-rearing attitudes and practices and sociodemographic information. A total of 1004 adults who accompanied children for health visits were recruited for the study; 922 surveys were completed (participation rate: 92%). A total of 830 (90%) respondents were parents and had complete child data. Of the 830 respondents, 677 had questions on television viewing included in the survey and were the focus of this analysis. Seventy-five percent of families reported that their youngest child watched television. Of these, 53% reported always limiting violent television viewing, although 73% believed that their children viewed television violence at least 1 time a week. Among television viewers, 81% reported usually or always limiting viewing of sexual content on television and 45% reported usually or always watching television with their youngest child. Among children who watched

  4. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang; Graversen, Lise

    2015-01-01

    ) for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number...

  5. Parental perceptions of child vulnerability, overprotection, and parental psychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M

    1998-01-01

    While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that these constructs are independent. Distinct parental psychological characteristics were hypothesized for each construct. The parents of 871 children, ages 22-72 months, completed a four-part protocol (clinical background data, Child Vulnerability Scale, Parent Protection Scale, and Brief Symptom Inventory). A distinct parent symptom profile was found for perceived child vulnerability (somatization, obsessive-compulsiveness, and anxiety). Overprotection was associated with phobic anxiety, psychoticism, and paranoid ideation. These findings provide further support for the differentiation of these constructs.

  6. Eliciting Parents' Individual Requirements for an Inclusive Digital School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftring, Håkan; Rassmus-Gröhn, Kirsten; Hedvall, Per-Olof

    2016-01-01

    Parents often have a busy time sorting out their life puzzles, including getting information about their children's activities in school. More and more communication between teachers and parents take place via digital school systems. It can be hard for parents to find the information they are looking for and the teacher decides when information is sent and what communication method to use. All parents, but especially parents with disabilities, might have individual preferences on how to receive information and how to adapt meetings at school. In this paper we present a project where we involved parents and teachers in focus groups, an idea workshop and iterative user trials of a digital prototype. The goal was to elicit parents' individual requirements for an inclusive digital school system, where they can store their individual preferences about how and when to receive information from school and what requirements they have on meetings at school. Preliminary results show that we managed to create open and focused discussions among parents and teachers. The parents reacted very positively on an onboarding page with the possibility to quickly and easily enter preferences after their first log in, but more work needs to be done on how preferences are categorized on the onboarding page. Finally, parents need to get clear feedback from teachers and school when they have entered or updated preferences, so they can trust that their preferences will be met.

  7. Parent Scaffolding of Young Children When Engaged with Mobile Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eileen; Petkovski, Marjan; De Pasquale, Domenica; Gottardo, Alexandra; Evans, Mary Ann; Savage, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Shared parent-child experiences while engaged with an iPad(TM) were examined to determine if and then how parents interact with their children when using mobile digital devices. In total, 104 parent-child dyads participated in an observation session where parent-child interactions using the touchscreen tablet device were video recorded in order to observe first-hand the supports and exchanges between parent and child (age range 46.21-75.9 months). Results indicate that parents provide a great deal of support to their children while interacting with the touchscreen tablet device including verbal, emotional-verbal, physical and emotional-physical supports. The types of support offered did not differ as a function of parent gender or experience with mobile devices (users versus non-users). Overall, parents rated their own experience engaging with the touchscreen tablet and that of their child's positively. Additional survey measures assessed parents' perceptions of their child's technology use and attitudes regarding optimal ages and conditions for introducing and using technology. Most parents indicated a preference for very early introduction to mobile technologies. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Nature and Nurturing: Parenting in the Context of Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiff, Cara J.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Accounting for both bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and child temperament can fine-tune theoretical models of the role of parenting and temperament in children's development of adjustment problems. Evidence for bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and children's characteristics of frustration, fear, self-regulation, and impulsivity was reviewed, and an overall model of children's individual differences in response to parenting is proposed. In general, children high in frustration, impulsivity and low in effortful control are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of negative parenting, while in turn, many negative parenting behaviors predict increases in these characteristics. Frustration, fearfulness, and effortful control also appear to elicit parenting behaviors that can predict increases in these characteristics. Irritability renders children more susceptible to negative parenting behaviors. Fearfulness operates in a very complex manner, sometimes increasing children's responses to parenting behaviors and sometimes mitigating them and apparently operating differently across gender. Important directions for future research include the use of study designs and analytic approaches that account for the direction of effects and for developmental changes in parenting and temperament over time. PMID:21461681

  9. Relation of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors between Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Tanya; Moran, Antoinette; Jacobs, David R; Steffen, Lyn M; Sinaiko, Alan R; Zhou, Xia; Steinberger, Julia

    2015-11-01

    To explore the relations of parent-child cardiometabolic risk factors and assess the influence of adiposity on these associations. Associations of adiposity, blood pressure (BP), lipids, fasting insulin and glucose, and a risk factor cluster score (CS) were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 179 parents and their children (6-18 years, N = 255). Insulin resistance was assessed by euglycemic clamp in parents and children aged 10 years or older. Metabolic syndrome in parents was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. CSs of the risk factors were created based on age-specific z-scores. Analyses included Pearson correlation and linear regression, adjusted for parent and child age, sex, race, and body mass index (BMI), accounting for within-family correlation. We found positive parent-child correlations for measures of adiposity (BMI, BMI percentile, waist, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat; r = 0.22-0.34, all P ≤ .003), systolic BP (r = 0.20, P = .002), total cholesterol (r = 0.39, P parent-child correlations, except systolic BP, remained significant. Although adiposity is strongly correlated between parents and children, many cardiometabolic risk factors correlate independent of parent and child BMI. Adverse parental cardiometabolic profiles may identify at-risk children independent of the child's adiposity status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Civic Competence of Dutch Children in Female Same-Sex Parent Families: A Comparison With Children of Opposite-Sex Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny; Gartrell, Nanette; Roeleveld, Jaap; Ledoux, Guuske

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether Dutch children reared in families headed by female same-sex parents differ in civic competence from Dutch children reared by opposite-sex parents. The participants, drawn from a national sample, included 32 children (11-13 years old) parented by female same-sex couples who were matched on demographic characteristics…

  11. Father's and Mother's Perceptions of Parenting Styles as Mediators of the Effects of Parental Psychopathology on Antisocial Behavior in Outpatient Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to examine the potential mediating role of father's and mother's parenting styles in the association between parental psychopathology and antisocial behavior in children, and whether this pathway was moderated by child's sex. Participants included both parents and 338 Spanish outpatient children between 8 and 17 years (56.5% boys).…

  12. The Effects of a Parenting Program on Parenting Practices and Student Misconduct in a Low Performing Elementary School in the Northeastern Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louissaint, Guirlene

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a parent-training program on parenting practices and children's misconduct in a predominately low performing school in the Northeastern region of the United States. The study included 26 parents of children in kindergarten through third grade. The participants were predominately African…

  13. Promoting Parent-Child Sexual Health Dialogue with an Intergenerational Game: Parent and Youth Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Jina; Santa Maria, Diane; Dube, Sara; Markham, Christine; McLaughlin, Jeffrey; Wilkerson, Johnny M; Peskin, Melissa F; Tortolero, Susan; Shegog, Ross

    2015-04-01

    Sexual health discussions between parents and their preadolescent youth can delay sexual debut and increase condom and contraceptive use. However, parents frequently report being uncomfortable talking with their youth about sex, often reporting a lack of self-efficacy and skills to inform and motivate responsible decision making by youth. Intergenerational games may support parent-youth sexual health communication. The purpose of this study was to explore parent and youth perspectives on a proposed intergenerational game designed to increase effective parent-youth sexual health communication and skills training. Eight focus groups were conducted: four with parents (n=20) and four with their 11-14-year-old youth (n=19), to identify similarities and differences in perspectives on gaming context, delivery channel, content, and design (components, features, and function) that might facilitate dyadic sexual health communication. Participants concurred that a sex education game could improve communication while being responsive to family time constraints. They affirmed the demand for an immersive story-based educational adventure game using mobile platforms and flexible communication modalities. Emergent themes informed the development of a features inventory (including educational and gaming strategies, communication components, channel, and setting) and upper-level program flow to guide future game development. This study supports the potential of a game to be a viable medium to bring a shared dyadic sexual health educational experience to parents and youth that could engage them in a motivationally appealing way to meaningfully impact their sexual health communication and youth sexual risk behaviors.

  14. What are other parents saying? Perceived parental communication norms and the relationship between alcohol-specific parental communication and college student drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper, Lucy E.; Hummer, Justin F.; Lac, Andrew; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined parents’ normative perceptions of other college parents’ alcohol-specific communication, and how parents’ perceived communication norms and alcohol-specific communication relate to student drinking outcomes. A sample of 457 student-parent dyads were recruited from a mid-size university. Students completed web-based assessments of alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors. Parents completed alcohol-specific measures of communication norms and parent-child communication, including communication content (i.e., targeted communication) and frequency of communication. Results indicated that parents overestimated how much other parents talked to their college students about the frequency and quantity of alcohol use, but underestimated how often parents initiated conversations about alcohol. In a path model, perceived communication norms positively predicted both targeted communication and frequency of communication. Perceived communication norms and targeted communication negatively predicted students’ attitude toward alcohol use. In contrast, more frequent communication predicted students holding more approving attitudes toward alcohol. The relationship between parents’ perceived communication norms and students’ drinking behaviors was mediated by the parental communication variables and student attitudes. Tests of indirect effects were undertaken to examine meditational processes. The findings underscore relations involving parental perceived communication norms and parents’ own alcohol communication and their children’s drinking outcomes. The complex relationships of different types of parental communication and student outcomes warrant further research. PMID:24128293

  15. Nurses' and Parents' Perceptions of Parental Guidance on Using Nonpharmacological Pain-Relieving Methods Among Neonates in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölkki, Tarja; Laukkala, Helena; Korhonen, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Despite growing knowledge of parents' important role in their infants' pain management, the extent to which nurses in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) provide guidance to parents on nonpharmacological methods is unclear. This study aimed to describe and compare the perceptions of parental guidance in using nonpharmacological pain-relieving methods among neonates in NICUs from the viewpoints of nurses and parents, and to examine the participants' demographics related to the guidance. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study using questionnaire surveys was conducted. Eight NICUs of 5 university hospitals in Finland. A total of 427 participants, including 294 nurses and 178 parents. The participants indicated that the methods of touching and holding were the most commonly introduced strategies in infants' pain alleviation, as they were given as an alternative "nearly always/always" (nurses 91%, 87% and parents 61%, 58%, respectively). In contrast, music and breast-feeding were the less commonly introduced nonpharmacological methods (nurses 11%, 6% and parents 1%, 6%, respectively). A significant difference (p methods compared with parents. In addition, many demographic factors of the nurses, the parents, and their infants were related to the parental guidance. Our findings indicate that parental guidance should not be based on nurses' evaluations of their activities without taking into account parents' perspectives. When counseling parents to use nonpharmacological methods, neonatal nurses should actively interact with families and discuss parents' individual needs. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for parents improves health behaviors and food parenting practices among Hispanic, low-income parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterbach, Laura; Mena, Noereem Z; Greene, Geoffrey; Redding, Colleen A; De Groot, Annie; Tovar, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Given the current prevalence of childhood obesity among Hispanic populations, and the importance of parental feeding behaviors, we aimed to assess the impact of the evidence-based Healthy Children, Healthy Families (HCHF) intervention on responsive food parenting practices (FPPs) in a low-income Hispanic population. This community-based pilot study used a non-experimental pre/post within-subjects design. Parents ( n  = 94) of children aged 3-11 years old were recruited to participate in an 8-week, weekly group-based intervention. The intervention was delivered to nine groups of parents by trained paraprofessional educators over a two-year period. Children participated in a separate curriculum that covered topics similar to those covered in the parent intervention. Parents completed self-administered pre/post surveys, which included demographic questions, seven subscales from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire, and the 16-item HCHF Behavior Checklist. Descriptive statistics and paired samples t-tests were used to analyze data from parents that completed the intervention. Fifty-two, primarily Hispanic (93%) parents completed the intervention (39% attrition rate). For parents who completed the intervention, there was a significant increase in one of the feeding practice subscales: encouragement of balance and variety ( p  = 0.01). There were significant improvements in several parent and child diet and activity outcomes ( p  ≤ 0.01). Although attrition rates were high, parents completing the study reported enjoying and being satisfied with the intervention. For parents who completed the intervention, reported 'encouragement of balance and variety', in addition to several health behaviors significantly improved. Larger studies utilizing an experimental design, should further explore the impact of the HCHF curriculum on improving certain FPPs and health behaviors that contribute to obesity.

  17. Muenster Parental Programme empowers parents in communicating with their infant with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanemann, Reinhild; Reichmuth, Karen; Matulat, Peter; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette Am

    2013-12-01

    With the implementation of the Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS), the age of diagnosis of children with hearing loss (HL) has been steadily declining in the past years. Consequently, there is a need for early educational intervention methods that are suitable for infants at the preverbal level. To meet this need we have developed and evaluated the Muenster Parental Programme (MPP), a responsive parenting programme for parents of children with HL aged 3-18 months. It aims at enhancing the parents' communicative skills towards their child. The MPP is introduced following confirmation of a HL. Flanked by two individual counselling sessions, the programme comprises six group sessions and two single training sessions with video feedback. The focus of the programme lies in enhancing parents' responsive behaviour and in reducing inappropriate initiative behaviour. The present study involved 29 parents of 24 children aged 6.6 (mean, range: 3-12) months at the outset of the MPP. The children's degree of HL ranged from moderate to profound. Parents of children with unilateral HL and/or risk for an additional developmental delay were included. The prospective study compared parent communication skills of a trained (N = 15) versus a control group (N = 14) before and after the MPP. For this purpose, instances of responsive behaviour to the signals of the child and total time of initiative behaviour within a 4-min video-sample were measured before and after completion of the study in both groups. Trained parents could enhance their responsiveness to vocal and preverbal signals of the child (Wilcoxon test, p = .002) and also their responsiveness to non-verbal signals (Wilcoxon test, p parents reduced their inappropriate initiative behaviour (related t-test, p parental responsiveness to infants with HL is of great importance as these early behaviours underlie later acquisition of speech, language, hearing and social communication skills. The MPP constitutes the first

  18. Perceived parental efficacy: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montigny, Francine; Lacharité, Carl

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes a concept analysis carried out to remove some of the ambiguity surrounding the conceptual meaning of perceived parental efficacy and to distinguish it from related concepts such as parental confidence and parental competence. Constructing parental efficacy is a crucial step for family members after the birth of their first child. For some authors, perceived parental efficacy is a motor for adequate parental practices. Confusion about the definition and measurement of this concept has hindered both psychology and nursing practice and research. Concept delineation and concept clarification are required in order to further the development of the concept of perceived parental efficacy. A literature search using a variety of online databases yielded 113 articles between the years 1980 and 2000. The final sample (n=60) consisted of 30 articles from two disciplines: nursing and psychology. A content analysis of the literature was done using Rodger's evolutionary concept analysis method. Content analysis of the literature yielded four contributors to perceived parental efficacy: positive enactive mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion and an appropriate physiological and affective state. Perceived parental efficacy can thus be defined as 'beliefs or judgements a parent holds of their capabilities to organize and execute a set of tasks related to parenting a child'. This conceptual analysis has allowed perceived parental efficacy to be distinguished from parental confidence and parental competence. Both nursing and psychology research, practice and education will benefit from a more precise and delineated concept.

  19. Substance Use among Youth with Currently and Formerly Incarcerated Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurel; Shlafer, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Parental incarceration impacts millions of children in the U.S. and has important consequences for youths’ adjustment. Children of incarcerated parents are at risk for a host of negative psychosocial outcomes, including substance abuse problems. Using data from a statewide survey of youth behavior, the effect of both present and past parental incarceration on youths’ report of their substance use behaviors was examined. Both present and past parental incarceration was significantly associated with use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and prescription drugs, as well as substance abuse and dependence. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:29170570

  20. Individual and group based parenting programmes for improving psychosocial outcomes for teenage parents and their children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jane; Smailagic, Nadja; Bennett, Cathy; Huband, Nick; Jones, Hannah; Coren, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Background Parenting programmes are a potentially important means of supporting teenage parents and improving outcomes for their children, and parenting support is a priority across most Western countries. This review updates the previous version published in 2001. Objectives To examine the effectiveness of parenting programmes in improving psychosocial outcomes for teenage parents and developmental outcomes in their children. Search methods We searched to find new studies for this updated review in January 2008 and May 2010 in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ASSIA, CINAHL, DARE, ERIC, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and Social Science Citation Index. The National Research Register (NRR) was last searched in May 2005 and UK Clinical Research Network Portfolio Database in May 2010. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials assessing short-term parenting interventions aimed specifically at teenage parents and a control group (no-treatment, waiting list or treatment-as-usual). Data collection and analysis We assessed the risk of bias in each study. We standardised the treatment effect for each outcome in each study by dividing the mean difference in post-intervention scores between the intervention and control groups by the pooled standard deviation. Main results We included eight studies with 513 participants, providing a total of 47 comparisons of outcome between intervention and control conditions. Nineteen comparisons were statistically significant, all favouring the intervention group. We conducted nine meta-analyses using data from four studies in total (each meta-analysis included data from two studies). Four meta-analyses showed statistically significant findings favouring the intervention group for the following outcomes: parent responsiveness to the child post-intervention (SMD −0.91, 95% CI −1.52 to −0.30, P = 0.04); infant responsiveness to mother at follow-up (SMD −0.65, 95% CI −1.25 to −0.06, P = 0.03); and an overall measure of parent