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Sample records for included older age

  1. Age correction in monitoring audiometry: method to update OSHA age-correction tables to include older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobie, Robert A; Wojcik, Nancy C

    2015-07-13

    The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Noise Standard provides the option for employers to apply age corrections to employee audiograms to consider the contribution of ageing when determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred. Current OSHA age-correction tables are based on 40-year-old data, with small samples and an upper age limit of 60 years. By comparison, recent data (1999-2006) show that hearing thresholds in the US population have improved. Because hearing thresholds have improved, and because older people are increasingly represented in noisy occupations, the OSHA tables no longer represent the current US workforce. This paper presents 2 options for updating the age-correction tables and extending values to age 75 years using recent population-based hearing survey data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Both options provide scientifically derived age-correction values that can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to include older workers. Regression analysis was used to derive new age-correction values using audiometric data from the 1999-2006 US NHANES. Using the NHANES median, better-ear thresholds fit to simple polynomial equations, new age-correction values were generated for both men and women for ages 20-75 years. The new age-correction values are presented as 2 options. The preferred option is to replace the current OSHA tables with the values derived from the NHANES median better-ear thresholds for ages 20-75 years. The alternative option is to retain the current OSHA age-correction values up to age 60 years and use the NHANES-based values for ages 61-75 years. Recent NHANES data offer a simple solution to the need for updated, population-based, age-correction tables for OSHA. The options presented here provide scientifically valid and relevant age-correction values which can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to

  2. Age correction in monitoring audiometry: method to update OSHA age-correction tables to include older workers

    OpenAIRE

    Dobie, Robert A; Wojcik, Nancy C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Noise Standard provides the option for employers to apply age corrections to employee audiograms to consider the contribution of ageing when determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred. Current OSHA age-correction tables are based on 40-year-old data, with small samples and an upper age limit of 60?years. By comparison, recent data (1999?2006) show that hearing thresholds in the US population have improved....

  3. Polypharmacy including falls risk-increasing medications and subsequent falls in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kathryn; Bennett, Kathleen; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2015-01-01

    polypharmacy is an important risk factor for falls, but recent studies suggest only when including medications associated with increasing the risk of falls. a prospective, population-based cohort study. 6,666 adults aged ≥50 years from The Irish Longitudinal study on Ageing. participants reported regular medication use at baseline. Any subsequent falls, any injurious falls and the number of falls were reported 2 years later. The association between polypharmacy (>4 medications) or fall risk-increasing medications and subsequent falls or injurious falls was assessed using modified Poisson regression. The association with the number of falls was assessed using negative binomial regression. during follow-up, 231 falls per 1,000 person-years were reported. Polypharmacy including antidepressants was associated with a greater risk of any fall (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.28, 95% CI 1.06-1.54), of injurious falls (aRR 1.51, 95% CI 1.10-2.07) and a greater number of falls (adjusted incident rate ratio (aIRR) 1.60, 95% CI 1.19-2.15), but antidepressant use without polypharmacy and polypharmacy without antidepressants were not. The use of benzodiazepines was associated with injurious falls when coupled with polypharmacy (aRR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.87), but was associated with a greater number of falls (aIRR 1.32, 95% CI 1.05-1.65), independent of polypharmacy. Other medications assessed, including antihypertensives, diuretics and antipsychotics, were not associated with outcomes. in middle-aged and older adults, polypharmacy, including antidepressant or benzodiazepine use, was associated with injurious falls and a greater number of falls. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT : The Measuring Athlete's Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, M. M.; Braber, T. L.; Prakken, N. H. J.; Doevendans, P. A. F. M.; Backx, F. J. G.; Grobbee, D. E.; Rienks, R.; Nathoe, H. M.; Bots, M. L.; Velthuis, B. K.; Mosterd, A.

    Background Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged >= 45 years. Methods Coronary

  5. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT : The Measuring Athlete’s Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, M. M.; Braber, T. L.; Prakken, N. H J; Doevendans, P. A F M; Backx, F. J G; Grobbee, D. E.; Rienks, R.; Nathoe, H. M.; Bots, M. L.; Velthuis, B. K.; Mosterd, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged ≥45 years. Methods Coronary artery

  6. Epidemiology of falls in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Nancye May

    2011-03-01

    Worldwide, falls among older people are a public health concern because of their frequency and adverse consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, as well as their impact on health system services and costs. This epidemiological review outlines the public health burden of falls and fall-related injuries and the impact of population aging. The magnitude of the problem is described in terms of the classification of falls and measurement of outcomes, including fall incidence rates across settings, sociodemographic determinants, international trends, and costs of falls and fall-related injuries. Finally, public health approaches to minimize falls risk and consequent demand on health care resources are suggested.

  7. Perceived age discrimination in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Isla; Kneale, Dylan; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: to examine perceived age discrimination in a large representative sample of older adults in England. Methods: this cross-sectional study of over 7,500 individuals used data from the fifth wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a longitudinal cohort study of men and women aged 52 years and older in England. Wave 5 asked respondents about the frequency of five everyday discriminatory situations. Participants who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. Results: approximately a third (33.3%) of all respondents experienced age discrimination, rising to 36.8% in those aged 65 and over. Perceived age discrimination was associated with older age, higher education, lower levels of household wealth and being retired or not in employment. The correlates of age discrimination across the five discriminatory situations were similar. Conclusion: understanding age discrimination is vital if we are to develop appropriate policies and to target future interventions effectively. These findings highlight the scale of the challenge of age discrimination for older adults in England and illustrate that those groups are particularly vulnerable to this form of discrimination. PMID:24077751

  8. Older adult education in Lithuanian ageing society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemaitaityte I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the phenomenon of the demographic ageing of the population and educational opportunities for older adults in Lithuania. Ageing population is a natural outcome of demographic evolution of society. However, a growing number of older people in Lithuania as well as in other European countries requires continuous revision of societal resources in social security, economics, education, health care areas and their adjustment to the new demands. Though current discussion in Lithuania highlights the inclusion of older adults into active social life through educational activities, the studies in diverse areas show that a small number of older people take part in lifelong learning. For this reason and in the attempt to make older people feel satisfaction with life it is necessary to encourage their activity, to promote their social roles, to give them opportunities to take up voluntary tasks, educational and cultural functions and study new subjects.

  9. Formerly homeless, older women's experiences with health, housing, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The perspectives of formerly homeless, older women are absent in the academic literature on aging and homelessness. In this study, a group of formerly homeless women, aged 45 years and older were surveyed (N = 15) and interviewed (n = 11) about their experiences with health, housing, and aging. The qualitative themes to be explored include the women's perceptions of their current health, coping with low incomes, dealing with addictions to alcohol and drugs, and the importance of supportive housing and other community services. The female participants' views on adapting to home, planning for their elderly years, and views on growing older are also explored.

  10. The Impact of Older Age and Sex on Motion Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Elizabeth G; Power, Garry F; Hine, Trevor J; Rahaley, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    were 51% of the older group who showed evidence of age-related decline on all the motion coherence tasks conducted, with half of these in each the group aged under and over 70 years. Difficulties with noise exclusion failed to explain the sex differences found. The increased number of motion cues present when a larger number of dots were included was sufficient to reduce coherence thresholds in younger women but not older men or women. In addition to age, developmental history and sex may provide further predictors in older individuals of decline on measures of motion discrimination.

  11. Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia in Older Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, MH; Dennison, EM; Sayer, A Aihie; Fielding, R; Cooper, C

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are common in older age and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Consequently, they are both attended by a considerable socioeconomic burden. Osteoporosis was defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1994 as a bone mineral density of less than 2.5 standard deviations below the sex-specific young adult mean and this characterisation has been adopted globally. Subsequently, a further step forward was taken when bone mineral density was incorporated into fracture risk prediction algorithms, such as the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®) also developed by the WHO. In contrast, for sarcopenia there have been several diagnostic criteria suggested, initially relating to low muscle mass alone and more recently low muscle mass and muscle function. However, none of these have been universally accepted. This has led to difficulties in accurately delineating the burden of disease, exploring geographic differences, and recruiting appropriate subjects to clinical trials. There is also uncertainty about how improvement in sarcopenia should be measured in pharmaceutical trials. Reasons for these difficulties including the number of facets of muscle health available, e.g. mass, strength, function, and performance, and the various clinical outcomes to which sarcopenia can be related such as falls, fracture, disability and premature mortality. It is imperative that a universal definition of sarcopenia is reached soon to facilitate greater progress in research into this debilitating condition. PMID:25886902

  12. Cardiovascular aging and exercise in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, George A; McKelvie, Robert S

    2008-11-01

    Physical inactivity in an aging population is a major contributing factor to the rising numbers of older persons with chronic illnesses and disabilities. The purpose of this article is to review the relationship between physical inactivity and age-associated changes to the cardiovascular system, and provide guidance on prescribing exercise to healthy older persons in order to mitigate the adverse effects of cardiovascular aging. Interpretive review of the literature. A number of structural and functional changes occur in the cardiovascular system with advancing age, many of which are mediated by changes in vascular stiffness. These changes lead not only to cardiovascular events and strokes, but also to frailty, functional decline, and cognitive impairment. A substantial proportion of the decline in aerobic capacity with age may result from physical inactivity. Guidelines for the prescription of aerobic, resistance, and balance training for otherwise healthy older persons are provided. Lack of physical activity is a major risk factor for the epidemic of chronic disease and disability facing an aging population. Many age-associated changes in cardiovascular function result from physical inactivity. The benefits of regular exercise include prevention of cardiovascular events, disability, and cognitive impairment. Age is not a contraindication to exercise, which can usually be initiated safely in older persons.

  13. The role of exercise for fall prevention in older age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Tiedemann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Falls are a common, costly and preventable consequence of sensorimotor impairments that increase in prevalence with advancing age. A fall occurs when the physical ability of the individual is unable to match the immediate demands of the environment and/or of the activity being undertaken. Targeted exercise aimed at improving the physical ability of the individual, such as balance and strength training, is crucial for promoting functional independence and mobility and reducing the risk of falling in older age. Exercise programs that provide a high challenge to balance, have a high dose, include progression of intensity over time and are ongoing are most effective for preventing falls. This paper provides guidance to health professionals involved with the prescription of physical activity and exercise to older people regarding the safe and effective provision of programs aimed at improving strength and balance and preventing falls in older age.

  14. Dual sensory impairment in older age.

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    Schneider, Julie M; Gopinath, Bamini; McMahon, Catherine M; Leeder, Stephen R; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin

    2011-12-01

    Hearing and visual impairments are commonly viewed separately in research and service provision, but they often occur together as dual sensory impairment or DSI in older populations. This article examines the frequency and effects of DSI in older age and notes limitations in the evidence. Search of electronic databases of published papers. DSI diminishes communication and well-being and can cause social isolation, depression, reduced independence, mortality, and cognitive impairment. Although intuitively DSI may be expected to have additional impacts over single sensory impairment, research findings are inconclusive. Services and supports required by people with DSI are simply a combination of those required by people with single vision and hearing loss, taking account of the unique communication difficulties posed by DSI.

  15. Flexicure Employment of Older People in Super-Aged Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonseock LEE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the evolving state of employment of older Japanese people. Since the rapid increase in population aging, employment options, such as re-employment, are favored over infexible retirement age extension. In order to meet these needs, the Japanese government has created new employment policies. This study shows newer models for the re-employment of the aging population in Japan. Specifcally, it shows that employment practices promoting balance between fexibility and security (i.e., fexicurity provide successful alternatives to the re-employment of older people. Data are drawn from longitudinal research on employment con-ditions among older people conducted by the Japanese government. Using this data, the prob-ability of being employed and wage rate is ana-lyzed, including the degree of change that each factor has on the probability of older people being employed. Results indicate that super-aged soci-eties, like Japan, should promote labor markets that balance fexibility and security for re-employ-ing older people.

  16. Migration and health at older age in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Jacob; Anglewicz, Philip

    2017-12-15

    The connection between migration and health has long been established, but relatively little is known about this relationship for older persons, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In this paper, we examine migration selection with regards to health status among older individuals in Malawi, by testing whether older migrants differ from non-migrants in health status before migration. To do so, we use data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health, a longitudinal panel dataset that includes a relatively large number of individuals at older ages. We focus on three measures: mental health, physical health, and HIV status. We find that the relationship between migration and health selection differs by gender. Older women who are HIV-positive are nearly 10 times more likely to migrate compared to their HIV-negative counterparts. For men, those with better mental health are less likely to migrate in the future. These results suggest that, although research in some settings shows that migrants have better health before moving, some older migrants have worse health than their non-migrant peers, and may, therefore, add to the already-heavy burden on rural health centres in Africa.

  17. Older and incarcerated: policy implications of aging prison populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psick, Zachary; Simon, Jonathan; Brown, Rebecca; Ahalt, Cyrus

    2017-03-13

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the policy Implications of aging prison populations. Design/methodology/approach An examination of the worldwide aging trend in prison and its implications for correctional policy, including an examination of population aging in California prisons as a case example of needed reform. Findings Prison populations worldwide are aging at an unprecedented rate, and age-related medical costs have had serious consequences for jurisdictions struggling to respond to the changes. These trends are accompanied by a growing body of evidence that old age is strongly correlated with desistance from criminal behavior, suggesting an opportunity to at least partially address the challenges of an aging prison population through early release from prison for appropriate persons. Originality/value Some policies do exist that aim to reduce the number of older, chronically ill or disabled and dying people in prison, but they have not achieved that goal on a sufficient scale. An examination of the situation in California shows that recognizing how the healthcare needs of incarcerated people change as they age - and how aging and aging-related health changes often decrease an older person's likelihood of repeat offense - is critical to achieving effective and efficient policies and practices aimed at adequately caring for this population and reducing their numbers in prisons when appropriate.

  18. Successful aging among older veterans in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Tsai, Jack; Kirwin, Paul D; Southwick, Steven M

    2014-06-01

    To develop a unidimensional latent model of successful aging and to evaluate sociodemographic, medical, psychiatric, and psychosocial correlates of this construct in a nationally representative sample of older veterans in the United States. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional web survey of 2,025 U.S. veterans aged 60 to 96 years who participated in the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study. Self-report measures of sociodemographics; subjective physical, mental, and cognitive functioning; and psychosocial characteristics were used. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to construct a unidimensional latent factor of successful aging. Correlates of scores on this factor were then evaluated. Most older veterans (82.1%) rated themselves as aging successfully. A unidimensional latent factor composed of seven measures of self-rated successful aging, quality of life, and physical, mental, cognitive, and social functioning provided a good fit to the data. Physical health difficulties (β = -0.39) and current psychological distress (β = -0.33) were most strongly negatively related to scores on this latent factor of successful aging, while protective psychosocial characteristics (β = 0.22), most notably resilience, gratitude, and purpose in life, were most strongly positively related to these scores. Additional positive predictors of successful aging included White, non-Hispanic race, being married or living with partner, perceiving a positive effect of the military on one's life, active lifestyle, positive expectations regarding aging, and conscientiousness; additional negative predictors included substance abuse history. Results of this study provide a dimensional approach to characterizing components and correlates of successful aging in older veterans. Interventions and policy initiatives designed to mitigate physical health difficulties and psychological distress and to enhance protective psychosocial characteristics such as resilience, gratitude, and

  19. Overlapping effects of age on associative memory and the anterior hippocampus from middle to older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Kristin; Herlitz, Agneta; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Söderlund, Hedvig

    2017-01-15

    The anterior hippocampus has been implicated in associative memory, and along with hippocampal volume, this type of memory declines with age. However, few cross-sectional studies include middle-aged samples, making it unclear at what point these age-related changes occur. In addition, although men and women have been shown to differ in associative memory and rates of age-related hippocampal atrophy, sex-differences in aging are rarely studied. To address these issues, we assessed memory for word-pairs, hippocampal volume and activation during encoding and retrieval, across middle-aged (n=39) and older (n=44) participants, specifically in relation to sex. Older adults showed significantly poorer associative memory compared to middle-aged adults, paralleled by smaller anterior hippocampi and less activation during successful retrieval. The age-by-sex interaction observed in memory performance was also mirrored in the volume and activation of the hippocampus, indicating more pronounced age-effects in men as compared to women. These results indicate a specific role of the anterior hippocampus in verbal associative memory and suggest they both decline between middle-age and older age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  1. Employment hardship among older workers: does residential and gender inequality extend into older age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Tim; Jensen, Leif

    2008-01-01

    The realities of a rapidly aging society make the employment circumstances of older workers an increasingly important social issue. We examine the prevalence and correlates of underemployment among older Americans, with a special focus on residence and gender, to provide an assessment of the labor market challenges facing older workers. We analyzed data from the March Current Population Surveys for the years 2003, 2004, and 2005. We used descriptive statistics to explore the prevalence of underemployment among older workers and developed multivariate models to assess the impact of age, residence, and gender on the likelihood of underemployment, net of other predictors. We found clear disadvantages for older workers relative to their middle-aged counterparts, and particular disadvantages for older rural residents and women. Multivariate models showed that the disadvantages of older age held net of other predictors. The results also indicated that much of the disadvantage faced by older rural workers and women was explained by factors other than age, particularly education. In an aging society, underemployment among older workers comes at an increasing social cost. Policies aimed at supporting older workers and alleviating employment hardship among them are increasingly in the public interest.

  2. Older People Turn Age into a Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Bob; Irving, Enid

    1993-01-01

    Five European projects illustrate how older adults are volunteering as well as creating volunteer opportunities that enable them to contribute their considerable skills and energies to community service. (SK)

  3. Subjective Age and Its Correlates Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Werner, Perla

    2018-01-01

    The present study evaluates discrepancies in subjective age as reported by middle-age persons (aged 44-64 years) in comparison to older adults (aged 65 years and older), using a multidimensional definition of the concept. A convenience sample of 126 middle-aged and 126 older adults completed subjective age measures (felt age, desired age, and perceived old age), attitudes toward older adults, knowledge about aging, and sociodemographic questionnaires. Overall, participants reported feeling younger than they actually were and wanting to be younger than their chronological age. Perceived mean for old age was about 69 years. Discrepancies in felt age and desired age were significantly larger for the older group compared to the middle-aged group. Regarding perceived old age, compared to the younger group, older adults reported that old age begins at an older age. Findings suggest that middle-aged and older adults' perceptions regarding themselves and regarding old age in general are independent and need, therefore, separate research and practical attention.

  4. Subjective Age and Changes in Memory in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Caudroit, Johan; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The subjective experience of aging, indexed by how old or young an individual feels, has been related to well-being and health-related outcomes among older adults. The present study examined whether subjective age is associated with memory level and changes, as indexed by measures of immediate and delayed recall. A complementary purpose was to test the mediating role of depressive symptoms and physical activity in the relation between subjective age and memory changes. Participants were drawn from three waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Subjective age, baseline memory measures, and covariates were assessed during the 2008 wave (N = 5809), depressive symptoms and physical activity were assessed again in the 2010 wave, and the follow-up memory measures were assessed in the 2012 wave. Regression analyses that included demographic, metabolic, and vascular covariates revealed that a younger subjective age at baseline was associated with better concurrent performance and with slower decline in immediate and delayed recall. Bootstrap procedures indicated that fewer depressive symptoms mediated these associations. Additional analyses revealed that memory level and change were unrelated to changes in subjective age. Beyond chronological age, the subjective experience of age is associated with cognitive aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Epidemiology of Falls in Older Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Nancye May

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, falls among older people are a public health concern because of their frequency and adverse consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, as well as their impact on health system services and costs. This epidemiological review outlines the public health burden of falls and fall-related injuries and the impact of…

  6. Retooling for an aging America: building the healthcare workforce. A white paper regarding implementation of recommendation 4.2 of this Institute of Medicine Report of April 14, 2008, that "All licensure, certification and maintenance of certification for healthcare professionals should include demonstration of competence in care of older adults as a criterion.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    In Chicago, Illinois, on May 7, 2009, a group of 53 medical educators representing many U.S. certification boards, residency review committees, and medical societies met to review and approve a white paper intended to promote Recommendation 4.2 of the Institute of Medicine report of April 14, 2008, "Retooling for an Aging America: Building the Healthcare Workforce." This recommendation is one of 14 and states: "All licensure, certification and maintenance of certification for healthcare professionals should include demonstration of competence in care of older adults as a criterion." Background information given included the growing numbers of older adults, review of a 15-year initiative by a section of the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) to include geriatric education in all surgical and some related medical specialties, a recent announcement of 26 elder care competencies to be expected of graduating medical students from association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) affiliated schools, and the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) approach to 'Reinforcing Geriatric Competencies through Licensure and Certification Examinations." Nine points involved in the implementation of this recommendation received discussion, and approaches to realization were presented. In conclusion, this white paper, which those listed as being in attendance approved, proposes hat all ABMS member boards whose diplomates participate in the care of older adults select the floor competencies enumerated by the AAMC that apply to their specialty and add or subtract those completed during their trainees' initial (intern) year and then define those needed in subsequent years of residency and ultimate practice. This would fulfill the requirements of Recommendation 4.2 above.

  7. Aging and the Socioeconomic Life of Older Adults in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Bakshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to approach aging in India from three perspectives, namely, the well-being of an aging individual, the aging household, and the aging population. The aspects, namely, work, financial dependence, integration, empowerment, and elder abuse are studied and their relation to age, gender, and marital status is investigated. The data sets pertaining to the National Sample Surveys for the reference periods 1986-1987, 1995-1996, and 2004 are primarily utilized for the purpose. The data sets from Building Knowledge Base on Population Ageing in India Survey, 2011, are also utilized for information on elder abuse. The results show that the older males are more likely to participate in household activities when compared with the older females. The married older adults are also more likely to participate in household activities when compared with their widowed counterparts. In a similar way, gender and marital status are found to be associated with empowerment of older adults. The working older adults, those who possess property and/or assets are more likely to be financially independent. Furthermore, the older females and the financially dependent older adults are more likely to face abuses of different kinds. Households are classified into three different types. Type I households have no older adults, Type II households have older adults and other younger members, and Type III households have older adults only. Results show that Type III households are found to be relatively more deprived and report higher average monthly expenditure when compared with other types of households.

  8. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

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    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  9. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  10. Considerations in treating physically active older adults and aging athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Paul R

    2015-04-01

    Life spans are increasing and research is showing more and more how important exercise is to successful aging. Medical practitioners need to appreciate the physiologic and physical changes that occur with age, as well as the significant benefits of physical activity, so they not only can properly treat their older patients but also so they can promote the benefits of exercise to their sedentary older patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. How older people with learning disabilities perceive ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Robert

    2010-07-01

    This article discusses the author's use of reflexivity in trying to gain a better understanding of ageing in older people with learning disabilities. In the general population ageing is viewed in rather negative terms and as a significant life transition. However, for some older people with learning disabilities this transition may go unnoticed because of their past negative life experiences and lack of opportunities. Reflexivity has the potential to provide nurses with greater understanding of the personal perspectives of older people with learning disabilities.

  12. Measuring Successful Aging in Southern Black Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, Meredith; Nies, Mary A.; Bentley, Monica

    2011-01-01

    With the growing size of the population of aging Black individuals, it is important to understand successful aging in this group. This study, therefore, piloted the Successful Aging Inventory (SAI) with a convenience sample of Black older adults. Participants completed a demographic form, the SAI, Purpose in Life Test, Life Satisfaction…

  13. Aging in a Total Institution: The Case of Older Prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Monika B.; Glamser, Francis D.

    1979-01-01

    Interviews with older prisoners at a major state penitentiary were conducted to better understand the impact of social arrangements on aging. Normal aging does not take place in the prison setting. Chronological age does not possess much salience for prisoners, and some effects of environmental stress on appearance are mitigated. (Author)

  14. The Impact of Subjective Age and Stigma on Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Russell A.

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of shifts in age identification by older people (N=323) from "middle-aged" to "elderly" within the context of the labeling theory of deviance. Age identification was unrelated to attitudes toward old people and the label "elderly" did not affect self-esteem through any "gate-keeping" process. (Author)

  15. The Role of Age-Friendly Environments on Quality of Life among Thai Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiraphat, Sariyamon; Peltzer, Karl; Thamma-Aphiphol, Kriengsak; Suthisukon, Kawinarat

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the significance of age-friendly environments towards quality of life among older adults have been limited. This study aimed to examine the association between age-friendly environments and quality of life among Thai older adults. Cross-sectional interview survey data were collected from 4183 older adults (≥60 years) using multistage stratified systematic sampling from all four regions in Thailand. The outcome variable was the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) scale, while independent variables included sociodemographic factors, having a health problem, and neighbourhood age-friendly environment variables. In multivariable logistic regression, significant age-friendly environments predictors of quality of life included walkable neighbourhood, neighbourhood aesthetics, neighbourhood service accessibility, neighbourhood criminal safety, neighbourhood social trust, neighbourhood social support, and neighbourhood social cohesion. The present study confirms the important role of age-friendly neighbourhoods in terms of physical and social environments towards the quality of life of older adults. PMID:28282942

  16. Stress and Its Consequences from Prenatal Period to Older Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Pekel Uludagli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human life includes numerous developmental changes starting from the mother's womb to old ages. Both age related physical, cognitive, and emotional changes and social roles that are expected to be fulfilled at every age period require individual to adapt new conditions. Even if these new conditions are sometimes desirable, they lead individuals to feel stress. Although there are a large number of studies about stress in the relevant literature, they either approached stress pathologically or focused on specific age groups; how stress affects an individual across the life span was not addressed holistically. This review examined the important life events that are experienced respectively in the infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and older ages and the effects of these life events on the individuals' health from the life span perspective. Accordingly, each individual's conditions such as the amount of social support, living in a disadvantaged district, healthy life habits, and coping skills determine to what extent the individual experiences stress. The stress that the individual experiences with varying degrees in each age period may affect his/her physical and psychological health negatively. Although developmental stress is inevitable, having positive and supportive social relations helps coping with stress effectively. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 189-208

  17. The relationship between age, anxiety, and depression in older adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss Wiesel, Talia R; Nelson, Christian J; Tew, William P; Hardt, Molly; Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Owusu, Cynthia; Klepin, Heidi D; Gross, Cary P; Gajra, Ajeet; Lichtman, Stuart M; Ramani, Rupal; Katheria, Vani; Zavala, Laura; Hurria, Arti

    2015-06-01

    In older men with prostate cancer, aging is associated with reduced anxiety and increased depression. The purpose of this study was to examine the association among age, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of older adults receiving chemotherapy. This is a secondary analysis of a prospective longitudinal study investigating chemotherapy toxicity in older adults with cancer. Baseline data (pre-chemotherapy) included: age, sociodemographics, tumor and treatment factors, functional status, comorbidities, psychological state (measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and social support. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were conducted to test the relationship between age, anxiety, and depression. The average age of the 500 patients (56% females) was 73.1. The majority had late stage disease: 22% Stage III and 61% stage IV. Clinically significant depression was reported in 12.6%. Clinically significant anxiety was reported in 20.9%. In univariate analyses, there was no association between anxiety and age, or depression and age. In multivariable analyses, older age (p=0.05) was associated with decreased anxiety, as well as lack of social support (panxiety decreases with age in older adults with cancer. However, depression remained constant with increasing age. Greater resources and attention to identifying and treating the psychological sequelae of cancer in older adults are warranted. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice.

  19. Aging in Place vs. Relocation for Older Adults with Neurocognitive Disorder: Applications of Wiseman's Behavioral Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel B; Andersen, Troy Christian; Lehning, Amanda J; Perry, Tam E

    2015-01-01

    Some older adults are more vulnerable to housing concerns due to physical and cognitive challenges, including those with a neurocognitive disorder who need extensive support. Environmental gerontology frameworks, including Wiseman's 1980 Behavioral Model of Elderly Migration, have informed scholarship on aging in place and relocation. Understanding Wiseman's model, including considerations for working with families confronting a neurocognitive disorder, can help practitioners ensure that older clients live in settings that best meet their wants and needs.

  20. Older Adults in Public Open Spaces: Age and Gender Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Rinat Ben; Ayalon, Liat

    2018-01-18

    There is a substantial body of literature on the importance of the environment in the lives of older adults. Nonetheless, to date, there has been limited research on everyday activities of urban older adults in public open spaces. The present study examined the activities of older adults in public open spaces in Israel with a specific focus on age and gender as potential variables of relevance. Using still photography, we systematically photographed four sessions in two different public outdoor settings attended by older Israelis. Still photographs were converted to narrative descriptions, and then coded, quantified, and compared using descriptive statistics. The majority (311, 97%) of older adults arrived alone to the public setting. Of these, 44% formed a social group of two or more people, whereas the remaining older adults stayed alone. When social interactions occurred, they were primarily gender homogenous (69%); women were more likely to integrate in spontaneous social conversations and men were more likely to participate in common games. Our findings call attention to the important role played by the outdoor environment as a venue for social activities among older adults. The findings further stress the high levels of aloneness experienced by older adults, which do not seem to be alleviated by the mere attendance of public spaces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. TREATMENT OF CANCER IN THE OLDER AGED PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodovico Balducci

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

     Cancer is a disease of aging .  Currently 50% of all malignancies occur in individuals 65 and over and by the year 2030 older individuals will account for 70% of all neoplasms.

     With the aging of the population the management of cancer in the older person with chemotherapy is beoming increasingly common. This treatment may be  safe and effective if some appropriate measures are taken, including, an assessment of the physiologic age of each patient, modification of doses according to the renal function, use of meyelopoietic growth factors prophylactically in presence of moderately toxic chemotherapy, and provision of an adequate caregiver. Cure, prolongation of survival, and symptom palliation are universal goals of medical treatment.   Prolongation of active life expectancy  should be added to the treatment goal of the older aged person .

     

     

  2. Association between older age and more successful aging: critical role of resilience and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Dilip V; Savla, Gauri N; Thompson, Wesley K; Vahia, Ipsit V; Glorioso, Danielle K; Martin, A'verria Sirkin; Palmer, Barton W; Rock, David; Golshan, Shahrokh; Kraemer, Helena C; Depp, Colin A

    2013-02-01

    There is growing public health interest in understanding and promoting successful aging. While there has been some exciting empirical work on objective measures of physical health, relatively little published research combines physical, cognitive, and psychological assessments in large, randomly selected, community-based samples to assess self-rated successful aging. In the Successful AGing Evaluation (SAGE) study, the authors used a structured multicohort design to assess successful aging in 1,006 community-dwelling adults in San Diego County, ages 50-99 years, with oversampling of people over 80. A modified version of random-digit dialing was used to recruit subjects. Evaluations included a 25-minute telephone interview followed by a comprehensive mail-in survey of physical, cognitive, and psychological domains, including positive psychological traits and self-rated successful aging, scaled from 1 (lowest) to 10 (highest). The mean age of the respondents was 77.3 years. Their mean self-rating of successful aging was 8.2, and older age was associated with a higher rating, despite worsening physical and cognitive functioning. The best multiple regression model achieved, using all the potential correlates, accounted for 30% of the variance in the score for self-rated successful aging and included resilience, depression, physical functioning, and age (entering the regression model in that order). Resilience and depression had significant associations with self-rated successful aging, with effects comparable in size to that for physical health. While no causality can be inferred from cross-sectional data, increasing resilience and reducing depression might have effects on successful aging as strong as that of reducing physical disability, suggesting an important role for psychiatry in promoting successful aging.

  3. Aging with HIV vs. HIV seroconversion at older age: a diverse population with distinct comorbidity profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Brothers, Thomas D; Carli, Federica; Stentarelli, Chiara; Dolci, Giovanni; Santoro, Antonella; Beghetto, Barbara; Menozzi, Marianna; Mussini, Cristina; Falutz, Julian

    2015-01-01

    People aging with HIV might have different health conditions compared with people who seroconverted at older ages. The study objective was to assess the prevalence of, and risk factors for, individual co-morbidities and multimorbidity (MM) between HIV-positive patients with a longer duration of HIV infection, and patients who seroconverted at an older age. We compared estimates across both groups to a matched community-based cohort sampled from the general population. We performed a case-control study including antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced patients who were HIV seropositive for ≥ 20.6 years ("HIV-Aging"), or who were seropositive for Aged") having access in 2013 at the Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic. Patients were matched in a 1:3 ratio with controls from the CINECA ARNO database. MM was defined as the concurrent presence of >2 NICM. Logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate associated predictors of NICM and MM. We analysed 404 HIV-Aging and 404 HIV-Aged participants in comparison to 2424 controls. The mean age was 46.7 ± 6.2 years, 28.9% were women. Prevalence of HIV co-morbidities and MM were significantly higher in the HIV-positive groups compared to the general population (paging vs aged group. This difference turned to be significant in patients above the age of 45 years old (paging with HIV display heterogeneous health conditions. Host factors and duration of HIV infection are associated with increased risk of MM compared to the general population.

  4. Do predictors of volunteering in older age differ by health status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Andrea; Galenkamp, Henrike; Papa, Roberta; Socci, Marco; Suanet, Bianca; Schmidt, Andrea; Schulmann, Katharine; Golinowska, Stella; Sowa, Agnieszka; Moreira, Amilcar; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2016-06-01

    It has been widely recognised that poor health is one of the main barriers to participation in volunteer activities in older age. Therefore, it is crucial to examine the participation of older people in volunteering, especially those in poor health. Based on the resource theory of volunteering, the aim of this study is to better understand the correlates of volunteering among older people with different health statuses, namely those without health problems (neither multimorbidity nor disability), those with mild health problems (multimorbidity or disability), and those with severe health problems (multimorbidity and disability). Data were drawn from the fourth wave (2011-2012, release 1.1.1) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, which includes European people aged 50 years or older. The results showed that variables linked to volunteering were generally similar regardless of health status, but some differences were nevertheless identified. For older people with mild or severe health problems, for instance, depressive symptoms were negatively associated with their involvement in volunteer activities. We found a positive association of being widowed (rather than married) with volunteering in older people with particularly poor health, whereas high income was associated with volunteering in the case of mild health problems only. These results demonstrate that variables associated with volunteer participation partially differ between older people depending on their health status. These differences should be considered by policy makers in their attempts to promote volunteering in older people, as a means of preventing their social exclusion.

  5. Predictors and prevalence of successful aging among older Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2012-01-01

    Successful aging is an important and worldwide concept in gerontology. However, until recently, there has been very little known about successful aging in Malaysia. This study was designed to describe the prevalence and correlates of successful aging among older Malaysians. Data for this study were obtained from the national survey 'The Mental Health and Quality of Life of Older Malaysians'. For this study, successful aging was defined based on a multidimensional model, encompassing the avoidance of chronic disease and physical functioning difficulty, and maintenance of good psychocognitive functioning. The prevalence of successful aging among older Malaysians was calculated at 13.8% (CI: 12.6-15.1). Results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, educational attainment, household income, and ethnicity were significantly associated with successful aging. Results of this study show that successful agers were more likely to be among the younger age, ethnic Chinese, and those with a higher education level and household income, after adjusting for all other variables in the model. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Successful aging among assisted living community older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar-Westman, Maryalice; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Nies, Mary A

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the suitability of using the Successful Aging Inventory (SAI) in an effort to describe successful aging among older adults currently living in assisted living communities (ALCs) and to further assess some of the characteristics of successful aging in this group. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive quantitative research design. Recruitment garnered 200 participants 65 years of age or older from eight ALCs in North Carolina. Screening was done using the Mini-Cog; instrumentation was composed of the SAI, Purpose in Life Test, Life Satisfaction Inventory-A, and Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Among the differences were those influenced by gender, with females tending to score higher on successful aging (p size of the older adult population will proliferate dramatically during the next two decades. Many of these individuals will find themselves living in ALCs; therefore, it is important to continue to strive to understand what successful aging looks like in these individuals in order to adopt meaningful practices and interventions aimed at eliciting successful aging responses in those living in these communities. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  7. Characteristics of Older Adults and the Aging: Some Comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Cash J.; Cangemi, Joseph P.

    1978-01-01

    Asserting that both humanistic and manpower considerations dictate that we address the aging process, this article describes the characteristics of older adults and illustrates the way in which they may be allowed to remain productive. Maslow's "Need Hierarchy" and Thorndike's "Theory of Developmental Tasks" are applied to the…

  8. Keeping It Safe: Aging in Place among Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Gina G.; Bishop, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study addressed in this article was to identify ways to reduce risk and improve safe aging in place among rural older adults. Resident and Extension faculty and county educators visited study participants at home to assess functional capacity and the home environment. Extension professionals may be uniquely positioned to provide…

  9. Older Age is Associated with More Successful Aging: Role of Resilience and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Dilip V.; Savla, Gauri N.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Vahia, Ipsit V.; Glorioso, Danielle K.; Martin, A’verria Sirkin; Palmer, Barton W.; Rock, David; Golshan, Shahrokh; Kraemer, Helena C.; Depp, Colin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing public health interest in understanding and promoting successful aging. While there has been some exciting empirical work on objective measures of physical health, relatively little published research combines physical, cognitive, and psychological assessments in large, randomly selected, community-based samples to assess self-rated successful aging (SRSA). Methods In this Successful AGing Evaluation (SAGE) study, we used a structured multi-cohort design to assess successful aging in 1,006 community-dwelling adults in San Diego County, aged 50–99 years, with over-sampling of people over 80. A modified version of random digit dialing was used to recruit subjects. Evaluations included a 25-minute phone interview followed by a comprehensive mail-in survey of physical, cognitive, and psychological domains, including SRSA (scaled from 1 [lowest] to 10 [highest]) and positive psychological traits. Results In our sample with mean age of 77.3 years, the mean SRSA score was 8.2, and older age was associated with higher SRSA (R2 = 0.027), despite worsening physical and cognitive functioning. The best multiple regression model achieved, using all the potential correlates, accounted for 30% of variance in SRSA, and included resilience, depression, physical functioning, and age (entering the regression model in that order). Conclusions Resilience and depression had a significant association with SRSA with effect sizes comparable to that for physical health. While no causality can be inferred from cross-sectional data, increasing resilience and reducing depression might have as strong effects on successful aging as reducing physical disability, suggesting an important role for psychiatry in promoting successful aging. PMID:23223917

  10. Obesity, job satisfaction and disability at older ages in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, Ricardo; de Haro, Carmen Ordóñez; Sánchez, Carlos Rivas

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the interaction between obesity and disability and its impact on the levels of job satisfaction reported by older workers (aged 50-64) in ten European countries (Denmark, Sweden, Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy and Spain). Using longitudinal data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe for the years 2004, 2007 and 2011, we estimate a job satisfaction equation which includes a set of explanatory variables measuring worker's obesity and disability status (non-disabled, non-limited disabled, and limited disabled). The results show that, after controlling for other variables, obese workers are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs as compared to those workers with normal weight (0.066 points). In addition, being limited disabled or having poor health contribute to reducing (by 0.082 and 0.172 points, respectively) this positive effect of being obese on job satisfaction. However, we do not find any differential effect of obesity on job satisfaction by disability status, except for those underweight individuals who are not limited in their daily activities. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis of lower expectations about jobs for obese workers, especially if they also have poor health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Are HIV-Infected Older Adults Aging Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiak, Stephen E; Havlik, Richard

    With increasing success in treating HIV, infected persons are living longer, and a new challenge has emerged - the need to understand how HIV-infected adults are aging. What are the similarities with typical aging and what are the unique aspects that may have resulted from HIV infection, interacting with characteristic life style factors and other comorbid conditions? Are specific diseases and conditions (comorbidities), typically seen as part of the aging process, occurring at accelerated rates or with higher frequency (accentuated) in HIV-infected adults? At this juncture, conclusions should be tentative. Certainly, biological processes that correlate with aging occur earlier in the older adult HIV population. Clinical manifestations of these biological processes are age-associated illnesses occurring in greater numbers (multimorbidity), but they are not accelerated. Specifically cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, and renal disease are more common with other comorbidities less certain. Management of this elevated risk for developing multimorbidity is a major concern for patients and their health care teams. The medical system must respond to the evolving needs of this aging and growing older adult population who will dominate the epidemic. Adopting a more holistic approach to their health care management is needed to achieve optimal health and well-being in the HIV-infected older adult. Geriatric care principles best embody this approach. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Obesity, sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and reduced mobility in Brazilian older people aged 80 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vanessa Ribeiro Dos; Gomes, Igor Conterato; Bueno, Denise Rodrigues; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Freitas, Ismael Forte; Gobbo, Luis Alberto

    2017-01-01

    To analyze which abnormalities in body composition (obesity, sarcopenia or sarcopenic obesity) are related to reduced mobility in older people aged 80 years and older. The sample included 116 subjects aged 80 years and older. The body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and mobility was assessed by motor tests. The χ2 test was used to analyze the proportion of older people with sarcopenia, obesity and sarcopenic obesity based on sex as well as to indicate an association between obesity, sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and mobility. Binary logistic regression, adjusted for the variables (sex and osteoarticular diseases), was used to express the magnitude of these associations. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the mobility of four groups (Normal, Obesity, Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity). The Sarcopenia Group had lower performance in the lower limbs strength test and in sum of two tests compared with Obesity and Normal Groups. Older people with sarcopenia had higher chance of reduced mobility (OR: 3.44; 95%CI: 1.12-10.52). Older people aged 80 years and older with sarcopenia have more chance for reduction in mobility.

  13. Prospective validation of criteria, including age, for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.S. Jr.; Wengrovitz, M.A.; DeLong, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    One hundred twelve cases of blunt splenic rupture were prospectively entered (October 1987-October 1991) into surgical or nonsurgical management groups using these criteria for the nonsurgical group: hemodynamic stability-age less than 55 years-CT scan appearance of grade I, II, or III injury-absence of concomitant injuries precluding abdominal assessment+absence of other documented abdominal injuries. All ages were included and AAST injury scaling was used. Patients were grouped from the trauma room. The surgical treatment group included 66 patients (49 splenectomies, 17 splenorraphies). These patients were generally older and more severely injured, required more transfused blood, and a longer ICU stay. The nonsurgical group included 46 patients with 33 older than 14 years. There were 3 patients over the age of 55 years inappropriately included in this group, and nonsurgical therapy failed in all three. Statistical analysis (chi 2) showed that more splenic injuries were observed and more spleens were saved with these criteria applied prospectively compared with a previous retrospective series in the same institution. The series had a success rate of 93%, and validates the criteria used for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen and adds a new criterion: a maximum age of 55 years

  14. Prospective validation of criteria, including age, for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.S. Jr.; Wengrovitz, M.A.; DeLong, B.S. (Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey (United States))

    1992-09-01

    One hundred twelve cases of blunt splenic rupture were prospectively entered (October 1987-October 1991) into surgical or nonsurgical management groups using these criteria for the nonsurgical group: hemodynamic stability-age less than 55 years-CT scan appearance of grade I, II, or III injury-absence of concomitant injuries precluding abdominal assessment+absence of other documented abdominal injuries. All ages were included and AAST injury scaling was used. Patients were grouped from the trauma room. The surgical treatment group included 66 patients (49 splenectomies, 17 splenorraphies). These patients were generally older and more severely injured, required more transfused blood, and a longer ICU stay. The nonsurgical group included 46 patients with 33 older than 14 years. There were 3 patients over the age of 55 years inappropriately included in this group, and nonsurgical therapy failed in all three. Statistical analysis (chi 2) showed that more splenic injuries were observed and more spleens were saved with these criteria applied prospectively compared with a previous retrospective series in the same institution. The series had a success rate of 93%, and validates the criteria used for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen and adds a new criterion: a maximum age of 55 years.

  15. Aging on the Street: Homeless Older Adults in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    Older adults are at greater risk for homelessness today than at any time in recent history. Approximately one half of homeless individuals in America are older than 50, which has created serious challenges for how cities, governments, and health care providers care for homeless populations. Systems established in the 1980s to help care for homeless individuals were not designed to address problems of aging. It is critical that nurses and all health professionals have a better understanding of the unique needs and concerns of homeless older adults. Nurses can be an important part of the solution, not only through direct patient care but by advocating for improvements in care for this vulnerable population. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(9), 25-29.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Extending Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Detection to Older Age Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makrygiannis, Georgios; Labalue, Philippe; Erpicum, Marie

    2016-01-01

    . Current screening policies (e.g., men aged 65-74 years), however, do not account for aging and increased life expectancy of Western populations. This study investigated AAA detection by extending the target population to older age groups (75-85 years). METHODS: AAA screening was conducted in the County......-74 age group but rose to 7.3% in the age-extended group (75-85 years). Further in addition to age, height, current smoking, history of coronary artery disease, hypercholesterolemia, peripheral artery disease of the lower limbs, and varicose veins were significantly associated with the presence of AAA......BACKGROUND: There is evident benefit in terms of reduced aneurysm-related mortality from screening programs of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men aged 65 years and more. Recent studies in the United Kingdom and Sweden have shown a decline of the prevalence of AAA in the general population...

  17. Age management in Slovenian enterprises: the viewpoint of older employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Žnidaršič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to highlight age management within Slovenian enterprises from the viewpoint of older employees by finding out what influences older employees to decide “should I stay or should I go”. The empirical research methodology is based on mixed strategy of approaching organizations (employees, which means that the quantitative (factor analysis, cluster analysis, correlation, regression, descriptive statistics and frequency distributions and qualitative parts (in-depth interviews analysis of research were conducted simultaneously. The results of the research indicate that there are in fact two groups of older employees, which can be referred to as “susceptible” and “insusceptible” in terms of how the employer can affect their decisions. “The unsusceptible” have already decided to retire as soon as possible and they cannot be influenced by any employer measure. On the other hand, “the susceptible” employees are sensitive to employers’ measures aimed at prolonging their working lives. Besides, a regression analysis confirmed a statistically significant correlation between the inclination towards extending one’s employment period and the susceptibility to the employer measures. It can thus be concluded that, through age management measures, an employer has an impact on an extended employment period of older employees. However, employers should be interested primarily in those employees who are inclined towards extending their working lives.

  18. Depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms in older cancer patients: a comparison across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miri

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have reported that older cancer patients experience lower psychological distress than younger patients, but most prior studies do not differentiate between age groups within the 'older' category. The aim of this study was to assess the intensity of the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among different age groups of older cancer patients. Participants were composed of 321 cancer patients 60 years and older, who were divided into three age groups: 60-69, 70-79, and 80+ years. The participants answered the Brief Symptom Inventory-18, which included subscales for depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms and the cancer-related problem list, in addition to providing personal and cancer-related details. Depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms and cancer-related problems were lowest in the 70-79 years age group and highest in the 80+ years age group. Comparisons between pairs of groups showed significant differences between each of the groups in Brief Symptom Inventory total scores and between the 80+ years age group and the other two groups in regard to depressive symptoms and cancer-related problems. Differences, related to anxiety and somatic symptoms, were significant for the 70-79 year olds, in comparison with the youngest and oldest groups. Intensity of symptoms was explained by older age, higher number of cancer-related problems, female gender, and lower income. Nonlinear relations exist between age and psychological symptoms, which is in line with the postponement of age-related health and functional decline in the modern era. These results suggest that the study of psychological reactions to cancer should examine differences between age groups among older cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Sleep quality, use of hypnotics and sleeping habits in different age-groups among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägg, Miriam; Houston, Britta; Elmståhl, Sölve; Ekström, Henrik; Wann-Hansson, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among older people (>65 years). Further, long-term use of sedative hypnoticsin older people is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, older people represent a large span of life years, and few studies have included the oldest-old above 85 years. To investigate and compare sleep quality, use of hypnotics and sleeping habits in different age groups of the older population in the Scania region, Sweden and in relation to sociodemographic- and functional status. A cross-sectional population-based study including 2931 people aged 60-93 years from five different municipalities in Scania was performed during 2001-2004. The sample was divided into age groups, young old (60-72 years), old-old (78-84 years) and oldest-old (87-93) years. Data constitutes of sleep related questions, sociodemographic- and functional status from the study 'Good Ageing in Skane'. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sleep quality, hypnotics use and sleeping habitsin relation to sociodemographic- and functional status. The aim was to investigate associations, not the magnitude of associations between variables. In all age groups, those who used hypnotics and were living alone had significantly poorer sleep quality and shortest sleeping time than nonhypnotic users and those who lived together. A significant increase of hypnotics and frequency of use was seen with increasing age. Frequency of napping increased significantly with degree of dependence in all age groups and with increasing age. Insomnia is still a problem and hypnotic use has not improved sleep for a large number of older people. Hypnotics are effective as short-term treatment, however, nonpharmacological interventions and psychological and behavioural therapies should be considered for treating older people with chronic insomnia.

  20. The Growth of Older Inmate Populations: How Population Aging Explains Rising Age at Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luallen, Jeremy; Cutler, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Older inmates are the fastest growing segment of the prison population; however, the reasons for this are not well understood. One explanation is that the general population is aging, driving prison age distributions to change. For this article, we study the role of population aging in prison growth by investigating how the baby boom phenomenon of post-World War II has contributed to the growth of older inmate populations. We identify the impact of population aging using simulation methods that explain prison growth as the combination of criminal justice processes. Overall, we find evidence that population aging has played a significant role in explaining the growth of older inmate populations, in particular among inmates aged between 50 and 64 years, contributing to as much as half of the observed increase in these groups since 2000. This finding stands in contrast to the notion that population aging has little explanatory power in describing the growth of prison populations and implies that older inmate groups are more sensitive to compositional changes in the general population. We argue that prediction-based modeling of prison growth should more seriously consider the impacts and consequences of demographic shifts among older prisoner populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years) and older (64-85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  2. Spatial-sequential working memory in younger and older adults: age predicts backward recall performance within both age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise A. Brown

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years and older (64-85 years adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998. Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial, and recall type (forward and backward, were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward. Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age

  3. Aging and physiological changes of the kidneys including changes in glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Carlos G; Oreopoulos, Dimitrios G

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the structural changes in the kidney associated with aging, physiological changes in renal function are also found in older adults, such as decreased glomerular filtration rate, vascular dysautonomia, altered tubular handling of creatinine, reduction in sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion, and diminished renal reserve. These alterations make aged individuals susceptible to the development of clinical conditions in response to usual stimuli that would otherwise be compensated for in younger individuals, including acute kidney injury, volume depletion and overload, disorders of serum sodium and potassium concentration, and toxic reactions to water-soluble drugs excreted by the kidneys. Additionally, the preservation with aging of a normal urinalysis, normal serum urea and creatinine values, erythropoietin synthesis, and normal phosphorus, calcium and magnesium tubular handling distinguishes decreased GFR due to normal aging from that due to chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Maxillofacial intervention in trauma patients aged 60 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashraj K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of trauma victims of age 60 years and older who required maxillofacial intervention. The study analyses the pattern of injuries and the various factors that predict the treatment plan of these patients. A retrospective study was carried out in 1820 trauma patients who reported to the Sri. Ramachandra Dental College and Hospital and required maxillofacial intervention, over a period of 5 years (October 2000 and September 2005. Of the total trauma victims, 185 patients were found to be aged 60 years more. In the majority of the patients, the injury was due to road traffic accidents (79.4%. Males (72.4% sustained more injuries than females (27.6%. Soft tissue injuries were seen in 49.1% of the patients, while 14% had mandibular fractures. People in their early 60s were injured more often than their older counterparts. The findings of this study highlight the present situation with regard to maxillofacial trauma in patients aged 60 years and older and its management in this part of the country.

  5. Nonbelieved memories in middle-aged and older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédart, Serge; Bouffier, Marion

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that young participants typically date events that they remember, but no longer believe they experienced, to the period of childhood. The present study investigated whether participants aged between 40 and 79years dated events related to relinquished memories to the period of childhood, as do younger people, or whether they dated such events to a period later in life. The study also compared believed and nonbelieved memories with respect to memory perspective (1st vs 3rd person perspective). Results indicated that the majority of middle-aged and older people dated nonbelieved memories to the period of childhood (median age=8years). No correlation was found between the participants' current age and their age at the time the nonbelieved event occurred. In addition, results showed that believed memories were more likely to be retrieved from a 1st person perspective than were nonbelieved memories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk preferences and aging: The “Certainty Effect” in older adults’ decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Mara; Mazar, Nina; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Lighthall, Nichole R.; Burgeno, Jessica; Schoeke, Andrej; Ariely, Dan

    2013-01-01

    A prevalent stereotype is that people become less risk taking and more cautious as they get older. However, in laboratory studies, findings are mixed and often reveal no age differences. In the current series of experiments, we examined whether age differences in risk seeking are more likely to emerge when choices include a certain option (a sure gain or a sure loss). In four experiments, we found that age differences in risk preferences only emerged when participants were offered a choice between a risky and a certain gamble but not when offered two risky gambles. In particular, Experiments 1 and 2 included only gambles about potential gains. Here, compared with younger adults, older adults preferred a certain gain over a chance to win a larger gain and thus, exhibited more risk aversion in the domain of gains. But in Experiments 3 and 4, when offered the chance to take a small sure loss rather than risking a larger loss, older adults exhibited more risk seeking in the domain of losses than younger adults. Both their greater preference for sure gains and greater avoidance of sure losses suggest that older adults weigh certainty more heavily than younger adults. Experiment 4 also indicates that older adults focus more on positive emotions than younger adults do when considering their options and that this emotional shift can at least partially account for age differences in how much people are swayed by certainty in their choices. PMID:23066800

  7. The gray divorce revolution: rising divorce among middle-aged and older adults, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L; Lin, I-Fen

    2012-11-01

    Our study documents how the divorce rate among persons aged 50 and older has changed between 1990 and 2010 and identifies the sociodemographic correlates of divorce among today's middle-aged and older adults. We used data from the 1990 U.S. Vital Statistics Report and the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) to examine the change in the divorce rate over time. ACS data were analyzed to determine the sociodemographic correlates of divorce. The divorce rate among adults aged 50 and older doubled between 1990 and 2010. Roughly 1 in 4 divorces in 2010 occurred to persons aged 50 and older. Demographic characteristics, economic resources, and the marital biography were associated with the risk of divorce in 2010. The rate of divorce was 2.5 times higher for those in remarriages versus first marriages, whereas the divorce rate declined as marital duration rose. The traditional focus of gerontological research on widowhood must be expanded to include divorce as another form of marital dissolution. Over 600,000 people aged 50 and older got divorced in 2010 but little is known about the predictors and consequences of divorces that occur during middle and later life.

  8. The Gray Divorce Revolution: Rising Divorce Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults, 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Our study documents how the divorce rate among persons aged 50 and older has changed between 1990 and 2010 and identifies the sociodemographic correlates of divorce among today’s middle-aged and older adults. Design and Method. We used data from the 1990 U.S. Vital Statistics Report and the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) to examine the change in the divorce rate over time. ACS data were analyzed to determine the sociodemographic correlates of divorce. Results. The divorce rate among adults aged 50 and older doubled between 1990 and 2010. Roughly 1 in 4 divorces in 2010 occurred to persons aged 50 and older. Demographic characteristics, economic resources, and the marital biography were associated with the risk of divorce in 2010. The rate of divorce was 2.5 times higher for those in remarriages versus first marriages, whereas the divorce rate declined as marital duration rose. Implications. The traditional focus of gerontological research on widowhood must be expanded to include divorce as another form of marital dissolution. Over 600,000 people aged 50 and older got divorced in 2010 but little is known about the predictors and consequences of divorces that occur during middle and later life. PMID:23052366

  9. Cluster Analysis of Physical and Cognitive Ageing Patterns in Older People from Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Bandelow

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between education, cognitive and physical function in older age, and their respective impacts on activities of daily living (ADL. Data on 148 older participants from a community-based sample recruited in Shanghai, China, included the following measures: age, education, ADL, grip strength, balance, gait speed, global cognition and verbal memory. The majority of participants in the present cohort were cognitively and physically healthy and reported no problems with ADL. Twenty-eight percent of participants needed help with ADL, with the majority of this group being over 80 years of age. Significant predictors of reductions in functional independence included age, balance, global cognitive function (MMSE and the gait measures. Cluster analysis revealed a protective effect of education on cognitive function that did not appear to extend to physical function. Consistency of such phenotypes of ageing clusters in other cohort studies may provide helpful models for dementia and frailty prevention measures.

  10. Brain white matter damage in aging and cognitive ability in youth and older age

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Booth, Tom; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Penke, Lars; Morris, Zoe; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Royle, Natalie A.; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Bastin, Mark E.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical histories, current cognitive ability and quantified WMH on MR imaging. Among 634 participants, mean age 72.7 (SD 0.7), age 11 IQ was the stro...

  11. Aging 5 years in 5 minutes: the effect of taking a memory test on older adults' subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Matthew L; Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross L

    2013-12-01

    How old one feels-one's subjective age-has been shown to predict important psychological and health outcomes. The current studies examined the effect of taking a standard memory test on older adults' subjective age. Study 1 showed that older adults felt older after taking a standard neuropsychological screening test and participating in a free-recall experiment than they felt at baseline. Study 2 showed that the effect was selective to older adults: Younger adults' subjective age was not affected by participating in the memory experiment. Study 3 showed that the subjective-aging effect was specific to memory, as taking a vocabulary test for a similar amount of time did not affect older adults' subjective age. Finally, Study 4 showed that simply expecting to take a memory test subjectively aged older adults. The results indicate that being in a memory-testing context affects older adults' self-perception by making them feel older.

  12. Successful ageing in lesbian, gay and bisexual older people: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Billy A; Frank, Mayu O

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to report on an analysis of the concept of successful ageing in lesbian, gay and bisexual older people. Research indicates that lesbian, gay and bisexual older people experience significant health disparities. Yet there is a lack of understanding on what factors contribute to successful ageing in this population. Nursing has lagged behind other disciplines in investigating the health of lesbian, gay and bisexual older people. A concept analysis using Rodgers' evolutionary method. Twenty studies were retrieved by searching PubMed, CINAHL, PsycInfo, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Scopus for English-language peer-reviewed studies published from January 2004 to March 2014. The antecedents, attributes and consequences of the concept were identified through the Rodgers' method of concept analysis. Attributes included support from families of origin and/or families of choice, access to lesbian, gay, and bisexual-friendly services and crisis competence. Self-realisation of lesbian, gay and bisexual identity (coming out to oneself) and age >50 were identified as antecedents. Three consequences of successful ageing in lesbian, gay and bisexual older people were social engagement, optimism and resilience. Successful ageing in lesbian, gay and bisexual older people is defined as a subjective and multifactorial concept that is characterised by support from families of origin/families of choice, access to lesbian, gay, and bisexual-friendly services and the development of crisis competence skills which impact the ageing experience of LGB individuals. Successful ageing models can provide a roadmap for developing culturally competent interventions to address key healthcare issues present in this population. The nursing profession's multidisciplinary knowledge and competence in providing health promotion makes nurses well positioned to take a leading role in reducing disparities of lesbian, gay and bisexual older people. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging ® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the "face-to-face" and "combined" versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF) (n=35) and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face) (n=15), and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical-practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural - artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were observed in physical activity, frequency of social relationships, and subjective health. Findings show that the Vital Aging program in face-to-face and combined versions encourages active aging in Mexican older persons. These results are in general similar to those found in editions performed in Spain, revealing its consistency

  14. Burden of poor oral health in older age: findings from a population-based study of older British men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, S E; Whincup, P H; Watt, R G; Tsakos, G; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-12-29

    Evidence of the extent of poor oral health in the older UK adult population is limited. We describe the prevalence of oral health conditions, using objective clinical and subjective measures, in a population-based study of older men. Cross-sectional study. A representative sample of men aged 71-92 years in 2010-2012 from the British Regional Heart Study, initially recruited in 1978-1980 from general practices across Britain. Physical examination among 1660 men included the number of teeth, and periodontal disease in index teeth in each sextant (loss of attachment, periodontal pocket, gingival bleeding). Postal questionnaires (completed by 2147 men including all participants who were clinically examined) included self-rated oral health, oral impacts on daily life and current perception of dry mouth experience. Among 1660 men clinically examined, 338 (20%) were edentulous and a further 728 (43%) had 5.5 mm) affecting 1-20% of sites while 303 (24%) had >20% sites affected. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 16%. Among 2147 men who returned postal questionnaires, 35% reported fair/poor oral health; 11% reported difficulty eating due to oral health problems. 31% reported 1-2 symptoms of dry mouth and 20% reported 3-5 symptoms of dry mouth. The prevalence of edentulism, loss of attachment, or fair/poor self-rated oral health was greater in those from manual social class. These findings highlight the high burden of poor oral health in older British men. This was reflected in both the objective clinical and subjective measures of oral health conditions. The determinants of these oral health problems in older populations merit further research to reduce the burden and consequences of poor oral health in older people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. The personal active aging strategies of older adults in Europe: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugar, Miloslav; Čáp, Juraj; Klugarová, Jitka; Marečková, Jana; Roberson, Donald N; Kelnarová, Zuzana

    2016-05-01

    There is a consensus that the aging population is beginning to impact on many facets of our life. They have more medical problems and the potential to "drain" the focus of the medical community, as well as national budgets with their accompanying medical bills. Personal strategies related to active aging will help us to better understand and identify how older adults in Europe prepare themselves for the natural process of aging and what are their personal approaches to active aging. The objective of this review was to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the older adult's perspective on the personal strategies related to active aging among older adults in Europe. This review considered studies that included older adults (age over 55 years) who live in Europe. This review considered studies that investigated older adults' perspectives on (any) personal strategies related to active aging. Europe (considering "some similarity" in health care systems and retirement policies). This review considered any qualitative designs. A three-step search strategy was used to identify published and unpublished studies. The extensive search process was conducted in October 2014 and considered published and unpublished studies from the inception of databases until October 2014. Studies published in any language which had an abstract in English, Czech and Slovak languages were considered for inclusion in this review. Studies were appraised for methodological quality by two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI). Data were extracted from the papers included in the review by two independent reviewers using the standardized JBI-QARI data extraction tool. Data synthesis was performed using the meta-aggregation approach of meta-synthesis recommended by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Fourteen studies were included in this systematic review. From these 14 studies, 42 findings were extracted; findings were

  16. Education Inequalities in Health Among Older European Men and Women: The Role of Active Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpino, Bruno; Solé-Auró, Aïda

    2017-08-01

    We assessed whether education inequalities in health among older people can be partially explained by different levels of active aging among educational groups. We applied logistic regression and the Karlson, Holm, & Breen (KHB) decomposition method using the 2010 and 2012 waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe on individuals aged 50+ years ( N = 27,579). Active aging included social participation, paid work, and provision of grandchild care. Health was measured by good self-perceived health, low number of depressive symptoms, and absence of limitations because of health in activities people usually do. We found a positive educational gradient for each of the three health measures. Up to a third of the health gaps between high and low educated were associated with differences in engagement in active aging activities. Policies devoted at stimulating an active participation in society among older people should be particularly focused on lower educated groups.

  17. The relationship of tobacco and alcohol use with ageing self-perceptions in older people in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Villiers-Tuthill, Amanda

    2016-07-01

    Health behaviour patterns in older groups, including tobacco and alcohol use, are key factors in chronic disease prevention. We explore ageing self-perceptions as motivating factors behind smoking and drinking alcohol in older adults, and the complex reasons why individuals engage harmfully in these behaviours.

  18. Comprehensively Assessing Cognitive and Behavioral Risks for HIV Infection among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; O'Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of HIV/AIDS with middle-aged and older adults should include six domains (e.g., factual knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of HIV, traditionally-accepted behavioral risks for HIV infection). A sample of 23 women (54.8%) and 19 men (45.2%), ranging in age from 51 to 85 were surveyed across such domains.…

  19. Vision, light and aging: a literature overview on older-age workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylén, P; Favero, F; Glimne, S; Teär Fahnehjelm, K; Eklund, J

    2014-01-01

    In many western countries individuals will need to continue their professional careers beyond the current retirement age. This requires adaptation of the working conditions to compensate for age related visual changes. The aim of this paper is to compile and structure knowledge concerning age related changes in visual and non-visual functions among older-age workers and to describe in what way these changes relate to light and work performance. An overview of the literature was performed in PubMed and EMBASE concerning visual changes among elderly people, light, visual ergonomics and consequences at work. Visual conditions and lighting design have an impact on work performance in those over age 65 even if there are few studies available. Natural age related changes in the eyes or ocular diseases can result in reduced visual function and performance. Moreover, evidence of the importance of light and dark rhythms for circadian regulation is mounting; there are indications that the older-age population might need specific attention related to this issue. Finally, visual deteriorations might also, secondarily, induce strained postures and musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and injury. Age-related changes in the eyes and also ocular diseases among older-age people have an impact on well-being and work performance, and therefore call for reconsideration of their working conditions. Knowledge about how visual functions, light and ocular diseases is needed for work design and preventive actions.

  20. Nonspecific presentation of pneumonia in hospitalized older people: age effect or dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J C; Jayadevappa, R; Baccash, P D; Taylor, L

    2000-10-01

    Older adults, when presenting with pneumonia, are often thought to present with nonspecific symptoms instead of more suggestive symptom(s). However, studies designed to determine whether age is associated with nonspecific presentations have yielded contradictory results. Many studies have not distinguished between the effects of preexisting cognitive impairment that results from dementia and the effects of age. The aim of this study is to determine whether there are significant differences in the presentation of pneumonia in demented versus nondemented patients across two age groups. We hypothesized that the nonspecific presentation of pneumonia in older people is due to dementia rather than to chronological age. We compared retrospectively nonspecific (weakness, decreased appetite, urinary incontinence, falls, and delirium) and specific (cough, sputum production, dyspnea, and chest pain) symptoms of pneumonia in 148 hospitalized adult subjects from two urban, general medical teaching hospitals. When the subjects with dementia were included in the analysis, two (falls and delirium) of the five nonspecific symptoms were associated with older age and one other symptom (weakness) showed a trend toward statistical significance. However, when we excluded the demented subjects, nonspecific presenting symptoms were similar in old and young adults with the exception of an increased frequency of delirium on presentation. Similarly, when demented subjects were excluded, we found a stronger association of younger age with the classic specific symptoms than were seen when the demented subjects were included. We conclude that age differences in the presentation of pneumonia are largely due to the presence of dementia.

  1. Socioeconomic disadvantage across the life-course and oral health in older age: findings from a longitudinal study of older British men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Sheena E; Papachristou, Efstathios; Watt, Richard G; Lennon, Lucy T; Papacosta, A Olia; Whincup, Peter H; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2018-04-19

    The influence of life-course socioeconomic disadvantage on oral health at older ages is not well-established. We examined the influence of socioeconomic factors in childhood, middle-age and older age on oral health at older ages, and tested conceptual life-course models (sensitive period, accumulation of risk, social mobility) to determine which best described observed associations. A representative cohort of British men aged 71-92 in 2010-12 included socioeconomic factors in childhood, middle-age and older age. Oral health assessment at 71-92 years (n = 1622) included tooth count, periodontal disease and self-rated oral health (excellent/good, fair/poor) (n = 2147). Life-course models (adjusted for age and town of residence) were compared with a saturated model using Likelihood-ratio tests. Socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood, middle-age and older age was associated with complete tooth loss at 71-92 years-age and town adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) were 1.39 (1.02-1.90), 2.26 (1.70-3.01), 1.83 (1.35-2.49), respectively. Socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood and middle-age was associated with poor self-rated oral health; adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) were 1.48 (1.19-1.85) and 1.45 (1.18-1.78), respectively. A sensitive period for socioeconomic disadvantage in middle-age provided the best model fit for tooth loss, while accumulation of risk model was the strongest for poor self-rated oral health. None of the life-course models were significant for periodontal disease measures. Socioeconomic disadvantage in middle-age has a particularly strong influence on tooth loss in older age. Poor self-rated oral health in older age is influenced by socioeconomic disadvantage across the life-course. Addressing socioeconomic factors in middle and older ages are likely to be important for better oral health in later life.

  2. Determinants of institutional care at older ages in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Einiö

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With growing pressure from an ageing population on social and health-care expenditure, it is of policy importance to analyze the reasons for admission to long-term institutional care at older ages. Although there is increasing evidence that cognitive and functional disabilities are not the only major risk factors, and that the social situation and the lack of family members play an important role in explaining admissions, further research is needed. There is a lack of evidence on the effects of a spouse’s death, and previous findings on how income is associated with institutional care are inconsistent, and results on poor housing are seldom available. Furthermore, there is little systematic evidence showing how chronic medical conditions other than dementia affect the risk of admission in the general older population. This study used population-based register data on Finnish older adults aged 65 and over (n=280,722 to analyse individual-level determinants of admission to long-term institutional care from January 1998 to September 2003. The main focus was on how chronic medical conditions, household income and other socio-economic factors, living with a spouse, and the death of a spouse were associated with admissions. The results of the study indicated that dementia, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, depressive symptoms, other mental-health problems, hip fracture, and diabetes were strongly associated with an increased risk of admission when socio-demographic confounders and co-morbid conditions were controlled for. It was also shown that older men and women in the lowest household-income quintile group were more likely to be admitted to institutional care than those in the highest group, when age, first language, and area characteristics were accounted for. Controlling further for living arrangements and other socio-economic and chronic medical conditions markedly reduced these income differences in admission, but they still remained significant

  3. Understanding the older entrepreneur: Comparing Third Age and Prime Age entrepreneurs in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kautonen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper responds to the need for more data on the topical issue of older entrepreneurship by comparing Third Age (50+ years and Prime Age (20-49 years entrepreneurs in Finland. The data comprises responses from 839 small firms which were established 2000-2006. The fact that 16% of these firms were founded by individuals aged 50 or over indicates that older entrepreneurship is not a marginal issue, even though the start-up rate in the Third Age population was found to be slightly less than half of that in the Prime Age cohort. Further, the findings point to the need for more empirical, especially qualitative, research on issues related to the social and cultural perceptions of old age and gender as well as different ‘pull’ motivations leading to entrepreneurship at an older age, which were found to clearly dominate over ‘push’ motives in this context.

  4. Age and sex related changes in episodic memory function in middle aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Astri J; Wollschläger, Daniel; Wehling, Eike

    2014-06-01

    Age-related change in episodic memory function is commonly reported in older adults. When detected on neuropsychological tests, it may still be difficult to distinguish normal from pathological changes. The present study investigates age-and sex-related changes in a group of healthy middle-aged and older adults, participating in a three-wave study on cognitive aging. The California Verbal Learning test (CVLT-II) was used to assess their episodic memory function. A cross-sectional analysis of results from the first wave showed higher performance in females than males, with a steeper age-related decline in males. This was confirmed in a longitudinal analysis using a mixed effects regression model, but with a lower age-related change and smaller difference between the sexes. Information about learning strategies and errors in the third wave turned out to contribute significantly to explain change in episodic memory function across the three waves. We argue that the results from the longitudinal analyses are generalizable to the population of healthy middle-aged and older individuals, and that they could be useful in guiding clinicians when evaluating individuals with respect to cognitive change. © 2014 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Post-School-Age Training among Women: Training Methods and Labor Market Outcomes at Older Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elizabeth T.

    2001-01-01

    Uses the NLS Mature Women's Cohort to examine Labor Market effects of education and training at preretirement age. Younger, more educated women tend to train more than older women. On-the-job training is more strongly associated with wage growth than is formal education. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)

  6. Types of phone usage: Age differences between younger and older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Nicoleta Vulpe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available I Even if more and more people use mobile phones, the gap between younger and older age groups persists and its importance is timely and widened given the present ageing and digital inequality phenomena. How wide is the difference on types of phone usage between different age groups? For answering this research question, we employ binary logistic regressions on several types of phone usage keeping into account age and controlling for region, education, income and whether respondents use a feature phone or a smartphone. The analysed data come from the Spring Change Assessment Survey 2010 provided by the Pew Research Center and it is representative for the United States of America. Our results show that, net of the all the variables included in the model, older persons are less likely than younger persons to use such phone functions, but the strength of association is low. Education and income are relevant for these functions. Using a smartphone in comparison with using a feature phone is important in all the situations included, as well as income. Considering models only for older persons, over 65 years of age, college and income are less relevant. Using a smartphone is more likely than using a feature phone to encourage all types of phone usage, independently of age.

  7. Comparison of treatment effect estimates for pharmacological randomized controlled trials enrolling older adults only and those including adults: a meta-epidemiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Seegers

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Older adults are underrepresented in clinical research. To assess therapeutic efficacy in older patients, some randomized controlled trials (RCTs include older adults only. OBJECTIVE: To compare treatment effects between RCTs including older adults only (elderly RCTs and RCTs including all adults (adult RCTs by a meta-epidemiological approach. METHODS: All systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Library (Issue 4, 2011 were screened. Eligible studies were meta-analyses of binary outcomes of pharmacologic treatment including at least one elderly RCT and at least one adult RCT. For each meta-analysis, we compared summary odds ratios for elderly RCTs and adult RCTs by calculating a ratio of odds ratios (ROR. A summary ROR was estimated across all meta-analyses. RESULTS: We selected 55 meta-analyses including 524 RCTs (17% elderly RCTs. The treatment effects differed beyond that expected by chance for 7 (13% meta-analyses, showing more favourable treatment effects in elderly RCTs in 5 cases and in adult RCTs in 2 cases. The summary ROR was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.77-1.08, p = 0.28, with substantial heterogeneity (I(2 = 51% and τ(2 = 0.14. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses by type-of-age RCT (elderly RCTs vs RCTs excluding older adults and vs RCTs of mixed-age adults, type of outcome (mortality or other and type of comparator (placebo or active drug yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of pharmacologic treatments did not significantly differ, on average, between RCTs including older adults only and RCTs of all adults. However, clinically important discrepancies may occur and should be considered when generalizing evidence from all adults to older adults.

  8. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba NM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neyda Ma Mendoza-Ruvalcaba,1 Rocío Fernández-Ballesteros2 1Health Sciences Department, University of Guadalajara, University Center of Tonalá, Tonalá, Jalisco, Mexico; 2Department of Biological and Health Psychology, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain Introduction: Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the “face-to-face” and “combined” versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Methods: Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF (n=35 and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face (n=15, and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical–practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. Results: At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural – artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were

  9. Extending PSA models including ageing and asset management - 15291

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Marton, I.; Carlos, S.; Sanchez, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to Ageing Probabilistic Safety Assessment (APSA) modelling, which is intended to be used to support risk-informed decisions on the effectiveness of maintenance management programs and technical specification requirements of critical equipment of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) within the framework of the Risk Informed Decision Making according to R.G. 1.174 principles. This approach focuses on the incorporation of not only equipment ageing but also effectiveness of maintenance and efficiency of surveillance testing explicitly into APSA models and data. This methodology is applied to a motor-operated valve of the auxiliary feed water system (AFWS) of a PWR. This simple example of application focuses on a critical safety-related equipment of a NPP in order to evaluate the risk impact of considering different approaches to APSA and the combined effect of equipment ageing and maintenance and testing alternatives along NPP design life. The risk impact of several alternatives in maintenance strategy is discussed

  10. Subliminal strengthening: improving older individuals' physical function over time with an implicit-age-stereotype intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Becca R; Pilver, Corey; Chung, Pil H; Slade, Martin D

    2014-12-01

    Negative age stereotypes that older individuals assimilate from their culture predict detrimental outcomes, including worse physical function. We examined, for the first time, whether positive age stereotypes, presented subliminally across multiple sessions in the community, would lead to improved outcomes. Each of 100 older individuals (age=61-99 years, M=81) was randomly assigned to an implicit-positive-age-stereotype-intervention group, an explicit-positive-age-stereotype-intervention group, a combined implicit- and explicit-positive-age-stereotype-intervention group, or a control group. Interventions occurred at four 1-week intervals. The implicit intervention strengthened positive age stereotypes, which strengthened positive self-perceptions of aging, which, in turn, improved physical function. The improvement in these outcomes continued for 3 weeks after the last intervention session. Further, negative age stereotypes and negative self-perceptions of aging were weakened. For all outcomes, the implicit intervention's impact was greater than the explicit intervention's impact. The physical-function effect of the implicit intervention surpassed a previous study's 6-month-exercise-intervention's effect with participants of similar ages. The current study's findings demonstrate the potential of directing implicit processes toward physical-function enhancement over time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Gender-based violence and HIV across the life course: adopting a sexual rights framework to include older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bergen; Crockett, Cailin

    2015-11-01

    It is widely known that older women are at lesser risk for sexual violence than younger women, but current inattention to older women in the gender-based violence (GBV) field has minimized the experiences of older women survivors at great detriment to their health and rights. For example, health providers seldom ask older women about their sexual activity and relationships, a neglect that leads to older women being excluded from necessary HIV testing and care as well as support services for abuse. This oversight is increasingly worrisome given the rise in new HIV infections among adults age 50 and older in recent years, with the majority of transmissions stemming from individuals unaware of their HIV-positive status. Building on sexual rights scholarship, this paper argues for an approach to public health interventions for GBV and HIV that acknowledges older women--their sexuality, sexual agency, and activity-- so that health providers and advocates acknowledge and serve older survivors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Aging and older adults in three Roman Catholic magazines: Successful aging and the Third and Fourth Ages reframed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Dana

    2015-12-01

    This article is a qualitative content analysis of how aging and older adults are represented in the articles of three Roman Catholic magazines in the United States: America, Commonweal, and U.S. Catholic. The findings suggest that, as in mainstream secular magazines, the concept of successful aging is common in portrayals of older adults in the Third Age. Distinctive in Catholic magazine portrayals of successful aging is an emphasis on meaningful activity and on the wisdom that is gained and transmitted in this stage of life. In contrast to the lack of attention to Fourth Age decline in mainstream magazines, in the Catholic publications the difficult features of such deterioration are acknowledged but are also reframed as potential sources of value. The theoretical implications of these more complex faith-based renderings of the Third and Fourth Ages are briefly explored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Teaching Older Adults to Use Computers: Recommendations Based on Cognitive Aging Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D.; Bayen, Ute J.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews cognitive aging research that identifies the following effects on older adults: cognitive slowing, limited processing resources, lack of inhibition of irrelevant stimuli, and sensory deficits. Makes recommendations for teaching older adults to use computers. (SK)

  14. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the “face-to-face” and “combined” versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Methods Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF) (n=35) and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face) (n=15), and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical–practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. Results At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural – artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were observed in physical activity, frequency of social relationships, and subjective health. Conclusion Findings show that the Vital Aging program in face-to-face and combined versions encourages active aging in Mexican older persons. These results are in general similar to those found in

  15. Successful Aging at Work: Annual Review, 1992-1996: The Older Worker and Transitions to Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Robert O.; DeKoekkoek, Paul D.; Neece, Wynell M.; Patterson, David W.

    1997-01-01

    A review of literature 1992-1996 examined aging, job performance, and occupational well-being; successful workplace aging; aging, health, and safety; careers; retirement; older women; and age discrimination. Four conclusions were: (1) research has begun to involve more disciplines; (2) older workers should be considered as individuals; (3)…

  16. Healthy aging as an intervention to minimize injury from falls among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Nancye May; Bartlett, Helen Patricia; McClure, Roderick John

    2007-10-01

    With global trends toward population aging, many countries are adopting healthy aging policies to minimize disability and increase quality in the extended years of life. Falls in older people are a major contributor to functional decline generally associated with aging. Based on a study quantifying the relationship between healthy aging factors and risk of fall-related hip fracture in community-dwelling older people, this paper discusses evidence for the promotion of healthy aging as a population-based intervention for prevention of injuries from falls. To examine the protective effect of healthy aging on the risk of fall-related hip fractures, a case-control study was conducted with 387 participants. Persons aged 65 and over hospitalized with a fall-related hip fracture were matched with community-based controls recruited via electoral roll sampling. A questionnaire designed to assess lifestyle risk factors, identified as determinants of healthy aging, was administered during face-to-face interviews. After adjustment for health status and demographic factors, a number of lifestyle factors were seen to have a significant independent protective effect on the risk of hip fracture. These included never smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, being active, maintaining normal weight, and being proactive in preventive health care. Psychosocial factors included having supportive environments and personal resources to cope with stress. This study identified a range of modifiable lifestyle factors associated with fall-related hip fracture, suggesting that the "healthy aging" paradigm offers a comprehensive approach to falls injury prevention, and thus supports the adoption of healthy aging policies to extend years of quality life among older persons.

  17. Donor Smoking and Older Age Increases Morbidity and Mortality After Lung Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, H H; Møller, C H; Zemtsovski, M

    2017-01-01

    survival as well as CLAD-free survival was significantly lower with donors ≥55 years. CONCLUSIONS: Donor smoking history and older donor age impact lung function, mortality, and CLAD-free survival after transplantation. Because of a shortage of organs, extended donor criteria may be considered while taking......BACKGROUND: The lack of lung transplant donors has necessitated the use of donors with a smoking history and donors of older age. We have evaluated the effects of donor smoking history and age on recipient morbidity and mortality with baseline values of pulmonary function and survival free...... of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) as morbidity variables. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 588 consecutive lung transplant recipients and their corresponding 454 donors. Donors were divided into three groups: group 1 included smokers, group 2 nonsmokers, and group 3 had unknown smoking...

  18. Why older workers work beyond the retirement age: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranu Sewdas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to: 1 gain insight into reasons for working beyond the statutory retirement age from older workers’ perspectives, and 2 explore how the domains of the research framework Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM can be applied to working beyond retirement age. Methods A qualitative research design included individual interviews (n = 15 and three focus groups (n = 18 participants conducted with older workers aged 65 years and older continuing in a paid job or self-employment. Interview participants were recruited from an existing STREAM cohort study. Focus group participants were recruited from companies and employment agencies. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results The most important motives for working beyond retirement age were maintaining daily routines and financial benefit. Good health and flexible work arrangements were mentioned as important preconditions. The themes emerging from the categorization of the motives and preconditions corresponded to the domains of health, work characteristics, skills and knowledge, and social and financial factors from the STREAM research framework. However, our analysis revealed one additional theme—purpose in life. Conclusion This study offers important new insights into the various preconditions and motives that influence working beyond retirement age. In addition, the five domains of the STREAM research framework, including the additional domain of ‘purpose in life’, seem to be applicable to working beyond retirement age. This knowledge contributes to the development of work-related interventions that enhance older workers’ motivation to prolong their working lives.

  19. Asexuality development among middle aged and older men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ping Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess erectile function in middle-aged and older men with asexuality status and further analyze their specific reasons for this condition. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Men who had regular sexual intercourse attempts (sex frequency ≥ 1 time per month were classified into mild erectile dysfunction (ED, moderate to severe ED and non-ED according to International Index of Erectile Function-5, and men having no sexual intercourse attempts for at least 6 months were defined as having an asexuality status. The risk factors associated with ED were collected in a sample of 1,531 Chinese men aged 40 to 80 years, and the self-report reasons for asexuality were recorded in asexual cohort individually. Comparative analyses and multivariate regression models were conducted among these groups. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of ED and asexuality status were 49.9% and 37.2%. The asexuality status group had higher risk factors than the moderate to severe ED group in terms of old age (age ≥ 65, adjusted odds ratio (OR 17.69 versus (Vs. 7.19, diabetes (crude OR: 2.40 Vs. 2.36 and hypertension (crude OR: 1.78 Vs. 1.72. The specific reasons for the asexuality status were "erectile difficulty" (52.9%, "do not care about sexuality" (53.5%", "no longer necessary to have sexuality at this age" (47.7%, "severe stress" (44.4%, "severe fatigue" (26.3% and "masturbation" (26.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Men with an asexual status suffer from higher risk factors for ED than men with moderate to severe ED. The majority of this asexual status could be attributed to a full ED, although the reasons for this transient asexuality also involved sexual attitudes and interests, sexual partners and masturbation.

  20. Asexuality development among middle aged and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Bin; Ping, Ping; Wang, Hong-Xiang; Hu, Kai; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Tao; Feng, Tan; Jin, Yan; Han, Yin-Fa; Wang, Yi-Xin; Huang, Yi-Ran

    2014-01-01

    To assess erectile function in middle-aged and older men with asexuality status and further analyze their specific reasons for this condition. Men who had regular sexual intercourse attempts (sex frequency ≥ 1 time per month) were classified into mild erectile dysfunction (ED), moderate to severe ED and non-ED according to International Index of Erectile Function-5, and men having no sexual intercourse attempts for at least 6 months were defined as having an asexuality status. The risk factors associated with ED were collected in a sample of 1,531 Chinese men aged 40 to 80 years, and the self-report reasons for asexuality were recorded in asexual cohort individually. Comparative analyses and multivariate regression models were conducted among these groups. The prevalence rates of ED and asexuality status were 49.9% and 37.2%. The asexuality status group had higher risk factors than the moderate to severe ED group in terms of old age (age ≥ 65, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 17.69 versus (Vs.) 7.19), diabetes (crude OR: 2.40 Vs. 2.36) and hypertension (crude OR: 1.78 Vs. 1.72). The specific reasons for the asexuality status were "erectile difficulty" (52.9%), "do not care about sexuality" (53.5%)", "no longer necessary to have sexuality at this age" (47.7%), "severe stress" (44.4%), "severe fatigue" (26.3%) and "masturbation" (26.9%). Men with an asexual status suffer from higher risk factors for ED than men with moderate to severe ED. The majority of this asexual status could be attributed to a full ED, although the reasons for this transient asexuality also involved sexual attitudes and interests, sexual partners and masturbation.

  1. The quality of life of older people aging in place: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanleerberghe, Patricia; De Witte, Nico; Claes, Claudia; Schalock, Robert L; Verté, Dominique

    2017-11-01

    In order to cope with the challenges that are the result of an aging population, policies and services promote keeping elders in the community and letting them age in place rather than sending them to specialized institutions. Aging in place refers to the option where people can stay in their homes as they age. This policy option, however, poses various challenges and may also threaten the quality of life of the aging. A literature review was performed on the quality of life of older people aging in place to determine whether the actual assessment of quality of life can be used within aging in place. Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts and Social Science Research Network were searched for publications on "Ag(e)ing in place" AND "Quality of life." Although assessment is crucial to a policy pursuing a good quality of life, literature reveals that it is seldom performed. Only a small part of the studies report on the assessment of quality of life, including the instruments used and the results. The findings also indicate that there is no consensus on the definition of quality of life or its domains structures. As no existing instrument assessing the quality of life of older people aging in place could be identified, such a tool should be developed, because any policy towards this growing group of people should be complemented by an evaluation.

  2. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steves, Claire J; Mehta, Mitul M; Jackson, Stephen H D; Spector, Tim D

    2016-01-01

    Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant twin analyses, where within

  3. PREFERENCE THEORY IN ADVANCED AGE AND THE OLDER CZECH WORKFORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Vidovićová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we make use of preference theory developed by Hakim (2000 in the context of reconciling work and family to cover and explain different patterns of retirement exit paths and retirement satisfaction levels in the Czech Republic. We propose that lifestyle preferences and values may help to explain why some older workers continue to work while others are determined to retire as early as possible. Three types are identified among the 55–65 age group: work oriented, retirement oriented, and adaptive. The data shows that self-perception of the respondent as being active or more rest-oriented is associated with actual labour market activity of the respondent. Different types also perceive and evaluate labour market exit differently, and most importantly they differ in their reaction to various labour market and pension policies and family/partnership conditions. In the discussion we challenge the notion of active ageing as a general “one-size-fits-all” policy and urge that more attention be paid to the role of individual values and preferences when looking at the organisation of latter life roles.

  4. Perspectives of LGBTQ Older Adults on Aging in Place: A Qualitative Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Jennifer M; Dickman Portz, Jennifer; King, Diane K; Wright, Leslie A; Helander, Kenneth; Retrum, Jessica H; Gozansky, Wendolyn S

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study conducted by a community-research partnership used multiple types of data collection to examine variables relevant for LGBTQ older adults who wished to age in place in their urban Denver neighborhood. Focus groups, interviews, and a town hall meeting were used to identify barriers and supports to aging in place. Participants (N = 73) identified primarily as lesbian or gay, aged 50-69, and lived with a partner. Ageism, heterosexism, and cisgenderism emerged as cross-cutting themes that negatively impact access to health care, housing, social support, home assistance, and legal services. Resilience from weathering a lifetime of discrimination was identified as a strength to handle aging challenges. Recommendations for establishing an aging in place model included establishing welcoming communities and resource centers and increasing cultural competence of service providers. This study provides a unique contribution to understanding the psychosocial, medical, and legal barriers for successfully aging in place.

  5. Functional disability and suicidal behavior in middle-aged and older adults: A systematic critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Julie; Fiske, Amy

    2018-02-01

    Middle-aged and older adults have elevated rates of suicide around the globe, but there is a paucity of knowledge about risk factors for suicide in these age groups. One possible risk factor may be functional disability, which is more common at later ages. The current systematic critical review examined findings regarding the associations between functional disability and suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death by suicide) in middle-aged and older adults (i.e. age 50 and older). Forty-five studies were found that examined these associations. The majority of studies supported a significant association between functional disability and suicidal ideation. In addition, findings to date strongly suggest that depression serves as a mediator of the association between functional disability and suicidal ideation, though most studies did not directly test for mediation. Firm conclusions regarding suicide attempts and death by suicide, as well as mediation, cannot be drawn due to a relative lack of research in these areas. The association between functional disability and suicidal behavior suggests an important area for prevention and intervention among middle-aged and older adults, but additional research is necessary to clarify the specifics of these associations and examine appropriate intervention strategies. Important future directions for research in this area include the direct comparison of associations of risk factors with different types of suicidal behavior, greater use of longitudinal data with multiple time points, and further examination of potential mediators and moderators of the association between functional disability and suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Holistic Wellness in Older Adulthood: Group Differences Based on Age and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullen, Matthew C; Granello, Darcy Haag

    2018-01-01

    To understand how demographic variables and depression symptoms relate to the prevalence of wellness, resilience, and age perception within a sample of community-dwelling older adults. In all, 200 residents across 12 senior housing sites were surveyed. Research questions included the following: (1) Do group differences exist in wellness, resilience, and age perception based on age, sex, race, education, and depression symptoms? (2) Which profile of variables is most strongly associated with self-rated depression among older adults? Multivariate analyses of variance were used to examine group differences. A discriminant analysis demonstrated which variables comprised the profile of individuals who ascribed to depression symptoms. Younger respondents (i.e., age 55-70) had significantly lower levels of wellness (η 2 = .034) and resilience (η 2 = .052). Respondents suffering from depression symptoms had lower levels of wellness (η 2 = .155), resilience (η 2 = .163), and positive age perception (η 2 = .067) and higher rates of negative age perception (η 2 = .052). The discriminant analysis correctly categorized 75.3% of the cases related to depression symptoms, and resilience and certain forms of wellness were most relevant. The current study sheds light into within-group differences in wellness, resilience, and age perception that depend on variables such as age and depression.

  7. Age-Modulated Associations betweenKIBRA, Brain Volume, and Verbal Memory among Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Ariana; Kawa, Kevin; Walther, Katrin; Glisky, Elizabeth; Richholt, Ryan; Huentelman, Matt; Ryan, Lee

    2017-01-01

    The resource modulation hypothesis suggests that the influence of genes on cognitive functioning increases with age. The KIBRA single nucleotide polymorphism rs17070145, associated with episodic memory and working memory, has been suggested to follow such a pattern, but few studies have tested this assertion directly. The present study investigated the relationship between KIBRA alleles (T carriers vs. CC homozygotes), cognitive performance, and brain volumes in three groups of cognitively healthy adults-middle aged (ages 52-64, n = 38), young old (ages 65-72, n = 45), and older old (ages 73-92, n = 62)-who were carefully matched on potentially confounding variables including apolipoprotein ε4 status and hypertension. Consistent with our prediction, T carriers maintained verbal memory performance with increasing age while CC homozygotes declined. Voxel-based morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance images showed an advantage for T carriers in frontal white matter volume that increased with age. Focusing on the older old group, this advantage for T carriers was also evident in left lingual gyrus gray matter and several additional frontal white matter regions. Contrary to expectations, neither KIBRA nor the interaction between KIBRA and age predicted hippocampal volumes. None of the brain regions investigated showed a CC homozygote advantage. Taken together, these data suggest that KIBRA results in decreased verbal memory performance and lower brain volumes in CC homozygotes compared to T carriers, particularly among the oldest old, consistent with the resource modulation hypothesis.

  8. Age-Modulated Associations between KIBRA, Brain Volume, and Verbal Memory among Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Stickel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The resource modulation hypothesis suggests that the influence of genes on cognitive functioning increases with age. The KIBRA single nucleotide polymorphism rs17070145, associated with episodic memory and working memory, has been suggested to follow such a pattern, but few studies have tested this assertion directly. The present study investigated the relationship between KIBRA alleles (T carriers vs. CC homozygotes, cognitive performance, and brain volumes in three groups of cognitively healthy adults—middle aged (ages 52–64, n = 38, young old (ages 65–72, n = 45, and older old (ages 73–92, n = 62—who were carefully matched on potentially confounding variables including apolipoprotein ε4 status and hypertension. Consistent with our prediction, T carriers maintained verbal memory performance with increasing age while CC homozygotes declined. Voxel-based morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance images showed an advantage for T carriers in frontal white matter volume that increased with age. Focusing on the older old group, this advantage for T carriers was also evident in left lingual gyrus gray matter and several additional frontal white matter regions. Contrary to expectations, neither KIBRA nor the interaction between KIBRA and age predicted hippocampal volumes. None of the brain regions investigated showed a CC homozygote advantage. Taken together, these data suggest that KIBRA results in decreased verbal memory performance and lower brain volumes in CC homozygotes compared to T carriers, particularly among the oldest old, consistent with the resource modulation hypothesis.

  9. Leisure Activity and Caregiver Involvement in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila, Iulia; Hartley, Sigan L.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Bulova, Peter D.; Tumuluru, Rameshwari V.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Lao, Patrick J.; Christian, Bradley, T.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined leisure activity and its association with caregiver involvement (i.e., residence and time spent with primary caregiver) in 62 middle-aged and older adults with Down syndrome (aged 30-53 years). Findings indicated that middle-aged and older adults with Down syndrome frequently participated in social and passive leisure…

  10. An investigation of predictors of successful aging in the workplace among Hong Kong Chinese older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Francis; Wu, Anise M S

    2012-03-01

    We examined associations between successful aging in the workplace (adaptability and health, positive relationship, occupational growth, personal security, and continuous focus on goals) and two major factors of work stressors (work family conflict and discrimination against older workers) and coping resources (perceived organizational support, supportive human resource policies, and social support from friends and family) among Chinese older workers in Hong Kong. Furthermore, we also examined whether coping resources moderate the negative effect derived from work stressors on successful aging. A total of 242 Chinese full-time workers aged 40 years or above were recruited in a self-administered questionnaire survey study in Hong Kong. Hierarchical regression results showed that family-to-work conflict was significantly related to successful aging, except the dimension of personal security. Work-to-family conflict and discrimination, however, were not related to successful aging in the workplace. In terms of coping resources, perceived organizational support was related to all dimensions of successful aging in the workplace. We also found that training and development was a significant correlate of occupational growth. Social support from friends and family was positively related to three successful aging dimensions, including adaptability and health, personal security and continuous focus on goals. Finally, when facing discrimination in the workplace, support from organizations and from friends and family were particularly important for old-older workers (aged 55 years or above) to achieve better adaptability and health. Perceived organizational support and social support from friends and family were important correlates of successful aging in the workplace. Limitation and recommendations for organizational intervention were discussed.

  11. Epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in men and women of middle and older age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review We summarized recent literature on the epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in middle-aged and older women and men. Recent findings The prevalence of eating disorders according to DSM-5 criteria is around 3.5% in older (>40 years) women and around 1-2% in older men. The

  12. The Housing and Support Needs of People with an Intellectual Disability into Older Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, K.; Cartwright, C.; Craig, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are growing older as a population cohort. Many live at home with family members who are their carers but who are also becoming older and less able to provide care. The housing and support preferences of people with IDs and their carers into older age are poorly characterised in the…

  13. Effect of age, education and health status on community dwelling older men's health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Cara

    2012-06-01

    A significant gap in evidence characterizes the process of establishing patient-centered health priorities for older men. A cross-sectional postal survey of 2325 Canadian community dwelling men aged 55-97 years old was conducted in 2008 to gauge older men's level of concern for 24 different health items, to determine the impact of age, education and health status on these perceptions, and to ascertain whether men perceive that their health concerns are being attended to. Health issues of greatest concern to men were mobility impairment (64% of respondents), memory loss (64%), and medication side effects (63%). Respondents with lower educational attainment expressed greater concern about their health and were almost 2-fold times more likely to report being concerned about stroke, heart disease and prostate disorders in analyses that controlled for age and health status. Physical and mental health were independently associated with various concerns about health, but old age was not a reliable predictor, with only younger men (erectile dysfunction. Health items of greatest concern to men tended to be those with the lowest screening or counseling rates: these included incontinence, osteoporosis, mobility impairment, falls, anxiety issues, memory loss and depression. An improved consumer-guided agenda for addressing older men's health in the coming decade is urgently required.

  14. Age-specific prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in an older population: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, C. C.; Wolfs, R. C.; Vingerling, J. R.; Hofman, A.; de Jong, P. T.

    1998-01-01

    To study the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in various age categories of a large population-based study. For the study, 6775 subjects aged 55 years or older underwent an extensive ophthalmologic screening examination, including measurements of visual acuity and the visual

  15. Destination memory in social interaction: better memory for older than for younger destinations in normal aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Raffard, Stéphane; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe

    2017-10-12

    Destination memory, a memory component allowing the attribution of information to its appropriate receiver (e.g., to whom did I lend my pen?), is compromised in normal aging. The present paper investigated whether older adults might show better memory for older destinations than for younger destinations. This hypothesis is based on empirical research showing better memory for older faces than for younger faces in older adults. Forty-one older adults and 44 younger adults were asked to tell proverbs to older and younger destinations (i.e., coloured faces). On a later recognition test, participants had to decide whether they had previously told some proverb to an older/younger destination or not. Prior to this task, participants reported their frequency of contact with other-age groups. The results showed lower destination memory in older adults than in younger adults. Interestingly, older adults displayed better memory for older than for younger destinations. The opposite pattern was seen in younger adults. The low memory for younger destinations, as observed in older adults, was significantly correlated with limited exposure to younger individuals. These findings suggest that for older adults, the social experience can play a crucial role in the destination memory, at least as far as exposure to other-age groups is concerned.

  16. Brain white matter damage in aging and cognitive ability in youth and older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Hernández, Maria Del C; Booth, Tom; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J; Penke, Lars; Morris, Zoe; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Royle, Natalie A; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Bastin, Mark E; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2013-12-01

    Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical histories, current cognitive ability and quantified WMH on MR imaging. Among 634 participants, mean age 72.7 (SD 0.7), age 11 IQ was the strongest predictor of late life cognitive ability. After accounting for age 11 IQ, greater WMH load was significantly associated with lower late life general cognitive ability (β = -0.14, p age 11 IQ (β = -0.08, p age 11IQ. Early-life IQ also influenced WMH in later life. Determining how lower IQ in youth leads to increasing brain damage with aging is important for future successful cognitive aging. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiotherapy for prostatic cancer in patients aged 75 or older

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisada, Tomohiro; Kataoka, Masaaki; Mogami, Hiroshi; Inoue, Takeshi; Uemura, Masahiko; Sumiyoshi, Yoshiteru [Shikoku Cancer Center Hospital, Matsuyama (Japan); Nagao, Shuji

    2000-10-01

    Thirty-eight patients with prostatic cancer treated with radiotherapy giving a mean dose of 60.7 Gy between 1992 and 1997 at Shikoku Cancer Center Hospital were reviewed and the treatment outcomes were investigated retrospectively. About two-third of the patients were treated with radiation by linear accelerator with 40 to 46 Gy to the whole pelvis and with 20 to 26 Gy boost to the prostate area and the other one-third were treated only to the prostate area. For almost patients, external beam radiotherapy in combination with endocrine therapy was used. The median duration of follow-up was 36 months. Overall 5-year survival and 5-year relapse-free survival rate were 65.8%, and 88.9%, respectively. Severe rectal late morbidity (over grade 3) according to RTOG grading system were seen in one (2.6%). Although the number of cases was rather small and the follow-up duration was rather short, conventional external beam radiotherapy in combination with endocrine therapy may contribute to the survival benefit of patients with prostatic cancer in aged 75 or older. Radiotherapy for elderly prostatic cancer patients should be treated with an effort to decrease the late morbidity and not to deteriorate the QOL of the patients, because many patients were died of other causes than cancer. (author)

  18. The Age problem Is our Galaxy older than the Universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Krauss, L

    1997-01-01

    For almost 70 years, since Hubble's discovery that the Universe is expanding, there has been a constant tension between the age of the Universe, as determined from the Hubble expansion, and the age as determined from stellar evolution estimates of our galaxy. I will describe the issues and the current status of this controversy, including new results stemming from the Hipparcos satellite measuring parallaxes of nearby stars which suggest that for the first time in recent memory the lower limit on the age of the universe based on globular cluster ages may be in accord with the upper limit obtained from the Hubble constant, even for a flat, matter dominated universe. I will briefly outline the cosmological implications of these results.

  19. Difficulty in Differentiating Trustworthiness from Untrustworthiness in Older Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Bianca; Hine, Alison C.; Bailey, Phoebe E.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults report being more trusting than young adults, and this may be particularly evident in close social relationships. This is beneficial for well-being when trust is reciprocated, but detrimental when trust is exploited. In a repeated trust game, young (n = 35) and older adults (n = 33) invested real money over repeated interactions with…

  20. Epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in men and women of middle and older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W

    2017-11-01

    We summarized recent literature on the epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in middle-aged and older women and men. The prevalence of eating disorders according to DSM-5 criteria is around 3.5% in older (>40 years) women and around 1-2% in older men. The majority of those eating disordered persons are not in treatment. There are new terms like 'perimenopausal eating disorders' and 'muscularity-oriented eating disorders' indicating the impact of the aging process and sex-specific differences. Disordered eating and eating disorders occur in both women and men of all ages. Medical complications because of age, the stigma of eating disorders in a still 'untypical' age, and the glorification of sports activity often hinder the recognition of eating disorders in midlife and older persons. Treatment approaches should consider treatment strategies tailored for older women and men, addressing the context of midlife and aging.

  1. A qualitative study to examine older adults' perceptions of health: Keys to aging successfully.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatch, Rifky; Musich, Shirley; MacLeod, Stephanie; Kraemer, Sandra; Hawkins, Kevin; Wicker, Ellen R; Armstrong, Douglas G

    Older adult health is often defined in clinical terms. Research has demonstrated that many older adults self-report aging successfully regardless of clinical health status. This qualitative study used claims data to identify older adults on three levels of health status: healthy and active, managing diseases, or very sick, to better understand how health is defined and maintained. In total, 32 participants from two cities were interviewed. Interviews were audio- and video-recorded and then transcribed. Thematic analysis identified five themes: disconnectedness between objective and subjective health; health defined to include psychological and social components; resilience and coping mechanisms indicative of successful aging; social support systems integral to health; and the goal of maintaining functioning. These results indicate the importance of individual perceptions of health rather than just counts of chronic diseases. Health management programs should provide holistic approaches to maximize health outcomes and to promote successful aging. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aging in community and local NGOs: Empowering marginalized older women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunjeong

    2017-10-23

    This article is based on an embedded case study of selected older people's self-help groups in urban South Korea, which aim to assist community-dwelling older adults, particularly poor and marginalized women, to age in their community and remain active and contributing members. The study highlights the importance of the role and capacity of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as partner organizations. Implications are important for other aging societies, particularly in Asia, where older women have been often confined by patriarchal oppression.

  3. A Prospective Cohort Study on the Effect of a Balance Training Program, Including Calf Muscle Strengthening, in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Carol A; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare

    2016-01-01

    Falls are the number 1 cause of injury, fractures, and death among the older population. In fact, one-third of adults older than 60 years will experience 1 or more falls annually. Factors including inactivity and decreased mobility are associated with overall declines in strength, balance, and functional mobility in older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a balance training program, including calf muscle strengthening, in community-dwelling older adults and to evaluate how calf muscle strength correlates with risk factors for falls. Community-dwelling older adults from a local senior center were invited to participate in a 5-week (10 sessions), 1-on-1, balance training program, which included calf muscle strengthening. All the participants were evaluated before and after the intervention. The outcome measures were static balance, unilateral heel-rise test, Timed Up and Go test (TUG), the 30-second Chair Stand Test (30-sCST), and the Activity Balance Confidence Scale. Twenty-eight participants (6 males and 22 females) mean (standard deviation) age of 78 years were included in the study and completed the baseline evaluation. Eight participants did not complete the study. Static balance with eyes closed, heel rise, TUG, 30-sCST, and the Activity Balance Confidence Scale improved significantly (P calf muscle strengthening performed twice a week for 5 weeks resulted in significant improvements in calf muscle strength, functional performance and balance, as well as a significant improvement in balance confidence. The results from this study identify the importance unilateral calf muscle strength has to falls risk among older adults.

  4. Older workers' motivation to continue to work : five meanings of age. A conceptual review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Dorien; de lange, Annet; Jansen, Paul; Dikkers, Josje

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Little is known about the motivation for older workers to work and to remain active in the labor market. Research on age and motivation is limited and, moreover, conceptually diverse. This paper aims to address age-related factors that influence the work motivation of older workers. More

  5. Older workers motivation to continue to work: five meanings of age: A conceptual review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de Annet; Jansen, Paul; Kooij, Dorien

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about the motivation for older workers to work and to remain active in the labor market. Research on age and motivation is limited and, moreover, conceptually diverse. In this study, we address age-related factors that influence the work motivation of older workers. More

  6. Cognitive functioning of individuals aged 90 years and older without dementia : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legdeur, N.; Binnekade, T. T.; Otten, R. H.; Badissi, M.; Scheltens, P.; Visser, P. J.; Maier, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Reference values to define cognitive impairment in individuals aged 90 years and older are lacking. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine the level of cognitive functioning of individuals aged 90 years and older without dementia. Methods The search identified 3972

  7. Volunteering as reciprocity: beneficial and harmful effects of social policies to encourage contribution in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christine; Breheny, Mary; Mansvelt, Juliana

    2015-04-01

    Social policy applications of 'active ageing' ideals have recently focussed on volunteering as a beneficial and valuable contribution that older people can make to their communities. In this paper we draw attention to the positive and negative effects of a general imperative to contribute. Understanding the benefits of contribution in terms of the moral force of reciprocity recognises that older people do need and want to contribute to society and these contributions are beneficial for their sense of identity and wellbeing. However, older people vary greatly in their health, financial resources, and social networks and should not be seen as a homogenous group whose members must contribute in the same way. A policy focus on the imperative to contribute as a participating citizen can be oppressive and lead to withdrawal from social engagement by those who are the most in need of support to participate. Priorities for social and organisational policies must include support for the many ways older people are able to be involved in their communities and to provide structures necessary to support their preferences. A focus on individual responsibility for active engagement in society, which does not take account of individual circumstances or past contributions, can be harmful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

  9. Astronomy for older eyes a guide for aging backyard astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, James L

    2017-01-01

    This book is for the aging amateur astronomy population, including newcomers to astronomy in their retirement and hobbyists who loved peering through a telescope as a child. Whether a novice or an experienced observer, the practice of astronomy differs over the years. This guide will extend the enjoyment of astronomy well into the Golden Years by addressing topics such as eye and overall health issues, recommendations on telescope equipment, and astronomy-related social activities especially suited for seniors. Many Baby-Boomers reaching retirement age are seeking new activities, and amateur astronomy is a perfect fit as a leisure time activity. Established backyard astronomers who began their love of astronomy in their youth , meanwhile, may face many physical and mental challenges in continuing their lifelong hobby as they age beyond their 55th birthdays. That perfect telescope purchased when they were thirty years old now suddenly at sixty years old feels like an immovable object in the living room. The 20...

  10. Predictors of driving outcomes including both crash involvement and driving cessation in a prospective study of Japanese older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuge, Ritsu; Okamura, Kazuko; Kihira, Makoto; Nakano, Yukako; Fujita, Goro

    2017-09-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate predictors of future traffic crash involvement, taking into account bias in the handling of data for former drivers. The second aim was to compare characteristics of former drivers and crash-involved drivers in order to gain an understanding of appropriate driving cessation among older drivers. In all, 154 drivers aged 70 years or older participated in the baseline interview and the follow-up survey conducted two years later. In the baseline interview, participants were asked to respond to a questionnaire, take the Useful Field of View test ® (UFOV), and complete the Mini-Mental State Examination. In the follow-up survey, participants were asked by mail or telephone whether they had stopped driving. Participants reporting that they still drove were invited to participate in a subsequent interview. Based on the information obtained in the follow-up survey, participants were classified as follows: driving cessation group (n=26); crash-involved group (n=18); and crash-free group (n=110). A multinomial logistic regression was then used to analyse the data. Contrary to the results of previous studies, we found older age to be associated with crash involvement but not with driving cessation. The cessation group had more decreased cognitive processing speed than the crash-involved and crash-free groups. Crash history was also predictive of crash involvement. Participants who were subject to license renewal between baseline and follow-up had a greater tendency to continue driving. Results suggested that age and crash history could potentially identify high-risk older drivers. The predictive power of cognitive processing speed is reduced under certain conditions. License-renewal procedures may induce Japanese older adults to continue driving. Future studies should use a large national sample to confirm the results of the present study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adverse effects of frailty on social functioning in older adults: Results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Suanet, Bianca; Dent, Elsa; Deeg, Dorly J H; Aartsen, Marja J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical frailty and social functioning among older adults, cross-sectionally and prospectively over 3 years. The study sample consisted of 1115 older adults aged 65 and over from two waves of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, a population based study. Frailty was measured at T1 (2005/2006) using the criteria of the frailty phenotype, which includes weight loss, weak grip strength, exhaustion, slow gait speed and low physical activity. Social functioning was assessed at T1 and T2 (2008/2009) and included social network size, instrumental support, emotional support, and loneliness. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses adjusted for covariates (age, sex, educational level and number of chronic diseases) showed that pre-frail and frail older adults had a smaller network size and higher levels of loneliness compared to their non-frail peers. Longitudinal linear regression analyses adjusted for covariates and baseline social functioning showed that frailty was associated with an increase in loneliness over 3 years. However, the network size and levels of social support of frail older adults did not further decline over time. Frailty is associated with poor social functioning, and with an increase in loneliness over time. The social vulnerability of physical frail older adults should be taken into account in the care provision for frail older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A healthy aging program for older adults: effects on self-efficacy and morale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scult, Matthew; Haime, Vivian; Jacquart, Jolene; Takahashi, Jonathan; Moscowitz, Barbara; Webster, Ann; Denninger, John W; Mehta, Darshan H

    2015-01-01

    As of 2012, 810 million people worldwide were older than 60 y, accounting for 11% of the population. That number is expected to rise to 2 billion by 2050 or to 22% of the overall population. As a result, a growing need exists to understand the factors that promote mental and physical health in older populations. The purpose of this study was to develop a healthy aging program for older adults and to measure the changes from baseline to the end of the program in participants' relevant psychosocial outcomes (ie, self-efficacy and morale). The study's healthy aging mind-body intervention (MBI) was adapted from the Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (3RP) at the Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine, which incorporates elements from the fields of stress management, cognitive behavioral therapy, and positive psychology. That program was modified with examples and exercises targeted to an older population and evaluated in the current single-arm pilot study. The program took place at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). The 9-wk healthy aging MBI was developed for participants aged 65 y and older. Fifty-one older adults from the surrounding community participated in the study's groups. A new intervention group began the program every 3 mo, with a maximum of 12 individuals per group. For each group, the MBI consisted of weekly 90-min sessions for 9 consecutive wk, directed by a psychologist. The program included sessions that taught participants (1) a variety of methods to elicit the relaxation response (RR), (2) the practice of adaptive coping and cognitions, (3) behaviors necessary to create a healthy lifestyle, and (4) methods of building social support. The research team chose to focus on 2 psychological variables of interest for aging populations: morale and self-efficacy. The study used 2 questionnaires to measure those outcomes, the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), a multidimensional measure of the psychological state of older

  13. Trends in age of smoking initiation in the Netherlands: a shift towards older ages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyts, Paulien A W; Kuipers, Mirte A G; Willemsen, Marc C; Kunst, Anton E

    2018-03-01

    As smoking initiation generally occurs in adolescence, smoking prevention is targeted primarily at young adolescents (aged below 16 years). We hypothesize that, with the adoption of increasingly stronger youth access laws, a shift in the age of smoking initiation may have occurred. Repeated cross-sectional survey. The Netherlands. A total of 13 163 respondents born between 1980 and 1995. In the 2010-15 National Health Survey we measured retrospectively self-reported initiation rates per year of age by birth cohort (1980-83, 1984-87, 1988-91, 1992-95). Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess differences between cohorts, per sex and educational level. Of those who started smoking, 67.2% initiated smoking between 12 and 16 years of age. Contrary to our hypothesis, no shift in initiation towards higher ages was observed. The peak age of initiation was 16 years for all cohorts. Initiation at ages 17-21 was lower in younger birth cohorts than in older birth cohorts [e.g. cohort 1993-95 versus 1980-83: odds ratio (OR) for initiating at 19-21 years = 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.31-0.64]. Trends in age of initiation were similar for males and females. Initiation at ages 15-17 decreased across cohorts for respondents in higher education levels, but not for those in lower education levels. In the Netherlands, the peak age of smoking initiation did not shift throughour subsequent cohorts born between 1980 and 1995, suggesting that young adolescents remain the main target group for smoking initiation prevention policies. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Aging in Movement Representations for Sequential Finger Movements: A Comparison between Young-, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacola, Priscila; Roberson, Jerroed; Gabbard, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that as we enter older adulthood (greater than 64 years), our ability to mentally represent action in the form of using motor imagery declines. Using a chronometry paradigm to compare the movement duration of imagined and executed movements, we tested young-, middle-aged, and older adults on their ability to perform sequential finger…

  15. Factors associated with Spanish older people's membership in political organizations: the role of active aging activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Rodrigo; Villar, Feliciano; Celdrán, Montserrat

    2015-09-01

    This study explores older people's membership in political organizations by using data from the Survey on older people 2010, carried out by Spain's National Institute for older people and social services. The objectives were to describe the extent of this kind of participation among Spaniards aged 65 and over, and to analyze the factors that are associated with it. Results show that only slightly less than 7 % of the sample belonged to a political organization. To analyze the factors related to this membership, a set of models of multivariate analyses were run, including socioeconomic resources and participation in other types of active aging activity (participation in leisure, learning, and productive activities). Educational level, leisure activities, learning activities, and only volunteering in the case of productive activities were found to be associated with membership in political organizations. Results provide partial support for the socioeconomic resources model and suggest that engagement in leisure activities, learning activities, and volunteering might have an enhancing effect on membership in political organizations.

  16. Incidence and related factors of traffic accidents among the older population in a rapidly aging society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kimyong; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Jang, Soong-nang

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of traffic accidents and find related factors among the older population. We used the cross-sectional data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS), which was conducted between 2008 and 2010 and completed by 680,202 adults aged 19 years or more. And we used individuals aged 60 years or above (n=210,914). The incidence of traffic accidents was estimated as number of traffic accidents experienced per thousand per year by a number of factors including age, sex, residential area, education, employment status, and diagnosis with chronic diseases. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each potential risk factor adjusted for the others. Incidence of traffic accidents was estimated as 11.74/1,000 per year for men, and 7.65/1,000 per year for women. It tended to decline as age increased among women; compared to the youngest old age group (60-64), the older old groups (70-74 and 80+) were at lower risk for traffic accidents. Depressive symptom was the strongest predictor for both men (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.28-2.61) and women (1.70, 1.23-2.35). Risk of traffic accident was greater in employed men (1.76, 1.40-2.22) and women diagnosis with arthritis (1.36, 1.06-1.75). Given that the incidence of and factors associated with traffic accidents differ between men and women, preventive strategies, such as driver education and traffic safety counseling for older adults, should be modified in accordance with these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting Perceived Isolation among Midlife and Older LGBT Adults: The Role of Welcoming Aging Service Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Chu, Yoosun; Salmon, Mary Anne

    2017-06-16

    Older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults are more likely to live alone and less likely to have children compared with their heterosexual counterparts. The lack of immediate family system can render older LGBT adults particularly vulnerable to social isolation and its consequences. The current study utilizes social exclusion theory, which asserts that not only material resources but also engagement with and inclusion into the society are necessary for marginalized people to be integrated into the mainstream. The study examines whether aging service providers (e.g., senior centers, adult day care, transportation, employment services) who are perceived by older LGBT adults as welcoming to LGBT people may reduce this population's perceived isolation. Data were collected through a needs assessment survey designed for the aging LGBT community in North Carolina. Adults aged 45 and over who self-identified as LGBT were recruited at several formal and informal groups. The survey yielded 222 valid responses. The outcome variable was perceived isolation. Key independent variables included having experienced welcoming aging service providers and living alone. After controlling for potential confounders and demographics, logistic regression results showed that having experienced welcoming aging service providers was a protective factor against perceived isolation and it also buffered the negative impact of living alone. The findings provided preliminary evidence for a new direction of intervention research-targeting LGBT cultural competence training for medical and social service providers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Medical and obstetric complications among pregnant women aged 45 and older.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad A Grotegut

    Full Text Available The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older.The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35-44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes.Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35.Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may contribute to these

  19. The prevalence of two major health risk behaviours in an Irish older adult population & their relationship to ageing self-perceptions: Findings from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Copley, Antoinette Mary

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The leading causes of death among older Irish adults are diseases of the circulatory system. These are in a major part, diseases of lifestyle and so health behaviours across the lifecycle, including older age, are important targets for prevention. It is imperative to understand older adults’ engagement in preventive health behaviours such as not smoking and drinking sensibly. While research on the association between ageing self-perceptions and health behaviours is relatively no...

  20. Older residents' perspectives on aged sexuality in institutionalized elderly care: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Lieslot; Gastmans, Chris

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this systematic literature review is to investigate older residents' thoughts on, experiences of and engagement in sexual behavior and aged sexuality within institutionalized elderly care. Systematic literature review. We conducted an extensive search of the electronic databases Cinahl, Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and Invert for papers published between January 1980 and October 2014 when the searches were closed. Additional papers were identified through forward and backward citation chasing. Data from relevant studies were extracted by means of a data extraction form. Relevant data were isolated, summarized, compared, related and categorized according to theme. Quality assessment of the included studies focused on their adequacy of reporting the study's research aim, sampling, collection, and analysis procedures, ethical considerations and results. Twenty-five appropriate studies were identified. These studies varied in research design (using surveys, vignettes, focus groups, interviews, or observation), objectives, quality of reporting, and sample characteristics (i.e. male and/or female long-term care residents with and/or without dementia). Yet, they all point to the relevance of sex and sexuality in old age and emphasize the highly individual character of both sexual interest and expression. Older residents who wish to sexually express themselves, might do this in a wide variety of ways, including, but not limited to, daydreaming, dressing-up, looking for emotional and intellectual intimacy, stroking, caressing, kissing, and engaging in sexual intercourse. Overall, residents appear to have a rather positive attitude toward aged sexuality as such. When it comes to specific sexual behaviors or homosexuality, however, attitudes tend to be more negative. The perceived appropriateness of the displayed behavior is a predominant factor in determining older people's reactions to the sexual behavior of co-residents, rather than the potential

  1. #WaysToRelax: developing an online alcohol-related health promotion animation for people aged 55 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Nyssa; Savic, Michael; Manning, Victoria; Lubman, Daniel

    2017-04-27

    Alcohol use among middle-aged and older adults (55 years and older) is increasingly becoming a public health concern. Despite this, there is relatively little research on the experiences of alcohol use and related concerns among people aged 55 and older to inform tailored and engaging health promotion activities. To address this gap, we aimed to develop an engaging alcohol-related health promotion resource for people aged 55 and older. We drew on a research-into-action approach, which involved: 1) thematic analysis of alcohol-related concerns in online counselling transcripts of 70 people aged 55 and older, 2) a review of health promotion literature, and 3) consultation with consumers of alcohol and other drug services, and carers. The research phase highlighted that people aged 55 and older were concerned that their reliance on alcohol use to manage stress had become a habit they wanted to shift. Alongside this, the literature showed that people aged 55 and older were often dismissive of conventional health promotion activities, and pointed to the benefits of conveying health promotion messages through animation. In response, we developed an animation to stimulate reflection and thought about other ways to relax and manage stress. We drew on health promotion principles to ensure that the animation had a positive message and was engaging without being ageist or paternalistic. It was further refined with input from consumers and carers, who thought the animation was appropriate, appealing and useful. Future activities will include further dissemination and evaluation of the animation and associated activities.

  2. How do older adults experience and perceive socially assistive robots in aged care: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandemeulebroucke, Tijs; de Casterlé, Bernadette Dierckx; Gastmans, Chris

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this review was to gain a better understanding of how older adults experience, perceive, think, and feel about the use of socially assistive robots (SARs) in aged care settings. We conducted a literature search for studies that used a qualitative or a mixed-method approach having a significant qualitative element. Pubmed, Cinahl, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science electronic databases were queried. Candidate articles published in journals and conference proceedings were considered for review. Two independent reviewers assessed the included studies for methodological quality using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program, after which data on subjects' self-reported opinions and perceptions were extracted and synthesized using thematic analyses. Seventeen studies producing 23 publications were included. Based on the opinions of older adults, four themes emerged in relation to the use of SARS: (1) roles of a SAR; (2) interaction between the older adult and the SAR, which could be further subdivided into (a) the technical aspect of the interaction and (b) the human aspect of the interaction; (3) appearance of the SAR; and (4) normative/ethical issues regarding the use of SARs in aged care. Older adults have clear positive and negative opinions about different aspects of SARs in aged care. Nonetheless, some opinions can be ambiguous and need more attention if SARs are to be considered for use in aged care. Understanding older adults' lived experiences with SARs creates the possibility of using an approach that embeds technological innovation into the care practice itself.

  3. Understanding Health Needs and Perspectives of Middle-Aged and Older Women Experiencing Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Benissa E; Ma-Pham, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Middle-aged and older homeless women have unique health and social service delivery needs; yet, limited research has been conducted in this area. The purpose of this study was to assess perspectives among prefrail and frail, middle-aged and older homeless women. Focus group methodology was conducted to assess perspectives among these homeless women (N=20) aged 43 to 62. Sociodemographic and frailty characteristics were assessed by structured instruments, along with mobility, assistive device use and falls. The average age was 53.4; the majority of the sample was African-American (70%). In total, 60% reported living in a shelter for the last 30 days, while 20% were unsheltered. The majority of the sample reported walking independently (80%) and not using an assistive device (65%). Over one third (35%) fell in the last 30 days and 70% fell in the last year. Content analysis revealed several themes that included (1) health care needs and challenges experienced; (2) perspectives on sexual decision making; (3) employment difficulties; (4) existing support systems; and (5) development of future program planning. Future research development and implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Cross-national comparison of disability in Latin American and Caribbean persons aged 75 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Ostir, Glenn V; Pelaez, Martha; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare rates of instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) and activity of daily living (ADL) difficulties and examine sociodemographic and health correlates of IADL and ADL difficulties. Data were extracted from the first interview of Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study (abbreviated from Spanish name as: SABE = salud, bienestar y envejecimiento en America Latina y el Caribe). This analysis included 3225 subjects aged 75 and older living in seven capital cities during 1999-2000. Reporting either IADL or ADL difficulties were the outcomes. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between IADL or ADL difficulties and sociodemographics, and health characteristics. The highest prevalence of IADL difficulties was reported in Sao Paulo (33.8%) and the lowest in Montevideo (12.0%). The highest prevalence of ADL difficulties was reported in Santiago (34.7%) and the lowest in Bridgetown (16.9%). In a combined analysis across cities, increased age, fewer years of education, lower body mass index (BMI) (<20), and high number of medical conditions were independently significantly associated with IADL and ADL difficulties. In conclusion, about a third of persons aged 75 and older reported difficulty in at least one IADL or ADL. There was a wide variation on disability rates and correlates across cities.

  5. Cannabis Use Patterns and Motives: A Comparison of Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Medical Cannabis Dispensary Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Nancy A.; Padula, Claudia B.; Sottile, James E.; Vandrey, Ryan; Heinz, Adrienne J.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Medical cannabis is increasingly being used for a variety of health conditions as more states implement legislation permitting medical use of cannabis. Little is known about medical cannabis use patterns and motives among adults across the lifespan. Methods The present study examined data collected at a medical cannabis dispensary in San Francisco, California. Participants included 217 medical cannabis patients who were grouped into age-defined cohorts (younger: 18–30, middle-aged: 31–50, and older: 51–72). The age groups were compared on several measures of cannabis use, motives and medical conditions using one-way ANOVAs, chi-square tests and linear regression analyses. Results All three age groups had similar frequency of cannabis use over the past month; however, the quantity of cannabis used and rates of problematic cannabis use were higher among younger users relative to middle-aged and older adults. The association between age and problematic cannabis use was moderated by age of regular use initiation such that earlier age of regular cannabis use onset was associated with more problematic use in the younger users, but not among older users. Middle-aged adults were more likely to report using medical cannabis for insomnia, while older adults were more likely to use medical cannabis for chronic medical problems such as cancer, glaucoma and HIV/AIDS. Younger participants reported cannabis use when bored at a greater rate than middle-aged and older adults. Conclusions Findings suggest that there is an age-related risk for problematic cannabis use among medical cannabis users, such that younger users should be monitored for cannabis use patterns that may lead to deleterious consequences. PMID:28340421

  6. Physical activity and adiposity markers at older ages: accelerometer vs questionnaire data.

    OpenAIRE

    Sabia, Séverine; Cogranne, Pol; van Hees, Vincent ,; Bell, Joshua ,; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical activity is critically important for successful aging, but its effect on adiposity markers at older ages is unclear as much of the evidence comes from self-reported data on physical activity. We assessed the associations of questionnaire-assessed and accelerometer-assessed physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults. Design/Setting/Participants This was a cross-sectional study on 3940 participants (age range 60-83?years) of the Whitehall II study who completed ...

  7. Discounting input from older adults: the role of age salience on partner age effects in the social contagion of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Michelle L; McNabb, Jaimie C; Lindeman, Meghan I H; Smith, Jessi L

    2017-05-01

    Three experiments examined the impact of partner age on the magnitude of socially suggested false memories. Young participants recalled household scenes in collaboration with an implied young or older adult partner who intentionally recalled false items. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with only the age of their partner (low age-salience context); in Experiment 2, participants were presented with the age of their partner along with a photograph and biographical information about their partner (high age-salience context); in Experiment 3, age salience was varied within the same experiment. Across experiments, participants in both the low age-salience and high age-salience contexts incorporated their partners' misleading suggestions into their own subsequent recall and recognition reports, thus demonstrating social contagion with implied partners. Importantly, the effect of partner age differed across conditions. Participants in the high age-salience context were less likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from older adult partners than from young adult partners, but participants in the low age-salience context were equally likely to incorporate suggestions from young and older adult partners. Participants discount the memory of older adult partners only when age is highly salient.

  8. Alcohol Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Tolstrup, Janne S; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2010-01-01

    prospective studies from North America and Europe including 192 067 women and 74 919 men free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancers at baseline, average daily alcohol intake was assessed at baseline with a food frequency or diet history questionnaire. An inverse association between alcohol......BACKGROUND: -Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. This protective effect of alcohol, however, may be confined to middle-aged or older individuals. Coronary heart disease incidence is low in men ... of age; for this reason, study cohorts rarely have the power to investigate the effects of alcohol on coronary heart disease risk in younger adults. This study examined whether the beneficial effect of alcohol on coronary heart disease depends on age. Methods and Results-In this pooled analysis of 8...

  9. Partner status and mental and physical health of independently living men aged 70 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byles, Julie; Vo, Kha; Thomas, Louise; Mackenzie, Lynette; Kendig, Hal

    2016-06-01

    To describe and compare the mental health and physical functioning of community-dwelling men aged 70 years and over who live alone, and those who live with their partner/spouse. Data were obtained from the baseline survey of the New South Wales 45 and Up Study. Mental health was measured using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and physical health was measured using the Medical Outcome Short Form 36 physical functioning scale. 37 690 community-dwelling men aged 70 years or over were included in the analyses. Men living alone were more likely to have high psychological distress scores and lower physical functioning scores compared to men living with a spouse/partner within each age group, except those 85 and over. Specific health and welfare programs targeted to the increasing number of older men living alone may be needed to address their higher levels of psychological distress and lower levels of physical functioning. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  10. Creative Ageing? Selfhood, Temporality and the Older Adult Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Shari

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on a long-term ethnography of an adult creative writing class situated in a major urban art gallery in the United Kingdom. It takes the claims of one group of older adults--that creative writing made them "feel younger"--as the starting point for exploring this connection further. It places these claims broadly within…

  11. Correlates of attitudes toward personal aging in older assisted living residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nan Sook; Jang, Yuri; Lee, Beom S; Chiriboga, David A; Molinari, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This study explored factors contributing to older adults' self-perceptions about their own aging in assisted living (AL) communities. Data analysis was completed based on interviews with 150 older residents from 17 AL communities. Multiple regression analyses found that functional disability and hearing impairment negatively affected attitudes toward personal aging among AL residents, and satisfaction with social support positively influenced attitudes. Health perception mediated attitudes toward personal aging. Findings suggest the importance of social workers helping older AL residents recognize social support as a means of promoting their positive self-regard.

  12. Older-Adult Playfulness: An Innovative Construct and Measurement for Healthy Aging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…

  13. Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Guide for Asian Women Aged 50 and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Older Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Guide for Asian Women Aged 50 and Older When you think about ... Health Osteoporosis and African American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women (繁體中文) Osteoporosis and ...

  14. Attitudes about Aging Well among a Diverse Group of Older Americans: Implications for Promoting Cognitive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Tseng, Winston; Wu, Bei; Beard, Renee L.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Ivey, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine perceptions about aging well in the context of cognitive health among a large and diverse group of older adults. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups were conducted with older adults living in the community ( N = 396; White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic). Participant descriptions …

  15. Relationships among the Y balance test, Berg Balance Scale, and lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Lee, Tae-Sik; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    Older females have less dynamic postural control and muscle strength than do middle-aged females. Aging-related strength losses may limit balancing performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of the Y Balance Test (YBT) and lower limb strength to discriminate between females in 2 age groups, the relationship between YBT distance and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the degree to which performance on YBT distance is related to lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females. The 40 healthy, independently active females were divided into 2 groups: older and middle-aged. The participants underwent measurements of YBT distance using the YBT, maximal muscular strength of the lower limbs using a handheld dynamometer, and the BBS. The YBT distance in 3 directions and lower limb muscle strength for both lower limbs were significantly lower in the older adults than in the middle-aged group. A moderate correlation but insignificant correlation was found between the YBT composite distance and the BBS score. In the older females, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip abductor. In the middle-aged group, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip extensor. Performance on the YBT was influenced by the strength of lower limb. We suggested that YBT can be used to alternative as a measurement of dynamic balance. Proper training programs for older people could include not only strengthening exercises but also YBT performance to improve balance.

  16. Relationships among the Y balance test, Berg Balance Scale, and lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Older females have less dynamic postural control and muscle strength than do middle-aged females. Aging-related strength losses may limit balancing performance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of the Y Balance Test (YBT and lower limb strength to discriminate between females in 2 age groups, the relationship between YBT distance and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and the degree to which performance on YBT distance is related to lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females. Method: The 40 healthy, independently active females were divided into 2 groups: older and middle-aged. The participants underwent measurements of YBT distance using the YBT, maximal muscular strength of the lower limbs using a handheld dynamometer, and the BBS. Results: The YBT distance in 3 directions and lower limb muscle strength for both lower limbs were significantly lower in the older adults than in the middle-aged group. A moderate correlation but insignificant correlation was found between the YBT composite distance and the BBS score. In the older females, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip abductor. In the middle-aged group, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip extensor. Conclusions: Performance on the YBT was influenced by the strength of lower limb. We suggested that YBT can be used to alternative as a measurement of dynamic balance. Proper training programs for older people could include not only strengthening exercises but also YBT performance to improve balance.

  17. Is There a Paradox of Aging: When the Negative Aging Stereotype Meets the Positivity Effect in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqing; Lu, Jia; Chen, Guopeng; Dong, Li; Yao, Yujia

    2017-01-01

    Background/Study Context: Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) states that the positivity effect is a result of older adults' emotion regulation and that older adults derive more emotional satisfaction from prioritizing positive information processing. The authors explored whether the positivity effect appeared when the negative aging stereotype was activated in older adults and also whether the effect differed between mixed and unmixed valence conditions. Sixty younger (18-23 years of age) and 60 older (60-87 years of age) adults were randomly assigned to a control group and a priming group, in which the negative aging stereotype was activated. All the participants were asked to select 15 words that best described the elderly from a mixed-word list (positive and negative words were mixed together) and from an unmixed-word list (positive and negative words were separated). Older adults in the control group selected more positive words, whereas among younger adults, selection did not differ by valence in either the mixed- or unmixed-word list conditions. There were no differences between the positive and negative word choices of the younger and older adults in the priming group. We calculated the differences between the numbers of positive and negative words, and the differences in the older adults' word choices were larger than those among the younger adults; the differences were also larger in the control group than in the priming group. The positivity effect worked by choosing positive stimuli rather than avoiding negative stimuli. The role of emotion regulation in older adults was limited, and when the positivity effect faced the effect of the negative aging stereotype, the negative stereotype effect was dominant. Future research should explore the changes in the positivity effect in the face of a positive aging stereotype and what roles other factors (e.g., activation level of the stereotype, arousal level of affective words) might play.

  18. The impact of HIV-related stigma on older and younger adults living with HIV disease: does age matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlet, Charles A; Brennan, David J; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Rueda, Sergio; Hart, Trevor A; Rourke, Sean B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent influence of age on levels of HIV-related stigma experienced by adults living with HIV/AIDS. To accomplish this, cross-sectional data from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study were used to determine whether older age is associated with overall stigma among HIV-positive adults living in Ontario, Canada (n = 960). The relationship was also tested for enacted, anticipated, and internalized stigma. Covariates included sociodemographic (e.g., gender, sexual orientation, race) and psychosocial variables (e.g., depression). Modifying effects of covariates were also investigated. Those 55 and older have significantly lower overall and internalized stigma than adults under age 40, even when accounting for gender, sexual orientation, income, time since diagnosis, depression, maladaptive coping, and social support. Age does not predict enacted or Anticipated Stigma when accounting for the demographic and psychosocial variables. A significant interaction between depression and age suggests that stigma declines with age among those who are depressed but increases to age 50 and then decreases in older age groups among those who are not depressed. Age matters when it comes to understanding stigma among adults living with HIV/AIDS; however, the relationship between age and stigma is complex, varying according to stigma type and depression level.

  19. Sport and ageing: a systematic review of the determinants and trends of participation in sport for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Claire R; Eime, Rochelle M; Westerbeek, Hans; O'Sullivan, Grant; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z

    2017-12-22

    The global population is ageing. As ageing is often associated with a decline in health, there is a need to further develop preventative health measures. Physical activity can positively influence older adults' (aged 50 years and older) health. Previous research on the relationship between physical activity and health for older adults has mainly focused on physical activity in general, and not specific types of exercise. Due to the social nature of sport, it may assist in improving physical, mental and social health for older adults. Sport, as a form of physical activity, has not been widely explored as a physical activity opportunity for older adults. This review concurrently explored two research questions: the determinants and the trends of sport participation for community dwelling older adults. Two parallel systematic searches of nine electronic databases were conducted in December 2015 for the two research questions. English language quantitative and qualitative studies that provided specific results for community dwelling older adults' sport participation were included and a quality ratings assessment was undertaken. There were 10,171 studies initially identified for the first research question and 1992 studies for the second research question. This culminated in 18 and 8 studies respectively that met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently mentioned determinants of participation were health and using sport to negotiate the ageing process. The most frequently mentioned trends of sport participation were the effect of historical sport participation on current participation, and sport participation across the lifespan. The main themes for both research questions had contrasting results, for example, participation in sport could improve health, but poor health was also a limitation of sport participation. This review demonstrates that older adults are a heterogeneous age group, and therefore require different strategies than other age groups to

  20. Thriving older African American women: aging after Jim Crow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, D; Zablotsky, D; Croom, M B

    1998-01-01

    This paper is based on the findings of small group discussions with self-defined successful African American women age 60+ in Charlotte, North Carolina. These women, who lived through the Jim Crow era and thrived in spite of the obstacles, continue to seek meaning in their lives through the roles they play in their families, churches, and communities. They feel strongly that there is a core of key values that continue to hold meaning and struggle to impart these values to those whose lives they touch. The key values identified include education, religion, work, and giving back to the community, and illustrate the integration of both traditional and nontraditional definitions of success. Mentoring is proposed as an important concept for understanding the lives of African American women in later life.

  1. Radiotherapy for cancer patients aged 80 and older: a study of effectiveness and side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariah, Babu; Balducci, Lodovico; Venkattaramanabalaji, G.V.; Casey, Linda; Greenberg, Harvey M.; Del Regato, Juan A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To profile cancer patients aged 80 and older undergoing radiotherapy and to study the tumor response and side effects of therapy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed the records of patients aged 80 and older who received radiation therapy at James A. Haley Veterans Hospital and H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center between 1988 and 1995. A total of 203 patients aged 80-94 received radiotherapy during this period. Treatment sites included head and neck [50], breast [16], chest [37], pelvis [53], and miscellaneous [39]. Age, treatment site, field size, total dose, response to treatment, treatment interruptions, incidence and severity of weight loss, myelosuppression, diarrhea, mucositis, dermatitis, and follow-up status are assessed using our departmental records and hospital tumor registry. Results: Of 191 patients evaluated, 179 (94%) completed the treatment without serious complications. A total of 195 sites were irradiated. Twelve patients (6%) required interruption of the treatment. Therapeutic responses were seen in 86 out of 112 patients (77%) treated with curative intent (with 67% complete response) and in 67 out of 83 patients (81%) treated with palliative intent. The causes of treatment interruptions included weight loss from diarrhea, dysphagia, and progressive disease. Treatment interruptions were more likely in patients treated with large treatment fields. In patients treated for upper aero-digestive tract cancer, Grade 3 and 4 mucositis was noted in 20 and 2% of patients, respectively. Grade 1 and 2 enteritis was noted in 43% of patients treated for pelvic malignancies. Grade 3 dermatitis was noted only in 2% of patients. Conclusion: Radiotherapy is highly effective and well tolerated by the oldest old. Age is not a contraindication to aggressive radiotherapy

  2. Should Intrastate Funding Formulae for the Older Americans Act Include a Rural Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Raymond T.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated argument that place of residence influences economic and social services needs. Results demonstrated that rural residency increases both the likelihood of poor health and the need for services, after controlling for age, income, and race. Four predictor values accounted for a small proportion of the variance in need. (RJM)

  3. Physical Activity and Adiposity Markers at Older Ages: Accelerometer Vs Questionnaire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Séverine; Cogranne, Pol; van Hees, Vincent T.; Bell, Joshua A.; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical activity is critically important for successful aging, but its effect on adiposity markers at older ages is unclear as much of the evidence comes from self-reported data on physical activity. We assessed the associations of questionnaire-assessed and accelerometer-assessed physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults. Design/Setting/Participants This was a cross-sectional study on 3940 participants (age range 60-83 years) of the Whitehall II study who completed a 20-item physical activity questionnaire and wore a wrist-mounted accelerometer for 9 days in 2012 and 2013. Measurements Total physical activity was estimated using metabolic equivalent hours/week for the questionnaire and mean acceleration for the accelerometer. Time spent in moderate-and-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was also assessed by questionnaire and accelerometer. Adiposity assessment included body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass index. Fat mass index was calculated as fat mass/height² (kg/m²), with fat mass estimated using bioimpedance. Results Greater total physical activity was associated with lower adiposity for all adiposity markers in a dose-response manner. In men, the strength of this association was 2.4 to 2.8 times stronger with the accelerometer than with questionnaire data. In women, it was 1.9 to 2.3 times stronger. For MVPA, questionnaire data in men suggested no further benefit for adiposity markers past 1 hour/week of activity. This was not the case for accelerometer-assessed MVPA where, for example, compared with men undertaking physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults was stronger when physical activity was assessed by accelerometer compared with questionnaire, suggesting that physical activity might be more important for adiposity than previously estimated. PMID:25752539

  4. Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age: results from the Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieri, Cécilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study. PMID:23676264

  5. Issues in caregiving for older people with intellectual disabilities and their ageing family carers: a review and commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Assumpta; Taggart, Laurence; Truesdale-Kennedy, Maria; Slevin, Eamonn

    2014-09-01

    In keeping with worldwide demographic changes and an ageing population, people with intellectual disabilities are living longer and all the evidence suggest that this trend will continue. This 'new' population of older people and their carers will pose challenges for health and social care providers. This paper presents a review of the literature on key issues influencing caregiving for older people with intellectual disabilities and their ageing family carers. The review was undertaken using a framework adapted from the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Papers were identified through the use of databases including CINAHL, Science Direct, PsychoInfo, Blackwell Synergy, the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE. The key themes which emerged from the literature and which consequently form the basis of this review include: ageing family carers, future planning and support services. In the context of family caregiving, older people with intellectual disabilities represent a unique group insofar as they are unlikely to be married and therefore have no spouse or dependents to care for them in later life. As a result, parents (usually mothers) have to continue caring for their son or daughter with an intellectual disability as they both grow older, often resulting in a mutually dependent relationship. The caregiving situation is further complicated by poor emergency and future planning and by a lack of appropriate services for this group of individuals. In light of the emergence of a 'new' population of older people with intellectual disabilities, there is an urgent need to develop services and support structures which will enable these individuals and their ageing carers to 'age in place' and when this is no longer possible, to have appropriate alternatives that recognise the duality of their needs as older people and as people with intellectual disabilities. Opportunities for supervision could be one way to increase individuals' awareness of their own role in the team.

  6. Exploring opportunities for healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Within the areas of literature on both population aging and health and homelessness, little attention has been given to the opportunities and barriers to healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness. Set in the context of inner-city Toronto, Canada, this article reports on the findings from qualitative interviews with 29 formerly homeless older persons. The findings illustrate participants' experiences of positive health change since moving into a stable housing environment and the aspects of housing they perceive to have improved their health and wellbeing. The qualitative findings also draw attention to the ongoing barriers to healthy aging that can be experienced among older persons with a history of homelessness. Overall, this study draws on the lived experiences of formerly homeless older persons to offer a better understanding of the long-term effects of homelessness on health, wellbeing, and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Is exercise effective in promoting mental well-being in older age? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Gill; Hughes, Dyfrig; Linck, Pat; Russell, Ian; Woods, Bob

    2010-08-01

    Promoting the mental well-being of older people has been neglected. To examine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of exercise and physical activity interventions on mental well-being in people aged 65+. Systematic review, meta-analysis, economic model. Reports published in English, identified by searching 25 databases, 11 websites and references lists of systematic reviews. Eligible studies were those with a comparison or control group or offering qualitative evidence; exercise and physical activity interventions for people aged 65 and above living at home, in the community, in supported housing or in residential care homes; including outcome measures of mental well-being, not simply measures of depression or anxiety. Low-quality studies were excluded from the data synthesis. An overall effect of exercise on mental well-being was found (standardised effect size = 0.27; CI = 0.14-0.40). The included interventions were designed for older people, targeted those who are sedentary and delivered in a community setting, primarily through a group-based approach led by trained leaders. As a minimum, the evidence would suggest two exercise sessions per week, each of 45 min duration. There is some indication that exercise can also improve the mental well-being of frail elders. Economic evidence indicated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (compared with minimal intervention) of pound 7300 and pound 12,100 per quality adjusted life year gained for community-based walking and exercise programmes, respectively. Mental well-being in later life is modifiable through exercise and physical activity. To generalise the findings, there is a need for more evidence of effectiveness from older people in the UK.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress of middle-aged and older women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among older women living with HIV in comparison to their male counterparts and younger women and to identify the sociodemographic and disease-related factors associated with psychological distress. The sample consisted of 508 HIV-infected patients (65 older women, 323 women aged below 50 years, and 120 older men) recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. Data regarding psychological distress were collected using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Seven older women (10.8%), eight older men (6.7%), and 61 younger women (18.9%) reported a T-score ≥ 63 for global severity index (GSI), indicative of a need for further psychological evaluation. Overall, younger women reported significantly higher psychological distress than older men. The odds of having clinically significant psychological distress score were significantly lower for older women reporting sexual transmission, while for younger women, having other co-infections was a significant correlate of higher psychological distress. Younger women were 2.67 (95% CI: 1.22-5.84) times more likely to report psychological distress than were older men. The odds were not significantly different from older women. This study shows that older women do not differ substantially from younger women and older men in terms of psychological distress. The results reinforce, however, that mental health interventions should be tailored to reflect individuals' circumstances as well as developmental contexts. Moreover, they draw attention to the importance of examining resilience characteristics in older adults to understand the mechanisms behind 'successful ageing' while living with HIV.

  9. Ageing in an inconvenient paradise: the immigrant experiences of older Korean people in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong-Jae; Kim, Chang Gi

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the immigrant experiences of older Korean people and their intergenerational family relationships in the New Zealand context. Data were collected from qualitative interviews with older people, community leaders and professionals in Christchurch and Auckland. Data analysis was conducted using concept mapping techniques in the cross-cultural context where two languages were simultaneously used. The findings of the study show that older Korean people in New Zealand were likely to face multiple challenges due to the combined effects of immigration and ageing in a new country. Some older people experienced difficulties in managing their immigrant lives and intergenerational relationships in the transnational family context in which their family members were dispersed across two or more nations. The immigrant experiences of older migrants might be affected by an 'invisible' source of isolation and exclusion at familial, community, societal and transnational levels. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  10. Older lesbian sexuality: identity, sexual behavior, and the impact of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Paige; Yoon, Intae; Jenkins, Carol L

    2012-01-01

    In response to the very limited and mostly outdated literature on older lesbian sexuality, this exploratory study examined older lesbian sexual identity, romantic relationships, the impact of aging, and experiences of discrimination within these contexts. Utilizing an online survey that recruited via numerous online lesbian communities and snowball sampling, 456 lesbians over the age of 50 responded to closed, Likert scale, and open-ended questions that provided a preliminary understanding of older lesbian sexuality. The results indicated that older lesbians have experienced fluidity in past romantic and sexual relationships, as well as in erotic fantasies, despite strong identification with being lesbian. The findings also indicate a decreased focus on sexuality in the context of relationships, with more focus on stability and continuity. Future research is needed that provides greater specificity and detail about older lesbian conceptions of sexual behavior and sexual identity labels, as well as specific sexual behaviors.

  11. Health Status and Labour Force Status of Older Working-Age Australian Men

    OpenAIRE

    Lixin Cai; Guyonne Kalb

    2005-01-01

    The trend of declining labour force participation by older working-age men, combined with an ageing population, has led many industrialised nations to develop policies encouraging older male workers to remain in the labour force. A better understanding of how an individual’s health influences the labour force participation decision among this group of workers would facilitate the development of effective policies. The current research uses the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australi...

  12. Knowledge of Aging and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Neil C.; Friedrich, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Four hundred young-, middle-, and old-old adults responded to a battery of quizzes dealing with life satisfaction and objective aging knowledge in the physical, psychological, and social domains. Analyses incorporated domains of aging knowledge, life satisfaction, age, gender, and demographic variables. Both means difference and regression…

  13. Comparison of the middle-aged and older users' adoption of mobile health services in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhaohua; Mo, Xiuting; Liu, Shan

    2014-03-01

    Given the increasing number of older people, China has become an aging society. A mobile health service is a type of health informatics that provides personalized healthcare advice to those who require it, especially the older people and the middle-aged. However, few studies consider the adoption of mobile health services with regard to older and middle-aged users. This paper explored a research model based on the value attitude behavior model, theory of planned behavior, and four aging characteristic constructs to investigate how older and middle-aged citizens adopted mobile health services. The hypothesized model was empirically tested using data collected from a survey of 424 residents older than 40 years in China. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the significance of the path coefficients. The findings revealed that (1) perceived value, attitude, perceived behavior control, and resistance to change can be used to predict intention to use mobile health services for the middle-aged group; (2) perceived value, attitude, perceived behavior control, technology anxiety, and self-actualization need positively affected the behavior intention of older users; and (3) subjective norm and perceived physical condition showed no significant effects on the behavior intention to use mobile health services for the two groups. The theoretical and practical implications and contributions of this study are then discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. D3-4: The Intersection of Ageism and Heterosexism: LGBT Older Adults’ Perspectives on Aging-in-Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Jennifer; Portz, Jennifer Dickman; Wright, Leslie; King, Diane; Grimm, Cathy; Retrum, Jessica; Gozansky, Wendolyn

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Successful aging in place models promote independence, include older adults in decision-making, create an environment of personal and physical safety, facilitate social support, and provide services to enhance the health and quality of life of older adults within the communities in which they live. The applicability of aging in place models for disenfranchised groups is an important consideration. The current study, undertaken as part of a larger community-research partnership, examined the adequacy of this approach with older LGBT adults in a metropolitan neighborhood. Methods This qualitative study used focus groups (n = 14), interviews (n = 29), and a town hall (n = 30) to assess barriers and supports for LGBT persons to age in place. Results Most of the 73 participants identified as lesbian or gay, were aged 50–69, and lived with a partner. Discrimination and dual stigmatization (ageism plus heterosexism) emerged as cross-cutting themes that negatively impacted the aging in place categories of healthcare, housing, social support, home assistance and legal services. Establishing welcoming social spaces, disseminating knowledge resources, and promoting self-advocacy were suggested solutions. Conclusions This study provides a unique contribution to knowledge about the needs of LGBT older adults pertaining to aging in place. While resilience and coping skills developed at younger ages during the “coming out” process can continue to be leveraged in later years, LGBT seniors who are less “out” are likely particularly vulnerable to the challenges presented by the intersection of ageism and heterosexism. This research offers recommendations for tailoring current aging in place models to better suit the needs of LGBT older adults.

  15. The Effect of Aging Awareness Training on Knowledge of, and Attitudes towards, Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Mahoney, Berenice

    2003-01-01

    Before and 1 month after age awareness workshops, 200 British participants took the Palmore Aging Quiz and Fraboni Scale of Ageism. Palmore scores significantly improved but Fraboni scores were unchanged. Results suggest that increased awareness improves factual knowledge but does not change attitudes toward aging and older people. (Contains 18…

  16. 20 CFR 404.745 - Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence for Child's and Parent's Benefits § 404.745 Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older. If you apply for child's benefits as... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age...

  17. Organisational age cultures : The interplay of chief executive officers age and attitudes toward younger and older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Gielnik, Michael M.

    This article investigates the interactive effects of chief executive officer (CEO) age and CEO attitudes toward younger and older employees on organisational age cultures. Data was collected from 66 CEOs of small and medium-sized businesses and 274 employees. Results were consistent with

  18. Gender differences in episodic memory and visual working memory including the effects of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.

  19. 'Timed Up and Go' test: Age, gender and cognitive impairment stratified normative values of older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azianah Ibrahim

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish 'Timed up and Go' test (TUG normative data among community dwelling older adults stratified based on cognitive status, gender and age groups.A total of 2084 community dwelling older adults from wave I and II were recruited through a multistage random sampling method. TUG was performed using the standard protocol and scores were then stratified based on with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI, gender and in a 5-year age groups ranging from ages of 60's to 80's.529(16% participants were identified to have MCI. Past history of falls and medical history of hypertension, heart disease, joint pain, hearing and vision problem, and urinary incontinence were found to have influenced TUG performance. Cognitive status as a mediator, predicted TUG performance even when both gender and age were controlled for (B 0.24, 95% CI (0.02-0.47, β 0.03, t 2.10, p = 0.36. Further descriptive analysis showed, participants with MCI, women and older in age took a longer time to complete TUG, as compared to men with MCI across all age groups with exceptions for some age groups.These results suggested that MCI needs to be taken into consideration when testing older adults using TUG, besides age and gender factors. Data using fast speed TUG may be required among older adults with and without MCI for further understanding.

  20. The Functional Integration in the Sensory-Motor System Predicts Aging in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Chang, Xin; Shan, Yan; Cao, Weifang; Gong, Jinnan; Klugah-Brown, Benjamin; Bobes, Maria A; Biswal, Bharat; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is typically accompanied by a decrease in the motor capacity. Although the disrupted neural representations and performance of movement have been observed in older age in previous studies, the relationship between the functional integration of sensory-motor (SM) system and aging could be further investigated. In this study, we examine the impact of healthy aging on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the SM system, and investigate as to how aging is affecting the rsFC in SM network. The SM network was identified and evaluated in 52 healthy older adults and 51 younger adults using two common data analytic approaches: independent component analysis and seed-based functional connectivity (seed at bilateral M1 and S1). We then evaluated whether the altered rsFC of the SM network could delineate trajectories of the age of older adults using a machine learning methodology. Compared with the younger adults, the older demonstrated reduced functional integration with increasing age in the mid-posterior insula of SM network and increased rsFC among the sensorimotor cortex. Moreover, the reduction in the rsFC of mid-posterior insula is associated with the age of older adults. Critically, the analysis based on two-aspect connectivity-based prediction frameworks revealed that the age of older adults could be reliably predicted by this reduced rsFC. These findings further indicated that healthy aging has a marked influence on the SM system that would be associated with a reorganization of SM system with aging. Our findings provide further insight into changes in sensorimotor function in the aging brain.

  1. Collaborative remembering in older adults: age-invariant outcomes in the context of episodic recall deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Linda A; Rajaram, Suparna

    2011-09-01

    Rapidly growing research reveals complex yet systematic consequences of collaboration on memory in young adults, but much less is known about this phenomenon in older adults. Young and older adults studied a list of categorized words and took three successive recall tests. Test 1 and 3 were always taken individually, and Test 2 was done either in triads or alone. Despite older adults recalling less overall than young adults, both age groups exhibited similar costs and benefits of collaboration: Collaboration reduced both correct and false recall during collaborative remembering, was associated with more positive beliefs about its value, and produced reminiscence, collective memory, and some forgetting in its cascading effects on postcollaborative recall. We examine the role of retrieval organization in these effects. As environmental support may play a substantial role in healthy aging, the relatively preserved effects of collaboration on memory in older adults hold promise for testing judicious uses of group remembering in aging.

  2. Association between migration and cognitive status among middle-aged and older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanzhang; Zhang, Yinan; Wu, Bei

    2017-08-17

    This study aimed to synthesize the current literature examining the association between migration and cognitive function among middle-aged and older adults. We used the PRISMA as a guideline for this systematic review and searched the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Global Health. Twenty-five published studies were included. Twenty-two studies were focused on international migrants, while only 3 studied internal migrants. Fourteen studies were conducted in the United States, followed by UK (n = 2), Israel (n = 2), India (n = 2) and other countries like Canada and Australia. Some studies showed that middle-aged and older migrants demonstrated poorer cognitive function comparing to non-migrants in hosting places; while other studies indicated no association between migration and cognitive function. A higher level of acculturation was associated with better performance on cognitive function tests among migrants. It is unclear how or whether migration and cognitive function are related. The quality of current literature suffered from methodological deficiencies. Additional research is needed to examine the linkages using more comprehensive measures of migration and cognitive function.

  3. Health Equity and Aging of Bisexual Older Adults: Pathways of Risk and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Shiu, Chengshi; Bryan, Amanda E B; Goldsen, Jayn; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2017-05-01

    Bisexual older adults are a growing yet largely invisible, underserved, and understudied population. Utilizing the Health Equity Promotion Model, we examined hypothesized mechanisms accounting for health disparities between bisexual older adults and lesbian and gay older adults. Based on data from Caring and Aging with Pride, the largest national survey of LGBT older adults, this study (N = 2,463) utilized structural equation modeling to investigate direct and indirect associations between sexual identity (bisexual vs. lesbian and gay) and health via sexual identity factors (identity disclosure and internalized stigma), social resources, and socioeconomic status (SES). Bisexual older adults reported significantly poorer health compared with lesbian and gay older adults. Indirect effects involving sexual identity factors, social resources, and SES explained the association between bisexual identity and poorer health. A potentially protective pathway was also identified wherein bisexuals had larger social networks after adjusting for other factors. Bisexual older adults face distinct challenges and health risks relative to other older adults, likely because of the accumulation of socioeconomic and psychosocial disadvantages across the life course. Interventions taking into account older bisexuals' unique risk and protective factors may be helpful in reducing health inequities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Feeling sad makes us feel older: Effects of a sad-mood induction on subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Anne J; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2017-08-01

    A mood-induction paradigm was implemented in a sample of 144 adults covering midlife and old age (40-80 years) to investigate associations between mood and subjective age. Sad or neutral mood was induced by texts and music pieces. Subjective age was operationalized as felt age relative to chronological age. Participants receiving the sad-mood induction reported changes toward older felt ages from pre- to postinduction. Participants receiving the neutral-mood induction reported comparable levels of subjective age at pre- and postinduction. Effects were comparable across middle- and older aged participants. Results suggest that sad affective states might dampen subjective age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A

    2015-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50-64; 65-79; 80 and older). Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old-old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Bad marriage, broken heart? Age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risks among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2014-12-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57-85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  7. "Older is always better": Age-related differences in vocabulary scores across 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Erel, Hadas; Goy, Huiwen; Schneider, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies of cognitive aging compare age groups at 1 time point. It is unclear from such studies whether age-related cognitive differences remain stable across time. We present a cross-sectional investigation of vocabulary scores of 2,000 younger and older adults collected across 16 years, using the same laboratory and protocol. We found a steady decrease with year of testing and an advantage for older adults. An additive relation between age group and year of testing implied that age-related differences in vocabulary are independent of changes over time, suggesting that younger and older adults are similarly affected by changes in word usage. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The general age of leadership: older-looking presidential candidates win elections during war.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Spisak

    Full Text Available As nation-state leaders age they increasingly engage in inter-state militarized disputes yet in industrialized societies a steady decrease in testosterone associated with aging is observed--which suggests a decrease in dominance behavior. The current paper points out that from modern societies to Old World monkeys increasing both in age and social status encourages dominant strategies to maintain acquired rank. Moreover, it is argued this consistency has shaped an implicit prototype causing followers to associate older age with dominance leadership. It is shown that (i faces of older leaders are preferred during intergroup conflict and (ii morphing U.S. Presidential candidates to appear older or younger has an overriding effect on actual election outcomes. This indicates that democratic voting can be systematically adjusted by activating innate biases. These findings appear to create a new line of research regarding the biology of leadership and contextual cues of age.

  9. The general age of leadership: older-looking presidential candidates win elections during war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, Brian R

    2012-01-01

    As nation-state leaders age they increasingly engage in inter-state militarized disputes yet in industrialized societies a steady decrease in testosterone associated with aging is observed--which suggests a decrease in dominance behavior. The current paper points out that from modern societies to Old World monkeys increasing both in age and social status encourages dominant strategies to maintain acquired rank. Moreover, it is argued this consistency has shaped an implicit prototype causing followers to associate older age with dominance leadership. It is shown that (i) faces of older leaders are preferred during intergroup conflict and (ii) morphing U.S. Presidential candidates to appear older or younger has an overriding effect on actual election outcomes. This indicates that democratic voting can be systematically adjusted by activating innate biases. These findings appear to create a new line of research regarding the biology of leadership and contextual cues of age.

  10. Age, Health and Life Satisfaction among Older Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Viola; Cavapozzi, Danilo; Corazzini, Luca; Paccagnella, Omar

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how age affects the self-reported level of life satisfaction among the elderly in Europe. By using a vignette approach, we find evidence that age influences life satisfaction through two counterbalancing channels. On the one hand, controlling for the effects of all other variables, the own perceived level of life…

  11. Age, Health and Life Satisfaction Among Older Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelini, Viola; Cavapozzi, Danilo; Corazzini, Luca; Paccagnella, Omar

    In this paper we investigate how age affects the self-reported level of life satisfaction among the elderly in Europe. By using a vignette approach, we find evidence that age influences life satisfaction through two counterbalancing channels. On the one hand, controlling for the effects of all other

  12. Neglected older women and men: Exploring age and gender as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored how women's and men's gendered experiences from childhood to old age have shaped their vulnerability in relation to HIV both in terms of their ... Women's position, the cultural management of sex and gender and contextual stigma related to HIV and to old age inter-relate to produce particular areas of ...

  13. Older age and steroid use are associated with increasing polypharmacy and potential medication interactions among patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parian, Alyssa; Ha, Christina Y

    2015-06-01

    Comorbidity and polypharmacy, more prevalent among older persons, may impact the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aims of this study were to assess the frequency of polypharmacy and medication interactions within a cohort of older patients with IBD and describe IBD treatment patterns. Cohort study of 190 patients with IBD 65 years or older followed at a tertiary IBD referral center from 2006 to 2012. Data collected included demographics, IBD-specific characteristics including disease activity, and comorbidity. Medication histories were extracted from medical records, and data were used to classify polypharmacy, frequency, and severity of potential medication interactions and inappropriate medication use. Older patients with IBD were prescribed an average of 9 routine medications. Severe polypharmacy (≥10 routine medications) was present in 43.2% of studied patients and associated with increasing age, greater comorbidity, and steroid use. Overall, 73.7% of patients had at least 1 potential medication interaction, including 40% of patients with potential IBD medication-associated interactions. Chronic steroids were prescribed to 40% of the older patients including 24% who were in remission or with mild disease activity. Only 39.5% of patients were on immunomodulators and 21.1% on biologics. Approximately, 35% of patients were given at least 1 Beers inappropriate medication and almost 10% were receiving chronic narcotics. Older patients with IBD are at increased risk for severe polypharmacy and potential major medication interactions especially with increasing comorbidity and chronic steroid use. Steroid-maintenance therapies are prevalent among the older patients with IBD with lower utilization of steroid-sparing regimens.

  14. Burden of disease associated with lower levels of income among US adults aged 65 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetkin, Erica I; Jia, Haomiao

    2017-01-16

    Persons aged 65 years and older represent a heterogeneous group whose prevalence in the USA is expected to markedly increase. Few investigations have examined the total burden of disease attributable to lower levels of income in a single number that accounts for morbidity and mortality. We ascertained respondents' health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores and mortality status from the 2003 to 2004, 2005 to 2006, 2007 to 2008 and 2009 to 2010 cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with mortality follow-up through 31 December 2011. A mapping algorithm based on respondents' age and answers to the 4 core Healthy Days questions was used to obtain values of a preference-based measure of HRQOL, the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) index, which enables quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) to be calculated. We included only respondents aged 65 years and older at the baseline, yielding a total sample size of 4952. We estimated mean QALYs according to different categories of income based on the percentage of Federal Poverty Level (FPL). After adjusting for age, gender and education, the remaining QALYs decreased with each successive decrement of category of income, ranging from 18.4 QALY (≥500% FPL) to 8.6 QALY (income of ≥250% FPL, participants with an income groups examined. In contrast, persons with a lower educational attainment did not show a corresponding loss in QALY according to income category. This study confirmed the association between lower income category and greater burden of disease, as measured by QALYs lost, among the US population aged 65 years and older. Our findings provide additional evidence of the role played by other key determinants of health and how factors not traditionally addressed by the healthcare system impact the life cycle of individuals and communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Subsyndromal depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisook, Sidney; Montross, Lori; Kasckow, John; Mohamed, Somaia; Palmer, Barton W; Patterson, Thomas L; Golshan, Shahrokh; Fellows, Ian; Lehman, David; Solorzano, Ellen

    2007-12-01

    The objectives are to delineate the nature of subsyndromal depressive symptoms (SSD) in midlife and older patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by: 1) describing the relationship of SSD with a number of other clinical features; and 2) examining which specific depressive symptoms are increased in patients broadly defined as having SSD. A total of 204 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and SSD who entered a federally funded intervention study at the University of California San Diego (UCSD) and University of Cincinnati were matched with schizophrenic and schizoaffective participants from the Geriatric Research Center at UCSD who had minimal or no depressive symptoms. The SSD and no depression groups were compared on a variety of clinical features including general psychopathology, positive and negative symptoms, medical and mental functioning, cognition, movement abnormalities, and specific depressive symptomatology. SSD was associated with increases in overall psychopathology; positive and negative symptoms; severity of general medical conditions; impaired physical and mental functioning; possibly more severe akathisia; and more depressive symptoms throughout the spectrum of symptom clusters measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, including anxiety and suicidality. SSD in middle aged and older patients with schizophrenia is an important clinical dimension that appears to be associated with substantial morbidity and distress. The findings suggest that is important for clinicians to look for and assess subsyndromal depressive symptoms in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

  16. Learning and Social Process of Aging among Korean Older Married Women: The Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunmin

    2010-01-01

    The aging population has rapidly increased in South Korea. From an economic perspective, older people are too often seen in negative terms. Specifically, older women, who are traditionally at greater risk of poverty, are referred to as a social problem or as passive recipients, and the quality of life of older women in an aging society is often…

  17. Memory Loss, Dementia, and Stroke: Implications for Rehabilitation of Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Older adults with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are not immune to the other diseases of aging. Although AMD is the leading cause of low vision in older Americans, stroke is the leading cause of disability, and dementias affect another 2.5 million older Americans. Each condition alone can significantly impair a person's ability to…

  18. Generativity in Older Age: A Challenge for Universities of the Third Age (U3A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Celdran, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the ways in which university programs for older people should change to cater to the interests and concerns of generative older people. We describe university programs offered at present, underlining their emphasis on personal growth and on learning for the sake of learning. We argue that these programs are not entirely…

  19. Predicting healthy lifestyle patterns among retirement age older adults in the WELL study: a latent class analysis of sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södergren, Marita; Wang, Wei Chun; Salmon, Jo; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of retirement age older adults with respect to their lifestyle patterns of eating, drinking, smoking, physical activity and TV viewing behaviors, and to examine the association between these patterns and socio-demographic covariates. The sample consisted of 3133 older adults aged 55-65 years from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study, 2010. This study used latent class analysis (stratified by sex), with a set of lifestyle indicators and including socio-demographic covariates. Statistical analyses were performed by generalized linear latent and mixed models in Stata. Two classes of lifestyle patterns were identified: Healthy (53% men and 72% women) and less healthy lifestyles. Physical activity, TV-viewing time, and fruit intake were good indicators distinguishing the "Healthier" class, whereas consumption of vegetables, alcohol (men) and fast food (women) could not clearly discriminate older adults in the two classes. Class membership was associated with education, body mass index, and self-rated health. This study contributes to the literature on lifestyle behaviors among older adults, and provides evidence that there are meaningful sex differences in lifestyle behaviors between subgroups of older adults. From a policy perspective, understanding indicators or "markers" of healthy and less healthy lifestyle patterns is important for identifying target groups for interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Age-related changes in general and sexual health in middle-aged and older men: results from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Lee, David M; Forti, Gianni; O'Connor, Daryl B; Maggi, Mario; O'Neill, Terence W; Pendleton, Neil; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Boonen, Steven; Casanueva, Felipe F; Finn, Joseph D; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E J; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Wu, Frederick C W

    2010-04-01

    Limited information is available concerning the general and sexual health status of European men. To investigate the age-related changes in general and sexual health in middle-aged and older men from different countries of the European Union. This is a cross-sectional multicenter survey performed on a sample of 3,369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years old (mean 60 + or - 11 years). Subjects were randomly selected from eight European centers including centers from nontransitional (Florence [Italy], Leuven [Belgium], Malmö[Sweden], Manchester [United Kingdom], Santiago de Compostela [Spain]) and transitional countries (Lodz [Poland], Szeged [Hungary], Tartu [Estonia]). Different parameters were evaluated including the Beck's Depression Inventory for the quantification of depressive symptoms, the Short Form-36 Health Survey for the assessment of the quality of life (QoL), the International Prostate Symptom Score for the evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms, and the European Male Ageing Study sexual function questionnaire for the study of sexual function. More than 50% of subjects reported the presence of one or more common morbidities. Overall, hypertension (29%), obesity (24%), and heart diseases (16%) were the most prevalent conditions. Around 30% of men reported erectile dysfunction (ED) and 6% reported severe orgasmic impairment, both of which were closely associated with age and concomitant morbidities. Only 38% of men reporting ED were concerned about it. Furthermore, concern about ED increased with age, peaking in the 50-59 years age band, but decreased thereafter. Men in transitional countries reported a higher prevalence of morbidities and impairment of sexual function as well as a lower QoL. Sexual health declined while concomitant morbidities increased in European men as a function of age. The burden of general and sexual health is higher in transitional countries, emphasizing the need to develop more effective strategies to promote healthy

  1. Service Providers' Perceptions of Active Ageing among Older Adults with Lifelong Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, L.; Aird, R.; Miller, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considerable attention is currently being directed towards both active ageing and the revising of standards for disability services within Australia and internationally. Yet, to date, no consideration appears to have been given to ways to promote active ageing among older adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Methods:…

  2. From Loving Grandma to Working with Older Adults: Promoting Positive Attitudes towards Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Daniela C.

    2009-01-01

    The steady increase of population aging requires not only more people working within the field of aging but also the creation of new services. However, current students from areas such as medicine, nursing, psychology, and social work frequently have low interest in working with older adults. The low interest relates to this task's lack of…

  3. Reducing Ageism: Education About Aging and Extended Contact With Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Ashley; Levy, Sheri R; Meeks, Suzanne

    2017-11-19

    Ageism is of increasing concern due to the growing older population worldwide and youth-centered focus of many societies. The current investigation tested the PEACE (Positive Education about Aging and Contact Experiences) model for the first time. Two online experimental studies examined 2 key factors for reducing ageism: education about aging (providing accurate information about aging) and extended contact (knowledge of positive intergenerational contact) as well as their potential combined effect (education plus extended contact). In Study 1, 354 undergraduates in all 3 experimental conditions (vs. control participants) reported less negative attitudes toward older adults (delayed post-test) and greater aging knowledge (immediate and delayed post-tests), when controlling for pre-study attitudes. In Study 2, 505 national community participants (ages 18-59) in all experimental conditions (vs. control participants) reported less negative attitudes toward older adults (immediate post-test) and greater aging knowledge (immediate and delayed post-tests). In summary, across 2 online studies, education about aging and knowledge of intergenerational extended contact improved attitudes toward older adults and aging knowledge. Thus, brief, online ageism-reduction strategies can be an effective way to combat ageism. These strategies hold promise to be tested in other settings, with other samples, and to be elaborated into more in-depth interventions that aim to reduce ageism in everyday culture. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Memory Aging Knowledge and Memory Self-Appraisal in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brigman, Susan; Reese-Melancon, Celinda; Burton-Chase, Allison; Holland, Kayla

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among memory aging knowledge and memory self-appraisal in college students and community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire ([KMAQ] Cherry, Brigman, Hawley, & Reese, 2003) and the Memory Functioning Questionnaire ([MFQ] Gilewski,…

  5. Association Between Knowledge and Attitude About Aging and Life Satisfaction Among Older Koreans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonrim Suh, RN, PhD

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: The effect of knowledge and attitude about aging on life satisfaction is significant. Economic status, living with a spouse and self-rated overall health status are also predictive factors in life satisfaction. Consequently, nursing interventions for education and psychological support to increase knowledge about aging and induce a positive attitude towards it should be developed to improve older adults' life satisfaction.

  6. Physical fitness related to age and physical activity in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Kempen, G.I.J.M.; Ormel, J.; Rispens, P

    Objective: This study investigated physical fitness as a function of age and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in a community-based sample of 624 persons aged 57 yr and older. Methods: LTPA during the last 12 months was assessed through personal interviews. A wide range of physical fitness

  7. Older patients’ recall of online cancer information: Do ability and motivation matter more than chronological age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, N.; Smets, E.M.A.; Burgers, J.A.; Samii, S.M.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.; van Weert, J.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    This study proposes and tests a model to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the contribution of chronological age versus age-related ability and motivation factors in explaining recall of online cancer information among older patients (n = 197). Results revealed that recall is not a

  8. Language, aging, and cognition: frontal aslant tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus contribute toward working memory performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizio, Avery A; Diaz, Michele T

    2016-06-15

    Previous research has documented change in white matter tract integrity with increasing age. Both interhemispheric and intrahemispheric tracts that underlie language processing are susceptible to these age-related changes. The aim of the current study was to explore age and white matter integrity in language-related tracts as predictors of cognitive task performance in younger and older adults. To this end, we carried out principal component analyses of white matter tracts and confirmatory factor analysis of neuropsychological measures. We next carried out a series of regression analyses that used white matter components to predict scores on each of the neuropsychological components. For both younger and older adults, age was a significant predictor of processing speed and working memory. However, white matter integrity did not contribute independently toward these models. In older adults only, both age and a white matter component that included the bilateral frontal aslant tract and left superior longitudinal fasciculus were significant predictors of working memory. Taken together, these results extend our understanding of the contributions of language-related white matter structure to cognitive processing and highlight the effects of age-related differences in both frontal and dorsal tracts.

  9. “I’m still raring to go”: Successful Aging Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Jeff; Bradford, Judith

    2012-01-01

    While we know that minority status differentiates the experience of aging, little research has been done to examine the ways in which patterns of successful aging may differ in diverse subgroups of older adults. In this exploratory study, we investigated and described experiences of successful aging in a sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Directed by a community-based participatory research process, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 22 LGBT adults, age 60 and older. We took an inductive, grounded theory approach to analyze the taped and transcribed interviews. We coded respondent experiences in four domains: physical health, mental health, emotional state and social engagement. Four gradations of successful aging emerged. Very few in our sample met the bar for “traditional success” characterized by the absence of problems in all four domains of health. Most of the sample was coping to a degree with problems and were categorized in one of two gradations on a continuum of successful aging: “surviving and thriving” and “working at it.” A small number was “ailing”: not coping well with problems. Some of the experiences that respondents described were related to LGBT status; others were related to more general processes of aging. The research suggests that a successful aging framework that is modified to include coping can better describe the experiences of LGBT older adults. The modified conceptual model outlined here may be useful in future research on this population, as well as more broadly for diverse populations of adults, and may be adapted for use in practice to assess and improve health and well-being. PMID:23273552

  10. Race differences in the association of spiritual experiences and life satisfaction in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarupski, Kimberly A; Fitchett, George; Evans, Denis A; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine an African American 'faith advantage' in life satisfaction. Specifically, we sought to test the hypothesis that the positive relationship between spiritual experiences and life satisfaction is stronger among older African Americans than among older Whites. The data came from 6864 community-dwelling persons aged 65+ (66% African American) who participated in the Chicago Health and Aging Project. Life satisfaction was measured using a five-item composite and we used a five-item version of the Daily Spiritual Experiences scale. In a regression model adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, income and worship attendance, we found that African American race was associated with lower life satisfaction. We also found a positive association between spiritual experiences and life satisfaction. In an additional model, a significant race by spiritual experiences interaction term indicates that spiritual experiences are more positively associated with life satisfaction among African Americans. The data suggest that at higher levels of spiritual experiences, racial differences in life satisfaction are virtually non-existent. However, at lower levels of spiritual experiences, older African Americans show modestly lower levels of life satisfaction than do older Whites. This pattern suggests that spiritual experiences are a positive resource - distinct from worship attendance - that enable older African Americans to overcome decrements in life satisfaction and, in fact, that lower spiritual experiences may be especially harmful for older African American's life satisfaction.

  11. Alcoholism treatment adherence: older age predicts better adherence and drinking outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslin, David W; Pettinati, Helen; Volpicelli, Joseph R

    2002-01-01

    Adherence to treatment has been demonstrated to be an important factor for remission from alcohol dependence. The authors compared therapy and medication adherence for treatment of alcohol dependence in older adults with adherence in younger adults. All subjects were participants in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial of naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence. All subjects received a medically-based psychosocial intervention focused on motivating patients to change and on adherence to treatment. The therapy is nonconfrontational and is delivered by a nurse-practitioner. Compared with younger adults, older adults had greater attendance at therapy sessions and greater adherence to the medication. Age-group was the only pretreatment factor associated with adherence. The greater adherence in older adults translated to less relapse than in younger adults. Treatment for alcohol dependence can be effective for older adults. Older adults appear to respond well to a medically-oriented program that is supportive and individualized. In fact, findings from this study suggest that older adults can be treated in mixed-age treatment settings when psychotherapeutic strategies are used that are age-appropriate and delivered on an individual basis.

  12. Fractures of the acetabulum in patients aged 60 years and older: an epidemiological and radiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, T A; Patel, R; Bhandari, M; Matta, J M

    2010-02-01

    Using a prospective database of 1309 displaced acetabular fractures gathered between 1980 and 2007, we calculated the annual mean age and annual incidence of elderly patients > 60 years of age presenting with these injuries. We compared the clinical details and patterns of fracture between patients > 60 years of age (study group) with those 60 years of age and the remaining 1074 were fractures increased by 2.4-fold between the first half of the study period and the second half (10% (62) vs 24% (174), p Fractures characterised by displacement of the anterior column were significantly more common in the elderly compared with the younger patients (64% (150) vs 43% (462), respectively, p fractures in the study group included a separate quadrilateral-plate component (50.8% (58)) and roof impaction (40% (46)) in the anterior fractures, and comminution (44% (30)) and marginal impaction (38% (26)) in posterior-wall fractures. The proportion of elderly patients presenting with acetabular fractures increased during the 27-year period. The older patients had a different distribution of fracture pattern than the younger patients, and often had radiological features which have been shown in other studies to be predictive of a poor outcome.

  13. Can chronic disease management plans including occupational therapy and physiotherapy services contribute to reducing falls risk in older people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Lynette; Clemson, Lindy

    2014-04-01

    Exercise and home modifications are effective interventions for preventing falls. Chronic disease management (CDM) items are one way for general practitioners (GPs) to access these interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes and feasibility of using CDM items for occupational therapy (OT) and physiotherapy (PT) sessions to address falls risk. A pre-post pilot study design was used to evaluate five collaborative sessions shared by a private OT and PT using CDM items and a GP management plan. Pre and post intervention measures were used to evaluate outcomes for eight patients aged ≥75 years from two GP practices. At 2 months post-intervention there were significant improvements in everyday functioning (P = 0.04), physical capacity (P = 0.01) and falls efficacy (P =0.01). Adherence to the intervention was excellent. Falls prevention interventions can be effective in primary care settings and sustainable pathways need to be developed to ensure access for older people at risk.

  14. Importance of Presurgical Breast MRI in Patients 60 Years of Age and Older

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    Stamatia V Destounis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the importance of presurgical bilateral breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI in women 60 years of age and older. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained with waiver of informed consent for this retrospective review. From December 2003 to December 2011, all patients 60 years and older who had presurgical bilateral breast MRI were reviewed, revealing 1268 presurgical MRI examinations; 310 had a new lesion identified by MRI. Cases were excluded due to incomplete or missing data, resulting in 243 patients with 272 findings eligible for analysis. Data recorded included patient demographics, core biopsy method and pathology, type of surgery, and surgical pathology results. Results: Of 1268 exams performed in this population, 272 (21.5% patients with suspicious MRI findings underwent needle biopsy. Malignancy was found in 114 (42%, benign findings in 127 (47%, and atypia in 31 (11%. Of the malignancies, 83 were in the ipsilateral breast and 31 in the contralateral breast to the original diagnosis. Of the ipsilateral findings, 47 were in the same quadrant as the primary diagnosis, 28 in a different quadrant, and 8 were metastatic lymph nodes. Of the 31 atypical findings, 14 were contralateral to the primary diagnosis and 17 were ipsilateral. Two hundred and thirty-three patients underwent surgical excision; 111 changed their surgical management as a lesion was seen on MRI and was diagnosed as cancer on needle biopsy. Conclusions: Among the patients aged 60 years and above who had presurgical bilateral breast MRI, we found additional cancers in 9.0% (n = 114/1268 and atypia in 2.4% (n = 31/1268. A change in management as a result of the MRI-detected lesion occurred in 8.8% (n = 111/1268. These results demonstrate that performing presurgical bilateral breast MRI is of value in women 60 years of age and above.

  15. Quality of life and physical activity in an older working-age population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puciato D

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Puciato,1 Zbigniew Borysiuk,1 Michał Rozpara2 1Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Opole University of Technology, Opole, 2Faculty of Physical Education, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Katowice, Poland Objective: Physical activity can be an effective means of prevention and therapy of many psychosomatic disorders. It can also have a significant impact on the quality of life of older working-age people. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationships between quality of life and physical activity in older working-age people from Wroclaw, Poland.Materials and methods: The study group comprised 1,013 people, including 565 women and 448 men, aged 55–64 years (59.1±2.9 years. The study took form of a questionnaire survey. The participants assessed their physical activity and quality of life using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Version (IPAQ-SF and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF, respectively.Results: The highest mean indices of general quality of life, perceived health status, and quality of life in the physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains were shown by respondents whose intensity of physical activity was the highest. Moreover, the odds of high assessment of overall quality of life increased with respondents’ higher levels of physical activity.Conclusion: Quality of life improvement programs should also involve increased physical activity components. Keywords: physical activity, IPAQ-SF, quality of life, WHOQOL-BREF, big city environment

  16. Use of physical therapy services among middle-aged and older adults with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Marcia; Plow, Matthew; Cho, Chi

    2010-11-01

    There is limited understanding of the utilization of and perceived need for physical therapy services among middle-aged and older adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). The resulting knowledge gap compromises efforts for physical therapy service planning for this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of and need for physical therapy services in a sample of adults with MS living in the Midwestern United States. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Data from telephone interviews with 1,065 people with MS, aged 45 to 90 years, were used for the study. A multinomial regression model was used to determine factors associated with use of physical therapy services (never, within the past year, more than a year ago). Logistic regression analysis examined factors associated with unmet needs for these services. Thirty-six percent of the sample reported never using physical therapy services, 33% reported using physical therapy services within the past year, and 31% reported using physical therapy services more than a year prior to the interview. Factors associated with recent use of physical therapy services included living in an urban or suburban community, deteriorating MS status, experiencing problems with spasticity (ie, hypertonicity), having difficulty moving inside the house, being hospitalized in the past 6 months, and seeing a family physician. These same factors were associated with unmet needs. Limitations Physical therapy service use was self-reported. Data were collected in 5 Midwestern states from people 45 years of age or older, which may limit generalizability. Factors associated with use of and need for physical therapy services reflect issues of access (geographical, referrals), MS status, and mobility difficulties.

  17. Extending World Health Organization weight-for-age reference curves to older children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Celia; Metzger, Daniel L; Sharma, Atul

    2014-02-03

    For ages 5-19 years, the World Health Organization (WHO) publishes reference charts based on 'core data' from the US National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), collected from 1963-75 on 22,917 US children. To promote the use of body mass index in older children, weight-for-age was omitted after age 10. Health providers have subsequently expressed concerns about this omission and the selection of centiles. We therefore sought to extend weight-for-age reference curves from 10 to 19 years by applying WHO exclusion criteria and curve fitting methods to the core NCHS data and to revise the choice of displayed centiles. WHO analysts first excluded ~ 3% of their reference population in order to achieve a "non-obese sample with equal height". Based on these exclusion criteria, 314 girls and 304 boys were first omitted for 'unhealthy' weights-for-height. By applying WHO global deviance and information criteria, optimal Box-Cox power exponential models were used to fit smoothed weight-for-age centiles. Bootstrap resampling was used to assess the precision of centile estimates. For all charts, additional centiles were included in the healthy range (3 to 97%), and the more extreme WHO centiles 0.1 and 99.9% were dropped. In addition to weight-for-age beyond 10 years, our charts provide more granularity in the centiles in the healthy range -2 to +2 SD (3-97%). For both weight and BMI, the bootstrap confidence intervals for the 99.9th centile were at least an order of magnitude wider than the corresponding 50th centile values. These charts complement existing WHO charts by allowing weight-for-age to be plotted concurrently with height in older children. All modifications followed strict WHO methodology and utilized the same core data from the US NCHS. The additional centiles permit a more precise assessment of normal growth and earlier detection of aberrant growth as it crosses centiles. Elimination of extreme centiles reduces the risk of misclassification. A complete set of

  18. EVALUATION OF ATTITUDES TOWARDS OLD AGE AMONG OLDER ADULTS IN AN INSTITUTIONAL FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Urbanová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the research was to determine attitudes towards old age in older adults living in institutional facilities, and to compare them with the population standard. A further aim was to determine differences in attitudes towards old age by gender, age, level of education, and self-sufficiency in the older adults surveyed. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: A research sample consisting of 121 elderly people living in retirement homes. Data were collected using a Czech version of the AAQ questionnaire (Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire, and Barthelʼs test of Activities of daily living was used to assess levels of self-sufficiency. Results: Older adults awarded the highest score (most positive attitude in the domain of psychosocial losses. In comparison with the population standard, older adults rated the domain of physical change (p < 0.001 and psychological growth (p < 0.001 negatively. The domain of psychosocial losses was assessed more positively by men (p < 0.001 and the elderly with moderate dependence (p < 0.001; the domain of physical changes was also positively assessed by men (p = 0.001, and older adults with university education (p = 0.002; the domain of psychological growth was rated more positively by adults over 85 years (p = 0.001, and the elderly with basic education (p = 0.040. Conclusion: Determining older adults´ attitudes towards ageing in institutional care may help in the preparation of individual care plans aimed at supporting clients in areas that have been evaluated negatively. Keywords: institutional care, quality of life, attitudes, old age, ageing, self-sufficiency.

  19. How prepared is the retirement and residential aged care sector in Western Australia for older non-heterosexual people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Barbara; McManus, A; Comfort, J; Freijah, R; Lovelock, G; Hunter, M; Tavener, M

    2012-01-01

    To explore attitudes, knowledge and current practices of retirement and residential aged care providers in Western Australia towards accommodating older gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex (GLBTI) individuals. GLBTI is used throughout as a general term to include people who are not exclusively heterosexual in identity, attraction and/or behaviour. Postal surveys were sent to 329 providers of accommodation to ask about their attitudes, knowledge and current practices towards older GLBTI people. Two focus groups were also held with managers of accommodation facilities and GLBTI community members. Few respondents reported having experience with any older GLBTI residents in their retirement or residential aged care facility. There was poor inclusion of GLBTI issues in policy frameworks, and limited understanding regarding same-sex law reforms. Older non-heterosexual people are often obscured within ageing population discourses, and conceal their identity for fear of discrimination. GLBTI-sensitive practices can help to facilitate the disclosure of sexual orientation and/or gender identity that may assist in meeting the unique needs of this group.

  20. Long-Term Care Needs in the Context of Poverty and Population Aging: the Case of Older Persons in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan; Knodel, John

    2017-10-07

    Myanmar is one of the poorest and least healthy countries in Southeast Asia. As elsewhere in the region, population aging is occurring. Yet the government welfare and health systems have done little to address the long-term care (LTC) needs of the increasing number of older persons thus leaving families to cope on their own. Our study, based on the 2012 Myanmar Aging Survey, documents the LTC needs of persons aged 60 and older and how they are met within the context of the family. Nearly 40% of persons in their early 60s and 90% of those 80 and older reported at least one physical difficulty. Spouses and children constitute the mainstay of the financial and instrumental support of elderly including those with LTC needs. Nearly two-thirds of older persons reported receiving assistance with daily living activities. More than three quarters coreside with children, a living arrangement that in turn is strongly associated with receiving regular assistance in daily living. Daughters represent almost half and spouses, primarily wives, one-fourth of primary caregivers. Unmet need for care as well as inadequate care decline almost linearly with increased household wealth. Thus elderly in the poorest households are most likely to experience gaps in LTC. Given mounting concerns regarding health disparities among Myanmar's population, this pattern of inequality clearly needs to be recognized and addressed. This needs attention now rather than later given that reduced family size and increased migration pose additional challenges for family caregiving of frail elderly in the coming decades.

  1. The Mental Health Benefits of Acquiring a Home in Older Age: A Fixed-Effects Analysis of Older US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtin, Emilie; Dowd, Jennifer B; Avendano, Mauricio

    2018-03-01

    Homeownership is consistently associated with better mental health, but whether becoming a homeowner in later in life has positive psychological benefits has not, to our knowledge, been examined. We assessed whether acquiring a home after age 50 years was associated with depression in a representative sample of older US adults. We used individual fixed-effects models based on data from 20,524 respondents aged ≥50 years from the Health and Retirement Study, who were interviewed biennially during 1993-2010. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 8-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Controlling for confounders, becoming a homeowner in later life predicted a decline in depressive symptoms in the same year (β = -0.0768, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.152, -0.007). The association remained significant after 2 years (β = -0.0556, 95% CI: -0.134, -0.001) but weakened afterward. Buying a home for reasons associated with positive characteristics of the new house or neighborhood drove this association (β = -0.426, 95% CI: -0.786, -0.066), while acquiring a home for reasons associated with characteristics of the previous home or neighborhood, the desire to be closer to relatives, downsizing, or upsizing did not predict mental health improvements. Findings suggest that there are small but significant benefits for mental health associated with acquiring a home in older age.

  2. The relationship between expectation regarding aging and functional health status among older adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianwen; Lv, Qiyuan; Li, Chunyu; Zhang, Hailian; Li, Caifu; Jin, Jinzhen

    2013-12-01

    To examine the level of and factors influencing expectations regarding aging (ERA) among older Chinese adults, and to determine whether leisure-time exercise mediates the association between ERA and functional health status. A population-based, cross-sectional design was utilized in this study. A total of 550 participants completed the face-to-face interview via a questionnaire addressing ERA, physical health conditions, personality and psychological factors, leisure-time exercise, and functional health status. More than four fifths of the older adults felt that having more aches and pains (88.0%), lower levels of energy (82.7%), and being forgetful (82.5%) were an accepted part of aging, and 74.7% of participants reported it to be true that "being depressed is normal for older adults." The regression model showed that depression and self-mastery were factors that influence ERA among older Chinese adults (β = -0.26, p = .000; β = 0.15, p = .000). The Instrument Activity of Daily Life and World Health Organization Disability Assessment scores were not associated with ERA. Leisure-time exercise mediated the relationship between ERA and functional health status. Older adults generally consider body function decline to be an expected part of aging. Personality and psychological factors, rather than physical health conditions, were the factors that were considered to be most influential on ERA among Chinese older adults. These findings suggest that community interventions taking into account leisure-time exercise could be influential in improving the ERA and functional health status of older adults. For community nurses and other primary care providers, the findings of the present study may facilitate the subsequent design of community-based participatory intervention to improve ERA, as well as potentially improve the functional health status of older adults. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Correlates of Physical Activity Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Americans at Risk for Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Benjamin H; Sadarangani, Tina; Wyatt, Laura C; Zanowiak, Jennifer M; Kwon, Simona C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Lee, Linda; Islam, Nadia S

    2016-01-01

    To explore correlates of meeting recommended physical activity (PA) goals among middle-aged and older Korean Americans at risk for diabetes mellitus (DM). PA patterns and their correlates were assessed among 292 middle-aged and older Korean Americans at risk for DM living in New York City using cross-sectional design of baseline information from a diabetes prevention intervention. PA was assessed by self-report of moderate and vigorous activity, results were stratified by age group (45-64 and 65-75 years), and bivariate analyses compared individuals performing less than sufficient PA and individuals performing sufficient PA. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios predicting sufficient PA. After adjusting for sex, age group, years lived in the United States, marital status, health insurance, and body mass index (BMI), sufficient PA was associated with male sex, older age, lower BMI, eating vegetables daily, and many PA-specific questions (lack of barriers, confidence, and engagement). When stratified by age group, male sex and eating vegetables daily was no longer significant among Koreans 65 to 75 years of age, and BMI was not significant for either age group. PA interventions targeting this population may be beneficial and should consider the roles of sex, age, physical and social environment, motivation, and self-efficacy. Clinical providers should understand the unique motivations for PA among Korean Americans and recognize the importance of culturally driven strategies to enable lifestyle changes and support successful aging for diverse populations. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  4. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  5. Functional Independence in Late-Life: Maintaining Physical Functioning in Older Adulthood Predicts Daily Life Function after Age 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Leslie; Leng, Xiaoyan; La Monte, Michael J; Tindle, Hilary A; Cochrane, Barbara B; Shumaker, Sally A

    2016-03-01

    We examined physical functioning (PF) trajectories (maintaining, slowly declining, and rapidly declining) spanning 15 years in older women aged 65-80 and protective factors that predicted better current levels and less decline in functional independence outcomes after age 80. Women's Health Initiative extension participants who met criteria (enrolled in either the clinical trial or observational study cohort, >80 years at the data release cutoff, PF survey data from initial enrollment to age 80, and functional independence survey data after age 80) were included in these analyses (mean [SD] age = 84.0 [1.4] years; N = 10,478). PF was measured with the SF-36 (mean = 4.9 occasions). Functional independence was measured by self-reported level of dependence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs and IADLs) (mean = 3.4 and 3.3 occasions). Maintaining consistent PF in older adulthood extends functional independence in ADL and IADL in late-life. Protective factors shared by ADL and IADL include maintaining PF over time, self-reported excellent or very good health, no history of hip fracture after age 55, and no history of cardiovascular disease. Better IADL function is uniquely predicted by a body mass index less than 25 and no depression. Less ADL and IADL decline is predicted by better self-reported health, and less IADL decline is uniquely predicted by having no history of hip fracture after age 55. Maintaining or improving PF and preventing injury and disease in older adulthood (ages 65-80) has far-reaching implications for improving late-life (after age 80) functional independence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Association between Physical Fitness and Successful Aging in Taiwanese Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pay-Shin Lin

    Full Text Available Population aging is escalating in numerous countries worldwide; among them is Taiwan, which will soon become an aged society. Thus, aging successfully is an increasing concern. One of the factors for achieving successful aging (SA is maintaining high physical function. The purpose of this study was to determine the physical fitness factors associated with SA in Taiwanese older adults (OAs, because these factors are intervenable. Community-dwelling OAs aged more than 65 years and residing in Northern Taiwan were recruited in this study. They received a comprehensive geriatric assessment, which includes sociodemographic data, health conditions and behaviors, activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental ADL (IADL function, cognitive and depressive status, and quality of life. Physical fitness tests included the grip strength (GS, 30-second sit-to-stand (30s STS, timed up-and-go (TUG, functional reach (FR, one-leg standing, chair sit-and-reach, and reaction time (drop ruler tests as well as the 6-minute walk test (6MWT. SA status was defined as follows: complete independence in performing ADL and IADL, satisfactory cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination ≥ 24, no depression (Geriatric Depression Scale < 5, and favorable social function (SF subscale ≥ 80 in SF-36. Adjusted multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Among the total recruited OAs (n = 378, 100 (26.5% met the aforementioned SA criteria. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and health condition and behaviors, some physical fitness tests, namely GS, 30s STS, 6MWT, TUG, and FR tests, were significantly associated with SA individually, but not in the multivariate model. Among the physical fitness variables tested, cardiopulmonary endurance, mobility, muscle strength, and balance were significantly associated with SA in Taiwanese OAs. Early detection of deterioration in the identified functions and corresponding intervention is essential to

  7. Dietary glycemic load is a predictor of age-related hearing loss in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; McMahon, Catherine M; Burlutsky, George; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Mitchell, Paul

    2010-12-01

    Age-related hearing loss is a frequent disability in older adults and nutrition could play a role in the development of this condition. Carbohydrate nutrition [including dietary glycemic index (GI) and load (GL)] may be linked to hearing loss. We aimed to determine the association between carbohydrate nutrition (including mean dietary GI and GL, and the dietary intakes of carbohydrate and sugar), starch, cereal and total fiber, and age-related hearing loss. The Blue Mountains Hearing Study is a population-based survey of age-related hearing loss (1997-1999 to 2002-2004). Hearing loss was measured in 2956 participants (aged ≥50 y) and was defined as the pure-tone average of frequencies 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 kHz > 25 dB hearing level. Dietary data were collected in a semiquantitative FFQ. A purpose-built database based on Australian GI values was used to calculate the mean GI. A higher mean dietary GI was associated with an increased prevalence of any hearing loss, comparing quintiles 1 (lowest) and 5 (highest), [multivariable-adjusted odds ratio = 1.41 (95% CI = 1.01-1.97)]. Participants in the highest quartile of mean dietary GL intake compared with those in the lowest quartile had a 76% greater risk of developing incident hearing loss (P-trend = 0.04). Higher carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with incident hearing loss (P-trend = 0.03 and P-trend = 0.05, respectively). In summary, a high-GL diet was a predictor of incident hearing loss, as was higher intake of total carbohydrate. Hence, high postprandial glycemia might be a potential underlying biological mechanism in the development of age-related hearing loss.

  8. Association between Physical Fitness and Successful Aging in Taiwanese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pay-Shin; Hsieh, Chih-Chin; Cheng, Huey-Shinn; Tseng, Tsai-Jou; Su, Shin-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Population aging is escalating in numerous countries worldwide; among them is Taiwan, which will soon become an aged society. Thus, aging successfully is an increasing concern. One of the factors for achieving successful aging (SA) is maintaining high physical function. The purpose of this study was to determine the physical fitness factors associated with SA in Taiwanese older adults (OAs), because these factors are intervenable. Community-dwelling OAs aged more than 65 years and residing in Northern Taiwan were recruited in this study. They received a comprehensive geriatric assessment, which includes sociodemographic data, health conditions and behaviors, activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) function, cognitive and depressive status, and quality of life. Physical fitness tests included the grip strength (GS), 30-second sit-to-stand (30s STS), timed up-and-go (TUG), functional reach (FR), one-leg standing, chair sit-and-reach, and reaction time (drop ruler) tests as well as the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). SA status was defined as follows: complete independence in performing ADL and IADL, satisfactory cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination ≥ 24), no depression (Geriatric Depression Scale physical fitness tests, namely GS, 30s STS, 6MWT, TUG, and FR tests, were significantly associated with SA individually, but not in the multivariate model. Among the physical fitness variables tested, cardiopulmonary endurance, mobility, muscle strength, and balance were significantly associated with SA in Taiwanese OAs. Early detection of deterioration in the identified functions and corresponding intervention is essential to ensuring SA.

  9. Age-related physical and psychological vulnerability as pathways to problem gambling in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Parke, A; Griffiths, M; Pattinson, J; Keatley, D

    2018-01-01

    Background: To inform clinical treatment and preventative efforts, there is an important need to understand the pathways to late-life gambling disorder. Aims: This study assesses the association between age-related physical health, social networks, and problem gambling in adults aged over 65 years and assesses the mediating role of affective disorders in this association. Methods: The sample comprised 595 older adults (mean age: 74.4 years, range: 65–94 years; 77.1% female) who were interview...

  10. Age-related response to redeemed antidepressants measured by completed suicide in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Conwell, Yeates

    2014-01-01

    antidepressant prescriptions during the last months of life than younger persons. CONCLUSION: An age-dependent decline in suicide rate for antidepressant recipients was identified. One reason could be that older adults respond better to antidepressants than younger age groups. Still, the increasing gap with age...... between estimated prevalence of depression and antidepressant prescription rate in persons dying by suicide underscores the need for assessment of depression in the oldest old....

  11. Increasing opportunities for the productive engagement of older adults: a response to population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ernest; Matz-Costa, Christina; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    "Productive aging" puts forward the fundamental view that the capacity of older adults must be better developed and utilized in activities that make economic contributions to society-working, caregiving, volunteering. It is suggested that productive engagement can lead to multiple positive ends: offsetting fiscal strains of a larger older population, contributing to the betterment of families and civil society, and maintaining the health and economic security of older adults. Advocates claim that outdated social structures and discriminatory behaviors limit participation of older adults in these important social roles as well as prevent the optimization of outcomes for older adults, families, and society. We ask two important questions: (a) How can we shape policies and programs to optimally engage the growing resources of an aging population for the sake of society and older adults themselves? and (b) How can policies pertaining to productive engagement reduce health and economic disparities? We answer these questions by first describing the current state of engagement in each of the three productive activities and summarize some current policies and programs that affect engagement. Next we highlight challenges that cross-cut productive engagement. Finally, we provide policy recommendations to address these challenges. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The effect of descriptive age norms on the motivation to exercise among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelssers, Johan; Fransen, Katrien; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; Boen, Filip

    2017-12-12

    Based on the principles of the Social Identity Approach (SIA), the present experiment aimed to examine the impact of communicating descriptive age norms on older adults' autonomous motivation to exercise. Under the cover of a marketing study, older adults (n = 120; age = 65-70 years) participated in a newly created exercise activity, 'Pattern Stepping'. This activity was framed as an activity that was descriptively normative either for older adults, for younger adults, for both groups, or for none. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that participants felt greater satisfaction of their basic psychological needs and were more autonomously motivated to exercise if Pattern Stepping was framed as an activity popular among the young, rather than among older adults. These findings suggest that framing an exercise as descriptively normative for the elderly can thwart older adults' autonomous motivation if they do not identify as an older adult. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. A Case-Controlled Study of Successful Aging in Older Adults with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Raeanne C.; Moore, David J.; Thompson, Wesley; Vahia, Ipsit V.; Grant, Igor; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES There is a growing public health interest in the aging HIV-infected (HIV+) population, although there is a dearth of research on successful aging with HIV. This study aimed to understand the risk and protective factors associated with self-rated successful aging (SRSA) with HIV. DESIGN Cross-sectional, case-controlled. SETTING HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program and the Stein Institute for Research on Aging at University of California, San Diego. PARTICIPANTS Eighty-three community-dwelling HIV+ and 83 demographically matched HIV-uninfected (HIV−) individuals, enrolled between 12/1/11 and 5/10/12, mean age of 59 years, primarily Caucasian males, 69% with AIDS, who had been living with an HIV diagnosis for 16 years. Diagnostic criteria for HIV/AIDS was obtained through a blood draw. MEASUREMENTS Participants provided ratings of SRSA as part of a comprehensive survey which included measures of physical and emotional functioning and positive psychological traits. Relationships between how the different variables related to SRSA were explored. RESULTS While SRSA was lower in the HIV+ individuals than their HIV− counterparts, 66% of adults with HIV reported scores of 5 or higher on a 10-point scale of SRSA. Despite worse physical and mental functioning and greater psychosocial stress among the HIV+ participants, the two groups had comparable levels of optimism, personal mastery, and social support. SRSA in HIV+ individuals was associated with better physical and emotional functioning and positive psychological factors, but not HIV disease status or negative life events. CONCLUSION Successful psychosocial aging is possible in older HIV+ individuals. Positive psychological traits such as resilience, optimism, and sense of personal mastery have stronger relationship with SRSA than duration or severity of HIV disease. Research on interventions to enhance these positive traits in HIV+ adults is warranted. PMID:23759460

  14. A case-controlled study of successful aging in older HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Raeanne C; Moore, David J; Thompson, Wesley K; Vahia, Ipsit V; Grant, Igor; Jeste, Dilip V

    2013-05-01

    There is a growing public health interest in the aging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+) population, although there is a dearth of research on successful aging with HIV. This study aimed to understand the risk and protective factors associated with self-rated successful aging (SRSA) with HIV. Cross-sectional, case-controlled. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program and the Stein Institute for Research on Aging at University of California, San Diego. Eighty-three community-dwelling HIV+ and 83 demographically matched HIV-uninfected (HIV-) individuals, enrolled between December 1, 2011, and May 10, 2012, mean age of 59 years, primarily white men, 69% with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), who had been living with an HIV diagnosis for 16 years. Diagnostic criteria for HIV/AIDS were obtained through a blood analysis. Participants provided ratings of SRSA, the primary outcome measure, as part of a comprehensive survey that included measures of physical and emotional functioning and positive psychological traits. Relationships between how the different variables related to SRSA were explored. While SRSA was lower in the HIV+ individuals than their HIV- counterparts, 66% of adults with HIV reported scores of 5 or higher on a 10-point scale of SRSA. Despite worse physical and mental functioning and greater psychosocial stress among the HIV+ participants, the 2 groups had comparable levels of optimism, personal mastery, and social support. Higher SRSA in HIV+ individuals was associated with better physical and emotional functioning and positive psychological factors, but not HIV disease status or negative life events. Successful psychosocial aging is possible in older HIV+ individuals. Positive psychological traits such as resilience, optimism, and sense of personal mastery have stronger relationship with SRSA than duration or severity of HIV disease. Research on interventions to enhance these positive traits in HIV+ adults is warranted. © Copyright

  15. Leisure Consumption and well-Being among Older Adults : Does Age or Life Situation Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Kekäläinen, Tiia; Wilska, Terhi-Anna; Kokko, Katja

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between leisure consumption and well-being in older adults (50–74 years old). To find out whether these associations are age-specific, they were compared with the associations observed among younger adults (18–49 years old). Differences between the older adults by age and life situation were also examined. This study was based on the “Finland 2014 – Consumption and Life style” survey (N = 1351), conducted among a representative sample of the Finnish ad...

  16. Age differences in trade-off decisions: older adults prefer choice deferral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwei; Ma, Xiaodong; Pethtel, Olivia

    2011-06-01

    Our primary purpose in this study was to examine age differences in using choice deferral when young and older adults made trade-off decisions. Ninety-two young and 92 older adults were asked to make a trade-off decision among four cars or to use choice deferral (i.e., not buy any of these cars and keep looking for other cars). High and low emotional trade-off difficulty were manipulated between participants through different attribute labels of available cars. Older adults were more likely than young adults to choose deferral. Older adults who used deferral reported less retrospective negative emotion than those who did not. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Aging Perceptions in Older Gay and Bisexual Men in Portugal: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Henrique; Serrano, Juan Pedro; de Vries, Brian; Esgalhado, Graça; Afonso, Rosa Marina; Monteiro, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions toward aging among Portuguese gay and bisexual men over 60 years old. Background Despite the growth of the older population, and the increased visibility and acceptance of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people in Western countries, the experience of aging in older gay and bisexual men is only beginning to be understood. Design We used a qualitative research methodology, based on critical gerontology, for establishing research questions and to identify the perspectives on the aging process in older gay and bisexual individuals. Methods We used a structured electronic inquiry with 25 gay and bisexual men over 60 years of age from Portugal. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to help identify repeated patterns of meaning in the data set. Results The recurrent themes in the narratives of the aging experiences of the participants in the study were as follows: positive perceptions of aging, negative perceptions of aging, coping with being a gay/bisexual man and family ties, professional care, homophobia/discrimination, relationships and social support, intergenerational differences, mediating role of sexual orientation, sociopolitical changes, and personal characteristics. Conclusion Analysis of perceptions about the aging process in older gay and bisexual men emphasized the desire for normalization in the social awareness of sexual orientation. It is important to continue doing research on this topic and disseminate this information among professionals who work with older lesbian, gay, and bisexual people so that they may better understand how they can meet the specific needs of this population.

  18. Hearing difficulties and feelings of social isolation among Canadians aged 45 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage-Morin, Pamela L

    2016-11-16

    Social isolation is associated with reduced health-related quality of life, increased morbidity, and mortality. Social isolation can be a concern for older Canadians, especially those with conditions that interfere with making and maintaining social connections. The 2008/2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging (CCHS-HA) collected data from a population-based sample of Canadians aged 45 or older living in private households. Frequencies, cross-tabulations and logistic regression were used to examine the prevalence of hearing difficulties and social isolation, and associations between them when controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, other functional limitations (for example, vision, mobility, and cognition), incontinence, and fear of falling. Social isolation was more common among 45- to 59-year-olds than among people aged 60 or older. Women were more likely than men to be socially isolated (16% versus 12%), but they were less likely to report hearing difficulties (5% versus 7%). Hearing difficulties were more prevalent at older ages: 25% of men and 18% of women at age 75 or older. When sociodemographic factors (age, education, living arrangements, regular driver, workforce participation), incontinence, fear of falling, and functional limitations were taken into account, the odds of being socially isolated increased with the severity of the hearing impairment among women but not among men (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.09). Hearing difficulties are associated with age, and therefore, a growing public health concern as Canada's population ages. For women, hearing difficulties were found to be associated with social isolation.

  19. Long-term moderate alcohol consumption does not exacerbate age-related cognitive decline in healthy, community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaak Nasser Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent census data has found that roughly 40% of adults 65 years and older not only consume alcohol but also drink more of it than previous generations. Older drinkers are more vulnerable than younger counterparts to the psychoactive effects of alcohol due to natural biological changes that occur with aging. This study was specifically designed to measure the effect of long-term moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive health in older adult drinkers. An extensive battery of validated tests commonly used in aging and substance use literature was used to measure performance in specific cognitive domains, including working memory and attention. An age (young, old * alcohol consumption (light, moderate factorial study design was used to evaluate the main effects of age and alcohol consumption on cognitive performance. The focus of the study was then limited to light and moderate older drinkers, and whether or not long–term moderate alcohol consumption exacerbated age-related cognitive decline. No evidence was found to support the idea that long-term moderate alcohol consumption in older adults exacerbates age-related cognitive decline. Findings were specific to healthy community dwelling social drinkers in older age and they should not be generalized to individuals with other consumption patterns, like heavy drinkers, binge drinkers or ex-drinkers.

  20. Relation between climacteric symptoms and ovarian hypofunction in middle-aged and older Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Michiko; Makita, Kazuya; Ishitani, Ken; Takamatsu, Kiyoshi; Watanabe, Kenji; Plotnikoff, Gregory A; Horiguchi, Fumi; Nozawa, Shiro

    2004-01-01

    To gain insight into the characteristics and current status of climacteric symptoms reported by middle-aged and older women in Japan, we surveyed women presenting at our menopause clinic. The participants included 1,069 women, ranging in age from 40 to less than 60 years (mean age, 50.2 y). Climacteric (indefinite) symptoms were objectively assessed with the use of the Keio questionnaire, which grades the severity of 40 types of symptoms classified into 20 subgroups. The total scores obtained for the 40 symptoms were used to calculate symptom prevalence and severity. To evaluate ovarian function, concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in sera were measured. The most frequent symptom was general fatigue, reported by 88.2% of the women. Shoulder stiffness was the symptom rated to be severe by the highest percentage of women (38.1%). The prevalence and severity of hot flushes (and sweats) were slightly higher in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women than in premenopausal and late postmenopausal women. The prevalence and severity of hot flushes and sweats were higher in women with estradiol 40 mIU/mL than in those with estradiol > or = 25 pg/mL and FSH hormone dependence, are the two most frequent climacteric symptoms in our clinic. Hot flushes and sweats, symptoms with high hormone dependence, are also common symptoms.

  1. Microscopic age determination of human skeletons including an unknown but calculable variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Johan Albert; Tkocz, Izabella; Kristensen, Gustav

    1994-01-01

    estimation, which includes the covariance matrix of four single equation residuals, improves the accuracy of age determination. The standard deviation, however, of age prediction remains 12.58 years. An experimental split of the data was made in order to demonstrate that the use of subgroups gives a false...

  2. Predictors of suicidal ideation in Korean American older adults: analysis of the Memory and Aging Study of Koreans (MASK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Peter J; Kim, Kim B; Lee-Tauler, Su Yeon; Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Miyong T; Lee, Hochang B

    2017-12-01

    Our aim is to investigate the prevalence and predictors of suicidal ideation among Korean American older adults and assess the self-rated mental health of Korean American older adults with suicidal ideation with or without depressive syndrome. The Memory and Aging Study of Koreans is a cross-sectional, epidemiologic study of a community-representative sample of Korean American older adults (N = 1116) residing in the Baltimore-Washington area. Participants were interviewed using the Korean version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9K). In addition, demographic information, self-rated mental health, and self-rated physical health status were obtained. In this study, 14.7% of Korean American older adults reported suicidal ideation. Predictors of suicidal ideation included living alone, major or minor depressive syndrome (diagnosed by the PHQ-9K), shorter duration of residency in the USA, and poorer self-rated mental health status. Of those who reported suicidal ideation, 64% did not have minor or major depressive syndrome. However, their self-rated mental health was as poor as that of those with major or minor depressive syndrome but without suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation without depressive syndromes was common among Korean American older adults. For this group of elders with poor self-rated mental health, future studies should look to improving early detection of suicide risks and developing feasible suicide prevention interventions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Tell me your life: including life stories in an adult development and aging course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Celdran, Montserrat; Fabà, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to determine the learning impact of an assignment that consisted of interviewing and analyzing older people's life stories, and to explore how the assignment was evaluated by students. Participants in the study were 122 first-year social education students enrolled in an adult development and aging course. They evaluated the assignment using an eight-adjective questionnaire and were asked about the benefits of the task. Their answers to the questionnaire were then reviewed using content analysis. The results indicated that marks on the life story assignment predicted marks on an exam about basic course concepts. Students considered that the assignment was interesting, useful, and integrated into the course, although most of them also thought that it was very time-consuming. They identified benefits related to the explicit goals of the course (improvement in the learning of developmental concepts, the acquisition of research-related skills, and the deactivation of aging stereotypes) and personal, growth-related benefits. The authors discuss the difficulties posed by the assignment and its usefulness as a complement to more traditional, lecture-based teaching methods in adult development and aging courses.

  4. Age-related differences in street-crossing safety before and after training of older pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommes, Aurélie; Cavallo, Viola; Vienne, Fabrice; Aillerie, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    International accident statistics indicate that elderly pedestrians make up an extremely vulnerable road-user group. Past research has shown that older adults make many unsafe street-crossing decisions and adopt insufficient safety margins, especially when vehicles are approaching at high speed. Apart from studies on road design and speed-limit countermeasures, there is surprisingly no road-safety research on behavior-based measures to improve older pedestrians' safety. In this line, the present study was aimed at (i) assessing the effectiveness of a training program for older pedestrians that combined behavioral and educational interventions, and (ii) examining whether and to what extent age-related differences in street-crossing safety could be reduced after training older adults. Twenty seniors were enrolled in a training program. Before, immediately after, and six months after training, street-crossing behavior was assessed using a simulated street-crossing task. Twenty younger participants performed the same simulated task to obtain a baseline measure. The results showed that the training produced significant short- and long-term benefits, due to a shifting of the decision criteria among the older participants towards more conservative judgments. When compared with the younger group, the older participants improved their behavior considerably so that significant differences in the mean safety-related indicators were no longer observed. However, the older participants' ability to take the oncoming car's speed into account did not improve. Even after training, and contrary to younger adults, older participants were found to make more and more unsafe decisions as the car's speed increased, putting them at a higher risk at high speeds. This finding may reflect age-related perceptual and cognitive difficulties that cannot be remedied by a behavioral or educational training method. The present findings underline that high speed is an important risk factor for

  5. The brave new world of older patients: preparing general practice training for an ageing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Andrew; Phillipson, Lyn; Jones, Sandra C; Hall, Julie; Sharma, Rashmi

    2015-11-01

    Develop and pilot test evidence-based resources for general practice training practices to enhance older patients' (65+ years) interactions with General Practice Registrars (GPRs). In Australia, general practice trainees, referred to as GPRs, see fewer older patients and patients with chronic conditions than doctors who have completed their specialist GP training. This reduces learning opportunities for GPRs in the management of these important patient groups. Therefore, developing effective strategies to improve GPR-older patient interaction is critical to primary care training, to meet the current and future needs of an ageing population. Adopting a social marketing approach, GPR practice resources were developed to address knowledge and attitudinal barriers at the practice and patient level to improve older patient comfort, and willingness to engage, with GPR care. Two focus groups with older patients (n=18) and interviews with staff of training practices (n=12) were utilised to pre-test resources. Amended resources were pilot tested and evaluated in a naturalistic GPR training practice setting using a structured patient questionnaire (n=44). Pilot evaluation suggests improved comfort and willingness of older patients to interact with GPRs. In all, 54% of survey participants indicated they would be more likely to make an appointment with a Registrar in the future as a result of exposure to the resources. In all, 40% of patients would feel comfortable having a GPR manage a complex or chronic condition, which compares favourably with 28% of similarly aged patients in previous research. The use of tailored, engaging and informative GPR resources for older patients and practice staff may be an important contributor to addressing the growing problem of ensuring GPRs are adequately engaged in treating older patients. The adoption of a social marketing framework was instrumental in enhancing the acceptance and effectiveness of this intervention.

  6. Physical activity, body functions and disability among middle-aged and older Spanish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alexandre; Ayala, Alba; Damián, Javier; Rodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Almazán, Javier; Castellote, Juan Manuel; Comin, Madgalena; Forjaz, Maria João; de Pedro, Jesús

    2017-07-18

    Physical activity (PA) is a health determinant among middle-aged and older adults. In contrast, poor health is expected to have a negative impact on PA. This study sought to assess to what extent specific International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) health components were associated with PA among older adults. We used a sample of 864 persons aged ≥50 years, positively screened for disability or cognition in a cross-sectional community survey in Spain. Weekly energy expenditure during PA was measured with the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS) scale. The associations between body function impairment, health conditions or World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) disability scores and energy expenditure were quantified using negative-binomial regression, and expressed in terms of adjusted mean ratios (aMRs). Mean energy expenditure was 4542 Kcal/week. A lower weekly energy expenditure was associated with: severe/extreme impairment of mental functions, aMR 0.38, 95% confidence interval, CI (0.21-0.68), and neuromusculoskeletal and movement functions, aMR 0.50 (0.35-0.72); WHODAS 2.0 disability, aMR 0.55 (0.34-0.91); dementia, aMR 0.45 (0.31-0.66); and heart failure, aMR 0.54 (0.34-0.87). In contrast, people with arthritis/osteoarthritis had a higher energy expenditure, aMR 1.27 (1.07-1.51). Our results suggest that there is a strong relationship between selected body function impairments, mainly mental, and PA. Although more research is needed to fully understand causal relationships, strategies to improve PA among the elderly may require targeting mental, neuromusculoskeletal and movement functions, disability determinants (including barriers), and specific approaches for persons with dementia or heart failure.

  7. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Administration in Pediatric Older Age Groups in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Bonner

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV is included in the World Health Organization's routine immunization schedule and is recommended by WHO for vaccination in high-risk children up to 60 months. However, many countries do not recommend vaccination in older age groups, nor have donors committed to supporting extended age group vaccination. To better inform decision-making, this systematic review examines the direct impact of extended age group vaccination in children over 12 months in low and middle income countries.An a priori protocol was used. Using pre-specified terms, a search was conducted using PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CAB Abstracts, clinicaltrials.gov and the International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases abstracts. The primary outcome was disease incidence, with antibody titers and nasopharyngeal carriage included as secondary outcomes.Eighteen studies reported on disease incidence, immune response, and nasopharyngeal carriage. PCV administered after 12 months of age led to significant declines in invasive pneumococcal disease. Immune response to vaccine type serotypes was significantly higher for those vaccinated at older ages than the unimmunized at the established 0.2 ug/ml and 0.35 ug/ml thresholds. Vaccination administered after one year of age significantly reduced VT carriage with odds ratios ranging from 0.213 to 0.69 over four years. A GRADE analysis indicated that the studies were of high quality.PCV administration in children over 12 months leads to significant protection. The direct impact of PCV administration, coupled with the large cohort of children missed in first year vaccination, indicates that countries should initiate or expand PCV immunization for extended age group vaccinations. Donors should support implementation of PCV as part of delayed or interrupted immunization for older children. For countries to

  8. Sexual risk behaviors and HIV risk among Americans aged 50 years or older: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilowsky DJ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Pilowsky,1,2 Li-Tzy Wu3,41Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health New York City, NY, USA; 2Division of Epidemiology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York City, NY, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, 4Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Although HIV-related sexual risk behaviors have been studied extensively in adolescents and young adults, there is limited information about these behaviors among older Americans, which make up a growing segment of the US population and an understudied population. This review of the literature dealing with sexual behaviors that increase the risk of becoming HIV-infected found a low prevalence of condom use among older adults, even when not in a long-term relationship with a single partner. A seminal study by Schick et al published in 2010 reported that the prevalence of condom use at last intercourse was highest among those aged 50–59 years (24.3%; 95% confidence interval, 15.6–35.8 and declined with age, with a 17.1% prevalence among those aged 60–69 years (17.1%; 95% confidence interval, 7.3–34.2. Studies have shown that older Americans may underestimate their risk of becoming HIV-infected. Substance use also increases the risk for sexual risk behaviors, and studies have indicated that the prevalence of substance use among older adults has increased in the past decade. As is the case with younger adults, the prevalence of HIV infections is elevated among ethnic minorities, drug users (eg, injection drug users, and men who have sex with men. When infected, older adults are likely to be diagnosed with HIV-related medical disorders later in the course of illness compared with their younger counterparts. Physicians are less likely to discuss sexual risk behaviors with older adults and to test them for HIV compared with younger adults. Thus, it is

  9. “Such is life that people get old and change”: Gendered Experiences of Ageing Bodies from Older Persons’ View

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenko Zeman; Marija Geiger Zeman

    2016-01-01

    Ageing/aged bodies reflects gender norms and power relations. The paper is based on analysis of four focus groups realized in homes for older and infirm persons with participants older than 65 years. Old age and ageing are not gender neutral phenomenon – perception, experience, interpretation and strategies of managing of ageing/aged body are gendered. For participants tidiness and cleanliness are most important despite gender. Dominant interpretations of focus groups’ participants reflect tr...

  10. Subjective Age and Health Perceptions of Older Persons: Maintaining the Youthful Bias in Sickness and in Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Sara; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Self-reports of 250 persons over age 50 confirmed increasing bias toward reporting more youthful age as one ages. Optimistic perceptions of health were maintained in older subjects. Results from two subsets of sample (n=48) indicated that youthful and optimistic bias occurred both in older persons with poorer/failing health and in persons in…

  11. Effect of Speaker Age on Speech Recognition and Perceived Listening Effort in Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Megan J.; Wilding, Phillipa J.; Rickard, Natalie A.; O'Beirne, Greg A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Older adults exhibit difficulty understanding speech that has been experimentally degraded. Age-related changes to the speech mechanism lead to natural degradations in signal quality. We tested the hypothesis that older adults with hearing loss would exhibit declines in speech recognition when listening to the speech of older adults,…

  12. The association between negative attitudes toward aging and mental health among middle-aged and older gay and heterosexual men in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkman, Geva; Ifrah, Kfir; Shmotkin, Dov

    2018-04-01

    The association between negative attitudes toward aging and mental health (indicated by depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and happiness) was explored among Israeli middle-aged and older gay and heterosexual men. In a community-dwelling sample, 152 middle-aged and older gay men and 120 middle-aged and older heterosexual men at the age range of 50-87 (M = 59.3, SD = 7.5) completed measures of negative attitudes toward aging, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and happiness. After controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, the association between negative attitudes toward aging and mental health was moderated by sexual orientation, demonstrating that negative attitudes toward aging were more strongly associated with adverse mental health concomitants among middle-aged and older gay men compared to middle-aged and older heterosexual men. The findings suggest vulnerability of middle-aged and older gay men to risks of aging, as their mental health is markedly linked with their negative attitudes toward aging. This vulnerability should be addressed by clinicians and counselors who work with middle-aged and older gay men.

  13. Advisory committee on immunization practices recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older--United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David K; Bridges, Carolyn B; Harriman, Kathleen H

    2015-02-06

    In October 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older, United States, 2015. This schedule provides a summary of ACIP recommendations for the use of vaccines routinely recommended for adults aged 19 years or older in two figures, footnotes for each vaccine, and a table that describes primary contraindications and precautions for commonly used vaccines for adults. Changes in the 2015 adult immunization schedule from the 2014 schedule included the August 2014 recommendation for routine administration of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in series with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) for all adults aged 65 years or older, the August 2014 revision on contraindications and precautions for the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), and the October 2014 approval by the Food and Drug Administration to expand the approved age for use of recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). These revisions were also reviewed and approved by the American College of Physicians, American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  14. Self-assessed driving behaviors associated with age among middle-aged and older adults in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Asuna; Arai, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of older drivers, road traffic safety is an urgent public health issue. It is not easy for older drivers or their relatives to detect early signs of dangerous driving behaviors. We examine the types of driving behavior that increase in frequency with age. We surveyed people aged 40 and over among the general public in Japan using a self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic factors, driving status, frequency of driving, 12-items on physical symptoms possibly related to driving performance, and 28-items on driving behaviors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of occurrence of each of the 28 driving behaviors for a 5-year increase in age. Significant associations with a 5-year increase in age after adjusting for confounding factors were found for the following directly unsafe driving behaviors: (1) little or no sign of attempts to avoid dangerous situations (OR for a 5-year increase in age=1.38, 95% CI: 1.18-1.63); (2) lack of attention to other people and cars (1.33, 1.12-1.60); (3) improper maneuvering around curves (1.33, 1.09-1.65); and (4) improper or no turn signals (1.33, 1.06-1.69). Information about these driving behaviors should be given to drivers and their stakeholders and used to caution participants when implementing educational programs for older drivers. Self-assessment of driving ability in older drivers provides useful information to raise awareness of their driving performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A neuropsychological instrument measuring age-related cerebral decline in older drivers: development, reliability, and validity of MedDrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucher, Paul; Cardoso, Isabel; Veldstra, Janet L; Herzig, Daniela; Herzog, Michael; Mangin, Patrice; Favrat, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    When facing age-related cerebral decline, older adults are unequally affected by cognitive impairment without us knowing why. To explore underlying mechanisms and find possible solutions to maintain life-space mobility, there is a need for a standardized behavioral test that relates to behaviors in natural environments. The aim of the project described in this paper was therefore to provide a free, reliable, transparent, computer-based instrument capable of detecting age-related changes on visual processing and cortical functions for the purposes of research into human behavior in computational transportation science. After obtaining content validity, exploring psychometric properties of the developed tasks, we derived (Study 1) the scoring method for measuring cerebral decline on 106 older drivers aged ≥70 years attending a driving refresher course organized by the Swiss Automobile Association to test the instrument's validity against on-road driving performance (106 older drivers). We then validated the derived method on a new sample of 182 drivers (Study 2). We then measured the instrument's reliability having 17 healthy, young volunteers repeat all tests included in the instrument five times (Study 3) and explored the instrument's psychophysical underlying functions on 47 older drivers (Study 4). Finally, we tested the instrument's responsiveness to alcohol and effects on performance on a driving simulator in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo, crossover, dose-response, validation trial including 20 healthy, young volunteers (Study 5). The developed instrument revealed good psychometric properties related to processing speed. It was reliable (ICC = 0.853) and showed reasonable association to driving performance (R (2) = 0.053), and responded to blood alcohol concentrations of 0.5 g/L (p = 0.008). Our results suggest that MedDrive is capable of detecting age-related changes that affect processing speed. These changes nevertheless do not necessarily affect

  16. A Neuropsychological Instrument Measuring Age-Related Cerebral Decline in Older Drivers: Development, Reliability, and Validity of MedDrive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eVaucher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When facing age-related cerebral decline, older adults are unequally affected by cognitive impairment without us knowing why. To explore underlying mechanisms and find possible solutions to maintain life-space mobility, there is a need for a standardized behavioral test that relates to behaviors in natural environments. The aim of the project described in this paper was therefore to provide a free, reliable, transparent, computer-based instrument capable of detecting age-related changes on visual processing and cortical functions for the purposes of research into human behavior in computational transportation science. After obtaining content validity, exploring psychometric properties of the developed tasks, we derived (Study1 the scoring method for measuring cerebral decline on 106 older drivers aged ≥70 years attending a driving refresher course organized by the Swiss Automobile Association to test the instrument’s validity against on-road driving performance (106 older drivers. We then validated the derived method on a new sample of 182 drivers (Study2. We then measured the instrument’s reliability having 17 healthy, young volunteers repeat all tests included in the instrument five times (Study3 and explored the instrument’s psychophysical underlying functions on 47 older drivers (Study4. Finally, we tested the instrument’s responsiveness to alcohol and effects on performance on a driving simulator in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo, crossover, dose-response, validation trial including 20 healthy, young volunteers (Study5. The developed instrument revealed good psychometric properties related to processing speed. It was reliable (ICC=0.853 and showed reasonable association to driving performance (R2=0.053, and responded to blood alcohol concentrations of 0.5 g/L (p=0.008. Our results suggest that MedDrive is capable of detecting age-related changes that affect processing speed. These changes nevertheless do not necessarily

  17. Ageing in place’: experiences of older adults in Amsterdam and Portland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobner, S.; Musterd, S.; Droogleever Fortuijn, J.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the importance and meanings of formal and informal social support relationships and neighbourhood ties for older adults ‘ageing in place’ in urban neighbourhoods in two different welfare state settings: Portland (Oregon, the United States) and Amsterdam (the Netherlands). The

  18. [Risk factors of endometriosis associated ovarian carcinoma in women aged 45 years and older].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Wang, S; Li, Z F; Zhu, L; Leng, J H; Lang, J H

    2017-05-25

    Obiective: To explore the risk factors of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) in women with ovarian endometriosis aged 45 years and older in China. Methods: The medical records of total 1 038 women aged 45 years and older with a surgicopathological diagnosis of ovarian endometriosis treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 1994 to December 2014 were reviewed. Histology evaluation determined ovarian endometriosis with ( n =30) or without ( n =1 008) ovarian cancer. Results: (1) There were 30 (2.9%, 30/1 018) cases confirmed as having EAOC. Clear cell carcinoma (63.3%, 17/30) and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (23.3%, 7/30) were commonly observed subtypes and 70.0% of EAOC patients were at stage Ⅰ. (2) Compared women with ovarian endometriosis in the same age group, patients with EAOC were older (50.8 vs 48.5 years, P =0.002). There were more in postmenopausal status at diagnosis of EAOC ( P 0.05). Conclusions: For women with ovarian endometriosis aged 45 years and older, the subgroup of patients characterized by postmenopausal status and ovarian endometrioma (≥8 cm) have a higher risk of EAOC. Active intervention or intensive follow-up should be considered for this population group, especially for those concurrent with endometrial disorders.

  19. Pain in older adults should not be seen as part of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Paul

    2008-12-01

    A life in pain is something no one should have to face but a new report from Help the Aged shows how many older people are doing just that. Giving dignified, high quality care should be the first priority of all working in the care sector. The role pain management plays in delivering this goal is essential.

  20. U3A Online: A Virtual University of the Third Age for Isolated Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, Rick

    2002-01-01

    Data from 29 older adults in University of the Third Age Online in 1999 and 34 in 2001 indicated that women outnumbered men; more than 70% were from large urban areas; and 70% had professional, business, and managerial backgrounds. Many are unable to participate in mainstream adult education and derive purpose and enjoyment from virtual…

  1. Monitoring walking and cycling of middle-aged to older community dwellers using wireless wearable accelerometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yuting; Beenakker, Karel G.M.; Butala, Pankil M.; Lin, Cheng Chieh; Little, Thomas D.C.; Maier, Andrea B.; Stijntjes, Marjon; Vartanian, Richard; Wagenaar, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in gait parameters have been shown to be an important indicator of several age-related cognitive and physical declines of older adults. In this paper we propose a method to monitor and analyze walking and cycling activities based on a triaxial accelerometer worn on one ankle. We use an

  2. Monitoring walking and cycling of middle-aged to older community dwellers using wireless wearable accelerometers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yuting; Beenakker, Karel G.M.; Butala, Pankil M.; Lin, Cheng Chieh; Little, Thomas D.C.; Maier, Andrea B.; Stijntjes, Marjon; Vartanian, Richard; Wagenaar, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in gait parameters have been shown to be an important indicator of several age-related cognitive and physical declines of older adults. In this paper we propose a method to monitor and analyze walking and cycling activities based on a triaxial accelerometer worn on one ankle. We use an

  3. An improved age-activity relationship for cool stars older than a gigayear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, R. S.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Watson, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Stars with convective envelopes display magnetic activity, which decreases over time due to the magnetic braking of the star. This age dependence of magnetic activity is well studied for younger stars, but the nature of this dependence for older stars is not well understood. This is mainly becaus...

  4. Drug Pattern Consumption Among People Of 55 Years Age and Older in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Ahmadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The elderly population in Iran is increasing and they likely use more drugs than any other age groups. The older adults are often suffered from chronic conditions that may require long-term medical treatment, and likely involve multiple drug therapies and may consume up to four times as many defined daily doses as the rest of the population. Therefore we examined the drug used pattern in people of 55 years age and older and its association with their demographic characteristics. Methods & Materials: This study is cross-sectional. Information on the intake of all drugs was collected from 400 subjects of 55 years age and older residents in Tehran, randomly selected and interviewed at home by a brief questionnaire regarding personal, social and medical factors. Results: The average number daily drugs used were 3.4±1.9 different drugs, 40% used 4 or more drugs daily, %35 visited several physicians for the same illness, and 19% experienced adverse drug reactions. The most commonly used drugs were ASA, Atenolol, and propranolol. Pattern of drug consumption between the two genders, different age groups, level of educations and economic status except for ASA were similar. The most used drug categories were cardiovascular drugs (%35, central nervous system drugs (%25 and hormones (%9. The most common sources of drug information were physician’s %86. Conclusion: Patient education, physicians and pharmacists' education in feedback systems and regulatory intervention can improve the drug prescribing and usage in older persons.

  5. Assessment of vaccine candidates for persons aged 50 and older : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilers, Renske; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; van Essen, Ted G. A.; Suijkerbuijk, Anita; van Lier, Alies; de Melker, Hester E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The increasing life expectancy in most European countries has resulted in growth of the population 50 and older. This population is more susceptible to infectious diseases because of immunosenescence, comorbidity and general frailty. Thus, to promote healthy aging, vaccination against

  6. Do Early Life and Contemporaneous Macro-conditions explain Health at Older Ages?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, Rob; Deeg, Dorly; Portrait, France

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents an approach which thoroughly assesses the role of early life and contemporaneous macro-conditions in explaining health at older ages. In particular, we investigate the role of exposure to infectious diseases and economic conditions during infancy and childhood, as well as the

  7. 42 CFR 441.253 - Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally competent individual... LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Sterilizations § 441.253 Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older. FFP is available in expenditures for the sterilization of an individual only if...

  8. 42 CFR 50.203 - Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally competent individual... HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.203 Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older...

  9. Age-friendly communities matter for older people’s well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Nieboer (Anna); J.M. Cramm (Jane)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAbstractThis study aims to identify relationships between age-friendly environments (interms of social and physical neighborhood attributes) and older people’s overall well-being, as well as the underlying instrumental goals to achieve overall well-being. A sampleof 945

  10. Age-Friendly Communities Matter for Older People’s Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Nieboer (Anna); J.M. Cramm (Jane)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to identify relationships between age-friendly environments (in terms of social and physical neighborhood attributes) and older people’s overall well-being, as well as the underlying instrumental goals to achieve overall well-being. A sample of 945 community-dwelling

  11. Health Expectancies in Adults Aged 50 Years or Older in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hao; Wong, Gloria H Y; Lum, Terry Y S; Luo, Minxia; Gong, Cathy H; Kendig, Hal

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the functional health of older adults in China and to assess the potential for advancing healthy and active aging. Data of 13,739 older adults aged 50 years and older from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2011 were analyzed. Life expectancy in good perceived health, chronic-disease-free life expectancy, active life expectancy, and severe impairment-free life expectancy were calculated using Sullivan's method. At age 50 years, older adults had a life expectancy in good perceived health of 7.0 and 6.7 years in men and women, respectively. They would remain chronic-disease-free for 8.4 and 8.6 years, without activity limitation for 23.6 and 26.0 years, and severe impairment-free for 21.4 and 24.2 years. The world's largest aging population was spending a substantial proportion of remaining life years in suboptimal health and well-being, while remaining largely independent in basic self-care without severe impairments. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Heritability of the Number of Teeth in Middle-Aged and Older Danish Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurushima, Y; Silventoinen, K; Dokkedal, U

    2017-01-01

    of the variation in tooth loss is explained by genetic as well as environmental factors shared by co-twins. Our results implied that family background importantly affects tooth loss in both the middle-aged and the older populations. Family history is thus an important factor to take into account in dental health...

  13. Predicting Competing Mortality in Patients Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy Aged 70 yr or Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehner, Michael; Koch, Rainer; Hübler, Matthias; Zastrow, Stefan; Wirth, Manfred P

    2017-05-01

    Estimating the risk of competing mortality is of importance in tailoring optimal individual management strategies in patients with early prostate cancer. Using proportional hazard models for competing risks, we determined which parameters predict competing mortality in patients selected for radical prostatectomy aged 70 yr or older and compared the prognostic impact of individual parameters with that of their younger counterparts. Three common diseases (diabetes mellitus, chronic lung disease, and other cancer) that predicted competing mortality in younger men were not predictors of competing mortality in men selected for radical prostatectomy aged 70 yr or older (hazard ratio [HR]:mortality in patients aged 70 yr or older. Combining these five conditions in a score might provide a superior comorbidity measure in this particular population. Stricter selection may diminish the prognostic significance of several common diseases in men selected for radical prostatectomy aged 70 yr or older whereas other parameters (peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class 3, current smoking, and level of education) sustained their meaningfulness and should be taken into consideration when the risk of competing mortality is estimated. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Knee extensor muscle strength in middle-aged and older individuals undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Juhl, Carsten B; Lund, Hans

    2015-01-01

    a moderate reduction was again apparent at 4 years post-APM (SMD: -0.56, (-1.20-0.08) compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that middle-aged and older individuals undergoing APM have reduced knee extensor muscle strength in the operated leg compared to control data. As meniscus pathology...

  15. Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies: Age- and IQ-Adjusted Norms for the Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Brett A; Bieliauskas, Linas A; Smith, Glenn E; Ivnik, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Normative data sets for standardized neuropsychometric instruments often include adjustments for subject variables. There are reasons to believe, however, that improvements in interpretive accuracy that result from such adjustments are less than optimal. In particular, "years of formal education" may be less closely related to test performances than is general intellectual functioning. In this third of four reanalyses of results from the Mayo Clinic's Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) databases, age-adjusted index and scaled scores for the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised were found to be more strongly associated with Mayo age-adjusted WAIS-R Full Scale IQ scores (rs=.271 to .631) than with education (rs=.089 to .310) for healthy older examinees between 56 and 99 years of age. These associations were strongest for Attention/Concentration and General Memory Index scores and, in general, for individuals with average intelligence (cf. Dodrill, 19971999). Tables of age- and IQ-adjusted percentile equivalents of Mayo age-adjusted WMS-R index scores and MOANS age-adjusted WMS-R subtest scaled scores are presented for eleven age ranges and seven IQ ranges.

  16. Age at Immigration and the Incomes of Older Immigrants, 1994–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienda, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Seniors comprise a growing proportion of new U.S. immigrants. We investigate whether late-age immigrants are disadvantaged in older age relative to those arriving earlier in life, based on income, reliance on public benefits, and access to public medical insurance. We test whether the 1996 welfare reform law altered the relationships between age at immigration and these outcomes. Method. Immigrants aged 65 and older in the 1994–2010 Current Population Surveys were classified by age at immigration. Median and logistic regressions are used to estimate the association between age at immigration and several outcomes and to test whether these associations differ for arrivals before and after welfare reform. Results. Late-age immigration is strongly associated with lower personal income, lower rates of Medicare and Social Security receipt, and higher participation in Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicaid. Arrival after 1996 is associated with lower rates of SSI, Medicaid, and Medicare receipt. The association between late-age immigration and income is stronger for post-1996 arrivals relative to earlier arrivals, whereas that between late-age immigration and Medicaid is weaker, suggesting that the penalty conferred by late-age immigration grew after reform. Discussion. Late-age immigrants face formidable economic disadvantages exacerbated by exclusion from public benefits, with implications for immigration, health care, and welfare policy. PMID:24942972

  17. Age at immigration and the incomes of older immigrants, 1994-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kevin; Tienda, Marta

    2015-03-01

    Seniors comprise a growing proportion of new U.S. immigrants. We investigate whether late-age immigrants are disadvantaged in older age relative to those arriving earlier in life, based on income, reliance on public benefits, and access to public medical insurance. We test whether the 1996 welfare reform law altered the relationships between age at immigration and these outcomes. Immigrants aged 65 and older in the 1994-2010 Current Population Surveys were classified by age at immigration. Median and logistic regressions are used to estimate the association between age at immigration and several outcomes and to test whether these associations differ for arrivals before and after welfare reform. Late-age immigration is strongly associated with lower personal income, lower rates of Medicare and Social Security receipt, and higher participation in Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicaid. Arrival after 1996 is associated with lower rates of SSI, Medicaid, and Medicare receipt. The association between late-age immigration and income is stronger for post-1996 arrivals relative to earlier arrivals, whereas that between late-age immigration and Medicaid is weaker, suggesting that the penalty conferred by late-age immigration grew after reform. Late-age immigrants face formidable economic disadvantages exacerbated by exclusion from public benefits, with implications for immigration, health care, and welfare policy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Performance of Older Persons in a Simulated Shopping Task Is Influenced by Priming with Age Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Otmar; Akpinar, Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that older persons show cognitive deficits in standardized laboratory tests, but not in more natural tests such as the Multiple Errands Task (MET). The absence of deficits in the latter tests has been attributed to the compensation of deficits by strategies based on life-long experience. To scrutinize this view, we primed older participants with positive or negative stereotypes about old age before administering MET. We found that compared to unprimed controls, priming with positive age stereotypes reduced the number of errors without changing response times, while priming with negative stereotypes changed neither errors not response times. We interpret our findings as evidence that positive age priming improved participants' cognitive functions while leaving intact their experience-based compensation, and that negative age priming degraded participants' cognitive functions which, however, was balanced by an even stronger experience-based compensation.

  19. Single Stance Stability and Proprioceptive Control in Older Adults Living at Home: Gender and Age Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Riva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, falls in older people represent a rising problem. As effective prevention should start before the risk becomes evident, an early predictor is needed. Single stance instability would appear as a major risk factor. Aims of the study were to describe single stance stability, its sensory components, and their correlation with age and gender. A random sample of 597 older adults (319 men, 278 women living at home, aged 65–84, was studied. Stability tests were performed with an electronic postural station. The single stance test showed the impairment of single stance stability in older individuals (75–84 yrs. The significant decline of stability in the older subjects may be explained by the impairment of proprioceptive control together with the decrease in compensatory visual stabilization and emergency responses. Younger subjects (65–74 yrs exhibited better, but still inadequate, proprioceptive control with compensatory visual stabilization. Gender differences appeared in older subjects: women were significantly less stable than men. The measurement of the sensory components of single stance stability could aid in the early detection of a decay in antigravity movements many years before the risk of falling becomes evident. Adequate proprioceptive control could mitigate the effects of all other risks of falling.

  20. Ageing-in-place with the use of ambient intelligence technology: perspectives of older users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, J; Kort, H S M; Rutten, P G S; Duijnstee, M S H

    2011-05-01

    Ambient intelligence technologies are a means to support ageing-in-place by monitoring clients in the home. In this study, monitoring is applied for the purpose of raising an alarm in an emergency situation, and thereby, providing an increased sense of safety and security. Apart from these technological solutions, there are numerous environmental interventions in the home environment that can support people to age-in-place. The aim of this study was to investigate the needs and motives, related to ageing-in-place, of the respondents receiving ambient intelligence technologies, and to investigate whether, and how, these technologies contributed to aspects of ageing-in-place. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study comprised of interviews and observations of technology and environmental interventions in the home environment among 18 community-dwelling older adults with a complex demand for care. These respondents had a prototype of the Unattended Autonomous Surveillance system, an example of ambient intelligence technology, installed in their homes as a means to age-in-place. The UAS-system offers a large range of functionalities, including mobility monitoring, voice response, fire detection, as well as wandering detection and prevention, which can be installed in different configurations. The respondents had various motives to use ambient intelligence technologies to support ageing-in-place. The most prominent reason was to improve the sense of safety and security, in particular, in case of fall incidents, when people were afraid not to be able to use their existing emergency response systems. The ambient intelligence technologies were initially seen as a welcome addition to strategies already adopted by the respondents, including a variety of home modifications and assistive devices. The systems tested increased the sense of safety and security and helped to postpone institutionalisation. Respondents came up with a set of specifications in terms of

  1. Age estimation in older adults: Use of pulp/tooth ratios calculated from tooth sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ortenzio, Lori; Prowse, Tracy; Inskip, Michael; Kahlon, Bonnie; Brickley, Megan

    2018-03-01

    Accurate age estimates are foundational for bioarchaeological research, yet the ability to accurately age older adult skeletons remains elusive. This study uses a new version of pulp/tooth area calculations to investigate chronological age of older archaeological individuals. Pulp/tooth area ratios were calculated on modern control teeth (n = 10) that were first radiographed and then sectioned for comparative analysis. Pulp/tooth area ratios were determined on sectioned teeth using ImageJ software for: (a) modern individuals of known age (n = 26); (b) individuals from Belleville, Ontario, Canada (1821-1874) with documented age (n = 50); and (c) Belleville individuals with skeletally estimated age (n = 122). Calculations from tooth sections on modern teeth (n = 10) resulted in a mean absolute error (MAE) of ±3.9 years, whereas the radiographic method for the same teeth had an MAE of ±14.45 years. Results indicate that sectioned pulp/tooth area ratios are a significant predictor of chronological age (p age estimations between modern and archaeological individuals, or with respect to tooth type, sex, or intra/inter-observer estimations. This study provides a new more accurate method for estimating age-at-death, particularly for individuals in the 50+ age category. Sectioning the teeth and directly measuring exposed pulp chambers results in age estimations that were within ±4.15 years for both modern and archaeological individuals, thus presenting a method that will enhance the ability to age older individuals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Lived experiences of ageing and later life in older people with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kåhlin, Ida; Kjellberg, Anette; Nord, Catharina; Hagberg, Jan-Erik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how older people with intellectual disability (ID), who live in group accommodation, describe their lived experience in relation to ageing and later life. The study adopted a phenomenological approach, based on the concept of life-world. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with twelve people with ID (five men, seven women), between the ages of 48 and 71 (m=64), who lived in four different group accommodation units in southern Sweden. A descr...

  3. Stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and cortisol levels in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-03-01

    The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies.

  4. Community-Based Healthy Aging Interventions for Older Adults with Arthritis and Multimorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgibor, Janice C; Ye, Lei; Boudreau, Robert M; Conroy, Molly B; Vander Bilt, Joni; Rodgers, Elizabeth A; Schlenk, Elizabeth A; Jacob, Mini E; Brandenstein, Jane; Albert, Steven M; Newman, Anne B

    2017-04-01

    Examine the impact of programs led by community health workers on health and function in older adults with arthritis and other health conditions. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial of the Arthritis Foundation Exercise Program (AFEP) enhanced with the "10 Keys"™ to Healthy Aging compared with the AFEP program at 54 sites in 462 participants (mean age 73 years, 88 % women, 80 % white). Trained Community health workers delivered the 10-week programs. Outcomes assessed after 6 months included physical performance [Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB)], Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index, and preventive health behaviors. Both groups experienced improvements. Performance improved by 0.3 SPPB points in the AFEP/"10 Keys"™ group and 0.5 in AFEP alone; WOMAC scores declined by 3.0 and 3.9 points respectively. More participants had controlled hypertension at 6 months in both groups (60.1 % baseline to 76.7 % in AFEP/10 Keys and from 76.5 to 84.9 % in AFEP alone) and greater diabetes control (from 15.0 to 34.9 and 15.5 to 34.1 %, respectively). These community-based programs showed similar improvements in preventive health, mobility and arthritis outcomes.

  5. Microscopic age determination of human skeletons including an unknown but calculable variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Johan Albert; Tkocz, Izabella; Kristensen, Gustav

    1994-01-01

    estimation, which includes the covariance matrix of four single equation residuals, improves the accuracy of age determination. The standard deviation, however, of age prediction remains 12.58 years. An experimental split of the data was made in order to demonstrate that the use of subgroups gives a false...... impression of higher precision of age determination. The present study demonstrates that determination of age at death through microscopic bone morphometry is considerably less precise than generally stated in the literature.......Histomorphometric semi-automatic image analysis of cross-sections of 101 femoral diaphyseal bone sections were performed to reconsider to what degree osteon remodelling in the outer cortex is affected by age. The data were analysed statistically using the generalized least squares method. The model...

  6. Contextualizing older women's body images: Time dimensions, multiple reference groups, and age codings of appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekula, Clary

    2016-01-01

    The article sheds light on older women's body images and problematizes assumptions that women's aging is more painful and shameful than men's aging since men are not expected to live up to youthful beauty norms, the so-called double standard of aging hypothesis. Based on 12 qualitative interviews with women from the age of 75 from the Swedish capital area, I argue that older women have access to a double perspective of beauty, which means that they can relate to both youthful and age-related beauty norms. The results also illustrate that women's body image is created in a context where previous body images are central and that this time perspective can contribute toward a positive body image. Further, the results show how age codings of appearance-related qualities create a narrow framework for older women's body images and point to the benefits of shifting the analytical focus toward a material-semiotic body where corporeality and discourse are seen as interwoven.

  7. Double Jeopardy? Age, Race, and HRQOL in Older Adults with Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellizzi, K. M.; Aziz, N. M.; Rowland, J. H.; Arora, N. K.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the post-treatment physical and mental function of older adults from ethnic/racial minority backgrounds with cancer is a critical step to determine the services required to serve this growing population. The double jeopardy hypothesis suggests being a minority and old could have compounding effects on health. This population-based study examined the physical and mental function of older adults by age (mean age=75.7, SD=6.1), ethnicity/race, and cancer (breast, prostate, colorectal, and gynecologic) as well as interaction effects between age, ethnicity/race and HRQOL. There was evidence of a significant age by ethnicity/race interaction in physical function for breast, prostate and all sites combined, but the interaction became non-significant (for breast and all sites combined) when co morbidity was entered into the model. The interaction persisted in the prostate cancer group after controlling for co morbidity, such that African Americans and Asian Americans in the 75-79 age group report lower physical health than non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanic Whites in this age group. The presence of double jeopardy in the breast and all sites combined group can be explained by a differential co morbid burden among the older (75-79) minority group, but the interaction found in prostate cancer survivors does not reflect this differential co morbid burden.

  8. Suicide risk and precipitating circumstances among young, middle-aged, and older male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Mark S; McFarland, Bentson H; Huguet, Nathalie; Valenstein, Marcia

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of suicide among veteran men relative to nonveteran men by age and to examine the prevalence of suicide circumstances among male veterans in different age groups (18-34, 35-44, 45-64, and ≥ 65 years). Data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (2003-2008) were used to calculate age-specific suicide rates for veterans (n = 8440) and nonveterans (n = 21,668) and to calculate the age-stratified mortality ratio for veterans. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare health status, stressful life events preceding suicide, and means of death among young, middle-aged, and older veterans. Veterans were at higher risk for suicide compared with nonveterans in all age groups except the oldest. Mental health, substance abuse, and financial and relationship problems were more common in younger than in older veteran suicide decedents, whereas health problems were more prevalent in the older veterans. Most male veterans used firearms for suicide, and nearly all elderly veterans did so. Our study highlighted heightened risk of suicide in male veterans compared with nonveterans. Within the veteran population, suicide might be influenced by different precipitating factors at various stages of life.

  9. Brain white matter damage in aging and cognitive ability in youth and older age☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Booth, Tom; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Penke, Lars; Morris, Zoe; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Royle, Natalie A.; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Bastin, Mark E.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical histories, current cognitive ability and quantified WMH on MR imaging. Among 634 participants, mean age 72.7 (SD 0.7), age 11 IQ was the strongest predictor of late life cognitive ability. After accounting for age 11 IQ, greater WMH load was significantly associated with lower late life general cognitive ability (β = −0.14, p cognitive ability, after accounting for prior ability, age 11IQ. Early-life IQ also influenced WMH in later life. Determining how lower IQ in youth leads to increasing brain damage with aging is important for future successful cognitive aging. PMID:23850341

  10. Pessimistic orientation in relation to telomere length in older men: the VA Normative Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Ai; Schwartz, Joel; Peters, Junenette L.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Hoxha, Mirjam; Dioni, Laura; Spiro, Avron; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests pessimistic orientation is associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL). However, this is the first study to look not only at effects of pessimistic orientation on average LTL at multiple time points, but also at effects on the rate of change in LTL over time. Methods Participants were older men from the VA Normative Aging Study (n=490). The Life Orientation Test (LOT) was used to measure optimistic and pessimistic orientations at study baseline, and relative LTL by telomere to single copy gene ratio (T:S ratio) was obtained repeatedly over the course of the study (1999-2008). A total of 1,010 observations were included in the analysis. Linear mixed effect models with a random subject intercept were used to estimate associations. Results Higher pessimistic orientation scores were associated with shorter average LTL (percent difference by 1-SD increase in pessimistic orientation (95% CI): -3.08 (-5.62, -0.46)), and the finding was maintained after adjusting for the higher likelihood that healthier individuals return for follow-up visits (-3.44 (-5.95,-0.86)). However, pessimistic orientation scores were not associated with rate of change in LTL over time. No associations were found between overall optimism and optimistic orientation subscale scores and LTL. Conclusion Higher pessimistic orientation scores were associated with shorter LTL in older men. While there was no evidence that pessimistic orientation was associated with rate of change in LTL over time, higher levels of pessimistic orientation were associated with shorter LTL at baseline and this association persisted over time. PMID:24636503

  11. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources About Policymakers Media ASA Member Toolkit Risks Age Explore this page: Age Do anesthesia risks increase ... can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ...

  12. Association Between Accelerated Multimorbidity and Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Older Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging Participants without Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Elisa; An, Yang; Zoli, Marco; Tanaka, Toshiko; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa H; Studenski, Stephanie A; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    To explore the association between rate of physical health deterioration, operationalized as rising multimorbidity overtime, and longitudinal decline in cognitive function in older adults without dementia. Longitudinal (Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)). Community. BLSA participants aged 65 and older followed for an average of 3 years and free of dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at baseline and follow-up (N = 756). Standardized neurocognitive tests evaluating mental status, memory, executive function, processing speed, and verbal fluency were administered. Multimorbidity was assessed at each visit as number of diagnosed chronic diseases from a predefined list. Faster accumulation of chronic diseases was defined as upper quartile of rate of change in number of diseases over time (≥0.25 diseases/year). Faster accumulation of chronic diseases was significantly associated with greater rate of decline on the Category (P = .01) and Letter (P = .01) Fluency Tests. Similar trends were also found for the Trail-Making Test Parts A (P = .08) and B (P = .07); no association was found with rate of change in visual and verbal memory. Although further investigations are required to validate the results and fully understand the underlying mechanisms, these findings suggest that accelerated deterioration of physical health is associated with accelerated decline with aging in specific cognitive domains in older adults without dementia. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. The Effect of Older Age on EMS Use for Transportation to an Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Courtney M C; Wasserman, Erin B; Li, Timmy; Amidon, Ashley; Abbott, Marissa; Shah, Manish N

    2017-06-01

    Introduction Previous studies have found that older adults are more likely to use Emergency Medical Services (EMS) than younger adults, but the reasons for this remain understudied. Hypothesis/Problem This study aimed to determine if older age is associated with using EMS for transportation to an emergency department (ED) after controlling for confounding variables. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted at a large academic medical center. Data on previous medical history, chief complaint, self-perceived illness severity, demographic information, and mode of arrival to the ED were collected on all subjects. Those who arrived to the ED via EMS also were asked reasons why they opted to call an ambulance for their illness/injury. Descriptive statistics were used to quantify survey responses, and multivariable regression was used to assess the independent effect of age on mode of ED arrival. Data from 1,058 subjects were analyzed, 449 (42%) of whom arrived to the ED via EMS. Compared to adultstransportation to the ED via ambulance; however, this effect is attenuated by number of chronic medical conditions and history of depression. Additional research is needed to account for confounders unmeasured in this study and to elucidate reasons for the increased frequency of EMS use among older adults. Jones CMC , Wasserman EB , Li T , Amidon A , Abbott M , Shah MN . The effect of older age on EMS use for transportation to an emergency department. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):261-268.

  14. Frailty Index Predicts All-Cause Mortality for Middle-Aged and Older Taiwanese: Implications for Active-Aging Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Yu; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Peng, Li-Ning; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2016-01-01

    Frailty Index, defined as an individual's accumulated proportion of listed health-related deficits, is a well-established metric used to assess the health status of old adults; however, it has not yet been developed in Taiwan, and its local related structure factors remain unclear. The objectives were to construct a Taiwan Frailty Index to predict mortality risk, and to explore the structure of its factors. Analytic data on 1,284 participants aged 53 and older were excerpted from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (2006), in Taiwan. A consensus workgroup of geriatricians selected 159 items according to the standard procedure for creating a Frailty Index. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to explore the association between the Taiwan Frailty Index and mortality. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify structure factors and produce a shorter version-the Taiwan Frailty Index Short-Form. During an average follow-up of 4.3 ± 0.8 years, 140 (11%) subjects died. Compared to those in the lowest Taiwan Frailty Index tertile ( 0.23) had significantly higher risk of death (Hazard ratio: 3.2; 95% CI 1.9-5.4). Thirty-five items of five structure factors identified by exploratory factor analysis, included: physical activities, life satisfaction and financial status, health status, cognitive function, and stresses. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (C-statistics) of the Taiwan Frailty Index and its Short-Form were 0.80 and 0.78, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between them. Although both the Taiwan Frailty Index and Short-Form were associated with mortality, the Short-Form, which had similar accuracy in predicting mortality as the full Taiwan Frailty Index, would be more expedient in clinical practice and community settings to target frailty screening and intervention.

  15. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN AGEISM AND SUBJECTIVE AGE OF OLDER PEOPLE IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz HESS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stigmata on older people in society remains a big problem in the whole of Europe. It can lead to a lower self-esteem and is even as sociated with higher suicide rates. This study questioned whether the identification with one’s own age group is associated with an individual’s perceived stigma on the group of 70+, which has been unexamined so far for European citizens. Method: Data were derived from the European Social Survey (ESS. The sample consisted of 7878 persons aged 70+ stratified by three age groups. Group 1 = 70 – 75, Group 2= 76 – 80 and Group 3= >80. Independent T-test and Multiple regression analyses were used to examine influence of perceived stigmata in society on identification with one’s own age group, controlled for the covariates gender, household’s income, education, subjective general health, limitations in activities of daily life, marital status, having children living at home and having children not living at home. Results: A significant association was found for Group 1 (70 – 75 and Group 2 (76 – 80. Participants of these age groups, who reported a higher perception of stigmata for older people (70+, identified themselves less with their age group. No significant effect was found for Group 3 (people 80+. Conclusion: The results suggest that people older than 80 are less affected by stigmata of society on old age than younger groups (aged 70 - 80. Future research is necessary to examine the mechanisms which lead to a lower identification with their age of people aged 70 to 80.

  16. Memory score discrepancies by healthy middle-aged and older individuals: the contributions of age and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Alexandra

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine discrepancies between immediate/delayed recall and recall/working memory in middle-aged and older persons by age and education. Participants were 322 healthy individuals from the community who were stratified into three age and three education groups. Immediate and delayed recall distributions of WMS-III Logical Memory (LM) scores approximated normal curves, and LM savings scores showed a significant, but small, effect of age. LM (immediate, delayed) and Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS) discrepancies varied as a function of age and education. The difference between LM and LNS was not significant in the younger and less educated participants, but increased with age in the most educated group, and in the oldest group LNS exceeded LM (immediate and delayed). The results indicate deterioration in encoding and retrieval, rather than storage, with age, and show a differential, but small, effect of age and education on the memory measures. Working memory was resistant to age-related decline relative to immediate and delayed recall in the oldest, most educated group. Delayed recall-working memory discrepancy is relatively stable with age and education and may be a useful index of the onset of memory pathology across different ages and levels of education.

  17. Life-space mobility in Mexican Americans aged 75 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Snih, Soham; Peek, Kristen M; Sawyer, Patricia; Markides, Kyriakos S; Allman, Richard M; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2012-03-01

    To examine the factors associated with life-space mobility in older Mexican Americans. Cross-sectional study involving a population-based survey. Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly survey conducted in the southwestern of United States (Texas, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and California). Seven hundred twenty-eight Mexican-American men and women aged 75 and older. Sociodemographic factors, self-reported physician diagnoses of medical conditions (arthritis, diabetes mellitus, heart attack, stroke, hip fracture, and cancer), depressive symptoms, cognitive function, body mass index (BMI), upper and lower extremity muscle strength, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), activities of daily living (ADLs), and the life-space assessment (LSA) were assessed in in-home interviews. The mean age of participants was 84.2 ± 4.2. Sixty-five percent were female. Mean LSA score was 41.7 ± 20.9. Multiple regression analysis showed that older age, being female, limitation in ADLs, stroke, high depressive symptoms, and a BMI index of 35 kg/m(2) and greater were significantly associated with lower LSA scores. Education and better lower extremity function and muscle strength were factors significantly associated with higher LSA scores. Older Mexican Americans had restricted life-space, with approximately 80% limited to their home or neighborhood. Older age, female sex, stroke, high depressive symptoms, BMI of 35 kg/m(2) or greater, and ADL disability were related to less life-space. Future studies are needed to examine the association between life-space and health outcomes and to characterize the trajectory of life-space over time in this population. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Free and protein-bound cobalamin absorption in healthy middle-aged and older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, D Z; van den Broek, W J; Lamers, C B; Corstens, F H; Hoefnagels, W H

    1996-08-01

    To study free- and protein-bound cobalamin absorption and the correlation with atrophic gastritis in healthy middle-aged and older subjects. A cross-sectional study. Fifty-two healthy subjects, aged 26 to 87 years, apparently free from conditions known to influence the cobalamin status. Middle-aged subjects were defined as those younger than 65 years of age (median age 57 years) and older subjects as those 65 years and older (median age 75 years). Protein-bound cobalamin absorption was assessed by 48-hour urinary excretion method following oral administration of scrambled egg yolk, labeled in vivo with 57 Co-cobalamin by injecting a hen with 57 Co-cyanocobalamin. The percentage of 57 Co-cobalamin bound to protein was 65%. Free cobalamin absorption was assessed by 48-hour urinary excretion method following oral administration of crystalline 57 Co-cyanocobalamin. Plasma cobalamin, folate and fasting plasma gastrin, and pepsinogen A and C concentrations were determined. The median urinary excretion of egg yolk 57 Co-cobalamin in middle-aged subjects was 12.3% (25th and 75th percentiles 10.5%-14.5%) compared with 11.7% (25th and 75th percentiles 9.8%-13.6%) in older subjects (P = .283). The median urinary excretion after administration of free 57 Co-cobalamin in middle-aged subjects was 25.7% (25th and 75th percentiles 20.6%-30.7%) compared with 27.9% (25th and 75th percentiles 21.4%-34.5%) in older subjects (P = .694). Neither egg yolk nor free 57 Co-cobalamin excretion correlated with age. A ratio of pepsinogen A to pepsinogen C less than 1.6, indicating atrophic gastritis, was found in 13 subjects. Within the atrophic gastritis group, 11 subjects had a pepsinogen A concentration greater than or equal to 17 micrograms/L, indicating mild to moderate atrophic gastritis, and two subjects had a pepsinogen A concentration less than 17 micrograms/L, indicating severe atrophic gastritis or gastric atrophy. All subjects had normal fasting plasma gastrin concentrations. Free

  19. The happy survivor? Effects of differential mortality on life satisfaction in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Combs, Hannah L; Winning, Ashley; Boehm, Julia K; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2016-06-01

    Older adults report higher psychological well-being than younger adults. Those highest in well-being also have the lowest risk of mortality. If those with lower well-being die earlier, it could affect the appearance of developmental change in well-being. In adults aged 50 and older (N = 4,458), we estimated effects of differential mortality on life satisfaction by imputing life satisfaction, adjusting for attrition due to death, or estimating life satisfaction using pattern-mixture modeling. There was an increase in life satisfaction with age; however, differential mortality affected the elevation of the curve. Observed life satisfaction, particularly above age 70, is affected by differential mortality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Parenting style in childhood and mortality risk at older ages: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demakakos, Panayotes; Pillas, Demetris; Marmot, Michael; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Parenting style is associated with offspring health, but whether it is associated with offspring mortality at older ages remains unknown. We examined whether childhood experiences of suboptimal parenting style are associated with increased risk of death at older ages. Longitudinal cohort study of 1964 community-dwelling adults aged 65-79 years. The association between parenting style and mortality was inverse and graded. Participants in the poorest parenting style score quartile had increased risk of death (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.72, 95% CI 1.20-2.48) compared with those in the optimal parenting style score quartile after adjustment for age and gender. Full adjustment for covariates partially explained this association (HR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.02-2.18). Parenting style was inversely associated with cancer and other mortality, but not cardiovascular mortality. Maternal and paternal parenting styles were individually associated with mortality. Experiences of suboptimal parenting in childhood are associated with increased risk of death at older ages. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  1. Double Jeopardy? Age, Race, and HRQOL in Older Adults with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith M. Bellizzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the post-treatment physical and mental function of older adults from ethnic/racial minority backgrounds with cancer is a critical step to determine the services required to serve this growing population. The double jeopardy hypothesis suggests being a minority and old could have compounding effects on health. This population-based study examined the physical and mental function of older adults by age (mean age = 75.7, SD = 6.1, ethnicity/race, and cancer (breast, prostate, colorectal, and gynecologic as well as interaction effects between age, ethnicity/race and HRQOL. There was evidence of a significant age by ethnicity/race interaction in physical function for breast, prostate and all sites combined, but the interaction became non-significant (for breast and all sites combined when comorbidity was entered into the model. The interaction persisted in the prostate cancer group after controlling for comorbidity, such that African Americans and Asian Americans in the 75–79 age group report lower physical health than non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanic Whites in this age group. The presence of double jeopardy in the breast and all sites combined group can be explained by a differential comorbid burden among the older (75–79 minority group, but the interaction found in prostate cancer survivors does not reflect this differential comorbid burden.

  2. Results of Clipping Surgery for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Elderly Patients Aged 90 or Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yota; Watanabe, Atsushi; Wakui, Kenji; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The number of elderly patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is increasing. Although advanced age is one of the recognized risk factors for poor outcome, conservative treatment for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage cannot provide satisfactory outcome in elderly patients. The aim of this study is to assess the outcome in patients aged 90 or older, for whom ruptured aneurysms were treated by clipping. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of non-traumatic SAH patients who were hospitalized at the Chiba Neurosurgical Clinic between 2004 and 2013. Of the 702 patients, 8 patients (1.1 %) were aged 90 or older. Of them, four underwent clipping surgery and the other four died or were managed conservatively. Their preoperative conditions were evaluated with the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Grading Scale of SAH, and the Fisher classification was used to assess the bleeding severity. The location of the ruptured aneurysm was determined by three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography or cerebral angiography. The Glasgow Outcome Scale evaluation was assigned at discharge. Four patients (four female, all WFNS grade 1), aged 90 or older, underwent clipping surgery. Fisher classification was three in two patients and four in the other two. Location of the ruptured aneurysm was internal carotid artery in two, anterior communicating artery in one, and posterior inferior cerebellar artery in one patient. Two of these four patients had a favorable outcome. We propose that advanced age alone does not exclude suitable surgical clipping in patients with aneurysmal rupture in the tenth decade of life.

  3. Older women in an aging world: achieving health across the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonita, R; Howe, A L

    1996-01-01

    This article, based on a report (Women, aging and health: achieving health across the life span) prepared for the WHO Global Commission on Women's Health under the guidance of WHO's Aging and Health Programme, presents demographic data that clearly demonstrate the need for recognition of the health of aging women as a global issue of major public health concern. The authors show that, while female life expectancy at birth is significantly different in developed and developing countries (because of high infant and maternal mortality in the latter), these differences tend to decrease for women in developing countries who reach middle age. The authors review the various facets of the "gender transition" brought about by demographic and epidemiological transitions, drawing attention to contrasts between the situation in developing countries in Asia and Latin America and that in Eastern Europe, for example. The role of older women as care-givers is discussed, as is the likelihood of a future increase in the proportion of older women living alone in the developing world (a factor which renders them particularly vulnerable in many socioeconomic and health respects). Suggestions are made on methodologies for monitoring health trends in aging women, and on the role of WHO in this respect. A basic goal for global strategies relating to the health of older women is formulated: reduction of the inequities in life expectancy between developed and developing countries.

  4. Inflammatory markers and physical performance in middle-aged and older people in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujarwoto, Sujarwoto; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2015-07-01

    although recent studies have suggested that inflammation may play an important role in the process of ageing and in the development of disabilities, knowledge about the role of inflammation in physical performance decline among middle-aged and older people in the context of developing countries is limited. to examine the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) and the activities of daily living (ADL) among middle-aged (40-54 years old) and older (55-96 years old) people in Indonesia. data from a population-based sample, the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS) 2007, were analysed. The data consist of 1,702 respondents of middle age (40-54 years old) and 2,017 older respondents who had completed information on ADL and CRP. CRP concentrations in Dried Blood Spot (DBS) specimens were measured, using the validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Thirteen items of ADL were used to measure physical performance. A three-level linear model was applied to take advantage of the nested structure of data at the individual level within the household and community levels. high levels of CRP were significantly associated with lower ADL for middle-aged and older people (P Indonesia is in line with earlier studies in the context of developed countries. This study provides an extension in which the significant association was also found in middle-aged people (40-54 years old). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Psychology Doctoral Students' Interest in Working with Older Adults: The Roles of Knowledge, Ageism, Aging Anxiety and Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbin, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Given the growing population of older adults with more reported mental health needs, there are not sufficient psychologists interested in working with this population. This study looked at why interest is so low, looking particularly at the correlations between interest in working with older adults and knowledge about aging, ageism, aging anxiety…

  6. Normative values of cognitive and physical function in older adults: findings from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Rose Anne; Coen, Robert F; Frewen, John; Donoghue, Orna A; Cronin, Hilary; Savva, George M

    2013-05-01

    To provide normative values of tests of cognitive and physical function based on a large sample representative of the population of Ireland aged 50 and older. Data were used from the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), a prospective cohort study that includes a comprehensive health assessment. Health assessment was undertaken at one of two dedicated health assessment centers or in the study participant's home if travel was not practicable. Five thousand eight hundred ninety-seven members of a nationally representative sample of the community-living population of Ireland aged 50 and older. Those with severe cognitive impairment, dementia, or Parkinson's disease were excluded. Measurements included height and weight, normal walking speed, Timed Up-and-Go, handgrip strength, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Color Trails Test, and bone mineral density. Normative values were estimated using generalized additive models for location shape and scale (GAMLSS) and are presented as percentiles, means, and standard deviations. Generalized additive models for location shape and scale fit the observed data well for each measure, leading to reliable estimates of normative values. Performance on all tasks decreased with age. Educational attainment was a strong determinant of performance on all cognitive tests. Tests of walking speed were dependent on height. Distribution of body mass index did not change with age, owing to simultaneous declines in weight and height. Normative values were found for tests of many aspects of cognitive and physical function based on a representative sample of the general older Irish population. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Cellular aging and restorative processes: subjective sleep quality and duration moderate the association between age and telomere length in a sample of middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbet, Matthew R; Carlisle, McKenzie; Cawthon, Richard M; Uchino, Bert N; Williams, Paula G; Smith, Timothy W; Gunn, Heather E; Light, Kathleen C

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether subjective sleep quality and sleep duration moderate the association between age and telomere length (TL). Participants completed a demographic and sleep quality questionnaire, followed by a blood draw. Social Neuroscience Laboratory. One hundred fifty-four middle-aged to older adults (age 45-77 y) participated. Participants were excluded if they were on immunosuppressive treatment and/or had a disease with a clear immunologic (e.g., cancer) component. N/A. Subjective sleep quality and sleep duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and TL was determined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). There was a significant first-order negative association between age and TL. Age was also negatively associated with the self-reported sleep quality item and sleep duration component of the PSQI. A significant age × self-reported sleep quality interaction revealed that age was more strongly related to TL among poor sleepers, and that good sleep quality attenuated the association between age and TL. Moreover, adequate subjective sleep duration among older adults (i.e. greater than 7 h per night) was associated with TL comparable to that in middle-aged adults, whereas sleep duration was unrelated to TL for the middle-aged adults in our study. The current study provides evidence for an association between sleep quality, sleep duration, and cellular aging. Among older adults, better subjective sleep quality was associated with the extent of cellular aging, suggesting that sleep duration and sleep quality may be added to a growing list of modifiable behaviors associated with the adverse effects of aging.

  8. Process of physical disability among older adults--contribution of frailty in the super-aged society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2012-02-01

    One of the critical issues that Japan, well known for the world's highest proportion of older adults, a super-aged society, is currently confronting is how to prevent physical disability in old age. This issue is particularly important not only from a medical perspective such as functional prognoses but also from a socio-economic angle in view of reducing the rapid rise in the cost of medical and long-term care insurance services. Functional decline in old age results not only from acute diseases but also from frailty. Such a common and important syndrome that is increasingly prevalent with advancing age can be the cause. The present article intends to review what is known about frailty, including its definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology, and to examine potential areas of future research.

  9. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Michelle M; Thomas, Brandon J; Wee, Kathleen; Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R; Smale, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development.

  10. Spain: promoting the welfare of older adults in the context of population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Juan P; Latorre, José M; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Spain is one of the European countries with the most significant societal changes in the 21st century contributing to an aging population, in particular, high life expectancy coupled with low fertility, which will result in a doubling of the old-age dependency ratio. Demographic aging implies important challenges that affect the lives of people, families, the economy, public finances, and the reorganization of the health and social systems. Currently, the older population has become particularly vulnerable due to the economic crisis taking place in Spain, which has brought about the need for new policies and systems to protect older persons. The pension system is under the greatest threat in conjunction with possible changes in the national health care system. This report presents a general view of the main factors that surround and affect older adults in Spain, as well as policies developed by the government in response to the current and future situation. We highlight demographic predictions for the coming decades, quality-of-life indicators, situations of dependency, active aging policies, and the main research programs related to gerontology in Spain. © Crown copyright 2014.

  11. Social Cognitive Influences on Physical Activity Behavior in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicki, Thomas R.; McAuley, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of the current study was to prospectively test the utility of a social cognitive theory (SCT) model of physical activity behavior over an 18-month period in middle-aged and older adults (N = 321; M age = 63.8 years). Methods. Participants completed measures of self-efficacy, disability limitations, goals, outcome expectations, and physical activity at baseline and follow-up. Self-efficacy was hypothesized to influence physical activity both directly and indirectly through goals and outcome expectations. Relationships were examined using panel analysis within a covariance modeling framework. Results. The model provided an excellent fit to the data (χ2 = 36.16, df = 30, p = .20; comparative fit index = 1.00; root mean square error of approximation = .03). At baseline, self-efficacy was directly related to outcome expectations, disability limitations, goals, and physical activity and indirectly related to physical activity through physical outcome expectations. Changes in self-efficacy were significantly related to residual changes in outcome expectations, disability limitations, goals, and physical activity and indirectly related to residual changes in physical activity through changes in physical and social outcome expectations. Discussion. These results provide further support for the use of SCT to physical activity behavior in middle-aged and older adults. Self-efficacy influenced physical activity both directly and indirectly via outcome expectations, suggesting that these variables should be targeted in physical activity interventions for middle-aged and older adults. PMID:21743038

  12. Are Older Adults Less Embodied? A Review of Age Effects through the Lens of Embodied Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Matthew C; Bloesch, Emily K

    2017-01-01

    Embodied cognition is a theoretical framework which posits that cognitive function is intimately intertwined with the body and physical actions. Although the field of psychology is increasingly accepting embodied cognition as a viable theory, it has rarely been employed in the gerontological literature. However, embodied cognition would appear to have explanatory power for aging research given that older adults typically manifest concurrent physical and mental changes, and that research has indicated a correlative relationship between such changes. The current paper reviews age-related changes in sensory processing, mental representation, and the action-perception relationship, exploring how each can be understood through the lens of embodied cognition. Compared to younger adults, older adults exhibit across all three domains an increased tendency to favor visual processing over bodily factors, leading to the conclusion that older adults are less embodied than young adults. We explore the significance of this finding in light of existing theoretical models of aging and argue that embodied cognition can benefit gerontological research by identifying further factors that can explain the cause of age-related declines.

  13. Delineating the third age: joint models of older people's quality of life and attrition in Britain 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, Gindo

    2015-07-01

    In the public mind, later life is being transformed by the emerging possibility of a flourishing third age with sustained quality of life. We draw trajectories of life quality measured using CASP-19 over eight years. We refine these trajectories by jointly modelling attrition, since older people tend to leave longitudinal studies (attrite) not at random. Growth curve models are applied to the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing waves 1 to 5. Then joint model is estimated where attrition is considered. Extensive predictors are entered including demographic attributes, social and economic status, health conditions, and behaviours. Strong non-linear age trajectory of life quality is revealed by the growth curve models where the peak is achieved in the late 60s. Then the joint model uncovers the peak somewhat later in time, and also reveals secular improvement in life quality experienced by recent cohorts. Sharp estimates for many predictors of higher levels of life quality are also found. For the first time, the trajectories of life quality in the third age are drawn and improvement across cohorts is demonstrated. The contributions are estimated for predictors amenable to intervention such as social capital. This can help in policy discussion on improving the lives of older people in the third age.

  14. The association between social support and cognitive function in Mexican adults aged 50 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Macorra, Mireya; de Castro, Elga Filipa Amorin; Ávila-Funes, José Alberto; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty Soledad; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa; Shields, Pamela L; Del Campo, Daniel Samano Martin

    Social support networks are crucial for the health of older adults; however, personal characteristics and time of life may diminish the protective effect of social support. to determine if the presence of social support networks were associated with cognitive impairment among Mexican adults aged 50 or older and if this relationship was different based on age. This study analyzed data from the National Representation Survey performed in Mexico, Study on Global Ageing (SAGE) wave 1. Cognitive function was evaluated by a standardized test, social support was evaluated through latent class analysis (LCA). The LCA was run to obtain three subgroups of different Social Support Levels (SSL): low, medium, and high. Logistic regression models, stratified by age, were performed to analyze the association between SSL and cognitive function. For respondents ages 71-80 y/o, there was an inverse relationship with cognitive impairment for those with medium (OR 0.23, p=0.020) and high (OR 0.07, p=0.000) SSL in comparison with low SSL. While social support helped to improve cognitive function in older adults aged 71-80, this same association was not observed in adults of other ages. Those younger than 70 y/o may not need such a strong support network as a result of being more self-sufficient. After 80, social networks were not enough to help diminish the negative impact of cognitive impairment. Social support could improve the cognitive function of adults ages 71 and 80; suggesting there could be a window of opportunity to improve cognitive functioning for this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of a music therapy intergenerational program on children and older adults' intergenerational interactions, cross-age attitudes, and older adults' psychosocial well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Melita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of participation in a music-based intergenerational music program on cross-age interactions and cross-age attitudes of elementary-age children and older adults, and older adults' psychosocial well-being. Twenty-one children in the 4th grade volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 12) or control (n = 9) group. Twenty-six older adults from a retirement living facility also volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 14) or control (n = 12) group. Ten 30-min music sessions occurred in which participants engaged in singing, structured conversation, moving to music, and instrument playing interventions. Data analysis of cross-age interactions revealed that the interventions "structured conversation" and "moving to music" were more effective in eliciting interaction behaviors than the interventions "singing" and "instrument playing." Standardized measures revealed that children's attitudes towards older adults improved, though not significantly so, after participation in the intergenerational program. Results of biweekly post-session questionnaires revealed a decrease in negative descriptions of older adults and an increase in positive descriptions of older adults--suggesting a more positive view towards aging. Results revealed that older adults' attitudes towards children improved significantly after their participation in the intergenerational program. While standardized measures revealed that older adults did not perceive a significant improvement in their psychosocial well-being, their bi-weekly post-session questionnaires showed they perceived increased feelings of usefulness and other personal benefits from the intergenerational interactions. Suggestions for future research, the utility of varied measurement instruments, and implications for practice are discussed.

  16. Ageing well? A cross-country analysis of the way older people are visually represented on websites of organizations for older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugène Loos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ‘aging well’ discourse advances the idea of making older people responsible for their capability to stay healthy and active. In the context of an increased ageing population, which poses several challenges to countries’ government, this discourse has become dominant in Europe. We explore the way older people are visually represented on websites of organizations for older people in seven European countries (Finland, UK, the Netherlands, Spain, Italy, Poland and Romania, using an analytical approached based on visual content analysis, inspired by the dimensional model of national cultural differences from the Hofstede model (1991; 2001; 2011. We used two out of the five Hofstede dimensions: Individualism/Collectivism (IDV and Masculinity/Femininity (MAS. The results demonstrated that in all seven countries older people are mostly visually represented as healthy/active, which reflects a dominant ‘ageing well’ discourse in Europe. The results also demonstrated that in most cases older people tend to be represented together with others, which is not consonant with the dominant ‘ageing well’ discourse in Europe. A last finding was that the visual representation of older people is in about half of the cases in line with these Hofstede dimensions. We discuss the implications of these findings claiming that the ‘ageing well’ discourse might lead to ‘visual ageism’. Organizations could keep this in mind while using pictures for their website or in other media and consider to use various kind of pictures, or to avoid using pictures of older people that stigmatize, marginalize or injure. They could look into the cultural situatedness and intersectional character of age relations and consider alternative strategies of both visibility and invisibility to talk with and about our ageing societies.

  17. Effects of aging on the function of the urinary system: longitudinal changes with age in selected urine parameters in a hospitalized population of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although normal aging does not have a pernicious effect on the homeostasis of fluids, renal reserve in elderly people can be depleted. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between longitudinal changes with age in basic urine parameters (specific gravity and pH in older men and women, depending on their body height and relative body weight. Longitudinal data on these two quantitative traits of the urine were available for 142 physically healthy individuals, including 68 men and 74 women. All subjects were 45 years of age at the beginning and 70 at the end of the period under investigation. All measurements were taken in accordance with internationally accepted requirements. Specific gravity was assessed using a hydrometer, and pH was measured using a pH meter. ANOVA, t-test, and regression analysis were performed. No significant sex differences in specific gravity or urine pH were observed. In both sexes, urine specific gravity decreased with age according to exponential model of regression. In men, there was a gradual increase in the pH of the urine until age 65, and the best fitting regression model was polynomial. In women, on the other hand, there was an exiguous decrease in urine pH throughout the period under study, and the best fitting regression model proved to be exponential. As the process of renal aging commences relatively early in ontogeny and manifests itself in many structural and functional changes, urinalysis and other more sophisticated methods of diagnosis of renal diseases are essential for proper assessment of health status of adults and older individuals. The rate of age-related changes in the analyzed traits of the urine was commensurate in both sexes, thereby revealing no evidence of significant sex differences in terms of renal aging in the period between 45 and 70 years of age.

  18. Frailty and life satisfaction in Shanghai older adults: The roles of age and social vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Gu, Danan; Mitnitski, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between frailty and life satisfaction and the roles of age and social vulnerability underlying the links in Chinese older adults. Using a cross-sectional sample of 1970 adults aged 65 and older in 2013 in Shanghai, we employed regression analyses to investigate the interaction between frailty and age on life satisfaction in the whole sample and in different social vulnerability groups. Life satisfaction was measured using a sum score of satisfaction with thirteen domains. Using a cumulative deficit approach, frailty was constructed from fifty-two variables and social vulnerability was derived from thirty-five variables. Frailty was negatively associated with life satisfaction. The interaction between frailty and age was significant for life satisfaction, such that the negative association between frailty and life satisfaction was stronger among the young-old aged 65-79 than among the old-old aged 80+. Moreover, frailty's stronger association with life satisfaction in the young-old than in the old-old was only found among those in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of social vulnerability, but not for those in the 1st tertile of social vulnerability. Relation between frailty and life satisfaction likely weakens with age. A higher level of social vulnerability enlarges the negative impact of frailty on life satisfaction with a greater extent in the young-old. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Fern?ndez-Ballesteros, Roc?o

    2016-01-01

    Neyda Ma Mendoza-Ruvalcaba,1 Rocío Fernández-Ballesteros2 1Health Sciences Department, University of Guadalajara, University Center of Tonalá, Tonalá, Jalisco, Mexico; 2Department of Biological and Health Psychology, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain Introduction: Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong ada...

  20. A Perspective on Middle-Aged and Older Men With Functional Hypogonadism: Focus on Holistic Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Mathis; Matsumoto, Alvin M

    2017-03-01

    Middle-aged and older men (≥50 years), especially those who are obese and suffer from comorbidities, not uncommonly present with clinical features consistent with androgen deficiency and modestly reduced testosterone levels. Commonly, such men do not demonstrate anatomical hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis pathology but have functional hypogonadism that is potentially reversible. Literature review from 1970 to October 2016. Although definitive randomized controlled trials are lacking, evidence suggests that in such men, lifestyle measures to achieve weight loss and optimization of comorbidities, including discontinuation of offending medications, lead to clinical improvement and a modest increase in testosterone. Also, androgen deficiency-like symptoms and end-organ deficits respond to targeted treatments (such as phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction) without evidence that hypogonadal men are refractory. Unfortunately, lifestyle interventions remain difficult and may be insufficient even if successful. Testosterone therapy should be considered primarily for men who have significant clinical features of androgen deficiency and unequivocally low testosterone levels. Testosterone should be initiated either concomitantly with a trial of lifestyle measures, or after such a trial fails, after a tailored diagnostic work-up, exclusion of contraindications, and appropriate counseling. There is modest evidence that functional hypogonadism responds to lifestyle measures and optimization of comorbidities. If achievable, these interventions may have demonstrable health benefits beyond the potential for increasing testosterone levels. Therefore, treatment of underlying causes of functional hypogonadism and of symptoms should be used either as an initial or adjunctive approach to testosterone therapy.

  1. Aging in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Study of Contemporary Older Persons' Views About Daily Life, Health, and the Experience of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Nancy J; Weil, Joyce; Felmban, Wejdan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory study sought to measure current self-reported experiences of older Saudi adults. Method: Self-reported aging perceptions and demographic data from semistructured questions were obtained from 52 community-dwelling older Saudi adults aged 50 or older. A thematic content analysis was completed around issues of family life/social support, daily/weekly activities, health and health programs, and older adults' own thoughts about aging and the experience and future of personal aging. Results: Several key themes emerged from the interviews. The majority of respondents in this preliminary study acknowledge a preference for family care. Formal programs in Saudi Arabia are attended with relative infrequency while older adults recognize family support as the preferred method of support. Older Saudi interviewees hold a positive view of aging, but physical functioning, varying financial resources, and other daily obligations are a concern for those in this study. Discussion: Data suggest as the Saudi population ages, more research is needed on the aging experience with particiular emphasis on issues relevant to older adults . Future research must work to clarify the aging experience as cultural context changes.

  2. Is there an association between food patterns and life satisfaction among Norway's inhabitants ages 65 years and older?

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Beate; Canhão, Helena; Espnes, Geir A; Ferreira Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Gregorio, Maria João; Nguyen, Camilla; Sousa, Rute; Grønning, Kjersti

    2017-03-01

    The lack of information regarding older adults' health and lifestyles makes it difficult to design suitable interventions for people at risk of developing unhealth lifestyles. Therefore, there is a need to increase knowledge about older adults' food patterns and quality of life. Our aim was to determine associations among food patterns, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction in Norwegian inhabitants ages 65+. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (The HUNT Study) is a large, population-based cohort study that includes data for 125 000 Norwegian participants. The cohort used for this study is wave three of the study, consisting of 11 619 participants age 65 and over. Cluster analysis was used to categorize the participants based on similarities in food consumption; two clusters were identified based on similarities regarding food consumption among participants. Significant differences between the clusters were found, as participants in the healthy food-patterns cluster had higher life satisfaction and lower anxiety and depression than those in the unhealthy food-patterns cluster. The associations among food patterns, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction among older adults show the need for increased focus on interactions among food patterns, food consumption, and life satisfaction among the elderly in order to explore how society can influence these patterns. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. The Outcome of Bariatric Surgery in Patients Aged 75 years and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Hanipah, Zubaidah; Punchai, Suriya; Karas, Linden A; Szomstein, Samuel; Rosenthal, Rahul J; Brethauer, Stacy A; Aminian, Ali; Schauer, Philip R

    2017-12-30

    Bariatric surgery has been shown to be safe and effective in patients aged 60-75 years; however, outcomes in patients aged 75 or older are undocumented. Patients aged 75 years and older who underwent bariatric procedures in two academic centers between 2006 and 2015 were studied. A total of 19 patients aged 75 years and above were identified. Eleven (58%) were male, the median age was 76 years old (range 75-81), and the median preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 41.4 kg/m 2 (range 35.8-57.5). All of the bariatric procedures were primary procedures and performed laparoscopically: sleeve gastrectomy (SG) (n = 11, 58%), adjustable gastric band (AGB) (n = 4, 21%), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (n = 2, 11%), banded gastric plication (n = 1, 5%), and gastric plication (n = 1, 5%). The median operative time was 120 min (range 75-240), and the median length of stay was 2 days (range 1-7). Three patients (16%) developed postoperative atrial fibrillation which completely resolved at discharge. At 1 year, the median percentage of total weight loss (%TWL) was 18.4% (range 7.4-22.0). The 1-year %TWL varied among the bariatric procedures performed: SG (21%), RYGB (22%), AGB (7%), and gastric plication (8%). There were no 30-day readmissions, reoperations, or mortalities. Our experience suggests that bariatric surgery in selected patients aged 75 years and older would be safe and effective despite being higher risk. Age alone should not be the limiting factor for selecting patients for bariatric surgery.

  4. Tetanus immunity in 50 Years of Age and Older Persons in Kashan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Razaghi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ojectives: Tetanus is a neurologic disorder which occurs as sporadic cases in people with incomplete vaccination course.The most tetanus patients are people over 60 years of age.It is a important disease in elderly patients because of risk of severe forms and high rate of morbidity and mortality This study was conducted to evaluate tetanus immunity in 50 years of age and older people in kashan-Iran. Methods & Materials: This cross-sectional survey was conducted on 180 randomly selected adults, 50 years of age and older who visited Booali laboratory for check up examination in kashan -Iran in 2008.After taking consent form standard questionnaires consisting demographic data and history of vaccination were filled and 5cc blood taken from selected persons and tetanus toxoid-specific antibody were measured by ELISA method .Results were analyzed by SPSS and presented by descriptive statistics. Results: Sixty five per cent of adults 50 years of age and olderhad no protective levels of tetanus antitoxin (60 years, 6(7% had protective antitoxin levels IU/mL 0.1-1, and 5(5.8% had protective antitoxin levels  IU/mL≥1. Male gender and prior receipt of toxoid booster(s wereassociated with protective tetanus immunity. Tetanus antitoxin levels declined with age. Conclusion: It appears that most 50 years of age and older adults do not have protective levels of tetanus antitoxin because of inadequate vaccination coverage. There is a need to improve the immunity levels of this age group.

  5. Age, frailty, disability, institutionalization, multimorbidity or comorbidity. Which are the main targets in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abizanda, P; Romero, L; Sánchez-Jurado, P M; Martínez-Reig, M; Alfonso-Silguero, S A; Rodríguez-Mañas, L

    2014-01-01

    Age, frailty, disability, institutionalization, multimorbidity or comorbidity are main risk factors for serious health adverse outcomes in older adults. However, the adjusted relevance of each of them in order to determine which characteristics must be of importance for health policies in this population group, has not been established. Concurrent population-based cohort study. Albacete city, Spain. 842 participants over age 70 from the FRADEA Study. Age, gender, institutionalization, frailty (Fried's criteria), previous disability in basic activities of daily living (BADL) (Barthel index), comorbidity (Charlson index), and multimorbidity (≥ 2 from 14 selected diseases) were recorded in the basal visit. The combined event of mortality or incident disability in BADL was determined in the follow-up visit. The risk of presenting adverse events was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, and institutionalization. Mean follow-up 520 days. 63 participants died (7.5%). Among the remaining 779, 191 lost at least one BADL (24.5%). The combined event of mortality or disability was present in 254 participants (30.2%). Age (OR 1.10, 95%CI 1.06-1.14), frailty (OR 3.07, 95%CI 1.63-5.77), disability (OR 2.19, 95%CI 1.43-3.36) and institutionalization (OR 2.73, 95%CI 1.68-4.44) were independently associated with the combined adverse event, but not comorbidity or multimorbidity. In subjects younger than 80, only frailty, disability and institutionalization were risk factors, and in those aged ≥ 80, only age, disability and institutionalization were. Health policies for older adults must take into account mainly frailty and disability in subjects younger than 80 and disability in those older than 80.

  6. The Association Between Subretinal Drusenoid Deposits in Older Adults in Normal Macular Health and Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald; Neely, David; Zarubina, Anna; Clark, Mark; Zhang, Yuhua; Curcio, Christine A; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-02-01

    Subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) have been associated with the progression to late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To determine whether SDD in eyes in normal macular health increases risk for early AMD, this study examined the association between presence of SDD at baseline in a cohort of older adults in normal macular health and incident AMD 3 years later. Subjects enrolled in the Alabama Study on Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ALSTAR) were assessed for the presence of SDD using color fundus photos, infrared reflectance and fundus autofluorescence images, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volumes. The study sample included 799 eyes from 455 participants in normal macular health per grading of color fundus photographs using the 9-step Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) classification system. Age-related macular degeneration was defined as eyes having an AREDS grade ≥2 at the 3-year follow-up. Twenty-five percent of participants had SDD in one or both eyes at baseline. At follow-up visit, 11.9% of eyes in the sample developed AMD. Compared to eyes without SDD, those with SDD were 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-3.70) times more likely to have AMD at follow-up. After adjusting for age, C-reactive protein quartile, and family history of AMD, the association persisted. Results suggest that SDD in older eyes with normal macular health as defined by the AREDS scale is a risk factor for the development of early AMD. Older adults in seemingly normal macular health yet having SDD may warrant closer clinical monitoring for the possible onset of early AMD.

  7. Depression in older people : meeting the challenges of an ageing population

    OpenAIRE

    Raeburn, Alison Somers

    2014-01-01

    This thesis has been conducted in part fulfilment of the Doctorate in Clinical Psychology. It comprises two parts: a systematic review and an empirical research study. These are two distinct articles both aiming to provide insight into the challenges of late life depression. Firstly, the ageing population will mean that mental health services are likely to see an increase in older people with depression, many of whom will have neurological conditions common in late life, inc...

  8. Binge drinking and insomnia in middle-aged and older adults: the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Sarah L; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Mauro, Pia M; Mojtabai, Ramin; Spira, Adam P

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol use in later life has been linked to poor sleep. However, the association between binge drinking, which is common among middle-aged and older adults, and insomnia has not been previously assessed. We studied participants aged 50 years and older (n = 6027) from the 2004 Health and Retirement Study who reported the number of days they had ≥4 drinks on one occasion in the prior 3 months. Participants also reported the frequency of four insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression analyses assessed the association between binge drinking frequency and insomnia. Overall, 32.5% of participants had >0 to ≤2 binge drinking days/week; and 3.6% had >2 binge drinking days/week. After adjusting for demographic variables, medical conditions, body mass index, and elevated depressive symptoms, participants who binged >2 days/week had a 64% greater odds of insomnia than non-binge drinkers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-2.47, p = 0.017). Participants reporting >0 to ≤2 binge days/week also had a 35% greater odds of insomnia than non-binge drinkers (aOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.15-1.59, p = 0.001). When smoking was added to the regression model, these associations fell just below the level of significance. Results suggest that binge drinking is associated with a greater risk of insomnia among adults aged 50 years and older, although this relationship may be driven in part by current smoking behavior. The relatively high prevalence of both binge drinking and sleep complaints among middle-aged and older populations warrants further investigation into binge drinking as a potential cause of late-life insomnia. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Trends in age of smoking initiation in the Netherlands: a shift towards older ages?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuyts, Paulien A. W.; Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2018-01-01

    Background and aim As smoking initiation generally occurs in adolescence, smoking prevention is targeted primarily at young adolescents (aged below 16 years). We hypothesize that, with the adoption of increasingly stronger youth access laws, a shift in the age of smoking initiation may have

  10. Gender Differences in Hypertension Control Among Older Korean Adults: Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hui Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Controlling blood pressure is a key step in reducing cardiovascular mortality in older adults. Gender differences in patients’ attitudes after disease diagnosis and their management of the disease have been identified. However, it is unclear whether gender differences exist in hypertension management among older adults. We hypothesized that gender differences would exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control among community-dwelling, older adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 653 Koreans aged ≥60 years who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare several variables between undiagnosed and diagnosed hypertension, and between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension. Results: Diabetes was more prevalent in men and women who had uncontrolled hypertension than those with controlled hypertension or undiagnosed hypertension. High body mass index was significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension only in men. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that in women, awareness of one’s blood pressure level (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; p=0.003 and the number of blood pressure checkups over the previous year (OR, 1.06; p=0.011 might influence the likelihood of being diagnosed with hypertension. More highly educated women were more likely to have controlled hypertension than non-educated women (OR, 5.23; p=0.013. Conclusions: This study suggests that gender differences exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control in the study population of community-dwelling, older adults. Education-based health promotion strategies for hypertension control might be more effective in elderly women than in elderly men. Gender-specific approaches may be required to effectively control hypertension among older adults.

  11. Aging, hypertension and physiological tremor: the contribution of the cardioballistic impulse to tremorgenesis in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Heffernan, Kevin S; Jae, Sae Young; Fernhall, Bo

    2013-03-15

    For older adults, an increase in physiological tremor is a common motor feature. This increase is believed to primarily reflect a general decline in function of the neuromuscular system. However, given that tremor is derived from a number of intrinsic sources, age-related changes in other physiological functions like the cardiac system may also negatively alter tremor output. The aim of this study was to examine what impact age and increased cardiac input (hypertension) have on physiological tremor. Heart rate, blood pressure, and postural/resting tremor were recorded in three groups; 1) young, healthy adults, 2) old, normotensive adults, and 3) old, hypertensive adults. The results demonstrated that the old hypertensive adults had greater postural tremor compared to the young healthy individuals. Coherence analysis revealed significant coupling between blood pressure-tremor and between heart rate-tremor for all individuals. The strength of this coupling was greatest for the older, hypertensive individuals. Together these results show that, for older adults, the combined effects of age and cardiac disease have the greatest impact on physiological tremor rather than any single factor alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Thallium content in adults older than 45 ages at Hezhang County of Guizhou Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Yao, Dancheng; Feng, Jiali; Zeng, Dong; Fan, Di; Shang, Qi

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the feature of Thallium content in adults of heavy metal contaminated district due to mining of Hezhang County, Guizhou Province. METHODS The subjects older than 45 ages were randomly recruited from the mineralized district (Magu village) and no-mineralized district (Salaxi viillage) , urine of villagers were collected and thallium content in urine were detected with ICP-MS. The average thallium contents in urine of Magu villagers were higner than those of Salaxi villagers,The urinary thallium contents of female were higner than those of male. The urinary thallium contents of residents in two districts were mostly under the upper limit of exposure in human bodies. There was no villager suffered from chronic poisoning of thallium in the two observing districts, the 95% upper limits of urinary thallium content for nonoccupational women older than 45 ages in Magu village was 8 microg/gCr and those for other nonoccupational subjects older than 45 ages was 5 microg/gCr.

  13. Comparing Age-Ralated Changes of Balance Performance In Youth and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Nobahar Ahari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of current study was to compare the effect of aging on balance in different sensory conditions. Methods & Materials: In this cross sectional study we compared 20 healthy youth (with age 22.75±2.29 and 20 healthy older adults (with age 65.1±4.16 in single leg standing in different sensory conditions. Sensory conditions were open eye/ hard surface (OEHS, closed eye/ hard surface (CEHS, closed eye/ foam surface (CEFS as balance tasks. One-way ANOVA, paired t-test and Independent Sample t-test were used. Results: findings showed significant difference between youth and older adults in all three sensory conditions. In addition, in each group, there was significant difference between OEHS and CEHS/ CEFS. Hence, significant difference was seen between CEHS and CEFS in each group. Conclusion: based of our findings sensory information is more critical for balance in elderly than youth. In addition, standing on One-Leg can be used as a proper test for evaluation of older adults.

  14. Aging, not menopause, is associated with higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Eswar; Bennett, Mihoko; Chen, Linjun

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to study the associations, if any, of hyperuricemia, gout, and menopause status in the US population. Using multiyear data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we performed unmatched comparisons and one to three age-matched comparisons of women aged 20 to 70 years with and without hyperuricemia (serum urate ≥6 mg/dL). Analyses were performed using survey-weighted multiple logistic regression and conditional logistic regression, respectively. Overall, there were 1,477 women with hyperuricemia. Age and serum urate were significantly correlated. In unmatched analyses (n = 9,573 controls), postmenopausal women were older, were heavier, and had higher prevalence of renal impairment, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. In multivariable regression, after accounting for age, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate, and diuretic use, menopause was associated with hyperuricemia (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05-1.76; P = 0.002). In corresponding multivariable regression using age-matched data (n = 4,431 controls), the odds ratio for menopause was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.83-1.06). Current use of hormone therapy was not associated with prevalent hyperuricemia in both unmatched and matched analyses. Age is a better statistical explanation for the higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women than menopause status.

  15. Smoking and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2014-01-01

    % (50-59 years), 71% for (60-69 years), and 68% (70+ years) among women who smoked. Conclusions. Among smokers, the majority of CHD cases are attributable to smoking in all age groups. Smoking prevention is important, irrespective of age. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print June 13......Objectives. We investigated associations of smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) by age. Methods. Data came from the Pooling Project on Diet and Coronary Heart Disease (8 prospective studies, 1974-1996; n = 192 067 women and 74 720 men, aged 40-89 years). Results. During follow-up, 4326 cases...... years or older. The largest absolute risk differences between current smokers and never smokers were observed among the oldest participants. Finally, the majority of CHD cases among smokers were attributable to smoking. For example, attributable proportions of CHD by age group were 88% (40-49 years), 81...

  16. Obstetric Outcomes of Twin Pregnancies in Japanese Women Aged 40 and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunji

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the obstetric outcomes of twin pregnancies between Japanese women aged ≥ 40 years and their younger counterparts aged 25 - 29. This was a retrospective study of twin pregnancies managed at Japanese Red Cross Katsushika Maternity Hospital between 2002 and 2016. Women aged 40 and older at delivery (n = 117) were compared with women aged 25 - 29 at delivery (n = 536). Although the women ≥ 40 years old were more likely to have increased risks of HELLP (hemolytic, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet) syndrome and very low birth weight neonates, there were no measurable differences in obstetric outcomes such as hypertensive disorders, premature delivery and neonatal asphyxia between the two groups. Advanced maternal age did not seem to affect obstetric outcomes in twin pregnancies seriously.

  17. Pain experiences and self-management strategies among middle-aged and older adults with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Guilan; Li, Jie; Li, Xiuyun; Mao, Jing

    2013-07-01

    The purposes were (1) to explore pain experiences and the use and perceived effectiveness of pain self-management methods among middle-aged and older adults with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis in mainland China and (2) to compare those with diagnoses of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Prior research has suggested that pain is a major concern for people with arthritis. However, studies systematically investigating pain experiences and self-management status of arthritis patients are scarce in mainland China. Descriptive survey. Participants (n = 197) aged 45 and over, diagnosed with either osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, and experiencing persistent pain were administered three self-report questionnaires: the Demographic Data Questionnaire, the Brief Pain Inventory and the Pain Management Inventory. The mean of the overall pain intensity was 5.6 (SD = 1.3). The median of number of pain sites was 7.0 (QR = 7.0) and the overall pain interference was 6.0 (QR = 2.6). Most participants experienced moderate to severe pain and interference. The current methods used for managing pain were perceived as only moderately effective. The sample used a median of 4.0 (QR = 3.0) self-management methods. Most often used were prescribed medicine, massage, heat and activity pacing. Methods perceived as most helpful included prescribed medicine, over-the-counter medicine, hot baths and heat. Persons with rheumatoid arthritis had significantly more pain sites, higher pain intensity and greater number of pain management methods used compared to those with osteoarthritis. Pain management is a significant problem in this population. The findings highlight the importance of helping the individual to identify and appropriately use a variety of self-management methods, selecting the appropriate method(s) at any one time. Healthcare providers are urged to develop appropriate interventions on pain management tailored to arthritis patients in mainland China. © 2013

  18. Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunction and Associations with Psychiatric Disorders Among Women Aged 50 and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Eun; Sohn, Ji Hoon; Seong, Su Jeong; Cho, Maeng Je

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of sexual problems and associated factors, focusing particularly on comorbid psychiatric disorders, among older Korean women. A nationally representative sample of women aged 50-74 years (n=3828) responded to in-person interviews using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess psychiatric disorders and four symptoms of sexual dysfunction: (1) lack of sexual interest/sexual aversion, (2) dyspareunia, (3) loss of pleasure, and (4) other organic dysfunction (e.g., inability of sexual arousal). We examined the likelihood of sexual dysfunction by sociodemographic and clinical variables, including specific psychiatric disorders, and compared the characteristics of sexual dysfunction among women with and without a comorbid psychiatric disorder. A total of 334 (8.7%) women reported one or more symptoms of sexual dysfunction during the year preceding the interview: lack of sexual interest/sexual aversion was most prevalent (7.7%), followed by loss of pleasure (4.2%), dyspareunia (2.4%), and other organic dysfunction (0.4%). Having a psychiatric disorder was associated with a 2.7-fold increase in the probability of sexual dysfunction. Among women with sexual dysfunction, having comorbid mental disorder was associated with being unmarried status, a symptom of loss of pleasure, and a history of sexual dysfunction before 50 years of age. The present study suggests a relatively lower prevalence of sexual dysfunction than previously reported, but supports its strong association with psychiatric disorders among postmenopausal women. We should evaluate comorbid mental disorder with sexual dysfunction, especially among those having some characteristics.

  19. Goiter in adult patients aged 55 years and older: etiology and clinical features in 634 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J

    2005-07-01

    Goiter is common in older people, although the frequency of the different causes of goiter has not been well defined. Our aim has been to assess the frequency of the diverse etiologies of goiter in adult patients aged 55 years and older, and evaluate the relationships between etiology and age, sex, and goiter features. We performed a descriptive, cross-sectional study in ambulatory patients in the setting of an endocrinology clinic. Six hundred thirty-four patients (544 women, 85.8%) with goiter, aged 55-91 years, were studied. Causes of goiter were nontoxic multinodular goiter (325 patients, 51.3%); toxic multinodular goiter (151 patients, 23.8%); solitary thyroid nodule (62 patients, 9.8%); toxic adenoma (32 patients, 5.0%); Graves' disease (27 patients, 4.3%); Hashimoto's thyroiditis (25 patients, 3.9%); simple goiter (8 patients, 1.3%); thyroiditis (3 patients, 0.5%); and thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma (1 patient, 0.2%). Patients with multinodular goiter had greater thyroid size and longer time of evolution than those patients with uninodular disease. Most of the symptoms and signs associated with goiter were dependent on thyroid size and time of evolution. Age and sex conditioned the presence of retrosternal goiter and tracheal deviation, and previous therapy was related to retrosternal goiter and local symptoms. However, etiology was not associated with the presence of any symptom. Nontoxic and toxic multinodular goiter are the main etiologies of goiter in patients aged 55 years and older. Thyroid size is the main factor influencing the appearance of signs and symptoms, although age and sex are related with the presence of retrosternal goiter and tracheal deviation.

  20. Dental caries, periodontal disease, and cardiac arrhythmias in community-dwelling older persons aged 80 and older: is there a link?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Avlund, Kirsten; Morse, Douglas E

    2005-01-01

    the Kungsholmen Project, which is an ongoing, longitudinal, population-based study of the oldest old. The present study included 125 dentate individuals. MEASUREMENTS: Data from interviews, a medical examination, and an oral examination. The assessment of cardiac arrhythmia was based on a clinical examination......OBJECTIVES: To examine whether caries or periodontitis is associated with cardiac arrhythmias in community-dwelling people aged 80 and older. SETTING: Urban, community-based population in Stockholm, Sweden. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible persons were identified through...... indicate that there may be a link between active root caries and cardiac arrhythmias in the oldest old. Nevertheless, although a biological pathway is not obvious, it is plausible that both are simply markers of declining general health. The results suggest the need for further study of these relationships....

  1. Older lesbians and work in the Australian health and aged care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mark; Kentlyn, Sujay

    2015-01-01

    While research has identified challenges lesbians face in the workplace, there is limited understanding of the particular experiences of older lesbians, especially those working in the health and aged care sector. This article draws on the stories of four women who participated in a narrative research project on lesbian and gay people's experiences of health and aged care. It highlights the need for future research to examine the complexity of identity expression and community affiliation, how people negotiate "coming out" in the workplace, the impact of discrimination, and the resources (such as friends) available to lesbians in the workplace.

  2. Social stratification and tooth loss among middle-aged and older Americans from 1988 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bei; Hybels, Celia; Liang, Jersey; Landerman, Lawrence; Plassman, Brenda

    2014-12-01

    Tooth retention has improved over the past few decades, but it is not known whether these trends have been observed across all demographic/socioeconomic subgroups. We examined number of missing teeth among dentate individuals (n = 9,113) as well as edentulism and systematically modeled their trends over time by using clinical examination data. We investigated the association between social stratification and trends in tooth retention among adults ages 50+ from 1988 to 2004, using four waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) (n = 11,812). The prevalence of edentulism declined from 24.6% in NHANES III (1988-1994) to 17.4% in 2003-2004, and the mean number of missing teeth declined from 8.19 to 6.50. Older participants, Blacks, the less educated and those with lower income were higher on both edentulism and number missing teeth. Both edentulism and number of missing teeth declined over time, but their patterns varied. For edentulism, age and socioeconomic related disparities decreased over time due to more decline among older and low-income participants. For missing teeth, there was less decrement among older and low-income participants, resulting in increased age and socioeconomic related disparities. Our study found disparities in trends of tooth loss across demographic/socioeconomic strata. Findings suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are partially explained by socioeconomic status. Interventions designed to improve oral health for older adults, particularly those with low levels of income, need special attention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Strategies for continuing professional development among younger, middle-aged, and older nurses: a biographical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Inge A; Poell, Rob F; Berings, Marjolein G M C; ten Cate, Olle

    2015-05-01

    A nursing career can last for more than 40 years, during which continuing professional development is essential. Nurses participate in a variety of learning activities that correspond with their developmental motives. Lifespan psychology shows that work-related motives change with age, leading to the expectation that motives for continuing professional development also change. Nevertheless, little is known about nurses' continuing professional development strategies in different age groups. To explore continuing professional development strategies among younger, middle-aged, and older nurses. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, from a biographical perspective. Data were analysed using a vertical process aimed at creating individual learning biographies, and a horizontal process directed at discovering differences and similarities between age groups. Twenty-one nurses in three age groups from general and academic hospitals in the Netherlands. In all age groups, daily work was an important trigger for professional development on the ward. Performing extra or new tasks appeared to be an additional trigger for undertaking learning activities external to the ward. Learning experiences in nurses' private lives also contributed to their continuing professional development. Besides these similarities, the data revealed differences in career stages and private lives, which appeared to be related to differences in continuing professional development strategy; 'gaining experience and building a career' held particularly true among younger nurses, 'work-life balance' and 'keeping work interesting and varied' to middle-aged nurses, and 'consistency at work' to older nurses. Professional development strategies can aim at performing daily patient care, extra tasks and other roles. Age differences in these strategies appear to relate to tenure, perspectives on the future, and situations at home. These insights could help hospitals to orientate continuing

  4. Age differences in autobiographical memory across the adult lifespan: older adults report stronger phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Martina; Sutin, Angelina R

    2018-01-01

    As an individual's life story evolves across adulthood, the subjective experience (phenomenology) of autobiographical memory likely changes. In addition to age at retrieval, both the recency of the memory and the age when a memory is formed may be particularly important to its phenomenology. The present work examines the effect of three temporal factors on phenomenology ratings: (a) age of the participant, (b) age at the event reported in the memory, and (c) memory age (recency). A large sample of Americans (N = 1120), stratified by chronological age, recalled and rated two meaningful memories, a Turning Point and an Early Childhood Memory. Ratings of phenomenology (e.g., vividness of turning points) were higher among older adults compared to younger adults. Memories of events from the reminiscence bump were more positive in valence than events from other time periods but did not differ on other phenomenological dimensions; recent memories had stronger phenomenology than remote memories. In contrast to phenomenology, narrative content was generally unrelated to participant age, age at the event, or memory age. Overall, the findings indicate age-related differences in how meaningful memories are re-experienced.

  5. Neighborhood age structure and cognitive function in a nationally-representative sample of older adults in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Esther M; Shih, Regina A; Slaughter, Mary E; Weden, Margaret M; Cagney, Kathleen A

    2017-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that living in a neighborhood with a greater percentage of older adults is associated with better individual health, including lower depression, better self-rated health, and a decreased risk of overall mortality. However, much of the work to date suffers from four limitations. First, none of the U.S.-based studies examine the association at the national level. Second, no studies have examined three important hypothesized mechanisms - neighborhood socioeconomic status and neighborhood social and physical characteristics - which are significantly correlated with both neighborhood age structure and health. Third, no U.S. study has longitudinally examined cognitive health trajectories. We build on this literature by examining nine years of nationally-representative data from the Health and Retirement Study (2002-2010) on men and women aged 51 and over linked with Census data to examine the relationship between the percentage of adults 65 and older in a neighborhood and individual cognitive health trajectories. Our results indicate that living in a neighborhood with a greater percentage of older adults is related to better individual cognition at baseline but we did not find any significant association with cognitive decline. We also explored potential mediators including neighborhood socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood cohesion and perceived neighborhood physical disorder. We did not find evidence that neighborhood socioeconomic status explains this relationship; however, there is suggestive evidence that perceived cohesion and disorder may explain some of the association between age structure and cognition. Although more work is needed to identify the precise mechanisms, this work may suggest a potential contextual target for public health interventions to prevent cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Involving Older People in the Design, Development, and Delivery of an Innovative Module on Aging for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullo, Ellen; Greaves, Laura; Wakeling, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    As the number of older people in society increases, gaining an awareness of the needs of an aging population is important for university students from all academic backgrounds. Using a multidisciplinary approach to aging, we developed a new teaching module (NU-AGE [Newcastle University Aging Generations Education]) aimed at students enrolled in…

  7. Perceived Age Discrimination as a Mediator of the Association Between Income Inequality and Older People's Self-Rated Health in the European Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Marques, Sibila; Lima, Maria L; Abrams, Dominic; Swift, Hannah; Bratt, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    The relative income hypothesis predicts poorer health in societies with greater income inequality. This article examines whether the psychosocial factors of perceived age discrimination and (lack of) social capital may help explain the adverse effect of inequality on older people's health. Self-rated health, perceived age discrimination, and social capital were assessed in the 2008/9 European Social Survey (European Social Survey Round 4 Data, 2008). The Gini coefficient was used to represent national inequalities in income in each of the 28 European Social Survey countries. Mediation analyses (within a multilevel structural equation modeling paradigm) on a subsample of respondents over 70 years of age (N = 7,819) were used to examine whether perceived age discrimination mediates the negative effect of income inequality on older people's self-rated health. Perceived age discrimination fully mediated the associations between income inequality and self-rated health. When social capital was included into the model, only age discrimination remained a significant mediator and predictor of self-rated health. Concrete instances of age discrimination in unequal societies are an important psychosocial stressor for older people. Awareness that the perception of ageism can be an important stressor and affect older patient's self-reported health has important implications for the way health practitioners understand and treat the sources of patient's health problems in later life. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Financial capability, asset ownership, and later-age immigration: evidence from a sample of low-income older Asian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju; Lee, Eun Jeong; Huang, Jin; Kim, Junpyo

    2015-01-01

    We examined financial capability and asset ownership among low-income older Asian immigrants with special attention given to later-age immigrants who came to the United States when they were 55 years old or older. Survey data collected from supported employment program participants (N = 150) were used. The analyses demonstrated a low level of financial knowledge and asset ownership in the sample. The findings also indicated that later-age immigrants' financial-management skills, knowledge of social programs, and asset ownership were significantly lower than those of young-age immigrants. These findings call for active interventions to enhance economic security among low-income older Asian immigrants.

  9. Semantic priming in young and older adults: evidence for age constancy in automatic and attentional processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, D M; White, H; Diaz, D L

    1987-02-01

    Automatic and attentional components of semantic priming and the relation of each to episodic memory were evaluated in young and older adults. Category names served as prime words, and the relatedness of the prime to a subsequent lexical decision target was varied orthogonally with whether the target category was expected or unexpected. At a prime-target stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) of 410 ms, target words in the same category had faster lexical decision latencies than did different category targets. This effect was not significant at a 1,550-ms SOA and was attributed to automatic processes. Expected category targets had faster latencies than unexpected category targets at the 410-ms SOA, and the magnitude of the effect increased at the 1,550-ms SOA. This effect was attributed to attentional processes. These patterns of priming were obtained for both age groups, but in a surprise memory test older adults had poorer recall of primes and targets. We discuss the implications of these results for the hypothesis that older adults suffer deficits in selective attention and for the related hypothesis that attentional deficits impair semantic processing, which causes memory decrements in old age.

  10. [Mexican older adults with a wide socioeconomic perspective: health and aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rebeca; Espinoza, Mónica; Palloni, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Describe the Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México (ENASEM), also known by its name in English as the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). This article summarizes the study design, its fieldwork protocol, survey contents, scope and analytical potential. It also presents descriptive results on selected topics. This is a prospective panel study on persons aged 50 or older in the year 2000. In the baseline survey, completed in 2001 with a national and urban-rural representation, about 15 200 interviews were completed. In the follow-up survey of the same persons in 2003, 90% of the attempted contacts resulted in successful interviews, and 546 interviews were completed about individuals who had died between the 2001 and 2003 visits. Descriptive results are presented on demographic characteristics, health, life style, institutional support, pensions, employment, family help, and two-year changes in health. There is evidence of large heterogeneity among older adults in Mexico, which is illustrated in a brief and precise way in the results presented. This study and its data bases have great analytical potential for exploring multiple dimensions in the health of older adults.

  11. Age is no barrier: predictors of academic success in older learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlach, Abbie-Rose; Ward, David D.; Stuart, Kimberley E.; Summers, Mathew J.; Valenzuela, Michael J.; King, Anna E.; Saunders, Nichole L.; Summers, Jeffrey; Srikanth, Velandai K.; Robinson, Andrew; Vickers, James C.

    2017-11-01

    Although predictors of academic success have been identified in young adults, such predictors are unlikely to translate directly to an older student population, where such information is scarce. The current study aimed to examine cognitive, psychosocial, lifetime, and genetic predictors of university-level academic performance in older adults (50-79 years old). Participants were mostly female (71%) and had a greater than high school education level (M = 14.06 years, SD = 2.76), on average. Two multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. The first examined all potential predictors of grade point average (GPA) in the subset of participants who had volunteered samples for genetic analysis (N = 181). Significant predictors of GPA were then re-examined in a second multiple linear regression using the full sample (N = 329). Our data show that the cognitive domains of episodic memory and language processing, in conjunction with midlife engagement in cognitively stimulating activities, have a role in predicting academic performance as measured by GPA in the first year of study. In contrast, it was determined that age, IQ, gender, working memory, psychosocial factors, and common brain gene polymorphisms linked to brain function, plasticity and degeneration (APOE, BDNF, COMT, KIBRA, SERT) did not influence academic performance. These findings demonstrate that ageing does not impede academic achievement, and that discrete cognitive skills as well as lifetime engagement in cognitively stimulating activities can promote academic success in older adults.

  12. Physical activity in people age 80 years and older as a means of counteracting disability, balanced in relation to frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welmer, Anna-Karin; Mörck, Annika; Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe experiences of physical activity, perceived meaning, and the importance of and motives and barriers for participation in physical activity in people 80 years of age and older. A qualitative design with focus-group methodology was used. The sample consisted of 20 community-living people age 80-91 yr. Data analyses revealed 4 themes: physical activity as a part of everything else in life, joie de vivre, fear of disease and dependence, and perceptions of frailty. Our results suggest that physical activity was not seen as a separate activity but rather as a part of activities often rated as more important than the physical activity itself. Thus, when designing physical activity interventions for elderly people, health care providers should consider including time for social interaction and possibilities to be outdoors. Moreover, assessment of physical activity levels among elderly people should include the physical activity in everyday activities.

  13. Age-dependent changes in physical performance and body composition in community-dwelling Japanese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Sung Chul; Harada, Kazuhiro; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Bae, Seongryu; Harada, Kenji; Yoshida, Daisuke; Uemura, Kazuki; Anan, Yuya; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the age-dependent changes in the parameters of physical performance and body composition in Japanese older adults who are independently dwelling in the community. We also examined whether the age-dependent changes differ among physical performance and body composition parameters. Cross-sectional data from 10 092 community-dwelling older adults (mean age 73.6 years; 5296 women) were analyzed. The measures of physical performance included hand-grip strength, the five-times-sit-to-stand test, and walking speed. Body composition parameters (body weight, fat mass, and appendicular skeletal muscle mass) were measured with a bioelectrical impedance analyser. Correlations between age and the physical performance and body composition parameters were tested. The T-scores of physical performance and body composition measurements were calculated and presented according to 5-year age groups to examine the differences in age-dependent changes in physical performance and body composition parameters. All physical performance measures significantly decreased with aging. The cumulative mean T-scores according to age group showed different age-dependent changes between body mass index (BMI) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) (cumulative mean T-score change of BMI and ASMI of -5.7 to -2.9 and -12.7 to -12.1, respectively). The slope declines in age-associated changes were greater in grip strength (β = -0.77, 95% confidence interval = -0.82 to -0.76) for men and in walking speed (β = -0.95, 95% confidence interval = -0.99 to -0.90) for women. The patterns of age-dependent decreases in physical performance measures differed among parameters and between sexes. There is a possibility of a difference in the age-related slope patterns among parameters; decreases in grip strength in men and walking speed in women may be more prominent with advancing age. Furthermore, the decrease in ASMI with age is more striking than that of BMI.

  14. Attributing heart attack and stroke to "Old Age": Implications for subsequent health outcomes among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tara L; Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P; Hamm, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which older adults attribute a recent heart attack/stroke to "old age," and examined consequences for subsequent lifestyle behavior and health-care service utilization. Community-dwelling adults (N = 57, ages 73-98 years) were interviewed about their heart attack/stroke, and an objective health registry provided data on health-care utilization over a 3-year period. Endorsement of "old age" as a cause of heart attack/stroke negatively predicted lifestyle behavior change, and positively predicted frequency of physician visits and likelihood of hospitalization over the subsequent 3 years. Findings suggest the importance of considering "old age" attributions in the context of cardiovascular health events. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Unusual trend in the prevalence of trisomy 13 in mothers aged 35 and older: A population based study of national congenital anomaly data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Deepa Balachandran; Tucker, David; Hughes, Rhian; Greenacre, Judith; Morgan, Margery

    2015-07-01

    Trisomy 13 is one of the three autosomal trisomies compatible with viability. It is associated with structural anomalies, learning disability and poor survival. Advanced maternal age is the most frequently suggested risk factor. This is a population based register study to investigate the temporal trends of trisomy 13. Chromosomal trisomies were reviewed by the Welsh Congenital Anomaly Register using data from 1998-2012. All pregnancy outcomes were included. Prevalence rates and trends for all cases and for cases with mothers aged below 35 years and those aged 35 years and older were plotted for trisomy 13, 18 and 21. Possible risk factors contributing to the trend in older mothers were compared in the early and late period of the study. There were 124 cases of trisomy 13 over the 15 year period with 55 mothers aged 35 years and older. Overall prevalence was 2.5 per 10,000 total births. A significant declining trend in the prevalence of trisomy 13 in mothers aged 35 and older (χ(2) trend = 4.98, p=0.026) was noted. Rates for younger mothers were lower and remained stable. Prevalence of trisomy 18 and 21 in older mothers remained stable. The unexpected declining trend in trisomy 13 in older mothers could not be explained by the risk factors examined in this study. There have been no other reports of trends in the prevalence of trisomy 13 in older mothers in recent years. There is further need for surveillance of trends in future and in other populations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A report on older-age bipolar disorder from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Gildengers, Ariel G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the coming generation, older adults with bipolar disorder (BD) will increase in absolute numbers as well as proportion of the general population. This is the first report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorder (ISBD) Task Force on Older-Age Bipolar Disorder (OABD). METHO...

  17. Stronger Association Between Valence- and Arousal Ratings of Affective Pictures with Older Age: Evidence for Variation Across Emotion Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Lyby, Marlene Skovgaard

    A sample of older and younger adults rated affective pictures according to valence, arousal and emotion category (happiness, sadness and disgust). Results indicate that older age is associated with a stronger linear association between ratings of arousal and valence. Further, the strength...

  18. European Top Managers’ Age-Related Workplace Norms and Their Organizations’ Recruitment and Retention Practices Regarding Older Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Mulders, J.; Henkens, Kène; Schippers, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Top managers guide organizational strategy and practices, but their role in the employment of older workers is understudied. We study the effects that age-related workplace norms of top managers have on organizations’ recruitment and retention practices regarding older workers. We

  19. Religion, spirituality, and older adults with HIV: critical personal and social resources for an aging epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available David E Vance1, Mark Brennan2, Comfort Enah1, Glenda L Smith1, Jaspreet Kaur31School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2New York University College of Nursing, AIDS Community Research Initiative of America, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Psychology and Edward R. Roybal Center for Translational Research in Aging and Mobility, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: By 2015, approximately half of adults with HIV in the United States will be 50 and older. The demographic changes in this population due to successful treatment represent a unique challenge, not only in assisting these individuals to cope with their illness, but also in helping them to age successfully with this disease. Religious involvement and spirituality have been observed to promote successful aging in the general population and help those with HIV cope with their disease, yet little is known about how these resources may affect aging with HIV. Also, inherent barriers such as HIV stigma and ageism may prevent people from benefitting from religious and spiritual sources of solace as they age with HIV. In this paper, we present a model of barriers to successful aging with HIV, along with a discussion of how spirituality and religiousness may help people overcome these barriers. From this synthesis, implications for practice and research to improve the quality of life of this aging population are provided.Keywords: HIV, aging, spirituality, religion, stigma, coping, successful aging

  20. Social Determinants of Active Aging: Differences in Mortality and the Loss of Healthy Life between Different Income Levels among Older Japanese in the AGES Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Hirai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between income, mortality, and loss of years of healthy life in a sample of older persons in Japan. We analyzed 22,829 persons aged 65 or older who were functionally independent at baseline as a part of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES. Two outcome measures were adopted, mortality and loss of healthy life. Independent variables were income level and age. The occurrence of mortality and need for care during these 1,461 days were tracked. Cox regressions were used to calculate the hazard ratio for mortality and loss of healthy life by income level. We found that people with lower incomes were more likely than those with higher incomes to report worse health. For the overall sample, using the governmental administrative data, the hazard ratios of mortality and loss of healthy life-years comparing the lowest to the highest income level were 3.50 for men and 2.48 for women for mortality and 3.71 for men and 2.27 for women for loss of healthy life. When only those who responded to questions about income on the mail survey were included in the analysis, the relationships became weaker and lost statistical significance.

  1. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Incident Falls in Community Dwelling Older Men: The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Naomi; Chan, Lewis; Cumming, Robert G; Blyth, Fiona M; Handelsman, David J; Seibel, Markus J; Waite, Louise M; Le Couteur, David G; Naganathan, Vasi

    2016-12-01

    We sought to determine which lower urinary tract symptoms are associated with incident falls in community dwelling older men. The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project involves a representative sample of community dwelling men 70 years old or older in a defined geographic region in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Included in analysis were 1,090 men without neurological diseases, poor mobility or dementia at baseline. Lower urinary tract symptoms were assessed using I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) and incontinence was assessed using ICIQ (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire) at baseline. I-PSS subscores were calculated for storage and voiding symptoms. Incident falls in 1 year were determined by telephone followup every 4 months. I-PSS storage and voiding subscores were associated with falls. Urgency incontinence was associated with falls (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2.57, 95% CI 1.54-4.30). In addition, intermediate to high I-PSS storage subscores without urgency incontinence were associated with falls (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.72, 95% CI 1.24-2.38). Other types of incontinence and urgency alone without urgency incontinence were not associated with falls. Lower urinary tract storage and voiding symptoms were associated with falls in community dwelling older men. Of the symptoms of overactive bladder urgency incontinence carried a high risk of falls. Storage symptoms also contributed to the fall risk independently of urgency incontinence. Circumstances of falls among men with lower urinary tract symptoms should be explored to understand how lower urinary tract symptoms increase the fall risk and generate hypotheses regarding potential interventions. Furthermore, trials to treat lower urinary tract symptoms in older men should include falls as an end point. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Extensions of the Rosner-Colditz breast cancer prediction model to include older women and type-specific predicted risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Robert J; Colditz, Graham A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Chen, Wendy Y; Hankinson, Susan E; Willett, Walter W; Rosner, Bernard

    2017-08-01

    A breast cancer risk prediction rule previously developed by Rosner and Colditz has reasonable predictive ability. We developed a re-fitted version of this model, based on more than twice as many cases now including women up to age 85, and further extended it to a model that distinguished risk factor prediction of tumors with different estrogen/progesterone receptor status. We compared the calibration and discriminatory ability of the original, the re-fitted, and the type-specific models. Evaluation used data from the Nurses' Health Study during the period 1980-2008, when 4384 incident invasive breast cancers occurred over 1.5 million person-years. Model development used two-thirds of study subjects and validation used one-third. Predicted risks in the validation sample from the original and re-fitted models were highly correlated (ρ = 0.93), but several parameters, notably those related to use of menopausal hormone therapy and age, had different estimates. The re-fitted model was well-calibrated and had an overall C-statistic of 0.65. The extended, type-specific model identified several risk factors with varying associations with occurrence of tumors of different receptor status. However, this extended model relative to the prediction of any breast cancer did not meaningfully reclassify women who developed breast cancer to higher risk categories, nor women remaining cancer free to lower risk categories. The re-fitted Rosner-Colditz model has applicability to risk prediction in women up to age 85, and its discrimination is not improved by consideration of varying associations across tumor subtypes.

  3. The Aging Urban Brain: Analyzing Outdoor Physical Activity Using the Emotiv Affectiv Suite in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Chris; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Tilley, Sara; Mavros, Panagiotis; Cinderby, Steve; Coyne, Richard; Thin, Neil; Bennett, Gary; Thompson, Catharine Ward

    2017-12-01

    This research directly assesses older people's neural activation in response to a changing urban environment while walking, as measured by electroencephalography (EEG). The study builds on previous research that shows changes in cortical activity while moving through different urban settings. The current study extends this methodology to explore previously unstudied outcomes in older people aged 65 years or more (n = 95). Participants were recruited to walk one of six scenarios pairing urban busy (a commercial street with traffic), urban quiet (a residential street) and urban green (a public park) spaces in a counterbalanced design, wearing a mobile Emotiv EEG headset to record real-time neural responses to place. Each walk lasted around 15 min and was undertaken at the pace of the participant. We report on the outputs for these responses derived from the Emotiv Affectiv Suite software, which creates emotional parameters ('excitement', 'frustration', 'engagement' and 'meditation') with a real-time value assigned to them. The six walking scenarios were compared using a form of high dimensional correlated component regression (CCR) on difference data, capturing the change between one setting and another. The results showed that levels of 'engagement' were higher in the urban green space compared to those of the urban busy and urban quiet spaces, whereas levels of 'excitement' were higher in the urban busy environment compared with those of the urban green space and quiet urban space. In both cases, this effect is shown regardless of the order of exposure to these different environments. These results suggest that there are neural signatures associated with the experience of different urban spaces which may reflect the older age of the sample as well as the condition of the spaces themselves. The urban green space appears to have a restorative effect on this group of older adults.

  4. Effects of insulin resistance on white matter microstructure in middle-aged and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Jean-Philippe; Rosas, H. Diana; Salat, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and white matter (WM) microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging in cognitively healthy middle-aged and older adults. Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging was acquired from 127 individuals (age range 41–86 years). IR was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Participants were divided into 2 groups based on HOMA-IR values: “high HOMA-IR” (≥2.5, n = 27) and “low HOMA-IR” (HOMA-IR group demonstrated decreased axial diffusivity broadly throughout the cerebral WM in areas such as the corpus callosum, corona radiata, cerebral peduncle, posterior thalamic radiation, and right superior longitudinal fasciculus, and WM underlying the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes, as well as decreased fractional anisotropy in the body and genu of corpus callosum and parts of the superior and anterior corona radiata, compared with the low HOMA-IR group, independent of age, WM signal abnormality volume, and antihypertensive medication status. These regions additionally demonstrated linear associations between diffusion measures and HOMA-IR across all subjects, with higher HOMA-IR values being correlated with lower axial diffusivity. Conclusions: In generally healthy adults, greater IR is associated with alterations in WM tissue integrity. These cross-sectional findings suggest that IR contributes to WM microstructural alterations in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:24771537

  5. Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in people aged 50 years and older in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Gábor; Szabó, Dorottya; Sándor, Gábor L; Szalai, Irén; Lukács, Regina; Pék, Anita; Tóth, Georgina Z; Papp, András; Nagy, Zoltán Z; Limburg, Hans; Németh, János

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the population aged 50 years and older in Hungary, and to assess the coverage of diabetic eye care services. In total, 105 clusters of 35 people aged 50 years or older were randomly selected. The standardised rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) with the diabetic retinopathy module (DRM) was used. Participants were classified as having DM if they were known to have DM or if their random blood glucose level was ≥200 mg/dL. Dilated fundus examination and Scottish DR grading were performed. In total, 3523 (95.9%) out of 3675 eligible subjects were examined. And 705 (20.0%) out of 3523 had known (661) or newly diagnosed DM (44). Twenty per cent of participants with known DM had a blood glucose level ≥200 mg/dL, and 27.4% had never had an ophthalmological examination for DR. Prevalence of DR and/or maculopathy was 20.7% and prevalence of sight-threatening DR (STDR) was 4.3% in one or both eyes among participants with DM. Prevalence of DM was in line with findings of other RAAB+DRM surveys and slightly lower than the unpublished earlier age-matched Hungarian estimate. Prevalence of DR was slightly lower than expected. The prevalence of STDR was low in people aged 50 years and older in Hungary compared with the results of other RAAB with DRM surveys. DR screening coverage was low. To prevent severe complications of DM and possible concomitant visual loss, the coverage of ophthalmic examinations in patients with DM should be increased. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. A report on older-age bipolar disorder from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Gildengers, Ariel G; Dols, Annemiek; Al Jurdi, Rayan K; Forester, Brent P; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Beyer, John; Manes, Facundo; Rej, Soham; Rosa, Adriane R; Schouws, Sigfried NTM; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Young, Robert C; Shulman, Kenneth I

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the coming generation, older adults with bipolar disorder (BD) will increase in absolute numbers as well as proportion of the general population. This is the first report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorder (ISBD) Task Force on Older-Age Bipolar Disorder (OABD). Methods This task force report addresses the unique aspects of OABD including epidemiology and clinical features, neuropathology and biomarkers, physical health, cognition, and care approaches. Results The report describes an expert consensus summary on OABD that is intended to advance the care of patients, and shed light on issues of relevance to BD research across the lifespan. Although there is still a dearth of research and health efforts focused on older adults with BD, emerging data has brought some answers, innovative questions, and novel perspectives related to the notion of late onset, medical comorbidity, and the vexing issue of cognitive impairment and decline. Conclusions Improving our understanding of the biological, clinical, and social underpinnings relevant to OABD is an indispensable step in building a complete map of BD across the lifespan. PMID:26384588

  7. A report on older-age bipolar disorder from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Gildengers, Ariel G; Dols, Annemiek; Al Jurdi, Rayan K; Forester, Brent P; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Beyer, John; Manes, Facundo; Rej, Soham; Rosa, Adriane R; Schouws, Sigfried Ntm; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Young, Robert C; Shulman, Kenneth I

    2015-11-01

    In the coming generation, older adults with bipolar disorder (BD) will increase in absolute numbers as well as proportion of the general population. This is the first report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorder (ISBD) Task Force on Older-Age Bipolar Disorder (OABD). This task force report addresses the unique aspects of OABD including epidemiology and clinical features, neuropathology and biomarkers, physical health, cognition, and care approaches. The report describes an expert consensus summary on OABD that is intended to advance the care of patients, and shed light on issues of relevance to BD research across the lifespan. Although there is still a dearth of research and health efforts focused on older adults with BD, emerging data have brought some answers, innovative questions, and novel perspectives related to the notion of late onset, medical comorbidity, and the vexing issue of cognitive impairment and decline. Improving our understanding of the biological, clinical, and social underpinnings relevant to OABD is an indispensable step in building a complete map of BD across the lifespan. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Aged care managers' perceptions of staff preparedness for caring for older survivors of genocide and mass trauma in Australia: How prepared are aged care workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshuva, Karen; Wells, Yvonne

    2017-03-01

    To investigate aged care managers' perceptions of staff preparedness for working with older people who experienced genocide or mass trauma earlier in their lives (referred to in this paper as 'older survivors'). A survey of 60 aged care service managers was conducted (50% response rate). Trauma knowledge and skills scales with Cronbach's alpha scores of 0.74 and 0.90 respectively, were used. Scores across groups were compared using Student's t-tests. Three-quarters of the respondents reported that their agency had provided aged care services for older survivors. The majority of these managers perceived their staff to be moderately informed about trauma-related issues and half rated staff trauma-related skills positively. These ratings were positively associated with trauma-related staff training, service type and service location. Results suggest that, overall, managers perceive a need to improve aged care staff's preparedness for providing care for older survivors. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  9. Hippocampal Sclerosis in Older Patients: Practical Examples and Guidance With a Focus on Cerebral Age-Related TDP-43 With Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cykowski, Matthew D; Powell, Suzanne Z; Schulz, Paul E; Takei, Hidehiro; Rivera, Andreana L; Jackson, Robert E; Roman, Gustavo; Jicha, Gregory A; Nelson, Peter T

    2017-08-01

    - Autopsy studies of the older population (≥65 years of age), and particularly of the "oldest-old" (≥85 years of age), have identified a significant proportion (∼20%) of cognitively impaired patients in which hippocampal sclerosis is the major substrate of an amnestic syndrome. Hippocampal sclerosis may also be comorbid with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer disease, and Lewy body disease. Until recently, the terms hippocampal sclerosis of aging or hippocampal sclerosis dementia were applied in this context. Recent discoveries have prompted a conceptual expansion of hippocampal sclerosis of aging because (1) cellular inclusions of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) are frequent; (2) TDP-43 pathology may be found outside hippocampus; and (3) brain arteriolosclerosis is a common, possibly pathogenic, component. - To aid pathologists with recent recommendations for diagnoses of common neuropathologies in older persons, particularly hippocampal sclerosis, and highlight the recent shift in diagnostic terminology from HS-aging to cerebral age-related TDP-43 with sclerosis (CARTS). - Peer-reviewed literature and 5 autopsy examples that illustrate common age-related neuropathologies, including CARTS, and emphasize the importance of distinguishing CARTS from late-onset frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology and from advanced Alzheimer disease with TDP-43 pathology. - In advanced old age, the substrates of cognitive impairment are often multifactorial. This article demonstrates common and frequently comorbid neuropathologic substrates of cognitive impairment in the older population, including CARTS, to aid those practicing in this area of pathology.

  10. Bone Turnover Does Not Reflect Skeletal Aging in Older Hispanic Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianon, N.; McCormick, J.; Ambrose, C.; Smith, S. M.; Fisher-Hoch, S.

    2016-01-01

    The paradox of fragility fracture in the presence of non-osteoporotic bone mineral density in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) makes it difficult to clinically predict fracture in this vulnerable group. Serum osteocalcin (OC), a marker of bone turnover, increases with normal skeletal aging indicating risk of fracture. However, OC has been reported to be lower in patients with DM2. An inverse association between higher glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c) and lower serum OC in older DM2 patients triggered discussions encouraging further investigation. A key question to be answered is whether changes in glucose metabolism is responsible for bone metabolic changes, ultimately leading to increased risk of fragility fractures in DM2 patients. While these studies were conducted among Caucasian and Asian populations, this has not been studied in Hispanic populations who suffer from a higher prevalence of DM2. The Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC) in Texas is a homogeneous Hispanic cohort known to have high prevalence of DM2 (30%). Our preliminary data from this cohort reported OC levels lower than the suggested threshold for fragility fracture in post-menopausal women. We further investigated whether bone turnover in older CCHC adults with DM2 show a normal pattern of skeletal aging. Samples and data were obtained from a nested cohort of 68 (21 men and 47 women) Hispanic older adults (=50 years) who had a diagnosis of DM2. Given high prevalence of uncontrolled DM2 in this cohort, we divided population into two groups: i) poor DM2 control with HbA1c level =8 (48% men and 38% women) and ii) good DM2 control with HbA1c level women. Bone turnover in older Hispanic men with DM2 in our study does not reflect normal pattern of skeletal aging. It is unclear why similar results were not identified in women. We will continue to follow this cohort to investigate longitudinal trend of changes of bone turnover and its relationship with HbA1c in both men and women

  11. Life styles related to coronary artery disease in Saudi Males older than 12 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Turki, Yousef Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    The present study highlighted life styles related to coronary artery disease risk factors among patients attending a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 18/4/2006 to 13/6/2006. All adult male patients older than 12 years of age who attended one consultant primary care clinic were included in the study. All patients were interviewed by one consultant in family medicine during the study period. The patients were asked about dietary habits, physical activity and type of exercise, and smoking habits. Weight and height was taken for all patients by the nurse in the clinic and body mass index (BMI) were calculated for all patients. The total number of participants was 246 patients. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 246 male adult patients, 45.4% always consumed vegetables and fruits in their diet, 21.5% exercised on a daily basis, 51.2% exercised sometimes and 26% did not exercise at all. The type of exercise practiced by active participants was walking (76.5%) and sports (22.9%). Sports included football, basketball, swimming and other sports club activity. Only 20.7% of the participants had an ideal body weight (BMI =30). 8.9% of the participants were current smokers. Overweight and obesity is a common health problem among male adult patients attending a primary care setting. Improved dietary habits (consumption of vegetables and fruits and minimization of fat and suits) encouraging exercise and walking and helping current smokers to quit smoking are essential steps towards improving life styles in the community. It is an important health plan priority to concentrate on improving life styles in the Saudi community, to prevent cardiovascular risk

  12. Falls in young, middle-aged and older community dwelling adults: perceived cause, environmental factors and injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metter E Jeffery

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls in older people have been characterized extensively in the literature, however little has been reported regarding falls in middle-aged and younger adults. The objective of this paper is to describe the perceived cause, environmental influences and resultant injuries of falls in 1497 young (20–45 years, middle-aged (46–65 years and older (> 65 years men and women from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging. Methods A descriptive study where participants completed a fall history questionnaire describing the circumstances surrounding falls in the previous two years. Results The reporting of falls increased with age from 18% in young, to 21% in middle-aged and 35% in older adults, with higher rates in women than men. Ambulation was cited as the cause of the fall most frequently in all gender and age groups. Our population reported a higher percentage of injuries (70.5% than previous studies. The young group reported injuries most frequently to wrist/hand, knees and ankles; the middle-aged to their knees and the older group to their head and knees. Women reported a higher percentage of injuries in all age groups. Conclusion This is the first study to compare falls in young, middle and older aged men and women. Significant differences were found between the three age groups with respect to number of falls, activities engaged in prior to falling, perceived causes of the fall and where they fell.

  13. A Perspective on Middle-Aged and Older Men With Functional Hypogonadism: Focus on Holistic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Alvin M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Context: Middle-aged and older men (≥50 years), especially those who are obese and suffer from comorbidities, not uncommonly present with clinical features consistent with androgen deficiency and modestly reduced testosterone levels. Commonly, such men do not demonstrate anatomical hypothalamic–pituitary–testicular axis pathology but have functional hypogonadism that is potentially reversible. Evidence Acquisition: Literature review from 1970 to October 2016. Evidence Synthesis: Although definitive randomized controlled trials are lacking, evidence suggests that in such men, lifestyle measures to achieve weight loss and optimization of comorbidities, including discontinuation of offending medications, lead to clinical improvement and a modest increase in testosterone. Also, androgen deficiency–like symptoms and end-organ deficits respond to targeted treatments (such as phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction) without evidence that hypogonadal men are refractory. Unfortunately, lifestyle interventions remain difficult and may be insufficient even if successful. Testosterone therapy should be considered primarily for men who have significant clinical features of androgen deficiency and unequivocally low testosterone levels. Testosterone should be initiated either concomitantly with a trial of lifestyle measures, or after such a trial fails, after a tailored diagnostic work-up, exclusion of contraindications, and appropriate counseling. Conclusions: There is modest evidence that functional hypogonadism responds to lifestyle measures and optimization of comorbidities. If achievable, these interventions may have demonstrable health benefits beyond the potential for increasing testosterone levels. Therefore, treatment of underlying causes of functional hypogonadism and of symptoms should be used either as an initial or adjunctive approach to testosterone therapy. PMID:28359097

  14. Impact of an Aging Simulation Game on Pharmacy Students’ Empathy for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiersma, Mary E.; Yehle, Karen S.; Plake, Kimberly S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate changes in empathy and perceptions as well as game experiences among student pharmacists participating in an aging simulation game. Methods. First-year student pharmacists participated in an aging simulation game. Changes were measured pre/post-activity using the Kiersma-Chen Empathy Scale (KCES) and Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Health Professions Scale (JSE-HPS) for empathy and the Aging Simulation Experience Survey (ASES) for perceptions of older adults’ experiences and game experiences. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to determine changes. Results. One hundred fifty-six student pharmacists completed the instruments. Empathy using the KCES and JSE-HPS improved significantly. Of the 13 items in the ASES, 9 significantly improved. Conclusion. Simulation games may help students overcome challenges demonstrating empathy and positive attitudes toward elderly patients. PMID:26396274

  15. Impact of an Aging Simulation Game on Pharmacy Students' Empathy for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aleda M H; Kiersma, Mary E; Yehle, Karen S; Plake, Kimberly S

    2015-06-25

    To evaluate changes in empathy and perceptions as well as game experiences among student pharmacists participating in an aging simulation game. First-year student pharmacists participated in an aging simulation game. Changes were measured pre/post-activity using the Kiersma-Chen Empathy Scale (KCES) and Jefferson Scale of Empathy--Health Professions Scale (JSE-HPS) for empathy and the Aging Simulation Experience Survey (ASES) for perceptions of older adults' experiences and game experiences. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to determine changes. One hundred fifty-six student pharmacists completed the instruments. Empathy using the KCES and JSE-HPS improved significantly. Of the 13 items in the ASES, 9 significantly improved. Simulation games may help students overcome challenges demonstrating empathy and positive attitudes toward elderly patients.

  16. Challenging cisgenderism in the ageing and aged care sector: Meeting the needs of older people of trans and/or non-binary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansara, Y Gavriel

    2015-10-01

    Recent Australian legislative and policy changes can benefit people of trans and/or non-binary experience (e.g. men assigned female with stereotypically 'female' bodies, women assigned male with stereotypically 'male' bodies, and people who identify as genderqueer, agender [having no gender], bi-gender [having two genders] or another gender option). These populations often experience cisgenderism, which previous research defined as 'the ideology that invalidates people's own understanding of their genders and bodies'. Some documented forms of cisgenderism include pathologising (treating people's genders and bodies as disordered) and misgendering (disregarding people's own understanding and classifications of their genders and bodies). This system of classifying people's lived experiences of gender and body invalidation is called the cisgenderism framework. Applying the cisgenderism framework in the ageing and aged care sector can enhance service providers' ability to meet the needs of older people of trans and/or non-binary experience. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  17. Leg strength declines with advancing age despite habitual endurance exercise in active older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Taylor J; Hawkins, Steven A; Wiswell, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Age-associated loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia) is associated with a loss of independence that contributes to falls, fractures, and nursing home admissions, whereas regular physical activity has been suggested to offset these losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of habitual endurance exercise on muscle mass and strength in active older adults. A longitudinal analysis of muscle strength (≈4.8 years apart) was performed on 59 men (age at start of study: 58.6 ± 7.3 years) and 35 women (56.9 ± 8.2 years) who used endurance running as their primary mode of exercise. There were no changes in fat-free mass although body fat increased minimally (1.0-1.5%). Training volume (km·wk, d·wk) decreased in both the men and women. There was a significant loss of both isometric knee extension (≈5% per year) and knee flexion (≈3.6% per year) strength in both the men and women. However, there was no significant change in either isokinetic concentric or eccentric torque of the knee extensors. Our data demonstrated a significant decline in isometric knee extensor and knee flexor strength although there were no changes in body mass in this group of very active older men and women. Our data support newer exercise guidelines for older Americans suggesting resistance training be an integral component of a fitness program and that running alone was not sufficient to prevent the loss in muscle strength (dynapenia) with aging.

  18. Loneliness of older people aged 70: a comparison of two Finnish cohorts born 20 years apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloranta, Sini; Arve, Seija; Isoaho, Hannu; Lehtonen, Aapo; Viitanen, Matti

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine loneliness among two birth cohorts, born 20 years apart, when they were 70 years of age, and to identify factors explaining loneliness. The cohorts consisted of older home-dwelling residents of Turku, Finland, from the birth cohort 1920 in 1991 (N=1530) and the birth cohort 1940 in 2011 (N=1307). Suffering from loneliness was assessed with the question: 'Do you suffer from loneliness?' Cross-tabulations with chi-square test, general linear model (GLM) and multiple regression analysis were used in statistical testing and modeling. In the 1940 cohort, around one-fifth (18%) of the respondents suffered from loneliness at least sometimes, while the corresponding figure in the 1920 cohort was around one-fourth (26%). Our analyses indicated that the effect of cohort was not a statistically significant explanatory factor of loneliness. Living status, self-rated health and memory compared to age peers were statistically significant explanatory factors for suffering from loneliness. When we controlled the effect of depressiveness on the experience of loneliness, it was shown that the effects of living status and self-rated health remained statistically significant, whereas memory compared to age peers did not. Depressiveness itself was highly important. The combined effect of living status and self-rated health emerged as the most significant explanatory factor for loneliness. Older people with poor self-rated health who lived alone were most likely to suffer from loneliness. The findings give healthcare professionals an opportunity to plan for interventions aimed at combating loneliness among home-dwelling older people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dermatological disease in the older age group: a cross-sectional study in aged care facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Maneka S; Vandal, Alain C; Jarrett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dermatological disease in aged care facilities, and the relationship between cognitive or physical disability and significant disease. Setting 2 large aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand, each providing low and high level care. Participants All 161 residents of the facilities were invited to participate. The only exclusion criterion was inability to obtain consent from the individual or designated guardian. 88 participants were recruited—66 females (75%), 22 males (25%) with average age 87.1 years (SD 5.5 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary—presence of significant skin disease (defined as that which in the opinion of the investigators needed treatment or was identified as a patient concern) diagnosed clinically on full dermatological examination by a dermatologist or dermatology trainee. Secondary—functional and cognitive status (Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Abbreviated Mental Test Score). Results 81.8% were found to have at least one significant condition. The most common disorders were onychomycosis 42 (47.7%), basal cell carcinoma 13 (14.8%), asteototic eczema 11 (12.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ 9 (10.2%). Other findings were invasive squamous cell carcinoma 7 (8%), bullous pemphigoid 2 (2.3%), melanoma 2 (2.3%), lichen sclerosus 2 (2.3%) and carcinoma of the breast 1 (1.1%). Inflammatory disease was more common in those with little physical disability compared with those with serious physical disability (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6, p=0.04). No significant association was found between skin disease and cognitive impairment. Conclusions A high rate of dermatological disease was found. Findings ranged from frequent but not life-threatening conditions (eg, onychomycosis), to those associated with a significant morbidity (eg, eczema, lichen sclerosus and bullous pemphigoid), to potentially life-threatening (eg, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and breast cancer

  20. Social networks and alcohol use among older adults: a comparison with middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungyoun; Spilman, Samantha L; Liao, Diana H; Sacco, Paul; Moore, Alison A

    2018-04-01

    This study compared the association between social networks and alcohol consumption among middle-aged (MA) and older adults (OA) to better understand the nature of the relationship between those two factors among OA and MA. We examined Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Current drinkers aged over 50 were subdivided into two age groups: MA (50-64, n = 5214) and OA (65 and older, n = 3070). Each age group was stratified into drinking levels (low-risk vs. at-risk) based on alcohol consumption. The size and diversity of social networks were measured. Logistic regression models were used to examine age differences in the association between the social networks (size and diversity) and the probability of at-risk drinking among two age groups. A significant association between the social networks diversity and lower odds of at-risk drinking was found among MA and OA. However, the relationship between the diversity of social networks and the likelihood of at-risk drinking was weaker for OA than for MA. The association between social networks size and at-risk drinking was not significant among MA and OA. The current study suggests that the association between social networks diversity and alcohol use among OA differs from the association among MA, and few social networks were associated with alcohol use among OA. In the future, research should consider an in-depth exploration of the nature of social networks and alcohol consumption by using longitudinal designs and advanced methods of exploring drinking networks.

  1. Old, older and too old: age limits for medically assisted fatherhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Andrea Mechanick

    2017-02-01

    How old is too old to be a father? Can you be a little bit older or "old-ish" to be a dad without being considered an "older dad"? At some point, does one simply become too old to be a father? Unless a man requires medical assistance in family building, that answer has historically turned solely on his opportunity to have a willing female partner of reproductive age. As with so many other aspects of family building, assisted reproductive technologies have transformed the possibilities for-and spawned heated debates about-maternal age. Much attention has been given to this contentious topic for potential mothers, with many programs putting age-related limitations in place for their female patients. This article considers whether there should also be limits-and how we should approach that question-for men who require and seek medical assistance to become fathers. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cortisol and physical performance in older populations: Findings from the international mobility in aging study (IMIAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Carolina Patrício de Albuquerque; Marchand, Alain; Garcia, Angeles; Gomez, Jose Fernando; Ylli, Alban; Guralnik, Jack M; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    To compare diurnal cortisol profiles across samples of older adults from diverse populations and to examine if differences in circadian cortisol secretion are associated with poor physical performance (SPPBMobility in Aging Study conducted in 2012 in Kingston (Canada), Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Tirana (Albania) and Manizales (Colombia). Salivary cortisol was collected from a subsample of 309 participants instructed to collect saliva on two consecutive days, and 5 different intervals each day: upon awakening (M1), 30min (M2) and 60min after awakening, at 15:00h and before bedtime (E). Cortisol was analyzed using enzyme immunoassay kits. Physical performance was measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Mixed linear models were fit to assess the associations between cortisol diurnal output and physical performance, adjusting for potential confounders. Kingston, Saint-Hyacinthe and Tirana residents had significantly higher cortisol values than their Manizales counterparts, with the population from Tirana showing the highest levels. Attenuated morning cortisol peak (M2) (p=0.025), higher cortisol bed time (E) (p=0.005), and lower M2/E ratio (pprofiles varied across four diverse populations of older adults. Circadian cortisol secretion is associated with physical performance as an attenuated morning response and higher bed time values were observed in older adults with SPPB<9. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender and health control beliefs among middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2015-03-01

    Internal health locus of control (HLOC) reflects individuals' beliefs that their own behavior influences their health. This study explores the gender difference in internal HLOC among middle-aged and older adults. Using data from two waves of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS; N = 1,748), I estimate two-level random-intercept models predicting internal HLOC. Women report higher levels of health control beliefs than men, especially in older cohorts born in the 1920s and 1930s. Adjustment for health, socioeconomic status, generalized control, and masculinity increases this gender gap, whereas adjustment for femininity and religiosity significantly reduces this difference. Women's higher religiosity and more feminine traits, such as warmth, nurturance, and care, partly explain their higher internal HLOC relative to men. Because femininity and religiosity are positively associated with other-orientation, interventions to increase communal orientation may enhance beliefs in proactive responsibility for one's health among older adults. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Electrophysiology and Perception of Speech in Noise in Older Listeners: Effects of Hearing Impairment and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Curtis J; Penman, Tina M; McMillan, Garnett P; Ellis, Emily M

    2015-01-01

    Speech perception in background noise is difficult for many individuals, and there is considerable performance variability across listeners. The combination of physiological and behavioral measures may help to understand sources of this variability for individuals and groups and prove useful clinically with hard-to-test populations. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) determine the effect of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal level on cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) and sentence-level perception in older normal-hearing (ONH) and older hearing-impaired (OHI) individuals, (2) determine the effects of hearing impairment and age on CAEPs and perception, and (3) explore how well CAEPs correlate with and predict speech perception in noise. Two groups of older participants (15 ONH and 15 OHI) were tested using speech-in-noise stimuli to measure CAEPs and sentence-level perception of speech. The syllable /ba/, used to evoke CAEPs, and sentences were presented in speech-spectrum background noise at four signal levels (50, 60, 70, and 80 dB SPL) and up to seven SNRs (-10, -5, 0, 5, 15, 25, and 35 dB). These data were compared between groups to reveal the hearing impairment effect and then combined with previously published data for 15 young normal-hearing individuals to determine the aging effect. Robust effects of SNR were found for perception and CAEPs. Small but significant effects of signal level were found for perception, primarily at poor SNRs and high signal levels, and in some limited instances for CAEPs. Significant effects of age were seen for both CAEPs and perception, while hearing impairment effects were only found with perception measures. CAEPs correlate well with perception and can predict SNR50s to within 2 dB for ONH. However, prediction error is much larger for OHI and varies widely (from 6 to 12 dB) depending on the model that was used for prediction. When background noise is present, SNR dominates both perception-in-noise testing

  5. Fatigue in older adults: An early indicator of the aging process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of research on fatigue in older adults, with a focus on fatigue as an early indicator of the aging process. Fatigue is a strong predictor of functional limitations, disability, mortality, and other adverse outcomes in young-old and old-old populations......, between men and women, and in different geographic localities. Several biological, physiological and social explanations are proposed: fatigue may be seen not only as a self-reported indicator of frailty, defined as a physiologic state of increased vulnerability to stressors, which results from decreased...

  6. Age-Related Trajectories of Memory Function in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with and without Hearing Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shang-Te; Chiu, Ching-Ju

    2016-01-01

    To examine age-related trajectories of memory function associated with hearing status and to explore potential confounding by sociodemographic, physiological, and behavioral factors in that link. A national representative sample of Taiwanese adults ≥50 years with and without hearing impairment in 1996 (n = 4,707) were interviewed every 3-4 years until 2007. Cross-sectional and prospective associations between hearing impairment and memory function were determined using multilevel modeling. In bivariate analyses, hearing impairment was associated not only with poor memory function but also with sociodemographic, behavioral and self-rated health status and chronic conditions. These factors, however, did not confound the relationship of hearing impairment with the level or rate of change in the modified Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (m-RAVLT) score - hearing impairment increased the age-related differences in the intercept of the memory function by 25.6%, and that the association was significantly greater in older people than in younger people, but hearing impairment was not associated with the slope of the cognitive trajectory over time. Hearing impairment and the m-RAVLT score at any point in time may have partially combined pathologic mechanisms with age. The vascular risk covariates we considered might also share the etiological pathways and be part of important prevention strategies for guarding against age-related memory decline in the future. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Evaluating the physiological reserves of older patients with cancer: the value of potential biomarkers of aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallis, Athanasios G; Hatse, Sigrid; Brouwers, Barbara; Pawelec, Graham; Falandry, Claire; Wedding, Ulrich; Lago, Lissandra Dal; Repetto, Lazzaro; Ring, Alistair; Wildiers, Hans

    2014-04-01

    Aging of an individual entails a progressive decline of functional reserves and loss of homeostasis that eventually lead to mortality. This process is highly individualized and is influenced by multiple genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. This individualization and the diversity of factors influencing aging result in a significant heterogeneity among people with the same chronological age, representing a major challenge in daily oncology practice. Thus, many factors other than mere chronological age will contribute to treatment tolerance and outcome in the older patients with cancer. Clinical/comprehensive geriatric assessment can provide information on the general health status of individuals, but is far from perfect as a prognostic/predictive tool for individual patients. On the other hand, aging can also be assessed in terms of biological changes in certain tissues like the blood compartment which result from adaptive alterations due to past history of exposures, as well as intrinsic aging processes. There are major signs of 'aging' in lymphocytes (e.g. lymphocyte subset distribution, telomere length, p16INK4A expression), and also in (inflammatory) cytokine expression and gene expression patterns. These result from a combination of the above two processes, overlaying genetic predispositions which contribute significantly to the aging phenotype. These potential "aging biomarkers" might provide additional prognostic/predictive information supplementing clinical evaluation. The purpose of the current paper is to describe the most relevant potential "aging biomarkers" (markers that indicate the biological functional age of patients) which focus on the biological background, the (limited) available clinical data, and technical challenges. Despite their great potential interest, there is a need for much more (validated) clinical data before these biomarkers could be used in a routine clinical setting. This manuscript tries to provide a guideline on how

  8. Self-silencing and age as risk factors for sexually acquired HIV in midlife and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Robin J; Thomlison, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    Objectives. This study explores the contribution of psychosocial factors on sex behaviors of midlife and older women. Methods. A community-based sample of ethnically diverse women (N = 572) between the ages of 50 and 93 completed standardized measures of self-silencing, self-esteem, sensation seeking behavior, HIV-related stigma behavior, sexual assertiveness, and safer sex behaviors. Results. Results from the regression analysis indicated the model significantly predicted safer sex behaviors (p HIV stigma (p < .05) and safer sex behaviors. Discussion. Implications for further study and practice are discussed to include considerations for development of age- and gender-appropriate prevention interventions assisting women with interpersonal processes combined with skills for active involvement in addressing high-risk sex behaviors.

  9. European Top Managers' Age-Related Workplace Norms and Their Organizations' Recruitment and Retention Practices Regarding Older Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Mulders, Jaap; Henkens, Kène; Schippers, Joop

    2017-10-01

    Top managers guide organizational strategy and practices, but their role in the employment of older workers is understudied. We study the effects that age-related workplace norms of top managers have on organizations' recruitment and retention practices regarding older workers. We investigate two types of age-related workplace norms, namely age equality norms (whether younger and older workers should be treated equally) and retirement age norms (when older workers are expected to retire) while controlling for organizational and national contexts. Data collected among top managers of 1,088 organizations from six European countries were used for the study. Logistic regression models were run to estimate the effects of age-related workplace norms on four different organizational outcomes: (a) recruiting older workers, (b) encouraging working until normal retirement age, (c) encouraging working beyond normal retirement age, and (d) rehiring retired former employees. Age-related workplace norms of top managers affect their organizations' practices, but in different ways. Age equality norms positively affect practices before the boundary of normal retirement age (Outcomes a and b), whereas retirement age norms positively affect practices after the boundary of normal retirement age (Outcomes c and d). Changing age-related workplace norms of important actors in organizations may be conducive to better employment opportunities and a higher level of employment participation of older workers. However, care should be taken to target the right types of norms, since targeting different norms may yield different outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Smoking Cessation and 16-year Trajectories of Functional Limitations Among Dutch Older Adults: Results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Erik J.; Huisman, Martijn; Kok, Almar A. L.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined whether smoking cessation in middle age and old age is associated with following a successful trajectory of functional limitations over time in Dutch older adults. We used 16-year longitudinal data from 645 participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Three types of

  11. Risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries in adults 85 years of age and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstrom, Anna C; Guse, Clare E; Layde, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Falls are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. No previous studies on risk factors for falls have focused on adults 85 years and older, the most rapidly growing segment of adults. We examined demographic, health, and behavioral risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries in adults 65 years and older, with a particular focus on adults 85 years and older. We analyzed self-reported information from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 2008. Data was available for 120,923 people aged 65 or older and 12,684 people aged 85 or older. Of those aged 85 or older, 21.3% reported at least one fall in the past 3 months and 7.2% reported at least one fall related injury requiring medical care or limiting activity for a day or longer. Below average general health, male sex, perceived insufficient sleep, health problems requiring assistive devices, alcohol consumption, increasing body mass index and history of stroke were all independently associated with a greater risk of falls or fall related injuries. The greater risk of falling in those 85 years and older appeared to be due to the deterioration of overall health status with age; among those with excellent overall health status, there was no greater risk of falling in adults 85 years and older compared to those 65-84 years of age. Our results suggest that those with risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries may be appropriate targets for evidence-based fall prevention programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Affective Norms for Italian Words in Older Adults: Age Differences in Ratings of Valence, Arousal and Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Beth; Ambrosini, Ettore; Mammarella, Nicola; Montefinese, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In line with the dimensional theory of emotional space, we developed affective norms for words rated in terms of valence, arousal and dominance in a group of older adults to complete the adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian and to aid research on aging. Here, as in the original Italian ANEW database, participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance by means of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a paper-and-pencil procedure. We observed high split-half reliabilities within the older sample and high correlations with the affective ratings of previous research, especially for valence, suggesting that there is large agreement among older adults within and across-languages. More importantly, we found high correlations between younger and older adults, showing that our data are generalizable across different ages. However, despite this across-ages accord, we obtained age-related differences on three affective dimensions for a great number of words. In particular, older adults rated as more arousing and more unpleasant a number of words that younger adults rated as moderately unpleasant and arousing in our previous affective norms. Moreover, older participants rated negative stimuli as more arousing and positive stimuli as less arousing than younger participants, thus leading to a less-curved distribution of ratings in the valence by arousal space. We also found more extreme ratings for older adults for the relationship between dominance and arousal: older adults gave lower dominance and higher arousal ratings for words rated by younger adults with middle dominance and arousal values. Together, these results suggest that our affective norms are reliable and can be confidently used to select words matched for the affective dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance across younger and older participants for future research in aging.

  13. Modern Attitudes Toward Older Adults in the Aging World: A Cross-Cultural Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T

    2015-09-01

    Prevailing beliefs suggest that Eastern cultures hold older adults in higher esteem than Western cultures do, due to stronger collectivist traditions of filial piety. However, in modern, industrialized societies, the strain presented by dramatic rises in population aging potentially threatens traditional cultural expectations. Addressing these competing hypotheses, a literature search located 37 eligible papers, comprising samples from 23 countries and 21,093 total participants, directly comparing Easterners and Westerners (as classified per U.N. conventions) in their attitudes toward aging and the aged. Contradicting conventional wisdom, a random-effects meta-analysis on these articles found such evaluations to be more negative in the East overall (standardized mean difference = -0.31). High heterogeneity in study comparisons suggested the presence of moderators; indeed, geographical region emerged as a significant moderating factor, with the strongest levels of senior derogation emerging in East Asia (compared with South and Southeast Asia) and non-Anglophone Europe (compared with North American and Anglophone Western regions). At the country level, multiple-moderator meta-regression analysis confirmed recent rises in population aging to significantly predict negative elder attitudes, controlling for industrialization per se over the same time period. Unexpectedly, these analyses also found that cultural individualism significantly predicted relative positivity-suggesting that, for generating elder respect within rapidly aging societies, collectivist traditions may backfire. The findings suggest the importance of demographic challenges in shaping modern attitudes toward elders-presenting considerations for future research in ageism, cross-cultural psychology, and even economic development, as societies across the globe accommodate unprecedented numbers of older citizens. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Balance Screening of Vestibular Function in Subjects Aged 4 Years and Older: A Living Laboratory Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Bermúdez Rey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the various individual factors that contribute to balance and the relation to fall risk, we performed the modified Romberg Test of Standing Balance on Firm and Compliant Support, with 1,174 participants between 4 and 83 years of age. This research was conducted in the Living Laboratory® at the Museum of Science, Boston. We specifically focus on balance test condition 4, in which individuals stand on memory foam with eyes closed, and must rely on their vestibular system; therefore, performance in this balance test condition provides a proxy for vestibular function. We looked for balance variations associated with sex, race/ethnicity, health factors, and age. We found that balance test performance was stable between 10 and 39 years of age, with a slight increase in the failure rate for participants 4–9 years of age, suggesting a period of balance development in younger children. For participants 40 years and older, the balance test failure rate increased progressively with age. Diabetes and obesity are the two main health factors we found associated with poor balance, with test condition 4 failure rates of 57 and 19%, respectively. An increase in the odds of having fallen in the last year was associated with a decrease in the time to failure; once individuals dropped below a time to failure of 10 s, there was a significant 5.5-fold increase in the odds of having fallen in the last 12 months. These data alert us to screen for poor vestibular function in individuals 40 years and older or suffering from diabetes, in order to undertake the necessary diagnostic and rehabilitation measures, with a focus on reducing the morbidity and mortality of falls.

  15. Balance Screening of Vestibular Function in Subjects Aged 4 Years and Older: A Living Laboratory Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez Rey, María Carolina; Clark, Torin K; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the various individual factors that contribute to balance and the relation to fall risk, we performed the modified Romberg Test of Standing Balance on Firm and Compliant Support, with 1,174 participants between 4 and 83 years of age. This research was conducted in the Living Laboratory ® at the Museum of Science, Boston. We specifically focus on balance test condition 4, in which individuals stand on memory foam with eyes closed, and must rely on their vestibular system; therefore, performance in this balance test condition provides a proxy for vestibular function. We looked for balance variations associated with sex, race/ethnicity, health factors, and age. We found that balance test performance was stable between 10 and 39 years of age, with a slight increase in the failure rate for participants 4-9 years of age, suggesting a period of balance development in younger children. For participants 40 years and older, the balance test failure rate increased progressively with age. Diabetes and obesity are the two main health factors we found associated with poor balance, with test condition 4 failure rates of 57 and 19%, respectively. An increase in the odds of having fallen in the last year was associated with a decrease in the time to failure; once individuals dropped below a time to failure of 10 s, there was a significant 5.5-fold increase in the odds of having fallen in the last 12 months. These data alert us to screen for poor vestibular function in individuals 40 years and older or suffering from diabetes, in order to undertake the necessary diagnostic and rehabilitation measures, with a focus on reducing the morbidity and mortality of falls.

  16. Religion, spirituality, and older adults with HIV: critical personal and social resources for an aging epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, David E; Brennan, Mark; Enah, Comfort; Smith, Glenda L; Kaur, Jaspreet

    2011-01-01

    By 2015, approximately half of adults with HIV in the United States will be 50 and older. The demographic changes in this population due to successful treatment represent a unique challenge, not only in assisting these individuals to cope with their illness, but also in helping them to age successfully with this disease. Religious involvement and spirituality have been observed to promote successful aging in the general population and help those with HIV cope with their disease, yet little is known about how these resources may affect aging with HIV. Also, inherent barriers such as HIV stigma and ageism may prevent people from benefitting from religious and spiritual sources of solace as they age with HIV. In this paper, we present a model of barriers to successful aging with HIV, along with a discussion of how spirituality and religiousness may help people overcome these barriers. From this synthesis, implications for practice and research to improve the quality of life of this aging population are provided. PMID:21753865

  17. Religion, spirituality, and older adults with HIV: critical personal and social resources for an aging epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, David E; Brennan, Mark; Enah, Comfort; Smith, Glenda L; Kaur, Jaspreet

    2011-01-01

    By 2015, approximately half of adults with HIV in the United States will be 50 and older. The demographic changes in this population due to successful treatment represent a unique challenge, not only in assisting these individuals to cope with their illness, but also in helping them to age successfully with this disease. Religious involvement and spirituality have been observed to promote successful aging in the general population and help those with HIV cope with their disease, yet little is known about how these resources may affect aging with HIV. Also, inherent barriers such as HIV stigma and ageism may prevent people from benefitting from religious and spiritual sources of solace as they age with HIV. In this paper, we present a model of barriers to successful aging with HIV, along with a discussion of how spirituality and religiousness may help people overcome these barriers. From this synthesis, implications for practice and research to improve the quality of life of this aging population are provided.

  18. The Impact of Age Stereotypes on Older Adults' Hazard Perception Performance and Driving Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Lyn; Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Horswill, Mark S; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effect of age-stereotype threat on older adults' performance on a task measuring hazard perception performance in driving. The impact of age-stereotype threat in relation to the value participants placed on driving and pre- and post-task confidence in driving ability was also investigated. Eighty-six adults aged from 65 years of age completed a questionnaire measuring demographic information, driving experience, self-rated health, driving importance, and driving confidence. Prior to undertaking a timed hazard perception task, participants were exposed to either negative or positive age stereotypes. Results showed that age-stereotype threats, while not influencing hazard perception performance, significantly reduced post-driving confidence compared with pre-driving confidence for those in the negative prime condition. This finding builds on the literature that has found that stereotype-based influences cannot simply be understood in terms of performance outcomes alone and may be relevant to factors affected by confidence such as driving cessation decisions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Reproductive history, socioeconomic status and disability in the women aged 65 years or older in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Belgin; Ege, Emel; Koçoğlu, Deniz; Arslan, Selda Y; Bilgili, Naile

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy and childbirth are an important physiological and emotional phenomenon in their lives for most women and studies have shown that this process may have a significant impact on their health at later ages. The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between functional disabilities in women over the age of 65 and their reproductive history and socioeconomic status. This is a cross-sectional study. The study group consisted of 543 women aged 65 or over. A general questionnaire and the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ) were used to collect data with face-to-face interview in home visits. Of the women 79.2% have disability. First childbirth was experienced at the average age of 19.6+/-3.3 and the average age at which the women experienced their last delivery was 32.5+/-6.3. Parity was 4.1+/-1.7. Advanced age, being widowed and illiterate, less income, being outside of the middle class and having more than four children are important determinants for later life disability. The study highlights the importance of focusing not just on the short-term effects of childbearing and socioeconomic factors, but also of taking into account the possibility of long-term effects on disability in older women.

  20. Age-related changes in trunk neuromuscular activation patterns during a controlled functional transfer task include amplitude and temporal synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, D Adam; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L

    2014-12-01

    While healthy aging is associated with physiological changes that can impair control of trunk motion, few studies examine how spinal muscle responses change with increasing age. This study examined whether older (over 65 years) compared to younger (20-45 years) adults had higher overall amplitude and altered temporal recruitment patterns of trunk musculature when performing a functional transfer task. Surface electromyograms from twelve bilateral trunk muscle (24) sites were analyzed using principal component analysis, extracting amplitude and temporal features (PCs) from electromyographic waveforms. Two PCs explained 96% of the waveform variance. Three factor ANOVA models tested main effects (group, muscle and reach) and interactions for PC scores. Significant (pactivity, demonstrated continuous activation levels in specific muscle sites despite changing external moments, and had altered temporal synergies within abdominal and back musculature. In summary both older and younger adults recruit highly organized activation patterns in response to changing external moments. Differences in temporal trunk musculature recruitment patterns suggest that older adults experience different dynamic spinal stiffness and loading compared to younger adults during a functional lifting task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical Aspects of Healthy Aging: Assessments of Three Measures of Balance for Studies in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina D. Ceria-Ulep

    2010-01-01

    Results. The EPESE and NHANES batteries of tests were not sufficiently challenging to allow successful discrimination among subjects in good health, even older subjects. The GBPS allowed objective quantitative measurements, but the test-retest correlations generally were not high. The GBPS variables correlated with age only when subjects stood on a foam pad; they also were correlated with anthropometric variables. Conclusion. Both EPESE and NHANES balance tests were too easy for healthy subjects. The GBPS had generally low reliability coefficients except for the most difficult testing condition (foam pad, eyes closed. Both height and body fat were associated with GBPS scores, necessitating adjusting for these variables if using balance as a predictor of future health.

  2. [Regional disparities in the prevalence of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in Hungary in people aged 50 years and older].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Gábor; Szabó, Dorottya; Sándor, Gábor László; Pék, Anita; Szalai, Irén; Lukács, Regina; Tóth, Georgina Zsófia; Papp, András; Nagy, Zoltán Zsolt; Limburg, Hans; Németh, János

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the main causes of blindness among persons aged 50 years and older. The purpose of our survey was to estimate the prevalence of DM and diabetic retinopathy (DR), as well as to assess the coverage of diabetic eye care services in different regions of Hungary. In 105 clusters, 3675 people aged 50 years and older were included in the survey. The standardized rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) with the diabetic retinopathy module (DRM) was used to examine the participants. Thereafter, differences between West-, Middle- and East-Hungary were analysed. Prevalence of DM was higher in East-Hungary (20.9%), than in West- (19.5%) and in Middle-Hungary (19.5%). Prevalence od DR was higher in West-Hungary (24.1%), than in Middle- (17.8%) and in East-Hungary (19.6%). Proportion of participants who never had a fundus examination for DR was the lowest in Middle-Hungary (19.1%). Primary care should be strenghten mainly in country settlements or telemedical eye screening program should be started to decrease the prevalence of diabetic eye complications. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(10), 362-367.

  3. Nutritional risk, hospitalization and mortality among community-dwelling Canadians aged 65 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage-Morin, Pamela L; Gilmour, Heather; Rotermann, Michelle

    2017-09-20

    Nutritional risk has been associated with various negative health outcomes among older people. Limited longitudinal research has examined the relationship between nutritional risk and hospitalization and death in community-dwelling older people. Data from the 2008/2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging (CCHS-HA) linked to the Discharge Abstract Database and the Canadian Mortality Database were used to estimate the prevalence of nutritional risk among seniors and examine its relationship with acute care hospitalization and death during the 25- to 36-month period following the CCHS-HA interview. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify important covariates, while adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health status, and lifestyle factors. A third (34%; 979,000) of Canadians aged 65 or older living in 9 provinces (excluding Quebec) were at nutritional risk in 2008/2009. These seniors had a higher risk of an acute care hospitalization (hazard ratio (HR) 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.4) or death (HR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 2.0) during the follow-up period, even when potential confounders were taken into account. Seniors at nutritional risk in 2008/2009 were more likely than those not at nutritional risk to die during follow-up (9% versus 5%) and averaged shorter survival times: 498 days (95% CI: 462 to 534) compared with 538 days (95% CI: 501 to 574). Based on an analysis of data from a large population-based survey linked to routinely collected hospital and death data, nutritional risk is independently associated with acute care hospitalization and mortality. Results highlight the importance of monitoring seniors for nutritional risk.

  4. Age-Adjusted Percentage of Adults Aged 18 Years or Older with Diagnosed Diabetes Performing Daily Self-Monitoring of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Years or Older with Diagnosed Diabetes Performing Daily Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose, United States, 1994–2010 From ... years or older with diagnosed diabetes performing daily self-monitoring of blood glucose increased by 27.9 points, ...

  5. Big Five personality and depression diagnosis, severity and age of onset in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koorevaar, A M L; Comijs, H C; Dhondt, A D F; van Marwijk, H W J; van der Mast, R C; Naarding, P; Oude Voshaar, R C; Stek, M L

    2013-10-01

    Personality may play an important role in late-life depression. The aim of this study is to examine the association between the Big Five personality domains and the diagnosis, severity and age of onset of late-life depression. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was cross-sectionally used in 352 depressed and 125 non-depressed older adults participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO). Depression diagnosis was determined by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Severity of depression was assessed by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS). Logistic and linear regression analyses were applied. Adjustments were made for sociodemographic, cognitive, health and psychosocial variables. Both the presence of a depression diagnosis and severity of depression were significantly associated with higher Neuroticism (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.28-1.43 and B=1.06, ppersonality measures. This study confirms an association between personality and late-life depression. Remarkable is the association found between high Openness and earlier age of depression onset. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The 1996 election: older voters and implications for policies on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binstock, R H

    1997-02-01

    Aggregate national exit poll data from the 1996 presidential election suggest that voters aged 60 and older were not influenced by age-related policy issues, such as Medicare, any more than younger voters were. Yet, state-level data provide a basis for conjecture (although not a conclusion) that such issues may have influenced the voting decisions of some older voters in 14 states. If so, however, the impact was in Clinton's favor in some states and Dole's favor in others. Now that the election is over, the short-term problem of Medicare Part A will be dealt with swiftly, but a bipartisan commission to deal with the program's long-term issues is problematic. The establishment of such a commission on Social Security is more likely. The President's response to the push by governors and congressional Republicans to turn Medicaid into a block grant program will indicate whether he will move at all to the left of the centrist political position that he assumed throughout 1996.

  7. Communicating with assistive listening devices and age-related hearing loss: Perceptions of older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberdeen, Lucinda; Fereiro, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Age-related hearing loss can impact adversely on the delivery of primary care and cannot necessarily be remedied by hearing aid technology. A study of 20 older Australians living in a Queensland retirement village and residential hostel complex was undertaken to investigate how communication might be advanced through an assistive listening device (ALD). Most participants were women aged over 85 years; almost all had hearing loss and wore hearing aids. Tests with an ALD found very high levels of satisfaction with understanding speech and sound quality amongst participants. However, few had heard previously of ALDs, all required individualised assistance to fit and use the device and rated ease of use less highly. The findings affirm those of previous studies that ALD technology has a role in communication for older hearing impaired people and for hearing rehabilitation. Its potential to enhance quality of life can be facilitated and promoted through nursing practice, but requires professional and consumer education so that it is not overlooked as a communication option.

  8. Risks and benefits of colonoscopy in patients aged 80 and older: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Jurado da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aims to compare colonoscopy results in patients aged 50-79 and those aged 80 and older. Patients and Methods: a total of 533 diagnostic colonoscopies performed from August 2011 to January 2012 were evaluated in a prospective study analyzing age, ASA classification, co- morbidities, endoscopic findings, time to reach the cecum, number of complete examina- tions, difficulties and complications. Chi-square test was used to compare categorical data whereas Student's t test to compare means. A p value 0.05, ASA > 2 difficult examination: 41 (20% versus 6 (60% p 0.05. Complete colonoscopy in 450 (94% versus 45 (83%, p 0.05 Time to reach the cecum was 39 ± 10 minutes for difficult procedures and 13 ± 9 for the easy ones. Conclusion: age 80 and older is associated with more adverse events during colonoscopy. Resumo: Objetivo: avaliar riscos em colonoscopia após 80 anos de idade. Pacientes e métodos: entre agosto de 2011 e janeiro de 2012 realizamos colonoscopias em 533 pacientes. Grupo A: idade entre 50 e 79 e Grupo B > de 80 anos. Parâmetros analisados: ASA, comorbidades, achados endoscópicos, tempo de chegada ao ceco, número de exames com- pletos, dificuldade e complicações. Usamos teste Qui-quadrado para comparar proporção e teste t de Student para média e desvio padrão. p 0,05 > ASA 2 difícil 41 (20% e 6 (60% p 0.05. Exame completo 450 (94% e 45 (83% p 0,05. Tempo em minutos 39 ± 10 para os difíceis e 13 ± 9 para os fáceis. Conclusão: a idade de 80 anos constitui um risco para a realização de colonoscopia. Keywords: Colonoscopy, Risks, Complications, Older age, Elderly, Palavras-chave: Colonoscopia, Riscos, Complicações, Idade avançada, Terceira idade

  9. Modernization, Aging and Coresidence of Older Persons: the Sri Lankan Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarasiri de Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of the modernization on the living arrangements of elderly people in six selected communities representing urban, semi-urban, estate, rural, colonized settlement and fishing villages in Sri Lanka. The paper concludes that the modernization of the economy and society has exacerbated an intergenerational rift leading to an intensification of tensions between elderly people and other family members, despite the fact that the percentage of older people living with their children remains high. Such coresidence or intergenerational living comprises many types of living arrangements, and leads to mixed results for care of the elderly. Many elderly people have developed mechanisms to counteract the negative effects of coresidence: seeking independence during old age, by earning their own income and living alone or living with the spouse, indulging in behaviors such as drinking, spending time outside the home with friends of similar age, or creating their own living space within coresidence.

  10. [Characteristics of nutrition in persons of older age groups in areas with different patterns of longevity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Iu G; Kozlovskaia, S G; Semes'ko, T M

    1991-01-01

    The study of actual nutrition in old-aged subjects (60-74, 75-89 and 90 years and older) in the regions with varying levels of long-living has revealed different types of nutrition depending on the climatic and geographical zones. The character of nutrition of old-aged in varying regions permits a suggestion on the relation of long-living with low energy requirements that are formed under the influence of ecological conditions (high temperature and humidity of the air in Abkhazia) and determined genetically (Azerbaijan, Ukraine). Alteration of nutrition type according to the environmental requirements (as adaptation to high temperature), decreased energy value of food approaching the nutrition type of the indigenous population (for example, the Azerbaijans and Russians living in Azerbaijan) do not ensure long-living.

  11. Self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in older European American women: exploring age and feminism as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Karen P; Hill, Melanie S

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the influence of feminist attitudes on self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in middle age and older women. The participants were 138 European American heterosexual women ranging in age from 40 to 87 years old. Consistent with previous research, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring were positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring remained stable across the lifespan. While age did not moderate the relationship between self-objectification and body dissatisfaction, age was found to moderate the relationship between habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction such that the relationship was smaller for older women than for middle-aged women. Interestingly, feminist attitudes were not significantly correlated with body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, or habitual body monitoring, and endorsement of feminist attitudes was not found to moderate the relationship between self-objectification or habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction. Potential implications for older women are discussed.

  12. Prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among population aged 15 years or older, Vietnam, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-04-18

    The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45-54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking.

  13. Association between depressive symptoms and age, sex, loneliness and treatment among older people in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukanović, Ingrid; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Peterson, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of and the association between depressive symptoms and loneliness in relation to age and sex among older people (65-80 years) and to investigate to what extent those who report depressive symptoms had visited a health care professional and/or used antidepressant medication. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Swedish sample randomized from the total population in the age group 65-80 years (n = 6659). Chi square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The data showed that 9.8% (n = 653) reported depressive symptoms and 27.5% reported feelings of loneliness. More men than women reported depressive symptoms, and the largest proportion was found among men in the age group 75-80 years. An association between the odds to have a depressive disorder and loneliness was found which, however, decreased with increasing age. Of those with depressive symptoms a low proportion had visited a psychologist (2.9%) or a welfare officer (4.2%), and one in four reported that they use antidepressant medication. Of those who reported depressive symptoms, 29% considered that they had needed medical care during the last three months but had refrained from seeking, and the most common reason for that was negative experience from previous visits. Contrary to findings in most of the studies, depressive symptoms were not more prevalent among women. The result highlights the importance of detecting depressive symptoms and loneliness in older people and to offer adequate treatment in order to increase their well-being.

  14. Drug use among HIV+ adults aged 50 and older: findings from the GOLD II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ompad, Danielle C; Giobazolia, Tatiana T; Barton, Staci C; Halkitis, Sophia N; Boone, Cheriko A; Halkitis, Perry N; Kapadia, Farzana; Urbina, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the nexus of aging, HIV, and substance use is key to providing appropriate services and support for their aging, HIV seropositive patients. The proportion of PLWHA aged 50 and older is growing due to a variety of factors like decreases in mortality due to highly active retroviral therapy and non-negligible HIV incidence. We describe prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and participation in substance use treatment and 12-step programs among 95 HIV-positive patients aged 50 and older engaged in care. Most (73.7%) smoked cigarettes in their lifetime and 46.3% were current smokers. Most were at medium (81.1%) or high risk (13.7%) for an alcohol use disorder. With respect to illicit drug use, 48.4% had used marijuana, cocaine, crack, methamphetamines, heroin, and/or prescription opiates without a prescription in the last 12 months; 23.2% met criteria for drug dependence. Marijuana was the most commonly reported illicit drug (32.6%) followed by cocaine and crack (10.5% each), heroin and prescription opiates (7.4% each), and methamphetamines (6.3%). Among those who had not used drugs in the past 12 months, 36.7% had been in a substance use treatment program and 26.5% had participated in a 12-step program in their lifetime; 8.2% were currently in treatment and 16.3% were currently participating in a 12-step program. Among those who had used an illicit drug in the past 12 months, 37.0% had never been in treatment, 34.8% had been in treatment in their lifetime, and 28.3% were currently in treatment. With respect to 12-step programs, 27.3% of those meeting dependence criteria had never participated, 45.5% had participated in their lifetimes, and 27.3% were currently participating. Our findings suggest that older adults in HIV care settings could benefit from Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment interventions and/or integrated services for substance abuse and medical treatment.

  15. Patterns of Sedentary Behavior in US Middle-Age and Older Adults: The REGARDS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Keith M.; Howard, Virginia J.; Hutto, Brent; Colabianchi, Natalie; Vena, John E.; Blair, Steven N.; Hooker, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in a national cohort of U.S. middle-aged and older adults and determine factors that influence prolonged sedentary behavior. Methods We studied 8,096 participants from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a population-based study of black and white adults ≥45 years. Seven-day accelerometry was conducted. Prolonged sedentary behavior was defined as accumulating ≥50% of total sedentary time in bouts ≥30 min. Results The number of sedentary bouts ≥20, ≥30, ≥60, and ≥90 min were 8.8 ± 2.3, 5.5 ± 1.9, 1.9 ± 1.1, and 0.8 ± 0.7 bouts/day, respectively. Sedentary bouts ≥20, ≥30, ≥60, and ≥90 min accounted for 60.0 ± 13.9%, 48.0 ± 15.5%, 26.0 ± 15.4%, and 14.2 ± 12.9% of total sedentary time, respectively. Several factors were associated with prolonged sedentary behavior in multivariate-adjusted models (Odds Ratio [95% CI]): older age (65-74 years: 1.99 [1.55-2.57]; ≥75 years: 4.68 [3.61-6.07] vs. 45-54 years), male sex (1.41 [1.28-1.56] vs. female), residence in non-stroke belt/buckle region of U.S. (stroke belt: 0.87 [0.77-0.98]; stroke buckle: 0.86 [0.77-0.95] vs. non-belt/buckle), body mass index (BMI) (overweight: 1.33 [1.18-1.51]; obese: 2.15 [1.89-2.44] vs. normal weight), winter (1.18 [1.03-1.35] vs. summer), and low amounts of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) [0 min/week: 2.00 [1.66-2.40] vs. ≥150 min/week). Conclusions In this sample of U.S. middle-aged and older adults, a large proportion of total sedentary time was accumulated in prolonged, uninterrupted bouts of sedentary behavior as almost one-half was accumulated in sedentary bouts ≥30 min. Several sociodemographic (age, sex, BMI), behavioral (MVPA), environmental (region), and seasonal factors are associated with patterns of prolonged sedentary behavior. PMID:26460633

  16. The Geriatric ICF Core Set reflecting health-related problems in community-living older adults aged 75 years and older without dementia: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoorenberg, Sophie L W; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Middel, Berrie; Uittenbroek, Ronald J; Kremer, Hubertus P H; Wynia, Klaske

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a valid Geriatric ICF Core Set reflecting relevant health-related problems of community-living older adults without dementia. A Delphi study was performed in order to reach consensus (≥70% agreement) on second-level categories from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The Delphi panel comprised 41 older adults, medical and non-medical experts. Content validity of the set was tested in a cross-sectional study including 267 older adults identified as frail or having complex care needs. Consensus was reached for 30 ICF categories in the Delphi study (fourteen Body functions, ten Activities and Participation and six Environmental Factors categories). Content validity of the set was high: the prevalence of all the problems was >10%, except for d530 Toileting. The most frequently reported problems were b710 Mobility of joint functions (70%), b152 Emotional functions (65%) and b455 Exercise tolerance functions (62%). No categories had missing values. The final Geriatric ICF Core Set is a comprehensive and valid set of 29 ICF categories, reflecting the most relevant health-related problems among community-living older adults without dementia. This Core Set may contribute to optimal care provision and support of the older population. Implications for Rehabilitation The Geriatric ICF Core Set may provide a practical tool for gaining an understanding of the relevant health-related problems of community-living older adults without dementia. The Geriatric ICF Core Set may be used in primary care practice as an assessment tool in order to tailor care and support to the needs of older adults. The Geriatric ICF Core Set may be suitable for use in multidisciplinary teams in integrated care settings, since it is based on a broad range of problems in functioning. Professionals should pay special attention to health problems related to mobility and emotional functioning since these are the most

  17. The effects of HIV disease and older age on laboratory-based, naturalistic, and self-perceived symptoms of prospective memory: does retrieval cue type and delay interval matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, G; Loft, S; Sheppard, D P; Woods, S P

    2016-11-01

    There is a rising prevalence of older HIV+ adults who are at risk of deficits in higher order neurocognitive functions and associated problems in everyday functioning. The current study applied multiprocess theory to examine the effects of HIV and aging on measures of laboratory-based, naturalistic, and self-perceived symptoms of prospective memory (PM). Participants included 125 Younger (48 with HIV, age = 32 ± 4.6 years) and 189 Older (112 with HIV, age = 56 ± 4.9 years) adults. Controlling for global neurocognitive functioning, mood, and other demographics, older age and HIV had independent effects on long-delay time-based PM in the laboratory, whereas on a naturalistic PM task older HIV- adults performed better than older HIV+ adults and younger persons. In line with the naturalistic findings, older age, but not HIV, was associated with a relative sparing of self-perceived PM failures in daily life across longer delay self-cued intervals. Findings suggest that, even in relatively younger aging cohorts, the effects of HIV and older age on PM can vary across PM delay intervals by the strategic demands of the retrieval cue type, are expressed differently in the laboratory and in daily life, and are independent of other higher order neurocognitive functions (e.g., retrospective memory).

  18. The CDC traumatic brain injury surveillance system: characteristics of persons aged 65 years and older hospitalized with a TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Victor G; Thomas, Karen E; Sattin, Richard W; Johnson, Renee L

    2005-01-01

    To examine the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of older persons (ie, those aged 65-74, 75-84, and > or = 85 years) hospitalized with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Data from the 1999 CDC 15-state TBI surveillance system were analyzed. In 1999, there were 17,657 persons 65 years and older hospitalized with TBI in the 15 states for an age-adjusted rate of 155.9 per 100,000 population. Rates among persons aged 65 years or older increased with age and were higher for males. Most TBIs resulted from fall- or motor vehicle (MV)-traffic-related incidents. Most older persons with TBI had an initial TBI severity of mild (73.4%); however, the proportions of both moderate and severe disability for those discharged alive and of in-hospital mortality were relatively high (23.5%, 9.7%, and 12%, respectively). Persons who fell were also more likely to have had 3 or more comorbid conditions than were those who sustained a TBI from an MV-traffic incident. TBI is a substantial public health problem among older persons. As the population of older persons continues to increase in the United States, the need to design and implement proven and cost-effective prevention measures that focus on the leading causes of TBI (unintentional falls and MV-traffic incidents) becomes more urgent.

  19. Older Age Is Associated with Lower Optimal Vibration Frequency in Lower-Limb Muscles During Whole-Body Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlucci, Flaminia; Orlando, Giorgio; Haxhi, Jonida; Laudani, Luca; Giombini, Arrigo; Macaluso, Andrea; Pigozzi, Fabio; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the optimal vibration frequency (OVF), which corresponds to maximal electromyographic muscle response during whole-body vibration, between young, middle-aged, and older women in four muscles of the lower-limbs. OVF was measured as the frequency corresponding to maximal root mean square of the surface electromyogram (RMSmax) during a continuous incremental protocol, with a succession of vibration frequencies from 20 to 55 Hz (A = 2 mm), on the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles of the dominant lower-limb. Seventy-eight women were divided into three age groups, that is, young, 21.6 ± 2.4 yrs; middle aged, 43.0 ± 5.2 yrs; and older, 74.2 ± 6.0 yrs. OVF in the vastus medialis was lower in the older women than in the middle-aged and young women, whereas OVF in the vastus lateralis was lower in the older than in the young women. There were no differences in OVF between muscles within each group. RMSmax was higher in the older than in the young women in all muscles. Age range should be taken into consideration when determining OVF because it decreases with age. Properly individualizing the vibration protocol might greatly influence neuromuscular effects of vibration training.

  20. Sports can protect dynamic visual acuity from aging: A study with young and older judo and karate martial arts athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiños, Mónica; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2015-08-01

    A major topic of current research in aging has been to investigate ways to promote healthy aging and neuroplasticity in order to counteract perceptual and cognitive declines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the benefits of intensive, sustained judo and karate martial arts training in young and older athletes and nonathletes of the same age for attenuating age-related dynamic visual acuity (DVA) decline. As a target, we used a moving stimulus similar to a Landolt ring that moved horizontally, vertically, or obliquely across the screen at three possible contrasts and three different speeds. The results indicated that (1) athletes had better DVA than nonathletes; (2) the older adult groups showed a larger oblique effect than the younger groups, regardless of whether or not they practiced a martial art; and (3) age modulated the results of sport under the high-speed condition: The DVA of young karate athletes was superior to that of nonathletes, while both judo and karate older athletes showed better DVA than did sedentary older adults. These findings suggest that in older adults, the practice of a martial art in general, rather than the practice of a particular type of martial art, is the crucial thing. We concluded that the sustained practice of a martial art such as judo or karate attenuates the decline of DVA, suggesting neuroplasticity in the aging human brain.

  1. Choosing Solitude: Age Differences in Situational and Affective Correlates of Solitude-Seeking in Midlife and Older Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Jennifer C; Pauly, Theresa; Graf, Peter; Mahmood, Atiya; Hoppmann, Christiane A

    2018-04-16

    Despite a basic need for social connection, individuals across the adult lifespan sometimes seek solitude - a phenomenon that is not well understood. This study examined the situational and affective correlates of solitude-seeking and how they may differ between middle-aged and older adults. 100 community-dwelling adults aged 50-85 years (64% female, 56% East Asian, 36% European, 8% other) completed approximately 30 electronic daily life assessments over 10 days regarding their current location, affect, activities, and current and desired social context. Solitude was common; 86% of solitude instances happened by individuals' own choosing. When desiring solitude, older adults were more likely to be at home and less likely to be outdoors, compared to other locations. Middle-aged adults showed no such solitude-location associations. Among middle-aged adults, desire for solitude was associated with decreased positive affect. Older adults experienced no such dip in affect. Findings suggest that compared to middle-aged adults, older adults are more likely to go to locations that match their desired social context, and also that solitude-seeking has more positive ramifications for older adults. Findings are discussed in the context of age differences in activities, social preferences, and emotion regulation.

  2. Haematinic deficiency and macrocytosis in middle-aged and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese McNamee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and determinants of haematinic deficiency (lack of B12 folate or iron and macrocytosis in blood from a national population-based study of middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 1,207 adults aged ≥45 years, recruited from a sub-study of the Irish National Survey of Lifestyle Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN 2007. Participants completed a health and lifestyle questionnaire and a standard food frequency questionnaire. Non-fasting blood samples were obtained for measurement of full blood count and expert morphological assessment, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor assay (sTfR, B12, folate and coeliac antibodies. Blood samples were also assayed for thyroid function (T4, TSH, liver function, aminotransferase (AST and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT. RESULTS: The overall prevalence (95% C.I. of anaemia (Hb 21 nmol/ml only 2.3% were iron-deficient. 3.0% and 2.7% were found to have low levels of serum folate (99fl was detected in 8.4% of subjects. Strong, significant and independent associations with macrocytosis were observed for lower social status, current smoking status, moderate to heavy alcohol intake, elevated GGT levels, deficiency of folate and vitamin B12, hypothyroidism and coeliac disease. The population attributable fraction (PAF for macrocytosis associated with elevated GGT (25.0% and smoking (24.6% was higher than for excess alcohol intake (6.3%, folate deficiency (10.5% or vitamin B12 (3.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Haematinic deficiency and macrocytosis are common in middle-aged/older adults in Ireland. Macrocytosis is more likely to be attributable to an elevated GGT and smoking than vitamin B12 or folate deficiency.

  3. Disability Among Middle-Aged and Older Persons With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johs, Nikolas A; Wu, Kunling; Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Koletar, Susan L; Kalayjian, Robert C; Ellis, Ronald J; Taiwo, Babafemi; Palella, Frank J; Erlandson, Kristine M

    2017-07-01

    Older human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults may experience higher rates of frailty and disability than the general population. Improved understanding of the prevalence, risk factors, and types of impairment can better inform providers and the healthcare system. HIV-infected participants within the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5322 HAILO study self-reported disability by the Lawton-Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Questionnaire. Frailty was measured by 4-m walk time, grip strength, self-reported weight loss, exhaustion, and low activity. Logistic regression models identified characteristics associated with any IADL impairment. Agreement between IADL impairment and frailty was assessed using the weighted kappa statistic. Of 1015 participants, the median age was 51 years, 15% were aged ≥60 years, 19% were female, 29% black, and 20% Hispanic. At least 1 IADL impairment was reported in 18% of participants, most commonly with housekeeping (48%) and transportation (36%) and least commonly with medication management (5%). In multivariable models, greater disability was significantly associated with neurocognitive impairment, lower education, Medicare/Medicaid insurance (vs private/other coverage), smoking, and low physical activity. Although a greater proportion of frail participants had IADL impairment (52%) compared to non-frail (11%) persons, agreement was poor (weighted kappa disability occurs frequently among middle-aged and older HIV-infected adults on effective antiretroviral therapy. Potentially modifiable risk factors (smoking, physical activity) provide targets for interventions to maintain independent living. Systematic recognition of persons at greater risk for disability can facilitate connection to resources that may help preserve independence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Outcomes and Tolerability of Chemoradiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer Patients Aged 75 Years or Older

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, David T.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Ryan, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To review the outcomes and tolerability of full-dose chemoradiation in elderly patients aged 75 years or older with localized pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed patients aged 75 years or older with nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy at two institutions from 2002 to 2007. Patients were analyzed for treatment toxicity, local recurrences, distant metastases, and survival. Results: A total of 42 patients with a median age of 78 years (range, 75-90 years) who received chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic cancer were identified. Of the patients, 24 had locally advanced disease treated with definitive chemoradiation, and 18 had disease treated with surgery and chemoradiation. Before chemoradiotherapy, the mean Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 1.0 ± 0.8, and the mean 6-month weight loss was 5.3 ± 3.8 kg. The mean radiation dose delivered was 48.1 ± 9.2 Gy. All patients received fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy. In all, 8 patients (19%) were hospitalized, 7 (17%) had an emergency room visit, 15 (36%) required a radiation treatment break, 3 (7%) required a chemotherapy break, 9 (21%) did not complete therapy, and 22 (49%) had at least one of these adverse events. The most common toxicities were nausea, pain, and failure to thrive. Median overall survival was 8.6 months (95% confidence interval, 7.2-13.1) in patients who received definitive chemoradiation therapy and 20.6 months (95% confidence interval, 9.5-∞) in patients who underwent resection and chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: In this dataset of very elderly patients with pancreatic cancer and good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, outcomes after chemoradiotherapy were similar to those among historic controls for patients with locally advanced and resected pancreatic cancer, although many patients experienced substantial treatment-related toxicity.

  5. Functional disability and social participation restriction associated with chronic conditions in middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Lauren E; Raina, Parminder; Levasseur, Mélanie; Sohel, Nazmul; Payette, Hélène; Tuokko, Holly; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Wister, Andrew; Gilsing, Anne; Patterson, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    We examine the population impact on functional disability and social participation of physical and mental chronic conditions individually and in combination. Cross-sectional, population-based data from community-dwelling people aged 45 years and over living in the 10 Canadian provinces in 2008-2009 were used to estimate the population attributable risk (PAR) for functional disability in basic (ADL) and instrumental (IADL) activities of daily living and social participation restrictions for individual and combinations of chronic conditions, stratified by age and gender, after adjusting for confounding variables. Five chronic conditions (arthritis, depression, diabetes, heart disease and eye disease) made the largest contributions to ADL-related and IADL-related functional disability and social participation restrictions, with variation in magnitude and ranking by age and gender. While arthritis was consistently associated with higher PARs across gender and most age groups, depression, alone and in combination with the physical chronic conditions, was associated with ADL and IADL disability as well as social participation restrictions in the younger age groups, especially among women. Compared to women, the combinations of conditions associated with higher PARs in men more often included heart disease and diabetes. Our findings suggest that in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults, the impact of combinations of mental and physical chronic conditions on functional disability and social participation restriction is substantial and differed by gender and age. Recognising the differences in the drivers of PAR by gender and age group will ultimately increase the efficiency of clinical and public health interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Cognition and mortality in older people: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Michael H; Sachdev, Perminder S; Kochan, Nicole A; Xu, Jing; Draper, Brian; Brodaty, Henry

    2015-11-01

    Both cognitive ability and cognitive decline have been shown to predict mortality in older people. As dementia, a major form of cognitive decline, has an established association with shorter survival, it is unclear the extent to which cognitive ability and cognitive decline predict mortality in the absence of dementia. To determine whether cognitive ability and decline in cognitive ability predict mortality in older individuals without dementia. The Sydney Memory and Ageing Study is an observational population-based cohort study. Participants completed detailed neuropsychological assessments and medical examinations to assess for risk factors such as depression, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking and physical activity. Participants were regularly assessed at 2-year intervals over 8 years. A community sample in Sydney, Australia. One thousand and thirty-seven elderly people without dementia. Overall, 236 (22.8%) participants died within 8 years. Both cognitive ability at baseline and decline in cognitive ability over 2 years predicted mortality. Decline in cognitive ability, but not baseline cognitive ability, was a significant predictor of mortality when depression and other medical risk factors were controlled for. These relationships also held when excluding incident cases of dementia. The findings indicate that decline in cognition is a robust predictor of mortality in older people without dementia at a population level. This relationship is not accounted for by co-morbid depression or other established biomedical risk factors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Trends in AIDS Incidence in Individuals Aged 50 Years or Older in the City of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1982–2011: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cavalcante Apratto Junior

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three temporal components of AIDS incidence (i.e., age, period and cohort on individuals aged 50 or older living in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. Methods: Age-specific incidence rates were calculated from 1982–2011. Negative binomial and Poisson models were used to analyze the risk of AIDS by age, period and cohort. Results: The risk of AIDS in men was 2.45 times higher than in women, regardless of age and period (p-value < 0.001. The incidence of AIDS in individuals older than 69 years was 7-fold lower than in those aged 50–59 years (p-value < 0.001. A decreasing trend in AIDS risk was observed from the youngest cohort (≥1940 to the oldest (1910–1919. From 1982 to 2006, we could detect an increasing trend in AIDS risk in the population aged 50 years or older. A peak in rates was detected in the period from 2002–2006. The incidence rates in 2002–2006 were six times higher than those in 1987–1991 (p-value < 0.001, independent of age and sex (p-value < 0.001. Conclusions: An increase of AIDS risk in older people was detected. This group should not be neglected by public health programs.

  8. Age of peak performance in 50-km ultramarathoners – is it older than in marathoners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaidis PT

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis,1,2 Beat Knechtle3,4 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Nikaia, Greece; 2Laboratory of Exercise Testing, Hellenic Air Force Academy, Dekelia, Greece; 3Medbase St. Gallen Am Vadianplatz, St. Gallen, Switzerland; 4Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Purpose: Despite the increasing popularity of 50-km ultramarathons during the last few years, only limited information is available regarding the trends in its performance and participation. The aim of the present study was to examine the age of peak running performance in female and male 50-km ultramarathoners using second-order nonlinear regression analyses.Methods: Data from 494,414 runners (124,045 women and 370,369 men who finished a 50-km ultramarathon between 1975 to 2016 were analyzed. Results: When the top ten finishers in 1-year age-groups were analyzed, the age of peak running speed was 41 years in both women and men. When the fastest finishers in 1-year age-group intervals were analyzed, the age of peak running speed was 40 years in women and 39 years in men.Conclusion: In summary, the age of peak running speed in 50-km ultramarathoners is older than what has been reported by previous studies for marathons. Women seem to achieve the best race time in a 50-km ultramarathon later in life compared with men. These findings are of great practical value for coaches and fitness trainers when setting performance goals for 50-km ultramarathon runners. Keywords: master athlete, running, sex difference, ultra-endurance, aerobic capacity, aging, cardiorespiratory fitness

  9. Older people's concepts of spirituality, related to aging and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Lindanor Jacó; Gil, Claudia Aranha

    2015-12-01

    Increased life expectancy and the prospect of longevity lead to reflection on the importance of spirituality while aging. This article aims to investigate and analyze the concepts that older people have of spirituality and how this concept affects their quality of life. It is a descriptive, exploratory, quantitative-qualitative study, with a sample of 12 participants over the age of 60. The following tools were used: semi-structured interviews, social-demographic questionnaires and WHOQOL (Bref, SRPB and Domain VI). The statistical program SPSS 21.0, and Content Analysis, were used in the analysis. The average score on the Psychological Health and Social Relationship domains was high, and the WHOQOL-SRPB showed high averages in all facets, and positive association with the Bref domains. Content analysis showed a relationship between Quality of Life and Spirituality. The latter is conceptualized as: Support, Relationship with the Sacred, and Transcendence; and is distinguished from Religion, which is defined by Religious Affiliation, Cultural Affiliation, and Dogmas. The relationship between spirituality and old age takes place through the capacity to bear the limitations, difficulties and losses inherent to the process; thus, the nature of living a spiritual life was observed to be heterogeneous, while all had in common the recognition of its importance and its significance for living an old age with Quality of Life.

  10. Sarcopenia and Physical Function in Middle-Aged and Older Stroke Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alice S; Ivey, Frederick M; Serra, Monica C; Hartstein, Joseph; Hafer-Macko, Charlene E

    2017-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in stroke survivors using different methodologies, and compare a subset of the stroke group to age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched nonstroke control counterparts. Cohort study. A Veterans Affairs medical center and a university hospital. Mild to moderately disabled participants >6 months after onset of stroke aged 40 to 84 years (N=190, 61% men, 57% African American; mean BMI ± SEM, 29±1kg/m 2 ). Not applicable. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans to assess appendicular lean mass (ALM). Rates of sarcopenia were determined using 4 established methods: (1) ALM/height 2 (ALM/ht 2 ); (2) European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older Persons; (3) International Working Group on Sarcopenia; and (4) ALM/BMI. Sarcopenia prevalence in our stroke cohort ranged between 14% and 18%. The stroke survivor subset (n=38) matched one-for-one with control counterparts for race, sex, age ±4 years and BMI ±2.5kg/m 2 had higher prevalence rates compared with their nonstroke counterparts (13.2% vs 5.3%, Psarcopenia when considering age, sex, and race compared with nonstroke individuals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Successful Aging: Advancing the Science of Physical Independence in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Woods, Adam J.; Ashizawa, Tetso; Barb, Diana; Buford, Thomas W.; Carter, Christy S.; Clark, David J.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Corbett, Duane B.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Dotson, Vonetta; Ebner, Natalie; Efron, Philip A.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Foster, Thomas C.; Gundermann, David M.; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Karabetian, Christy; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M.; Marsiske, Michael; Mankowski, Robert T.; Mutchie, Heather L.; Perri, Michael G.; Ranka, Sanjay; Rashidi, Parisa; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Scarpace, Philip J.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Solberg, Laurence M.; Someya, Shinichi; Uphold, Connie; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie; Wu, Samuel Shangwu; Pahor, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The concept of ‘Successful Aging’ has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful aging has made comparison of findings across studies difficult and has limited advances in aging research. The domain in which consensus on markers of successful aging is furthest developed is the domain of physical functioning. For example, walking speed appears to be an excellent surrogate marker of overall health and predicts the maintenance of physical independence, a cornerstone of successful aging. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview and discussion of specific health conditions, behavioral factors, and biological mechanisms that mark declining mobility and physical function and promising interventions to counter these effects. With life expectancy continuing to increase in the United States and developed countries throughout the world, there is an increasing public health focus on the maintenance of physical independence among all older adults. PMID:26462882

  12. Neural evidence for phonologically based language production deficits in older adults: An fMRI investigation of age-related differences in picture-word interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizio, Avery A; Moyer, Karlee J; Diaz, Michele T

    2017-04-01

    Older adults often show declines in phonological aspects of language production, particularly for low-frequency words, but maintain strong semantic systems. However, there are different theories about the mechanism that may underlie such age-related differences in language (e.g., age-related declines in transmission of activation or inhibition). This study used fMRI to investigate whether age-related differences in language production are associated with transmission deficits or inhibition deficits. We used the picture-word interference paradigm to examine age-related differences in picture naming as a function of both target frequency and the relationship between the target picture and distractor word. We found that the presence of a categorically related distractor led to greater semantic elaboration by older adults compared to younger adults, as evidenced by older adults' increased recruitment of regions including the left middle frontal gyrus and bilateral precuneus. When presented with a phonologically related distractor, patterns of neural activation are consistent with previously observed age deficits in phonological processing, including age-related reductions in the recruitment of regions such as the left middle temporal gyrus and right supramarginal gyrus. Lastly, older, but not younger, adults show increased brain activation of the pre- and postcentral gyri as a function of decreasing target frequency when target pictures are paired with a phonological distractor, suggesting that cuing the phonology of the target disproportionately aids production of low-frequency items. Overall, this pattern of results is generally consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis, illustrating that links within the phonological system, but not the semantic system, are weakened with age.

  13. Effect of the NU-AGE Diet on Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Marseglia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Findings from animal and epidemiological research support the potential neuroprotective benefits from healthy diets. However, to establish diet-neuroprotective causal relations, evidence from dietary intervention studies is needed. NU-AGE is the first multicenter intervention assessing whether a diet targeting health in aging can counteract the age-related physiological changes in different organs, including the brain. In this study, we specifically investigated the effects of NU-AGE's dietary intervention on age-related cognitive decline.Materials and Methods: NU-AGE randomized trial (NCT01754012, clinicaltrials.gov included 1279 relatively healthy older-adults, aged 65–79 years, from five European centers. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups: “control” (n = 638, following a habitual diet; and, “intervention” (n = 641, given individually tailored dietary advice (NU-AGE diet. Adherence to the NU-AGE diet was measured over follow-up, and categorized into tertiles (low, moderate, high. Cognitive function was ascertained at baseline and at 1-year follow-up with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-Neuropsychological Battery and five additional domain-specific single cognitive tests. The raw scores from the CERAD subtests [excluding the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE] and the single tests were standardized into Z-scores. Global cognition (measured with MMSE and CERAD-total score, and five cognitive domains (perceptual speed, executive function, episodic memory, verbal abilities, and constructional praxis were created. Cognitive changes as a function of the intervention were analyzed with multivariable mixed-effects models.Results: After the 1-year follow-up, 571 (89.1% controls and 573 (89.8% from the intervention group participated in the post-intervention assessment. Both control and intervention groups showed improvements in global cognition and in all cognitive domains

  14. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL... § 404.1585 Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. If you become eligible for disability benefits even though you were doing substantial gainful activity because you are blind and age 55...

  15. Strength and muscle quality in a well-functioning cohort of older adults : the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newman, Anne B; Haggerty, Catherine L; Goodpaster, Bret H; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Steve; Nevitt, Michael; Miles, Toni P; Visser, Marjolein

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether lower lean mass and higher fat mass have independent effects on the loss of strength and muscle quality in older adults and might explain part of the effect of age. DESIGN: Single-episode, cross-sectional analyses of a cohort of subjects in the Health, Aging and Body

  16. 42 CFR 440.40 - Nursing facility services for individuals age 21 or older (other than services in an institution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nursing facility services for individuals age 21 or... Definitions § 440.40 Nursing facility services for individuals age 21 or older (other than services in an institution for mental disease), EPSDT, and family planning services and supplies. (a) Nursing facility...

  17. Older job seekers' job search intensity : the interplay of proactive personality, age and occupational future time perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Long-term unemployment of older people can have severe consequences for individuals, communities and ultimately economies, and is therefore a serious concern in countries with an ageing population. However, the interplay of chronological age and other individual difference characteristics in

  18. Aging IQ Intervention with Older Korean Americans: A Comparison of Internet-Based and In-Class Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yuri; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Marti, C. Nathan; Kim, Miyong T.

    2015-01-01

    Using the translated contents of the National Institute on Aging (NIA)'s Aging IQ, an educational intervention was delivered to older Korean Americans. The educational program was delivered via two different modalities, Internet-based education (n = 12) and in-class education (n = 11), and the overall feasibility and efficacy were evaluated by the…

  19. Sarcopenic/obesity and physical capacity in older men and women: data from the Nutrition as a Determinant of Successful Aging (NuAge)-the Quebec longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Danielle R; Dionne, Isabelle J; Brochu, Martin

    2009-11-01

    Sarcopenia and obesity have been independently associated with physical capacity impairments. However, few studies have investigated the impact of sarcopenic/obesity on physical capacity in older individuals using objective measures of physical capacity and body composition. This study included 904 older individuals aged between 68 and 82 years old. Body composition (fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)), physical capacity (timed up and go, chair stands, walking speed at normal and fastest pace, and one leg stand), sum of reported chronic conditions and physical activity level were measured. A global physical capacity score was then calculated giving a maximal score of 20. Finally, four groups were created within genders based on sarcopenia and obesity ((i) nonsarcopenic/nonobese; (ii) sarcopenic/nonobese; (iii) nonsarcopenic/obese; (iv) sarcopenic/obese). The four groups were significantly different for the sit-to-stand test and the one leg stand test (P < 0.05) and only for the one leg stand test in women (P < 0.05). In both genders results for the global physical capacity score revealed that both obese groups (sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic) were similar (P = 0.14 in men and P = 0.19 in women) and had a lower global physical capacity score compared to nonsarcopenic/nonobese individuals (P < 0.05). In addition, sarcopenic women displayed a higher score than both obese nonsarcopenic and obese sarcopenic groups (P < 0.01). Sarcopenic/obese men and women do not display lower physical capacity compared to nonsarcopenic/obese individuals in this cohort of well-functioning older men and women. Obesity per se appears to contribute more to lower physical capacity than sarcopenia.

  20. HIV after 40 in rural South Africa: A life course approach to HIV vulnerability among middle aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojola, Sanyu A; Williams, Jill; Angotti, Nicole; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier

    2015-10-01

    South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV in the world (over 6 million) as well as a rapidly aging population, with 15% of the population aged 50 and over. High HIV prevalence in rural former apartheid homeland areas suggests substantial aging with HIV and acquisition of HIV at older ages. We develop a life course approach to HIV vulnerability, highlighting the rise and fall of risk and protection as people age, as well as the role of contextual density in shaping HIV vulnerability. Using this approach, we draw on an innovative multi-method data set collected within the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System in South Africa, combining survey data with 60 nested life history interviews and 9 community focus group interviews. We examine HIV risk and protective factors among adults aged 40-80, as well as how and why these factors vary among people at older ages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Personality and Other Lifelong Influences on Older-Age Health and Wellbeing: Preliminary Findings in Two Scottish Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mathew A; Brett, Caroline E; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Johnson, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations that personality traits are related to later-life health and wellbeing have inspired considerable interest in exploring the mechanisms involved. Other factors, such as cognitive ability and education, also show longitudinal influences on health and wellbeing, but it is not yet clear how all these early-life factors together contribute to later-life health and wellbeing. In this preliminary study, we assessed hypothesised relations among these variables across the life course, using structural equation modelling in a sample assessed on dependability (a personality trait related to conscientiousness) in childhood, cognitive ability and social class in childhood and older age, education, and health and subjective wellbeing in older age. Our models indicated that both health and subjective wellbeing in older age were influenced by childhood IQ and social class, via education. Some older-age personality traits mediated the effects of early-life variables, on subjective wellbeing in particular, but childhood dependability did not show significant associations. Our results therefore did not provide evidence that childhood dependability promotes older-age health and wellbeing, but did highlight the importance of other early-life factors, particularly characteristics that contribute to educational attainment. Further, personality in later life may mediate the effects of early-life factors on health and subjective wellbeing. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Personality published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Association of Personality Psychology.

  2. Finger cold-induced vasodilation of older Korean female divers, haenyeo: effects of chronic cold exposure and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Joonhee; Koh, Eunsook; Cha, Seongwon

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the local cold tolerance of older Korean female divers, haenyeo ( N = 22) in terms of cold acclimatization and ageing. As control groups, older non-diving females ( N = 25) and young females from a rural area ( N = 15) and an urban area ( N = 51) participated in this study. To evaluate local cold tolerance, finger cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) during finger immersion of 4 °C water was examined. As a result, older haenyeos showed greater minimum finger temperature and recovery finger temperature than older non-diving females ( P sensations as those of older non-diving females. Another novel finding was that young urban females showed more vulnerable responses to local cold in CIVD variables and subjective sensations when compared to older females, whereas young rural females had the most excellent cold tolerance in terms of maximum temperature and frequency of CIVD among the four groups ( P cold acclimatized features on the periphery even though they changed their cotton diving suits to wet suits in the early 1980s. However, cardiovascular responses and subjective sensations to cold reflect aging effects. In addition, we suggest that young people who have been adapted to highly insulated clothing and indoor heating systems in winter should be distinguished from young people who were exposed to less modern conveniences when compared to the aged in terms of cold tolerance.

  3. Increased long-term recreational physical activity is associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers: the California Teachers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaus, Aina; Dieli-Conwright, Christina; Xu, Xinxin; Lacey, James V; Ingles, Sue A; Reynolds, Peggy; Bernstein, Leslie; Henderson, Katherine D

    2013-03-01

    Although physical activity modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, the few studies that have investigated whether physical activity is associated with age at natural menopause have yielded mixed results. We set out to determine whether physical activity is associated with the timing of natural menopause in a large cohort of California women overall and by smoking history. We investigated the association between long-term physical activity (h/wk/y) and age at natural menopause among 97,945 women in the California Teachers Study. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression methods were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The impact of cigarette smoking (never smoker, former light smoker, former heavy smoker, current light smoker, and current heavy smoker) as an effect modifier was evaluated. In a multivariable model adjusted for body mass index at age 18 years, age at menarche, race/ethnicity, and age at first full-term pregnancy, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older age at natural menopause (P(trend) = 0.005). Higher body mass index at age 18 years (P(trend) = 0.0003) and older age at menarche (P(trend) = 0.0003) were also associated with older age at natural menopause. Hispanic ethnicity (vs non-Hispanic whites; HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.09-1.26), current smokers (vs never smokers; HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.60-1.75 for current light smokers; HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.33-1.44 for current heavy smokers), and older age at first full-term pregnancy (HR(≥29, 2+ full-term pregnancies) vs HR(menopause. Upon stratification by smoking history, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers only (HR(highest quartile) vs HR(lowest quartile), 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.97; P(trend) = 0.02 for former heavy smokers; HR(highest quartile) vs HR(lowest quartile), 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.99; P(trend) = 0.04 for current heavy

  4. Income, wealth and risk of diabetes among older adults: cohort study using the English longitudinal study of ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjonça, Edlira; Gulliford, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Socio-economic status has been associated with diabetes in cross-sectional studies. This study aimed to evaluate associations of household income and wealth with both prevalent and incident diabetes among older adults in the UK. It also evaluated the association between obesity and socio-economic status. Methods: A cohort of people aged ≥50 years was selected from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. The relation of prevalent and incident self-reported physician diagnosed diabetes to household income and wealth was evaluated in logistic regression models adjusting for education, social class, housing tenure, age, ethnicity, marital status, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol use and physical activity stratified by sex. The relation of prevalent obesity to household income and wealth was also evaluated using logistic regression models. Results: There were 9053 participants (4021 men and 5032 women) including 721 (8.0%) with diabetes at baseline. Among 8332 participants initially free from diabetes, 246 (3.0%) were diagnosed with diabetes during ∼4 years follow-up. The adjusted odds ratio for prevalent diabetes in the lowest quintile of wealth compared with the highest was 1.56 for men and 2.08 for women. Incident diabetes was associated with lower wealth (P for trend 0.05 for men and 0.004 for women) after adjusting for socio-economic and demographic factors, but attenuated after further adjustment for lifestyle and BMI. Prevalent obesity was significantly associated with lower wealth in women but not in men. Conclusion: Lower wealth, but not income, may be associated with prevalent and incident diabetes among older adults in UK. PMID:21565937

  5. Technology-embedded health education on nutrition for middle-aged and older adults living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Kuo, Su-E; Lin, Dai-Chan

    2017-11-01

    Mobile technology provides young adults important support for self-directed learning, but whether there is related support for older adults is not clear. This study aims to determine whether 1) nutrition education combined with mobile technology-supported teaching improves knowledge of and self-efficacy for a healthy diet; 2) if adults who reported reviewing the electronic course material or searching health information online, showed significantly greater progress in knowledge of and self-efficacy for a healthy diet than did those who did not adopt the electronic support. A total of 35 middle-aged and older adults were recruited from the community. Enrollees who were unable to read, who participated in the course fewer than five times, who did not take the post-test, or who did not return complete questionnaires at the pre-test were excluded. Overall, 21 participants were finally analyzed, and 14 participated in the qualitative investigation. The study interventions included three traditional nutrition lectures and three touch-screen tablet computer lessons to access the Internet and nutrition applications. Structured and semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data and record participants' Internet use conditions at home. Participants' nutrition knowledge significantly improved (meanpost-pre = 1.19, p = 0.001) and their self-efficacy about a healthy diet showed marginal improvement (meanpost-pre = 0.22, p = 0.07). Nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with their intensity of surfing the Internet ( r = 0.46, p health education might provide great opportunities for positive behavioral change, even in older adults without any previous Internet experience.

  6. Household-shoe wearing and purchasing habits. A survey of people aged 65 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, B J; Steele, J R

    1999-10-01

    A mail survey was conducted to assess the types of household footwear currently being worn by a random sample of independently living men and women aged 65 years and older as well as their needs related to the purchase and wearing of household footwear. Questionnaires were completed by 128 people. The greatest number of respondents wore slippers all day around the home, purchasing these shoes because of their convenience and comfort. Respondents were not willing to purchase expensive shoes for household wear and infrequently replaced them, despite the fact that such footwear was worn for extended periods each day. It was concluded that further research is required to design a household shoe that fits well and accommodates a variety of foot pathologies typical of the elderly foot; the shoe should be comfortable, relatively inexpensive, and safe for typical household surfaces.

  7. Age-related changes in late I-waves influence motor cortex plasticity induction in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, George M; Cirillo, John; Semmler, John G

    2018-04-18

    The response to neuroplasticity interventions using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is reduced in older adults, which may be due, in part, to age-related alterations in interneuronal (I-wave) circuitry. The current study investigated age-related changes in interneuronal characteristics and whether they influence motor cortical plasticity in older adults. While I-wave recruitment was unaffected by age, there was a shift in the temporal characteristics of the late, but not early I-waves. Using I-wave periodicity repetitive TMS (iTMS), we showed that these differences in I-wave characteristics influence the induction of cortical plasticity in older adults. Previous research shows that neuroplasticity assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is reduced in older adults. While this deficit is often assumed to represent altered synaptic modification processes, age-related changes in the interneuronal circuits activated by TMS may also contribute. Here we assessed age-related differences in the characteristics of the corticospinal indirect (I) waves and how they influence plasticity induction in primary motor cortex. Twenty young (23.7 ± 3.4 years) and 19 older adults (70.6 ± 6.0 years) participated in these studies. I-wave recruitment was assessed by changing the direction of the current used to activate the motor cortex, whereas short-interval intracortical facilitation (SICF) was recorded to assess facilitatory I-wave interactions. In a separate study, I-wave periodicity TMS (iTMS) was used to examine the effect of I-wave latency on motor cortex plasticity. Data from the motor evoked potential (MEP) onset latency produced using different coil orientations suggested that there were no age-related differences in preferential I-wave recruitment (P = 0.6). However, older adults demonstrated significant reductions in MEP facilitation at all 3 SICF peaks (all P-values < 0.05) and a delayed latency of the second and third SICF peaks (all P

  8. Psychological approach to successful ageing predicts future quality of life in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliffe Steve

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public policies aim to promote well-being, and ultimately the quality of later life. Positive perspectives of ageing are underpinned by a range of appraoches to successful ageing. This study aimed to investigate whether baseline biological, psychological and social aproaches to successful ageing predicted future QoL. Methods Postal follow-up in 2007/8 of a national random sample of 999 people aged 65 and over in 1999/2000. Of 496 valid addresses of survivors at follow-up, the follow-up response rate was 58% (287. Measures of the different concepts of successful ageing were constructed using baseline indicators. They were assessed for their ability to independently predict quality of life at follow-up. Results Few respondents achieved all good scores within each of the approaches to successful ageing. Each approach was associated with follow-up QoL when their scores were analysed continuously. The biomedical (health approach failed to achieve significance when the traditional dichotomous cut-off point for successfully aged (full health, or not (less than full health, was used. In multiple regression analyses of the relative predictive ability of each approach, only the psychological approach (perceived self-efficacy and optimism retained significance. Conclusion Only the psychological approach to successful ageing independently predicted QoL at follow-up. Successful ageing is not only about the maintenance of health, but about maximising one's psychological resources, namely self-efficacy and resilience. Increasing use of preventive care, better medical management of morbidity, and changing lifestyles in older people may have beneficial effects on health and longevity, but may not improve their QoL. Adding years to life and life to years may require two distinct and different approaches, one physical and the other psychological. Follow-up health status, number of supporters and social activities, and self-rated active ageing

  9. Contribution of maternal age, medical and obstetric history to maternal and perinatal morbidity/mortality for women aged 35 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan M; Totterdell, James; Bin, Yu Sun; Ford, Jane B; Roberts, Christine L

    2018-02-01

    As age is not modifiable, pregnancy risk information based on age alone is unhelpful for older women. To determine severe morbidity/mortality rates for women aged ≥35 years according to maternal profile based on parity, pre-existing medical conditions and prior pregnancy complications, and to assess the independent contribution of age. Population-based record-linkage study using NSW hospitalisation and birth records 2006-2012. Maternal and perinatal mortality/morbidity were assessed for non-anomalous singleton births to women aged ≥35 years. For 117 357 pregnancies among 99 375 women aged ≥35 years, the median age at delivery was 37 years (range 35-56 years), including: 35 652 (30.4%) multiparae without pre-existing medical or obstetric complications, 33,058 (28.2%) nulliparae without pre-existing medical conditions and 30 325 (25.8%) multiparae with prior pregnancy complications. Maternal and perinatal mortality/morbidity varied by maternal profile with ranges of 0.9-3.5% and 2.4-11.9%, respectively. For nulliparae, each five-year increase in age did not contribute significantly to maternal risk after controlling for medical conditions (adjustedodds ratio 1.08, 95% CI 0.93-1.25), but did confer perinatal risk (1.14; 1.05-1.25). For multiparae, each five-year increase in age beyond 35 years was independently associated with adverse maternal (1.23; 1.09-1.39) and perinatal outcomes (1.23; 1.09-1.39). For women aged ≥35 years, presence of medical conditions conferred a greater risk for morbidity/mortality than age itself. For multiparous women, the effects of medical and obstetric history were additive. The contribution of maternal age to adverse outcomes in pregnancies without significant medical and obstetric history is modest. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Development of a new scoring system to predict 5-year incident diabetes risk in middle-aged and older Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Wang, Jing; Li, Yaru; Hu, Hua; Li, Xiulou; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Pan, An; Yang, Handong; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new risk score system to predict 5-year incident diabetes risk among middle-aged and older Chinese population. This prospective study included 17,690 individuals derived from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort. Participants were recruited in 2008 and were followed until October 2013. Incident diabetes was defined as self-reported clinician diagnosed diabetes, fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l, or the use of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agent. A total of 1390 incident diabetic cases were diagnosed during the follow-up period. β-Coefficients were derived from Cox proportional hazard regression model and were used to calculate the risk score. The diabetes risk score includes BMI, fasting glucose, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, current smoking status, and family history of diabetes. The β-coefficients of these variables ranged from 0.139 to 1.914, and the optimal cutoff value was 1.5. The diabetes risk score was calculated by multiplying the β-coefficients of the significant variables by 10 and rounding to the nearest integer. The score ranges from 0 to 36. The area under the receiver operating curve of the score was 0.751. At the optimal cutoff value of 15, the sensitivity and specificity were 65.6 and 72.9%, respectively. Based upon these risk factors, this model had the highest discrimination compared with several commonly used diabetes prediction models. The newly established diabetes risk score with six parameters appears to be a reliable screening tool to predict 5-year risk of incident diabetes in a middle-aged and older Chinese population.

  11. Reassessing the NTCTCS Staging Systems for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Including Age at Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Donald S.A.; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Brierley, James D.; Ain, Kenneth B.; Cooper, David S.; Fein, Henry G.; Haugen, Bryan R.; Ladenson, Paul W.; Magner, James; Ross, Douglas S.; Skarulis, Monica C.; Steward, David L.; Xing, Mingzhao; Litofsky, Danielle R.; Maxon, Harry R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thyroid cancer is unique for having age as a staging variable. Recently, the commonly used age cut-point of 45 years has been questioned. Objective: This study assessed alternate staging systems on the outcome of overall survival, and compared these with current National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study (NTCTCS) staging systems for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. Methods: A total of 4721 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were assessed. Five potential alternate staging systems were generated at age cut-points in five-year increments from 35 to 70 years, and tested for model discrimination (Harrell's C-statistic) and calibration (R2). The best five models for papillary and follicular cancer were further tested with bootstrap resampling and significance testing for discrimination. Results: The best five alternate papillary cancer systems had age cut-points of 45–50 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. No significant difference in C-statistic was found between the best alternate and current NTCTCS systems (p = 0.200). The best five alternate follicular cancer systems had age cut-points of 50–55 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. All five best alternate staging systems performed better compared with the current system (p = 0.003–0.035). There was no significant difference in discrimination between the best alternate system (cut-point age 50 years) and the best system of cut-point age 45 years (p = 0.197). Conclusions: No alternate papillary cancer systems assessed were significantly better than the current system. New alternate staging systems for follicular cancer appear to be better than the current NTCTCS system, although they require external validation. PMID:26203804

  12. Age-related physical and psychological vulnerability as pathways to problem gambling in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Adrian; Griffiths, Mark; Pattinson, Julie; Keatley, David

    2018-03-01

    Background To inform clinical treatment and preventative efforts, there is an important need to understand the pathways to late-life gambling disorder. Aims This study assesses the association between age-related physical health, social networks, and problem gambling in adults aged over 65 years and assesses the mediating role of affective disorders in this association. Methods The sample comprised 595 older adults (mean age: 74.4 years, range: 65-94 years; 77.1% female) who were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to assess physical frailty, geriatric pain, loneliness, geriatric depression, geriatric anxiety, and problem gambling. Results Pathway analysis demonstrated associations between these variables and gambling problems, providing a good fit for the data, but that critically these relationships were mediated by both anxiety and depression symptoms. Conclusions This study indicates that late-life problem gambling may develop as vulnerable individuals gamble to escape anxiety and depression consequent to deteriorating physical well-being and social support. When individuals develop late-life problem gambling, it is recommended that the treatment primarily focuses upon targeting and replacing avoidant coping approaches.

  13. Understanding socio-cultural influences on smoking among older Greek-Australian smokers aged 50 and over: facilitators or barriers? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-03-02

    Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians' views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek-Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the "norm" by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants' social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers' family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking-both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group.

  14. Ankle Proprioception-Associated Gait Patterns in Older Adults: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seung-Uk; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Deshpande, Nandini; Studenski, Stephanie; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-11-01

    Ankle proprioception training has been found to improve balance-related gait disorders; however, the relationship between ankle proprioception and specific gait patterns in older adults with and without impaired balance has not been systematically examined. This study characterizes gait patterns of 230 older adults age 60-95 yr evaluated in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging gait laboratory with (n = 82) and without impaired balance (inability to successfully complete a narrow walk) and examines ankle proprioception performance. Participants with impaired balance had a higher angle threshold for perceiving ankle movement than those without impaired balance even after controlling for the substantial age difference between groups (P = 0.017). Gait speed, stride length, hip and ankle range of motion, and mechanical work expenditure from the knee and ankle were associated with ankle proprioception performance (P proprioception in older persons with balance impairment may play a role in balance-related gait disorders and should be targeted for intervention.

  15. Nurses' attitudes toward aging and older adults--examining attitudes and practices among health services providers in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Yvonne; Foreman, Peter; Gething, Lindsay; Petralia, Walter

    2004-09-01

    Data from an applied research project on ageism among health professionals were used to examine nurses' attitudes toward aging and working with older adults. Nurses were compared with groups of other health professionals, and sources of variation within the nurses (e.g., employer, work setting, gerontology education) were examined. Nurses had less accurate knowledge of aging than other health professionals. Nurses expressed higher anxiety about aging and were more likely to believe working with older adults was associated with low esteem in the profession. Nurses were more likely to hold positive attitudes if they worked for a service provider rather than an employment agency, had gerontology education, and worked outside the residential care sector. Improving education in gerontology is an important strategy in improving the attitudes of the profession toward older adults and could help to address nursing shortages in this sector.

  16. Differences in fall injury hospitalization and related survival rates among older adults across age, sex, and areas of residence in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shanthi; Kelly, Sheila; Rasali, Drona

    2015-12-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injury-related hospital admissions in Canadian older adults, accounting for 85 % of injury hospitalizations among older adults aged over 65 years. While many of these injuries can lead to death, the survival rates of fall-related injuries are rarely examined. This surveillance study examined the fall injury hospitalization and survival rates among older adults in the context of place. Saskatchewan's health administrative data on injury hospitalizations among individuals aged 65 years and over (n = 39,867) was utilized for this study. Variables of interest included age group, sex, and the geographical area of residence at the time of hospitalization (rural, urban, north). Logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the association of variables of interest (age group, sex, and area of residence at the time of hospitalization as the covariate) with frequency of fall injury hospitalizations. Probable time to death due to fall-related injury hospitalization was determined by survival analysis. Three key findings that emerged from the present study are the following: (1) fall injury hospitalizations accounted for 77 % of all injury hospitalizations; (2) fall injury hospitalization rates varied by age group, sex, and area of residence, with advancing age, women, and certain geographical areas showing higher rates; and (3) survival rates also varied by sex and area of residence. Women had longer survival estimates after a fall injury hospitalization compared to men, and those living in the north have the shortest survival estimates. The findings from the study highlighted the high rate of fall-related injury hospitalization among older adults varying with their age group, sex, and area of residence. These factors need to be considered in injury surveillance and fall prevention research as well as programs and policies that support the reduction of falls.

  17. Healthy ageing at work- Efficacy of group interventions on the mental health of nurses aged 45 and older: Results of a randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatouk, Imad; Müller, Andreas; Angerer, Peter; Schmook, Renate; Nikendei, Christoph; Herbst, Kirsten; Gantner, Melanie; Herzog, Wolfgang; Gündel, Harald

    2018-01-01

    This multicentre, randomised controlled trial (RCT) aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a small-group intervention promoting successful ageing at work in older nurses (aged ≥45). A sample of 115 nurses aged ≥45 from 4 trial sites in Germany were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (IG), that received a small-group intervention of seven weekly sessions of 120 min with a booster session after six weeks or to a wait-list control condition (WLC). Outcomes were measured via validated self-report questionnaires at baseline (T1) and at post-treatment (T2). Primary outcomes were mental health-related well-being and mental health-related quality of life (QOL). The secondary outcomes included mental health-related and work-related measures. The intention to treat (ITT) analysis showed significant positive effects of the intervention on mental health. A significant small effect (d = 0.3) in favour of the IG was found for psychological health-related quality of life. Positive small effects (d = 0.24 to d = 0.31) were also found for work related mental strain. Our small-group intervention based on a theory of successful ageing for nurses aged ≥45 was found to be effective with regard to improvements of psychological health related quality of life and other mental health-related outcomes. Thus, our study shows that the ageing workforce can be reached through specifically designed preventive interventions. The components of our intervention could be easily adapted to the belongings of other professions. Our results suggest that these components should be evaluated in various settings outside the healthcare sector.

  18. Healthy ageing at work- Efficacy of group interventions on the mental health of nurses aged 45 and older: Results of a randomised, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Maatouk

    Full Text Available This multicentre, randomised controlled trial (RCT aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a small-group intervention promoting successful ageing at work in older nurses (aged ≥45.A sample of 115 nurses aged ≥45 from 4 trial sites in Germany were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (IG, that received a small-group intervention of seven weekly sessions of 120 min with a booster session after six weeks or to a wait-list control condition (WLC. Outcomes were measured via validated self-report questionnaires at baseline (T1 and at post-treatment (T2. Primary outcomes were mental health-related well-being and mental health-related quality of life (QOL. The secondary outcomes included mental health-related and work-related measures.The intention to treat (ITT analysis showed significant positive effects of the intervention on mental health. A significant small effect (d = 0.3 in favour of the IG was found for psychological health-related quality of life. Positive small effects (d = 0.24 to d = 0.31 were also found for work related mental strain.Our small-group intervention based on a theory of successful ageing for nurses aged ≥45 was found to be effective with regard to improvements of psychological health related quality of life and other mental health-related outcomes. Thus, our study shows that the ageing workforce can be reached through specifically designed preventive interventions. The components of our intervention could be easily adapted to the belongings of other professions. Our results suggest that these components should be evaluated in various settings outside the healthcare sector.

  19. Acceptance factors of mobile apps for diabetes by patients aged 50 or older: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, Madlen; Reichelt, Julius; Bellmann, Maike; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2015-03-02

    Mobile apps for people with diabetes offer great potential to support therapy management, increase therapy adherence, and reduce the probability of the occurrence of accompanying and secondary diseases. However, they are rarely used by elderly patients due to a lack of acceptance. We investigated the question "Which factors influence the acceptance of diabetes apps among patients aged 50 or older?" Particular emphasis was placed on the current use of mobile devices/apps, acceptance-promoting/-inhibiting factors, features of a helpful diabetes app, and contact persons for technical questions. This qualitative study was the third of three substudies investigating factors influencing acceptance of diabetes apps among patients aged 50 or older. Guided interviews were chosen in order to get a comprehensive insight into the subjective perspective of elderly diabetes patients. At the end of each interview, the patients tested two existing diabetes apps to reveal obstacles in (first) use. Altogether, 32 patients with diabetes were interviewed. The mean age was 68.8 years (SD 8.2). Of 32 participants, 15 (47%) knew apps, however only 2 (6%) had already used a diabetes app within their therapy. The reasons reported for being against the use of apps were a lack of additional benefits (4/8, 50%) compared to current therapy management, a lack of interoperability with other devices/apps (1/8, 12%), and no joy of use (1/8, 12%). The app test revealed the following main difficulties in use: nonintuitive understanding of the functionality of the apps (26/29, 90%), nonintuitive understanding of the menu navigation/labeling (19/29, 66%), font sizes and representations that were too small (14/29, 48%), and difficulties in recognizing and pressing touch-sensitive areas (14/29, 48%). Furthermore, the patients felt the apps lacked individually important functions (11/29, 38%), or felt the functions that were offered were unnecessary for their own therapy needs (10/29, 34%). The most

  20. Factors in relation to bone mineral density in Korean middle-aged and older men: 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoon Jung; Kim, Jihye

    2014-01-01

    Studies on determinants of bone mineral density (BMD) among Asian middle-aged and older men are very limited. The aim of this study was to investigate general determinants and dietary factors influencing BMD in Korean middle-aged and older men. This study was conducted using data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 2,305 male subjects aged 50-79 years were included. Whole-body, total femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine BMDs were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour dietary recall. A food frequency questionnaire for 63 food items was also administered. Proportions of osteoporosis at the total femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were 0.7, 3.3 and 7.0%, respectively. Age, height, weight, body mass index, fat mass, lean body mass, waist circumference, serum vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and exercise were related to BMD, but the relationships were site specific. Diet quality and intake of vegetables, fruits, and calcium were associated with BMD. These results suggest that a high-quality diet, an adequate intake of fruits, vegetables, and calcium, as well as exercise, high serum vitamin D and weight maintenance might be determinants of BMD among middle-aged and older Asian men.

  1. Psychiatric Co-Occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, Anne G.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (N[subscript max] = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80).…

  2. Acute stress disorder in older, middle-aged and younger adults in reaction to the second Lebanon war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miri

    2008-01-01

    To compare rate of acute stress disorder (ASD) and intensity of acute stress symptoms (ASS) in younger, middle-aged and older Israeli citizens exposed to missile attacks during the second Lebanon war. A telephone survey of a random sample of residents in the northern area of Israel was conducted in July 2006, during the third week of Lebanon war. Respondents were divided into groups aged 18-40, 41-69 and 70+. ASD and ASS were measured by the Acute Stress Interview questionnaire and by war-related exposure variables and demographic data. Exposure variables were similar in the three age groups. Older respondents reported lower intensity of ASS and obtained lower means for each of the symptoms criteria than the young adults, while the middle-aged adults were in between the younger and the older group. ASD criteria were met by 13.2% of the younger, 4.7% of middle-aged and 4.3% of older respondents (p > 0.05), and subsyndromal ASD was found in 20.5%, 14.1% and 4.4% (p war situation with lower level of acute stress symptoms. Long-term effects of war on different age groups should be further studied.

  3. Compliance with telephone triage advice among adults aged 45 years and older: an Australian data linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duong Thuy; Gibson, Amy; Randall, Deborah; Havard, Alys; Byrne, Mary; Robinson, Maureen; Lawler, Anthony; Jorm, Louisa R

    2017-08-01

    Middle-aged and older patients are prominent users of telephone triage services for timely access to health information and appropriate referrals. Non-compliance with advice to seek appropriate care could potentially lead to poorer health outcomes among those patients. It is imperative to assess the extent to which middle-aged and older patients follow triage advice and how this varies according to their socio-demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics as well as features of the call. Records of calls to the Australian healthdirect helpline (July 2008-December 2011) were linked to baseline questionnaire data from the 45 and Up Study (participants age ≥ 45 years), records of emergency department (ED) presentations, hospital admissions, and medical consultation claims. Outcomes of the call included compliance with the advice "Attend ED immediately"; "See a doctor (immediately, within 4 hours, or within 24 hours)"; "Self-care"; and self-referral to ED or hospital within 24 h when given a self-care or low-urgency care advice. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate associations between call outcomes and patient and call characteristics. This study included 8406 adults (age ≥ 45 years) who were subjects of 11,088 calls to the healthdirect helpline. Rates of compliance with the advices "Attend ED immediately", "See a doctor" and "Self-care" were 68.6%, 64.6% and 77.5% respectively, while self-referral to ED within 24 h followed 7.0% of calls. Compliance with the advice "Attend ED immediately" was higher among patients who had three or more positive lifestyle behaviours, called after-hours, or stated that their original intention was to attend ED, while it was lower among those who lived in rural and remote areas or reported high or very high levels of psychological distress. Compliance with the advice "See a doctor" was higher in patients who were aged ≥65 years, worked full-time, or lived in socio-economically advantaged areas

  4. A randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of an individual, education-based safe transport program for drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keay Lisa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are concerns over safety of older drivers due to increased crash involvement and vulnerability to injury. However, loss of driving privileges can dramatically reduce independence and quality of life for older members of the community. The aim of this trial is to examine the effectiveness of a safe transport program for drivers aged 75 years and older at reducing driving exposure but maintaining mobility. Methods and design A randomised trial will be conducted, involving 380 drivers aged 75 years and older, resident in urban and semi-rural areas of North-West Sydney. The intervention is an education program based on the Knowledge Enhances Your Safety (KEYS program, adapted for the Australian context. Driving experience will be measured objectively using an in-vehicle monitoring device which includes a global positioning system (GPS to assess driving exposure and an accelerometer to detect rapid deceleration events. Participation will be assessed using the Keele Assessment of Participation (KAP. Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis; the primary outcomes include driving exposure, rapid deceleration events and scores for KAP. Secondary outcomes include self-reported measures of driving, socialisation, uptake of alternative forms of transport, depressive symptoms and mood. A detailed process evaluation will be conducted, including examination of the delivery of the program and uptake of alternative forms of transport. A subgroup analysis is planned for drivers with reduced function as characterized by established cut-off scores on the Drivesafe assessment tool. Discussion This randomised trial is powered to provide an objective assessment of the efficacy of an individually tailored education and alternative transportation program to promote safety of older drivers but maintain mobility. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000543886.

  5. ‘Timed Up and Go’ test: Age, gender and cognitive impairment stratified normative values of older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Azianah; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Shahar, Suzana

    2017-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to establish ‘Timed up and Go’ test (TUG) normative data among community dwelling