WorldWideScience

Sample records for included grade point

  1. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by the…

  2. The effect of various grading scales on student grade point averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kelli D; Buring, Shauna M

    2012-04-10

    To investigate changes in and the impact of grading scales from 2005 to 2010 and explore pharmacy faculty and student perceptions of whole-letter and plus/minus grading scales on cumulative grade point averages (GPAs) in required courses. Grading scales used in 2010 at the University of Cincinnati College of Pharmacy were retrospectively identified and compared to those used in 2005. Mean GPA was calculated using a whole-letter grading scale and a plus/minus grading scale to determine the impact of scales on GPA. Faculty members and students were surveyed regarding their perceptions of plus/minus grading. Nine unique grading scales were used throughout the curriculum, including plus/minus (64%) and whole-letter (21%) grading scales. From 2005 to 2010 there was transition from use of predominantly whole-letter scales to plus/minus grading scales. The type of grading scale used did not affect the mean cumulative GPA. Students preferred use of a plus-only grading scale while faculty members preferred use of a plus/minus grading scale. The transition from whole-letter grading to plus/minus grading in courses from 2005 to 2010 reflects pharmacy faculty members' perception that plus/minus grading allows for better differentiation between students' performances.

  3. Reliability Estimates for Undergraduate Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate grade point average (GPA) is a commonly employed measure in educational research, serving as a criterion or as a predictor depending on the research question. Over the decades, researchers have used a variety of reliability coefficients to estimate the reliability of undergraduate GPA, which suggests that there has been no consensus…

  4. Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

  5. The Geological Grading Scale: Every million Points Counts!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, D. R.; Cooper, C. M.

    2006-12-01

    The concept of geological time, ranging from thousands to billions of years, is naturally quite difficult for students to grasp initially, as it is much longer than the timescales over which they experience everyday life. Moreover, universities operate on a few key timescales (hourly lectures, weekly assignments, mid-term examinations) to which students' maximum attention is focused, largely driven by graded assessment. The geological grading scale exploits the overwhelming interest students have in grades as an opportunity to instill familiarity with geological time. With the geological grading scale, the number of possible points/marks/grades available in the course is scaled to 4.5 billion points --- collapsing the entirety of Earth history into one semester. Alternatively, geological time can be compressed into each assignment, with scores for weekly homeworks not worth 100 points each, but 4.5 billion! Homeworks left incomplete with questions unanswered lose 100's of millions of points - equivalent to missing the Paleozoic era. The expected quality of presentation for problem sets can be established with great impact in the first week by docking assignments an insignificant amount points for handing in messy work; though likely more points than they've lost in their entire schooling history combined. Use this grading scale and your students will gradually begin to appreciate exactly how much time represents a geological blink of the eye.

  6. Grade Point Average: What's Wrong and What's the Alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Kay Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Grade point average (GPA) has been around for more than two centuries. However, it has created a lot of confusion, frustration, and anxiety to GPA-producers and users alike, especially when used across-nation for different purposes. This paper looks into the reasons for such a state of affairs from the perspective of educational measurement. It…

  7. The Effect of Honors Courses on Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, Art L.; Squires, Suzanne Carter

    2016-01-01

    High-ability entering college students give three main reasons for not choosing to become part of honors programs and colleges; they and/or their parents believe that honors classes at the university level require more work than non-honors courses, are more stressful, and will adversely affect their self-image and grade point average (GPA) (Hill;…

  8. Examining Master Schedule Practices in Rio Grande Valley Schools: Effects on Student Attendance, Discipline, and Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriaga, Benito T.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of the master schedule design on student attendance, discipline, and grade point averages. Unexcused and excused absences, minor and major infraction, and grade point averages in three high schools during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 school years were included in the study. The purpose was to examine if any difference…

  9. Measured emotional intelligence ability and grade point average in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codier, Estelle; Odell, Ellen

    2014-04-01

    For most schools of nursing, grade point average is the most important criteria for admission to nursing school and constitutes the main indicator of success throughout the nursing program. In the general research literature, the relationship between traditional measures of academic success, such as grade point average and postgraduation job performance is not well established. In both the general population and among practicing nurses, measured emotional intelligence ability correlates with both performance and other important professional indicators postgraduation. Little research exists comparing traditional measures of intelligence with measured emotional intelligence prior to graduation, and none in the student nurse population. This exploratory, descriptive, quantitative study was undertaken to explore the relationship between measured emotional intelligence ability and grade point average of first year nursing students. The study took place at a school of nursing at a university in the south central region of the United States. Participants included 72 undergraduate student nurse volunteers. Emotional intelligence was measured using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, version 2, an instrument for quantifying emotional intelligence ability. Pre-admission grade point average was reported by the school records department. Total emotional intelligence (r=.24) scores and one subscore, experiential emotional intelligence(r=.25) correlated significantly (>.05) with grade point average. This exploratory, descriptive study provided evidence for some relationship between GPA and measured emotional intelligence ability, but also demonstrated lower than average range scores in several emotional intelligence scores. The relationship between pre-graduation measures of success and level of performance postgraduation deserves further exploration. The findings of this study suggest that research on the relationship between traditional and nontraditional

  10. Predicting different grades in different ways for selective admission : Disentangling the first-year grade point average

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenman, Sebastiaan C.; Bakker, Wieger E.; van Tartwijk, Jan W F

    2016-01-01

    The first-year grade point average (FYGPA) is the predominant measure of student success in most studies on university admission. Previous cognitive achievements measured with high school grades or standardized tests have been found to be the strongest predictors of FYGPA. For this reason,

  11. Predicting Different Grades in Different Ways for Selective Admission: Disentangling the First-Year Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenman, Sebastiaan C.; Bakker, Wieger E.; van Tartwijk, Jan W. F.

    2016-01-01

    The first-year grade point average (FYGPA) is the predominant measure of student success in most studies on university admission. Previous cognitive achievements measured with high school grades or standardized tests have been found to be the strongest predictors of FYGPA. For this reason, standardized tests measuring cognitive achievement are…

  12. Teachers grading practices : an analysis of the reliability of teacher-assigned grade point average (GPA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lans, R. M.; van de Grift, W. J. C. M.; van Veen, K.

    2015-01-01

    In previous research, teachers report that they use a hodgepodge of factors when grading students. This has led researchers to suspect that teacher-assigned grades are inflated by teacher-student interactions; the hodgepodge hypothesis. Teachers also are reported to differ in grading leniency; the

  13. Extracurricular Activities and Their Effect on the Student's Grade Point Average: Statistical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakoban, R. A.; Aljarallah, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Extracurricular activities (ECA) are part of students' everyday life; they play important roles in students' lives. Few studies have addressed the question of how student engagements to ECA affect student's grade point average (GPA). This research was conducted to know whether the students' grade point average in King Abdulaziz University,…

  14. Grades and Incentives: Assessing Competing Grade Point Average Measures and Postgraduate Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michael A.; Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Albert H.

    2016-01-01

    In many educational settings, students may have an incentive to take courses where high grades are easier to achieve, potentially corroding student learning, evaluation of student achievement, and the fairness and efficiency of post-graduation labor outcomes. A grading system that takes into account heterogeneity of teacher standards and student…

  15. Correlation between Grade Point Averages and Student Evaluation of Teaching Scores: Taking a Closer Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tyler J.; Hilton, John, III.; Plummer, Kenneth; Barret, Devynne

    2014-01-01

    One of the most contentious potential sources of bias is whether instructors who give higher grades receive higher ratings from students. We examined the grade point averages (GPAs) and student ratings across 2073 general education religion courses at a large private university. A moderate correlation was found between GPAs and student evaluations…

  16. An Intervention Including an Online Game to Improve Grade 6 Students' Performance in Early Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Angeliki; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Koller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether an intervention including an online game contributed to 236 Grade 6 students' performance in early algebra, that is, solving problems with covarying quantities. An exploratory quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest-control-group design. Students in the experimental group were asked to solve…

  17. Cognitive, academic, and attitudinal predictors of the grade point averages of college students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher; Wren, Carol T

    2003-01-01

    This study examined cognitive, academic, and attitudinal predictors of college grade point average (GPA) among college students with learning disabilities (LD). The study population included 84 youth who attended a large private university in the midwestern United States. Measures of cognitive and academic functioning, along with a self-report measure of study habits and study attitudes, were used to predict college GPA. The results indicated that Full Scale IQ and one factor on the self-reported study habits scale accounted for a significant amount of variance in students' college GPA. These findings suggest that variables other than traditional cognitive and academic skills are important for determining the performance of youth with LD during college. The implications of these findings for future research efforts and practice are discussed.

  18. Food Insecurity among Community College Students: Prevalence and Association with Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, Maya E.; Snelling, Anastasia; Linck, Henry

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of food insecurity among community college students (N = 301) and the relationship between food insecurity and student grade point average (GPA). It employed a cross-sectional intercept survey, utilizing the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Household Food Security Survey Module, student self-reported GPA, and…

  19. The Relationship between Interparental Conflict and Self-Reported Grade Point Average among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, S. Jane; Krueger, Lacy E.; Limberg, Dodie

    2017-01-01

    Interparental conflict has been shown to have a negative effect on the academic success of children and adolescents. This study examined the relationship between college students' (N = 143) perceived levels of interparental conflict, their living arrangement, and their current self-reported grade point average. Participants who experienced more…

  20. A Mixed-Methods Study Investigating the Relationship between Media Multitasking Orientation and Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between media multitasking orientation and grade point average. The study utilized a mixed-methods approach to investigate the research questions. In the quantitative section of the study, the primary method of statistical analyses was multiple regression. The independent variables for the…

  1. Documenting Student Performance: An Alternative to the Traditional Calculation of Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volwerk, Johannes J.; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, students in secondary and postsecondary education have grade point averages (GPA) calculated, and a cumulative GPA computed to summarize overall performance at their institutions. GPAs are used for acknowledgement and awards, as partial evidence for admission to other institutions (colleges and universities), and for awarding…

  2. Predicting College Success: Achievement, Demographic, and Psychosocial Predictors of First-Semester College Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltonstall, Margot

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to advance and expand research on college student success. Using multinomial logistic regression analysis, the study investigates the contribution of psychosocial variables above and beyond traditional achievement and demographic measures to predicting first-semester college grade point average (GPA). It also investigates if…

  3. Grade Point Average: Report of the GPA Pilot Project 2013-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Academy, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report is published as the result of a range of investigations and debates involving many universities and colleges and a series of meetings, presentations, discussions and consultations. Interest in a grade point average (GPA) system was originally initiated by a group of interested universities, progressing to the systematic investigation…

  4. Grade point average and biographical data in personal resumes: Predictors of finding employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulastri, A.; Handoko, M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine relationships between graduates' grade point average (GPA), biographical data and success in finding a job in general and a psychology-based job in particular. Two hundred six psychology graduates participated in a two-wave longitudinal study. Biographical data assessed

  5. Factors That Predict Marijuana Use and Grade Point Average among Undergraduate College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Marlena B.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors that predict marijuana use and grade point average among undergraduate college students using the Core Institute national database. The Core Alcohol and Drug Survey was used to collect data on students' attitudes, beliefs, and experiences related to substance use in college. The sample used in this…

  6. The predictive validity of grade point average scores in a partial lottery medical school admission system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Reinders, Jan J.; Agsteribbe, Jessica; van Rossum, Herman J. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE To ascertain whether the grade point average (GPA) of school-leaving examinations is related to study success, career development and scientific performance. The problem of restriction of range was expected to be partially reduced due to the use of a national lottery system weighted in

  7. Do Nondomestic Undergraduates Choose a Major Field in Order to Maximize Grade Point Averages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Matthew E.; Fass-Holmes, Barry

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated whether undergraduates attending an American West Coast public university who were not U.S. citizens (nondomestic) maximized their grade point averages (GPA) through their choice of major field. Multiple regression hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that major field's effect size was small for these…

  8. Working and Non-Working University Students: Anxiety, Depression, and Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounsey, Rebecca; Vandehey, Michael A.; Diekhoff, George M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the differences between 110 working and non-working students in terms of mental health, academic achievement, and perceptions about student employment. Anxiety and depression were measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Academic achievement was measured by grade point average. Perceptions of…

  9. Predictors of First-Year Sultan Qaboos University Students' Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhausi, Hussain Ali; Al-Yahmadi, Hamad; Al-Kalbani, Muna; Clayton, David; Al-Barwani, Thuwayba; Al-Sulaimani, Humaira; Neisler, Otherine; Khan, Mohammad Athar

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of first-year university grade point average (GPA) using academic and nonacademic variables. Data were collected from 1511 Omani students selected conveniently from the population of students entering Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in Fall 2010. Variables considered in the analysis were general education diploma…

  10. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdat, Yarim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  11. Alternative Estimates of the Reliability of College Grade Point Averages. Professional File. Article 130, Spring 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saupe, Joe L.; Eimers, Mardy T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in the reliabilities of cumulative college grade point averages (GPAs), estimated for unweighted and weighted, one-semester, 1-year, 2-year, and 4-year GPAs. Using cumulative GPAs for a freshman class at a major university, we estimate internal consistency (coefficient alpha) reliabilities for…

  12. Critical Dynamics : The Expansion of the Master Equation Including a Critical Point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.

    1980-01-01

    In this thesis it is shown how to solve the master equation for a Markov process including a critical point by means of successive approximations in terms of a small parameter. A critical point occurs if, by adjusting an externally controlled quantity, the system shows a transition from normal

  13. Correlations between PANCE performance, physician assistant program grade point average, and selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gina; Imel, Brittany; Nelson, Alyssa; Hale, LaDonna S; Jansen, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between first-time Physician Assistant National Certifying Exam (PANCE) scores and pass/fail status, physician assistant (PA) program didactic grade point average (GPA), and specific selection criteria. This retrospective study evaluated graduating classes from 2007, 2008, and 2009 at a single program (N = 119). There was no correlation between PANCE performance and undergraduate grade point average (GPA), science prerequisite GPA, or health care experience. There was a moderate correlation between PANCE pass/fail and where students took science prerequisites (r = 0.27, P = .003) but not with the PANCE score. PANCE scores were correlated with overall PA program GPA (r = 0.67), PA pharmacology grade (r = 0.68), and PA anatomy grade (r = 0.41) but not with PANCE pass/fail. Correlations between selection criteria and PANCE performance were limited, but further research regarding the influence of prerequisite institution type may be warranted and may improve admission decisions. PANCE scores and PA program GPA correlations may guide academic advising and remediation decisions for current students.

  14. Undergraduate grade point average is a poor predictor of scientific productivity later in career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polasek, Ozren; Mavrinac, Martina; Jović, Alan; Dzono Boban, Ankica; Biocina-Lukenda, Dolores; Glivetić, Tatjana; Vasilj, Ivan; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the undergraduate grade point average in prediction of scientific production of research trainees during their fellowship and later in career. The study was performed in 1320 research trainees whose fellowships from the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports were terminated between 1999 and 2005. The data were analyzed using logistic regression. The results indicated that undergraduate grade point average was negatively associated with scientific productivity both during and after the fellowship termination. Other indicators, such as undergraduate scientific productivity exhibited much stronger positive association with scientific productivity later in career and should be given more weight in candidate selection process in science and research.

  15. Past Negative Time Perspective as a Predictor of Grade Point Average in Occupational Therapy Doctoral Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat J. Precin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Time perspective is a fundamental dimension in psychological time, dividing human experiences into past, present, and future. Time perspective influences individuals’ functioning in all occupations, including education. Previous research has examined the relationship between time perspective and academic outcomes, but the same research has not been done, to date, with occupational therapy doctoral students. This quantitative, cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between time perspective and academic success in occupational therapy doctoral students across the United States. Data from the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI and grade point averages (GPAs were collected from 50 participants via surveymonkey.com. Past Negative time perspective statistically predicted GPA in the negative direction (p = .001 for students in pre-professional OTD programs, but did not predict GPA for post-professional students. Age, gender, and learning environment did not significantly influence the prediction of GPA in either group. The method and results of this study demonstrate that the ZTPI, an instrument used in the field of psychology, may have value in the profession of occupational therapy and occupational therapy doctoral programs.

  16. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Koretz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA from high school GPA and both college admissions and high school tests in mathematics and English. In both systems, the choice of tests had only trivial effects on the aggregate prediction of FGPA. Adding either test to an equation that included the other had only trivial effects on prediction. Although the findings suggest that the choice of test might advantage or disadvantage different students, it had no substantial effect on the over- and underprediction of FGPA for students classified by race-ethnicity or poverty.

  17. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Koretz, Daniel; Yu, C; Mbekeani, Preeya Pandya; Langi, M.; Dhaliwal, Tasminda Kaur; Braslow, David Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA) from high school GPA an...

  18. The Chicken Soup Effect: The Role of Recreation and Intramural Participation in Boosting Freshman Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbison, Godfrey A.; Henry, Tracyann L.; Perkins-Brown, Jayne

    2011-01-01

    Freshman grade point average, in particular first semester grade point average, is an important predictor of survival and eventual student success in college. As many institutions of higher learning are searching for ways to improve student success, one would hope that policies geared towards the success of freshmen have long term benefits…

  19. Comparing Weighted and Unweighted Grade Point Averages in Predicting College Success of Diverse and Low-Income College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Russell T.; Nagaishi, Chanel; Slade, Michael K.; Hermesmeyer, Paul; Peck, Elizabeth Kimberli

    2014-01-01

    While research has shown the statistical significance of high school grade point averages (HSGPAs) in predicting future academic outcomes, the systems with which HSGPAs are calculated vary drastically across schools. Some schools employ unweighted grades that carry the same point value regardless of the course in which they are earned; other…

  20. The predictive validity of grade point average scores in a partial lottery medical school admission system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Reinders, Jan J; Agsteribbe, Jessica; van Rossum, Herman J M; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2006-10-01

    To ascertain whether the grade point average (GPA) of school-leaving examinations is related to study success, career development and scientific performance. The problem of restriction of range was expected to be partially reduced due to the use of a national lottery system weighted in favour of students with higher GPAs. We studied the students (n = 398) admitted to the Faculty of Medicine, University of Groningen, the Netherlands in 1982 and 1983. Data concerning drop-out and study progress were derived from the student administration. Data about career development were obtained from annual interviews with graduates (n = 318) between 1993 and 2000. Literature searches yielded data concerning scientific performance. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to analyse the data. The variables 'gender' and 'cohort' and their interaction were included in the analyses to account for variation in the general level of the dependent variable and the effect of GPA on the dependent variable. GPA scores had no effect on drop-out rate. High GPA scores were associated with significantly less time to graduation, more chance of a preferred placement for specialist training and higher scientific output. GPA was not related to income. Gender differences were found for study duration and scientific output. Women graduated earlier and published less. The GPA of school-leaving examinations was found to be related to study success, career development and scientific performance. In this study the usual problem of restriction of range was shown to be absent. The weighted lottery procedure even resulted in an over-dispersion of candidates relative to the applicants. The resulting effect sizes were in agreement with those reported in other studies.

  1. Beginning German in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational German to Third-Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Nora E.; And Others

    This guide is planned to help the FLES teacher develop pleasurable language learning experiences in spoken German for children at the third-grade level. Experiences included in this guide present German in life situations, as well as insight into German culture. The guide offers suggestions for classroom procedures, and detailed directions are…

  2. Impact of field of study, college and year on calculation of cumulative grade point average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trail, Carla; Reiter, Harold I; Bridge, Michelle; Stefanowska, Patricia; Schmuck, Marylou; Norman, Geoff

    2008-08-01

    A consistent finding from many reviews is that undergraduate Grade Point Average (uGPA) is a key predictor of academic success in medical school. Curiously, while uGPA has established predictive validity, little is known about its reliability. For a variety of reasons, medical schools use different weighting schemas to combine years of study. Additional concerns relate to the equivalence of grades obtained from different fields of study and institutions, with little hard data to guide conclusions. At the Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine Class of 2007 at McMaster University, every undergraduate grade of 2,138 applicants, along with field of study and post-secondary educational institution, was analyzed. Individual grades were aggregated into an overall uGPA using published algorithms from several medical school, and correlated with a non-weighted sum. Correlations of the different schemas with equal weights ranged from 0.973 to 0.990. The extent of the difference between fields of study was small, accounting for only 1.5% of the variance. However, differences among 16 Ontario universities were larger, and accounted for 9.3% of the variance. The results of this study suggest that all weighting schemas are virtually equivalent, making any formulation reasonable. Differences by field of study are small, but do not show any bias against non-science students. Differences by institution are larger, amounting to a range in average score from 78.7 to 84.6; however it is not clear whether this reflects candidate ability or institutional policy, so attempts to correct for institution may be difficult.

  3. Stagnation-point flow of second grade nanofluid towards a nonlinear stretching surface with variable thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai Sajjad Saif

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stagnation point flow of second grade nanomaterial towards a nonlinear stretching surface subject to variable surface thickness. The process of heat transfer is examined through the melting heat and mixed convection effects. Further novel features regarding Brownian motion and thermophoresis are present. Boundary-layer approximation is employed in the problem formulation. Momentum, energy and concentration equations are converted into the non-linear ordinary differential system through the appropriate transformations. Convergent solutions for resulting problem are computed. Behaviors of various sundry variables on temperature and concentration are studied in detail. The skin friction coefficient and heat and mass transfer rates are also computed and analyzed. Our results indicate that the temperature and concentration distributions are enhanced for larger values of thermophoresis parameter. Further the present work is hoped to be useful in improving the performance of heat transfer of base fluid. Keywords: Stagnation-point flow, Second grade fluid, Nanoparticles, Melting heat process, Nonlinear stretching surface, Variable surface thickness

  4. Predicting Long-Term College Success through Degree Completion Using ACT[R] Composite Score, ACT Benchmarks, and High School Grade Point Average. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunzel, Justine; Noble, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of ACT[R] Composite score and high school grade point average (HSGPA) for predicting long-term college success. Outcomes included annual progress towards a degree (based on cumulative credit-bearing hours earned), degree completion, and cumulative grade point average (GPA) at 150% of normal time to degree…

  5. An ArcGIS approach to include tectonic structures in point data regionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsow, Andreas; Schafmeister, Maria-Theresia; Hofmann, Thilo

    2009-01-01

    Point data derived from drilling logs must often be regionalized. However, aquifers may show discontinuous surface structures, such as the offset of an aquitard caused by tectonic faults. One main challenge has been to incorporate these structures into the regionalization process of point data. We combined ordinary kriging and inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation to account for neotectonic structures in the regionalization process. The study area chosen to test this approach is the largest porous aquifer in Austria. It consists of three basins formed by neotectonic events and delimited by steep faults with a vertical offset of the aquitard up to 70 m within very short distances. First, ordinary kriging was used to incorporate the characteristic spatial variability of the aquitard location by means of a variogram. The tectonic faults could be included into the regionalization process by using breaklines with buffer zones. All data points inside the buffer were deleted. Last, IDW was performed, resulting in an aquitard map representing the discontinuous surface structures. This approach enables one to account for such surfaces using the standard software package ArcGIS; therefore, it could be adopted in many practical applications.

  6. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 5a: Geometria - Conjuntos de Puntos (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 5a: Geometry - Sets of Points).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in the booklet include points, lines, planes, space, angles, and intersection and union of sets. (MK)

  7. Depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and grade point average among student servicemembers and veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J; Bryan, AnnaBelle O; Hinkson, Kent; Bichrest, Michael; Ahern, D Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined relationships among self-reported depression severity, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, and grade point average (GPA) among student servicemembers and veterans. We asked 422 student servicemembers and veterans (72% male, 86% Caucasian, mean age = 36.29 yr) to complete an anonymous online survey that assessed self-reported GPA, depression severity, PTSD severity, and frequency of academic problems (late assignments, low grades, failed exams, and skipped classes). Female respondents reported a slightly higher GPA than males (3.56 vs 3.41, respectively, p = 0.01). Depression symptoms (beta weight = -0.174, p = 0.03), male sex (beta weight = 0.160, p = 0.01), and younger age (beta weight = 0.155, p = 0.01) were associated with lower GPA but not PTSD symptoms (beta weight = -0.040, p = 0.62), although the interaction of depression and PTSD symptoms showed a nonsignificant inverse relationship with GPA (beta weight = -0.378, p = 0.08). More severe depression was associated with turning in assignments late (beta weight = 0.171, p = 0.03), failed exams (beta weight = 0.188, p = 0.02), and skipped classes (beta weight = 0.254, p = 0.01). The relationship of depression with self-reported GPA was mediated by frequency of failed examns. Results suggest that student servicemembers and veterans with greater emotional distress also report worse academic performance.

  8. Grade Point Average System of Assessment: the Implementation Peculiarities in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Sazonov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the specificity, as well as flaws and faults of implementing the Grade Point Average (GPA system of students’ personal assessment in Russian higher schools. Nowadays, the above system is regarded as the basic functional element of educational process organization at the world’s leading universities. The author summarizes the foreign experience and demonstrates the advantages of the GPA system in comparison with the traditional domestic scale of assessment: full records of student’s assessment, objectivity, activation of responsibility for the results achieved, and self-control motivation. The standard GPA model is demonstrated, its application systemizing both the Russian and European requirements to the higher school graduates. The author suggests his own version of the assessment scale estimating and comparing the quality of education in Russian universities and worldwide. The research findings can be of interest to the specialists in the sphere of quality measurement and educational management. 

  9. The effects of sex and grade-point average on emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Martha; Marsh, George E

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of sex and grade-point average (GPA) on emotional intelligence on secondary students as measured by the Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EII). The EII is a 41-item Likert scale based on the original theoretical model of emotional intelligence developed by Salovey and Mayer. An exploratory factor analysis identified four factors, which were named Empathy, Utilization of Feelings, Handling Relationships, and Self-control. The sample consisted of 319 students, 162 males and 157 females, who attended school at a bilingual (English and Spanish) college preparatory school. General linear analysis revealed significant differences in empathy scores when grouped by gender. There were significant differences in self-control when grouped by GPA levels.

  10. College grade point average as a personnel selection device: ethnic group differences and potential adverse impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, P L; Bobko, P

    2000-06-01

    College grade point average (GPA) is often used in a variety of ways in personnel selection. Unfortunately, there is little empirical research literature in human resource management that informs researchers or practitioners about the magnitude of ethnic group differences and any potential adverse impact implications when using cumulative GPA for selection. Data from a medium-sized university in the Southeast (N = 7,498) indicate that the standardized average Black-White difference for cumulative GPA in the senior year is d = 0.78. The authors also conducted analyses at 3 GPA screens (3.00, 3.25, and 3.50) to demonstrate that employers (or educators) might face adverse impact at all 3 levels if GPA continues to be implemented as part of a selection system. Implications and future research are discussed.

  11. Attention problems and hyperactivity as predictors of college grade point average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanz, Kerry A; Palm, Linda J; Brallier, Sara A

    2007-11-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of measures of attention problems and hyperactivity to the prediction of college grade point average (GPA). A sample of 316 students enrolled in introductory psychology and sociology classes at a southeastern university completed the BASC-2 Self-Report of Personality College Form. Scores on the attention problems scale and the hyperactivity scale of the BASC-2 were entered into a regression equation as predictors of cumulative GPA. Each of the independent variables made a significant contribution to the prediction of GPA. Attention problem scores alone explained 7% of the variability in GPAs. The addition of hyperactivity scores to the equation produced a 2% increase in explanatory power. The implications of these results for assessing symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity in college students are discussed.

  12. Undergraduate grade point average and graduate record examination scores: the experience of one graduate nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Sarah E; Moore, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Graduate nursing programs frequently use undergraduate grade point average (UGPA) and Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores for admission decisions. The literature indicates that both UGPA and GRE scores are predictive of graduate school success, but that UGPA may be the better predictor. If that is so, one must ask if both are necessary for graduate nursing admission decisions. This article presents research on one graduate nursing program's experience with UGPA and GRE scores and offers a perspective regarding their continued usefulness for graduate admission decisions. Data from 120 graduate students were examined, and regression analysis indicated that UGPA significantly predicted GRE verbal and quantitative scores (p < .05). Regression analysis also determined a UGPA score above which the GRE provided little additional useful data for graduate nursing admission decisions.

  13. Floating point only SIMD instruction set architecture including compare, select, Boolean, and alignment operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K [Chappaqua, NY

    2011-03-01

    Mechanisms for implementing a floating point only single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture are provided. A processor is provided that comprises an issue unit, an execution unit coupled to the issue unit, and a vector register file coupled to the execution unit. The execution unit has logic that implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA). The floating point vector registers of the vector register file store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements. The processor may be part of a data processing system.

  14. Emotional intelligence: an admission criterion alternative to cumulative grade point averages for prelicensure students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Schenk, Jan; Harper, Mary G

    2014-03-01

    Predicting potential student success is of great interest to nursing educators and academic administrators alike. Cumulative grade point average (CGPA) has traditionally been used to screen nursing program candidates, but CGPA itself has shown to have no statistically significant predictive value and may in fact screen out individuals who possess social intelligence attributes that are essential for success in nursing practice. The purpose of this study is to determine if students whose emotional intelligence characteristics meet or exceed those of successful staff nurses are more likely to be successful in a baccalaureate nursing program. A descriptive, correlational design was used to compare the emotional intelligence attributes of 116 potential nursing students and 42 successful staff nurses using the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). Nursing students who remained in the nursing program were found to have significantly higher levels of total emotional intelligence, interpersonal capacity, and stress tolerance. Students who dropped from the nursing program were not significantly different from successful staff nurses in terms of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence presents a compelling adjunct to current selection criteria for nursing students. However, the lack of research prevents widespread adoption of this criterion. This study suggests that students with higher levels of emotional intelligence, particularly intrapersonal capacity and stress tolerance, are more likely to be successful in a baccalaureate nursing program than students with lower levels. Further research is needed to determine the usefulness of EI as a predictor of student success in nursing programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The correlation between physical activity and grade point average for health science graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Eugenia C; Hernandez, Erika C; Coltrane, Ambrosia K; Mancera, Jayme M

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have reported positive associations between physical activity and academic achievement. However, a common belief is that improving academic performance comes at the cost of reducing time for and resources spent on extracurricular activities that encourage physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported physical activity and grade point average (GPA) for health science graduate students. Graduate students in health science programs completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and reported their academic progress. Most participants (76%) reported moderate to vigorous physical activity levels that met or exceeded the recommended levels for adults. However, there was no significant correlation between GPA and level of physical activity. Negative findings for this study may be associated with the limited range of GPA scores for graduate students. Future studies need to consider more sensitive measures of cognitive function, as well as the impact of physical activity on occupational balance and health for graduate students in the health fields. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Can we predict podiatric medical school grade point average using an admission screen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Graham P; Velis, Evelio; Molnar, David

    2012-01-01

    Most medical school admission committees use cognitive and noncognitive measures to inform their final admission decisions. We evaluated using admission data to predict academic success for podiatric medical students using first-semester grade point average (GPA) and cumulative GPA at graduation as outcome measures. In this study, we used linear multiple regression to examine the predictive power of an admission screen. A cross-validation technique was used to assess how the results of the regression model would generalize to an independent data set. Undergraduate GPA and Medical College Admission Test score accounted for only 22% of the variance in cumulative GPA at graduation. Undergraduate GPA, Medical College Admission Test score, and a time trend variable accounted for only 24% of the variance in first-semester GPA. Seventy-five percent of the individual variation in cumulative GPA at graduation and first-semester GPA remains unaccounted for by admission screens that rely on only cognitive measures, such as undergraduate GPA and Medical College Admission Test score. A reevaluation of admission screens is warranted, and medical educators should consider broadening the criteria used to select the podiatric physicians of the future.

  17. Characterization results and Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms including exact simulation for some spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häggström, Olle; Lieshout, Marie-Colette van; Møller, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    The area-interaction process and the continuum random-cluster model are characterized in terms of certain functional forms of their respective conditional intensities. In certain cases, these two point process models can be derived from a bivariate point process model which in many respects...... is simpler to analyse and simulate. Using this correspondence we devise a two-component Gibbs sampler, which can be used for fast and exact simulation by extending the recent ideas of Propp and Wilson. We further introduce a Swendsen-Wang type algorithm. The relevance of the results within spatial statistics...

  18. Improving the Grade Point Average of Our At-Risk Students: A Collaborative Group Action Research Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurino, Dan R.; Hinson, Kenneth; Bouma, Amy

    This paper focuses on the use of a group action research approach to help student teachers develop strategies to improve the grade point average of at-risk students. Teaching interventions such as group work and group and individual tutoring were compared to teaching strategies already used in the field. Results indicated an improvement in the…

  19. The Relationships among Shyness, Shame, and Attachment Style with Respect to College Student Persistence and Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamana Finn, Kim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between attachment style, shyness, shame, and college persistence and grade point average. While considerable research was conducted to examine these variables in children, less is known about how these variables interact in a college setting. This study used a quantitative,…

  20. Assessing the Link between Learning Assistance Programs and the Retention, Probation, and Grade Point Average of Freshman University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer, Noelle C.

    2017-01-01

    As the push towards lowering attrition of university students intensifies, particularly for first-time-in-college freshmen, administrators and campus leaders are increasingly designing and implementing co-curricular programs to support this population in order to positively impact student outcomes, namely, the grade point average, student…

  1. Academic Self-Efficacy, Faculty-Student Interactions, and Student Characteristics as Predictors of Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnell, Joan C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore student characteristics, academic self-efficacy, and faculty-student interactions as predictors of grade point average for upper-division (college level third and fourth year) education students at a public 4-year degree-granting community college. The study examined the effects of student characteristics…

  2. Women, Men, and Academic Performance in Science and Engineering: The Gender Difference in Undergraduate Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnert, Gerhard; Fox, Mary Frank

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal and multi-institutional data, this article takes an innovative approach in its analyses of gender differences in grade point averages (GPA) among undergraduate students in biology, the physical sciences, and engineering over a 16-year period. Assessed are hypotheses about (a) the gender ecology of science/engineering and (b) the…

  3. Size-dependent axisymmetric vibration of functionally graded circular plates in bifurcation/limit point instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoori, A. R.; Vanini, S. A. Sadough; Salari, E.

    2017-04-01

    In the present paper, vibration behavior of size-dependent functionally graded (FG) circular microplates subjected to thermal loading are carried out in pre/post-buckling of bifurcation/limit-load instability for the first time. Two kinds of frequently used thermal loading, i.e., uniform temperature rise and heat conduction across the thickness direction are considered. Thermo-mechanical material properties of FG plate are supposed to vary smoothly and continuously throughout the thickness based on power law model. Modified couple stress theory is exploited to describe the size dependency of microplate. The nonlinear governing equations of motion and associated boundary conditions are extracted through generalized form of Hamilton's principle and von-Karman geometric nonlinearity for the vibration analysis of circular FG plates including size effects. Ritz finite element method is then employed to construct the matrix representation of governing equations which are solved by two different strategies including Newton-Raphson scheme and cylindrical arc-length method. Moreover, in the following a parametric study is accompanied to examine the effects of the several parameters such as material length scale parameter, temperature distributions, type of buckling, thickness to radius ratio, boundary conditions and power law index on the dimensionless frequency of post-buckled/snapped size-dependent FG plates in detail. It is found that the material length scale parameter and thermal loading have a significant effect on vibration characteristics of size-dependent circular FG plates.

  4. Three-dimensional cross point readout detector design for including depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Baek, Cheol-Ha

    2018-04-01

    We designed a depth-encoding positron emission tomography (PET) detector using a cross point readout method with wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers. To evaluate the characteristics of the novel detector module and the PET system, we used the DETECT2000 to perform optical photon transport in the crystal array. The GATE was also used. The detector module is made up of four layers of scintillator arrays, the five layers of WLS fiber arrays, and two sensor arrays. The WLS fiber arrays in each layer cross each other to transport light to each sensor array. The two sensor arrays are coupled to the forward and left sides of the WLS fiber array, respectively. The identification of three-dimensional pixels was determined using a digital positioning algorithm. All pixels were well decoded, with the system resolution ranging from 2.11 mm to 2.29 mm at full width at half maximum (FWHM).

  5. A counterfactual impact evaluation of a bilingual program on students' grade point average at a spanish university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arco-Tirado, J L; Fernández-Martín, F; Ramos-García, A M; Littvay, L; Villoria, J; Naranjo, J A

    2018-02-21

    This observational study intends to estimate the causal effects of an English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) program (as predictor) on students Grade Point Average (GPA) (as outcome) at a particular University in Spain by using a Counterfactual Impact Evaluation (CIE). The need to address the crucial question of causal inferences in EMI programs to produce credible evidences of successful interventions contrasts, however, with the absence of experimental or quasi-experimental research and evaluation designs in the field. CIE approach is emerging as a methodologically viable solution to bridge that gap. The program evaluated here consisted in delivering an EMI program in a Primary Education Teacher Training Degree group. After achieving balance on the observed covariates and recreating a situation that would have been expected in a randomized experiment, three matching approaches such as genetic matching, nearest neighbor matching and Coarsened Exact Matching were used to analyze observational data from a total of 1288 undergraduate students, including both treatment and control group. Results show unfavorable effects of the bilingual group treatment condition. Potential interpretations and recommendations are provided in order to strengthen future causal evidences of bilingual education programs' effectiveness in Higher Education. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Contingency Management to Increase Grade Point Average among Fraternity Members: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Patten, Ryan A.; Irons, Jessica G.; Apple, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an incentive-based intervention strategy that has been demonstrated to be effective for inducing behavior change among a variety of populations and for a variety of behaviors. The current study examined whether contingency management techniques can help students change behaviors in an effort to raise their grade point…

  7. Relationships among Perceived Stress, Coping, and Grade Point Average in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewallal, Rajendra David

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among perceived stress, coping style, and academic performance in 210 students from a mid-sized public university and a small private college. Study participants were asked to complete the Perceived Stress Scale, the Brief COPE Questionnaire, and a demographic survey asking about their age, gender, grade point…

  8. Grading the intensity of nondental orofacial pain: identification of cutoff points for mild, moderate, and severe pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brailo V

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vlaho Brailo,1 Joanna M Zakrzewska2 1Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia; 2Facial Pain Unit, Division of Diagnostic, Surgical and Medical Sciences, Eastman Dental Hospital, UCLH NHS Foundation Trust/University College London, London, UK Background: When assessing pain in clinical practice, clinicians often label pain as mild, moderate, and severe. However, these categories are not distinctly defined, and are often used arbitrarily. Instruments for pain assessment use more sophisticated scales, such as a 0–10 numerical rating scale, and apart from pain intensity assess pain-related interference and disability. The aim of the study was to identify cutoff points for mild, moderate, and severe nondental orofacial pain using a numerical rating scale, a pain-related interference scale, and a disability measurement. Materials and methods: A total of 245 patients referred to the Facial Pain Unit in London were included in the study. Intensity and pain-related interference were assessed by the Brief Pain Inventory. Pain-related disability was assessed by the Chronic Graded Pain Scale. Average pain intensity (0–10 was classified into nine schemes with varying cutoff points of mild, moderate, and severe pain. The scheme with the most significant intergroup difference, expressed by multivariate analysis of variance, provided the cutoffs between mild, moderate, and severe pain. Results: The combination that showed the greatest intergroup differences for all patients was scheme 47 (mild 1–4, moderate 5–7, severe 8–10. The same combination provided the greatest intergroup differences in subgroups of patients with temporomandibular disorder and chronic idiopathic facial pain, respectively. Among the trigeminal neuralgia patients alone, the combination with the highest intergroup differences was scheme 48 (mild 1–4, moderate 5–8, severe 9–10. Conclusion: The cutoff points established in

  9. The effects of undergraduate nursing student-faculty interaction outside the classroom on college grade point average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussami, Mahmoud; Saleh, Mohammad Y N; Hayajneh, Ferial; Abdalkader, Raghed Hussein; Mahadeen, Alia I

    2011-09-01

    The effects of student-faculty interactions in higher education have received considerable empirical attention. However, there has been no empirical study that has examined the relation between student-faculty interaction and college grade point average. This is aimed at identifying the effect of nursing student-faculty interaction outside the classroom on students' semester college grade point average at a public university in Jordan. The research was cross-sectional study of the effect of student-faculty interaction outside the classroom on the students' semester college grade point average of participating juniors and seniors. Total interaction of the students was crucial as it is extremely significant (t = 16.2, df = 271, P ≤ 0.001) in relation to students' academic scores between those students who had ≥70 and those who had <70 academic scores. However, gender differences between students, and other variables were not significant either to affect students' academic scores or students' interaction. This study provides some evidence that student-faculty interactions outside classrooms are significantly associated with student's academically achievements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dual-time-point O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine PET for grading of cerebral gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, Philipp; Herzog, Hans; Rota Kops, Elena; Stoffels, Gabriele; Judov, Natalie; Filss, Christian; Tellmann, Lutz; Galldiks, Norbert; Weiss, Carolin; Sabel, Michael; Coenen, Heinz Hubert; Shah, Nadim Jon; Langen, Karl-Josef

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of dual-time-point imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) using O-(2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ( 18 F-FET) for non-invasive grading of cerebral gliomas compared with a dynamic approach. Thirty-six patients with histologically confirmed cerebral gliomas (21 primary, 15 recurrent; 24 high-grade, 12 low-grade) underwent dynamic PET from 0 to 50 min post-injection (p.i.) of 18 F-FET, and additionally from 70 to 90 min p.i. Mean tumour-to-brain ratios (TBR mean ) of 18 F-FET uptake were determined in early (20-40 min p.i.) and late (70-90 min p.i.) examinations. Time-activity curves (TAC) of the tumours from 0 to 50 min after injection were assigned to different patterns. The diagnostic accuracy of changes of 18 F-FET uptake between early and late examinations for tumour grading was compared to that of curve pattern analysis from 0 to 50 min p.i. of 18 F-FET. The diagnostic accuracy of changes of the TBR mean of 18 F-FET PET uptake between early and late examinations for the identification of HGG was 81 % (sensitivity 83 %; specificity 75 %; cutoff - 8 %; p < 0.001), and 83 % for curve pattern analysis (sensitivity 88 %; specificity 75 %; p < 0.001). Dual-time-point imaging of 18 F-FET uptake in gliomas achieves diagnostic accuracy for tumour grading that is similar to the more time-consuming dynamic data acquisition protocol. (orig.)

  11. Dual-time-point O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine PET for grading of cerebral gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Philipp; Herzog, Hans; Rota Kops, Elena; Stoffels, Gabriele; Judov, Natalie; Filss, Christian; Tellmann, Lutz [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); Galldiks, Norbert [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); University of Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); Weiss, Carolin [University of Cologne, Department of Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); Sabel, Michael [Heinrich-Heine University, Department of Neurosurgery, Duesseldorf (Germany); Coenen, Heinz Hubert [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain, Juelich (Germany); Shah, Nadim Jon [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Aachen (Germany); Langen, Karl-Josef [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain, Juelich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of dual-time-point imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) using O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ({sup 18}F-FET) for non-invasive grading of cerebral gliomas compared with a dynamic approach. Thirty-six patients with histologically confirmed cerebral gliomas (21 primary, 15 recurrent; 24 high-grade, 12 low-grade) underwent dynamic PET from 0 to 50 min post-injection (p.i.) of {sup 18}F-FET, and additionally from 70 to 90 min p.i. Mean tumour-to-brain ratios (TBR{sub mean}) of {sup 18}F-FET uptake were determined in early (20-40 min p.i.) and late (70-90 min p.i.) examinations. Time-activity curves (TAC) of the tumours from 0 to 50 min after injection were assigned to different patterns. The diagnostic accuracy of changes of {sup 18}F-FET uptake between early and late examinations for tumour grading was compared to that of curve pattern analysis from 0 to 50 min p.i. of {sup 18}F-FET. The diagnostic accuracy of changes of the TBR{sub mean} of {sup 18}F-FET PET uptake between early and late examinations for the identification of HGG was 81 % (sensitivity 83 %; specificity 75 %; cutoff - 8 %; p < 0.001), and 83 % for curve pattern analysis (sensitivity 88 %; specificity 75 %; p < 0.001). Dual-time-point imaging of {sup 18}F-FET uptake in gliomas achieves diagnostic accuracy for tumour grading that is similar to the more time-consuming dynamic data acquisition protocol. (orig.)

  12. Cloning of a novel transcription factor-like gene amplified in human glioma including astrocytoma grade I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, U.; Heckel, D.; Michel, A.; Janka, M.; Hulsebos, T.; Meese, E.

    1997-01-01

    Gene amplification, which is generally considered to occur late in tumor development, is a common feature of high grade glioma. Up until now, there have been no reports on amplification in astrocytoma grade I. In this study, we report cloning and sequencing of a cDNA termed glioma-amplified sequence

  13. Truancy, grade point average, and sexual activity: a meta-analysis of risk indicators for youth substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallfors, Denise; Vevea, Jack L; Iritani, Bonita; Cho, HyunSan; Khatapoush, Shereen; Saxe, Leonard

    2002-05-01

    Society increasingly holds schools responsible for the effectiveness of health promotion activities, such as drug abuse prevention efforts funded through the federal Safe and Drug-Free Schools program. Consequently, school districts use student surveys as a method for assessing trends and evaluating effects of programs on behavior. Because cost and practical concerns often preclude consistent population-based school survey sampling, risk indicators can provide an essential tool in analyzing needs assessment and program evaluation data. In this paper, three risk measures associated with substance use were selected from among commonly used school surveys. These measures--truancy, grade point average, and recent sexual intercourse--were compared, using meta-analysis techniques, to assess the reliability of risk measures across different survey instruments, different communities, and different points in time. Truancy was judged superior, because of its strong predictive value, particularly among younger students, and because rates can be compared to school records to assess sampling validity over time.

  14. Do Self-Regulated Processes such as Study Strategies and Satisfaction Predict Grade Point Averages for First and Second Generation College Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBenedetto, Maria K.

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation sought to determine whether self-regulatory variables: "study strategies" and "self-satisfaction" correlate with first and second generation college students' grade point averages, and to determine if these two variables would improve the prediction of their averages if used along with high school grades and SAT scores.…

  15. Gender Gaps in High School GPA and ACT Scores: High School Grade Point Average and ACT Test Score by Subject and Gender. Information Brief 2014-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    Female students who graduated from high school in 2013 averaged higher grades than their male counterparts in all subjects, but male graduates earned higher scores on the math and science sections of the ACT. This information brief looks at high school grade point average and ACT test score by subject and gender

  16. CARCINOMA PROSTATE HISTOPATHOLOGY IN NEEDLE BIOPSIES INCLUDING REVISED GLEASON’S GRADING AND ROLE OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Priyadarsini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Adenocarcinoma of prostate is the most common form of cancer in men accounting for 29% of cancers in developed nations and the incidence of prostatic cancer is 6.4% in males of Trivandrum District. MATERIALS AND METHODS All prostatic biopsies taken per rectally and stained by haematoxylin and eosin. In suspected cases of malignancy immunohistochemical markers, the AMACR P504S and high molecular weight cytokeratin 34E12 were done. RESULTS The total number of cases studied were 142. The final diagnosis with histomorphological features show that maximum cases were prostatic carcinoma constituting 45.5% of the samples received. CONCLUSION All prostatic carcinomas were graded by revised Gleason’s grade (ISUP 2005 and the use of immunohistochemical markers in arriving at a definite diagnosis in carcinoma prostate was confirmed.

  17. [Correlation and concordance between the national test of medicine (ENAM) and the grade point average (GPA): analysis of the peruvian experience in the period 2007 - 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamaní, Charles; Gutiérrez, César; Mezones-Holguín, Edward

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the correlation and concordance between the 'Peruvian National Exam of Medicine' (ENAM) and the Mean Grade Point Average (GPA) in recently graduated medical students in the period 2007 to 2009. We carried out a secondary data analysis, using the records of the physicians applying to the Rural and Urban Marginal Service in Health of Peru (SERUMS) processes for the years 2008 to 2010. We extracted from these registers, the grades obtained in the ENAM and GPA. We performed a descriptive analysis using medians and 1st and 3rd quartiles (q1/q3); we calculated the correlation between both scores using the Spearman correlation coefficient, additionally, we conducted a lineal regression analysis, and the concordance was measured using the Bland and Altman coefficient. A total of 6 117 physicians were included, the overall median for the GPA was 13.4 (12.7/14.2) and for the ENAM was 11.6 (10.2/13.0).Of the total assessed, 36.8% failed the TEST. We observed an increase in annual median of ENAM scores, with the consequent decrease in the difference between both grades. The correlation between ENAM and PPU is direct and moderate (0.582), independent from the year, type of university management (Public or Private) and location. However, the concordance between both ratings is regular, with a global coefficient of 0.272 (CI 95%: 0.260 to 0.284). Independently of the year, location or type of university management, there is a moderate correlation between the ENAM and the PPU; however, there is only a regular concordance between both grades.

  18. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma upregulates markers associated with high-grade serous carcinomas including Rsf-1 (HBXAP), cyclin E and fatty acid synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehdev, Ann Smith; Kurman, Robert J; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2010-06-01

    Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) has been proposed as a precursor for many pelvic high-grade serous carcinomas. Our previous analysis of the ovarian cancer genome identified several genes with oncogenic potential that are amplified and/or overexpressed in the majority of high-grade serous carcinomas. Determining whether these genes are upregulated in STICs is important in further elucidating the relationship of STICs to high-grade serous carcinomas and is fundamental in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of high-grade serous carcinomas. In this study, 37 morphologically defined STICs were obtained from 23 patients with stage IIIC/IV high-grade serous carcinomas. Both STICs and the high-grade serous carcinomas were analyzed for expression of Rsf-1 (HBXAP), cyclin E, fatty acid synthase (FASN) and mucin-4. In addition, they were examined for expression of established markers including p53, Ki-67 and p16. We found that diffuse nuclear p53 and p16 immunoreactivity was observed in 27 (75%) of 36 and 18 (55%) of 33 STICs, respectively, whereas an elevated Ki-67 labeling index (>or=10%) was detected in 29 (78%) of 37 STICs. Cyclin E nuclear staining was seen in 24 (77%) of 35 STICs, whereas normal tubal epithelial cells were all negative. Increased Rsf-1 and FASN immunoreactivity occurred in 63%, and 62% of STICs, respectively, compared with adjacent normal-appearing tubal epithelium. Interestingly, only one STIC showed increased mucin-4 immunoreactivity. Carcinomas, when compared with STICs, overexpressed p16, Rsf-1, cyclin E and FASN in a higher proportion of cases. In conclusion, STICs express several markers including Rsf-1, cyclin E and FASN in high-grade serous carcinomas. In contrast, mucin-4 immunoreactivity either did not change or was reduced in most STICs. These results suggest that overexpression of Rsf-1, cyclin E and FASN occurs early in tumor progression.

  19. The Relationship of Values in Elementary School 4th Grade Social Studies Textbook with the Attainments and Their Level of Being Included in Student Workbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the relationship of values in elementary school 4th grade Social Studies textbook with the attainments and their level of being included in student workbook are tried to be determined. Case study, which is a qualitative research method, was applied for this research. To collect data, document analysis technique, which is among the…

  20. Interest to be Teacher and Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA Analyzed by the Admissions of UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sofyan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to explore the interest to be teacher for FITK (Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training students associated with the other types of variables such as gender, origin of High School, Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA, and the admission types to UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta. A survey method was administered to students in Science Education department from three courses, by200 people as samples. The instruments were an open questionnaire to record the factual data and an enclosed questionnaire to asses their interest. The data analysis employed the descriptive and inferential techniques. The results showed that the students’ interest to be teacher is quite high. There was no interest different between male and female students based on the educational background and the entrance types to UIN. Even though based on gender women’s CGPA was relatively higher than men’s, generally, there was no distinction of students CGPA based on the educational background, and admission of UIN Jakarta.Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui minat mahasiswa FITK menjadi guru ditinjau dari berbagai latar belakang seperti jenis kelamin, asal SLTA, indeks Prestasi Kumulatif (IPK, dan jalur masuk UIN. Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada mahasiswa Jurusan Pendidikan IPA, dari 3 angkatan dengan sample data sebanyak 200 orang. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah kuesioner terbuka untuk mencatat data faktual dan kuesioner tertutup untuk menilai  minat mahasiswa.  Teknik analisis data ini bersifat deskriptif dan inferensial. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa minat mahsiswa menjadi guru cukup tinggi. Tidak ditemukan perbedaan minat antara mahasiswa dan mahasiswi yang didasarkan pada asal sekolah SLTA dan jalur masuk UIN. Meskipun berdasarkan  pengelompokan IPK  sesuai jenis kelamin yang relatif lebih tinggi adalah perempuan, secara umum, tidak terdapat perbedaan IPK mahasiswa berdasarkan latar belakang

  1. Predicting Student Grade Point Average at a Community College from Scholastic Aptitude Tests and from Measures Representing Three Constructs in Vroom's Expectancy Theory Model of Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, Douglas C.; Michael, William B.

    1981-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether an unweighted linear combination of community college students' scores on standardized achievement tests and a measure of motivational constructs derived from Vroom's expectance theory model of motivation was predictive of academic success (grade point average earned during one quarter of an academic…

  2. Demographic and Psychological Predictors of Grade Point Average (GPA) in North-Norway: A Particular Analysis of Cognitive/School-Related and Literacy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saele, Rannveig Grøm; Sørlie, Tore; Nergård-Nilssen, Trude; Ottosen, Karl-Ottar; Goll, Charlotte Bjørnskov; Friborg, Oddgeir

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30% of students drop out from Norwegian upper secondary schools. Academic achievement, as indexed by grade point average (GPA), is one of the strongest predictors of dropout. The present study aimed to examine the role of cognitive, school-related and affective/psychological predictors of GPA. In addition, we examined the…

  3. How Well Does High School Grade Point Average Predict College Performance by Student Urbanicity and Timing of College Entry? REL 2017-250

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodara, Michelle; Lewis, Karyn

    2017-01-01

    This report is a companion to a study that found that high school grade point average was a stronger predictor of performance in college-level English and math than were standardized exam scores among first-time students at the University of Alaska who enrolled directly in college-level courses. This report examines how well high school grade…

  4. The Relationship of High School Type to Persistence and Grade Point Average of First-Year Students at Faith-Based Liberal Arts Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litscher, Kenneth Michael

    2015-01-01

    Based on previous research, there are several student characteristics that have been identified to affect academic success of first-year students in college. However, there are few studies that examine if the type of high school (public, private faith-based, private secular, or homeschool) from which a student graduates affects grade point average…

  5. Previous Education, Sociodemographic Characteristics, and Nursing Cumulative Grade Point Average as Predictors of Success in Nursing Licensure Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Amankwaa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Success in the licensure examination is the only legal prerequisite to practice as a nurse in Ghana. However, a large percentage of nursing students who sit fail this examination for the first time. This study sought to unravel whether prior education, sociodemographic characteristics, and nursing Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA could predict performance in the licensure examinations. Methods. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted from November 2014 to April 2015 in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana on 176 past nursing students. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 22. A logistic regression model was fitted to look at the influence of the explanatory variables on the odds of passing the licensure examinations. All statistical significances were tested at p value of <0.05. Results. Majority, 56.3%, were females and 86.4% were between the ages of 25 and 31 years. Most of the students (88.6% entered the nursing training colleges with a WASSCE qualification and 38% read general science. 73.9% passed the licensure examinations and the mean CGPA of the students was 2.89 SD=0.37. Sociodemographic characteristics and previous education had no influence on performance in the licensure examinations. CGPA had strong positive relationship with performance in licensure examinations (AOR = 15.27; 95% CI = 6.28, 27.11. Conclusion. Students CGPA could be a good predictor of their performance in the licensure examinations. On the other hand, students’ sociodemographic and previous educational characteristics might not be important factors to consider in admitting students into the nursing training programme.

  6. Previous Education, Sociodemographic Characteristics, and Nursing Cumulative Grade Point Average as Predictors of Success in Nursing Licensure Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwaa, Isaac; Agyemang-Dankwah, Anabella; Boateng, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Success in the licensure examination is the only legal prerequisite to practice as a nurse in Ghana. However, a large percentage of nursing students who sit fail this examination for the first time. This study sought to unravel whether prior education, sociodemographic characteristics, and nursing Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) could predict performance in the licensure examinations. Methods. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted from November 2014 to April 2015 in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana on 176 past nursing students. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 22. A logistic regression model was fitted to look at the influence of the explanatory variables on the odds of passing the licensure examinations. All statistical significances were tested at p value of <0.05. Results. Majority, 56.3%, were females and 86.4% were between the ages of 25 and 31 years. Most of the students (88.6%) entered the nursing training colleges with a WASSCE qualification and 38% read general science. 73.9% passed the licensure examinations and the mean CGPA of the students was 2.89 (SD = 0.37). Sociodemographic characteristics and previous education had no influence on performance in the licensure examinations. CGPA had strong positive relationship with performance in licensure examinations (AOR = 15.27; 95% CI = 6.28, 27.11). Conclusion. Students CGPA could be a good predictor of their performance in the licensure examinations. On the other hand, students' sociodemographic and previous educational characteristics might not be important factors to consider in admitting students into the nursing training programme.

  7. Determination of the point-of-zero, charge of manganese oxides with different methods including an improved salt titration method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, W.F.; Lu, S.J.; Liu, F.; Feng, X.H.; He, J.Z.; Koopal, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are important components in soils and sediments. Points-of-zero charge (PZC) of three synthetic Mn oxides (birnessite, cryptomelane, and todorokite) were determined by using three classical techniques (potentiometric titration or PT, rapid PT or R-PT, and salt titration or ST)

  8. Discriminant Analysis of Essay, Mathematics/Science Type of Essay, College Scholastic Ability Test, and Grade Point Average as Predictors of Acceptance to a Pre-med Course at a Korean Medical School

    OpenAIRE

    Geum-Hee Jeong

    2008-01-01

    A discriminant analysis was conducted to investigate how an essay, a mathematics/science type of essay, a college scholastic ability test, and grade point average affect acceptance to a pre-med course at a Korean medical school. Subjects included 122 and 385 applicants for, respectively, early and regular admission to a medical school in Korea. The early admission examination was conducted in October 2007, and the regular admission examination was conducted in January 2008. The analysis of ea...

  9. Is it time to include point-of-care ultrasound in general surgery training? A review to stimulate discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenkopf, Maximilian; Tait, Noel

    2013-12-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound scanning or POCUS is a focused ultrasound (US) scan, performed by non-imaging clinicians during physical examination, an invasive procedure or surgery. As this technology becomes cheaper, smaller and easier to use, its scope for use by surgeons grows, a trend that may generate a gap between use and training. Opportunities for enhanced general surgery skill sets may be reduced unless consideration is given to inclusion of POCUS in general surgery training. To stimulate discussion regarding inclusion of POCUS in the general surgery curriculum; to resource this discussion with an overview of current trends and issues around POCUS; and to discuss concerns and controversies that may arise if POCUS was adopted into general surgery training. A literature search was performed using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google and Google Scholar, using the terms 'ultrasound', 'point-of-care-ultrasound', 'bedside ultrasound', 'portable ultrasound' and 'hand-held ultrasound'. Literature, references and non-literature resources found were reviewed for relevance to US education in general surgery. Increasingly, medical students are graduating with basic POCUS skills. Specialty-specific uses of POCUS are proliferating. Training and assessment resources are not keeping up, in accessibility or standardization. A learned surgical college led training and accreditation process would require aligned education in anatomy and US technology and collaboration with the specialist imaging community to ensure appropriate standards are clarified and met. Research is also required into how general surgery trainees can best achieve and maintain POCUS competence. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  10. 41 CFR 302-9.174 - What is the “authorized point of origin” when I transport a POV, including a replacement POV, to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... point of originâ when I transport a POV, including a replacement POV, to my post of duty subsequent to... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF... Pov Transportation Subsequent to the Time of Assignment § 302-9.174 What is the “authorized point of...

  11. Employee benefits under IAS/IFRS and the Czech accounting legislation, the tax point of view including

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of employee benefit is limited in the Czech Accounting Legislation. There are only short-term employee benefits – wages, salaries, when employees has rendered services to an entity during a period – month. Entities could create funds from a net profit –fund for social and cultural benefits which could serve as source of social services financing for employees. There are employee benefits defined very extensive in IAS/IFRS. It is IAS 19 – Employee Benefits which defines four Gross of employee benefits: short-term employee benefits, post employment benefits, other long –term employee benefits and termination benefits. There are defined all conditions for employee benefits re­co­gni­tion and treatments for recording and reporting in IAS 19.The paper is concerned with the employee benefits evaluation. The impact on the tax base is eva­lua­ted. There are the most significant types of employee benefits surveyed. They are divided into five groups with the respect to their impact on the tax base. The impact of these benefits is described from their impact on social insurance and health insurance calculation base point of view, as well.

  12. Data Bank 28IM(FF) - T-100 International Market Data, U.S. Air Carriers Traffic and Capacity Data - 3 Year Restricted (includes foreign point and foreign point by U.S. Carrier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This CD presents data reported by U.S. carriers. These data are releasable after a 3 year confidentiality period and include U.S. Air Carrier foreign point to foreign point traffic. These data are often referred to as either "market" or on-flight ori...

  13. Data Bank 28IM(FF) - T-100 International Market Data, U.S. Air Carriers Traffic and Capacity Data (World Area Code) - 3 Year Restricted (includes foreign point and foreign Point by U.S. Carrier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This CD presents data reported by U.S. carriers. These data are releasable after a 3 year confidentiality period and include U.S. Air Carrier foreign point to foreign point traffic. These data are often referred to as either "market" or on-flight ori...

  14. An approach for including the stiffness and damping of elastohydrodynamic point contacts in deep groove ball bearing equilibrium models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonato, Fábio; Cavalca, Katia L.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a methodology for including the Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film effects to a lateral vibration model of a deep groove ball bearing by using a novel approximation for the EHD contacts by a set of equivalent nonlinear spring and viscous damper. The fitting of the equivalent contact model used the results of a transient multi-level finite difference EHD algorithm to adjust the dynamic parameters. The comparison between the approximated model and the finite difference simulated results showed a suitable representation of the stationary and dynamic contact behaviors. The linear damping hypothesis could be shown as a rough representation of the actual hysteretic behavior of the EHD contact. Nevertheless, the overall accuracy of the model was not impaired by the use of such approximation. Further on, the inclusion of the equivalent EHD contact model is equated for both the restoring and the dissipative components of the bearing's lateral dynamics. The derived model was used to investigate the effects of the rolling element bearing lubrication on the vibration response of a rotor's lumped parameter model. The fluid film stiffening effect, previously only observable by experimentation, could be quantified using the proposed model, as well as the portion of the bearing damping provided by the EHD fluid film. Results from a laboratory rotor-bearing test rig were used to indirectly validate the proposed contact approximation. A finite element model of the rotor accounting for the lubricated bearing formulation adequately portrayed the frequency content of the bearing orbits observed on the test rig.

  15. Diagnostic terminology for urinary cytology reports including the new subcategories 'atypical urothelial cells of undetermined significance' (AUC-US) and 'cannot exclude high grade' (AUC-H).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaton, E; Decaussin-Petrucci, M; Mege-Lechevallier, F; Advenier, A-S; Devonec, M; Ruffion, A

    2014-02-01

    We studied whether atypical, non-superficial urothelial cells (AUC) could be separated into new subcategories including AUC 'of undetermined significance' (AUC-US) and 'cannot exclude high grade'' (AUC-H) in order to help to standardize urine cytopathology reports, as it is widely accepted in the Bethesda system for gynaecological cytopathology. We investigated whether AUC-US and AUC-H, defined by distinctive cytological criteria, might be separated with statistical significance according to actual diagnosis and follow-up data. A series of 534 cyto-histological comparisons taken in 139 patients, including 221 AUC at various steps of their clinical history was studied. There were 513 (96.1%) postcystoscopy and 469 (87.8%) ThinPrep® liquid-based specimens (95.9% and 89.1% of AUC cases, respectively). Patients viewed between 1999 and 2011 had histological control in a 0- to 6-months delay and were followed-up during an additional 5.9 ± 9.2 (0- to 56-) months period. The 221 AUC represented 0.8-2% of the specimens viewed during the study period. Among AUC-H cases, 70 out of 185 (37.8%) matched with high-grade lesions, compared with 3 of 38 (8.3%) of AUC-US cases (P = 0.0003). Conservatively treated patients with AUC-H more frequently developed high-grade lesions than those with AUC-US (54.1% versus 16.7%, P = 0.0007) with a 17.6-months mean delay. Nuclear hyperchromasia, a nuclear to cytoplasm (N/C) ratio > 0.7 and the combination of both were the more informative diagnostic criteria, all with P < 0.01. We conclude that the new subcategories could help to standardize urine cytopathology reports and contribute to the patient's management, provided it is validated by multicentric studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Predicting Performance on the National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Certification Examination From Grade Point Average and Number of Clinical Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemas, David A.; Manning, James M.; Gazzillo, Linda M.; Young, John

    2001-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether grade point average, hours of clinical education, or both are significant predictors of performance on the National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Certification examination and whether curriculum and internship candidates' scores on the certification examination can be differentially predicted. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data collection forms and consent forms were mailed to the subjects to collect data for predictor variables. Subject scores on the certification examination were obtained from Columbia Assessment Services. SUBJECTS: A total of 270 first-time candidates for the April and June 1998 certification examinations. MEASUREMENTS: Grade point average, number of clinical hours completed, sex, route to certification eligibility (curriculum or internship), scores on each section of the certification examination, and pass/fail criteria for each section. RESULTS: We found no significant difference between the scores of men and women on any section of the examination. Scores for curriculum and internship candidates differed significantly on the written and practical sections of the examination but not on the simulation section. Grade point average was a significant predictor of scores on each section of the examination and the examination as a whole. Clinical hours completed did not add a significant increment for any section but did add a significant increment for the examination overall. Although no significant difference was noted between curriculum and internship candidates in predicting scores on sections of the examination, a significant difference by route was found in predicting whether candidates would pass the examination as a whole (P =.047). Proportion of variance accounted for was less than R(2) = 0.0723 for any section of the examination and R(2) = 0.057 for the examination as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: Potential predictors of performance on the certification examination can be useful to athletic training educators in

  17. Attitude towards technology, social media usage and grade-point average as predictors of global citizenship identification in Filipino University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B; Baring, Rito; Maria, Madelene Sta; Reysen, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    We examine the influence of a positive attitude towards technology, number of social media network memberships and grade-point average (GPA) on global citizenship identification antecedents and outcomes. Students (N = 3628) at a university in the Philippines completed a survey assessing the above constructs. The results showed that attitude towards technology, number of social network site memberships and GPA-predicted global citizenship identification, and subsequent prosocial outcomes (e.g. intergroup helping, responsibility to act for the betterment of the world), through the perception that valued others prescribe a global citizen identity (normative environment) and perceived knowledge of the world and felt interconnectedness with others (global awareness). The results highlight the associations between technology and academic performance with a global identity and associated values. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Academic integrity in a mandatory physics lab: the influence of post-graduate aspirations and grade point averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram Gallant, Tricia; Anderson, Michael G; Killoran, Christine

    2013-03-01

    Research on academic cheating by high school students and undergraduates suggests that many students will do whatever it takes, including violating ethical classroom standards, to not be left behind or to race to the top. This behavior may be exacerbated among pre-med and pre-health professional school students enrolled in laboratory classes because of the typical disconnect between these students, their instructors and the perceived legitimacy of the laboratory work. There is little research, however, that has investigated the relationship between high aspirations and academic conduct. This study fills this research gap by investigating the beliefs, perceptions and self-reported academic conduct of highly aspirational students and their peers in mandatory physics labs. The findings suggest that physics laboratory classes may face particular challenges with highly aspirational students and cheating, but the paper offers practical solutions for addressing them.

  19. Cold Heat Storage Characteristics of O/W-type Latent Heat Emulsion Including Continuum Phase of Water Treated with a Freezing Point Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hideo; Morita, Shin-Ichi

    This paper deals with flow and cold heat storage characteristics of the oil (tetradecane, C14H30, freezing point 278.9 K, Latent heat 229 kJ/kg)/water emulsion as a latent heat storage material having a low melting point. The test emulsion includes a water-urea solution as a continuum phase. The freezing point depression of the continuum phase permits enhancement of the heat transfer rate of the emulison, due to the large temperature difference between the latent heat storage material and water-urea solution. The velocity of emulsion flow and the inlet temperature of coolant in a coiled double tube heat exchanger are chosen as the experimental parameters. The pressure drop, the heat transfer coefficient of the emulsion in the coiled tube are measured in the temperture region over solid and liquid phase of the latent heat storage material. The finishing time of the cold heat storage is defined experimentally in the range of sensible and latent heat storage. It is clarified that the flow behavior of the emulsion as a non-Newtonian fluid has an important role in cold heat storage. The useful nondimentional correlation equations for the additional pressure loss coefficient, the heat transfer coefficient and the finishing time of the cold heat storage are derived in terms of Dean number and heat capacity ratio.

  20. Determination of point isotropic buildup factors of gamma rays including incoherent and coherent scattering for aluminum, iron, lead, and water by discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsos, S.; Assad, A.; Diop, C.M.; Nimal, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure and energy absorption buildup factors for aluminum, iron, lead, and water are calculated by the SNID discrete ordinates code for an isotropic point source in a homogeneous medium. The calculation of the buildup factors takes into account the effects of both bound-electron Compton (incoherent) and coherent (Rayleigh) scattering. A comparison with buildup factors from the literature shows that these two effects greatly increase the buildup factors for energies below a few hundred kilo-electron-volts, and thus the new results are improved relative to the experiment. This greater accuracy is due to the increase in the linear attenuation coefficient, which leads to the calculation of the buildup factors for a mean free path with a smaller shield thickness. On the other hand, for the same shield thickness, exposure increases when only incoherent scattering is included and decreases when only coherent scattering is included, so that the exposure finally decreases when both effects are included. Great care must also be taken when checking the approximations for gamma-ray deep-penetration transport calculations, as well as for the cross-section treatment and origin

  1. Discriminant analysis of essay, mathematics/science type of essay, college scholastic ability test, and grade point average as predictors of acceptance to a pre-med course at a Korean medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Geum-Hee

    2008-01-01

    A discriminant analysis was conducted to investigate how an essay, a mathematics/science type of essay, a college scholastic ability test, and grade point average affect acceptance to a pre-med course at a Korean medical school. Subjects included 122 and 385 applicants for, respectively, early and regular admission to a medical school in Korea. The early admission examination was conducted in October 2007, and the regular admission examination was conducted in January 2008. The analysis of early admission data revealed significant F values for the mathematics/science type of essay (51.64; Pgrade point average (10.66; P=0.0014). The analysis of regular admission data revealed the following F values: 28.81 (Pgrade point average, 27.47 (P<0.0001) for college scholastic ability test, 10.67 (P=0.0012) for the essay, and 216.74 (P<0.0001) for the mathematics/science type of essay. Since the mathematics/science type of essay had a strong effect on acceptance, an emphasis on this requirement and exclusion of other kinds of essays would be effective in subsequent entrance examinations for this premed course.

  2. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo B. Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a number of organizational memberships, (b number of social networking sites (SNS, and (c grade-point average (GPA on global social responsibility (GSR; and in the indirect effects of (a and of (b through (c on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students.

  3. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B.; Baring, Rito V.; Sta. Maria, Madelene A.

    2016-01-01

    The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a) number of organizational memberships, (b) number of social networking sites (SNS), and (c) grade-point average (GPA) on global social responsibility (GSR); and in the indirect effects of (a) and of (b) through (c) on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students. PMID:27247700

  4. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B; Baring, Rito V; Sta Maria, Madelene A

    2016-02-01

    The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a) number of organizational memberships, (b) number of social networking sites (SNS), and (c) grade-point average (GPA) on global social responsibility (GSR); and in the indirect effects of (a) and of (b) through (c) on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students.

  5. Effect of grade point average and enrollment in a dental hygiene National Board review course on student performance on the National Board Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWald, Janice P; Gutmann, Marylou E; Solomon, Eric S

    2004-01-01

    Passing the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination is a requirement for licensure in all but one state. There are a number of preparation courses for the examination sponsored by corporations and dental hygiene programs. The purpose of this study was to determine if taking a board review course significantly affected student performance on the board examination. Students from the last six dental hygiene classes at Baylor College of Dentistry (n = 168) were divided into two groups depending on whether they took a particular review course. Mean entering college grade point averages (GPA), exiting dental hygiene program GPAs, and National Board scores were compared for the two groups using a t-test for independent samples (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the two groups for entering GPA and National Board scores. Exiting GPAs, however, were slightly higher for those not taking the course compared to those taking the course. In addition, a strong correlation (0.71, Pearson Correlation) was found between exiting GPA and National Board score. Exiting GPA was found to be a strong predictor of National Board performance. These results do not appear to support this program's participation in an external preparation course as a means of increasing students' performance on the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination.

  6. Investigation of optimized experimental parameters including laser wavelength for boron measurement in photovoltaic grade silicon using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwiche, S.; Benmansour, M.; Eliezer, N.; Morvan, D.

    2010-01-01

    The quantification of boron and other impurities in photovoltaic grade silicon was investigated using the LIBS technique with attention to the laser wavelength employed, temporal parameters, and the nature of the ambient gas. The laser wavelength was found to have a moderate effect on the performance of the process, while the type of purge gas and temporal parameters had a strong effect on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of the boron spectral emission, which was used to determine the boron concentration in silicon. The three parameters are not independent, meaning that for each different purge gas, different optimal temporal parameters are observed. Electron density was also calculated from Stark broadening of the 390.5 nm silicon emission line in order to better understand the different performances observed when using different gases and gating parameters. Calibration curves were made for boron measurement in silicon using certified standards with different purge gases while using the temporal parameters which had been optimized for that gas. By comparing the calibration curves, it was determined that argon is superior to helium or air for use as the analysis chamber purge gas with an UV laser.

  7. More Than Just Accuracy: A Novel Method to Incorporate Multiple Test Attributes in Evaluating Diagnostic Tests Including Point of Care Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Weigl, Bernhard; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Ide, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Current frameworks for evaluating diagnostic tests are constrained by a focus on diagnostic accuracy, and assume that all aspects of the testing process and test attributes are discrete and equally important. Determining the balance between the benefits and harms associated with new or existing tests has been overlooked. Yet, this is critically important information for stakeholders involved in developing, testing, and implementing tests. This is particularly important for point of care tests (POCTs) where tradeoffs exist between numerous aspects of the testing process and test attributes. We developed a new model that multiple stakeholders (e.g., clinicians, patients, researchers, test developers, industry, regulators, and health care funders) can use to visualize the multiple attributes of tests, the interactions that occur between these attributes, and their impacts on health outcomes. We use multiple examples to illustrate interactions between test attributes (test availability, test experience, and test results) and outcomes, including several POCTs. The model could be used to prioritize research and development efforts, and inform regulatory submissions for new diagnostics. It could potentially provide a way to incorporate the relative weights that various subgroups or clinical settings might place on different test attributes. Our model provides a novel way that multiple stakeholders can use to visualize test attributes, their interactions, and impacts on individual and population outcomes. We anticipate that this will facilitate more informed decision making around diagnostic tests.

  8. Cryopreservation does not alter main characteristics of Good Manufacturing Process-grade human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells including immunomodulating potential and lack of malignant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetzkendorf, Jana; Nerger, Katrin; Hering, Julian; Moegel, Angelika; Hoffmann, Katrin; Hoefers, Christiane; Mueller-Tidow, Carsten; Mueller, Lutz P

    2015-02-01

    The immunomodulating capacity of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) qualifies them as a therapeutic tool in several diseases. However, repeated transplantation with products of reproducible characteristics may be required. This could be achieved with cryopreserved aliquots of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-grade MSCs. However, the impact of cryopreservation on the characteristics of GMP-MSCs is ill defined. We produced fresh and cryopreserved MSCs from human donors with a xenogen-free GMP protocol. Immunogenicity and immunomodulating capacity were tested in co-culture with putative recipient-specific peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Risk of malignant transformation was assessed in vitro and in vivo. Cryopreservation had no impact on viability and consensus criteria of MSCs. In co-culture with PBMCs, MSCs showed low immunogenicity and suppressed mitogen-stimulated proliferation of PBMC irrespective of cryopreservation. Cytogenetic aberrations were not observed consistently in fresh and cryopreserved products, and no signs of malignant transformation occurred in functional assays. MSC products from an elderly pretreated donor showed reduced functional quality, but imminent failure of functional criteria could be detected by an increased population doubling time in early passages. This study is the first systematic analysis on cryopreservation of xenogen-free human bone marrow-derived GMP-MSCs. The data support that cryopreservation does not alter the characteristics of the cells and thus may allow the generation of products for serial transplantation. In addition, the protocol allowed early detection of MSC products with low functional capacity. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk for Sleep Disorder Measured during Students' First College Semester May Predict Institutional Retention and Grade Point Average over a 3-Year Period, with Indirect Effects through Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2016-01-01

    The present study used a validated survey to assess freshmen college students' sleep patterns and risk for sleep disorders and then examined associations with retention and grade point average (GPA) over a 3-year period. Students at risk for a sleep disorder were more likely to leave the institution over the 3-year period, although this…

  10. Surgical resection of low-grade gliomas in eloquent areas with the guidance of the preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging and craniometric points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Surgical resection of low-grade gliomas (LGGs in eloquent areas is one of the challenges in neurosurgery, using assistant tools to facilitate effective excision with minimal postoperative neurological deficits has been previously discussed (awake craniotomy and intraoperative cortical stimulation; however, these tools could have their own limitations thus implementation of a simple and effective technique that can guide to safe excision is needed in many situations. Materials and Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected data of 76 consecutive surgical cases of LGGs of these 21 cases were situated in eloquent areas. Preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, pre- and post-operative MRI with volumetric analysis of the tumor size was conducted, and intraoperative determination of the craniometric points related to the tumor (navigation guided in 10 cases were studied to evaluate the effectiveness of the aforementioned tools in safe excision of the aforementioned tumors. Results: Total-near total excision in 14 (66.67% subtotal in 6 (28.57%, and biopsy in 1 case (4.57%. In long-term follow–up, only one case experienced persistent dysphasia. Conclusion: In spite of its simplicity, the identification of the safe anatomical landmarks guided by the preoperative fMRI is a useful technique that serves in safe excision of LGGs in eloquent areas. Such technique can replace intraoperative evoked potentials or the awake craniotomy in most of the cases. However, navigation-guided excision might be crucial in deeply seated and large tumors to allow safe and radical excision.

  11. Screening applicants for risk of poor academic performance: a novel scoring system using preadmission grade point averages and graduate record examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an effective screening tool for identifying physician assistant (PA) program applicants at highest risk for poor academic performance. Prior to reviewing applications for the class of 2009, a retrospective analysis of preadmission data took place for the classes of 2006, 2007, and 2008. A single composite score was calculated for each student who matriculated (number of subjects, N=228) incorporating the total undergraduate grade point average (UGPA), the science GPA (SGPA), and the three component Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores: verbal (GRE-V), quantitative (GRE-Q), analytical (GRE-A). Individual applicant scores for each of the five parameters were ranked in descending quintiles. Each applicant's five quintile scores were then added, yielding a total quintile score ranging from 25, which indicated an excellent performance, to 5, which indicated poorer performance. Thirteen of the 228 students had academic difficulty (dismissal, suspension, or one-quarter on academic warning or probation). Twelve of the 13 students having academic difficulty had a preadmission total quintile score 12 (range, 6-14). In response to this descriptive analysis, when selecting applicants for the class of 2009, the admissions committee used the total quintile score for screening applicants for interviews. Analysis of correlations in preadmission, graduate, and postgraduate performance data for the classes of 2009-2013 will continue and may help identify those applicants at risk for academic difficulty. Establishing a threshold total quintile score of applicant GPA and GRE scores may significantly decrease the number of entering PA students at risk for poor academic performance.

  12. Estimating Implementation and Operational Costs of an Integrated Tiered CD4 Service including Laboratory and Point of Care Testing in a Remote Health District in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassim, Naseem; Coetzee, Lindi M.; Schnippel, Kathryn; Glencross, Deborah K.

    2014-01-01

    Background An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM) has been proposed to provide ‘full-coverage’ of CD4 services throughout South Africa. Five tiers are described, defined by testing volumes and number of referring health-facilities. These include: (1) Tier-1/decentralized point-of-care service (POC) in a single site; Tier-2/POC-hub servicing processing 600 samples/day and serving >100 or >200 health-clinics, respectively. The objective of this study was to establish costs of existing and ITSDM-tiers 1, 2 and 3 in a remote, under-serviced district in South Africa. Methods Historical health-facility workload volumes from the Pixley-ka-Seme district, and the total volumes of CD4 tests performed by the adjacent district referral CD4 laboratories, linked to locations of all referring clinics and related laboratory-to-result turn-around time (LTR-TAT) data, were extracted from the NHLS Corporate-Data-Warehouse for the period April-2012 to March-2013. Tiers were costed separately (as a cost-per-result) including equipment, staffing, reagents and test consumable costs. A one-way sensitivity analyses provided for changes in reagent price, test volumes and personnel time. Results The lowest cost-per-result was noted for the existing laboratory-based Tiers- 4 and 5 ($6.24 and $5.37 respectively), but with related increased LTR-TAT of >24–48 hours. Full service coverage with TAT cost-per-result of $32.32 and $15.88 respectively. A single district Tier-3 laboratory also ensured ‘full service coverage’ and Implementing a single Tier-3/community laboratory to extend and improve delivery of services in Pixley-ka-Seme, with an estimated local ∼12–24-hour LTR-TAT, is ∼$2 more than existing referred services per-test, but 2–4 fold cheaper than implementing eight Tier-2/POC-hubs or providing twenty-seven Tier-1/POCT CD4 services. PMID:25517412

  13. R2 & NE: NAVTEQ 2011 Q3 Exit Points for the United States, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands in SDC Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EXITS layer contains point representations of the locations of exits, typically on controlled access roads such as motorways and freeways. Controlled access...

  14. Cut points on 0-10 numeric rating scales for symptoms included in the edmonton symptom assessment scale in cancer patients: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. Oldenmenger (Wendy); P.J. de Raaf (Pleun); C. de Klerk (Cora); C.C.D. van der Rijt (Carin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractContext: To improve the management of cancer-related symptoms, systematic screening is necessary, often performed by using 0-10 numeric rating scales. Cut points are used to determine if scores represent clinically relevant burden. Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to

  15. Rewarding Foreign Language Learning: Effects of the Swedish Grade Point Average Enhancement Initiative on Students' Motivation to Learn French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Alastair

    2017-01-01

    In order to reinstate interest and motivation for learning foreign languages (FLs) other than English, the Swedish government has recently reformed the system for admission to higher education. Upper secondary students who continue with the FL learnt in secondary school are rewarded with extra credits that considerably enhance their grade point…

  16. A multiobserver study of the effects of including point-of-care patient photographs with portable radiography: a means to detect wrong-patient errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tridandapani, Srini; Ramamurthy, Senthil; Provenzale, James; Obuchowski, Nancy A; Evanoff, Michael G; Bhatti, Pamela

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate whether the presence of facial photographs obtained at the point-of-care of portable radiography leads to increased detection of wrong-patient errors. In this institutional review board-approved study, 166 radiograph-photograph combinations were obtained from 30 patients. Consecutive radiographs from the same patients resulted in 83 unique pairs (ie, a new radiograph and prior, comparison radiograph) for interpretation. To simulate wrong-patient errors, mismatched pairs were generated by pairing radiographs from different patients chosen randomly from the sample. Ninety radiologists each interpreted a unique randomly chosen set of 10 radiographic pairs, containing up to 10% mismatches (ie, error pairs). Radiologists were randomly assigned to interpret radiographs with or without photographs. The number of mismatches was identified, and interpretation times were recorded. Ninety radiologists with 21 ± 10 (mean ± standard deviation) years of experience were recruited to participate in this observer study. With the introduction of photographs, the proportion of errors detected increased from 31% (9 of 29) to 77% (23 of 30; P = .006). The odds ratio for detection of error with photographs to detection without photographs was 7.3 (95% confidence interval: 2.29-23.18). Observer qualifications, training, or practice in cardiothoracic radiology did not influence sensitivity for error detection. There is no significant difference in interpretation time for studies without photographs and those with photographs (60 ± 22 vs. 61 ± 25 seconds; P = .77). In this observer study, facial photographs obtained simultaneously with portable chest radiographs increased the identification of any wrong-patient errors, without substantial increase in interpretation time. This technique offers a potential means to increase patient safety through correct patient identification. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Address Points, The Address Point layer contains an address point for almost every structure over 200 square feet and for some vacant properties. Attributes include addresses, sub-units, address use, LAT/LONG, 10-digit SDAT taxpins, political areas and more., Published in 2013, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Baltimore County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Address Points dataset current as of 2013. The Address Point layer contains an address point for almost every structure over 200 square feet and for some vacant...

  18. Ca(AlH4)2, CaAlH5, and CaH2+6LiBH4 : Calculated dehydrogenation enthalpy, including zero point energy, and the structure of the phonon spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marashdeh, A.; Frankcombe, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    The dehydrogenation enthalpies of Ca(AlH4)2, CaAlH5, and CaH2+6LiBH4 have been calculated using density functional theory calculations at the generalized gradient approximation level. Harmonic phonon zero point energy (ZPE) corrections have been included using Parlinski’s direct method. The

  19. Business and Commerce, We maintain a "Common Place" point layer which includes business names and locations across the county. This data layer is tied to our address points., Published in 2013, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Business and Commerce dataset current as of 2013. We maintain a "Common Place" point layer which includes business names and locations across the county. This data...

  20. Grade inflation at a north american college of veterinary medicine: 1985-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Bonnie R; Elmore, Ronnie G; Sanderson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    Grade inflation, an upward shift in student grade-point averages without a similar rise in achievement, is considered pervasive by most experts in post-secondary education in the United States. Grade-point averages (GPAs) at US universities have increased by roughly 0.15 points per decade since the 1960s, with a 0.6-point increase since 1967. In medical education, grade inflation has been documented and is particularly evident in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate grade inflation over a 22-year period in a college of veterinary medicine. Academic records from 2,060 students who graduated from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Kansas State University between 1985 and 2006 were evaluated, including cumulative GPAs earned during pre-clinical professional coursework, during clinical rotations, and at graduation. Grade inflation was documented at a rate of approximately 0.2 points per decade at this college of veterinary medicine. The difference in mean final GPA between the minimum (1986) and maximum (2003) years of graduation was 0.47 points. Grade inflation was similar for didactic coursework (years 1-3) and clinical rotations (final year). Demographic shifts, student qualifications, and tuition do not appear to have contributed to grade inflation over time. A change in academic standards and student evaluation of teaching may have contributed to relaxed grading standards, and technology in the classroom may have led to higher (earned) grades as a result of improved student learning.

  1. The End of Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jo

    2018-01-01

    Have teachers become too dependent on points? This article explores educators' dependency on their points systems, and the ways that points can distract teachers from really analyzing students' capabilities and achievements. Feldman argues that using a more subjective grading system can help illuminate crucial information about students and what…

  2. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  3. TCGA_LowerGradeGliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    TCGA researchers analyzed nearly 300 cases of diffuse low- and intermediate-grade gliomas, which together comprise lower-grade gliomas. LGGs occur mainly in adults and include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.

  4. Monte Carlo simulated corrections for beam commissioning measurements with circular and MLC shaped fields on the CyberKnife M6 System: a study including diode, microchamber, point scintillator, and synthetic microdiamond detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescon, P.; Kilby, W.; Noll, J. M.; Masi, L.; Satariano, N.; Russo, S.

    2017-02-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate correction factors for output factor (OF), percentage depth-dose (PDD), and off-axis ratio (OAR) measurements with the CyberKnife M6 System. These include the first such data for the InCise MLC. Simulated detectors include diodes, air-filled microchambers, a synthetic microdiamond detector, and point scintillator. Individual perturbation factors were also evaluated. OF corrections show similar trends to previous studies. With a 5 mm fixed collimator the diode correction to convert a measured OF to the corresponding point dose ratio varies between  -6.1% and  -3.5% for the diode models evaluated, while in a 7.6 mm  ×  7.7 mm MLC field these are  -4.5% to  -1.8%. The corresponding microchamber corrections are  +9.9% to  +10.7% and  +3.5% to  +4.0%. The microdiamond corrections have a maximum of  -1.4% for the 7.5 mm and 10 mm collimators. The scintillator corrections are  15%, reducing to    d max were  M6 Systems and retrospectively checking estimated corrections used previously. We recommend the PDD and OAR corrections are used to guide detector selection and inform the evaluation of results rather than to explicitly correct measurements.

  5. Influence of Tönnis Grade on Outcomes of Arthroscopic Management of Symptomatic Femoroacetabular Impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Bardowski, Elizabeth A; Jones, Kay S

    2018-05-19

    To define the outcomes of arthroscopic correction of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) based on Tönnis findings within a previously reported patient population, including a comparative analysis of Tönnis grade 0 and 1 versus grade 2 changes. Outcomes (modified Harris Hip Score [mHHS]) of a previously published study of arthroscopic correction of FAI were correlated with Tönnis grade. The inclusion criteria were the first 100 consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopic FAI correction with minimum 2-year follow-up. These procedures were performed between December 2003 and May 2006. Grades were determined independently by 2 experienced clinicians. Tönnis grades 0 and 1 were compared with Tönnis grade 2. Independent variables of sex and age were also evaluated. The average age of the entire group was 34.7 years (range, 13-76 years), with 66 male and 34 female patients. Of the patients, 17 had Tönnis grade 0, 49 had Tönnis grade 1, 29 had Tönnis grade 2, and 4 had Tönnis grade 3 (1 unknown). The average mHHS improvement for Tönnis grade 0 was 20.6 points; Tönnis grade 1, 22.2 points; Tönnis grade 2, 14.9 points; and Tönnis grade 3, 18.8 points. The improvement was statistically (P 8 points) significant across all Tönnis grades. There was no difference (P = .077) between Tönnis grades 0 and 1 (21.8 points) versus grade 2 (14.9 points). There was no difference based on sex or age. These data support that statistically and clinically meaningful successful patient-reported outcomes (mHHS) at 2 years can be encountered even in the presence of Tönnis grade 2 radiographic features. Neither age nor sex was an indicator of poorer results within similar Tönnis grades. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Calculating Student Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allswang, John M.

    1986-01-01

    This article provides two short microcomputer gradebook programs. The programs, written in BASIC for the IBM-PC and Apple II, provide statistical information about class performance and calculate grades either on a normal distribution or based on teacher-defined break points. (JDH)

  7. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  8. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  9. Ca(AlH4)2, CaAlH5, and CaH2+6LiBH4: Calculated dehydrogenation enthalpy, including zero point energy, and the structure of the phonon spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashdeh, Ali; Frankcombe, Terry J

    2008-06-21

    The dehydrogenation enthalpies of Ca(AlH(4))(2), CaAlH(5), and CaH(2)+6LiBH(4) have been calculated using density functional theory calculations at the generalized gradient approximation level. Harmonic phonon zero point energy (ZPE) corrections have been included using Parlinski's direct method. The dehydrogenation of Ca(AlH(4))(2) is exothermic, indicating a metastable hydride. Calculations for CaAlH(5) including ZPE effects indicate that it is not stable enough for a hydrogen storage system operating near ambient conditions. The destabilized combination of LiBH(4) with CaH(2) is a promising system after ZPE-corrected enthalpy calculations. The calculations confirm that including ZPE effects in the harmonic approximation for the dehydrogenation of Ca(AlH(4))(2), CaAlH(5), and CaH(2)+6LiBH(4) has a significant effect on the calculated reaction enthalpy. The contribution of ZPE to the dehydrogenation enthalpies of Ca(AlH(4))(2) and CaAlH(5) calculated by the direct method phonon analysis was compared to that calculated by the frozen-phonon method. The crystal structure of CaAlH(5) is presented in the more useful standard setting of P2(1)c symmetry and the phonon density of states of CaAlH(5), significantly different to other common complex metal hydrides, is rationalized.

  10. Predictive value of grade point average (GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), internal examinations (Block) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores on Medical Council of Canada qualifying examination part I (MCCQE-1) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Banibrata; Ripstein, Ira; Perry, Kyle; Cohen, Barry

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the pre-medical Grade Point Average (GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), Internal examinations (Block) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores are correlated with and predict the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I (MCCQE-1) scores. Data from 392 admitted students in the graduating classes of 2010-2013 at University of Manitoba (UofM), College of Medicine was considered. Pearson's correlation to assess the strength of the relationship, multiple linear regression to estimate MCCQE-1 score and stepwise linear regression to investigate the amount of variance were employed. Complete data from 367 (94%) students were studied. The MCCQE-1 had a moderate-to-large positive correlation with NBME scores and Block scores but a low correlation with GPA and MCAT scores. The multiple linear regression model gives a good estimate of the MCCQE-1 (R2 =0.604). Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that 59.2% of the variation in the MCCQE-1 was accounted for by the NBME, but only 1.9% by the Block exams, and negligible variation came from the GPA and the MCAT. Amongst all the examinations used at UofM, the NBME is most closely correlated with MCCQE-1.

  11. The pathologist's mean grade is constant and individualizes the prognostic value of bladder cancer grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhijn, Bas W G; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Ooms, Bert C M; Kirkels, Wim J; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Boevé, Egbert R; Jöbsis, Adriaan C; van der Kwast, Theo H

    2010-06-01

    A new grading system for bladder cancer (BCa) was adopted in 2004 to reduce observer variability and provide better prognostic information. We compared the World Health Organization (WHO) 1973 and 2004 systems for observer variability and prognosis. Slides of 173 primary non-muscle-invasive BCa were reviewed two times by four pathologists. Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed using κ statistics. We determined the mean grade (eg, G1/low malignant potential is 1 grade point, G2/low grade is 2 grade points) of the pathologists per grading cycle. Kaplan-Meier analyses were applied for prediction of recurrence and progression. For WHO 2004 and 1973 grading, the agreement between the pathologists was 39-74% (κ: 0.14-0.58) and 39-64% (κ: 0.15-0.41), respectively. The intraobserver agreement varied from 71% to 88% (κ: 0.55-0.81). The mean grade of a pathologist was constant (difference below 0.1 grade point) irrespective of the grading system. Conversely, mean-grade differences among the pathologists were high, up to 0.7 grade point. The mean grades for the WHO 2004 system were 0.3-0.5 grade point higher than those of WHO 1973. Mean grade distinguished low and high graders among the pathologists and was strongly linked with risk of progression in each grade category. The variation in mean grade among individual pathologists exceeded the grade shift caused by WHO 2004 grading. Knowledge of the pathologist's mean grade allows a better assessment of the prognostic value of grading. Mean grade has the potential to become a tool for quality assurance in pathology. Copyright © 2009 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of novel scoring system named 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Jun; Inada, Noriko; Sawa, Mitsuru

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the practical usefulness of a scoring system using the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease (ACD). Subjects were 103 patients with ACD including 40 patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), 20 patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), and 43 patients with allergic conjunctivitis (AC). The 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale consists of the following 3 graded groups of clinical observations: the 100-point-grade group (100 points for each observation) includes active giant papillae, gelatinous infiltrates of the limbus, exfoliative epithelial keratopathy, shield ulcer and papillary proliferation at lower palpebral conjunctiva; the 10-point-grade group (10 points for each observation) includes blepharitis, papillary proliferation with velvety appearance, Horner-Trantas spots, edema of bulbal conjunctiva, and superficial punctate keratopathy; and the 1-point-grade group (1 point for each observation) includes papillae at upper palpebral conjunctiva, follicular lesion at lower palpebral conjunctiva, hyperemia of palpebral conjunctiva, hyperemia of bulbal conjunctiva, and lacrimal effusion. The total points in each grade group were determined as the severity score of the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale. The median severity scores of the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale in VKC, AKC and AC were 243 (range: 12-444), 32.5 (11-344), and 13 (2-33), respectively. The severity score of each ACD disease type was significantly different (P Kruskal-Wallis test). The severity of each type of ACD was classified as severe, moderate, or mild according to the severity score. The 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale is a useful clinical tool for grading the severity of each type of ACD.

  13. Efficient methods for including quantum effects in Monte Carlo calculations of large systems: extension of the displaced points path integral method and other effective potential methods to calculate properties and distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Steven L; Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Siepmann, J Ilja; Truhlar, Donald G

    2013-01-07

    We present a procedure to calculate ensemble averages, thermodynamic derivatives, and coordinate distributions by effective classical potential methods. In particular, we consider the displaced-points path integral (DPPI) method, which yields exact quantal partition functions and ensemble averages for a harmonic potential and approximate quantal ones for general potentials, and we discuss the implementation of the new procedure in two Monte Carlo simulation codes, one that uses uncorrelated samples to calculate absolute free energies, and another that employs Metropolis sampling to calculate relative free energies. The results of the new DPPI method are compared to those from accurate path integral calculations as well as to results of two other effective classical potential schemes for the case of an isolated water molecule. In addition to the partition function, we consider the heat capacity and expectation values of the energy, the potential energy, the bond angle, and the OH distance. We also consider coordinate distributions. The DPPI scheme performs best among the three effective potential schemes considered and achieves very good accuracy for all of the properties considered. A key advantage of the effective potential schemes is that they display much lower statistical sampling variances than those for accurate path integral calculations. The method presented here shows great promise for including quantum effects in calculations on large systems.

  14. Preoptometry and optometry school grade point average and optometry admissions test scores as predictors of performance on the national board of examiners in optometry part I (basic science) examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J E; Yackle, K A; Yuen, M T; Voorhees, L I

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate preoptometry and optometry school grade point averages and Optometry Admission Test (OAT) scores as predictors of performance on the National Board of Examiners in Optometry NBEO Part I (Basic Science) (NBEOPI) examination. Simple and multiple correlation coefficients were computed from data obtained from a sample of three consecutive classes of optometry students (1995-1997; n = 278) at Southern California College of Optometry. The GPA after year two of optometry school was the highest correlation (r = 0.75) among all predictor variables; the average of all scores on the OAT was the highest correlation among preoptometry predictor variables (r = 0.46). Stepwise regression analysis indicated a combination of the optometry GPA, the OAT Academic Average, and the GPA in certain optometry curricular tracks resulted in an improved correlation (multiple r = 0.81). Predicted NBEOPI scores were computed from the regression equation and then analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (roc) and statistic of agreement (kappa) methods. From this analysis, we identified the predicted score that maximized identification of true and false NBEOPI failures (71% and 10%, respectively). Cross validation of this result on a separate class of optometry students resulted in a slightly lower correlation between actual and predicted NBEOPI scores (r = 0.77) but showed the criterion-predicted score to be somewhat lax. The optometry school GPA after 2 years is a reasonably good predictor of performance on the full NBEOPI examination, but the prediction is enhanced by adding the Academic Average OAT score. However, predicting performance in certain subject areas of the NBEOPI examination, for example Psychology and Ocular/Visual Biology, was rather insubstantial. Nevertheless, predicting NBEOPI performance from the best combination of year two optometry GPAs and preoptometry variables is better than has been shown in previous studies predicting optometry GPA from the best

  15. Registration Patterns Under Two Different Grading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Audrey W.

    In the early 1960's, Westminster College adopted a new grading system, with the traditional grade levels of A, B, C, D, and F converted to DN (Distinction), HP (High Pass), P (Pass), and NC (No Credit). NC replaced both D and F of the old system, and grade point averages were abolished, in an effort to encourage students to register in more…

  16. Bedrock geologic map of the Spring Valley, West Plains, and parts of the Piedmont and Poplar Bluff 30'x60' quadrangles, Missouri, including the upper Current River and Eleven Point River drainage basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Harrison, Richard W.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Weems, Robert E.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Repetski, John E.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2015-01-01

    This map covers the drainage basins of the upper Current River and the Eleven Point River in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province of southeastern Missouri. The two surface drainage basins are contiguous in their headwaters regions, but are separated in their lower reaches by the lower Black River basin in the southeast corner of the map area. Numerous dye-trace studies demonstrate that in the contiguous headwaters areas, groundwater flows from the Eleven Point River basin into the Current River basin. Much of the groundwater discharge of the Eleven Point River basin emanates from Big Spring, located on the Current River. This geologic map and cross sections were produced to help fulfill a need to understand the geologic framework of the region in which this subsurface flow occurs.

  17. Contractions from grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  18. The effect of two grading systems on the performance of medical students during oral examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Jemec, Gregor B E; Sander, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    group (p = 0.45). Moreover, the average mark was higher among the international students (mean = 10.3, on the seven-point grading scale) than in the Danish speaking classes (mean = 9.1). CONCLUSION: The seven-point grading scale seems to motivate students to yield a better performance; hence tiered......INTRODUCTION: Either a pass/fail approach or a seven-point grading scale are used to evaluate students at the Danish universities. The aim of this study was to explore any effect of the assessment methods on student performances during oral exams. METHODS: In a prospective study including 1......,037 examinations in three medical subjects, we investigated the difference in the test scores between the spring- and autumn semester. In the spring semester, the students could either pass or fail the subject (pass/fail) while in the following autumn semester, the students were assessed by tiered grading (seven...

  19. Flat Coalgebraic Fixed Point Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Lutz; Venema, Yde

    Fixed point logics are widely used in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the μ-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the μ-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard μ-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded μ-calculus and the alternating-time μ-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches ExpTime upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic μ-calculus but avoids using automata.

  20. A proposed grading system for standardizing tumor consistency of intracranial meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zada, Gabriel; Yashar, Parham; Robison, Aaron; Winer, Jesse; Khalessi, Alexander; Mack, William J; Giannotta, Steven L

    2013-12-01

    Tumor consistency plays an important and underrecognized role in the surgeon's ability to resect meningiomas, especially with evolving trends toward minimally invasive and keyhole surgical approaches. Aside from descriptors such as "hard" or "soft," no objective criteria exist for grading, studying, and conveying the consistency of meningiomas. The authors designed a practical 5-point scale for intraoperative grading of meningiomas based on the surgeon's ability to internally debulk the tumor and on the subsequent resistance to folding of the tumor capsule. Tumor consistency grades and features are as follows: 1) extremely soft tumor, internal debulking with suction only; 2) soft tumor, internal debulking mostly with suction, and remaining fibrous strands resected with easily folded capsule; 3) average consistency, tumor cannot be freely suctioned and requires mechanical debulking, and the capsule then folds with relative ease; 4) firm tumor, high degree of mechanical debulking required, and capsule remains difficult to fold; and 5) extremely firm, calcified tumor, approaches density of bone, and capsule does not fold. Additional grading categories included tumor heterogeneity (with minimum and maximum consistency scores) and a 3-point vascularity score. This grading system was prospectively assessed in 50 consecutive patients undergoing craniotomy for meningioma resection by 2 surgeons in an independent fashion. Grading scores were subjected to a linear weighted kappa analysis for interuser reliability. Fifty patients (100 scores) were included in the analysis. The mean maximal tumor diameter was 4.3 cm. The distribution of overall tumor consistency scores was as follows: Grade 1, 4%; Grade 2, 9%; Grade 3, 43%; Grade 4, 44%; and Grade 5, 0%. Regions of Grade 5 consistency were reported only focally in 14% of heterogeneous tumors. Tumors were designated as homogeneous in 68% and heterogeneous in 32% of grades. The kappa analysis score for overall tumor consistency

  1. The Relationship between Attendance Policies and Student Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between attendance policies and student grades in college courses was investigated. Specifically, a calculated grade point average was determined for all academic classes taught at Shelton State Community College between 2000 and 2008. These grade point averages were compared descriptively and statistically in an effort to…

  2. Multicritical phase diagrams of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: The cluster variation method and the path probability method with the point distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2008-01-15

    We study the thermal variations of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model with repulsive biquadratic coupling by using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method (LACVM) in the absence and presence of the external magnetic field. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. The classification of the stable, metastable and unstable states is made by comparing the free energy values of these states. We also study the dynamics of the model by using the path probability method (PPM) with the point distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagrams in addition to the equilibrium phase diagrams in the (kT/J, K/J) and (kT/J, D/J) planes. It is found that the metastable phase diagrams always exist at the low temperatures, which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works.

  3. Multicritical phase diagrams of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: The cluster variation method and the path probability method with the point distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Canko, Osman

    2008-01-01

    We study the thermal variations of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model with repulsive biquadratic coupling by using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method (LACVM) in the absence and presence of the external magnetic field. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. The classification of the stable, metastable and unstable states is made by comparing the free energy values of these states. We also study the dynamics of the model by using the path probability method (PPM) with the point distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagrams in addition to the equilibrium phase diagrams in the (kT/J, K/J) and (kT/J, D/J) planes. It is found that the metastable phase diagrams always exist at the low temperatures, which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works

  4. Effects of Repeated Intraperitoneal Injection of Pharmaceutical-grade and Nonpharmaceutical-grade Corn Oil in Female C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Jennifer S; Chen, Patty H; Boyd, Kelli L

    2017-11-01

    Due to potential adverse effects on animal wellbeing, the use of nonpharmaceutical-grade substances in animal research must be scientifically justified in cases where a pharmaceutical-grade version of the substance exists. This requirement applies to all substances, including vehicles used to solubilize experimental drugs. To date, no studies have evaluated the direct effect of the pharmaceutical classification of a compound on animal wellbeing. In this study, we evaluated intraperitoneal administration of pharmaceutical-grade corn oil, nonpharmaceutical-grade corn oil, and saline in female C57BL/6J mice. Compounds were administered every 48 h for a total of 4 injections. Mice were evaluated clinically by using body weight, body condition score, visual assessment score, CBC, and serum chemistries. Animals were euthanized at 24 h and 14 d after the final injection. Inflammation of the peritoneal wall and mesenteric fat was assessed microscopically by using a semiquantitative scoring system. Saline-dosed groups had lower pathology scores at both time points. At day 21, pharmaceutical-grade corn oil had a significantly higher pathology score compared with nonpharmaceutical-grade corn oil. No other significant differences between the corn oil groups were observed. The use of nonpharmaceutical grade corn oil did not result in adverse clinical consequences and is presumed safe to use for intraperitoneal injection in mice. Differences in inflammation between the 2 groups suggest that the use of either pharmaceutical-grade or nonpharmaceutical-grade corn oil should be consistent within a study.

  5. Fire Stations, LAGIC is consulting with local parish GIS departments to create spatially accurate point and polygons data sets including the locations and building footprints of schools, churches, government buildings, law enforcement and emergency response offices, pha, Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Fire Stations dataset current as of 2011. LAGIC is consulting with local parish GIS departments to create spatially accurate point and polygons data sets including...

  6. Grocery Stores, LAGIC is consulting with local parish GIS departments to create spatially accurate point and polygons data sets including the locations and building footprints of schools, churches, government buildings, law enforcement and emergency response offices, pha, Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Grocery Stores dataset current as of 2011. LAGIC is consulting with local parish GIS departments to create spatially accurate point and polygons data sets including...

  7. Libraries, LAGIC is consulting with local parish GIS departments to create spatially accurate point and polygons data sets including the locations and building footprints of schools, churches, government buildings, law enforcement and emergency response offices, pha, Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Libraries dataset current as of 2011. LAGIC is consulting with local parish GIS departments to create spatially accurate point and polygons data sets including the...

  8. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-06-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and non-cognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades, undermining their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge the 'increases in grade point average' definition of grade inflation and argue that grade inflation must be understood in terms of the signaling power of grades. Analyzing data from four nationally representative samples, we find that in the decades following 1972: (a) grades have risen at high schools and dropped at four-year colleges, in general, and selective four-year institutions, in particular; and (b) the signaling power of grades has attenuated little, if at all.

  9. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2018-01-01

    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses t...... tendencies are in accordance with statistical discrimination as a mechanism for grading bias in essay writing and with gender-stereotyped beliefs of math being a male domain....... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...

  10. Mathematical points as didactical ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Arne

    Mathematics teaching in Denmark was recently recommended better organized in sequences with clear mathematical pedagogical goals and a focus on mathematical points. In this paper I define a mathematical point and inform on coding of transcripts in a video based Danish research study on grade 8 te...

  11. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... service; however, maintenance therapy itself is not covered as part of these services. (c) Occupational... increase respiratory function, such as graded activity services; these services include physiologic... rehabilitation plan of treatment, including physical therapy services, occupational therapy services, speech...

  12. Alternative Grading Systems. The Practitioner, Vol. III, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonibus, Nancy; Thomson, Scott

    After examining some of the pros and cons of traditional grading, the demands colleges make on grading practices, and the responses of people interested in grading, a number of examples of operating alternative systems are given. The alternatives include a dual (pass/withdraw grading in some courses, traditional grading in others) system, a…

  13. Attendance Policies and Student Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risen, D. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The details described in this case study examine the issues related to attendance policies and how such policies might be legally used to affect student grades. Concepts discussed should cause graduate students in educational administration to reflect on the issues presented from various points of view when the students complete an analysis of the…

  14. [Low grade renal trauma (Part II): diagnostic validity of ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, R; Báca, V; Otcenásek, M; Zátura, F

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether ultrasonography can be considered a reliable method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal trauma. The group investigated included patients with grade I or grade II blunt renal trauma, as classified by the AAST grading system, in whom ultrasonography alone or in conjunction with computed tomography was used as a primary diagnostic method. B-mode ultrasound with a transabdominal probe working at frequencies of 2.5 to 5.0 MHz was used. Every finding of post-traumatic changes in the renal tissues, i.e., post-contusion hypotonic infiltration of the renal parenchyma or subcapsular haematoma, was included. The results were statistically evaluated by the Chi-square test with the level of significance set at 5%, using Epi Info Version 6 CZ software. The group comprised 112 patients (43 women, 69 men) aged between 17 and 82 years (average, 38 years). It was possible to diagnose grade I or grade II renal injury by ultrasonography in only 60 (54%) of them. The statistical significance of ultrasonography as the only imaging method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury was not confirmed (p=0.543) Low-grade renal trauma is a problem from the diagnostic point of view. It usually does not require revision surgery and, if found during repeat surgery for more serious injury of another organ, it usually does not receive attention. Therefore, the macroscopic presentation of grade I and grade II renal injury is poorly understood, nor are their microscopic findings known, because during revision surgery these the traumatised kidneys are not usually removed and their injuries at autopsy on the patients who died of multiple trauma are not recorded either. The results of this study demonstrated that the validity of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury is not significant, because this examination can reveal only some of the renal injuries such as perirenal haematoma. An injury to the renal parenchyma is also indicated by

  15. Teachers' Grading Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…

  16. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  17. Student Attitudes Toward Grades and Grading Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.

    The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)

  18. Answering medical questions at the point of care: a cross-sectional study comparing rapid decisions based on PubMed and Epistemonikos searches with evidence-based recommendations developed with the GRADE approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izcovich, Ariel; Criniti, Juan Martín; Popoff, Federico; Ragusa, Martín Alberto; Gigler, Cristel; Gonzalez Malla, Carlos; Clavijo, Manuela; Manzotti, Matias; Diaz, Martín; Catalano, Hugo Norberto; Neumann, Ignacio; Guyatt, Gordon

    2017-08-07

    Using the best current evidence to inform clinical decisions remains a challenge for clinicians. Given the scarcity of trustworthy clinical practice guidelines providing recommendations to answer clinicians' daily questions, clinical decision support systems (ie, assistance in question identification and answering) emerge as an attractive alternative. The trustworthiness of the recommendations achieved by such systems is unknown. To evaluate the trustworthiness of a question identification and answering system that delivers timely recommendations. Cross-sectional study. We compared the responses to 100 clinical questions related to inpatient management provided by two rapid response methods with 'Gold Standard' recommendations. One of the rapid methods was based on PubMed and the other on Epistemonikos database. We defined our 'Gold Standard' as trustworthy published evidence-based recommendations or, when unavailable, recommendations developed locally by a panel of six clinicians following the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Recommendations provided by the rapid strategies were classified as potentially misleading or reasonable. We also determined if the potentially misleading recommendations could have been avoided with the appropriate implementation of searching and evidence summary tools. We were able to answer all of the 100 questions with both rapid methods. Of the 200 recommendations obtained, 6.5% (95% CI 3% to 9.9%) were classified as potentially misleading and 93.5% (95% CI 90% to 96.9%) as reasonable. 6 of the 13 potentially misleading recommendations could have been avoided by the appropriate usage of the Epistemonikos matrix tool or by constructing summary of findings tables. No significant differences were observed between the evaluated rapid response methods. A question answering service based on the GRADE approach proved feasible to implement and provided appropriate guidance for most identified

  19. Cracks in functionally graded materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, H.-A.; Balke, H.; Fett, T.; Hofinger, I.; Kirchhoff, G.; Munz, D.; Neubrand, A.; Semenov, A.S.; Weiss, H.-J.; Yang, Y.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The weight function method is described to analyze the crack growth behavior in functionally graded materials and in particular materials with a rising crack growth resistance curve. Further, failure of graded thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under cyclic surface heating by laser irradiation is modeled on the basis of fracture mechanics. The damage of both graded and non-graded TBCs is found to develop in several distinct stages: vertical cracking→delamination→blistering→spalling. This sequence can be understood as an effect of progressive shrinkage due to sintering and high-temperature creep during thermal cycling, which increases the energy-release rate for vertical cracks which subsequently turn into delamination cracks. The results of finite element modeling, taking into account the TBC damage mechanisms, are compatible with experimental data. An increase of interface fracture toughness due to grading and a decrease due to ageing have been measured in a four-point bending test modified by a stiffening layer. Correlation with the damage observed in cyclic heating is discussed. It is explained in which way grading is able to reduce the damage

  20. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  2. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  3. Dew Point

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Shelly

    1999-01-01

    Dew Point was a solo exhibition originating at PriceWaterhouseCoopers Headquarters Gallery, London, UK and toured to the Centre de Documentacio i Museu Textil, Terrassa, Spain and Gallery Aoyama, Tokyo, Japan.

  4. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  5. Tipping Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  6. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  7. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  8. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture ... about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The force of a ...

  9. The effect of two grading systems on the performance of medical students during oral examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Jemec, Gregor B E; Sander, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Either a pass/fail approach or a seven-point grading scale are used to evaluate students at the Danish universities. The aim of this study was to explore any effect of the assessment methods on student performances during oral exams. METHODS: In a prospective study including 1,037 e...

  10. A Novel Candidate Molecule in Pathological Grading Of Gliomas: ELABELA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artas, Gokhan; Ozturk, Sait; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Dagli, Adile Ferda; Gonen, Murat; Artas, Hakan; Aydin, Suleyman; Erol, Fatih Serhat

    2018-04-06

    This study aimed to investigate the possible role of ELABELA (ELA) in the histopathological grading of gliomas. We retrospectively assessed pathological specimens of patients who underwent surgery for intracranial space-occupying lesions. Only primary glioma specimens were included in this study. We enrolled 11 patients histologically diagnosed with low-grade glioma and 22 patients with high-grade glioma. The ELA antibody was applied to 4-6-µm-thick sections obtained from paraffin blocks. Histoscores were calculated using the distribution and intensity of staining immunoreactivity. An independent sample t-test was used for two-point inter-group assessments, whereas one-way analysis of variance was used for the other assessments. P 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The histoscores of the control brain, low-grade glioma, and high-grade glioma tissues were found to be 0.08, 0.37, and 0.92, respectively. The difference in ELA immunoreactivity between the control brain tissue and glioma tissue was statistically significant (p 0.05). In addition, a statistically significant increase was observed in ELA immunoreactivity in high-grade glioma tissues compared with that in low-grade glioma tissues (p 0.05). ELA has an angiogenetic role in the progression of glial tumors. ELA, which is an endogenous ligand of the apelin receptor, activates the apelinergic system and causes the progression of glial tumors. Further studies with a large number of patients are necessary to investigate the angiogenetic role of ELA in glial tumors.

  11. May 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  12. September 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  13. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  14. A Contemporary Prostate Cancer Grading System: A Validated Alternative to the Gleason Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jonathan I.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Nelson, Joel B.; Egevad, Lars; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Vickers, Andrew J.; Parwani, Anil V.; Reuter, Victor E.; Fine, Samson W.; Eastham, James A.; Wiklund, Peter; Han, Misop; Reddy, Chandana A.; Ciezki, Jay P.; Nyberg, Tommy; Klein, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite revisions in 2005 and 2014, the Gleason prostate cancer (PCa) grading system still has major deficiencies. Combining of Gleason scores into a three-tiered grouping (6, 7, 8–10) is used most frequently for prognostic and therapeutic purposes. The lowest score, assigned 6, may be misunderstood as a cancer in the middle of the grading scale, and 3 + 4 = 7 and 4 + 3 = 7 are often considered the same prognostic group. Objective To verify that a new grading system accurately produces a smaller number of grades with the most significant prognostic differences, using multi-institutional and multimodal therapy data. Design, setting, and participants Between 2005 and 2014, 20 845 consecutive men were treated by radical prostatectomy at five academic institutions; 5501 men were treated with radiotherapy at two academic institutions. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Outcome was based on biochemical recurrence (BCR). The log-rank test assessed univariable differences in BCR by Gleason score. Separate univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards used four possible categorizations of Gleason scores. Results and limitations In the surgery cohort, we found large differences in recurrence rates between both Gleason 3 + 4 versus 4 + 3 and Gleason 8 versus 9. The hazard ratios relative to Gleason score 6 were 1.9, 5.1, 8.0, and 11.7 for Gleason scores 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8, and 9–10, respectively. These differences were attenuated in the radiotherapy cohort as a whole due to increased adjuvant or neoadjuvant hormones for patients with high-grade disease but were clearly seen in patients undergoing radiotherapy only. A five–grade group system had the highest prognostic discrimination for all cohorts on both univariable and multivariable analysis. The major limitation was the unavoidable use of prostate-specific antigen BCR as an end point as opposed to cancer-related death. Conclusions The new PCa grading system has these benefits: more

  15. On arbitrarily graded rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    58

    paper is devoted to the study of arbitrary rings graded through arbitrary sets. .... which recover certain multiplicative relations among the homogeneous components ... instance the case in which the grading set A is an Abelian group, where the ...

  16. Graded manifolds and supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, M.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a review is presented on graded manifolds and supermanifolds. Many theorems, propositions, corrollaries, etc. are given with proofs or sketch proofs. Graded manifolds, supereuclidian space, Lie supergroups, etc. are dealt with

  17. Age-Related Grade Inflation Expectancies in a University Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A. Loffredo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grade inflation is a recognized problem in higher education in the United States. Age, gender, and ethnic differences in discrepancies between student reports of their expected grade in each course and their expectations for general university grading practices were explored in a survey of 166 (mostly female participants at a small upper-division university. Results revealed that while a small minority of students agreed that grading systems in college should only include A or B grades, a large majority of students expected A or B grades. Thus, student discrepancies between their expectations for grading systems and their expected class grades were in line with expectations that they should receive inflated grades. Results also revealed statistically significant age differences in grade expectation with students older than the age of 55 expecting lower grades relative to their younger counterparts.

  18. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  19. MRI differentiation of low-grade from high-grade appendicular chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douis, Hassan; Singh, Leanne; Saifuddin, Asif

    2014-01-01

    To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features which differentiate low-grade chondral lesions (atypical cartilaginous tumours/grade 1 chondrosarcoma) from high-grade chondrosarcomas (grade 2, grade 3 and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma) of the major long bones. We identified all patients treated for central atypical cartilaginous tumours and central chondrosarcoma of major long bones (humerus, femur, tibia) over a 13-year period. The MRI studies were assessed for the following features: bone marrow oedema, soft tissue oedema, bone expansion, cortical thickening, cortical destruction, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length. The MRI-features were compared with the histopathological tumour grading using univariate, multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses. One hundred and seventy-nine tumours were included in this retrospective study. There were 28 atypical cartilaginous tumours, 79 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, 36 grade 2 chondrosarcomas, 13 grade 3 chondrosarcomas and 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that bone expansion (P = 0.001), active periostitis (P = 0.001), soft tissue mass (P < 0.001) and tumour length (P < 0.001) were statistically significant differentiating factors between low-grade and high-grade chondral lesions with an area under the ROC curve of 0.956. On MRI, bone expansion, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length can reliably differentiate high-grade chondrosarcomas from low-grade chondral lesions of the major long bones. (orig.)

  20. MRI differentiation of low-grade from high-grade appendicular chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, Hassan; Singh, Leanne; Saifuddin, Asif [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features which differentiate low-grade chondral lesions (atypical cartilaginous tumours/grade 1 chondrosarcoma) from high-grade chondrosarcomas (grade 2, grade 3 and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma) of the major long bones. We identified all patients treated for central atypical cartilaginous tumours and central chondrosarcoma of major long bones (humerus, femur, tibia) over a 13-year period. The MRI studies were assessed for the following features: bone marrow oedema, soft tissue oedema, bone expansion, cortical thickening, cortical destruction, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length. The MRI-features were compared with the histopathological tumour grading using univariate, multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses. One hundred and seventy-nine tumours were included in this retrospective study. There were 28 atypical cartilaginous tumours, 79 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, 36 grade 2 chondrosarcomas, 13 grade 3 chondrosarcomas and 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that bone expansion (P = 0.001), active periostitis (P = 0.001), soft tissue mass (P < 0.001) and tumour length (P < 0.001) were statistically significant differentiating factors between low-grade and high-grade chondral lesions with an area under the ROC curve of 0.956. On MRI, bone expansion, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length can reliably differentiate high-grade chondrosarcomas from low-grade chondral lesions of the major long bones. (orig.)

  1. The Relationship of Error Rate and Comprehension in Second and Third Grade Oral Reading Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Mary; Wills, Howard; Miller, Angela; Kaufman, Journ

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of oral reading speed and error rate on comprehension with second and third grade students with identified reading risk. The study included 920 2nd graders and 974 3rd graders. Participants were assessed using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test (WRMT) Passage Comprehension subtest. Results from this study further illuminate the significant relationships between error rate, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension performance, and grade-specific guidelines for appropriate error rate levels. Low oral reading fluency and high error rates predict the level of passage comprehension performance. For second grade students below benchmark, a fall assessment error rate of 28% predicts that student comprehension performance will be below average. For third grade students below benchmark, the fall assessment cut point is 14%. Instructional implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  3. Graded gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical background for a graded extension of gauge theories is investigated. After discussing the general properties of graded Lie algebras and what may serve as a model for a graded Lie group, the graded fiber bundle is constructed. Its basis manifold is supposed to be the so-called superspace, i.e. the product of the Minkowskian space-time with the Grassmann algebra spanned by the anticommuting Lorentz spinors; the vertical subspaces tangent to the fibers are isomorphic with the graded extension of the SU(N) Lie algebra. The connection and curvature are defined then on this bundle; the two different gradings are either independent of each other, or may be unified in one common grading, which is equivalent to the choice of the spin-statistics dependence. The Yang-Mills lagrangian is investigated in the simplified case. The conformal symmetry breaking is discussed, as well as some other physical consequences of the model. (orig.)

  4. Functionally Graded Materials Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.

  5. Grade Level and Gender Differences in a School-Based Reading Tutoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the grade level and gender differences in a school-based reading tutoring program. The treatment group included 10 first-grade and 12 second-grade struggling readers, and the control group included 41 first-grade and 63 second-grade nonstruggling readers. The tutors were teacher candidates in an…

  6. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injuries than from exposed electrical outlets. Unfortunately, many parents are unaware of the deadly danger of this hidden hazard. Parents should include securing TVs, furniture, and appliances in ...

  7. Fraternity Influences on Binge Drinking and Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Suzy; McHugh Engstrom, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    The present study builds on previous findings and analyzes how social climate (Moos, 1988), chapter advisement, and living status differ for members of high- and low-achieving fraternities (as measured by cumulative chapter GPA) and how the interplay of personal and environmental factors influence binge drinking and GPA among college men in…

  8. Time Series ARIMA Models of Undergraduate Grade Point Average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Bruce G.

    The Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Models, often referred to as Box-Jenkins models, are regression methods for analyzing sequential dependent observations with large amounts of data. The Box-Jenkins approach, a three-stage procedure consisting of identification, estimation and diagnosis, was used to select the most appropriate…

  9. Grade Point Averages: How Students Navigate the System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Patricia E.; Garcia, Marco A.

    2012-01-01

    This case exemplifies the unintended divisive cause and effect dynamic that can occur as a direct result of a seemingly innocuous school board policy modification. A change in school board policy at a local school district in Laredo, Texas, was designed to facilitate the fulfillment of a foreign language requirement for high school students. A…

  10. Graded tensor calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, M.

    1982-10-01

    We develop a graded tensor calculus corresponding to arbitrary Abelian groups of degrees and arbitrary commutation factors. The standard basic constructions and definitions like tensor products, spaces of multilinear mappings, contractions, symmetrization, symmetric algebra, as well as the transpose, adjoint, and trace of a linear mapping, are generalized to the graded case and a multitude of canonical isomorphisms is presented. Moreover, the graded versions of the classical Lie algebras are introduced and some of their basic properties are described. (orig.)

  11. Grading of shoulder ulcerations in sows by biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Dahl-Pedersen, Kirstin; Barington, Krisitane

    2014-01-01

    legislation, stating that sows with shoulder ulcers grade 3 or 4 must be kept loose and have access to soft bedding. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate if biopsies from the center of a shoulder ulcer can be used to point out animals for which an intervention must be initiated. Postmortem......, a punch biopsy was sampled from the center of the ulceration or from the tissue overlaying the tuber spina scapula. Afterward, the shoulders were cross-sectioned and evaluated grossly and histologically (“gold standard”). In total, 121 shoulders were included in the study, and the diagnostic value...... of a punch biopsy in grading shoulder ulcerations was evaluated. The results showed a sensitivity of 0.78, a specificity of 0.98, a positive likelihood ratio of 38.36, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.22. The agreement between the cross-section evaluation and the punch biopsy was found to be 0...

  12. Comparing 2 Whiplash Grading Systems to Predict Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Arthur C; Bagherian, Alireza; Mickelsen, Patrick K; Wagner, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Two whiplash severity grading systems have been developed: Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders (QTF-WAD) and the Croft grading system. The majority of clinical studies to date have used the modified grading system published by the QTF-WAD in 1995 and have demonstrated some ability to predict outcome. But most studies include only injuries of lower severity (grades 1 and 2), preventing a broader interpretation. The purpose of this study was assess the ability of these grading systems to predict clinical outcome within the context of a broader injury spectrum. This study evaluated both grading systems for their ability to predict the bivalent outcome, recovery, within a sample of 118 whiplash patients who were part of a previous case-control designed study. Of these, 36% (controls) had recovered, and 64% (cases) had not recovered. The discrete bivariate distribution between recovery status and whiplash grade was analyzed using the 2-tailed cross-tabulation statistics. Applying the criteria of the original 1993 Croft grading system, the subset comprised 1 grade 1 injury, 32 grade 2 injuries, 53 grade 3 injuries, and 32 grade 4 injuries. Applying the criteria of the modified (QTF-WAD) grading system, there were 1 grade 1 injury, 89 grade 2 injuries, and 28 grade 3 injuries. Both whiplash grading systems correlated negatively with recovery; that is, higher severity grades predicted a lower probability of recovery, and statistically significant correlations were observed in both, but the Croft grading system substantially outperformed the QTF-WAD system on this measure. The Croft grading system for whiplash injury severity showed a better predictive measure for recovery status from whiplash injuries as compared with the QTF-WAD grading system.

  13. Grade Inflation Rates among Different Ability Students, Controlling for Other Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Spirit, Stephanie; Jones, Kirk E.

    1999-01-01

    Compared grade inflation rates among students of different abilities at an open-admissions public university by examining trends in graduating grade point average from 1983 to 1996. The higher grade inflation rates among low aptitude students suggest that faculty might be using grades to encourage learning among marginal students. (SLD)

  14. Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…

  15. La actitud hacia la docencia, la formación integral en la educación secundaria y a su proyecto de vida: Una visión desde los estudiantes de colegios en áreas rurales Attitude towards Teaching, Comprehensive Formation, and Students’ Life Project: The point of view of a group of students from the 11th grade in rural schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elionay Quirós Meneses

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 18 de junio de 2012 • Corregido 05 de marzo de 2013 • Aceptado 13 de marzo de 2013Estudio transcenccional descriptivo de enfoque cuantitativo acerca de la actitud hacia la docencia, la formación integral en la educación secundaria y a su proyecto de vida: una visión desde los estudiantes de colegios en áreas rurales, el cual fue realizado en el año 2011. Participaron 41 estudiantes de undécimo año de colegios rurales costarricenses que forman parte del programa Esperanza joven, de la División de Educología de la Universidad Nacional. La información se recopiló con una escala Likert, cuyos resultados permitieron destacar, en los estudiantes, una actitud positiva hacia el desempeño docente, la formación integral, evaluación de los aprendizajes, incentivos familiares e institucionales y metas personales. En tanto, la incentivación que ofrece la institución hacia los estudiantes obtuvo una actitud negativa. Lo anterior permite hacer un análisis objetivo y llegar a conclusiones precisas.This paper refers to a cross-sectional descriptive study with a quantitative approach on the point of view of students from rural areas concerning teaching, comprehensive formation of students from the 7th to 11th grades and the students’ life project. The study was conducted in 2011 with the participation of 41 students from the 11th grade of the Costa Rican rural schools involved in the Esperanza Joven program of the School of Educology of the Universidad Nacional. The information was collected through a Likert scale. The results reported a positive attitude towards teacher’s performance, comprehensive formation, evaluation of learning, family and institutional stimulus, and personal goals. In contrast, there was a negative attitude about the motivation of the school to its students. This research included an objective analysis and provided accurate conclusions.

  16. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  17. Setting standards to determine core clerkship grades in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudas, Robert A; Barone, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for clerkship directors is assigning a final grade and determining the precise point at which a student either passes or fails a clinical clerkship. The process of incorporating both subjective and objective assessment data to provide a final summative grade can be challenging. We describe our experience conducting a standard-setting exercise to set defensible cut points in a 4-tiered grading system in our pediatric clerkship. Using the Hofstee standard-setting approach, 8 faculty members participated in an exercise to establish grade cut points. These faculty members were subsequently surveyed to assess their attitudes toward the standard-setting process as well as their reactions to these newly proposed standards. We applied the new cut points to a historic cohort of 116 Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine students from the academic year 2012-2013 to assess the potential impact on grade distributions. The resultant grading schema would lead to a significant increase in the number of students receiving a failing grade and a decrease in the number of students receiving a grade of honors in a historical cohort. Faculty reported that the Hofstee method was easy to understand and fair. All faculty members thought that grade inflation presently exists within the pediatric clerkship. This study demonstrates that practical standards using the Hofstee method can be set for medical students in a pediatric clerkship in which multiple performance measures are used. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Processing hot-dip galvanized AHSS grades: a challenging task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichler, A.; Hebesberger, T.; Tragl, E.; Traint, S.; Faderl, J.; Angeli, G.; Koesters, K. [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    High-strength thin sheet steel grades have gained a considerable market share. At present a very strong demand has been observed for DP (dual-phase), CP (complex phase) and TRIP grades, which are often summarized as advanced high-strength steel grades (AHSS). The potential benefits of applying AHSS grades were impressively demonstrated in the ULSAC-AVC project, in which a remarkable reduction in mass and an increase in stiffness and crash safety were achieved by using a very high share of AHSS steel grades. The present contribution concentrates on hot-dip galvanized AHSS thin sheet grades. The hot-dip galvanizeability of such grades is critically discussed after an overview is provided of the metallurgy of AHSS grades, including microstructure, mechanical properties, phase transformations and required alloy design. Based on these fundamentals, the processing of AHSS grades in the hot-dip galvanizing line is discussed and the resulting properties presented. (orig.)

  19. Graded activity: legacy of the sanatorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, C

    1993-08-01

    Occupational therapists in all areas of practice grade therapeutic activities to help patients progress toward their goals. It is proposed in this paper that the concept of graded activity originated in German tuberculosis sanatoria in the late 1800s, when patients were required to walk on graded (sloped) land for exercise. British physician Marcus Paterson included work, as well as walking, in his graduated exercise program for tuberculosis patients and was honored for this innovation at the founding meeting of the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy (NSPOT). George Barton, Susan Tracy, and Herbert Hall were among the NSPOT members who contributed to the development of graded activity as a principle in occupational therapy intervention. The military rehabilitation programs established during World War I provided additional impetus, and by the mid-1920s, graded activity was recognized as central to the profession.

  20. Functionally Graded Adhesives for Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives with functionally graded material properties are being considered for use in adhesively bonded joints to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. An enhanced joint finite element, which uses an analytical formulation to obtain exact shape functions, is used to model the joint. Furthermore, proof of concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint.

  1. Foraminal syringomyelia: suggestion for a grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versari, P P; D'Aliberti, G; Talamonti, G; Collice, M

    1993-01-01

    The standard treatment of foraminal syringomyelia includes foramen magnum decompression and duraplasty. Improvement or stabilization of the disease are achieved in most of cases. However, at least one third of patients are reported to receive little or no benefit. In this paper we retrospectively reviewed a series of 40 consecutive foramen magnum decompressions in order to identify the possible pre-operative outcome predictors. Based on clinical evolution, neurological impairment and radiological features, a scale of severity was fixed and retrospectively tested. A pre-operative score was obtained for each patient and was correlated with the surgical results. Then a four level grading system was derived. All grade I and grade II patients achieved good results (improvement or stabilization), whereas grade III patients showed intermediate behaviour and grade IV invariably worsened. On this basis, surgical results of foramen magnum decompression might be further improved provided that a careful pre-operative selection is made.

  2. Reflecting on an impact evaluation of the Grade R programme: Method, results and policy responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise Samuels

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the expansion since 2001 of a public pre-school programme in South Africa known as ‘Grade R’, summarises the findings from an impact evaluation of the introduction of Grade R, discusses the policy recommendations flowing from the evaluation and reflects on the process of implementing the recommendations. The Grade R programme has expanded dramatically, to the point where participation is nearly universal. Although a substantial literature points to large potential benefits from pre-school educational opportunities, the impact evaluation reported on in this article demonstrated that the Grade R programme, as implemented until 2011, had a limited impact on later educational outcomes. Improving the quality of Grade R, especially in schools serving low socio-economic status communities, thus emerges as a key policy imperative. Recommended responses include professionalising Grade R teachers, providing practical in-service support, increasing access to appropriate storybooks, empowering teachers to assess the development of their learners, and improving financial record-keeping of Grade R expenditure by provincial education departments. The impact evaluation was initiated by the Department of Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation (DPME and the Department of Basic Education (DBE, and was conducted by independent researchers. The move towards increased evaluation of key government programmes is important for shifting the focus of programme managers and policymakers towards programme outcomes rather than only programme inputs. Yet the process is not without its challenges: following a clear process to ensure the implementation of the lessons learned from such an evaluation is not necessarily straightforward.

  3. CRA Grade Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth H. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (CRA) ratings and performance evaluations are the only bank and thrift exam findings disclosed by financial institution regulators. Inflation of CRA ratings has been alleged by community activists for two decades, but there has been no quantification or empirical investigation of grade inflation. Using a unique grade inflation methodology on actual ratings and evaluation data for 1,407 small banks and thrifts under the revised CRA regulations, this paper con...

  4. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  5. Point kinetics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimpland, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    A normalized form of the point kinetics equations, a prompt jump approximation, and the Nordheim-Fuchs model are used to model nuclear systems. Reactivity feedback mechanisms considered include volumetric expansion, thermal neutron temperature effect, Doppler effect and void formation. A sample problem of an excursion occurring in a plutonium solution accidentally formed in a glovebox is presented

  6. Girls' Spatial Skills and Arithmetic Strategies in First Grade as Predictors of Fifth-Grade Analytical Math Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Beth M.; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Pollock, Amanda; Fineman, Bonnie; Pezaris, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated longitudinal pathways leading from early spatial skills in first-grade girls to their fifth-grade analytical math reasoning abilities (N = 138). First-grade assessments included spatial skills, verbal skills, addition/subtraction skills, and frequency of choice of a decomposition or retrieval strategy on the…

  7. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  8. Academic performance in human anatomy and physiology classes: a 2-yr study of academic motivation and grade expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-03-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic motivation scale for HAP based on self-determination theory was administered in class during the first 3 wk of each semester. Students with higher grade point averages, who studied for longer hours and reported to be more motivated to succeed, did better academically in these classes. There was a significant relationship between students' scores on the adapted academic motivation scale and performance. Students were more extrinsically motivated to succeed in HAP courses than intrinsically motivated to succeed, and the analyses revealed that the most significant predictor of final grade was within the extrinsic scale (introjected and external types). Students' motivations remained stable throughout the course sequence. The data showed a significant relationship between HAP students' expected grade and their final grade in class. Finally, 65.5% of students overestimated their final grade, with 29% of students overestimating by two to four letter grades. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  9. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  10. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  11. Glacial Features (Point) - Quad 168 (EPPING, NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — The Glacial Features (Point) layer describes point features associated with surficial geology. These glacial features include, but are not limited to, delta forsets,...

  12. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  13. Three-dimensional free vibration of functionally graded truncated conical shells subjected to thermal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, P., E-mail: p_malekz@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fiouz, A.R.; Sobhrouyan, M. [Department of Civil Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    A three-dimensional (3D) free vibration analysis of the functionally graded (FG) truncated conical shells subjected to thermal environment is presented. The material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent and graded in the radius direction, which can vary according to a simple power law distribution. The initial thermal stresses are obtained accurately by solving the thermoelastic equilibrium equations and by considering the two-dimensional axisymmetric temperature distribution in the shell. The differential quadrature method (DQM) as an efficient and accurate numerical tool is adopted to solve the thermal and thermo-mechanical governing equations. For this purpose, a mapping technique is employed to transform the cross section of the shell into the computational domain of DQM. The convergence behavior of the method is numerically demonstrated and comparison studies with the available solutions in the literature are performed. The effects of temperature dependence of material properties, geometrical parameters, material graded index, thermal and mechanical boundary conditions on the frequency parameters of the FG truncated conical shells are carried out. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3D free vibration analysis of the functionally graded truncated conical shells is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two-dimensional axisymmetric temperature distribution in the shell is assumed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial thermal stresses due to thermal environment are evaluated accurately and included. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Representing the effects of different parameters on the non-dimensional frequencies.

  14. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  15. Grades as Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior…

  16. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  17. The Fifth Grade Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Michael; And Others

    An interdisciplinary design project report investigates the relationship of the fifth grade educational facility to the student and teacher needs in light of human and environmental factors. The classroom, activity and teaching spaces are analyzed with regard to the educational curriculum. Specifications and design criteria concerning equipment…

  18. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  19. Tumor grade-related thallium-201 uptake in chondrosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, G.C.; Demir, Y.; Ozkal, S.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of low-grade chondrosarcoma, especially discrimination between enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma, may be difficult pathologically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of thallium-201 (Tl-201) scintigraphy in the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma and to investigate whether there was a correlation between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade. We retrospectively evaluated 121 patients with pathologically proven bone and soft tissue tumors diagnosed between the years 1999 and 2007. All patients were followed by the Bone and Soft Tissue Tumor Working Group in our hospital. Twenty-three patients, mean age 44±15 (range 17-72) years, with a diagnosis of cartilaginous tumors were included. Increased Tl-201 uptake at the lesion sites greater than background was evaluated as malignant tumor. For the pathologic classification, a grading system (grade 1-3) based on the histopathologic findings was used. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine whether there was any correlation between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade in chondrosarcoma. There were 7 enchondromas and 16 chondrosarcomas. Four of 16 patients with chondrosarcoma had lesions pathologically classified as grade 3, 5 as grade 2, and 7 had grade 1 chondrosarcoma. Increased Tl-201 uptake was observed in all patients with grade 3 chondrosarcoma and 2 patients with grade 2 chondrosarcoma. Of 10 patients with chondrosarcoma, 3 grade 2 chondrosarcomas and 7 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, there was no Tl-201 uptake in the tumor region. A significant correlation was found between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade in chondrosarcoma (p=0.002, r=0.71). Only a few reports in literature have demonstrated false negative results in low-grade chondrosarcoma. Tl-201 uptake was related to tumor grade in chondrosarcoma. If there is a possibility of chondrosarcoma, Tl-201 scintigraphy should be reported with caution. (author)

  20. Concrete manufacture with un-graded recycled aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Alan; Coventry, Kathryn; Graham, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether concrete that includes un-graded recycled aggregates can be manufactured to a comparable strength to concrete manufactured from virgin aggregates. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A paired comparison test was used to evaluate the difference between concrete made with virgin aggregates (plain control) and concrete including recycled waste. Un-graded construction demolition waste and un-graded ground glass were used as aggregate...

  1. Teaching the Classics in the Middle Grades: Connecting with the Roots of Western Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robin H.

    1998-01-01

    At a New Jersey school, students spend one year studying each of three time periods: ancient Egypt in fourth grade; Greece in fifth grade; and Rome and the Middle Ages in sixth grade. The history curriculum becomes the focal point for other areas (art, music, drama, language arts, science, geography, and math). Teachers use primary sources and…

  2. Digital Surface and Terrain Models (DSM,DTM), The DTM associated with the Base Mapping Program consists of mass points and breaklines used primarily for ortho rectification. The DTM specifications included all breaklines for all hydro and transportation features and are the source for the TIPS (Tenn, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Tennessee, OIR-GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Digital Surface and Terrain Models (DSM,DTM) dataset current as of 2007. The DTM associated with the Base Mapping Program consists of mass points and breaklines used...

  3. Elevation - Survey Points - Minnesota River Watershed Study Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Topograhic and hydrographic field located survey grade points collected using a Trimble GPS unit, Trimble robotic total stations, and/or Hydrolite-TM eco-sounder....

  4. Inflated Grades, Enrollments & Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Stone

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the past 13 years that call attention to deficient academic standards in American higher education are enumerated. Particular attention is given the Wingspread Group's recent An American Imperative: Higher Expectations for Higher Education. Low academic standards, grade inflation, and budgetary incentives for increased enrollment are analyzed and a call is made for research at the state level. Reported trends in achievement and GPAs are extrapolated to Tennessee and combined with local data to support the inference that 15% of the state's present day college graduates would not have earned a diploma by mid 1960s standards. A conspicuous lack of interest by public oversight bodies is noted despite a growing public awareness of low academic expectations and lenient grading and an implicit budgetary impact of over $100 million. Various academic policies and the dynamics of bureaucratic control are discussed in relationship to the maintenance of academic standards. The disincentives for challenging course requirements and responsible grading are examined, and the growing movement to address academic quality issues through better training and supervision of faculty are critiqued. Recommendations that would encourage renewed academic integrity and make learning outcomes visible to students, parents, employers, and the taxpaying public are offered and briefly discussed.

  5. Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades K-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

    This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades K-4 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates…

  6. Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades 5-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

    This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades 5-8 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates…

  7. Grade retention risk among children with asthma and other chronic health conditions in a large urban school district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonie, Sheniz; Cross, Chad L; Guillermo, Chrisalbeth J; Gupta, Tina

    2010-09-01

    Asthma accounts for 12.8 million missed school days for children nationwide. Whether this excess absenteeism contributes to poor outcomes such as grade retention is of interest. The Clark County School District in Las Vegas, NV has incorporated the Federal "No Child Left Behind Act," which states that absences per individual in excess of 10 per school year are considered unapproved and may put a child at risk for repeating a grade. The purpose of this study was to determine if children with asthma are at increased risk for absenteeism associated with grade retention. Secondary data were obtained for students in attendance for the 2006-2007 school year. Days absent were weighted for enrollment time. Frequencies were obtained using descriptive statistics, and multivariate logistic regression was used to model the odds of absenteeism > 10 days per year. Of 300 881 students, 27 299 (9.1%) reported having asthma, as determined by school health records. The population was 52% male, 37% white, and 39% Hispanic. Significant predictors of missing > 10 days per school year included ethnicity, gender, grade, and health status (P 10 school days per year compared with healthy students or those with a medical condition other than asthma (P grade point average by race, gender, and asthma status. Children with asthma have a greater risk of absenteeism associated with grade retention. Therefore, improved asthma management and tailored education is necessary to identify and eliminate asthma triggers in the home and school setting for school-aged children.

  8. 2015 Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bayou Choctaw Well Integrity Grading Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L; Lord, David; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Park, Byoung; Rudeen, D.K.; Eldredge, L.L.; Wynn, K.; Checkai, D.; Osborne, G.; Moore, D.

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. The grading included consideration of all 15 wells at the Bayou Choctaw site, with each active well receiving a separate grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The factors and grading framework used here are the same as those used in developing similar well remediation and monitoring priorities at the Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve Sites.

  9. 2015 Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Well Integrity Grading Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L; Lord, David; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven R.; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa L. (FFPO); Wynn, Karen (FFPO); Checkai, Dean (FFPO); Osborne, Gerad (FFPO); Moore, Darryl (FFPO)

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. The grading included consideration of all 31 wells at the West Hackberry site, with each well receiving a separate grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The factors and grading framework used here are the same as those used in developing similar well remediation and monitoring priorities at the Big Hill and Bryan Mound Strategic Petroleum Reserve Sites.

  10. 2014 Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Well Integrity Grading Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L; Lord, David; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven R.; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa L. (FFPO); Wynn, Karen (FFPO); Checkai, Dean (FFPO); Osborne, Gerad (FFPO); Moore, Darryl (FFPO)

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Bryan Mound Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. The grading included consideration of all 47 wells at the Bryan Mound site, with each well receiving a separate grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The factors and grading framework used here are the same as those used in developing similar well remediation and monitoring priorities at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site.

  11. Cut-off Grade Optimization for Maximizing the Output Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khodayari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the open-pit mining, one of the first decisions that must be made in production planning stage, after completing the design of final pit limits, is determining of the processing plant cut-off grade. Since this grade has an essential effect on operations, choosing the optimum cut-off grade is of considerable importance. Different goals may be used for determining optimum cut-off grade. One of these goals may be maximizing the output rate (amount of product per year, which is very important, especially from marketing and market share points of view. Objective of this research is determining the optimum cut-off grade of processing plant in order to maximize output rate. For performing this optimization, an Operations Research (OR model has been developed. The object function of this model is output rate that must be maximized. This model has two operational constraints namely mining and processing restrictions. For solving the model a heuristic method has been developed. Results of research show that the optimum cut-off grade for satisfying pre-stated goal is the balancing grade of mining and processing operations, and maximum production rate is a function of the maximum capacity of processing plant and average grade of ore that according to the above optimum cut-off grade must be sent to the plant.

  12. Let's End the Grading Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clifford H.; Edwards, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Argues that grades have negative effects on learning and self-concept. States that while grading has a long tradition of sorting children for college entrance, there is limited evidence that grades serve a valid purpose. Argues that this practice should be abolished and an evaluation system established that provides a more valid estimate of…

  13. Four Steps in Grading Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    The field of education is moving rapidly toward a standards-based approach to grading. School leaders have become increasingly aware of the tremendous variation that exists in grading practices, even among teachers of the same courses in the same department in the same school. Consequently, students' grades often have little relation to their…

  14. Virginia tech freshman class becoming more competitive; Rise in grades and test scores noted

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech News

    2004-01-01

    Admission to Virginia Tech continues to become more competitive as applicants report higher grade point averages and test scores than previous years. The incoming class of 4,975 students has an average grade point average (GPA) of 3.68 and SAT 1203, up from 3.60 GPA and 1197 SAT in 2003.

  15. Processing Terrain Point Cloud Data

    KAUST Repository

    DeVore, Ronald; Petrova, Guergana; Hielsberg, Matthew; Owens, Luke; Clack, Billy; Sood, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Terrain point cloud data are typically acquired through some form of Light Detection And Ranging sensing. They form a rich resource that is important in a variety of applications including navigation, line of sight, and terrain visualization

  16. Point of Care Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Goudie, Adrian; Chiorean, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the use of portable ultrasound scanners has enhanced the concept of point of care ultrasound (PoC-US), namely, "ultrasound performed at the bedside and interpreted directly by the treating clinician." PoC-US is not a replacement for comprehensive ultrasound, but rather allows...... and critical care medicine, cardiology, anesthesiology, rheumatology, obstetrics, neonatology, gynecology, gastroenterology and many other applications. In the future, PoC-US will be more diverse than ever and be included in medical student training....

  17. At the Tipping Point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S.

    2011-02-28

    There comes a time in every field of science when things suddenly change. While it might not be immediately apparent that things are different, a tipping point has occurred. Biology is now at such a point. The reason is the introduction of high-throughput genomics-based technologies. I am not talking about the consequences of the sequencing of the human genome (and every other genome within reach). The change is due to new technologies that generate an enormous amount of data about the molecular composition of cells. These include proteomics, transcriptional profiling by sequencing, and the ability to globally measure microRNAs and post-translational modifications of proteins. These mountains of digital data can be mapped to a common frame of reference: the organism’s genome. With the new high-throughput technologies, we can generate tens of thousands of data points from each sample. Data are now measured in terabytes and the time necessary to analyze data can now require years. Obviously, we can’t wait to interpret the data fully before the next experiment. In fact, we might never be able to even look at all of it, much less understand it. This volume of data requires sophisticated computational and statistical methods for its analysis and is forcing biologists to approach data interpretation as a collaborative venture.

  18. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  19. March 2003 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  20. April 2004 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  1. December 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (latitude and longitude) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  2. Peer Victimization in Fifth Grade and Health in Tenth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marc N.; Klein, David J.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Mrug, Sylvie; Peskin, Melissa F.; Davies, Susan L.; Schink, Elizabeth T.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children who experience bullying, a type of peer victimization, show worse mental and physical health cross-sectionally. Few studies have assessed these relationships longitudinally. We examined longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health from elementary to high school, comparing effects of different bullying histories. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4297 children surveyed at 3 time points (fifth, seventh, and tenth grades) in 3 cities. We used multivariable regressions to test longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health by comparing youth who experienced bullying in both the past and present, experienced bullying in the present only, experienced bullying in the past only, or did not experience bullying. RESULTS: Bullying was associated with worse mental and physical health, greater depression symptoms, and lower self-worth over time. Health was significantly worse for children with both past and present bullying experiences, followed by children with present-only experiences, children with past-only experiences, and children with no experiences. For example, 44.6% of children bullied in both the past and present were at the lowest decile of psychosocial health, compared with 30.7% of those bullied in the present only (P = .005), 12.1% of those bullied in the past only (P bullied (P bullying are associated with substantially worse health. Clinicians who recognize bullying when it first starts could intervene to reverse the downward health trajectory experienced by youth who are repeated targets. PMID:24534401

  3. Mechanical Drawing: Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    Eighty-five behavioral objectives and related evaluation items for mechanical drawing in grades 7 through 12 are presented. Each sample contains the objective, test items, and means for judging the adequacy of the response. The following categories are included: (1) basic drafting skills; (2) beginning lettering; (3) drawing; (4) orthographic…

  4. Graded-Lie-algebra cohomology and supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, R.; Fre, P.; Regge, T.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed explanations of the cohomology invoked in the group-manifold approach to supergravity is given. The Chevalley cohomology theory of Lie algebras is extended to graded Lie algebras. The scheme of geometrical theories is enlarged so to include cosmological terms and higher powers of the curvature. (author)

  5. The Returns on Investment Grade Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual

  6. Construction Industry Related Mathematics: Seventh Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Scott

    The field tested construction industry-related mathematics unit is intended to familiarize seventh grade students with various facets of the construction industry, including the various occupations available and the mathematical abilities and other skills and training necessary to pursue an occupation in the industry. The final set of activities…

  7. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-27

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are

  8. Graded associative conformal algebras of finite type

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnikov, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider graded associative conformal algebras. The class of these objects includes pseudo-algebras over non-cocommutative Hopf algebras of regular functions on some linear algebraic groups. In particular, an associative conformal algebra which is graded by a finite group $\\Gamma $ is a pseudo-algebra over the coordinate Hopf algebra of a linear algebraic group $G$ such that the identity component $G^0$ is the affine line and $G/G^0\\simeq \\Gamma $. A classification of simple...

  9. Torsades de Pointes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Chen, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: 70-year-old male with a history ventricular arrhythmia, AICD (automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator, coronary artery disease and cardiac stents presented to the Emergency Department after three AICD discharges with dyspnea but no chest pain. During triage, he was found to have an irregular radial pulse and was placed on a cardiac monitor. Significant findings: The patient was found to be in a polymorphic ventricular tachycardia; he was alert, awake and asymptomatic. A rhythm strip showed a wide complex tachycardia with the QRS complex varying in amplitude around the isoelectric line consistent with Torsades de Pointes. Discussion: Torsades de Pointes (TdP is a specific type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. The arrhythmia’s characteristic morphology consists of the QRS complex “twisting” around the isoelectric line with gradual variation of the amplitude, reflecting its literal translation of “twisting of the points.”1 This arrhythmia occurs in the context of prolonged QT. The most common form of acquired QT prolongation is medication induced. Common causes include antiarrhythmics, antipsychotics, antiemetics, and antibiotics.2 Patient specific risk factors include female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hypothermia and heart disease.3 In the setting of prolonged QT, the repolarization phase is extended. TdP is initiated when a PVC (premature ventricular contraction occurs during this repolarization, known as an ‘R on T’ phenomenon. TdP is often asymptomatic and self-limited. The danger in TdP is its potential to deteriorate into ventricular fibrillation. A mainstay of management of TdP is prevention of risk factors when possible.4 Unstable patients should be treated with synchronized cardioversion. Magnesium sulfate should be administered in all cases of TdP.1 If a patient is not responsive to magnesium, consider isoproterenol, amiodarone, and overdrive

  10. Yoga May Mitigate Decreases in High School Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Butzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involves an exploratory examination of the effects of a 12-week school-based yoga intervention on changes in grade point average (GPA in 9th and 10th grade students. Participants included 95 high school students who had registered for physical education (PE in spring 2010. PE class sections were group randomized to receive either a yoga intervention or a PE-as-usual control condition. The yoga intervention took place during the entire third quarter and half of the fourth quarter of the school year, and quarterly GPA was collected via school records at the end of the school year. Results revealed a significant interaction between group and quarter suggesting that GPA differed between the yoga and control groups over time. Post hoc tests revealed that while both groups exhibited a general decline in GPA over the school year, the control group exhibited a significantly greater decline in GPA from quarter 1 to quarter 3 than the yoga group. Both groups showed equivalent declines in GPA in quarter 4 after the yoga intervention had ended. The results suggest that yoga may have a protective effect on academic performance by preventing declines in GPA; however these preventive effects may not persist once yoga practice is discontinued.

  11. Dynamic Response of Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Sandwich Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehar, Kulmani; Panda, Subrata Kumar

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the dynamic response of the carbon nanotube-reinforced functionally graded sandwich composite plate has been studied numerically with the help of finite element method. The face sheets of the sandwich composite plate are made of carbon nanotube- reinforced composite for two different grading patterns whereas the core phase is taken as isotropic material. The final properties of the structure are calculated using the rule of mixture. The geometrical model of the sandwich plate is developed and discretized suitably with the help of available shell element in ANSYS library. Subsequently, the corresponding numerical dynamic responses computed via batch input technique (parametric design language code in ANSYS) of ANSYS including Newmark’s integration scheme. The stability of the sandwich structural numerical model is established through the proper convergence study. Further, the reliability of the sandwich model is checked by comparison study between present and available results from references. As a final point, some numerical problems have been solved to examine the effect of different design constraints (carbon nanotube distribution pattern, core to face thickness ratio, volume fractions of the nanotube, length to thickness ratio, aspect ratio and constraints at edges) on the time-responses of sandwich plate.

  12. The Changing Landscape of Grading Systems in US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Steven B.; Leidman, Mary Beth; Longcore, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    The following study explores the landscape of grading systems utilised in higher education, focusing on the frequency of different types of assessment scales (including Straight Letter, Plus/Minus, and other alternative policies). Although numerous studies have explored the relationship between university grading system and student behaviour,…

  13. 7 CFR 958.9 - Grade and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... thereon. The term size also includes any of the sizes recognized by the onion trade in the production area. ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Grade means any of the officially established grades of onions, and size means any of the officially...

  14. Discrimination of Xihulongjing tea grade using an electronic tongue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five grades of Xihulongjing tea (grade: AAA, AA, A, B and C, from the same region and processed with the same processing method) were discriminated using -Astree II electronic tongue (e-tongue) coupled with pattern recognition methods including principal component analysis (PCA), canonical discriminant analysis ...

  15. Grade Non-Disclosure. NBER Working Paper No. 17465

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel; Smetters, Kent

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents and explains the existence of grade non-disclosure policies in Masters in Business Administration programs, why these policies are concentrated in highly-ranked programs, and why these policies are not prevalent in most other professional degree programs. Related policies, including honors and minimum grade requirements, are…

  16. Parametric statistical change point analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jie

    2000-01-01

    This work is an in-depth study of the change point problem from a general point of view and a further examination of change point analysis of the most commonly used statistical models Change point problems are encountered in such disciplines as economics, finance, medicine, psychology, signal processing, and geology, to mention only several The exposition is clear and systematic, with a great deal of introductory material included Different models are presented in each chapter, including gamma and exponential models, rarely examined thus far in the literature Other models covered in detail are the multivariate normal, univariate normal, regression, and discrete models Extensive examples throughout the text emphasize key concepts and different methodologies are used, namely the likelihood ratio criterion, and the Bayesian and information criterion approaches A comprehensive bibliography and two indices complete the study

  17. The Implications of Grade Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Fleisher, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The authors review current and past practices of the grade inflation controversy and present ways to return to each institution’s established grading guidelines. Students are graded based on knowledge gathered. Certain faculty members use thorough evaluative methods, such as written and oral pres...... have been profiled in the news. The model is provided to ensure that degree candidates are academic experts in their field, having earned the credential through rigorous study....

  18. Pressure Points in Reading Comprehension: A Quantile Multiple Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how selected pressure points or areas of vulnerability are related to individual differences in reading comprehension and whether the importance of these pressure points varies as a function of the level of children's reading comprehension. A sample of 245 third-grade children were given an assessment battery…

  19. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies associated with acute and chronic grade III and grade V acromioclavicular joint injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gunnar; Millett, Peter J; Tahal, Dimitri S; Al Ibadi, Mireille; Lill, Helmut; Katthagen, Jan Christoph

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the risk of concomitant glenohumeral pathologies with acromioclavicular joint injuries grade III and V. Patients who underwent arthroscopically-assisted stabilization of acromioclavicular joint injuries grade III or grade V between 01/2007 and 12/2015 were identified in the patient databases of two surgical centres. Gender, age at index surgery, grade of acromioclavicular joint injury (Rockwood III or Rockwood V), and duration between injury and index surgery (classified as acute or chronic) were of interest. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies were noted and their treatment was classified as debridement or reconstructive procedure. A total of 376 patients (336 male, 40 female) were included. Mean age at time of arthroscopic acromioclavicular joint reconstruction surgery was 42.1 ± 14.0 years. Overall, 201 patients (53%) had one or more concomitant glenohumeral pathologies. Lesions of the biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff were the most common. Forty-five patients (12.0%) had concomitant glenohumeral pathologies that required an additional repair. The remaining 156 patients (41.5%) received a debridement of their concomitant pathologies. Rockwood grade V compared to Rockwood grade III (p = 0.013; odds ratio 1.7), and chronic compared to acute injury were significantly associated with having a concomitant glenohumeral pathology (p = 0.019; odds ratio 1.7). The probability of having a concomitant glenohumeral pathology was also significantly associated with increasing age (p acromioclavicular joint injury of either grade III or V. Twenty-two percent of these patients with concomitant glenohumeral pathologies received an additional dedicated repair procedure. Although a significant difference in occurrence of concomitant glenohumeral pathologies was seen between Rockwood grades III and V, and between acute and chronic lesions, increasing age was identified as the most dominant predictor. Level IV, case series.

  20. Cities, Towns and Villages, We have the county boundaries including Hephzibah, and Blyth, with roads, parcels, schools, hospitals, fire stations, historic areas.points of interest, etc., Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Augusta-Richmond County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Cities, Towns and Villages dataset current as of 2007. We have the county boundaries including Hephzibah, and Blyth, with roads, parcels, schools, hospitals, fire...

  1. Impact of a letter-grade program on restaurant sanitary conditions and diner behavior in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Melissa R; McKelvey, Wendy; Ito, Kazuhiko; Schiff, Corinne; Jacobson, J Bryan; Kass, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the impact of the New York City restaurant letter-grading program on restaurant hygiene, food safety practices, and public awareness. We analyzed data from 43,448 restaurants inspected between 2007 and 2013 to measure changes in inspection score and violation citations since program launch in July 2010. We used binomial regression to assess probability of scoring 0 to 13 points (A-range score). Two population-based random-digit-dial telephone surveys assessed public perceptions of the program. After we controlled for repeated restaurant observations, season of inspection, and chain restaurant status, the probability of scoring 0 to 13 points on an unannounced inspection increased 35% (95% confidence interval [CI]=31%, 40%) 3 years after compared with 3 years before grading. There were notable improvements in compliance with some specific requirements, including having a certified kitchen manager on site and being pest-free. More than 91% (95% CI=88%, 94%) of New Yorkers approved of the program and 88% (95% CI=85%, 92%) considered grades in dining decisions in 2012. Restaurant letter grading in New York City has resulted in improved sanitary conditions on unannounced inspection, suggesting that the program is an effective regulatory tool.

  2. Demerit points systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    In 2012, 21 of the 27 EU Member States had some form of demerit points system. In theory, demerit points systems contribute to road safety through three mechanisms: 1) prevention of unsafe behaviour through the risk of receiving penalty points, 2) selection and suspension of the most frequent

  3. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cong Lau; And Others

    This illustrated textbook was designed for teaching civics and values to fourth grade students in Vietnam. It is divided into six chapters: (1) At School (recapitulation of the grade three program, friendship, respect for the teacher, team work, discipline, honor); (2) In the Street: Traffic Regulations; (3) At Home (the extended family spirit,…

  4. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M

    2009-01-01

    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  5. Compositionally Graded Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Cheol; Zhou, Jie E; Maurya, Deepam; Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu U; Priya, Shashank

    2017-09-27

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are widely used in consumer electronics. Here, we provide a transformative method for achieving high dielectric response and tunability over a wide temperature range through design of compositionally graded multilayer (CGML) architecture. Compositionally graded MLCCs were found to exhibit enhanced dielectric tunability (70%) along with small dielectric losses (filters and power converters.

  6. Point specificity in acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Emma M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The existence of point specificity in acupuncture is controversial, because many acupuncture studies using this principle to select control points have found that sham acupoints have similar effects to those of verum acupoints. Furthermore, the results of pain-related studies based on visual analogue scales have not supported the concept of point specificity. In contrast, hemodynamic, functional magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological studies evaluating the responses to stimulation of multiple points on the body surface have shown that point-specific actions are present. This review article focuses on clinical and laboratory studies supporting the existence of point specificity in acupuncture and also addresses studies that do not support this concept. Further research is needed to elucidate the point-specific actions of acupuncture.

  7. Analysis of DTI-Derived Tensor Metrics in Differential Diagnosis between Low-grade and High-grade Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liang; Xiao, Chao-Yong; Xu, Quan; Sun, Jun; Chen, Huiyou; Chen, Yu-Chen; Yin, Xindao

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: It is critical and difficult to accurately discriminate between high- and low-grade gliomas preoperatively. This study aimed to ascertain the role of several scalar measures in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade gliomas, especially the axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), planar tensor (Cp), spherical tensor (Cs), and linear tensor (Cl) derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and Methods: Fifty-three patients with pathologically confirmed brain gliomas (21 low-grade and 32 high-grade) were included. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images and DTI were performed in all patients. The AD, RD, Cp, Cs, and Cl values in the tumor zone, peritumoral edema zone, white matter (WM) adjacent to edema and contralateral normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) were calculated. The DTI parameters and tumor grades were statistically analyzed, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was also performed. Results: The DTI metrics in the affected hemisphere showed significant differences from those in the NAWM, except for the AD values in the tumor zone and the RD values in WM adjacent to edema in the low-grade groups, as well as the Cp values in WM adjacent to edema in the high-grade groups. AD in the tumor zone as well as Cs and Cl in WM adjacent to edema revealed significant differences between the low- and high-grade gliomas. The areas under the curve (Az) of all three metrics were greater than 0.5 in distinguishing low-grade from high-grade gliomas by ROC curve analysis, and the best DTI metric was Cs in WM adjacent to edema (Az: 0.692). Conclusion: AD in the tumor zone as well as Cs and Cl in WM adjacent to edema will provide additional information to better classify gliomas and can be used as non-invasive reliable biomarkers in glioma grading.

  8. Functionally graded biomimetic energy absorption concept development for transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Mechanics of a functionally graded cylinder subject to static or dynamic axial loading is considered, including a potential application as energy absorber. The mass density and stiffness are power functions of the radial coordinate as may be the case...

  9. Environmental Knowledge and Beliefs among Grade 10 Students in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyers, Vivian George

    To develop environmental education in Australia, a survey of tenth-grade students was undertaken. Thirty knowledge items and ten belief items were constructed. A panel of environmentalists and educators identified best responses for the knowledge items, and a common reference point, preservation of homo sapiens, for the belief items, so a…

  10. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    on spatial invariance of interest points under changing acquisition parameters by measuring the spatial recall rate. The scope of this paper is to investigate the performance of a number of existing well-established interest point detection methods. Automatic performance evaluation of interest points is hard......Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  11. Upper Grades Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, David; Beane, Pam

    1983-01-01

    Presents programming ideas using LOGO, activity for converting flowchart into a computer program, and a Pascal program for generating music using paddles. Includes the article "Helping Computers Adapt to Kids" by Philip Nothnagle; a program for estimating length of lines is included. (JN)

  12. MR detection of retinal hemorrhages: correlation with graded ophthalmologic exam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavers, Angela J.; Allbery, Sandra M.; Stagner, Anna M.; Hejkal, Thomas W.; Lyden, Elizabeth R.; Haney, Suzanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Dilated fundoscopic exam is considered the gold standard for detecting retinal hemorrhage, but expertise in obtaining this exam is not always immediately available. MRI can detect retinal hemorrhages, but correlation of the grade or severity of retinal hemorrhage on dilated fundoscopic exam with retinal hemorrhage visibility on MRI has not been described. To determine the value of standard brain protocol MRI in detecting retinal hemorrhage and to determine whether there is any correlation with MR detection of retinal hemorrhage and the dilated fundoscopic exam grade of hemorrhage. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 77 children <2 years old who were seen for head trauma from April 2007 to July 2013 and had both brain MRI and dilated fundoscopic exam or retinal camera images. A staff pediatric radiologist and radiology resident reviewed the MR images. Retinal hemorrhages were graded by a chief ophthalmology resident on a 12-point scale based on the retinal hemorrhage type, size, location and extent as seen on review of retinal camera images and detailed reports by ophthalmologists. Higher scores indicated increased severity of retinal hemorrhages. There was a statistically significant difference in the median grade of retinal hemorrhage examination between children who had retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI and children who did not have retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI (P = 0.02). When examination grade was categorized as low-grade (1-4), moderate-grade (5-8) or high-grade (>8) hemorrhage, there was a statistically significant association between exam grade and diagnosis based on MRI (P = 0.008). For example, only 14% of children with low-grade retinal hemorrhages were identified on MRI compared to 76% of children with high-grade hemorrhages. MR detection of retinal hemorrhage demonstrated a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 63%. Retinal hemorrhage was best seen on the gradient

  13. Modeling Erlang's Ideal Grading with Multirate BPP Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Glabowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complete methodology for modeling gradings (also called non-full-availability groups servicing single-service and multi-service traffic streams. The methodology worked out by the authors makes it possible to determine traffic characteristics of various types of gradings with state-dependent call arrival processes, including a new proposed structure of the Erlang’s Ideal Grading with the multirate links. The elaborated models of the gradings can be used for modeling different systems of modern networks, for example, the radio interfaces of the UMTS system, switching networks carrying a mixture of different multirate traffic streams, and video-on-demand systems. The results of the analytical calculations are compared with the results of the simulation data for selected gradings, which confirm high accuracy of the proposed methodology.

  14. Effect of Grade Retention in First Grade on Psychosocial Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    In a 4-year longitudinal study, the authors investigated effects of retention in first grade on children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors; social acceptance; and behavioral, cognitive, and affective engagement. From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children below the median on literacy at school entrance, 124 retained children were matched with 251 promoted children on the basis of propensity scores (probability of being retained in first grade estimated from 72 baseline var...

  15. Nuclear grade and necrosis predict prognosis in malignant epithelioid pleural mesothelioma: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Lauren E; Karrison, Theodore; Ananthanarayanan, Vijayalakshmi; Gallan, Alexander J; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Alchami, Fouad S; Attanoos, Richard; Brcic, Luka; Butnor, Kelly J; Galateau-Sallé, Françoise; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Kadota, Kyuichi; Klampatsa, Astero; Stang, Nolween Le; Lindenmann, Joerg; Litzky, Leslie A; Marchevsky, Alberto; Medeiros, Filomena; Montero, M Angeles; Moore, David A; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Pavlisko, Elizabeth N; Roggli, Victor L; Sauter, Jennifer L; Sharma, Anupama; Sheaff, Michael; Travis, William D; Vigneswaran, Wickii T; Vrugt, Bart; Walts, Ann E; Tjota, Melissa Y; Krausz, Thomas; Husain, Aliya N

    2018-04-01

    A recently described nuclear grading system predicted survival in patients with epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma. The current study was undertaken to validate the grading system and to identify additional prognostic factors. We analyzed cases of epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma from 17 institutions across the globe from 1998 to 2014. Nuclear grade was computed combining nuclear atypia and mitotic count into a grade of I-III using the published system. Nuclear grade was assessed by one pathologist for three institutions, the remaining were scored independently. The presence or absence of necrosis and predominant growth pattern were also evaluated. Two additional scoring systems were evaluated, one combining nuclear grade and necrosis and the other mitotic count and necrosis. Median overall survival was the primary endpoint. A total of 776 cases were identified including 301 (39%) nuclear grade I tumors, 354 (45%) grade II tumors and 121 (16%) grade III tumors. The overall survival was 16 months, and correlated independently with age (P=0.006), sex (0.015), necrosis (0.030), mitotic count (0.001), nuclear atypia (0.009), nuclear grade (<0.0001), and mitosis and necrosis score (<0.0001). The addition of necrosis to nuclear grade further stratified overall survival, allowing classification of epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma into four distinct prognostic groups: nuclear grade I tumors without necrosis (29 months), nuclear grade I tumors with necrosis and grade II tumors without necrosis (16 months), nuclear grade II tumors with necrosis (10 months) and nuclear grade III tumors (8 months). The mitosis-necrosis score stratified patients by survival, but not as well as the combination of necrosis and nuclear grade. This study confirms that nuclear grade predicts survival in epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma, identifies necrosis as factor that further stratifies overall survival, and validates the grading system across multiple

  16. Calculation of melting points of oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobkova, O.S.; Voskobojnikov, V.G.; Kozin, A.I.

    1975-01-01

    The correlation between the melting point and thermodynamic parameters characterizing the strength of oxides and compounds is given. Such thermodynamic paramters include the energy and antropy of atomization

  17. Towards extending IFC with point cloud data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, T.F.; Beetz, J.; Ochmann, S.; Vock, R.; Wessel, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we suggest an extension to the Industry Foundation Classes model to integrate point cloud datasets. The proposal includes a schema extension to the core model allowing the storage of points either as Cartesian coordinates, points in parametric space of a surface associated with a

  18. Rational points on varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Poonen, Bjorn

    2017-01-01

    This book is motivated by the problem of determining the set of rational points on a variety, but its true goal is to equip readers with a broad range of tools essential for current research in algebraic geometry and number theory. The book is unconventional in that it provides concise accounts of many topics instead of a comprehensive account of just one-this is intentionally designed to bring readers up to speed rapidly. Among the topics included are Brauer groups, faithfully flat descent, algebraic groups, torsors, étale and fppf cohomology, the Weil conjectures, and the Brauer-Manin and descent obstructions. A final chapter applies all these to study the arithmetic of surfaces. The down-to-earth explanations and the over 100 exercises make the book suitable for use as a graduate-level textbook, but even experts will appreciate having a single source covering many aspects of geometry over an unrestricted ground field and containing some material that cannot be found elsewhere. The origins of arithmetic (o...

  19. Does the Compliance of the Bladder Affect the Grade of Vesicoureteral Reflux?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Kilinc

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We retrospectively reviewed videourodynamic outcomes in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux. The aim of this study to evaluate the relationship between vesicoureteral reflux grade and bladder compliance. Material and Method: Videourodynamic traces of 53 children with primary vesicoureteral reflux investigated between January 2004 and January 2012 were reviewed. The detrusor pressures of the point when the reflux started were recorded. The detrusor pressures 10 cmH2O or less at that point was accepted as normal compliance (Group 1, the detrusor pressures more than10 cm H2O was accepted as hipocompliance (Group 2. The reflux grades were divided into two grades, low-grade reflux (grades 1 and 2, high-grade reflux (grades 3, 4 and 5. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test. Results: Patients’ ages ranged between 5 and 11 years (mean 7.09±1.81 years. Of the 53 patients, 29 (54.7% had normal compliance (Group 1, 24 (45.3% had hipocompliance (Group 2. Twenty-four (82.8% patients in-group 1 had a low-grade reflux, 5 (17.2% patients had a high-grade reflux. In group 2, 8 (33.3% patients had a low-grade reflux, 16 (66.7% patients had a high-grade reflux. The detected high-grade reflux in-group 2 was significantly higher than in-group 1 (p<0.001. Discussion: The physicians should be considering the bladder compliance at the point when the reflux started in primary vesicoureteral reflux cases. The bladder hipocompliance may play a secondary role in reflux grade.

  20. Histopathologic grading of anaplasia in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pia R; Specht, Charles S; Hubbard, G Baker; Wells, Jill R; Lynn, Michael J; Zhang, Qing; Kong, Jun; Grossniklaus, Hans E

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether the degree of tumor anaplasia has prognostic value by evaluating its correlation with high-risk histopathologic features and clinical outcomes in a series of retinoblastoma patients. Retrospective clinicopathologic study. The clinical and pathologic findings in 266 patients who underwent primary enucleation for retinoblastoma were reviewed. The histologic degree of anaplasia was graded as retinocytoma, mild, moderate, or severe as defined by increasing cellular pleomorphism, number of mitoses, nuclear size, and nuclear hyperchromatism. Nuclear morphometric characteristics were measured. The clinical and pathologic data of 125 patients were compared using Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival. Fisher exact test and multivariate regression were used to analyze the association between anaplasia grade and high-risk histologic features. Increasing grade of anaplasia was associated with decreased overall survival (P = .003) and increased risk of metastasis (P = .0007). Histopathologic features that were associated with anaplasia included optic nerve invasion (P anaplasia grading as predictors of distant metastasis and death showed that high-risk histopathology was statistically significant as an independent predictor (P = .01 for metastasis, P = .03 for death) but anaplasia was not (P = .63 for metastasis, P = .30 for death). In the absence of high-risk features, however, severe anaplasia identified an additional risk for metastasis (P = .0004) and death (P = .01). Grading of anaplasia may be a useful adjunct to standard histopathologic criteria in identifying retinoblastoma patients who do not have high-risk histologic features but still have an increased risk of metastasis and may need adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cognitive impairments in patients with low grade gliomas and high grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C. Miotto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between brain tumors and cognitive deficits is well established in the literature. However, studies investigating the cognitive status in low and high-grade gliomas patients are scarce, particularly in patients with average or lower educational level. This study aimed at investigating the cognitive functioning in a sample of patients with low and high-grade gliomas before surgical intervention. METHOD: The low-grade (G1, n=19 and high-grade glioma (G2, n=8 patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment of memory, executive functions, visuo-perceptive and visuo-spatial abilities, intellectual level and language. RESULTS: There was a significant impairment on verbal and visual episodic memory, executive functions including mental flexibility, nominal and categorical verbal fluency and speed of information processing in G2. G1 showed only specific deficits on verbal and visual memory recall, mental flexibility and processing speed. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated different levels of impairments in the executive and memory domains in patients with low and high grade gliomas.

  2. SharePoint 2010 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Vanessa L

    2012-01-01

    Here's the bestselling guide on SharePoint 2010, updated to cover Office 365 SharePoint Portal Server is an essential part of the enterprise infrastructure for many businesses. The Office 365 version includes significantly enhanced cloud capabilities. This second edition of the bestselling guide to SharePoint covers getting a SharePoint site up and running, branded, populated with content, and more. It explains ongoing site management and offers plenty of advice for administrators who want to leverage SharePoint and Office 365 in various ways.Many businesses today rely on SharePoint Portal Ser

  3. Typing and grading of cytological category C5 breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, N.; Jamal, S.; Mamoon, N.; Luqman, M.; Anwar, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade on fine-needle aspiration smears in cytological category C5 breast lesions and compare them with histopathological findings. Subjects and Methods: Out of all patients referred to AFIP, Rawalpindi for fine-needle aspiration of breast masses, those adjudged C5 (malignant) were chosen for this study. History, clinical details and mammographic findings were noted. Aspirated smears were examined and an attempt was made to ascertain tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade. On excision of these lesions, the cytological findings were compared with those on paraffin-embedded histological sections. Results: A total of 71 patients were included in this study. Of these, 64 (90.14%) were cytologically diagnosed as ductal carcinoma, 4 (5.63%) lobular carcinoma, 2 (2.82%) mucinous carcinoma and 1 (1.41%) as medullary carcinoma. Seventy (98.60%) tumours were correctly typed on aspiration smears. Sixty-eight (95.77%) cases were cytologically graded with accuracy. Nuclear grading was even better on cytology and, excluding one malignant lymphoma, all 70 (100%) smears were assessed correctly. Conclusion: Overall efficiency of the tumour typing, cytological grading and nuclear grading on aspirated material turned out to be quite accurate. In expert hands, cytological examination can be of great help in pre-operative planning and in cases where tumour morphology in paraffin-embedded material has been distorted by neo-adjuvant therapy prior to excision. (author)

  4. Grade Inflation in Medical Student Radiation Oncology Clerkships: Missed Opportunities for Feedback?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, Surbhi; Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Sosnowicz, Stasha; Li, Jiaqi; Mitra, Nandita; Berman, Abigail T.; Baffic, Cordelia; Vapiwala, Neha; Freedman, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that medical student radiation oncology elective rotation grades are inflated and cannot be used to distinguish residency applicants. Methods and Materials: The records of 196 applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program in 2011 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The grades for each rotation in radiation oncology were collected and converted to a standardized 4-point grading scale (honors, high pass, pass, fail). Pass/fail grades were scored as not applicable. The primary study endpoint was to compare the distribution of applicants' grades in radiation oncology with their grades in medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics/gynecology core clerkships. Results: The mean United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score of the applicants was 237 (range, 188-269), 43% had additional Masters or PhD degrees, and 74% had at least 1 publication. Twenty-nine applicants were graded for radiation oncology rotations on a pass/fail basis and were excluded from the final analysis. Of the remaining applicants (n=167), 80% received the highest possible grade for their radiation oncology rotations. Grades in radiation oncology were significantly higher than each of the other 4 clerkships studied (P<.001). Of all applicants, 195 of 196 matched into a radiation oncology residency. Higher grades in radiation oncology were associated with significantly higher grades in the pediatrics core clerkship (P=.002). However, other medical school performance metrics were not significantly associated with higher grades in radiation oncology. Conclusions: Although our study group consists of a selected group of radiation oncology applicants, their grades in radiation oncology clerkships were highly skewed toward the highest grades when compared with grades in other core clerkships. Student grading in radiation oncology clerkships should be re-evaluated to incorporate more objective and detailed performance metrics to allow for

  5. A normal colposcopy examination fails to provide psychological reassurance for women who have had low-grade abnormal cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, S C; Sharp, L; Little, J; Gray, N M; Walker, L G; Whynes, D K; Cruickshank, M E

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, each year, large numbers of women are referred for colposcopy following low-grade abnormal cervical cytology. Many have no visible abnormality on examination. The risk of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN2/3) in these women is low. It is unknown whether, for women, a normal colposcopy resolves the anxiety which often follows the receipt of an abnormal cytology result. We investigated the prevalence of adverse psychological outcomes over 30 months following a normal colposcopy. This cohort study was nested within the UK TOMBOLA randomized controlled trial. Women aged 20-59 years, with recent low-grade cytology, who had a satisfactory colposcopy examination and normal transformation zone, completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Process Outcome Specific Measure (POSM) at recruitment and during follow-up (12, 18, 24 and 30 months post-recruitment). Outcomes included percentages reporting significant anxiety (HADS anxiety subscale score ≥11), significant depression (HADS depression subscale score ≥8) or worries about the result of the next cytology test, cervical cancer, having sex, future fertility and general health at each time point (point prevalence) and during follow-up (cumulative prevalence). The study included 727 women. All psychological measures (except depression) had high prevalence at recruitment, falling substantially by 12 months. During follow-up, the cumulative prevalence of significant anxiety was 27% and significant depression was 21%. The most frequently reported worry was that the next cytology test would be abnormal (cumulative prevalence of 71%; point prevalence of ≥50% at 12 and 18 months). The cumulative prevalence values of worries about cervical cancer, having sex and future fertility were 33%, 20% and 16%, respectively. For some women who have low-grade cytology, a normal colposcopy does not appear to provide psychological reassurance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Point defects in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The principal properties of point defects are studied: thermodynamics, electronic structure, interactions with etended defects, production by irradiation. Some measuring methods are presented: atomic diffusion, spectroscopic methods, diffuse scattering of neutron and X rays, positron annihilation, molecular dynamics. Then points defects in various materials are investigated: ionic crystals, oxides, semiconductor materials, metals, intermetallic compounds, carbides, nitrides [fr

  7. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  8. Generalized zero point anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jose Alexandre; Maia Junior, Adolfo

    1994-01-01

    It is defined Zero point Anomaly (ZPA) as the difference between the Effective Potential (EP) and the Zero point Energy (ZPE). It is shown, for a massive and interacting scalar field that, in very general conditions, the renormalized ZPA vanishes and then the renormalized EP and ZPE coincide. (author). 3 refs

  9. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  10. The Lagrangian Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, J. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    There are five unique points in a star/planet system where a satellite can be placed whose orbital period is equal to that of the planet. Simple methods for calculating the positions of these points, or at least justifying their existence, are developed.

  11. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William

    2001-01-01

    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.

  12. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  13. Valores organizacionais e concepções de deficiência: a percepção de pessoas incluídas Valores organizacionales y concepciones de deficiencia: la percepción de las personas incluidas Organizational values and disability conceptions: the point of view of included people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina do Carmo Ávila-Vitor

    2012-01-01

    Ds relacionan el prestigio de la empresa a una concepción de discapacidad que no las coloca como un desviante de un estándar normal de ser humano. Además, fue posible identificar aspectos considerados importantes en el proceso de inserción de PcDs, como el reconocimiento de la inclusión como valor organizacional, la necesidad de adecuación de las condiciones de trabajo, el papel de las PcDs en el proceso de inclusión y la importancia de la convivencia con PcDs en un escenario favorable a su desempeño.The aim of this article was to verify in the point of view of people with disabilities (PWDs who are working in the labor market if there was any relation between their organizational values perceptions and the ways that they saw the disability in the workplace. The research took place in a company that is reference in inclusion in Brazil. Two questionnaires were used: the Inventory of Disability Conceptions in Work Situations and the Inventory of Organizational Values. Semi-structured interviews with PWDs, their managers and the coordinators of the inclusion program and interviews with PWDs, their managers and coordinators of the inclusion program were carried out. It was verified a negative correlation between the PWDs perception about prestige and the form as normality is seen by the company, that means that the PWDs connect the prestige of the company to a conception of deficiency that does not place them differently of a normal standard of human being. Moreover, it was possible to identify aspects considered important in the process of insertion of PWDs as the recognition of the inclusion as organizational value, the necessity of adequacy to the work conditions, the role of the PWDs in the inclusion process and the importance of the relationship with PWDs in a scene favorable to their performance.

  14. Improving GRADE evidence tables part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langendam, Miranda; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Santesso, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group has developed GRADE evidence profiles (EP) and summary of findings (SoF) tables to present evidence summaries in systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and health technology assessments. Exp...

  15. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    ; the Cumulated Publication Point Indicator (CPPI), which graphically illustrates the cumulated gain of obtained vs. ideal points, both seen as vectors; and the normalized Cumulated Publication Point Index (nCPPI) that represents the cumulated gain of publication success as index values, either graphically......The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdisciplinary Danish Institute of International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...

  16. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Aguilera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case: Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  17. Improving the Study Skills of Discrepant Achieving Seventh Grade Students. Research and Development Report 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Roger G.; Pappas, James P.

    Three approaches to the problem of helping underachieving seventh grade boys improve their study habits are compared: (1) behavior modification; (2) group counseling; and (3) didactic instruction. A pre-post criteria format sought to measure change in terms of: (1) academic achievement as measured by grade point average; and (2) study habits and…

  18. The Impact of Framing Effect on Student Preferences for University Grading Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey K.; Smith, Lisa F.

    2009-01-01

    Kahneman and Tversky's (1979, 2000; Tversky & Kahneman, 1981) work in decision-making was applied to student preferences for grading practices. Undergraduate psychology students (n = 240) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 framing conditions related to how a university course might be graded: a 100 point system, a percentage system, and an open…

  19. Academic Self-Esteem and Perceived Validity of Grades: A Test of Self-Verification Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A.; Fournet, Lee M.

    1993-01-01

    The hypothesis derived from self-verification theory that semester grade point average would be positively related to perceived validity of grade scores among high self-esteem undergraduates and inversely related for low self-esteem students was not supported in a study with 281 undergraduates. (SLD)

  20. The Effects of Handwriting Instruction on Reading for Students in Grades 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroik, Linda R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental group comparison study using a repeated measures comparison group design with random assignment of subjects to groups was to investigate the effects of handwriting instruction on reading progress for learners in grade 1 and grade 2. At three points in time, the number of words each student read…

  1. The 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Gleason Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma: Definition of Grading Patterns and Proposal for a New Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jonathan I; Egevad, Lars; Amin, Mahul B; Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R; Humphrey, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    In November, 2014, 65 prostate cancer pathology experts, along with 17 clinicians including urologists, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists from 19 different countries gathered in a consensus conference to update the grading of prostate cancer, last revised in 2005. The major conclusions were: (1) Cribriform glands should be assigned a Gleason pattern 4, regardless of morphology; (2) Glomeruloid glands should be assigned a Gleason pattern 4, regardless of morphology; (3) Grading of mucinous carcinoma of the prostate should be based on its underlying growth pattern rather than grading them all as pattern 4; and (4) Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate without invasive carcinoma should not be assigned a Gleason grade and a comment as to its invariable association with aggressive prostate cancer should be made. Regarding morphologies of Gleason patterns, there was clear consensus on: (1) Gleason pattern 4 includes cribriform, fused, and poorly formed glands; (2) The term hypernephromatoid cancer should not be used; (3) For a diagnosis of Gleason pattern 4, it needs to be seen at 10x lens magnification; (4) Occasional/seemingly poorly formed or fused glands between well-formed glands is insufficient for a diagnosis of pattern 4; (5) In cases with borderline morphology between Gleason pattern 3 and pattern 4 and crush artifacts, the lower grade should be favored; (6) Branched glands are allowed in Gleason pattern 3; (7) Small solid cylinders represent Gleason pattern 5; (8) Solid medium to large nests with rosette-like spaces should be considered to represent Gleason pattern 5; and (9) Presence of unequivocal comedonecrosis, even if focal is indicative of Gleason pattern 5. It was recognized by both pathologists and clinicians that despite the above changes, there were deficiencies with the Gleason system. The Gleason grading system ranges from 2 to 10, yet 6 is the lowest score currently assigned. When patients are told that they have a Gleason score 6 out

  2. Grading sacroiliitis with emphasis on MRI imaging; Grading der Sakroiliitis mit Betonung der MRT-Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurik, A.G.; Egund, N. [The Department of Radiology R, Aarhus Kommunehospital (Denmark)

    2004-03-01

    Cross-sectional imaging techniques play a decisive role in identification, localization, and characterization of alterations in the sacroiliac joint during the early stage of seronegative spondylarthropathy (SpA). Although several studies showed that the diagnostic capabilities of MRI and CT are superior to those of conventional radiography, they have not yet become established and accepted as methods for evaluating the grade of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in contrast to conventional radiography. The lack of acceptance for MRI and/or CT methods for evaluating and grading changes in the sacroiliac joint makes it difficult to include the results of these procedures in classifying the grade of SpA. Moreover, grading the changes in the sacroiliac joint in SpA with a method more sensitive than conventional radiography will be of prime importance in assessing treatment, e.g., the efficacy of new biological therapeutic agents directed against the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}). An overview of the available grading methods is provided and MRI and CT techniques are presented. (orig.) [German] Schnittbildverfahren spielen bei der Identifizierung, Lokalisation und Charakterisierung von Veraenderungen des Sakroiliakalgelenks (SIG) im Fruehstadium der seronegativen Spondylarthropathie (SpA) eine entscheidende Rolle. Obwohl mehrere Studien zeigten, dass der diagnostische Wert der MRT und CT jenem der konventionellen Radiographie ueberlegen ist, hat sich das Schnittbildverfahren als Mittel zur Evaluierung des Grades der ankylosierenden Spondylitis (AS) im Gegensatz zur konventionellen Radiographie noch nicht etabliert und durchgesetzt. Dieses Fehlen eines akzeptierten MRT- und/oder CT-Verfahrens zur Evaluierung und zum Grading der Veraenderungen am SIG macht es schwierig, die Ergebnisse dieser Verfahren bei der Einstufung des Grades der AS-Veraenderungen und Erarbeitung von Diagnosekriterien fuer andere Formen der SpA einzubeziehen. Ausserdem wird das Grading der SIG

  3. Hardwood log grades and lumber grade yields for factory lumber logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland F. Hanks; Glenn L. Gammon; Robert L. Brisbin; Everette D. Rast

    1980-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Standard Grades for Hardwood Factory Lumber Logs are described, and lumber grade yields for 16 species and 2 species groups are presented by log grade and log diameter. The grades enable foresters, log buyers, and log sellers to select and grade those log suitable for conversion into standard factory grade lumber. By using the apropriate lumber...

  4. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade requirements...

  5. Mapping with Small UAS: A Point Cloud Accuracy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Charles; Jozkow, Grzegorz; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota

    2015-12-01

    Interest in using inexpensive Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technology for topographic mapping has recently significantly increased. Small UAS platforms equipped with consumer grade cameras can easily acquire high-resolution aerial imagery allowing for dense point cloud generation, followed by surface model creation and orthophoto production. In contrast to conventional airborne mapping systems, UAS has limited ground coverage due to low flying height and limited flying time, yet it offers an attractive alternative to high performance airborne systems, as the cost of the sensors and platform, and the flight logistics, is relatively low. In addition, UAS is better suited for small area data acquisitions and to acquire data in difficult to access areas, such as urban canyons or densely built-up environments. The main question with respect to the use of UAS is whether the inexpensive consumer sensors installed in UAS platforms can provide the geospatial data quality comparable to that provided by conventional systems. This study aims at the performance evaluation of the current practice of UAS-based topographic mapping by reviewing the practical aspects of sensor configuration, georeferencing and point cloud generation, including comparisons between sensor types and processing tools. The main objective is to provide accuracy characterization and practical information for selecting and using UAS solutions in general mapping applications. The analysis is based on statistical evaluation as well as visual examination of experimental data acquired by a Bergen octocopter with three different image sensor configurations, including a GoPro HERO3+ Black Edition, a Nikon D800 DSLR and a Velodyne HDL-32. In addition, georeferencing data of varying quality were acquired and evaluated. The optical imagery was processed by using three commercial point cloud generation tools. Comparing point clouds created by active and passive sensors by using different quality sensors, and finally

  6. Using 4+ to grade near-normal muscle strength does not improve agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Søren; Jaszczak, Sofie Louise Thomsen; Steffensen, Anne Katrine Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    of the six grades. It is not necessarily obvious how to convert a manual muscle test finding into an MRC grade. Several modifications which include intermediate grades have been suggested to improve the MRC scale and the current study examines whether agreement improves and variation in ratings decrease......Manual assessment of muscle strength is often graded using the ordinal Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. The scale has a number of inherent weaknesses, including poorly defined limits between grades `4' and `5' and very large differences in the span of muscle strength encompassed by each...

  7. Using 4+ to grade near-normal muscle strength does not improve agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Søren; Jaszczak, Sofie Louise Thomsen; Steffensen, Anne Katrine Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    Manual assessment of muscle strength is often graded using the ordinal Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. The scale has a number of inherent weaknesses, including poorly defined limits between grades `4' and `5' and very large differences in the span of muscle strength encompassed by each...... of the six grades. It is not necessarily obvious how to convert a manual muscle test finding into an MRC grade. Several modifications which include intermediate grades have been suggested to improve the MRC scale and the current study examines whether agreement improves and variation in ratings decrease...

  8. Do acupuncture points exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi; Liu Chenglin; Dang, Ruishan; Huang Yuying; He Wei; Ding Guanghong

    2009-01-01

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  9. Do acupuncture points exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (State Key Laboratory), and Synchrotron Radiation Research Center of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Dang, Ruishan [Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yuying; He Wei [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ding Guanghong [Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-07

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  10. Grading standards, prepared by the Configuration Management Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cort, G.; Donahue, S.; Frank, J.; Perkins, B.; Wrye, J.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the grading methodology used by the organization to determine the required levels of configuration management for all controlled elements that are part of the nuclear facility and its operation. The goal is to have a flexible grading system that accurately reflects the overall operational environment. The grading methodology should identify which items, processes, and information should be incorporated into facility baselines as controlled elements; and specify the level of formality that should be applied to activities that employ or impact these controlled elements. Evaluation categories include the following: radiological damage to workers; toxicological damage to workers; industrial safety; environmental damage; property damage; facility availability; cost effect; reputation; and commitments

  11. The age grading and the Chen-Ruan cup product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the obstruction bundle used to define the cup-product in Chen-Ruan cohomology is determined by the so-called `age grading' or `degree-shifting numbers'. Indeed, the obstruction bundle can be directly computed using the age grading. We obtain a Kunneth Theorem for Chen-Ruan cohomology...... as a direct consequence of an elementary property of the age grading, and explain how several other results - including associativity of the cup-product - can be proved in a similar way....

  12. Contemporary management of high-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Hao-Wen; Morgan, Erin R; Mason, Warren P

    2018-01-01

    High-grade gliomas, including glioblastoma, are the most common malignant brain tumors in adults. Despite intensive efforts to develop new therapies for these diseases, treatment options remain limited and prognosis is poor. Recently, there have been important advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of glioma, leading to refinements in our diagnostic and management approach. There is new evidence to guide the treatment of elderly patients. A multitude of new agents have been investigated, including targeted therapies, immunotherapeutics and tumor-treating fields. This review summarizes the key findings from this research, and presents a perspective on future opportunities to advance the field.

  13. Marine Point Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    will link to the zone forecast and then allow further zooming to the point of interest whereas on the Honolulu, HI Chicago, IL Northern Indiana, IN Lake Charles, LA New Orleans, LA Boston, MA Caribou, ME

  14. Critical-point nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that a change of nuclear shape may be described in terms of a phase transition and that specific nuclei may lie close to the critical point of the transition. Analytical descriptions of such critical-point nuclei have been introduced recently and they are described briefly. The results of extensive searches for possible examples of critical-point behavior are presented. Alternative pictures, such as describing bands in the candidate nuclei using simple ΔK = 0 and ΔK = 2 rotational-coupling models, are discussed, and the limitations of the different approaches highlighted. A possible critical-point description of the transition from a vibrational to rotational pairing phase is suggested

  15. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  16. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  17. Characterizing fixed points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo Zlobec

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A set of sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of a point x⋆ such that f(x⋆ = x⋆ is called a "fixed point theorem". Many such theorems are named after well-known mathematicians and economists. Fixed point theorems are among most useful ones in applied mathematics, especially in economics and game theory. Particularly important theorem in these areas is Kakutani's fixed point theorem which ensures existence of fixed point for point-to-set mappings, e.g., [2, 3, 4]. John Nash developed and applied Kakutani's ideas to prove the existence of (what became known as "Nash equilibrium" for finite games with mixed strategies for any number of players. This work earned him a Nobel Prize in Economics that he shared with two mathematicians. Nash's life was dramatized in the movie "Beautiful Mind" in 2001. In this paper, we approach the system f(x = x differently. Instead of studying existence of its solutions our objective is to determine conditions which are both necessary and sufficient that an arbitrary point x⋆ is a fixed point, i.e., that it satisfies f(x⋆ = x⋆. The existence of solutions for continuous function f of the single variable is easy to establish using the Intermediate Value Theorem of Calculus. However, characterizing fixed points x⋆, i.e., providing answers to the question of finding both necessary and sufficient conditions for an arbitrary given x⋆ to satisfy f(x⋆ = x⋆, is not simple even for functions of the single variable. It is possible that constructive answers do not exist. Our objective is to find them. Our work may require some less familiar tools. One of these might be the "quadratic envelope characterization of zero-derivative point" recalled in the next section. The results are taken from the author's current research project "Studying the Essence of Fixed Points". They are believed to be original. The author has received several feedbacks on the preliminary report and on parts of the project

  18. Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma or low-grade intraductal carcinoma? Review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ying-Ju; Weinreb, Ilan; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo

    2013-07-01

    Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma (LG-SDC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by predominant intraductal growth, luminal ductal phenotype, bland microscopic features, and favorable clinical behavior with an appearance reminiscent of florid to atypical ductal hyperplasia to low grade intraductal breast carcinoma. LG-SDC is composed of multiple cysts, cribriform architecture with "Roman Bridges", "pseudocribriform" proliferations with floppy fenestrations or irregular slits, micropapillae with epithelial tufts, fibrovascular cores, and solid areas. Most of the tumor cells are small to medium sized with pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, and round to oval nuclei, which may contain finely dispersed or dark condensed chromatin. Foci of intermediate to high grade atypia, and invasive carcinoma or micro-invasion have been reported in up to 23 % of cases. The neoplastic cells have a ductal phenotype with coexpression of keratins and S100 protein and are surrounded by a layer of myoepithelial cells in non-invasive cases. The main differential diagnosis of LG-SDC includes cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma, sclerosing polycystic adenosis, salivary duct carcinoma in situ/high-grade intraductal carcinoma, and papillary-cystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma. There is no published data supporting the continuous classification of LG-SDC as a variant of cystadenocarcinoma. Given that most LG-SDC are non-invasive neoplasms; the terms "cribriform cystadenocarcinoma" and LG-SDC should be replaced by "low-grade intraductal carcinoma" (LG-IDC) of salivary gland or "low-grade intraductal carcinoma with areas of invasive carcinoma" in those cases with evidence of invasive carcinoma.

  19. Beginning SharePoint 2010 Building Business Solutions with SharePoint

    CERN Document Server

    Perran, Amanda; Mason, Jennifer; Rogers, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Two SharePoint MVPs provide the ultimate introduction to SharePoint 2010Beginning SharePoint 2010: Building Team Solutions with SharePoint provides information workers and site managers with extensive knowledge and expert advice, empowering them to become SharePoint champions within their organizations.Provides expansive coverage of SharePoint topics, as well as specialty areas such as forms, excel services, records management, and web content managementDetails realistic usage scenarios, and includes practice examples that highlight best practices for configuration and customizationIncludes de

  20. Toronto smog report card 2003 : final grade C -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    An annual Smog Report Card for Toronto has been published annually by the Toronto Environmental Alliance since 1997, evaluating the progress made by the City toward reducing the environmental and health impacts of smog. The final grade for the City in 2003 was a C -, an improvement over last year's D +. The evaluation examined the performance on 33 initiatives in six major areas: leadership, transit, electricity, fleets and fuels, bikes and pedestrians, and public education. Issues that stood out were: a $30 million increase in funding to the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC), and the release of the TTC's Ridership Growth Strategy depicting how transit ridership can be increased through improved service and lower fares. The drive-through and pesticide by-laws were passed by Council, which should result in smog reduction from unnecessary activities. Leadership was found to be lacking at City Hall in the area of clean air, in view of its decision to proceed with the expansion of Island Airport. The decision to move forward on only 20 per cent of planned green power and energy efficiency measures was a low point in 2002. The City's budget process, which effectively screened out most environmental initiatives was in part responsible for the lack of progress. The following grades were awarded: transit and trip reduction (B), energy efficiency and green power received (D), fleets and fuels (C), bikes and pedestrians (C), public education (B). Recommendations for next year included: implementation of the TTC's Ridership Growth Strategy; creation of a Smog Plan Implementation Fund of $20 million per year to invest in energy efficiency, green fleets, green power and other related measures; and stop the expansion of Island Airport

  1. Photoacoustic Point Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calasso, Irio G.; Craig, Walter; Diebold, Gerald J.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the photoacoustic effect generated by heat deposition at a point in space in an inviscid fluid. Delta-function and long Gaussian optical pulses are used as sources in the wave equation for the displacement potential to determine the fluid motion. The linear sound-generation mechanism gives bipolar photoacoustic waves, whereas the nonlinear mechanism produces asymmetric tripolar waves. The salient features of the photoacoustic point source are that rapid heat deposition and nonlinear thermal expansion dominate the production of ultrasound

  2. Unconventional Quantum Critical Points

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Cenke

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the theory of unconventional quantum critical points that are beyond the Landau's paradigm. Three types of unconventional quantum critical points will be discussed: (1). The transition between topological order and semiclassical spin ordered phase; (2). The transition between topological order and valence bond solid phase; (3). The direct second order transition between different competing orders. We focus on the field theory and universality class of these unconventio...

  3. SharePoint governance

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mudassar

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i informasjons- og kommunikasjonsteknologi IKT590 2013 – Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad SharePoint is a web-based business collaboration platform from Microsoft which is very robust and dynamic in nature. The platform has been in the market for more than a decade and has been adapted by large number of organisations in the world. The platform has become larger in scale, richer in features and is improving consistently with every new version. However, SharePoint ...

  4. Receipt of special education services following elementary school grade retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael; Guppy, Nicole; Young, Robin; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2009-06-01

    To estimate the proportion of children who receive an Individualized Education Program (IEP) following grade retention in elementary school. Longitudinal cohort study. Children retained in kindergarten or first (K/1) grade and third grade, presumably for academic reasons, were followed up through fifth grade. Presence or absence of an IEP. A total of 300 children retained in K/1 and 80 retained in third grade were included in the study. Of the K/1 retainees, 68.9% never received an IEP during the subsequent 4 to 5 years; of the third-grade retainees, 72.3% never received an IEP. Kindergarten/first-grade retainees in the highest quintile for socioeconomic status and those with suburban residence were less likely to receive an IEP than retained children in all other socioeconomic status quintiles (adjusted odds ratio, 0.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.62) and in rural communities (0.16; 0.06-0.44). Among K/1 retainees with persistently low academic achievement in math and reading, as assessed by standardized testing, 38.2% and 29.7%, respectively, never received an IEP. Most children retained in K/1 or third grade for academic reasons, including many of those who demonstrated sustained academic difficulties, never received an IEP during elementary school. Further studies are important to elucidate whether retained elementary schoolchildren are being denied their rights to special education services. In the meantime, early-grade retention may provide an opportunity for pediatricians to help families advocate for appropriate special education evaluations for children experiencing school difficulties.

  5. Facing Contrast-Enhancing Gliomas: Perfusion MRI in Grade III and Grade IV Gliomas according to Tumor Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Luisa Di Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumoral neoangiogenesis characterizes high grade gliomas. Relative Cerebral Blood Volume (rCBV, calculated with Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast (DSC Perfusion-Weighted Imaging (PWI, allows for the estimation of vascular density over the tumor bed. The aim of the study was to characterize putative tumoral neoangiogenesis via the study of maximal rCBV with a Region of Interest (ROI approach in three tumor areas—the contrast-enhancing area, the nonenhancing tumor, and the high perfusion area on CBV map—in patients affected by contrast-enhancing glioma (grades III and IV. Twenty-one patients were included: 15 were affected by grade IV and 6 by grade III glioma. Maximal rCBV values for each patient were averaged according to glioma grade. Although rCBV from contrast-enhancement and from nonenhancing tumor areas was higher in grade IV glioma than in grade III (5.58 and 2.68; 3.01 and 2.2, resp., the differences were not significant. Instead, rCBV recorded in the high perfusion area on CBV map, independently of tumor compartment, was significantly higher in grade IV glioma than in grade III (7.51 versus 3.78, P=0.036. In conclusion, neoangiogenesis encompasses different tumor compartments and CBV maps appear capable of best characterizing the degree of neovascularization. Facing contrast-enhancing brain tumors, areas of high perfusion on CBV maps should be considered as the reference areas to be targeted for glioma grading.

  6. Steroid treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease grade I: a randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bacigalupo, Andrea; Milone, Giuseppe; Cupri, Alessandra; Severino, Antonio; Fagioli, Franca; Berger, Massimo; Santarone, Stella; Chiusolo, Patrizia; Sica, Simona; Mammoliti, Sonia; Sorasio, Roberto; Massi, Daniela; Van Lint, Maria Teresa; Raiola, Anna Maria; Gualandi, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Patients with acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) grade I were randomized to an observation arm (n=85) or to a treatment arm (n=86) consisting of 6-methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg/day, after stratification for age and donor type. The primary end point was development of grade II–IV GvHD. The cumulative incidence of grade II–IV GvHD was 50% in the observation arm and 33% in the treatment arm (P=0.005). However, grade III–IV GvHD was comparable (13% vs. 10%, respectively; P=0.6), and this was tru...

  7. Uranium production from low grade Swedish shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, O.

    1977-01-01

    In view of the present nuclear programmes a steep increase in uranium demand is foreseen which will pose serious problems for the uranium industry. The annual additions to uranium ore reserves must almost triple within the next 15 years in order to support the required production rates. Although there are good prospects for the discovery of further conventional deposits of uranium there is a growing interest in low grade uranium deposits. Large quantities of uranium exist in black shales, phosphates, granites, sea water and other unconventional sources. There are however factors which limit the utilization of these low grade materials. These factors include the extraction costs, the environmental constrains on mining and milling of huge amounts of ore, the development of technologies for the beneficiation of uranium and, in the case of very low grade materials, the energy balance. The availability of by-product uranium is limited by the production rate of the main product. The limitations differ very much according to types of ores, mining and milling methods and the surroundings. As an illustration a description is given of the Swedish Ranstad uranium shale project, its potential, constraints and technical solutions

  8. Beginning SharePoint Designer 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Windischman, Woodrow W; Rehmani, Asif

    2010-01-01

    Teaching Web designers, developers, and IT professionals how to use the new version of SharePoint Designer. Covering both the design and business applications of SharePoint Designer, this complete Wrox guide brings readers thoroughly up to speed on how to use SharePoint Designer in an enterprise. You'll learn to create and modify web pages, use CSS editing tools to modify themes, use Data View to create interactivity with SharePoint and other data, and much more. Coverage includes integration points with Visual Studio, Visio, and InfoPath.: Shows web designers, developers, and IT professionals

  9. Zero point energy of renormalized Wilson loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Pisarski, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    The quark-antiquark potential, and its associated zero point energy, can be extracted from lattice measurements of the Wilson loop. We discuss a unique prescription to renormalize the Wilson loop, for which the perturbative contribution to the zero point energy vanishes identically. A zero point energy can arise nonperturbatively, which we illustrate by considering effective string models. The nonperturbative contribution to the zero point energy vanishes in the Nambu model, but is nonzero when terms for extrinsic curvature are included. At one loop order, the nonperturbative contribution to the zero point energy is negative, regardless of the sign of the extrinsic curvature term.

  10. Affix Meaning Knowledge in First Through Third Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Henbest, Victoria Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    We examined grade-level differences in 1st- through 3rd-grade students' performance on an experimenter-developed affix meaning task (AMT) and determined whether AMT performance explained unique variance in word-level reading and reading comprehension, beyond other known contributors to reading development. Forty students at each grade level completed an assessment battery that included measures of phonological awareness, receptive vocabulary, word-level reading, reading comprehension, and affix meaning knowledge. On the AMT, 1st-grade students were significantly less accurate than 2nd- and 3rd-grade students; there was no significant difference in performance between the 2nd- and 3rd-grade students. Regression analyses revealed that the AMT accounted for 8% unique variance of students' performance on word-level reading measures and 6% unique variance of students' performance on the reading comprehension measure, after age, phonological awareness, and receptive vocabulary were explained. These results provide initial information on the development of affix meaning knowledge via an explicit measure in 1st- through 3rd-grade students and demonstrate that affix meaning knowledge uniquely contributes to the development of reading abilities above other known literacy predictors. These findings provide empirical support for how students might use morphological problem solving to read unknown multimorphemic words successfully.

  11. Relationship of the Van Herick Grading System with Peripheral Iris Configuration and Level of Iris Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faisal Aziz; Niazi, Shafaq Pervez Khan; Khan, Assad Zaman

    2017-09-01

    To determine the relationship of the van Herick angle grading system with the level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Observational study. Eye department, Combined Military Hospital, Malir Cantt., Karachi, from May to October 2015. Sixty-five eyes of 65 patients were recruited. Anterior chamber depth at the temporal limbus was measured as a fraction of corneal section thickness using van Herick technique and graded on the standard 4-point scale of the van Herick grading system. Gonioscopy of the temporal quadrant was performed with a Posner 4 mirror goniolens and both the true level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration were recorded on a 4-point scale so as to equate with the van Herick 4-point grading system. Spearman's rho test was applied to determine the relationship of the van Herick grading system with level of iris root insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Amoderate positive correlation between van Herick grade and peripheral iris configuration was found which was statistically significant (rs=0.42, p < 0.001). Astatistically significant and moderate positive correlation was also detected between van Herick grade and the level of iris insertion (rs=0.45, p < 0.001). The van Herick grade has a moderately positive relationship with the peripheral iris configuration and true level of iris insertion.

  12. Functionally Graded Mo sintered steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cisneros-Belmonte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functionally graded materials (FGM, the multi-materials, strive to satisfy the numerous requirements demanded of parts in a given combination of compositions and microstructures. The required material compatibility lead the manufacturing process and the achieving of an interface, not always diffuse. Powder metallurgy is one of the techniques used in manufacturing functionally graded materials, in particular the compaction matrix of the possible techniques for forming these materials. In this paper, a process of forming a functionally graded steel based on the use of a high molybdenum steel with cooper and other steel with copper, without molybdenum, is proposed with the aim of concentrating this element to the surface of the workpiece, increasing the mechanical strength. The study is completed with the evaluation of physical properties (density and porosity distribution, mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength and elongation and microstructural analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  13. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may...

  14. On-Demand Grades: The Effect of Online Grade Book Access on Student Mastery and Performance Goal Orientations, Grade Orientation, Academic Self Efficacy, and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldow, Adam Lowell

    2010-01-01

    With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…

  15. Graded Neuronal Modulations Related to Visual Spatial Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunsell, John H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of visual attention in monkeys typically measure neuronal activity when the stimulus event to be detected occurs at a cued location versus when it occurs at an uncued location. But this approach does not address how neuronal activity changes relative to conditions where attention is unconstrained by cueing. Human psychophysical studies have used neutral cueing conditions and found that neutrally cued behavioral performance is generally intermediate to that of cued and uncued conditions (Posner et al., 1978; Mangun and Hillyard, 1990; Montagna et al., 2009). To determine whether the neuronal correlates of visual attention during neutral cueing are similarly intermediate, we trained macaque monkeys to detect changes in stimulus orientation that were more likely to occur at one location (cued) than another (uncued), or were equally likely to occur at either stimulus location (neutral). Consistent with human studies, performance was best when the location was cued, intermediate when both locations were neutrally cued, and worst when the location was uncued. Neuronal modulations in visual area V4 were also graded as a function of cue validity and behavioral performance. By recording from both hemispheres simultaneously, we investigated the possibility of switching attention between stimulus locations during neutral cueing. The results failed to support a unitary “spotlight” of attention. Overall, our findings indicate that attention-related changes in V4 are graded to accommodate task demands. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Studies of the neuronal correlates of attention in monkeys typically use visual cues to manipulate where attention is focused (“cued” vs “uncued”). Human psychophysical studies often also include neutrally cued trials to study how attention naturally varies between points of interest. But the neuronal correlates of this neutral condition are unclear. We measured behavioral performance and neuronal activity in cued, uncued, and neutrally

  16. Graded Neuronal Modulations Related to Visual Spatial Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, J Patrick; Maunsell, John H R

    2016-05-11

    Studies of visual attention in monkeys typically measure neuronal activity when the stimulus event to be detected occurs at a cued location versus when it occurs at an uncued location. But this approach does not address how neuronal activity changes relative to conditions where attention is unconstrained by cueing. Human psychophysical studies have used neutral cueing conditions and found that neutrally cued behavioral performance is generally intermediate to that of cued and uncued conditions (Posner et al., 1978; Mangun and Hillyard, 1990; Montagna et al., 2009). To determine whether the neuronal correlates of visual attention during neutral cueing are similarly intermediate, we trained macaque monkeys to detect changes in stimulus orientation that were more likely to occur at one location (cued) than another (uncued), or were equally likely to occur at either stimulus location (neutral). Consistent with human studies, performance was best when the location was cued, intermediate when both locations were neutrally cued, and worst when the location was uncued. Neuronal modulations in visual area V4 were also graded as a function of cue validity and behavioral performance. By recording from both hemispheres simultaneously, we investigated the possibility of switching attention between stimulus locations during neutral cueing. The results failed to support a unitary "spotlight" of attention. Overall, our findings indicate that attention-related changes in V4 are graded to accommodate task demands. Studies of the neuronal correlates of attention in monkeys typically use visual cues to manipulate where attention is focused ("cued" vs "uncued"). Human psychophysical studies often also include neutrally cued trials to study how attention naturally varies between points of interest. But the neuronal correlates of this neutral condition are unclear. We measured behavioral performance and neuronal activity in cued, uncued, and neutrally cued blocks of trials. Behavioral

  17. Diabetic Retinopathy Grading by Digital Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Hajeb Mohammad Alipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major complications of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy. As manual analysis and diagnosis of large amount of images are time consuming, automatic detection and grading of diabetic retinopathy are desired. In this paper, we use fundus fluorescein angiography and color fundus images simultaneously, extract 6 features employing curvelet transform, and feed them to support vector machine in order to determine diabetic retinopathy severity stages. These features are area of blood vessels, area, regularity of foveal avascular zone, and the number of micro-aneurisms therein, total number of micro-aneurisms, and area of exudates. In order to extract exudates and vessels, we respectively modify curvelet coefficients of color fundus images and angiograms. The end points of extracted vessels in predefined region of interest based on optic disk are connected together to segment foveal avascular zone region. To extract micro-aneurisms from angiogram, first extracted vessels are subtracted from original image, and after removing detected background by morphological operators and enhancing bright small pixels, micro-aneurisms are detected. 70 patients were involved in this study to classify diabetic retinopathy into 3 groups, that is, (1 no diabetic retinopathy, (2 mild/moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, (3 severe nonproliferative/proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and our simulations show that the proposed system has sensitivity and specificity of 100% for grading.

  18. Functionally Graded Material: An overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available -3146. [50] X. Jin, L. Wu, L. Guo, H. Yu, and Y. Sun, ?Experimental investigation of the mixed-mode crack propagation in ZrO2/NiCr functionally graded materials,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 76(12), (2009), pp. 1800-1810. [51] Z. Cheng, D. Gao... by stable crack growth,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.72(15), (2005), pp. 2359-2372. [47] Z.-H. Jin, and R.H. Dodds Jr, ?Crack growth resistance behavior of a functionally graded material: computational studies,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics...

  19. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdiscplinary Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...... for all document types. Statistical significant correlations were only found between WoS and GS and the two publication point systems in between, respectively. The study demonstrates how the nCPPI can be applied to institutions as evaluation tools supplementary to JCI in various combinations...

  20. On the union of graded prime ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uregen Rabia Nagehan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate graded compactly packed rings, which is defined as; if any graded ideal I of R is contained in the union of a family of graded prime ideals of R, then I is actually contained in one of the graded prime ideals of the family. We give some characterizations of graded compactly packed rings. Further, we examine this property on h – Spec(R. We also define a generalization of graded compactly packed rings, the graded coprimely packed rings. We show that R is a graded compactly packed ring if and only if R is a graded coprimely packed ring whenever R be a graded integral domain and h – dim R = 1.

  1. Rapid grading of fundus photographs for diabetic retinopathy using crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Christopher J; Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Kirchner, Thomas R; Gupta, Omesh P; Shah, Chirag P

    2014-10-30

    Screening for diabetic retinopathy is both effective and cost-effective, but rates of screening compliance remain suboptimal. As screening improves, new methods to deal with screening data may help reduce the human resource needs. Crowdsourcing has been used in many contexts to harness distributed human intelligence for the completion of small tasks including image categorization. Our goal was to develop and validate a novel method for fundus photograph grading. An interface for fundus photo classification was developed for the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. We posted 19 expert-graded images for grading by Turkers, with 10 repetitions per photo for an initial proof-of-concept (Phase I). Turkers were paid US $0.10 per image. In Phase II, one prototypical image from each of the four grading categories received 500 unique Turker interpretations. Fifty draws of 1-50 Turkers were then used to estimate the variance in accuracy derived from randomly drawn samples of increasing crowd size to determine the minimum number of Turkers needed to produce valid results. In Phase III, the interface was modified to attempt to improve Turker grading. Across 230 grading instances in the normal versus abnormal arm of Phase I, 187 images (81.3%) were correctly classified by Turkers. Average time to grade each image was 25 seconds, including time to review training images. With the addition of grading categories, time to grade each image increased and percentage of images graded correctly decreased. In Phase II, area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) indicated that sensitivity and specificity were maximized after 7 graders for ratings of normal versus abnormal (AUC=0.98) but was significantly reduced (AUC=0.63) when Turkers were asked to specify the level of severity. With improvements to the interface in Phase III, correctly classified images by the mean Turker grade in four-category grading increased to a maximum of 52.6% (10/19 images

  2. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  3. Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas at dynamic enhanced CT: comparison between grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinoma and grade 1/2 neuroendocrine tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Kim, Kyung Won; Byun, Jae Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ki Byung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hoon; Hong, Seung-Mo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    To identify the CT features in differentiating grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinomas from grade 1/2 neuroendocrine tumours. This study included 161 patients with surgically confirmed pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. Pathology slides were reviewed to determine the tumour grade. CT image analysis included size, pattern, calcification, margin, pancreatic duct dilatation, bile duct dilatation, vascular invasion, arterial enhancement ratio, and portal enhancement ratio. We used 2 cm, 3 cm, and 4 cm as cutoff values of tumour size and 0.9 and 1.1 of enhancement ratio to determine the sensitivity and specificity. Pathology analysis identified 167 lesions in 161 patients. 154 lesions (92 %) were grade 1/2 and 13 (8 %) were grade 3. Portal enhancement ratio (< 1.1) showed high sensitivity and specificity 92.3 % and 80.5 %, respectively in differentiating grade 3 from grade 1/2. It showed the highest odds ratio (49.60), followed by poorly defined margin, size (> 3 cm), bile duct dilatation, and vascular invasion. When at least two of these five criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing grade 3 were 92.3 % (12/13) and 87.7 % (135/154), respectively. By using specific CT findings, grade 3 can be differentiated from grade 1/2 with a high diagnostic accuracy leading to an appropriate imaging staging. (orig.)

  4. EDF specifications on nuclear grade resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Darren; Gressier, Frederic; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Ranchoux, Gilles; Marteau, Herve; Labed, Veronique

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchange resins are widely used across EDF, especially within the nuclear division for the purification of water. Important applications include primary circuit, secondary circuit and effluent treatment, which require high quality nuclear grade resins to retain the dissolved species, some of which may be radioactive. There is a need for more and more efficient purification in order to decrease worker dose during maintenance but also to decrease volumes of radioactive resin waste. Resin performance is subject to several forms of degradation, including physical, chemical, thermal and radioactive, therefore appropriate resin properties have to be selected to reduce such effects. Work has been done with research institutes, manufacturers and on EDF sites to select these properties, create specifications and to continuously improve on these specifications. An interesting example of research regarding resin performance is the resin degradation under irradiation. Resins used in the CVCS circuit of EDF nuclear power plants are subject to irradiation over their lifetime. A study was carried out on the effects of total integrated doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 MGy on typically used EDF mixed bed resins in a 'mini-CVCS' apparatus to simultaneously test actual primary circuit fluid. The tests confirmed that the resins still perform efficiently after a typical CVCS radiation dose. Certain resins also need additional specifications in order to maintain the integrity of the particular circuits they are used in. Recently, EDF has updated its requirements on these high purity nuclear grade resins, produced generic doctrines for all products and materials used on site which include resins of all grades, and as a result have also updated a guide on recommended resin usage for the French fleet of reactors. An overview of the evolutions will be presented. (authors)

  5. New Novae snack point

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Located next to the car park by the flag poles, a few metres from the Main CERN Reception (building 33), a new snack point catered by Novae will open to the public on Wednesday 8 August. More information will be available in the next issue of the Bulletin!

  6. [Clinical key points. Gonioscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamard, P

    2007-05-01

    Gonioscopy should be performed in all patients with glaucoma or suspected of having glaucoma. Four points are systematically evaluated: the width of the angle, the degree of trabecular pigmentation, the iridotrabecular appositions or synechia, and the level of iris insertion and the shape of the peripheral iris profile.

  7. ACS Zero Point Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    The uncertainties in the photometric zero points create a fundamental limit to the accuracy of photometry. The current state of the ACS calibration is surprisingly poor, with zero point uncertainties of 0.03 magnitudes. The reason for this is that the ACS calibrations are based primarily on semi-emprical synthetic zero points and observations of fields too crowded for accurate ground-based photometry. I propose to remedy this problem by obtaining ACS images of the omega Cen standard field with all nine broadband ACS/WFC filters. This will permit the direct determination of the ACS zero points by comparison with excellent ground-based photometry, and should reduce their uncertainties to less than 0.01 magnitudes. A second benefit is that it will facilitate the comparison of the WFPC2 and ACS photometric systems, which will be important as WFPC2 is phased out and ACS becomes HST's primary imager. Finally, three of the filters will be repeated from my Cycle 12 observations, allowing for a measurement of any change in sensitivity.

  8. Point Lepreau generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganong, G.H.D.; Strang, A.E.; Gunter, G.E.; Thompson, T.S.

    Point Lepreau-1 reactor is a 600 MWe generating station expected to be in service by October 1979. New Brunswick is suffering a 'catch up' phenomenon in load growth and needs to decrease dependence on foreign oil. The site is on salt water and extensive study has gone into corrosion control. Project management, financing and scheduling have unique aspects. (E.C.B.)

  9. Least fixed points revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Bakker (Jaco)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractParameter mechanisms for recursive procedures are investigated. Contrary to the view of Manna et al., it is argued that both call-by-value and call-by-name mechanisms yield the least fixed points of the functionals determined by the bodies of the procedures concerned. These functionals

  10. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  11. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade...

  12. [Patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage in poor grade neurological status: Study of prognostic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Pérez, Coralia; Morera-Molina, Jesús; Espino-Postigo, Carlos; Jiménez-O'Shanahan, Aruma

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and predict factors influencing prognosis and/or clinical outcome at 6 months in patients with spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grades iv and v. This was a retrospective study of a consecutive series of 394 patients admitted to our hospital with clinical and radiological diagnosis of spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage, from 1 January 1999 to 30 June 2009. We selected 121 patients who met the criteria of being in WFNS grades iv or v before treatment; 3 patients were excluded due to loss of tracking. The outcome variable was assessed 6 months after the event using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. A P value<.05 was considered statistically significant. One hundred and twenty-one patients were included in the statistical analysis. The average age of the patients in the series was 54 years (14-92). Patients who had a mean Glasgow Coma Scale lower than 7 points (P<.0001), those who were grade v (P<.0001) in the pre-treatment WFNS scale and those with pupillary disorder (P=.002) had a worse clinical outcome. Likewise, those with associated intraparenchymal hematoma (P=.020) and those not receiving any treatment (P=.020) were also associated with a poor clinical outcome. These results were statistically significant. Patients admitted with a WFNS grade v and/or presenting pupil disorder and/or intraparenchymal hematoma were associated with worse clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Grading Rubrics: Hoopla or Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to offer some quantitative, multivariate evidence concerning the impact of grading rubric use on academic outcome among American higher education students. Using a pre-post, quasi-experimental research design, cross-sectional data were derived from undergraduates enrolled in an elective during spring and fall 2009 at…

  14. Transportation: Grade 8. Cluster IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Transportation." It is divided into five units: surface transportation, interstate transportation, air transportation, water transportation, and subterranean transportation (the Metro). Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  15. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  16. A better norm-referenced grading using the standard deviation criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing-shing

    2014-01-01

    The commonly used norm-referenced grading assigns grades to rank-ordered students in fixed percentiles. It has the disadvantage of ignoring the actual distance of scores among students. A simple norm-referenced grading via standard deviation is suggested for routine educational grading. The number of standard deviation of a student's score from the class mean was used as the common yardstick to measure achievement level. Cumulative probability of a normal distribution was referenced to help decide the amount of students included within a grade. RESULTS of the foremost 12 students from a medical examination were used for illustrating this grading method. Grading by standard deviation seemed to produce better cutoffs in allocating an appropriate grade to students more according to their differential achievements and had less chance in creating arbitrary cutoffs in between two similarly scored students than grading by fixed percentile. Grading by standard deviation has more advantages and is more flexible than grading by fixed percentile for norm-referenced grading.

  17. Current treatment of low grade astrocytoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Louise; Romner, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    Through a comprehensive review of the current literature, the present article investigates several aspects of low grade astrocytomas (LGA), including prognostic factors, treatment strategies and follow-up regimes. LGA are in general relatively slow-growing primary brain tumours, but they have a v...... effective in discriminating between tumour progression and radiation necrosis. The research into biomarkers is currently limited with regards to their applications in LGA diagnostics, and therefore further studies including larger patient populations are needed.......Through a comprehensive review of the current literature, the present article investigates several aspects of low grade astrocytomas (LGA), including prognostic factors, treatment strategies and follow-up regimes. LGA are in general relatively slow-growing primary brain tumours, but they have...... as the course of disease. The current literature seems to support the idea that treatment with radical tumour resection, where possible, yields better long term outcome for patients with LGA. However, adjuvant therapy is often necessary. Administering early postoperative radiotherapy to patients with partially...

  18. Anomalous transparency in photonic crystals and its application to point-by-point grating inscription in photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdasaryan, Tigran; Geernaert, Thomas; Chah, Karima; Caucheteur, Christophe; Schuster, Kay; Kobelke, Jens; Thienpont, Hugo; Berghmans, Francis

    2018-04-03

    It is common belief that photonic crystals behave similarly to isotropic and transparent media only when their feature sizes are much smaller than the wavelength of light. Here, we counter that belief and we report on photonic crystals that are transparent for anomalously high normalized frequencies up to 0.9, where the crystal's feature sizes are comparable with the free space wavelength. Using traditional photonic band theory, we demonstrate that the isofrequency curves can be circular in the region above the first stop band for triangular lattice photonic crystals. In addition, by simulating how efficiently a tightly focused Gaussian beam propagates through the photonic crystal slab, we judge on the photonic crystal's transparency rather than on isotropy only. Using this approach, we identified a wide range of photonic crystal parameters that provide anomalous transparency. Our findings indicate the possibility to scale up the features of photonic crystals and to extend their operational wavelength range for applications including optical cloaking and graded index guiding. We applied our result in the domain of femtosecond laser micromachining, by demonstrating what we believe to be the first point-by-point grating inscribed in a multi-ring photonic crystal fiber.

  19. Interference studies with two hospital-grade and two home-grade glucose meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Martha E; Baskin, Leland B; Braakman, Sandy; Presti, Steven; Dubois, Jeffrey; Shirey, Terry

    2009-10-01

    Interference studies of four glucose meters (Nova Biomedical [Waltham, MA] StatStrip [hospital grade], Roche Diagnostics [Indianapolis, IN] Accu-Chek Aviva [home grade], Abbott Diabetes Care [Alameda, CA] Precision FreeStyle Freedom [home grade], and LifeScan [Milpitas, CA] SureStep Flexx [hospital grade]) were evaluated and compared to the clinical laboratory plasma hexokinase reference method (Roche Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer). These meters were chosen to reflect the continuum of care from hospital to home grade meters commonly seen in North America. Within-run precision was determined using a freshly prepared whole blood sample spiked with concentrated glucose to give three glucose concentrations. Day-to-day precision was evaluated using aqueous control materials supplied by each vendor. Common interferences, including hematocrit, maltose, and ascorbate, were tested alone and in combination with one another on each of the four glucose testing devices at three blood glucose concentrations. Within-run precision for all glucose meters was glucose meters. Ascorbate caused differences (percentage change from a sample without added interfering substances) of >5% with pyrroloquinolinequinone (PQQ)-glucose dehydrogenase-based technologies (Aviva and Freestyle) and the glucose oxidase-based Flexx meter. Maltose strongly affected the PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase-based meter systems. When combinations of interferences (ascorbate, maltose, and hematocrit mixtures) were tested, the extent of the interference was up to 193% (Aviva), 179% (FreeStyle), 25.1% (Flexx), and 5.9% (StatStrip). The interference was most pronounced at low glucose (3.9-4.4 mmol/L). All evaluated glucose meter systems demonstrated varying degrees of interference by hematocrit, ascorbate, and maltose mixtures. PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase-based technologies showed greater susceptibility than glucose oxidase-based systems. However, the modified glucose oxidase-based amperometric method (Nova StatStrip) was

  20. Smartphone-based grading of apple quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Apple quality grading is a critical issue in apple industry which is one economical pillar of many countries. Artificial grading is inefficient and of poor accuracy. Here we proposed to develop a portable, convenient, real-time, and low cost method aimed at grading apple. Color images of the apples were collected with a smartphone and the grade of sampled apple was assessed by a customized smartphone app, which offered the functions translating RGB color values of the apple to color grade and translating the edge of apple image to weight grade. The algorithms are based on modeling with a large number of apple image at different grades. The apple grade data evaluated by the smartphone are in accordance with the actual data. This study demonstrated the potential of smart phone in apple quality grading/online monitoring at gathering and transportation stage for apple industry.

  1. A medical-grade wireless architecture for remote electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyungtae; Park, Kyung-Joon; Song, Jae-Jin; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Sha, Lui

    2011-03-01

    In telecardiology, electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from a patient are acquired by sensors and transmitted in real time to medical personnel across a wireless network. The use of IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs (WLANs), which are already deployed in many hospitals, can provide ubiquitous connectivity and thus allow cardiology patients greater mobility. However, engineering issues, including the error-prone nature of wireless channels and the unpredictable delay and jitter due to the nondeterministic nature of access to the wireless medium, need to be addressed before telecardiology can be safely realized. We propose a medical-grade WLAN architecture for remote ECG monitoring, which employs the point-coordination function (PCF) for medium access control and Reed-Solomon coding for error control. Realistic simulations with uncompressed two-lead ECG data from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database demonstrate reliable wireless ECG monitoring; the reliability of ECG transmission exceeds 99.99% with the initial buffering delay of only 2.4 s.

  2. A Multidisciplinary Process Curriculum in Environmental Education, Grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds School District 15, Lynnwood, WA.

    This second grade curriculum guide is based on a multidisciplinary approach to environmental education. The guide includes activities, guidelines for field trip planning, and a resource section. The guide deals with the subjects of plants, soil, and litter. Each subject section includes activities based on the physical characteristics, man's use,…

  3. Melting point of yttria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, S.R.

    1977-06-01

    Fourteen samples of 99.999 percent Y 2 O 3 were melted near the focus of a 250-W CO 2 laser. The average value of the observed melting point along the solid-liquid interface was 2462 +- 19 0 C. Several of these same samples were then melted in ultrahigh-purity oxygen, nitrogen, helium, or argon and in water vapor. No change in the observed temperature was detected, with the exception of a 20 0 C increase in temperature from air to helium gas. Post test examination of the sample characteristics, clarity, sphericity, and density is presented, along with composition. It is suggested that yttria is superior to alumina as a secondary melting-point standard

  4. 'Saddle-point' ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, T.J.; Hale, E.B.; Irby, V.D.; Olson, R.E.; Missouri Univ., Rolla; Berry, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the ionization of rare gases by protons at intermediate energies, i.e., energies at which the velocities of the proton and the target-gas valence electrons are comparable. A significant channel for electron production in the forward direction is shown to be 'saddle-point' ionization, in which electrons are stranded on or near the saddle-point of electric potential between the receding projectile and the ionized target. Such electrons yield characteristic energy spectra, and contribute significantly to forward-electron-production cross sections. Classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations are found to provide qualitative agreement with our measurements and the earlier measurements of Rudd and coworkers, and reproduce, in detail, the features of the general ionization spectra. (orig.)

  5. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  6. Critical point predication device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kazuhiko; Kariyama, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    An operation for predicting a critical point by using a existent reverse multiplication method has been complicated, and an effective multiplication factor could not be plotted directly to degrade the accuracy for the prediction. The present invention comprises a detector counting memory section for memorizing the counting sent from a power detector which monitors the reactor power, a reverse multiplication factor calculation section for calculating the reverse multiplication factor based on initial countings and current countings of the power detector, and a critical point prediction section for predicting the criticality by the reverse multiplication method relative to effective multiplication factors corresponding to the state of the reactor core previously determined depending on the cases. In addition, a reactor core characteristic calculation section is added for analyzing an effective multiplication factor depending on the state of the reactor core. Then, if the margin up to the criticality is reduced to lower than a predetermined value during critical operation, an alarm is generated to stop the critical operation when generation of a period of more than a predetermined value predicted by succeeding critical operation. With such procedures, forecasting for the critical point can be easily predicted upon critical operation to greatly mitigate an operator's burden and improve handling for the operation. (N.H.)

  7. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  8. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  9. Awarding global grades in OSCEs: evaluation of a novel eLearning resource for OSCE examiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Gerard J; Johnston, Jenny; Thomson, Clare; McGlade, Kieran

    2012-01-01

    A novel online resource has been developed to aid OSCE examiner training comprising a series of videos of OSCE performances that allow inter-examiner comparison of global grade decisions. To evaluate this training resource in terms of usefulness and ability to improve examiner confidence in awarding global grades in OSCEs. Data collected from the first 200 users included global grades awarded, willingness to change grades following peer comparison and confidence in awarding grades before and after training. Most (86.5%) agreed that the resource was useful in developing global grade scoring ability in OSCEs, with a significant improvement in confidence in awarding grades after using the training package (p<0.001). This is a useful and effective online training package. As an adjunct to traditional training it offers a practical solution to the problem of availability of examiners.

  10. A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, Töres; Hammarström, Anne; Aronsson, Gunnar; Träskman Bendz, Lil; Grape, Tom; Hogstedt, Christer; Marteinsdottir, Ina; Skoog, Ingmar; Hall, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    Depressive symptoms are potential outcomes of poorly functioning work environments. Such symptoms are frequent and cause considerable suffering for the employees as well as financial loss for the employers. Accordingly good prospective studies of psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms are valuable. Scientific reviews of such studies have pointed at methodological difficulties but still established a few job risk factors. Those reviews were published some years ago. There is need for an updated systematic review using the GRADE system. In addition, gender related questions have been insufficiently reviewed. Inclusion criteria for the studies published 1990 to June 2013: 1. European and English speaking countries. 2. Quantified results describing the relationship between exposure (psychosocial or physical/chemical) and outcome (standardized questionnaire assessment of depressive symptoms or interview-based clinical depression). 3. Prospective or comparable case-control design with at least 100 participants. 4. Assessments of exposure (working conditions) and outcome at baseline and outcome (depressive symptoms) once again after follow-up 1-5 years later. 5. Adjustment for age and adjustment or stratification for gender. Studies filling inclusion criteria were subjected to assessment of 1.) relevance and 2.) quality using predefined criteria. Systematic review of the evidence was made using the GRADE system. When applicable, meta-analysis of the magnitude of associations was made. Consistency of findings was examined for a number of possible confounders and publication bias was discussed. Fifty-nine articles of high or medium high scientific quality were included. Moderately strong evidence (grade three out of four) was found for job strain (high psychological demands and low decision latitude), low decision latitude and bullying having significant impact on development of depressive symptoms. Limited evidence (grade two) was shown for psychological

  11. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    ' work; point out any problems in organization or grammar; and suggest the steps necessary to complete the paper. They then go over the peer review form with the writer, referring any questions or disagreements to the instructor. It is most helpful if the instructor can also read and comment on the draft. General comments on the level of detail included and any problems with the reasoning come more appropriately from the instructor than from peers. The paper is then revised and handed in on the following week. The final draft is accompanied by a summary of revisions and copies of all peer reviews. Students are graded on peer reviews and summaries of revisions and cover letters, as well as on the final paper. Acknowledgments The molecular modeling workstations and associated software were purchased with funding from NSF, Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement program, grant DUE-9350843 to AJW, with matching funds from Wellesley College. Some of the equipment for protein purification was funded by a grant from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to Wellesley College. The authors are grateful to Paul Reisberg for helpful discussions in the early stages of this project and to Margaret Merritt for a critical review of the manuscript. Literature Cited 1. Blake, C. C. F.; Jonhson, L. N.; Mair, G. A.; North, A. C. T.; Phillips. D. C.; Sarma, V. R. Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. B 1967, 167, 378 - 388. 2. Hendrickson, H. S.; Giannini, J. L.; Bergstrom, J. P.; Johnson, S. N.; Leland, P. A. Biochem. Educ. 1995, 23, 14 - 17. 3. Miranker, A., Robinson, C. V.; Radford, S. E.; Aplin, R. T.; Dobson, C. M. Science 1993, 262, 896 - 900. 4. Turner, M. A.; Howell, P. L. Prot. Sci. 1995, 4, 442 - 449. 5. Radmacher, M.; Fritz, M.; Hansma, H. G.; Hansma, P. Science 1994, 265, 1577 - 1579. 6. Shugar, D. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1952, 8, 302 - 309. 7. Bradford, M. M. Anal. Biochem. 1976, 72, 248 - 254. 8. Strang, R. H. C. In Practical Biochemistry for Colleges; Wood, E. J., Ed.; Pergamon: Oxford

  12. Anaplasia and grading in medulloblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Charles G; Burger, Peter C

    2003-07-01

    The variable clinical outcomes of medulloblastoma patients have prompted a search for markers with which to tailor therapies to individuals. In this review, we discuss clinical, histological and molecular features that can be used in such treatment customization, focusing on how histopathological grading can impact both patient care and research on the molecular basis of CNS embryonal tumors. Medulloblastomas span a histological spectrum ending in overtly malignant large cell/anaplastic lesions characterized by increased nuclear size, marked cytological anaplasia, and increased mitotic and apoptotic rates. These "high-grade" lesions make up approximately one quarter of medulloblastomas, and recur and metastasize more frequently than tumors lacking anaplasia. We believe anaplastic change represents a type of malignant progression common to many medulloblastoma subtypes and to other CNS embryonal lesions as well. Correlation of these histological changes with the accumulation of genetic events suggests a model for the histological and molecular progression of medulloblastoma.

  13. Gradings on simple Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Elduque, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Gradings are ubiquitous in the theory of Lie algebras, from the root space decomposition of a complex semisimple Lie algebra relative to a Cartan subalgebra to the beautiful Dempwolff decomposition of E_8 as a direct sum of thirty-one Cartan subalgebras. This monograph is a self-contained exposition of the classification of gradings by arbitrary groups on classical simple Lie algebras over algebraically closed fields of characteristic not equal to 2 as well as on some nonclassical simple Lie algebras in positive characteristic. Other important algebras also enter the stage: matrix algebras, the octonions, and the Albert algebra. Most of the presented results are recent and have not yet appeared in book form. This work can be used as a textbook for graduate students or as a reference for researchers in Lie theory and neighboring areas.

  14. Grading of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present Manual provides guidance and illustrative examples for applying a method by which graded quality assurance requirements may be determined and adapted to the items and services of a nuclear power plant in conformance with the requirements of the IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Code and Safety Guides on quality assurance. The Manual replaces the previous publication IAEA-TECDOC-303 on the same subject. Various methods of grading quality assurance are available in a number of Member States. During the development of the present Manual it was not considered practical to attempt to resolve the differences between those methods and it was preferred to identify and benefit from the good practices available in all the methods. The method presented in this Manual deals with the aspects of management, documentation, control, verification and administration which affect quality. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  15. High bone sialoprotein (BSP expression correlates with increased tumor grade and predicts a poorer prognosis of high-grade glioma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the expression and prognostic value of bone sialoprotein (BSP in glioma patients. METHODS: We determined the expression of BSP using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays containing 15 normal brain and 270 glioma samples. Cumulative survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed by the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by the stepwise forward Cox regression model. RESULTS: Both BSP mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in high-grade glioma tissues compared with those of normal brain and low-grade glioma tissues, and BSP expression positively correlated with tumor grade (P<0.001. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed high BSP expression was an independent prognostic factor for a shorter progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS in both grade III and grade IV glioma patients [hazard ratio (HR = 2.549 and 3.154 for grade III glioma, and HR = 1.637 and 1.574 for grade IV glioma, respectively]. Patients with low BSP expression had a significantly longer median OS and PFS than those with high BSP expression. Small extent of resection and lineage of astrocyte served as independent risk factors of both shorter PFS and OS in grade III glioma patients; GBM patients without O(6-methylguanine (O(6-meG DNA methyltransferase (MGMT methylation and Karnofsky performance score (KPS less than 70 points were related to poor prognosis. Lack of radiotherapy related to shorter OS but not affect PFS in both grade III and grade IV glioma patients. CONCLUSION: High BSP expression occurs in a significant subset of high-grade glioma patients and predicts a poorer outcome. The study identifies a potentially useful molecular marker for the categorization and targeted therapy of gliomas.

  16. Memorization techniques: Using mnemonics to learn fifth grade science terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Juan O.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether mnemonic instruction could assist students in learning fifth-grade science terminology more effectively than traditional-study methods of recall currently in practice The task was to examine if fifth-grade students were able to learn a mnemonic and then use it to understand science vocabulary; subsequently, to determine if students were able to remember the science terms after a period of time. The problem is that in general, elementary school students are not being successful in science achievement at the fifth grade level. In view of this problem, if science performance is increased at the elementary level, then it is likely that students will be successful when tested at the 8th and 10th grade in science with the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) in the future. Two research questions were posited: (1) Is there a difference in recall achievement when a mnemonic such as method of loci, pegword method, or keyword method is used in learning fifth-grade science vocabulary as compared to the traditional-study method? (2) If using a mnemonic in learning fifth-grade science vocabulary was effective on recall achievement, would this achievement be maintained over a span of time? The need for this study was to assist students in learning science terms and concepts for state accountability purposes. The first assumption was that memorization techniques are not commonly applied in fifth-grade science classes in elementary schools. A second assumption was that mnemonic devices could be used successfully in learning science terms and increase long term retention. The first limitation was that the study was conducted on one campus in one school district in South Texas which limited the generalization of the study. The second limitation was that it included random assigned intact groups as opposed to random student assignment to fifth-grade classroom groups.

  17. Professional SharePoint 2013 development

    CERN Document Server

    Alirezaei, Reza; Ranlett, Matt; Hillier, Scot; Wilson, Brian; Fried, Jeff; Swider, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Thorough coverage of development in SharePoint 2013 A team of well-known Microsoft MVPs joins forces in this fully updated resource, providing you with in-depth coverage of development tools in the latest iteration of the immensely popular SharePoint. From building solutions to building custom workflow and content management applications, this book shares field-tested best practices on all aspect of SharePoint 2013 development. Offers a thorough look at Windows Azure and SharePoint 2013Includes new chapters on Application Life Cycle Management, developing apps in ShareP

  18. PowerPoint 2007 for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug

    2007-01-01

    New and inexperienced PowerPoint users will discover how to use the latest enhancements to PowerPoint 2007 quickly and efficiently so that they can produce unique and informative presentations PowerPoint continues to be the world's most popular presentation software This updated For Dummies guide shows users different ways to create powerful and effective slideshow presentations that incorporate data from other applications in the form of charts, clip art, sound, and video Shares the key features of PowerPoint 2007 including creating and editing slides, working with hyperlinks and action butt

  19. Vernal Point and Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Campos, Teodosio; Chavez S, Nadia; Chavez-Sumarriva, Israel

    2014-05-01

    The time scale was based on the internationally recognized formal chronostratigraphical /geochronological subdivisions of time: The Phanerozoic Eonathem/Eon; the Cenozoic Erathem/Era; the Quaternary System/Period; the Pleistocene and Holocene Series/Epoch. The Quaternary was divided into: (1) The Pleistocene that was characterized by cycles of glaciations (intervals between 40,000 and 100,000 years). (2) The Holocene that was an interglacial period that began about 12,000 years ago. It was believed that the Milankovitch cycles (eccentricity, axial tilt and the precession of the equinoxes) were responsible for the glacial and interglacial Holocene periods. The magnetostratigraphic units have been widely used for global correlations valid for Quaternary. The gravitational influence of the sun and moon on the equatorial bulges of the mantle of the rotating earth causes the precession of the earth. The retrograde motion of the vernal point through the zodiacal band is 26,000 years. The Vernal point passes through each constellation in an average of 2000 years and this period of time was correlated to Bond events that were North Atlantic climate fluctuations occurring every ≡1,470 ± 500 years throughout the Holocene. The vernal point retrogrades one precessional degree approximately in 72 years (Gleissberg-cycle) and approximately enters into the Aquarius constellation on March 20, 1940. On earth this entry was verify through: a) stability of the magnetic equator in the south central zone of Peru and in the north zone of Bolivia, b) the greater intensity of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in Peru and Bolivia since 1940. With the completion of the Holocene and the beginning of the Anthropocene (widely popularized by Paul Crutzen) it was proposed the date of March 20, 1940 as the beginning of the Anthropocene. The date proposed was correlated to the work presented in IUGG (Italy 2007) with the title "Cusco base meridian for the study of geophysical data"; Cusco was

  20. SU-E-T-72: A Retrospective Correlation Analysis On Dose-Volume Control Points and Treatment Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, A; Nohadani, O [Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); Refaat, T; Bacchus, I; Cutright, D; Sathiaseelan, V; Mittal, B [Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify correlation between dose-volume control points and treatment outcomes. Specifically, two outcomes are analyzed: occurrence of radiation induced dysphagia and target complications. The results inform the treatment planning process when competing dose-volume criteria requires relaxations. Methods: 32 patients, treated with whole-field sequential intensity modulated radiation therapy during 2009–2010 period, are considered for this study. Acute dysphagia that is categorized into 3 grades is observed on all patients. 3 patients are observed in grade 1, 17 patients in grade 2, and 12 patients in grade 3. Ordinal logistic regression is employed to establish correlations between grades of dysphagia and dose to cervico-thoracic esophagus. Particularly, minimum (Dmin), mean (Dmean), and maximum (Dmax) dose control points are analyzed. Additionally, target complication, which includes local-regional recurrence and/or distant metastasis, is observed on 4 patients. Binary logistic regression is used to quantify correlation between target complication and four dose control points. Namely, ICRU recommended dose control points, D2, D50, D95, and D98 are analyzed. Results: For correlation with dysphagia, Dmin on cervico-thoracic esophagus is statistically significant (p-value = 0.005). Additionally, Dmean on cervico-thoracic esophagus is also significant in association with dysphagia (p-value = 0.012). However, no correlation was observed between Dmax and dysphagia (p-value = 0.263). For target complications, D50 on the target is a statistically significant dose control point (p-value = 0.032). No correlations were observed between treatment complications and D2 (p-value = 0.866), D95 (p-value = 0.750), and D98 (p-value = 0.710) on the target. Conclusion: Significant correlations are observed between radiation induced dysphagia and Dmean (and Dmin) to cervico-thoracic esophagus. Additionally, correlation between target complications and median dose to target

  1. SU-E-T-72: A Retrospective Correlation Analysis On Dose-Volume Control Points and Treatment Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A; Nohadani, O; Refaat, T; Bacchus, I; Cutright, D; Sathiaseelan, V; Mittal, B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify correlation between dose-volume control points and treatment outcomes. Specifically, two outcomes are analyzed: occurrence of radiation induced dysphagia and target complications. The results inform the treatment planning process when competing dose-volume criteria requires relaxations. Methods: 32 patients, treated with whole-field sequential intensity modulated radiation therapy during 2009–2010 period, are considered for this study. Acute dysphagia that is categorized into 3 grades is observed on all patients. 3 patients are observed in grade 1, 17 patients in grade 2, and 12 patients in grade 3. Ordinal logistic regression is employed to establish correlations between grades of dysphagia and dose to cervico-thoracic esophagus. Particularly, minimum (Dmin), mean (Dmean), and maximum (Dmax) dose control points are analyzed. Additionally, target complication, which includes local-regional recurrence and/or distant metastasis, is observed on 4 patients. Binary logistic regression is used to quantify correlation between target complication and four dose control points. Namely, ICRU recommended dose control points, D2, D50, D95, and D98 are analyzed. Results: For correlation with dysphagia, Dmin on cervico-thoracic esophagus is statistically significant (p-value = 0.005). Additionally, Dmean on cervico-thoracic esophagus is also significant in association with dysphagia (p-value = 0.012). However, no correlation was observed between Dmax and dysphagia (p-value = 0.263). For target complications, D50 on the target is a statistically significant dose control point (p-value = 0.032). No correlations were observed between treatment complications and D2 (p-value = 0.866), D95 (p-value = 0.750), and D98 (p-value = 0.710) on the target. Conclusion: Significant correlations are observed between radiation induced dysphagia and Dmean (and Dmin) to cervico-thoracic esophagus. Additionally, correlation between target complications and median dose to target

  2. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.

    2018-01-01

    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  3. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  4. PA03.13. Effect of triphaladi rasayana along with yoga therapy on low grade non hodgkins lymphoma and resistant intermediate and high grade non hodgkins lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, MS Surya; Sarasa, TP

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: 1. To find out the effect of Thriphaladi Rasayana along with Yoga Therapy on low grade Non Hodgkins Lymphoma and resistant intermediate and high grade NonHodgkins Lymphoma. 2. To apply a less costly, less morbid, well accepted method of treatment on NHL. 3.To find a simple method to increase the immunity. 4.To try a drug which is easy to prepare? Method: Purposive sampling technique was used for the study. Sample of 30 patients age range 25 75 years with histologicaly proven NonHodgkins lymphoma, attending the M.O.I.O.P of the regional cancer centre during a period of 18 months. Groups1) Low grade NonHodgkins Lymphoma 2) Resistant intermediate &High grade NonHodgkins lymphoma (failed chemotherapy) were taken. Procedure : 2 groups were given Triphaladhi Rasayana (15 grams of powder with ghee and honey) twice dailymorning& at bed time with milk as anupana for period of 1month along with selected yoga asanas and niyama? Result: Symptoms included were fever, night sweats, weight loss, lymph nodes enlargement, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly. In low grade symptom relief was noted in almost all cases. Lymph node changes notedLow grade5 2% (complete remission), 38% (partial remission), 10% (no change), intermediate35% (CR), 52% (PR) & 13% (NC), High grade67% (CR), 33%(PR). Hepatomegaly changes :ve in low grade92.86%, intermediate 90.9% & high grade100%. Splenomegaly changes :ve in low grade92.86%, intermediate72.72% & high grade80% Over all remission status of 30 patientscomplete remission30%, partial remission 30% & no change30%? Conclusion: Thriphaladirasayana along with Yoga therapy is very effective in Low grade NonHodgkins lymphoma and resistant intermediate and high grade Non hodgkins Lymphoma?

  5. Point/Counterpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungar, David; Ernst, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Point Argument: "Dynamic Languages (in Reactive Environments) Unleash Creativity," by David Ungar. For the sake of creativity, the profession needs to concentrate more on inventing new and better dynamic languages and environments and less on improving static languages. Counterpoint Argument......: "Explicitly Declared Static Types: The Missing Links," by Erik Ernst. How do we understand software? Using it is a powerful approach, but it provides examples of properties, not general truths. Some static knowledge is needed. This department is part of a special issue on dynamically typed languages....

  6. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tomie est replacé et fixé par des fils d'acier, krönlein lais- sait ce fragment pédiculé au fascia temporalis afin d'évi- ter la dépression de la fosse temporale due à la désinser- tion du muscle temporal [20] ; dans notre série, après reconstitution du cadre, le muscle temporal est suturé à son point d'insertion. pour les tumeurs ...

  7. Pointing control for LDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Y.; Briggs, C.

    1988-01-01

    One important aspect of the LDR control problem is the possible excitations of structural modes due to random disturbances, mirror chopping, and slewing maneuvers. An analysis was performed to yield a first order estimate of the effects of such dynamic excitations. The analysis involved a study of slewing jitters, chopping jitters, disturbance responses, and pointing errors, making use of a simplified planar LDR model which describes the LDR dynamics on a plane perpendicular to the primary reflector. Briefly, the results indicate that the command slewing profile plays an important role in minimizing the resultant jitter, even to a level acceptable without any control action. An optimal profile should therefore be studied.

  8. The point on.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In this last article, we find the point of view about the world petroleum activity, the reserves and the recent discoveries, the deep offshore, the technological developments in petroleum upstream. The petroleum situation in China is treated. The trends of world refining are described. The recent technological developments in the petroleum downstream are detailed. The prices of crude oil and the refining margins are the subject of a chapter. The investments of hydrocarbons area are given, the world trade and the lng projects, the gas availability in Western Europe have their place. The trends of European automobile industry and the fuels distribution are also discussed. (N.C.)

  9. Effects of a Nutrition Education Program on the Dietary Behavior and Nutrition Knowledge of Second-Grade and Third-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Alicia Raby; Struempler, Barbara J.; Guarino, Anthony; Parmer, Sondra M.

    2005-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of a nutrition education program on dietary behavior and nutrition knowledge among elementary school-aged children participating in a Social Cognitive Theory-based nutrition education program. Participants included 1100 second-grade and third-grade students selected by convenience-type sampling from public…

  10. Measure of uncertainty in regional grade variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutmez, B.; Kaymak, U.; Melin, P.; Castillo, O.; Gomez Ramirez, E.; Kacprzyk, J.; Pedrycz, W.

    2007-01-01

    Because the geological events are neither homogeneous nor isotropic, the geological investigations are characterized by particularly high uncertainties. This paper presents a hybrid methodology for measuring of uncertainty in regional grade variability. In order to evaluate the fuzziness in grade

  11. Plutonium Disposition Now exclamation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    A means for use of existing processing facilities and reactors for plutonium disposition is described which requires a minimum capital investment and allows rapid implementation. The scenario includes interim storage and processing under IAEA control, and fabrication into MOX fuel in existing or planned facilities in Europe for use in operating reactors in the two home countries. Conceptual studies indicate that existing Westinghouse four-loop designs can safety dispose of 0.94 MT of plutonium per calendar year. Thus, it would be possible to consume the expected US excess stockpile of about 50 MT in two to three units of this type, and it is highly likely that a comparable amount of the FSU excess plutonium could be deposed of in a few VVER-1000's. The only major capital project for this mode of plutonium disposition would be the weapons-grade plutonium processing which could be done in a dedicated international facility or using existing facilities in the US and FSU under IAEA control. This option offers the potential for quick implementation at a very low cost to the governments of the two countries

  12. Pharmacokinetic MRI of the prostate. Parameters for differentiating low-grade and high-grade prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franiel, T.; Taupitz, M.; Asbach, P.; Beyersdorff, D.; Luedemann, L.; Rost, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: to investigate whether pharmacokinetic MRI parameters ''perfusion, blood volume, mean transit time (MTT), interstitial volume, permeability, extraction coefficient, delay, and dispersion'' allow the differentiation of low-grade (Gleason score ≤ 6) and high-grade (Gleason score ≥ 7) prostate cancer. Materials and method: forty-two patients with prostate cancer verified by biopsy (PSA 2.7 to 31.4ng/ml) and scheduled for prostatectomy underwent MRI at 1.5 Tesla using the dynamic contrast-enhanced inversion-prepared dual-contrast gradient echo sequence (temporal resolution, 1.65 s) and a combined endorectal body phased array coil. Parametric maps were computed using a sequential 3-compartment model and the corresponding post-processing algorithms. A total of 41 areas of prostate cancer (15 low-grade, 26 high-grade cancers) in 32 patients were able to be correlated with the prostatectomy specimens and were included in the analysis. Results: low-grade prostate cancers had a higher mean blood volume (1.76% vs. 1.64%, p = 0.039), longer MTT (6.39 s vs. 3.25 s, p -1 vs. 3.86 min -1 , p = 0.011) than high-grade cancers. No statistically significant difference was found for perfusion (p = 0.069), interstitial volume (p = 0.849), extraction coefficient (p = 0.615), delay (p = 0.489), and dispersion (p = 0.306). (orig.)

  13. Karst Feature Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Southeastern Minnesota is part of the Upper Mississippi Valley Karst (Hedges and Alexander, 1985) that includes southwestern Wisconsin and northeastern Iowa. Karst...

  14. Relative Critical Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Lewis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures – symplectic, Poisson, or variational – generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (coadjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems – the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids – and generalizations of these systems.

  15. Reassessing Function Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Finnie

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of the size and development effort for software projects requires estimation models which can be used early enough in the development life cycle to be of practical value. Function Point Analysis (FPA has become possibly the most widely used estimation technique in practice. However the technique was developed in the data processing environment of the 1970's and, despite undergoing considerable reassessment and formalisation, still attracts criticism for the weighting scoring it employs and for the way in which the function point score is adapted for specific system characteristics. This paper reviews the validity of the weighting scheme and the value of adjusting for system characteristics by studying their effect in a sample of 299 software developments. In general the value adjustment scheme does not appear to cater for differences in productivity. The weighting scheme used to adjust system components in terms of being simple, average or complex also appears suspect and should be redesigned to provide a more realistic estimate of system functionality.

  16. Bright point study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.; Harvey, K.; Bruner, M.; Kent, B.; Antonucci, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transition region and coronal observations of bright points by instruments aboard the Solar Maximum Mission and high resolution photospheric magnetograph observations on September 11, 1980 are presented. A total of 31 bipolar ephemeral regions were found in the photosphere from birth in 9.3 hours of combined magnetograph observations from three observatories. Two of the three ephemeral regions present in the field of view of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Polarimeter were observed in the C IV 1548 line. The unobserved ephemeral region was determined to be the shortest-lived (2.5 hr) and lowest in magnetic flux density (13G) of the three regions. The Flat Crystal Spectrometer observed only low level signals in the O VIII 18.969 A line, which were not statistically significant to be positively identified with any of the 16 ephemeral regions detected in the photosphere. In addition, the data indicate that at any given time there lacked a one-to-one correspondence between observable bright points and photospheric ephemeral regions, while more ephemeral regions were observed than their counterparts in the transition region and the corona

  17. Referential Zero Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Potrč

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the most important controversy in which ordinary language philosophy was involved is that of definite descriptions, presenting referential act as a community-involving communication-intention endeavor, thereby opposing the direct acquaintance-based and logical proper names inspired reference aimed at securing truth conditions of referential expression. The problem of reference is that of obtaining access to the matters in the world. This access may be forthcoming through the senses, or through descriptions. A review of how the problem of reference is handled shows though that one main practice is to indulge in relations of acquaintance supporting logical proper names, demonstratives, indexicals and causal or historical chains. This testifies that the problem of reference involves the zero point, and with it phenomenology of intentionality. Communication-intention is but one dimension of rich phenomenology that constitutes an agent’s experiential space, his experiential world. Zero point is another constitutive aspect of phenomenology involved in the referential relation. Realizing that the problem of reference is phenomenology based opens a new perspective upon the contribution of analytical philosophy in this area, reconciling it with continental approach, and demonstrating variations of the impossibility related to the real. Chromatic illumination from the cognitive background empowers the referential act, in the best tradition of ordinary language philosophy.

  18. The grading management of the quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaozheng; Han Shufang; Yu Bei; Tian Xuehang

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the quality assurance grading management of the items, services and technology process on nuclear power plants (nuclear island, conventional island, BOP), such as the requirements and aim in the related code, guide, technical document, the requirements for the related units, the grading principle and grading, the considering method for the differences of QA requirements of the each QA grand, as well as the status and propositions in the QA grading management in China. (authors)

  19. Metal recovery from high-grade WEEE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    . The modeled metallurgical treatment facility included a Kaldo plant, a converter aisle, an anode refinery and a precious metal refinery. The metallurgic treatment showed significant environmental savings when credited the environmental load from avoided production of the same amount of metals by mining...... and refining of ore. The resource recovery per tonne of high-grade WEEE ranged from 2 g of palladium to 386 kg of iron. Quantified in terms of person-equivalents the recovery of palladium, gold, silver, nickel and copper constituted the major environmental benefit of the recovery of metals from WEEE....... These benefits are most likely underestimated in the model, since we did not find adequate data to include all the burdens from mining and refining of ore; burdens that are avoided when metals are recovered from WEEE. The processes connected to the pre-treatment of WEEE were found to have little environmental...

  20. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  1. Forecasting and recruitment in graded manpower systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nunen, J.A.E.E.; Wessels, J.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper a generalized Markov model is introduced to describe the dynamic behaviour of an individual employee in a graded Manpower system. Characteristics like the employee's grade, his educational level, his age and the time spent in his actual grade, can be incorporated in the Markov model.

  2. Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

  3. Grade Inflation: An Issue for Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruth, Donald L.; Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: (1) student evaluations of professors; (2) student teacher…

  4. Does Education Corrupt? Theories of Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinik, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Several theories of grade inflation are discussed in this review article. It is argued that grade inflation results from the substitution of criteria specific to the search for truth by criteria of quality control generated outside of academia. Particular mechanisms of the grade inflation that occurs when a university is transformed into a…

  5. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  6. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    2012-01-01

    In this brief article, we shall illustrate the application of the analytical and interventionist concept of ‘Critical Points of Contact’ (CPC) through a number of urban design studios. The notion of CPC has been developed over a span of the last three to four years and is reported in more detail...... elsewhere (Jensen & Morelli 2011). In this article, we will only discuss the conceptual and theoretical framing superficially, since our real interest is to show and discuss the concept's application value to spatial design in a number of urban design studios. The 'data' or the projects presented are seven...... in urban design at Aalborg University, where urban design consists of both an analytical and an interventionist field of operation. Furthermore, the content of the CPC concept links to research in mobilities, the network city, and urban design. These are among the core pillars of both the masters programme...

  7. Point defects in platinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piercy, G.R.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was made of the mobility and types of point defect introduced in platinum by deformation in liquid nitrogen, quenching into water from 1600 o C, or reactor irradiation at 50 o C. In all cases the activation energy for motion of the defect was determined from measurements of electrical resistivity. Measurements of density, hardness, and x-ray line broadening were also made there applicable. These experiments indicated that the principal defects remaining in platinum after irradiation were single vacant lattice sites and after quenching were pairs of vacant lattice sites. Those present after deformation In liquid nitrogen were single vacant lattice sites and another type of defect, perhaps interstitial atoms. (author)

  8. Virtual turning points

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Naofumi; Takei, Yoshitsugu

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a virtual turning point truly is a breakthrough in WKB analysis of higher order differential equations. This monograph expounds the core part of its theory together with its application to the analysis of higher order Painlevé equations of the Noumi–Yamada type and to the analysis of non-adiabatic transition probability problems in three levels. As M.V. Fedoryuk once lamented, global asymptotic analysis of higher order differential equations had been thought to be impossible to construct. In 1982, however, H.L. Berk, W.M. Nevins, and K.V. Roberts published a remarkable paper in the Journal of Mathematical Physics indicating that the traditional Stokes geometry cannot globally describe the Stokes phenomena of solutions of higher order equations; a new Stokes curve is necessary.

  9. The Temporal Tipping Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    “Slow journalism” is a term anthropologist and sociologists sometimes use to describe their empirical work, ethnography. To journalists and media observers, meanwhile, “slow journalism” signifies a newfound dedication to serious long-form journalism. Not surprisingly, thus, “ethnographic journalism......”—a genre where reporters adopt research strategies from social science—takes “slow” to the extreme. Immersing themselves in communities for weeks, months and years, ethnographic journalists seek to gain what anthropologists call “the native's point of view”. Based on in-depth interviews with practitioners...... and analyses of their journalistic works, this paper offers a study of ethnographic journalism suggesting that slow time operates in at least three separate registers. First, in terms of regimentation, ethnographic journalism is mostly long-form pieces that demand time-consuming research and careful writing...

  10. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  11. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the speculation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  12. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  13. Defining the minimum clinically important difference for grade I degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: insights from the Quality Outcomes Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Anthony L; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Bisson, Erica F; Glassman, Steven D; Foley, Kevin T; Slotkin, Jonathan; Potts, Eric A; Shaffrey, Mark E; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Coric, Domagoj; Knightly, John J; Park, Paul; Fu, Kai-Ming; Devin, Clinton J; Archer, Kristin R; Chotai, Silky; Chan, Andrew K; Virk, Michael S; Bydon, Mohamad

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) play a pivotal role in defining the value of surgical interventions for spinal disease. The concept of minimum clinically important difference (MCID) is considered the new standard for determining the effectiveness of a given treatment and describing patient satisfaction in response to that treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the MCID associated with surgical treatment for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. METHODS The authors queried the Quality Outcomes Database registry from July 2014 through December 2015 for patients who underwent posterior lumbar surgery for grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis. Recorded PROs included scores on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), EQ-5D, and numeric rating scale (NRS) for leg pain (NRS-LP) and back pain (NRS-BP). Anchor-based (using the North American Spine Society satisfaction scale) and distribution-based (half a standard deviation, small Cohen's effect size, standard error of measurement, and minimum detectable change [MDC]) methods were used to calculate the MCID for each PRO. RESULTS A total of 441 patients (80 who underwent laminectomies alone and 361 who underwent fusion procedures) from 11 participating sites were included in the analysis. The changes in functional outcome scores between baseline and the 1-year postoperative evaluation were as follows: 23.5 ± 17.4 points for ODI, 0.24 ± 0.23 for EQ-5D, 4.1 ± 3.5 for NRS-LP, and 3.7 ± 3.2 for NRS-BP. The different calculation methods generated a range of MCID values for each PRO: 3.3-26.5 points for ODI, 0.04-0.3 points for EQ-5D, 0.6-4.5 points for NRS-LP, and 0.5-4.2 points for NRS-BP. The MDC approach appeared to be the most appropriate for calculating MCID because it provided a threshold greater than the measurement error and was closest to the average change difference between the satisfied and not-satisfied patients. On subgroup analysis, the MCID thresholds for laminectomy-alone patients were

  14. Slow rate of progression of grade 1 and 2+ aortic regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Reena; Kamath, Ashvin; Varadarajan, Padmini; Krishnan, Srikanth; Pai, Ramdas G

    2012-05-01

    Although the progression of aortic stenosis has been well studied, the rate of progression of aortic regurgitation (AR) has not been definitively established. Further data would be valuable for clinical decision-making in patients with milder degrees of AR undergoing non-aortic valve cardiac surgery. Hence, this point was investigated in a large cohort of patients with grade 1 or 2+ AR. The authors' echocardiographic database acquired between 1993 and 2007 was screened for patients with grade 1 or 2+ AR who had undergone follow up echocardiography at least one year later. The AR severity was graded as 1 to 4+, and any annual changes in AR grade were monitored. Among a total of 4,128 patients identified, 3,266 had grade 1+ AR and 862 had grade 2+ AR on the initial echocardiogram: the mean age was 67 +/- 15 years, and the duration of follow up was 4.2 +/- 2.7 years. Of those patients initially with grade 1+ AR, 95% showed no change in AR over a mean interval of 4.2 years, with an annual average increase in AR grade of 0.04. Of those patients initially with grade 2+ AR, 90% showed no change over this period, with an annual average increase in grade of 0.07. In the entire cohort, the AR progression correlated positively with age (p = 0.03), ventricular septal thickness (p grade 1 or 2+ AR in the absence of any higher risk for progression, such as grade 2+ AR combined with any degree of aortic stenosis and advanced age.

  15. A practical MRI grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee: Association with Kellgren–Lawrence radiographic scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee-Jin, E-mail: parkhiji@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, #108 Pyung-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Baengnyeong-ro 156, Chuncheon-Si, Gangwon-Do Kangwon National University Hospital 200-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo, E-mail: samskim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Baengnyeong-ro 156, Chuncheon-Si, Gangwon-Do Kangwon National University Hospital 200-722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So-Yeon, E-mail: parkhiji@kwandong.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, #108 Pyung-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Noh-Hyuck, E-mail: nhpark904@kwandong.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, 697-24 Hwajung-dong, Dukyang-ku, Koyang, Kyunggi 412-270 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Yeon, E-mail: zzzz3@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, 697-24 Hwajung-dong, Dukyang-ku, Koyang, Kyunggi 412-270 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon-Jung, E-mail: yoonchoi99@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, #108 Pyung-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyun-Jun, E-mail: ostrich-13@hanmail.net [Department of Occupational Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, 194 Dongsan-Dong, Jung-ku, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To propose a reproducible and constant MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint that provides high interobserver and intraoberver agreement and that does not require complicated calculation procedures. Materials and methods: This retrospective study sample included 44 men and 65 women who underwent both MRI and plain radiography of the knee at our institution. All patients were older than 50 years of age (mean 57.7) and had clinically suspected osteoarthritis of the knee. The standard of 4 grades on the MR grade scale was based mainly on cartilage injury and additional findings. Kellgren–Lawrence grades were assessed for the same patient group. The relationship between the results was determined. Statistical analyses were performed including kappa statistics, categorical regression analysis and nonparametric correlation analysis. Results: The interobserver and intraoberver agreements between the two readers in the grading of osteoarthritis were found to be almost perfect. Interobserver and intraobserver agreements were slightly lower for the MR grading system than for the Kellgren–Lawrence grading scale. The correlation between the MR grade and Kellgren–Lawrence grade was very high and did not differ with patient age. The MR grades were highly correlated with the Kellgren–Lawrence grades and showed excellent interobserver and intraobserver agreements. Conclusion: This new MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint is reproducible and may be helpful for the grading of osteoarthritis of the knee without requiring reference to plain radiography.

  16. A practical MRI grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee: Association with Kellgren–Lawrence radiographic scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sam Soo; Lee, So-Yeon; Park, Noh-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Yoon-Jung; Jeon, Hyun-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a reproducible and constant MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint that provides high interobserver and intraoberver agreement and that does not require complicated calculation procedures. Materials and methods: This retrospective study sample included 44 men and 65 women who underwent both MRI and plain radiography of the knee at our institution. All patients were older than 50 years of age (mean 57.7) and had clinically suspected osteoarthritis of the knee. The standard of 4 grades on the MR grade scale was based mainly on cartilage injury and additional findings. Kellgren–Lawrence grades were assessed for the same patient group. The relationship between the results was determined. Statistical analyses were performed including kappa statistics, categorical regression analysis and nonparametric correlation analysis. Results: The interobserver and intraoberver agreements between the two readers in the grading of osteoarthritis were found to be almost perfect. Interobserver and intraobserver agreements were slightly lower for the MR grading system than for the Kellgren–Lawrence grading scale. The correlation between the MR grade and Kellgren–Lawrence grade was very high and did not differ with patient age. The MR grades were highly correlated with the Kellgren–Lawrence grades and showed excellent interobserver and intraobserver agreements. Conclusion: This new MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint is reproducible and may be helpful for the grading of osteoarthritis of the knee without requiring reference to plain radiography

  17. Petrographic-mineralogical characterization with liberation grade, X ray and chemical diffractometry in ore samples of Itataia-CE mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    From samples collected by geologists in several points of G2 and G3 gallery of Itataia Uranium Phosphate mine, intended to get knowledge about several lithologic types of ores, mainly its alteration grades. Petrographic-mineralogical studies, liberation grade calculation of apatite, X-ray diffractometry analysis and dosage of oxydes by X-ray fluorencence are executed. (C.M.) [pt

  18. Study on Tei index of right ventricular by tissue doppler imaging and the observation point selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yinli; Wu Ji; Guo Shenglan; Zhang Di; Li Zhixian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the right ventricular (RV) Tei index in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and to explore more accurate observation point to obtain Tei index of right ventricular. Methods: Assessment of RV Tei index values was performed in 95 patients with PH and 32 normal subjects. The 95 patients were grouped into 3 groups according to the severity of PH. Tei index values were obtained by TDI measurement from three observation points, the anterior tricuspid and septal tricuspid attachment points in the apical 4-chamber view and the posterior tricuspid attachment point in parasternal right heart 2-chamber review. Results: (1) RV Tel index values were measured at the three points of PH was higher than the normal significantly (P<0.05). (2) RV Tei index values of the three PH groups at he anterior tricuspid attachment had significant difference each other (P<0.05). RV Tei index values of low-grade and medium-grade PH groups at septal tricuspid and posterior tricuspid had no significant difference, but that of high-grade PH group were higher than the low-grade and medium-grade PH group. Conclusion: RV Tei index value was significantly increased in PH patients. The Tei index value measured by TDI at anterior tricuspid attachment point in apical 4-chamber view was better than that at septal tricuspid attachment point in the apical 4-chamber view and posterior' attachment of parasternal right heart 2-chamber. (authors)

  19. Differentiation between grade 3 and grade 4 articular cartilage defects of the knee: Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted versus fat-suppressed three-dimensional gradient-echo MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So Yeon; Jee, Won-Hee; Kim, Sun Ki (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea)), e-mail: whjee@catholic.ac.kr; Koh, In-Jun (Dept. of Joint Reconstruction Center, Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea)); Kim, Jung-Man (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea))

    2010-05-15

    Background: Fat-suppressed (FS) proton density (PD)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FS three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo imaging such as spoiled gradient-recalled (SPGR) sequence have been established as accurate methods for detecting articular cartilage defects. Purpose: To retrospectively compare the diagnostic efficacy between FS PD-weighted and FS 3D gradient-echo MRI for differentiating between grade 3 and grade 4 cartilage defects of the knee with arthroscopy as the standard of reference. Material and Methods: Twenty-one patients who had grade 3 or 4 cartilage defects in medial femoral condyle at arthroscopy and knee MRI were included in this study: grade 3, >50% cartilage defects; grade 4, full thickness cartilage defects exposed to the bone. Sagittal FS PD-weighted MR images and FS 3D gradient-echo images with 1.5 T MR images were independently graded for the cartilage abnormalities of medial femoral condyle by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Statistical analysis was performed by Fisher's exact test. Inter-observer agreement in grading of cartilage was assessed using ? coefficients. Results: Arthroscopy revealed grade 3 defects in 17 patients and grade 4 defects in 4 patients in medial femoral condyles. For FS 3D gradient-echo images grade 3 defects were graded as grade 3 (n=15) and grade 4 (n=2), and all grade 4 defects (n=4) were correctly graded. However, for FS PD-weighted MR images all grade 3 defects were misinterpreted as grade 1 (n=1) and grade 4 (n=16), whereas all grade 4 defects (n=4) were correctly graded. FS 3D gradient-echo MRI could differentiate grade 3 from grade 4 defects (P=0.003), whereas FS PD-weighted imaging could not (P=1.0). Inter-observer agreement was substantial (?=0.70) for grading of cartilage using FS PD-weighted imaging, whereas it was moderate (?=0.46) using FS 3D gradient-echo imaging. Conclusion: FS 3D gradient-echo MRI is more helpful for differentiating between grade 3 and grade 4 cartilage

  20. Controlling Thermal Conduction by Graded Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qin; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Manipulating thermal conductivities are fundamentally important for controlling the conduction of heat at will. Thermal cloaks and concentrators, which have been extensively studied recently, are actually graded materials designed according to coordinate transformation approaches, and their effective thermal conductivity is equal to that of the host medium outside the cloak or concentrator. Here we attempt to investigate a more general problem: what is the effective thermal conductivity of graded materials? In particular, we perform a first-principles approach to the analytic exact results of effective thermal conductivities of materials possessing either power-law or linear gradation profiles. On the other hand, by solving Laplace’s equation, we derive a differential equation for calculating the effective thermal conductivity of a material whose thermal conductivity varies along the radius with arbitrary gradation profiles. The two methods agree with each other for both external and internal heat sources, as confirmed by simulation and experiment. This work provides different methods for designing new thermal metamaterials (including thermal cloaks and concentrators), in order to control or manipulate the transfer of heat. Support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11725521, by the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality under Grant No. 16ZR1445100

  1. The Relationship of Grade Span in 9th Grade to Math Achievement in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John; Miller, Mary Lou; Myers, Jim; Norton, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose, Scope, and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between grade span for ninth grade and gains in math achievement test scores in 10th grade and 12th grade. A quantitative, longitudinal, correlational research design was employed to investigate the research questions. The population was high…

  2. High grade glioma: Imaging combined with pathological grade defines management and predicts prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnet, Neil G.; Lynch, Andrew G.; Jefferies, Sarah J.; Price, Stephen J.; Jones, Phil H.; Antoun, Nagui M.; Xuereb, John H.; Pohl, Ute

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is ambiguity in pathological grading of high grade gliomas within the WHO 2000 classification, especially those with predominant oligodendroglial differentiation. Patients and methods: All adult high grade gliomas treated radically, 1996-2005, were assessed. Cases in which pathology was grade III but radiology suggested glioblastoma (GBM) were classified as 'grade III/IV'; their pathology was reviewed. Results: Data from 245 patients (52 grade III, 18 grade III/IV, 175 GBM) were analysed using a Cox Proportional Hazards model. On pathology review, features suggestive of more aggressive behaviour were found in all 18 grade III/IV tumours. Oligodendroglial components with both necrosis and microvascular proliferation were present in 7. MIB-1 counts for the last 8 were all above 14%, mean 27%. Median survivals were: grade III 34 months, grade III/IV 10 months, GBM 11 months. Survival was not significantly different between grade III/IV and GBM. Patients with grade III/IV tumours had significantly worse outcome than grade III, with a hazard of death 3.7 times higher. Conclusions: The results highlight the current inconsistency in pathological grading of high grade tumours, especially those with oligodendroglial elements. Patients with histological grade III tumours but radiological appearances suggestive of GBM should be managed as glioblastoma

  3. Association of Grade Configuration with School Climate for 7th and 8th Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Marisa; Cornell, Dewey; Shukla, Kathan

    2017-01-01

    Educational authorities have questioned whether middle schools provide the best school climate for 7th and 8th grade students, and proposed that other grade configurations such as K-8th grade schools may provide a better learning environment. The purpose of this study was to compare 7th and 8th grade students' perceptions of 4 key features of…

  4. Comparing Dropout Predictors for Two State-Level Panels Using Grade 6 and Grade 8 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Bobby J.; Trouard, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of dropout predictors across time. Two state-level high school graduation panels were selected to begin with the seventh and ninth grades but end at the same time. The first panel (seventh grade) contained 29,554 students and used sixth grade predictors. The second panel (ninth grade)…

  5. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  6. Grade III or Grade IV Hypertensive Retinopathy with Severely Elevated Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Henderson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertensive retinopathy describes a spectrum of retinal changes in patients with elevated blood pressure (BP. It is unknown why some patients are more likely to develop acute ocular end-organ damage than others with similar BP. We examined risk factors for grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy among patients with hypertensive urgency in the emergency department (ED and compared healthcare utilization and mortality between patients with and without grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy.Methods: A preplanned subanalysis of patients who presented to a university hospital ED with diastolic BP > 120 mmHg and who enrolled in the Fundus Photography versus Ophthalmoscopy Trial Outcomes in the ED study was performed. Bilateral nonmydriatic ocular fundus photographs, vital signs, and demographics were obtained at presentation. Past medical history, laboratory values, healthcare utilization, and mortality were ascertained from medical record review at least 8 months after initial ED visit.Results: Twenty-one patients with diastolic BP > 120 mmHg, 7 of whom (33% had grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy, were included. Patients with retinopathy were significantly younger than those without (median 33 vs 50 years, P = 0.02. Mean arterial pressure (165 vs 163 mmHg was essentially equal in the 2 groups. Patients with retinopathy had substantially increased but nonsignificant rates of ED revisit (57% vs 29%, P = 0.35 and hospital admission after ED discharge (43% vs 14%, P = 0.28. One of the patients with retinopathy died, but none without.Conclusion: Younger patients may be at higher risk for grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy among patients with hypertensive urgency. Chronic compensatory mechanisms may have not yet developed in these younger patients. Alternatively, older patients with retinopathy may be underrepresented secondary to increased mortality among these patients at a younger age (survivorship bias. Further research is needed to

  7. Visual MRI grading system to evaluate atrophy of the supeaspinatus muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyun Kyoung; Hong, Sung Hwan; Yoo, Hye Jin; Choi, Ja Young; Kim, Sae Hoon; Choi, Jung Ah; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    To investigate the interobserver reproducibility and diagnostic feasibility of a visual grading system for assessing atrophy of the supraspinatus muscle on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three independent radiologists retrospectively evaluated the occupying ratio of the supraspinatus muscle in the supraspinatus fossa on 192 shoulder MRI examinations in 188 patients using a 3-point visual grading system (1, ≥ 60%; 2, 30-59%; 3, < 30%) on oblique sagittal T1-weighted images. The inter-reader agreement and the agreement with the reference standard (3-point grades according to absolute occupying ratio values quantitatively measured by directly contouring the muscles on MRI) were analyzed using weighted kappa. The visual grading was applied by a single reader to a group of 100 consecutive patients who had undergone rotator cuff repair to retrospectively determine the association between the visual grades at preoperative state and postsurgical occurrences of retear. The inter-reader weighted kappa value for the visual grading was 0.74 when averaged across three reader pairs (0.70-0.77 for individual reader pairs). The weighted kappa value between the visual grading and the reference standard ranged from 0.75 to 0.83. There was a significant difference in retear rates of the rotator cuff between the 3 visual grades of supraspinatus muscle atrophy on MRI in univariable analysis (p < 0.001), but not in multivariable analysis (p = 0.026). The 3-point visual grading system may be a feasible method to assess the severity of supraspinatus muscle atrophy on MRI and assist in the clinical management of patients with rotator cuff tear.

  8. Visual MRI grading system to evaluate atrophy of the supeaspinatus muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyun Kyoung; Hong, Sung Hwan; Yoo, Hye Jin; Choi, Ja Young; Kim, Sae Hoon; Choi, Jung Ah; Kang, Heung Sik

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the interobserver reproducibility and diagnostic feasibility of a visual grading system for assessing atrophy of the supraspinatus muscle on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three independent radiologists retrospectively evaluated the occupying ratio of the supraspinatus muscle in the supraspinatus fossa on 192 shoulder MRI examinations in 188 patients using a 3-point visual grading system (1, ≥ 60%; 2, 30-59%; 3, < 30%) on oblique sagittal T1-weighted images. The inter-reader agreement and the agreement with the reference standard (3-point grades according to absolute occupying ratio values quantitatively measured by directly contouring the muscles on MRI) were analyzed using weighted kappa. The visual grading was applied by a single reader to a group of 100 consecutive patients who had undergone rotator cuff repair to retrospectively determine the association between the visual grades at preoperative state and postsurgical occurrences of retear. The inter-reader weighted kappa value for the visual grading was 0.74 when averaged across three reader pairs (0.70-0.77 for individual reader pairs). The weighted kappa value between the visual grading and the reference standard ranged from 0.75 to 0.83. There was a significant difference in retear rates of the rotator cuff between the 3 visual grades of supraspinatus muscle atrophy on MRI in univariable analysis (p < 0.001), but not in multivariable analysis (p = 0.026). The 3-point visual grading system may be a feasible method to assess the severity of supraspinatus muscle atrophy on MRI and assist in the clinical management of patients with rotator cuff tear.

  9. Preparation and Fatigue Properties of Functionally Graded Cemented Carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Liu Fengxiao; Liaw, Peter K.; He Yuehui

    2008-01-01

    Cemented carbides with a functionally graded structure have significantly improved mechanical properties and lifetimes in cutting, drilling and molding. In this work, WC-6 wt.% Co cemented carbides with three-layer graded structure (surface layer rich in WC, mid layer rich in Co and the inner part of the average composition) were prepared by carburizing pre-sintered η-phase-containing cemented carbides. The three-point bending fatigue tests based on the total-life approach were conducted on both WC-6wt%Co functionally graded cemented carbides (FGCC) and conventional WC-6wt%Co cemented carbides. The functionally graded cemented carbide shows a slightly higher fatigue limit (∼100 MPa) than the conventional ones under the present testing conditions. However, the fatigue crack nucleation behavior of FGCC is different from that of the conventional ones. The crack nucleates preferentially along the Co-gradient and perpendicular to the tension surface in FGCC, while parallel to the tension surface in conventional cemented carbides

  10. Benchmarking of Sterilizing grade filters with liposome Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, Thomas; Mundlamuri, Ramesh; Loewe, Thomas; Mundrigi, Ashok; Handt, Sebastian; Singh, Bhuwan

    2017-12-14

    Cytotoxic drugs can be encapsulated in liposomes vesicles, which act as drug delivery vehicles and reduce the risk of exposure of drug to healthy cells(1). The sterility of such liposome solutions is typically ensured using 0.2μm rated sterilizing grade membranes, but due to the high viscosity and low surface tension of these formulations, they can cause pre-mature blocking and increased risk of bacterial penetration through a 0.2μm sterilizing grade membrane(2). The low surface tension of liposome solutions affects the contact angle with membrane and reduces bubble point leading to bacterial penetration through the membrane. This poses a great challenge to select an appropriate sterilizing grade membrane for a given process and for filter manufacturers to develop a sterilizing grade membrane that specifically addresses these needs. In this study, the influence of different variables that could affect the total throughput and bacterial retention performance of different membranes types on processing of liposome solutions have been evaluated. Based on the results, we conclude that the membrane properties e.g., surface porosity, surface tension, pore size, symmetry/asymmetry, hydrophilicity and liposome properties e.g., composition, lipid size and concentration affect bacterial retention and total throughput capacity. Process parameters such as temperature, pressure and flow should also be optimized to improve process efficiency. Copyright © 2017, Parenteral Drug Association.

  11. Natural science textbooks for the fourth grade and their text difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libuše Hrabí

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings regarding an assessment of the difficulty of text in six current Czech natural science textbooks for the fourth grade. The textual analysis was carried out according to a modified Průcha method. The results indicate that textual difficulty varies in the textbooks examined (19 - 31 points. Textbooks published by the Alter, Fortuna and SPN publishing companies are suitable for teaching in the fourth grade.

  12. Wolf Point Substation, Roosevelt County, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western), an agency of the United States Department of Energy, is proposing to construct the 115-kV Wolf Point Substation near Wolf Point in Roosevelt County, Montana (Figure 1). As part of the construction project, Western's existing Wolf Point Substation would be taken out of service. The existing 115-kV Wolf Point Substation is located approximately 3 miles west of Wolf Point, Montana (Figure 2). The substation was constructed in 1949. The existing Wolf Point Substation serves as a ''Switching Station'' for the 115-kV transmission in the region. The need for substation improvements is based on operational and reliability issues. For this environmental assessment (EA), the environmental review of the proposed project took into account the removal of the old Wolf Point Substation, rerouting of the five Western lines and four lines from the Cooperatives and Montana-Dakota Utilities Company, and the new road into the proposed substation. Reference to the new proposed Wolf Point Substation in the EA includes these facilities as well as the old substation site. The environmental review looked at the impacts to all resource areas in the Wolf Point area. 7 refs., 6 figs

  13. Mobile medical apps for patient education: a graded review of available dermatology apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Aisha; Shafi, Shahram; Rao, Babar K

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of mobile applications (apps) as educational resources for patients highlights the need for an objective method of evaluating the quality of health care-related mobile apps. In this study, a quantified rubric was developed to objectively grade publicly available dermatology mobile apps with the primary focus of patient education. The rubric included 5 criteria thought to be most important in evaluating the adequacy of these apps in relaying health information to patients: educational objectives, content, accuracy, design, and conflict of interest. A 4-point scale was applied to each criterion. The use of this objective rubric could have implications in the evaluation and recommendation of mobile health care apps as a vital educational resource for patients.

  14. Developing and Validating a Science Notebook Rubric for Fifth-Grade Non-Mainstream Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Margarita; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Tong, Fuhui; Irby, Beverly J.

    2014-07-01

    We present the development and validation of a science notebook rubric intended to measure the academic language and conceptual understanding of non-mainstream students, specifically fifth-grade male and female economically disadvantaged Hispanic English language learner (ELL) and African-American or Hispanic native English-speaking students. The science notebook rubric is based on two main constructs: academic language and conceptual understanding. The constructs are grounded in second-language acquisition theory and theories of writing and conceptual understanding. We established content validity and calculated reliability measures using G theory and percent agreement (for comparison) with a sample of approximately 144 unique science notebook entries and 432 data points. Results reveal sufficient reliability estimates, indicating that the instrument is promising for use in future research studies including science notebooks in classrooms with populations of economically disadvantaged Hispanic ELL and African-American or Hispanic native English-speaking students.

  15. Characterization of commercial grade Tyranno SA/CVI-SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardi, B.; Trentini, E.; Labanti, M.; Leuchs, M.; Roccella, S.; Visca, E.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to characterize commercial-grade Tyranno SA SiC fiber reinforced chemically vapour infiltrated (CVI) SiC matrix composites (SiC f /SiC) with chemically vapour deposited (CVD) SiC coating. The characterization includes the assessment of the monotonic mechanical properties. Low cycle flexural fatigue behaviour has been investigated at room temperature (RT) and 1000 o C by means of 4-point bending tests. The creep behaviour at 1000 o C was preliminary investigated by means of constant bending stress rupture test. The material showed a pronounced degradation of monotonic mechanical properties at high temperature. Low cycle flexural fatigue behaviour showed excellent and satisfactory results at RT and 1000 o C, respectively. The creep resistance at 1000 o C is significant only at low load level

  16. Learning power point 2000 easily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mon, In Su; Je, Jung Suk

    2000-05-15

    This book introduces power point 2000, which gives descriptions what power point is, what we can do with power point 2000, is it possible to install power point 2000 in my computer? Let's run power point, basic of power point such as new presentation, writing letter, using text box, changing font size, color and shape, catching power user, insertion of word art and creating of new file. It also deals with figure, chart, graph, making multimedia file, presentation, know-how of power point for teachers and company workers.

  17. Prognostic significance of multiple kallikreins in high-grade astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drucker, Kristen L.; Gianinni, Caterina; Decker, Paul A.; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.; Scarisbrick, Isobel A.

    2015-01-01

    Kallikreins have clinical value as prognostic markers in a subset of malignancies examined to date, including kallikrein 3 (prostate specific antigen) in prostate cancer. We previously demonstrated that kallikrein 6 is expressed at higher levels in grade IV compared to grade III astrocytoma and is associated with reduced survival of GBM patients. In this study we determined KLK1, KLK6, KLK7, KLK8, KLK9 and KLK10 protein expression in two independent tissue microarrays containing 60 grade IV and 8 grade III astrocytoma samples. Scores for staining intensity, percent of tumor stained and immunoreactivity scores (IR, product of intensity and percent) were determined and analyzed for correlation with patient survival. Grade IV glioma was associated with higher levels of kallikrein-immunostaining compared to grade III specimens. Univariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis demonstrated that elevated KLK6- or KLK7-IR was associated with poor patient prognosis. In addition, an increased percent of tumor immunoreactive for KLK6 or KLK9 was associated with decreased survival in grade IV patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that patients with KLK6-IR < 10, KLK6 percent tumor core stained < 3, or KLK7-IR < 9 had a significantly improved survival. Multivariable analysis indicated that the significance of these parameters was maintained even after adjusting for gender and performance score. These data suggest that elevations in glioblastoma KLK6, KLK7 and KLK9 protein have utility as prognostic markers of patient survival. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1566-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  18. Seizure prognosis of patients with low-grade tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Fadul, Camilo E; Roberts, David W; Thadani, Vijay M; Bujarski, Krzysztof A; Scott, Rod C; Jobst, Barbara C

    2012-09-01

    Seizures frequently impact the quality of life of patients with low grade tumors. Management is often based on best clinical judgment. We examined factors that correlate with seizure outcome to optimize seizure management. Patients with supratentorial low-grade tumors evaluated at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Using multiple regression analysis the patient characteristics and treatments were correlated with seizure outcome using Engel's classification. Of the 73 patients with low grade tumors and median follow up of 3.8 years (range 1-20 years), 54 (74%) patients had a seizure ever and 46 (63%) had at least one seizure before tumor surgery. The only factor significantly associated with pre-surgical seizures was tumor histology. Of the 54 patients with seizures ever, 25 (46.3%) had a class I outcome at last follow up. There was no difference in seizure outcome between grade II gliomas (astrocytoma grade II, oligodendroglioma grade II, mixed oligo-astrocytoma grade II) and other pathologies (pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymomas, DNET, gangliocytoma and ganglioglioma). Once seizures were established seizure prognosis was similar between different pathologies. Chemotherapy (p=0.03) and radiation therapy (p=0.02) had a positive effect on seizure outcome. No other parameter including significant tumor growth during the follow up period predicted seizure outcome. Only three patients developed new-onset seizures after tumor surgery that were non-perioperative. Anticonvulsant medication was tapered in 14 patients with seizures and 10 had no further seizures. Five patients underwent additional epilepsy surgery with a class I outcome in four. Two patients received a vagal nerve stimulator with >50% seizure reduction. Seizures at presentation are the most important factor associated with continued seizures after tumor surgery. Pathology does not influence seizure outcome. Use of long term prophylactic anticonvulsants is unwarranted. Chemotherapy and

  19. ATLAS Point 1 Construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Inigo-Golfin, J

    After 3 years of work in point 1, a number of surface buildings have already been completed and handed over to CERN (the control, the gas and the cooling and ventilation buildings) and, probably more appealing to the public, 60,000 m3 of earth have already been excavated from underground. At present, the technical cavern USA15 and its access shaft are almost finished, leaving only the main cavern and the liaison galleries to be completed in the coming year and a half. The main cavern has been excavated down to the radiation limit and its walls and vault will presently be concreted (see below the picture of the section of the vault with the impressive shell of 1.2 m thickness). The excavation of the bench (27 vertical metres to go yet!) will proceed from August, when some additional civil engineering work in the LHC tunnel will be undertaken. Needless to say many different services are necessary around the detector, both for its installation and future operation for physics. To that end much of the heavy...

  20. Point 1 Updates

    CERN Multimedia

    Inigo-Golfin, J.

    The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are ever so busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Not only has Civil Engineering finished the construction of the USA15 technical cavern, but the excavation of the main UX15 cavern has resumed below the machine tunnel, after a brief halt to allow the construction of the UJ-caverns for the power converters of the LHC machine. The excavation work should end in August 2002. The UX15 hand-over to ATLAS is expected in April 2003. On the surface civil engineering is starting to complete the last two surface buildings (SDX1 and SH1), once the services (cooling pipes, ventilation ducts and the largest item, the lift modules and its lift of course) in the shaft PX15 have been completed. But the civil engineering is not all. A lot more is under way. The site installation of the steel structures in the caverns is to begin in Autumn, along with all the cooling pipes, airconditi...

  1. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three perfo...

  2. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local pop...

  3. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This spectacle in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three performances for...

  4. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Passenger Safety, Grade 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains four lessons and an appendix of school bus safety tips for use in grade 3. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing…

  5. Second-Grade Journeys on the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump-Stenberg, Linda; Beilke, Patricia F.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a curriculum used in a second grade classroom to expose the predominantly white students to the culture and experiences of African Americans through a study of slavery and the Underground Railroad. Includes a bibliography of African folk tales and literature related to the African American experience. (SLD)

  6. Podcasting in an Eighth-Grade American History Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patrick D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see how students used podcasts in an eighth-grade American history unit and the value they placed on them as an educational tool. The 6-week study was conducted in a suburban middle school in a district that is part of a large metropolitan area in Texas. Participants included 29 students and 2 eighth-grade…

  7. Risk factors, ulcer grade and management outcome of diabetic foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors, ulcer grade and management outcome of diabetic foot ulcers in a Tropical Tertiary Care Hospital. ... Data documented included age, gender, type of DM, duration of DM, risk factors of DFU, duration of DFU ... 85.2% had type 2 DM.

  8. Creating a Ninth-Grade Community of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.; Kiefer, Sarah M.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative case study analyzed how one large high school created a community of care for ninth-grade students. Data were collected during the 2006-2007 school year, including observations, individual interviews, and focus group interviews of 1 female teacher and 9 of her students. Findings suggest the Freshman Focus teachers and program…

  9. [Poetry: Literature Curriculum, Grades Five and Six; Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    This curriculum guide is intended to introduce fifth and sixth grade children to the study of poetry. Separate units include discussion of, suggested activities for, and questions about (1) metrics and scansion; (2) rhyme scheme and stanza; (3) diction, denotation and connotation, and onomatopoeia; (4) rhyme (end rhyme, masculine and feminine…

  10. Cultures of the Western World. Grade Ten. Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Chester School District, PA.

    This curriculum guide presents nine units for the study of western cultures in the tenth grade. The units contain up to 13 lessons each and comprise a two-semester course. Content includes ancient Greece and Rome, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and Reformation, Great Britain, France as a case study of revolution, Russia, and nationalism and the…

  11. Connecting with the Arts: A Workshop for Middle Grades Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annenberg Media, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Connecting with the Arts: A Workshop for Middle Grades Teachers" is a video workshop for middle school teachers of the arts and other subjects. The workshop includes eight hour-long video programs and a companion workshop guide and Web site. The workshop shows middle school teachers why and how to integrate the arts (dance, music, theatre, and…

  12. Adapting Music for the Ninth Grade Mixed Chorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kathleen

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses how the ninth grader's vocal development, personality development and musical preferences create unique problems in selecting music for ninth grade choirs. Suggestions are made for adapting published choral music. A list of sacred, secular and Christmas music is included. (KC)

  13. Secondary Textbook Review: English, Grades Nine through Twelve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This book is intended as a resource for teachers and curriculum developers who select textbooks for secondary English courses. It includes a compilation of 32 factual textbook reviews obtained from the application of a review instrument, which was based on the California "Model Curriculum Standards: Grades Nine through Twelve, English…

  14. Rheology and extrusion of low-grade paper and sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Tim Scott; Stefan Zauscher; Daniel J. Klingenberg

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses efforts to characterize the rheological properties of pulps that include low-grade wastepapers and papermill sludges to determine their potential for extrusion and conversion into useful products. We investigated apparent changes in viscosity associated with the addition of typical inorganic paper fillers (calcium carbonate, kaolin clay, and...

  15. Kinder Lernen Deutsch Materials Evaluation Project: Grades K-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Teachers of German.

    The Kinder Lernen Deutsch (Children Learn German) project, begun in 1987, is designed to promote German as a second language in grades K-8. The project is premised on the idea that the German program will contribute to the total development of the child and the child's personality. Included in this guide are a selection of recommended core…

  16. 2013 strategic petroleum reserve big hill well integrity grading report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa; Wynn, Karen; Checkai, Dean; Perry, James Thomas

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in developing a framework for the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. This framework was then applied to all 28 wells at the Big Hill site with each well receiving a grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading framework including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The framework was developed in a way as to be applicable to all four of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites.

  17. The Point Lepreau Desktop Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, M.; Hogg, J.; Newman, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Point Lepreau Desktop Simulator runs plant process modeling software on a 266 MHz single CPU DEC Alpha computer. This same Alpha also runs the plant control computer software on an SSCI 125 emulator. An adjacent Pentium PC runs the simulator's Instructor Facility software, and communicates with the Alpha through an Ethernet. The Point Lepreau Desktop simulator is constructed to be as similar as possible to the Point Lepreau full scope training simulator. This minimizes total maintenance costs and enhances the benefits of the desktop simulator. Both simulators have the same modeling running on a single CPU in the same schedule of calculations. Both simulators have the same Instructor Facility capable of developing and executing the same lesson plans, doing the same monitoring and control of simulations, inserting all the same malfunctions, performing all the same overrides, capable of making and restoring all the same storepoints. Both simulators run the same plant control computer software - the same assembly language control programs as the power plant uses for reactor control, heat transport control, annunciation, etc. This is a higher degree of similarity between a desktop simulator and a full scope training simulator than previously reported for a computer controlled nuclear plant. The large quantity of control room hardware missing from the desktop simulator is replaced by software. The Instructor Facility panel override software of the training simulator provides the means by which devices (switches, controllers, windows, etc.) on the control room panels can be controlled and monitored in the desktop simulator. The CRT of the Alpha provides a mouse operated DCC keyboard mimic for controlling the plant control computer emulation. Two emulated RAMTEK display channels appear as windows for monitoring anything of interest on plant DCC displays, including one channel for annunciation. (author)

  18. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    2010-01-01

    are identified, and where we simulate backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and......In this paper we describe methods for randomly thinning certain classes of spatial point processes. In the case of a Markov point process, the proposed method involves a dependent thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process, where clans of ancestors associated with the original points......, thus, can be used as a graphical exploratory tool for inspecting the goodness-of-fit of a spatial point process model. Several examples, including clustered and inhibitive point processes, are considered....

  19. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    , and where one simulates backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and thus can......This paper describes methods for randomly thinning certain classes of spatial point processes. In the case of a Markov point process, the proposed method involves a dependent thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process, where clans of ancestors associated with the original points are identified...... be used as a diagnostic for assessing the goodness-of-fit of a spatial point process model. Several examples, including clustered and inhibitive point processes, are considered....

  20. What are the differentiating clinical and MRI-features of enchondromas from low-grade chondrosarcomas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, Hassan [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); University Hospital Birmingham, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Parry, M. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Vaiyapuri, S. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Musculoskeletal Pathology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Davies, A.M. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate the role of clinical assessment, conventional and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in differentiating enchondromas from chondrosarcomas of long bone. The following clinical and MRI findings were assessed: age, gender, pain, pain attributable to lesion, tumour location, tumour length, presence, depth of endosteal scalloping, bone marrow oedema, soft tissue oedema, cortical destruction, periosteal reaction, bone expansion, macroscopic fat, calcification, soft tissue mass, haemorrhage, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Clinical and MRI findings were compared with histopathological grading. Sixty patients with central chondroid tumours were included (27 enchondromas, 10 cartilaginous lesions of unknown malignant potential, 15 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, 8 high-grade chondrosarcomas). Pain attributed to lesion, tumour length, endosteal scalloping > 2/3, cortical destruction, bone expansion and soft tissue mass were differentiating features between enchondromas and grade 1 chondrosarcomas. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI could not differentiate enchondromas from grade 1 chondrosarcomas. Previously reported imaging signs of chondrosarcomas are useful in the diagnosis of grade 1 lesions but have lower sensitivity than in higher grade lesions. Deep endosteal scalloping is the most sensitive imaging sign of grade 1 chondrosarcomas. Pain due to the lesion is an important clinical sign of grade 1 chondrosarcomas. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is not useful in differentiating enchondromas from grade 1 chondrosarcomas. (orig.)

  1. BSN Program Admittance Criteria: Should Emotional Intelligence Be Included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to identify and monitor emotions and remain aware of how emotions affect thoughts and actions. Emotional intelligence has been discussed as a better predictor of personal and occupational success than performance on intellectual intelligence tests. Despite the importance of one's emotional intelligence, BSN (Bachelor of Science in Nursing) nursing schools routinely admit candidates based on the student's cumulative college course grade point average (GPA). Nursing is a profession that requires one's ability to empathize, care, and react in emotionally sound manners. Is the GPA enough to determine if a student will evolve into a professional nurse? This article will explore the routine admittance criteria for BSN nursing programs and propose the concept of using the emotional intelligence tool as an adjunct to the cumulative college course GPA. The emotional intelligence theory will be identified and applied to the nursing profession. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. New testing options for diagnosing and grading dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulks, Gary N; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2014-06-01

    To describe new options for diagnosis and severity grading of dry eye disease. Perspective on technological advancements to identify tear dysfunction and their value in diagnosing and grading dry eye disease. Evidence is presented on new and evolving technologies to measure tear stability, composition, and meniscus height and their role in dry eye diagnosis and therapeutic efficacy grading is assessed. Evolving concepts regarding pathogenesis and new technologies to evaluate the tears and ocular surface have improved the ability to diagnose, classify, and grade the severity of dry eye disease. New technologies include noninvasive imaging of tear stability and tear meniscus height as a measure of tear volume and tear composition (osmolarity, lacrimal factors, inflammatory mediators, growth and differentiation factors). Approved tests, such as tear osmolarity and tear imaging, are being integrated into clinical practice and may eventually supplant certain traditional tests that have greater variability and less sensitivity. Other tests, such as molecular assays of tears and conjunctival cells, are currently being used in studies investigating pathogenesis and therapeutic mechanism of action. They may eventually translate to routine clinical practice. New technologies have emerged that can noninvasively evaluate the tears and measure disease-associated compositional changes. These tests are being integrated into clinical practice and therapeutic trials for diagnosis, classification, and severity grading of dry eye disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of obesity on academic grades among Saudi female medical students at College of Medicine, King Saud University: Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraya, Faryal; Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Almubarak, Zaid; Alqaseem, Yazeed Abdullah

    2017-08-01

    The aim was to investigate the effect of obesity on academic grades among Saudi female medical students. This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Plastic Surgery, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period November 2014 to June 2015. In all 191 second and third year female medical students with an average age of 21.31 years and body mass indices 15-40 were included. An English language questionnaire was established to obtain the information about age, gender, body mass index, level of study and the academic grades [Grade Point Average-GPA]. Female medical students with BMI 21-25 and 26-30 achieved high GPA while female medical students with higher BMI 31-35 and greater than 36 obtained low GPA. High BMI in female medical students impair the academic performance. The academic institutes must establish extra-curricular physical fitness policies to minimize the obesity and achieve better health and academic outcomes.

  4. Waveguide effect under 'antiguiding' conditions in graded anisotropic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A V; Mozhaev, V G; Zyryanova, A V

    2010-02-24

    A new wave confinement effect is predicted in graded crystals with a concave slowness surface under conditions of growth of the phase velocity with decreasing distance from the waveguide axis. This finding overturns the common notion about the guiding and 'antiguiding' profiles of wave velocity in inhomogeneous media. The waveguide effect found is elucidated by means of ray analysis and particular exact wave solutions. The exact solution obtained for localized flexural waves in thin plates of graded cubic and tetragonal crystals confirms the predicted effect. Since this solution is substantially different with respect to the existence conditions from all others yet reported, and it cannot be deduced from the previously known results, the predicted waves can be classified as a new type of waveguide mode in graded anisotropic media. Although the concrete calculations are given in the article for acoustic waves, its general predictions are expected to be valid for waves of various natures, including spin, plasma, and optical waves.

  5. Waveguide effect under 'antiguiding' conditions in graded anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A V; Mozhaev, V G; Zyryanova, A V

    2010-01-01

    A new wave confinement effect is predicted in graded crystals with a concave slowness surface under conditions of growth of the phase velocity with decreasing distance from the waveguide axis. This finding overturns the common notion about the guiding and 'antiguiding' profiles of wave velocity in inhomogeneous media. The waveguide effect found is elucidated by means of ray analysis and particular exact wave solutions. The exact solution obtained for localized flexural waves in thin plates of graded cubic and tetragonal crystals confirms the predicted effect. Since this solution is substantially different with respect to the existence conditions from all others yet reported, and it cannot be deduced from the previously known results, the predicted waves can be classified as a new type of waveguide mode in graded anisotropic media. Although the concrete calculations are given in the article for acoustic waves, its general predictions are expected to be valid for waves of various natures, including spin, plasma, and optical waves.

  6. Processing Terrain Point Cloud Data

    KAUST Repository

    DeVore, Ronald

    2013-01-10

    Terrain point cloud data are typically acquired through some form of Light Detection And Ranging sensing. They form a rich resource that is important in a variety of applications including navigation, line of sight, and terrain visualization. Processing terrain data has not received the attention of other forms of surface reconstruction or of image processing. The goal of terrain data processing is to convert the point cloud into a succinct representation system that is amenable to the various application demands. The present paper presents a platform for terrain processing built on the following principles: (i) measuring distortion in the Hausdorff metric, which we argue is a good match for the application demands, (ii) a multiscale representation based on tree approximation using local polynomial fitting. The basic elements held in the nodes of the tree can be efficiently encoded, transmitted, visualized, and utilized for the various target applications. Several challenges emerge because of the variable resolution of the data, missing data, occlusions, and noise. Techniques for identifying and handling these challenges are developed. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  7. The High Costs of Low-Grade Inflammation: Persistent Fatigue as a Consequence of Reduced Cellular-Energy Availability and Non-adaptive Energy Expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourt, Tamara E; Vichaya, Elisabeth G; Chiu, Gabriel S; Dantzer, Robert; Heijnen, Cobi J

    2018-01-01

    Chronic or persistent fatigue is a common, debilitating symptom of several diseases. Persistent fatigue has been associated with low-grade inflammation in several models of fatigue, including cancer-related fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome. However, it is unclear how low-grade inflammation leads to the experience of fatigue. We here propose a model of an imbalance in energy availability and energy expenditure as a consequence of low-grade inflammation. In this narrative review, we discuss how chronic low-grade inflammation can lead to reduced cellular-energy availability. Low-grade inflammation induces a metabolic switch from energy-efficient oxidative phosphorylation to fast-acting, but less efficient, aerobic glycolytic energy production; increases reactive oxygen species; and reduces insulin sensitivity. These effects result in reduced glucose availability and, thereby, reduced cellular energy. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with increased willingness to exert effort under specific circumstances. Circadian-rhythm changes and sleep disturbances might mediate the effects of inflammation on cellular-energy availability and non-adaptive energy expenditure. In the second part of the review, we present evidence for these metabolic pathways in models of persistent fatigue, focusing on chronic fatigue syndrome and cancer-related fatigue. Most evidence for reduced cellular-energy availability in relation to fatigue comes from studies on chronic fatigue syndrome. While the mechanistic evidence from the cancer-related fatigue literature is still limited, the sparse results point to reduced cellular-energy availability as well. There is also mounting evidence that behavioral-energy expenditure exceeds the reduced cellular-energy availability in patients with persistent fatigue. This suggests that an inability to adjust energy expenditure to available resources might be one mechanism underlying persistent fatigue.

  8. Early Prediction of Students' Grade Point Averages at Graduation: A Data Mining Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: There has recently been interest in educational databases containing a variety of valuable but sometimes hidden data that can be used to help less successful students to improve their academic performance. The extraction of hidden information from these databases often implements aspects of the educational data mining (EDM)…

  9. Strategy Precedes Operational Effectiveness: Aligning High Graduation Rankings with Competitive Graduation Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apprey, Maurice; Bassett, Kimberley C.; Preston-Grimes, Patrice; Lewis, Dion W.; Wood, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Two pivotal and interconnected claims are addressed in this article. First, strategy precedes program effectiveness. Second, graduation rates and rankings are insufficient in any account of academic progress for African American students. In this article, graduation is regarded as the floor and not the ceiling, as it were. The ideal situation in…

  10. DECA Membership and Its Effect on Grade Point Average as an Indicator of Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosloski, Michael F., Jr.; Ritz, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Stakeholders in career and technical education declare the value of applied learning through corresponding co-curricular student organizations. However, there is limited empirical evidence to support the notion that student organizations help participants to achieve academic gains. This study examined the levels of engagement in DECA's…

  11. How Faculty can Affect Student Texting, Distraction, Grades, and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Douglas K.; Hoekstra, A.; Wilcox, B.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable pressure on faculty members to use technology in teaching. Students also bring technology into class in the form of laptop computers, smart phones, and iPads. Does this technology increase or decrease learning? We report two years of data studying 14 different classes with a total of approximately 1200 students. We find that, on the average, approximately 70% of students use their own digital devices during class and 30% do not. The grades earned by the former group average nearly half a grade point average lower than the non-use group. Faculty policies are found to dramatically influence student behavior. Extensive student interview data will be reported that shows that students expect faculty members to set technology policies and summarizes their attitudes about technology use.

  12. [Weight parameters of water quality impact and risk grade determination of water environmental sensitive spots in Jiashan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rong-Rong; Pang, Yong; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Ke; Sun, Ming-Yuan

    2012-07-01

    For the safety of the water environment in Jiashan county in Zhejiang Province, one-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality models are established based on three large-scale monitoring of hydrology and water quality in Jiashan county, three water environmental sensitive spots including Hongqitang dam Chijia hydrological station and Luxie pond are selected to investigate weight parameters of water quality impact and risk grade determination. Results indicate as follows (1) Internal pollution impact in Jiashan areas was greater than the external, the average weight parameters of internal chemical oxygen demand (COD) pollution is 55.3%, internal ammonia nitrogen (NH(4+)-N) is 67.4%, internal total phosphor (TP) is 63.1%. Non-point pollution impact in Jiashan areas was greater than point pollution impact, the average weight parameters of non-point COD pollutions is 53.7%, non-point NH(4+)-N is 65.9%, non-point TP is 57.8%. (2) The risk of Hongqitang dam and Chijia hydrological station are in the middle risk. The risk of Luxie pond is also in the middle risk in August, and in April and December the risk of Luxie pond is low. The strategic decision will be suggested to guarantee water environment security and social and economic security in the study.

  13. Gemcitabine and docetaxel in relapsed and unresectable high-grade osteosarcoma and spindle cell sarcoma of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmerini, E; Jones, R L; Marchesi, E; Paioli, A; Cesari, M; Longhi, A; Meazza, C; Coccoli, L; Fagioli, F; Asaftei, S; Grignani, G; Tamburini, A; Pollack, S M; Picci, P; Ferrari, S

    2016-04-20

    Few new compounds are available for relapsed osteosarcoma. We retrospectively evaluated the activity of gemcitabine (G) plus docetaxel (D) in patients with relapsed high-grade osteosarcoma and high-grade spindle cell sarcoma of bone (HGS). Patients receiving G 900 mg/m(2) d 1, 8; D 75 mg/m(2) d 8, every 21 days were eligible. Primary end-point: progression-free survival (PFS) at 4 months; secondary end-point: overall survival (OS) and response rate. Fifty-one patients were included, with a median age of 17 years (8-71), 26 (51%) were pediatric patients. GD line of treatment: 2nd in 14 patients, ≥3rd in 37. 25 (49%) patients had metastases limited to lungs, 26 (51%) multiple sites. 40 (78%) osteosarcoma, 11 (22%) HGS. Eight (16%) patients achieved surgical complete response (sCR2) after GD. Four-month PFS rate was 46%, and significantly better for patients with ECOG 0 (ECOG 0: 54% vs ECOG 1: 43% vs ECOG 2: 0%; p = 0.003), for patients undergoing metastasectomy after GD (sCR2 75% vs no-sCR2 40 %, p = 0.02) and for osteosarcoma (osteosarcoma 56% vs HGS 18%; p = 0.05), with no differences according to age, line of treatment, and pattern of metastases. Forty-six cases had RECIST measurable disease: 6 (13%) patients had a partial response (PR), 20 (43%) had stable disease (SD) and 20 (43%) had progressive disease (PD). The 1-year OS was 30%: 67% for PR, 54% for SD and 20% for PD (p = 0.005). GD is an active treatment for relapsed high-grade osteosarcoma, especially for ECOG 0 patients, and should be included in the therapeutic armamentarium of metastatic osteosarcoma.

  14. Gemcitabine and docetaxel in relapsed and unresectable high-grade osteosarcoma and spindle cell sarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmerini, E.; Jones, R. L.; Marchesi, E.; Paioli, A.; Cesari, M.; Longhi, A.; Meazza, C.; Coccoli, L.; Fagioli, F.; Asaftei, S.; Grignani, G.; Tamburini, A.; Pollack, S. M.; Picci, P.; Ferrari, S.

    2016-01-01

    Few new compounds are available for relapsed osteosarcoma. We retrospectively evaluated the activity of gemcitabine (G) plus docetaxel (D) in patients with relapsed high-grade osteosarcoma and high-grade spindle cell sarcoma of bone (HGS). Patients receiving G 900 mg/m 2 d 1, 8; D 75 mg/m 2 d 8, every 21 days were eligible. Primary end-point: progression-free survival (PFS) at 4 months; secondary end-point: overall survival (OS) and response rate. Fifty-one patients were included, with a median age of 17 years (8–71), 26 (51 %) were pediatric patients. GD line of treatment: 2nd in 14 patients, ≥3rd in 37. 25 (49 %) patients had metastases limited to lungs, 26 (51 %) multiple sites. Histology: 40 (78 %) osteosarcoma, 11 (22 %) HGS. Eight (16 %) patients achieved surgical complete response (sCR2) after GD. Four-month PFS rate was 46 %, and significantly better for patients with ECOG 0 (ECOG 0: 54 % vs ECOG 1: 43 % vs ECOG 2: 0 %; p = 0.003), for patients undergoing metastasectomy after GD (sCR2 75 % vs no-sCR2 40 %, p = 0.02) and for osteosarcoma (osteosarcoma 56 % vs HGS 18 %; p = 0.05), with no differences according to age, line of treatment, and pattern of metastases. Forty-six cases had RECIST measurable disease: 6 (13 %) patients had a partial response (PR), 20 (43 %) had stable disease (SD) and 20 (43 %) had progressive disease (PD). The 1-year OS was 30 %: 67 % for PR, 54 % for SD and 20 % for PD (p = 0.005). GD is an active treatment for relapsed high-grade osteosarcoma, especially for ECOG 0 patients, and should be included in the therapeutic armamentarium of metastatic osteosarcoma

  15. Pion radiation for high grade astrocytoma: results of a randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, Tom; Goodman, George B.; Rheaume, Dorianne E.; Duncan, Graeme G.; Fryer, Chris J.; Bhimji, Shamim; Ludgate, Charles; Syndikus, Isabel; Graham, Peter; Dimitrov, Mario; Bowen, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study attempted to compare within a randomized study the outcome of pion radiation therapy vs. conventional photon irradiation for the treatment of high-grade astrocytomas. Methods and Materials: Eighty-four patients were randomized to pion therapy (33-34.5 Gyπ), or conventional photon irradiation (60 Gy). Entry criteria included astrocytoma (modified Kernohan high Grade 3 or Grade 4), age 18-70, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥50, ability to start irradiation within 30 days of surgery, unifocal tumor, and treatment volume < 850 cc. The high-dose volume in both arms was computed tomography enhancement plus a 2-cm margin. The study was designed with the power to detect a twofold difference between arms. Results: Eighty-one eligible patients were equally balanced for all known prognostic variables. Pion patients started radiation 7 days earlier on average than photon patients, but other treatment-related variables did not differ. There were no significant differences for either early or late radiation toxicity between treatment arms. Actuarial survival analysis shows no differences in terms of time to local recurrence or overall survival where median survival was 10 months in both arms (p = 0.22). The physician-assessed KPS and patient-assessed quality of life (QOL) measurements were generally maintained within 10 percentage points until shortly before tumor recurrence. There was no apparent difference in the serial KPS or QOL scores between treatment arms. Conclusion: In contrast to high linear energy transfer (LET) therapy for central nervous system tumors, such as neutron or neon therapy, the safety of pion therapy, which is of intermediate LET, has been reaffirmed. However, this study has demonstrated no therapeutic gain for pion therapy of glioblastoma

  16. Lévy based Cox point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmund, Gunnar; Prokesová, Michaela; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Lévy-driven Cox point processes (LCPs) as Cox point processes with driving intensity function Λ defined by a kernel smoothing of a Lévy basis (an independently scattered, infinitely divisible random measure). We also consider log Lévy-driven Cox point processes (LLCPs......) with Λ equal to the exponential of such a kernel smoothing. Special cases are shot noise Cox processes, log Gaussian Cox processes, and log shot noise Cox processes. We study the theoretical properties of Lévy-based Cox processes, including moment properties described by nth-order product densities...

  17. From Russian weapons grade plutonium to MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braehler, G.; Kudriavtsev, E.G.; Seyve, C.

    1997-01-01

    The April 1996, G7 Moscow Summit on nuclear matters provided a political framework for one of the most current significant challenges: ensuring a consistent answer to the weapons grade fissile material disposition issue resulting from the disarmament effort engaged by both the USA and Russia. International technical assessments have showed that the transformation of Weapons grade Plutonium in MOX fuel is a very efficient, safe, non proliferant and economically effective solution. In this regard, COGEMA and SIEMENS, have set up a consistent technical program properly addressing incineration of weapons grade plutonium in MOX fuels. The leading point of this program would be the construction of a Weapons grade Plutonium dedicated MOX fabrication plant in Russia. Such a plant would be based on the COGEMA-SIEMENS industrial capabilities and experience. This facility would be operated by MINATOM which is the partner for COGEMA-SIEMENS. MINATOM is in charge of coordination of the activity of the Russian research and construction institutes. The project take in account international standards for non-proliferation, safety and waste management. France and Germany officials reasserted this position during their last bilateral summits held in Fribourg in February and in Dijon in June 1996. MINATOM and the whole Russian nuclear community have already expressed their interest to cooperate with COGEMA-SIEMENS in the MOX field. This follows governmental-level agreements signed in 1992 by French, German and Russian officials. For years, Russia has been dealing with research and development on MOX fabrication and utilization. So, the COGEMA-SIEMENS MOX proposal gives a realistic answer to the management of weapons grade plutonium with regard to the technical, industrial, cost and schedule factors. (author)

  18. 77 FR 20610 - United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... defects. The new grades will replace the current ones and promote the orderly and efficient marketing of ginseng in an evolving global economy. Other changes will include a revised General Section, new... to determine and complement the new grades. DATES: Effective Date: May 7, 2012. FOR FURTHER...

  19. German Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Guide to Implementation, Grades 4-5-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This implementation guide is intended to support the Grade 4 to Grade 6 portion of the German Language and Culture Nine-year Program (the program of studies). It was developed primarily for teachers, yet it includes information that may be useful for administrators and other stakeholders in their efforts to plan for and implement the new Chinese…

  20. In Pursuit of the Elusive Elixir: Predictors of First Grade Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Robin

    Multivariate sets of predictor variables including both cognitive and social variables, different types of preschool experiences, and family environment variables were used to predict the first-grade reading achievement of 144 first-grade boys and girls. Measures for the predictor variables had been taken at school entry and at the end of the…

  1. Extent of resection and timing of surgery in adult low grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Mirza, Farhan; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad

    2017-06-01

    Low grade glioma is a group of WHO grade II tumours including diffuse astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and oligoastrocytoma. Strong evidence exists in literature now to support early surgery and higher extent of safe resection in improving outcomes. In this review, we are highlighting some of the important studies done in the last few years specifically addressing timing of surgery and extent of resection.

  2. Dialogue and Exchange of Information about Grade Inflation Can Counteract Its Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Alvaro Q.; Cooper, Eric K.; Gawelek, Mary Ann; Butela, Kristin; Johnson, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This investigation documents an intervention that successfully counteracted a grade inflation trend at a small, Catholic, liberal arts university in the eastern United States. The intervention produced a significant drop in grades awarded by full-time faculty, but not by adjunct faculty who were not yet included in the intervention. Institutional…

  3. Benefits of Single-Gender Education: Perceptions of Middle Grade Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattress, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study used descriptive statistics to evaluate data obtained from 179 middle grade teachers, grades 5-9, currently working in a single-gender environment, including public, private, and charter schools, with regard to the academic and behavioral benefits of single-gender education. The study used a survey created by Dr. John Fry…

  4. Punjabi Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Guide to Implementation, Grades 4-5-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This implementation guide is intended to support the Grade 4 to Grade 6 portion of the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-Year Program (the program of studies.) It was developed primarily for teachers, yet it includes information that may be useful for administrators and other stakeholders in their efforts to plan for and implement the new Punjabi…

  5. Grade-Level Retention in Texas Public Schools, 2015-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This annual report provides information for the 2015-16 school year on grade-level retention in the Texas public school system. Data on retention are provided by student characteristics, including grade level; race/ethnicity; gender; degree of English proficiency; and economic, at-risk, immigrant, migrant, and overage statuses. Data also are…

  6. Eighth Grade Social Studies. An Experimental Program in Geography and Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, James; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 8. SUBJECT MATTER: Geography and Anthropology. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The introductory material includes descriptions of geography and anthropology as disciplines, the basic course objectives, techniques for evaluating objectives and a student self-evaluation form. The guide covers six units: 1) "What Kind of…

  7. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyro Bekatorou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the production of microbiology media and extracts, as well as livestock feeds. Modern scientific advances allow the isolation, construction and industrial production of new yeast strains to satisfy the specific demands of the food industry. Types of commercial food grade yeasts, industrial production processes and raw materials are highlighted. Aspects of yeast metabolism, with respect to carbohydrate utilization, nutritional aspects and recent research advances are also discussed.

  8. Evaluating a grading change at UCSD school of medicine: pass/fail grading is associated with decreased performance on preclinical exams but unchanged performance on USMLE step 1 scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuff, Susan G R; McDuff, DeForest; Farace, Jennifer A; Kelly, Carolyn J; Savoia, Maria C; Mandel, Jess

    2014-06-30

    To assess the impact of a change in preclerkship grading system from Honors/Pass/Fail (H/P/F) to Pass/Fail (P/F) on University of California, San Diego (UCSD) medical students' academic performance. Academic performance of students in the classes of 2011 and 2012 (constant-grading classes) were collected and compared with performance of students in the class of 2013 (grading-change class) because the grading policy at UCSD SOM was changed for the class of 2013, from H/P/F during the first year (MS1) to P/F during the second year (MS2). For all students, data consisted of test scores from required preclinical courses from MS1 and MS2 years, and USMLE Step 1 scores. Linear regression analysis controlled for other factors that could be predictive of student performance (i.e., MCAT scores, undergraduate GPA, age, gender, etc.) in order to isolate the effect of the changed grading policy on academic performance. The change in grading policy in the MS2 year only, without any corresponding changes to the medical curriculum, presents a unique natural experiment with which to cleanly evaluate the effect of P/F grading on performance outcomes. After controlling for other factors, the grading policy change to P/F grading in the MS2 year had a negative impact on second-year grades relative to first-year grades (the constant-grading classes performed 1.65% points lower during their MS2 year compared to the MS1 year versus 3.25% points lower for the grading-change class, p < 0.0001), but had no observable impact on USMLE Step 1 scores. A change in grading from H/P/F grading to P/F grading was associated with decreased performance on preclinical examinations but no decrease in performance on the USMLE Step 1 examination. These results are discussed in the broader context of the multitude of factors that should be considered in assessing the merits of various grading systems, and ultimately the authors recommend the continuation of pass-fail grading at UCSD School of Medicine.

  9. Early phonological skills as a predictor of reading acquisition: a follow-up study from kindergarten to the middle of grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprugevica, Ieva; Høien, Torleiv

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the power of early measures of phonological skills (phonemic awareness, rapid naming, short-term memory) in predicting later reading skills at various points of time. About 70 children were followed from the end of kindergarten to the middle of grade 2. Correlation analyses were performed as well as a linear growth curve analyses. In the traditional regression analysis, phonemic awareness in kindergarten explained about 27% of the variance in word reading six months later and about 9.5% of the variance at the end of grade 1. Even when prior level of reading skill was included in the predictive equation, a significant amount of variance was still explained by phonemic awareness. The other predictor variables did not explain any variance in word reading, and phonemic awareness did not predict any variance in reading skills in grade 2. When using sentence reading as the dependent variable, phonemic awareness explained about 16% of unique variance after six months, and about 13% of the variance in the middle of grade 2. Similarly, when employing growth curve analysis, phonemic awareness was the only phonological factor that accounted for significant variance in the word reading slope, explaining about 25% of its variance, whereas naming and short-term memory did not explain any unique variance. The lack of predictive power of phonemic awareness on the sentence b-slope is assumed to be caused by unreliable sentence scores in kindergarten.

  10. Comparison of Biochemical Recurrence-Free Survival after Radical Prostatectomy Triggered by Grade Reclassification during Active Surveillance and in Men Newly Diagnosed with Similar Grade Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Clarissa P; Landis, Patricia; Carter, H Ballentine; Epstein, Jonathan I; Mamawala, Mufaddal

    2017-09-01

    We compared biochemical recurrence between men on active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy triggered by grade reclassification and men diagnosed with similar grade disease treated with immediate radical prostatectomy. We retrospectively analyzed the records of men who underwent surgery from 1995 to 2015 at our institution. We identified 4 groups, including 94 and 56 men on active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy following reclassification to Gleason 7 (3 + 4) or greater (grade groups 2 or greater) and Gleason 7 (3 + 4) (grade group 2), and 3,504 and 1,979 in the immediate prostatectomy group diagnosed with grade group 2 or greater and 2, respectively. Biochemical recurrence was assessed by Kaplan-Meir analysis and a multivariable Cox model. Men on active surveillance had a lower incidence of biochemical recurrence than men in the immediate radical prostatectomy groups for biopsy grade groups 2 or greater and 2 (each p <0.05). One, 5 and 10-year biochemical recurrence-free survival for men in the active surveillance group vs the immediate radical prostatectomy group was 97.9% vs 85.5%, 76.6% vs 65.1% and 69.0% vs 54.2% in biopsy grade groups 2 or greater (p = 0.009) and 96.4% vs 91.2%, 89.6% vs 74.0% and 89.6% vs 63.9%, respectively, in biopsy grade group 2 (p = 0.071). For biopsy grade groups 2 or greater there was no significant difference in the risk of biochemical recurrence between the groups after adjusting for age, biopsy extent of cancer and prostate specific antigen density. Patients on active surveillance reclassified to grade groups 2 or greater are at no greater risk for treatment failure than men newly diagnosed with similar grades. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Processing of low-grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, P.

    1975-01-01

    Four types of low grade ores are studied. Low grade ores which must be extracted because they are enclosed in a normal grade deposit. Heap leaching is the processing method which is largely used. It allows to obtain solutions or preconcentrates which may be delivered at the nearest plant. Normal grade ores contained in a low amplitude deposit which can be processed using leaching as far as the operation does not need any large expensive equipment. Medium grade ores in medium amplitude deposits to which a simplified conventional process can be applied using fast heap leaching. Low grade ores in large deposits. The processing possibilities leading to use in place leaching are explained. The operating conditions of the method are studied (leaching agent, preparation of the ore deposit to obtain a good tightness with regard to the hydrological system and to have a good contact between ore and reagent) [fr

  12. Processing of low grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, P.

    1978-10-01

    Four types of low-grade ores are studied: (1) Low-grade ores that must be extracted because they are enclosed in a normal-grade deposit. Heap leaching is the processing method which is largely used. (2) Normal-grade ores contained in low-amplitude deposits. They can be processed using in-place leaching as far as the operation does not need any large and expensive equipment. (3) Medium-grade ores in medium-amplitude deposits. A simplified conventional process can be applied using fast heap leaching. (4) Low-grade ores in large deposits. The report explains processing possibilities leading in most cases to the use of in-place leaching. The operating conditions of this method are laid out, especially the selection of the leaching agents and the preparation of the ore deposit

  13. Primary balloon angioplasty for symptomatic, high-grade intracranial stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomycz, Luke; Bansal, Neil K; Lockney, Tim; Strothers, Megan; Connors, John J; Shay, Scott; Singer, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    In light of recent controversy about the safety and efficacy of intracranial stenting, we sought to evaluate our experience with primary balloon angioplasty for symptomatic, high-grade intracranial stenosis. All intracranial angioplasty cases performed at Vanderbilt University Medical Center from 2006 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed for degree of stenosis pre- and post-procedure. Immediate peri-procedural complications were evaluated as well as one-month and long-term outcomes. A total of 26 patients were included in the study with a mean age of 63.0 years and a mean follow-up of 350.2 days. The average pre-procedure stenosis was 71.2%. The immediate, average post-procedure stenosis was 46.6%, and the average post-procedure stenosis at last angiographic follow-up was 44.5%. Retreatment was required in only 3.8% of patients. The primary end-point of major stroke or death at 30 days was observed in 11.5%, and the overall intra-procedural complication rate was 7.7%. The incidence of stroke or death at last follow-up was 15.4%, which is comparable to the one-year stroke or death rate in the medical arm of the SAMPRISS trial. In this retrospective series, primary balloon angioplasty was found to be effective as a treatment option for symptomatic intracranial stenosis with the risk of stroke or death at 30 days higher than the medical arm of SAMPRIS but lower than the stenting arm. The one-year risk of stroke was comparable to that reported for the one-year outcomes in the SAMPRISS medical arm.

  14. Critical Point in Self-Organized Tissue Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Hidalgo, Daniel; Werner, Steffen; Wartlick, Ortrud; González-Gaitán, Marcos; Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Jülicher, Frank

    2018-05-01

    We present a theory of pattern formation in growing domains inspired by biological examples of tissue development. Gradients of signaling molecules regulate growth, while growth changes these graded chemical patterns by dilution and advection. We identify a critical point of this feedback dynamics, which is characterized by spatially homogeneous growth and proportional scaling of patterns with tissue length. We apply this theory to the biological model system of the developing wing of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and quantitatively identify signatures of the critical point.

  15. Toward a CFD-grade database addressing LWR containment phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladino, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.paladino@psi.ch [Laboratory for Thermal-Hydraulics, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Andreani, Michele; Zboray, Robert; Dreier, Joerg [Laboratory for Thermal-Hydraulics, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SETH-2 PANDA tests have supplied data with CFD-grade on plumes and jets at large-scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PANDA tests have contributed to the understanding of phenomena with high safety relevance for LWRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analytical activities related increased confidence in the use of various computational tools for safety analysis. - Abstract: The large-scale, multi-compartment PANDA facility (located at PSI in Switzerland) is one of the state-of-the-art facilities which is continuously upgraded to progressively match the requirements of CFD-grade experiments. Within the OECD/SETH projects, the PANDA facility has been used for the creation of an experimental database on basic containment phenomena e.g. gas mixing, transport, stratification, condensation. In the PANDA tests, these phenomena are driven by large scale plumes or jets. In the paper is presented a selection of the SETH PANDA experimental results. Examples of analytical activities performed at PSI using the GOTHIC, CFX-4 and CFX-5 codes will be used to illustrate how the spatial and temporal resolutions of the measurement grid in PANDA tests are adequate for CFD code (and advanced containment codes) assessment and validation purposes.

  16. Georeferenced Point Clouds: A Survey of Features and Point Cloud Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Otepka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey of georeferenced point clouds. Concentration is, on the one hand, put on features, which originate in the measurement process themselves, and features derived by processing the point cloud. On the other hand, approaches for the processing of georeferenced point clouds are reviewed. This includes the data structures, but also spatial processing concepts. We suggest a categorization of features into levels that reflect the amount of processing. Point clouds are found across many disciplines, which is reflected in the versatility of the literature suggesting specific features.

  17. Solving discrete zero point problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, G.; Talman, A.J.J.; Yang, Z.F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper an algorithm is proposed to .nd a discrete zero point of a function on the collection of integral points in the n-dimensional Euclidean space IRn.Starting with a given integral point, the algorithm generates a .nite sequence of adjacent integral simplices of varying dimension and

  18. Mining the high grade McArthur River uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, B.W.

    2002-01-01

    The McArthur River deposit, discovered in 1988, is recognized as the world's largest, highest grade uranium deposit, with current mineable reserves containing 255 million lb U 3 O 8 at an average grade of 17.33% U 3 O 8 . In addition the project has resources of 228 million pounds U 3 O 8 averaging 12.02% U 3 O 8 . Mining this high-grade ore body presents serious challenges in controlling radiation and in dealing with high water pressures. Experience from the underground exploration programme has provided the information needed to plan the safe mining of the massive Pelite ore zone, which represents the most significant source of ore discovered during the underground drilling programme, with 220 million pounds of U 3 O 8 at an average grade in excess of 17%. Non-entry mining will be used in the high-grade ore zones. Raise boring will be the primary method to safely extract the ore, with all underground development in waste rock to provide radiation shielding. Water will be controlled by grouting and perimeter freezing. The ore cuttings from the raise boring will be ground underground and pumped to surface as slurry, at an average daily production of 150 tonnes. The slurry will be transported to the Key Lake mill and diluted to 4% before processing. The annual production is projected to be 18 million lb U 3 O 8 . The paper focuses on the activities undertaken since discovery, including the initiation of the raise bore mining method utilized to safely mine this high grade ore body. Radiation protection, environmental protection and worker health and safety are discussed in terms of both design and practical implementation. (author)

  19. "RMP Evaluations, Course Easiness, and Grades: Are They Related?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A. Rizvi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between the student evaluations of the instructors at the RateMyProfessors.com (RMP website and the average grades awarded by those instructors. As of Spring 2012, the RMP site included evaluations of 538 full-and part-time instructors at the College of Staten Island (CSI. We selected the evaluations of the 419 instructors who taught at CSI for at least two semesters from Fall 2009 to Spring 2011 and had at least ten evaluations. This research indicates that there is a strong correlation between RMP's overall evaluation and easiness scores. However, the perceived easiness of an instructor/course does not always result in higher grades for students. Furthermore, we found that the instructors who received high overall evaluation and easiness scores (4.0 to 5.0 at the RMP site do not necessarily award high grades. This is a very important finding as it disputes the argument that instructors receive high evaluations because they are easy or award high grades. On the other hand, instructors of the courses that are perceived to be difficult (RMP easiness score of 3.0 or less are likely to be tough graders. However, instructors who received moderate overall evaluation and easiness scores (between 3.0 and 4.0 the RMP site had a high correlation between these scores and average grade awarded by those instructors. Finally, our research shows that the instructors in non-STEM disciplines award higher grades than the instructors in STEM disciplines. Non-STEM instructors also received higher overall evaluations than their STEM counterparts and non-STEM courses were perceived easier by the students than STEM courses.

  20. PowerPoint 2010 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2010-01-01

    Master PowerPoint and improve your presentation skills-with one book!. It's no longer enough to have slide after slide of text, bullets, and charts. It's not even enough to have good speaking skills if your PowerPoint slides bore your audience. Get the very most out of all that PowerPoint 2010 has to offer while also learning priceless tips and techniques for making good presentations in this new PowerPoint 2010 Bible. Well-known PowerPoint expert and author Faithe Wempen provides formatting tips; shows you how to work with drawings, tables, and SmartArt; introduces new collaboration tools; wa