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Sample records for included dietary habits

  1. Personality and dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Y; Watanabe, S

    2000-05-01

    The personality of healthy individuals has not been well studied in relation to health consciousness, dietary habits and actual food intake, simultaneously. Our objective was to study the association between personality and dietary habits. Information on dietary habits, including taste preferences and the frequency of food consumption, was collected through a questionnaire from 76 male and 394 female students. The personality of students was determined by a modified NEO-FFI test. Health status, height, body weight, body fat percentage and blood pressure were measured by physical examination. Main outcome measures were personality scores as indicators of a healthy dietary pattern. Food intake was influenced by neuroticism (N), extraversion (E), openness (O) and agreeableness (A) of personality. Taste preferences and receptivity to dietary advice were also influenced by personality: the odds ratios (ORs) between the high and low tertiary points of the NEO-FFI scores for salty and sweet taste preferences were significantly higher in the group that scored high for neuroticism (N) (salty taste preference: OR = 2.25, NS in males and OR = 2.39, 95%CI = 1.16-4.93 in females; sweet taste preference: OR = 21.00, 95%CI = 2.40-183.99 in males and OR = 3.33, 95%CI = 1.61-6.91 in females). On the other hand, the groups with high scorer for O and A did not like salty tastes. The groups with high scores for A and C were receptive to dietary advice. High scores of each N, E, O, A, and C factor were characterized by distinguishable, dietary habits and lifestyle. For nutritional or health education, group classes are sufficient for high A and O. High C scorer displayed discrepancies between health consciousness and dietary habits, so intervention or a close follow-up by medical professionals would be necessary to improve the health of individuals in this group. High E scorer possessed a confident attitude towards their health, but they were not interested in developing healthy habits

  2. Dietary habits and hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhall, Ulf; Idrizbegovic, Esma; Hederstierna, Christina; Rothenberg, Elisabet

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Objective: Study groups from three age cohorts of 70-75 year-olds were investigated to search for possible correlations between dietary habits and auditory function. A cross-sectional, epidemiological study. A total number of 524 people (275 women, 249 men) were recruited from three age cohorts. The study sample was representative of the general population. All participants answered a diet history and were tested with pure-tone audiometry. Eleven categories of food consumption were related to pure-tone averages of low-mid frequency hearing, and high frequency hearing. Two consistent correlations between diet and hearing were observed. One was a correlation between good hearing and a high consumption of fish in the male group. The other was a correlation between poor high frequency hearing and a high consumption of food rich in low molecular carbohydrates in both genders; a larger effect size was seen in females. The study indicates that diet is important for aural health in aging. According to this study fish is beneficial to hearing, whereas consumption of "junk food", rich in low molecular carbohydrates, is detrimental. Other correlations, e.g. between high consumption of antioxidants, were not demonstrated here, but cannot be excluded.

  3. Social determinants of dietary habits in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Brøndsted, L.

    2001-01-01

    significantly associated with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Conclusions: Education seems to be the most important social variable to explain social differences in dietary habits. Additional variables are needed to explain dietary habits of women. Differences are seen for both foods and nutrients....... Sponsorship: The data analysis was financially supported by the Health Insurance Fund. Descriptors: socioeconomic status; education; dietary habits; diet surveys, E%; fat, fruit and vegetables....

  4. DIETARY HABITS OF A MEDITERRANEAN POPULATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    in urban areas in El Jadida, a costal province of Moroccowas selected. Dietary habits were assessed using a combination of a 24-h dietary recall during 3 non consecutive days ... model, epidemiological evidence suggests that dietary patterns in the Mediterranean ..... as well as heart disease and colon cancer [37].

  5. Nutritional knowledge and dietary habits survey in high school population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, Dragana; Mandić, Milena L; Banjari, Ines

    2015-03-01

    During adolescence, young people are in a sensitive transition period when they gradually take over the responsibility for their own eating habits, health attitudes and behaviours and create lifelong habits so it is essential that they adopt healthy habits according to dietary recommendations. Knowledge is one of the factors necessary for the changes in dietary habits. The'objective of this study was to gain insight in nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of adolescents. The sample included 117 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, representing modified version of General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, nutritional knowledge about nutrients, dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, diet-disease relationship, and dietary habits. Less than one third of adolescents showed satisfactory knowledge, but boys, adolescents from rural environment and overweight adolescents showed significantly lower knowledge unlike others. Meal skipping was present habit, especially for breakfast consumption. Especially high consumption of meat and meat products was noted for boys, while fruit and vegetables for girls. Fad dieting was quite practiced habit, especially in girls and overweight adolescents. Among girls, high consumption of sweets was confirmed, while boys showed high consumption of soft drinks. Television presents the main source of infor- mation about nutrition for adolescents. Collected data shows similarity with other research in Europe and North America that confirm strong influence of globalization and fast spread of unhealthy habits. The results pointed out weak spots in nutritional knowledge and revealed unhealthy eating habits. This information is necessary for the development of new approaches to modulate their knowledge and consequently act on their behaviour. Behavioral changes would include higher number of meals per day, regular breakfast consumption, higher intake of fish

  6. DIETS/DIETARY HABITS AND CERTAIN GASTROINTESTINAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    articulated diet and proper dietary manipulations remain the cure for all diet induced G.I disorders while avoidance of such habits that ... to dietary intake and unremitting stress: 'To what you are eating and to what's eating you!” ... workers showed that when cholesterol was removed from the diet, the cancers were slower.

  7. Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status…

  8. Social determinants of dietary habits in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Brøndsted, L.

    2001-01-01

    significantly associated with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Conclusions: Education seems to be the most important social variable to explain social differences in dietary habits. Additional variables are needed to explain dietary habits of women. Differences are seen for both foods and nutrients......Objective: To investigate whether there is an association between socioeconomic status and a healthy diet, taking the possible influence of other social variables such as age, gender, income and household composition into consideration. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Nationwide study...... in Denmark, 1995. Subjects: Random sample from the civil registration system. A total of 852 men and 870 women aged 18-80y participated, a response rate of 58%. Interventions: A 7 day estimated dietary record was used to obtain information about the diet. Information about social background was gained...

  9. Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status appears to have an effect on their children's behaviour. Place of residence (urban or semi-rural areas) and gender does not influence their knowledge about different diets. It was, finally, shown that as children grow older they tend to eat less healthy foods.

  10. Dietary habits of obese patients qualified for bariatric procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebska-Mierzyńska, Marta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Patients with obesity, including morbid obesity, commit numerous dietary mistakes. They prefer high-energy diets, but of poor nutritional value. Patients qualified for bariatric procedures show deficiencies in vitamins and minerals due to insufficient intake of vegetables, fruit and whole grain products. Analysis of dietary habits in morbidly obese patients prepared for bariatric surgery, including assessment of eating style and frequency of consumption of certain products. The study group contained 39 people aged 18 - 65 years, who were surveyed with a questionnaire elaborated in the Department of Clinical Dietetics and Nutrition, Medical University of Bialystok. The following factors were assessed: number of meals, snacking between meals and eating at night, types of snacks eaten, and frequency of consumption of certain foods. Results were analyzed using Statistica 9.0. The majority of surveyed men (41.7%) ate three meals a day, whereas most women (40.7%) had at least 4 meals a day. Nearly 85% of the respondents admitted snacking between meals, mainly eating fruit, sweets and sandwiches. Whole grain cereal, milk and dairy products, fish, fruit, vegetables and pulses appeared in diet of patients qualified for treatment of obesity very rarely. Dietary habits of obese patients qualified for bariatric procedures are not consistent with recommendations. Therefore, these patients should receive nutritional education in order to foster proper eating habits that will help in the postoperative nutrition.

  11. Dietary Habits Are Associated With School Performance in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-03-01

    Several studies suggest that dietary habits are associated with poor academic performance. However, few studies have evaluated these relations after adjusting for numerous confounding factors. This study evaluated the frequency of various diet items (fruit, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk) and the regularity of meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) all at once.A total of 359,264 participants aged from 12 to 18 years old were pooled from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) for the 2009 to 2013 period. Dietary habits over the last 7 days were surveyed, including the regularity of consuming breakfast, lunch and dinner and the frequency of eating fruits, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk. Physical activity, obesity, region of residence, subjective assessment of health, stress level, economic level, and parental education level were collected from all of the study participants. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of dietary habits for school performance were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the effects of diet factors on school performance while considering the effects of other variables on both diet factors and school performance.Frequent intakes of breakfast (AOR = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.20-2.48), fruits (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.62-1.86), vegetables (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.37-1.61), and milk (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.28-1.43) were related to high levels of school performance (each with P performance (each with P performance and dietary habits that find a positive association with eating breakfast and consuming fruits and milk and a negative relation with soft drinks, instant noodles, fast foods, and confections.

  12. The association of demographic variables and dietary habits on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the foreign-born populations continue to grow, they experience dietary pattern changes. Dietary changes of immigrants are often associated with weight increase and consequently the risk of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes. This study examined the association of demographic variables and dietary habits ...

  13. DOES KNOWLEDGE INFLUENCES OUR DIET? DIETARY HABITS OF ADOLESCENTS ENROLLED IN GENERAL PROFILE AND CATERING SCHOOL PROGRAMME

    OpenAIRE

    Lošić, Dragana; Čačić Kenjerić, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and objective: During adolescence lifestyle is formed, including dietary habits, which mainly remain unchanged throughout the life. Dietary habits and physical activity influence one's health status. The goal of this study was to examine and compare dietary habits in the population of high school teens enrolled in general secondary school and catering school. Methods: Study was performed using a one-time questionnaire which, among other sections included basic data needed for ...

  14. Dietary habits of patients with schizophrenia: a self-reported questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli-Muñoz, Agustin J; Fortea, Maria I; Salorio, Pilar; Gallego-Gomez, Juana I; Sánchez-Bautista, Sonia; Balanza, Serafin

    2012-06-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the dietary habits of patients with schizophrenia and the influence of these habits on the degree of obesity. The study was developed in a sample of 159 patients, who were given a self-reported questionnaire, to ascertain the influence of socio-familiar aspects, pharmacological treatment, and dietary habits. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) were also taken. Patients with schizophrenia presented unhealthy dietary habits, as indicated by the finding that 51% of the patients took no longer than 15 min to eat, 40.8% did not eat fruit daily, and 63.1% did not eat fish. Women were three times more likely to be obese than men (odds ratio (OR) = 2.91, P = 0.021). Patients classified as having unhealthy dietary habits have a 2.33-fold higher risk of obesity than patients with good dietary habits (OR = 2.33, P = 0.034). In summary, this paper highlights the fact that patients with schizophrenia have a detrimental dietary pattern that is associated with an increase in BMI and WC, with the consequent development of obesity and related metabolic alterations, regardless of the pharmacological treatment being followed. Future research directions will include exploring the need for nutritional education programmes to improve the dietary habits of such patients. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  15. Dietary habits in adolescent girls with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadou, Maria; Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Lykeridou, Katerina; Iliadis, Iakovos; Michala, Lina

    2015-04-01

    The phenotype of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is known to worsen with weight gain, increased ingestion of carbohydrates and a sedentary lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary habits in a group of adolescent girls with PCOS. Adolescents with PCOS were recruited and asked to complete a questionnaire on their eating habits and a recall dietary diary, from which their caloric and macronutrient intake was calculated. Results were compared with those from a group of normal controls. Thirty-five women with PCOS and 46 controls were included. Girls with PCOS were less likely to have cereals for breakfast (20.7 versus 66.7%) and as a result consumed less fibre than controls. They were more likely to eat an evening meal (97.1 versus 78.3%) and eat this over an hour later when compared to controls. Despite having comparable body mass indexes, girls with PCOS ate a daily surplus calorie average of 3% versus controls that had a negative calorie intake of 0.72% (p = 0.047). Ameliorating eating habits early in adolescence in girls with PCOS may improve future metabolic concerns related to a genetic predisposition and worsened by an unhealthy lifestyle.

  16. Comparison of the Dietary Habits of Elite Turkish Male and Female Weightlifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Orhan Ahmet; Güner, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional habits affect performance directly or indirectly in weight class included sports. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary habits of elite female and male weightlifters. After getting official records of athletes from Turkish Weightlifting Federation, a survey was conducted on several factors of the athletes such as weight…

  17. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children.

  18. Dietary habits, plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary habits, plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and selected coronary disease risk factors in Tanzania. ... Conclusion: Our results indicate that, there are significant differences in dietary patterns among the three study areas, and that the intake of fish is inversely associated with selected risk factors for coronary heart ...

  19. Dietary habits among persons hired on shift work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Strzemecka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Shift-work determinates irregular nutrition habits. The quality as well as the quantity of meals consumed by shift-workers can significantly affects their health. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary habits of people performing shift work in the Bogdanka mine. Material and Methods. The study was carried out in the Bogdanka mine in Leczna. The questionnaire, which was designed by the author of this dissertation, was conducted among 700 shift-workers, working underground. The results were subjected to statistical analysis based on STATISTICA v. 7.1 (StatSoft, Poland software. Results. Nearly half of respondents reported regular consumption of meals (40.0% Interviewees admitted having warm meals during the day (81.4%. The most frequently consumed meal during the day was the hot one (50.9%, three meals and more were consumed the least frequently (8.1%. Almost half of respondents considered their eating habits as inappropriate (46.3%. Among those, nearly half (68.2% stated that shift – work is the reason for their nutrition habits. More than half of respondents (66.0% admitted that shift work hampers regular consumption of meals. Conclusions. Shift work makes nourishment and regular consumption difficult. It contributes to the limited amount of warm meals eaten during the day. In order to maintain preventive health care and the improvement of quality of life, shift workers should be provided with an easier access to meals (including warm one at specified times of the day.

  20. Relationship among self-reported fatigue, dietary taurine intake, and dietary habits in Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Yoon; You, Jeong Soon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among -self-reported fatigue, dietary taurine intake, and dietary habits in Korean college students. The subjects were 239 college students (142 male and 97 female) residing in the Incheon, Korea. Self-reported fatigue score was determined using a questionnaire of "Subjective Symptoms of Fatigue Test." The average physical fatigue score (p ;students were significantly higher compared to male students. Average dietary taurine intake in male and female was 102.5 mg/day and 98.0 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant correlation between self-reported fatigue score and dietary taurine intake. However, there was significantly negative correlation between self-reported fatigue scores and dietary habits such as "eating meals at regular times" (p ;habit in Korean college students, and a further large-scale study is needed about relationship of self-reported fatigue and dietary taurine intake.

  1. The role of dietary habits in human internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnikova, I.G.; Balonov, M.I.; Bruck, G.J.; Shutov, V.N.

    2002-01-01

    The diversity of the dietary habits of the inhabitants living in the areas contaminated with long-lived radionuclides is an important factor for finding out the ways and specific features of internal dose formation of the population. The diet and structure of food consumption of different contingents of the population in several regions subjected to the radioactive accidents were studied. Using the specially developed questionnaire, we surveyed in Russia over 3000 inhabitants of the Bryansk region, and found out their food rations before the Chernobyl accident and during different time periods after it. In the Urals, we surveyed 102 inhabitants of the village Muslyumovo located on the bank of the Techa river that was contaminated as a result of releases of products of processing nuclear fuel and also more than 136 people residing in the area of the East Ural Radioactive Trace. In the North of the European part of Russia we investigated 310 local inhabitants including 114 reindeer herders. In Kazakhstan, we polled over 114 residents of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area, including 23 herdsmen and members of their families. The dietary habits of all investigated groups of the population strongly differ both due to climatic conditions and national and confessional traditions. Besides that, they are strongly influenced by the sources of the contamination of local food products that also differ both by radionuclide composition and by the time period elapsed since contamination of the considered areas. On the basis of the obtained results, we calculated the internal doses for the population of mentioned regions, which are in good coincidence with the data of direct measurements of radionuclides content in human body. We have determined, which products have the leading role in internal dose formation during different time periods after depositions

  2. Diet and dietary habits of Labeo senegalensis in a tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food composition and dietary habit of Labeo senegalensis at Idah area of river Niger was carried out between January and February, 2010. 155 samples were obtained from artisanal fishermen and brought to biological sciences laboratory for analysis. Fish samples were dissected and the stomach contents emptied ...

  3. Dietary habits of a Mediterranean population of women in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary habits of a Mediterranean population of women in an agricultural region of Morocco. ... Furthermore a significantly high intake of saturated and monounsaturated fat is observed in the youngest women and women with a higher education level. Except for the intakes of phosphorus and sodium, all minerals and ...

  4. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stunting was significantly (p<0.05) higher among 10-14year old children (56.1%) than 5-9 year olds (34.6%). Conclusion: There is urgent need for nutrition intervention targeted at rural school age children inEbonyi State. Keywords: School age children, dietary habits, hemoglobin levels, stunting, overweight, underweight, ...

  5. Assessment of weight status, dietary habits and beliefs, physical activity, and nutritional knowledge among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Wang, Daniel; Rapley, Melyssa; Dey, Rajarshi

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess weight status, dietary habits, physical activity, dietary beliefs, and nutrition knowledge among a sample of students from Central Michigan University. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of undergraduate students in Fall 2011 and Spring 2012 at Central Michigan University. Participating students completed an online questionnaire that included questions related to their eating habits, physical activity and lifestyle, dietary beliefs, and nutritional knowledge. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Percentage body fat and visceral fat score were determined using a Tanita body composition analyser (SC-331S). Outcomes of this study indicated that 78% of female students were within the healthy weight range compared to 52% of male students. Visceral body fat and waist circumference scores were higher in males than in females. Most students showed 'satisfactory' dietary habits. Almost half of the students reported drinking two glasses of milk and consuming two cups of fruits and vegetables daily. Physical activity and lifestyle score indicated that most of the students were not physically active. Only 7% of students reported having a very active lifestyle, and 4% had quite good nutritional knowledge. The majority of students, particularly females, were within the healthy body weight range. Students' dietary habits were satisfactory. However, physical activity, students' knowledge of healthy and unhealthy diet habits, and nutritional knowledge needed improvement. Developing gender-specific programmes for promoting healthy lifestyle behaviours among students is recommended. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  6. Dietary habits and sedentary behaviors among health science university students in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Awadhalla, Muyssar S; Al-Mannai, Mariam; AlSawad, Muneera; Asokan, G V

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary patterns and sedentary behaviors among university students in Bahrain. A cross-sectional study was carried out with students of the College of Health Sciences in Bahrain using a self-reported questionnaire. All the students enrolled in this college were included in this study (642 students; 90 males and 552 females). The mean age of the sample was 20.1±2.0 years. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information on the students' breakfast intake, snacking, food frequency intake, and sedentary habits. More than 50% of the students did not consume breakfast on a daily basis. A statistically significant difference (psleep; however, the only significant difference found was for Internet use (psleep for less time (students in Bahrain had unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary behaviors. Thus, an intervention program to promote healthy dietary patterns and lifestyle habits among university students is highly recommended.

  7. Gender differences and access to a sports dietitian influence dietary habits of collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Michael V; Jagim, Andrew R; Oliver, Jonathan M; Greenwood, Mike; Busteed, Deanna R; Jones, Margaret T

    2016-01-01

    Limited research exists on the effect of a sports dietitian (SD) on athletes' dietary habits and nutrient periodization, which is the deliberate manipulation of macronutrient intake to match training goals. Further, the difference in dietary habits between men and women collegiate athletes has been understudied. A survey questionnaire examining dietary habits and practices was administered to athletes at two universities that employed a full time SD. Not all athletes used the SD as their primary source for nutritional guidance. The purposes were to examine the effect of a SD as a primary source of nutrition information, and the effect of gender on dietary habits in collegiate athletes. Three hundred eighty-three women ( n  = 240) and men ( n  = 143) student-athletes (mean ± SD: age = 19.7 ± 1.4 years) from 10 collegiate sports took a 15-min survey consisting of questions on dietary habits and practices. Topics queried included eating habits, breakfast habits, hydration habits, nutritional supplementation use, pre-workout nutrition, post-workout nutrition, nutrition during team trips, and nutrient timing. Data were sorted by the athlete's source of nutritional information (i.e., sport dietitian, other). Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and 2-way Pearson X 2 analyses ( p  ≤ 0.10). When a SD was indicated as the primary nutrition information source, athletes appeared to have a greater understanding of nutrient periodization (47.12 % vs. 32.85 %), were more likely to have school-provided boxed meals while on team trips (21.29 % vs. 6.77 %), and also less likely to consume fast food while on team trips (9.90 % vs. 19.55 %). Men athletes consumed fast food or restaurant meals more frequently, had higher weekly and more frequent alcohol intake during the competitive season. Women athletes were more likely to prepare meals, eat breakfast 7 days a week, and have school-provided boxed meals. Positive effects on dietary

  8. Changing dietary habits among Akwen Xerente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Evangelista da Silva Rocha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to identify the current feed of Xerente people in Indian villages Porteira and Funil in the city of Tocantinia / TO. It was used a qualitative ethnographic approach. Conducted from September 2013 to August 2014. The data were presented in a diary, through participant observation of food practices with the guidance of a script. A process of dietary change that permeates the culture of this people is taking place. Factors such as the deficit in the planting gardens, the recent arrival of energy, and therefore the technology has allowed access to processed foods. But some families still maintain the farming of cassava, yam, and beans. The main animals that are hunted in the village are peccary, deer and armadillo. It was possible to point which foods are inserted in the Xerente feed and factors related to this situation.

  9. Dietary habits and children's family lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, H; West, P

    2005-04-01

    To investigate associations between 'less healthy eating' and 'unhealthy snacking' at age 11, and family life (family structure, meals and maternal employment status) together with potential socio-economic confounders and gender. Children participated in a school-based survey, questionnaires also being completed by parents. Analyses were based on those with complete data, weighted to account for bias in return of parental questionnaires (N = 2146). Data from a dietary inventory, questions on food choice and snacks were used to classify 'less healthy eating' and 'unhealthy snacking'. Less healthy eating' (57%) and 'unhealthy snacking' (32%) were associated with greater deprivation, fewer maternal qualifications and being male. Compared with children of full-time homemakers, the likelihood of 'less healthy eating' was reduced among those whose mothers worked part-time (this effect remaining after socio-economic adjustment), full-time (effect removed after adjustment), or were unemployed, sick or disabled (effect emerging after adjustment). 'Unhealthy snacking' was not related to maternal employment, and neither measure was associated with family structure or daily meals. There was no evidence that family structure or meals were associated with children's diets, although maternal employment had a positive association. Contrasting with the size of these effects, relationships between diet and socio-economic status were strong.

  10. Empirically derived dietary habits are associated with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaribaf, Fatemeh; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Saneei, Parvane; Feizi, Awat; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Adibi, Peyman

    2018-03-13

    The associations between empirically derived dietary habits and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have not been investigated. This study aimed to assess the relationship between empirically derived dietary habits and IBS in a large population of Iranian adults. In a cross-sectional study, dietary habits of 4763 adults were assessed in three domains, "meal pattern", "eating rate" and "intra-meal fluid intake". We used latent class analysis to identify classes of dietary habits. IBS was defined based on ROME III criteria. IBS was prevalent in 20.3% (n = 966) of the study population. Two distinct classes of meal patterns: "regular" and "irregular", three classes of eating rates: "moderate", "moderate-to-slow" and "moderate-to-fast" and two classes of fluid ingestion with meals: "moderate" and "heavy intra-meal drinking" were identified. After adjustment for confounders, "heavy intra-meal fluid intake" was protectively associated with IBS (OR = 0.79; 95% CI:0.64-0.96). When potential confounders were considered, "meal pattern" and "eating rate" were not significantly associated with IBS in the whole population. After adjustment for confounders, women with "irregular meal pattern" had a 30% greater risk of having IBS, compared with those with "regular meal pattern" (OR = 1.30; 95% CI:1.02-1.67). Overweight participants with "fast eating rate" were 70% more likely to have IBS, compared to those with "moderate eating rate" (OR = 1.70; 95% CI:1.13-2.55). "Irregular meal pattern" was related to frequency and severity of abdominal pain. We found a significant association between heavy intra-meal fluid intake" and IBS. More large-scale prospective studies are needed to affirm this association.

  11. Dietary Habits of Welsh 12-13 Year Olds

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    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Graham, Mike; Boobier, Wyndham; Baker, Julien; Davies, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the dietary habits of Welsh 12-13 year olds. A cohort of 84 boys and 81 girls, age 12.9 SD 0.3 years; body mass 51.3 SD 12.6kg; and stature 1.54 SD 0.08m, completed a food frequency questionnaire and seven-day food diary. Mean daily kilocalories (kcal/d), and percentages of total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, and protein,…

  12. Changing dietary habits among Akwen Xerente.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Tatiana Evangelista da Silva; Silva, Reijane Pinheiro da; Nascimento, Maira Messias do

    2016-06-01

    The research aimed to identify the current feed of Xerente people in Indian villages Porteira and Funil in the city of Tocantinia / TO. It was used a qualitative ethnographic approach. Conducted from September 2013 to August 2014. The data were presented in a diary, through participant observation of food practices with the guidance of a script. A process of dietary change that permeates the culture of this people is taking place. Factors such as the deficit in the planting gardens, the recent arrival of energy, and therefore the technology has allowed access to processed foods. But some families still maintain the farming of cassava, yam, and beans. The main animals that are hunted in the village are peccary, deer and armadillo. It was possible to point which foods are inserted in the Xerente feed and factors related to this situation. A pesquisa objetivou identificar a alimentação atual do povo Xerente, nas aldeias indígenas Porteira e Funil, no município de Tocantínia / TO. Utilizou-se uma abordagem etnográfica qualitativa. Realizada entre setembro de 2013 a agosto de 2014. Os dados foram descritos através de um diário de campo, por meio da observação das práticas alimentares com a orientação de um roteiro. Está ocorrendo um processo de mudança alimentar na cultura deste povo. Fatores como o déficit no plantio das roças, a chegada da energia, e consequentemente a tecnologia, permitiu o acesso a alimentos industrializados. Mas algumas famílias ainda mantem o cultivo de mandioca, inhame, feijão andu. Os principais animais que são caçados na aldeia são caititu, veado e tatu. Foi possível encontrar a presença de alimentos industrializados inseridos na alimentação do Xerente e isso tem provocado alterações nos hábitos desse povo.

  13. Investigation of Correlation between Personality Traits and Dietary Habits in Female Students

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    Najmeh Golestanbagh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Proper nutrition has a significant role in prevention of chronic disease and health promotion. Psychological factors play an important role in making food choices and subsequently dietary habits and in this context, personality is considered as a key factor. The present study was performed with the purpose of determining the correlation between personality traits and dietary habits in female students. Methods: The present research was conducted as a descriptive-correlational study on 224 female students aged 18-30 years in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (2013-2014. Personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were assessed using NEO Five-Factor Inventory and dietary habits were were assessed by a dietary habits questionnaire containing 20 questions about dietary habits. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and stepwise regression test. The significance level was considered to be p<0.05. Results: In this study, high neuroticism and openness were correlated with low score of dietary habits (p<0.01. Higher level of conscientiousness was significantly correlated with high score of dietary habits (p<0.01. Based on the stepwise regression analysis, personality traits can predict the score of dietary habits (p<0.01. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that neuroticism and openness are correlated with unhealthy dietary habits, and conscientiousness is correlated with healthy dietary habits. Therefore, appropriate nutritional educations based on the personality traits of students are recommended to modify dietary patterns and prevent chronic diseases.

  14. Dietary and lifestyle habits amongst adolescents in Bahrain

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    Khaldoon Al-Roomi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in dietary habits and lifestyle are considered the main factors associated with several diet-related diseases in the Arab Gulf countries. The aim of this study was, therefore, to describe the dietary and lifestyle habits amongst adolescents in Bahrain. A cross-sectional study was carried out amongst male and female secondary school students selected using the multi-stage stratified random sampling technique. A sample size of 735 subjects (339 males and 396 females, aged 15–18 years, was selected from government schools from all the governorates of Bahrain. Skipping breakfast was significantly greater in females (62.8% compared to males (37.2%, (P<0.01. About 88% of adolescents snacked during school break, 70.7% procuring food from the school canteen. Fruit was not consumed by about 27.7% of respondents (33.5% males, 66.5% females and the gender difference was statistically significant (P<0.01. Fish and lentils were less preferred, while chicken was more popular. There was no significant difference between gender and frequency of eating fast food. About 8.4% of respondents reported not eating burgers, with 68.8% preferring regular size burgers. Furthermore, 24.4% preferred large portions of potato chips (53.1% male, 46.9% female. About 29.8% watched TV for more than 5 hours a day (51.2% females, 48.8% males. About 69% of males practiced sports everyday as against 30.8% of females (P<0.01 and 81.6% of those who participated in sport activity outside school were males compared to 18.4% of females. It seems that the adolescents in Bahrain are moving toward unhealthy dietary habits and lifestyles, which in turn will affect their health status in the future. Promoting healthy lifestyle and eating habits should be given a priority in school health programs.

  15. Sociodemographic differences in dietary habits described by food frequency questions--results from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynesen, A W; Haraldsdóttir, J; Holm, L; Astrup, A

    2003-12-01

    To investigate whether a modest number of food frequency questions are sufficient to describe sociodemographic differences in dietary habits, and to identify sociodemographic characteristics of subjects adhering to food-based dietary guidelines operationalised in a "healthy-diet index". Cross-sectional population survey. A total of 480 men, 515 women, aged 15-90 y. Random sample of private telephone numbers drawn from regional telephone records, geographically stratified. Participation rate 62%. Computer-assisted telephone interviews, including six food frequency questions, a question on type of fat spreads used on bread, questions on seven sociodemographic variables. The summary of the healthy-diet index showed that the subjects who adhered to food-based dietary guidelines (top quintile) compared to those who did not (bottom quintile) were most often women (odds ratio (OR)=6.07; confidence interval (CI): 3.91-9.43, women vs men), of older age (OR=9.72; CI: 3.02-31.31, old age vs young), highly educated (OR=3.69; CI: 1.53-8.92, high education vs low) and living in multiperson households including children (OR=4.66; CI: 2.47-8.80, multiperson household vs single household). The results also showed that gender difference in dietary habits is associated with other sociodemographic variables. The selected food frequency questions proved sufficient to describe sociodemographic differences in dietary habits, and this method may be a valuable supplement to traditional quantitative dietary surveys in monitoring sociodemographic changes in eating patterns. The results also underline the influence of sociodemographic status on dietary habits. The Danish Nutrition Council funded the study.

  16. Dietary habits in Parkinson's disease: Adherence to Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassani, Erica; Barichella, Michela; Ferri, Valentina; Pinelli, Giovanna; Iorio, Laura; Bolliri, Carlotta; Caronni, Serena; Faierman, Samanta A; Mottolese, Antonia; Pusani, Chiara; Monajemi, Fatemeh; Pasqua, Marianna; Lubisco, Alessandro; Cereda, Emanuele; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Petroni, Maria L; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2017-09-01

    Our objective is to describe the dietary habits, food preferences and adherence to Mediterranean diet (MeDi) of a large sample of Italian Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients compared to a group of controls. Dietary habits of 600 PD patients from throughout Italy and 600 controls matched by gender, age, education, physical activity level and geographical residence, were collected using the ON-GP Food Frequency Questionnaire. Then, we compared patients by disease duration and the presence of swallowing disturbances. Overall, adherence of PD patients (males, 53.8%; mean disease duration, 9.2 ± 7.0 years) to MeDi was similar to controls (score, 4.8 ± 1.7 vs. 4.9 ± 1.6; P = 0.294). Patients consumed less alcohol and fish and drank significantly less water, coffee, and milk which resulted also in lower total fluids intake. On the contrary, they ate more fruit, cooked vegetables, cereals and baked items, more dressings and more sweets in general. Disease duration was associated with increased intake of several food groups but it was not associated with changes in MeDi score (P = 0.721). Patients with swallowing disturbances (n = 72) preferred softer and more viscous food but preferences did not result in differences in dietary pattern. However, patients with dysphagia drank less fluids (P = 0.043). PD patients presented different dietary habits and food preferences compared to the general population and adherence to MeDi was not associated with disease duration. Self-reported dysphagia was associated with reduced intake of fluids. These aspects may be amenable to change in order to improve the management of nutritional issues in this patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Indicators of poor dietary habits in a high risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M A; Simon, D G; Zucker, L B; Mackessy, J S; Newman-Palmer, N B

    1995-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether individuals attending an urban outpatient clinic met the National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention nutritional objectives and to assess factors associated with poor dietary habits. Individuals who attended the general medicine outpatient clinic at the State University of New York Health Science Center in Syracuse were interviewed using an expanded version of the Health Habits and History Questionnaire. Usual dietary intake, medical history, occupation, stress, physical activity, tobacco use and other life-style factors were recorded. Of particular interest were the percentage of calories from fat in the diet and whether individuals consumed the daily requirements of the base-foods in the USDA Pyramid (grains, vegetables and fruits). Unconditional logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for variables associated with high fat consumption and low consumption of vegetables, fruit and high-fiber grains. None of the patients met the minimal recommended daily servings for the three base-food categories combined (grains, vegetables and fruits) and 84% of subjects had fat intakes which constituted over 30% of daily energy intake. Individuals with less education, who were disabled or unemployed, and who participated in little physical activity were twice as likely to have poor dietary habits (i.e. low consumption of vegetables, fruit, and/or high-fiber grains) as other subjects (p or = 50 years of age). Nonwhite subjects were less likely to consume high-fiber grains and whole-wheat breads than white patients (p = 0.04). Nutritional screening should be considered for all patients attending similar inner-city general medicine clinics, regardless of the primary diagnosis in order to provide early dietary intervention. In particular, young adults, the unemployed, and the disabled should not be overlooked.

  18. Dietary habits contributing to the cancer prevention among health college students in Turkey.

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    Nogay, Nalan Hakime; Akinci, Ayse Cil; Sert, Havva; Kurtulus, Zeynep; Gedik, Selda

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive study was made to evaluate the dietary habits contributing to cancer prevention of 319 health college students. Data collection form included questions about demographic characteristics and 33 statements which evaluate dietary habits contributing to cancer prevention. Among the students, 56.1% consumed fast food outside the home/dormitory twice a week or more and 47% never exercised. Moreover, 63.9% of the students reported that their dietary habits changed negatively and 69% stated that their fruit and vegetable consumption decreased after starting the health college. The students mostly paid attention to preserving food and water consumption while they paid least attention to maintaining healthy weight and whole grain consumption. Female students, those who paid attention to the amount and calorie of the food they consumed, students who did not consume fast food, and students who exercised twice a week or three times a week had better dietary habits contributing to cancer prevention (pstudents should be implemented. For this purpose, appropriate conditions for preparing and preserving healthy food should be provided as well as increasing the frequency of vegetable containing meals and providing fruits and salads in every meal at school cafeterias.

  19. Dietary habits of Wroclaw Medical University students (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilow, Rafał; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena; Różańska, Dorota

    The World Health Organization considers an unhealthy diet to be related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases development. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary habits among Wroclaw Medical University students with a view towards the nutritional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The study was conducted between the years 2004-2012. The study group consisted of 892 women and 276 men. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire based on the principles outlined in “The Polish food-based dietary guidelines”. There were numerous eating habits not in compliance with the recommendations. Men failed to take ≥ 3 meals/ day (10.1% vs 6.3%) at a significantly higher frequency than women. Food products exhibiting a high glycaemic index (GI) were preferred over low GI, especially among men. About 62% of women and 75% of men failed to consume ≥ 5 portions of fruits and vegetables per day. Women chose low-fat dairy products and meat significantly more frequently than men. 73% of women and 67% of men declared that they consumed vegetable oils on an irregular basis. About 8% of women and 11% of men used salt without restrictions, while 58% and 64% respectively, used sugar to sweeten beverages. Improper nutritional habits were observed in a high part of the studied students, especially among men. It is therefore strongly suggested that the rules of proper nutrition be promoted among this group.

  20. [Dietary habits and cancer: the experience of EPIC-Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieri, Sabina; Agnoli, Claudia; Pala, Valeria; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Krogh, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    to investigate hypothesised relationships between diet and cancer by assessing diet as a whole, in the Italian cohort EPIC. multicentric prospective study. 47,749 volunteers were recruited between 1993 and 1998 in the centres of Varese and Turin (Northern Italy), Florence (Central Italy), Naples and Ragusa (Southern Italy). Information on diet and lifestyle were collected through validated questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were taken and biological samples collected using standardised protocols. follow-up was carried out by accessing regional cancer and mortality registries, hospital discharge records, and by telephone inquiries (only for Naples). After a median follow-up of 11 years, 879 incident cases of breast cancer, 421 cases of colorectal cancer, and 152 deaths were identified. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate risks in relation to dietary characteristics. the "Olive oil & Salad" dietary pattern, characterised by high consumption of raw vegetables and olive oil, was associated with a lower risk of overall mortality in the elderly. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet rich in vegetables and fruit was associated with reduced risk of colon cancer. Consumption of high-glycemic carbohydrates was associated with higher incidence of breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Reduced risk of colon cancer was also found in regular consumers of yoghurt. the accuracy and comprehensiveness of EPIC-Italy data made it possible to investigate both individual dietary components and dietary habits as a whole, to thereby provide Italians with dietary and lifestyle advice that will help them to remain healthy.

  1. Changes in food neophobia and dietary habits of international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J S A; Hartwell, H L; Brown, L

    2010-06-01

    International study is becoming more prevalent, yet aspects such as food neophobia often militate against visiting students consuming a nutritionally balanced diet. The present study aimed to evaluate the extent to which international post-graduate students experience food neophobia, how this might vary by nationality and other demographic characteristics, and how acculturation might manifest itself in students' dietary behaviour. International students (n = 228) attending a Masters course were invited to complete a validated food neophobia and dietary habits questionnaire during their first week at university. The questionnaire was subsequently re-administered to the same students approximately 4 and 8 months later. In total, 226 usable responses were analysed (124, 58 and 44, respectively) for the first, second and final data collection. Perhaps surprisingly, the overall food neophobia scores increased from an mean (SD) initial value of 27.95 (16.95) to 33.67 (33.67) after 3 months, although, when comparing European and Asian students, only the former were significantly different (P Asian and European students reported small but not significant changes in their eating habits, although, after 3 months, significantly (P = students' perceived healthiness of their diets either by nationality or over time. Understanding the complexities of food neophobia, other aspects of dietary change and at what point these changes might take place in the acculturation process when students arrive in the UK needs to be fully understood if a climate for positive learning is to be established.

  2. Understanding Nutrition: A Study of Greek Primary School Children Dietary Habits, before and after Classroom Nutrition Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperakis, Stylianos M.; Sotiriou, Apostolos; Georgiou, Evanthia; Thanou, Ageliki; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was first to assess and then to improve the diet of Greek primary school children teaching them healthy dietary habits and instructing them to face critically advertisements and media projected dietary models using a program which included intervention on cognitive, emotional, and social level. The results show that our…

  3. Healthy dietary habits, body mass index, and predictors among nursing students, northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, R; Nanakorn, S; Sanseeha, L; Nagahiro, C; Kodama, N

    1999-03-01

    This study aimed to assess body mass index (BMI) of nursing students, and examine the links between health behavior in terms of healthy dietary habits, positive health habits, dieting and BMI. A structured questionnaire was used for obtaining information on dietary habits, positive health habits, demographic characteristic including body weight, and height by administering self-answering questionnaires to all of nursing students in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th year-classes of the College of Nursing located in northeast Thailand. Three hundred and eleven female nursing students with an average age of 19.9 (SD = 1.4), had an average BMI of 20.3 kg/m2 (SD = 1.9). Most of the subjects (82.6%) were in the acceptable weight category (BMI > 18.5-24.99 kg/m2), 5.1% underweight (BMI or = 25.0 kg/m2). About half of them (50.8-66.2%) practiced healthy dietary habits in terms of avoiding eating fat/cholesterol, enriched fiber foods, while one-fourth practiced daily fruit consumption. Positive health habits in terms of having breakfast, and taking exercise over the last two weeks, were practiced by 49.5% and 59.8%, respectively. Persistent health problem occurred 13.5% amongst the subjects. The univariate analyses revealed significant associations between dieting with the BMI; perception of body size with the BMI; the enriched fiber food consumption with dieting; and the avoidance of fat/cholesterol with dieting. It suggests that the choice of food was predominantly attributable to dieting. Results from multiple logistic regression analysis showed that dietary belief, dieting, and exercise had effects on the strength of the association (p = 0.0191, 0.0024, 0.0165; Odds ratios = 0.97, 2.21, 1.87, respectively). The results and implications are discussed.

  4. Dietary intake, eating habits, and metabolic syndrome in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Aesun; Lim, Sun-Young; Sung, Joohon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Kim, Jeongseon

    2009-04-01

    Dietary factors contribute to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, a disorder associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and some cancers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the intake frequencies of certain food groups, eating habits, and the risk of metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study of Korean men. Study participants were recruited from the National Cancer Center in South Korea. A total of 7,081 men aged 30 years and older were recruited between August 2002 and May 2007. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having three or more of the following conditions: obesity, high blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, high triglyceride level, and high fasting blood glucose level. The association of metabolic syndrome and sociodemographic characteristics, food intake frequencies, and eating habits assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, was examined. The prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome for men aged 30 to 39, 40 to 49, 50 to 59, and 60+ years was 18.2%, 19.8%, 21.9%, and 20.5%, respectively. The study participants with metabolic syndrome had significantly higher family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (27.6% vs 21.6%, Peat quickly (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.60 to 3.12 for fast vs slow) and to overeat frequently (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.85 to 3.05 for more than 4 times a week vs less than once a week). The results suggest that high intake of seaweed and oily foods as well as eating habits such as eating faster and frequent overeating, are associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome. In contrast, high fruit intake may be associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome. The importance of dietary habits in metabolic syndrome development needs to be pursued in further studies.

  5. Effect of dietary habits on the risk of metabolic syndrome: Yazd Healthy Heart Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarebanhassanabadi, Mohammadtaghi; Mirhosseini, Seyed Jalil; Mirzaei, Masoud; Namayandeh, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Soltani, Mohammad Hossein; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Pedarzadeh, Ali; Baramesipour, Zahra; Faraji, Reza; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin

    2018-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a group of risk factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary habits are among the most important risk factors for MetS. The current study aimed at assessing the effect of dietary habits on the risk of MetS in a 10-year follow-up study in central Iran. Cohort study. Yazd, Iran. Participants aged 20-74 years without any history of MetS, who were originally recruited for Yazd Healthy Heart Project (YHHP) during 2005-2006, were revisited during 2015-2016. At phase I of YHHP, demographic data, anthropometric measurements, five components of MetS, biochemical tests and dietary habits were evaluated; and the same data were collected in phase II. A total of 1092 participants were eligible to be included in the present study. After follow-up, the 10-year cumulative incidence of MetS was 56·1 %. After adjustment for potential confounders, increased risk of MetS (hazard ratio; 95 % CI) was found in those who did not try to control their body weight (1·57; 1·06, 2·35), did not usually eat salad (1·91; 1·22, 3·00) and added salt to their food (1·57, 1·06, 2·33). These associations were stronger in men than in the total population after subgroup analysis, but were not present in women. Dietary habits affect the risk of MetS in the Iranian population. Lifestyle interventions are needed to improve dietary habits to reduce the risk of MetS. Future studies are highly recommended to confirm our results in other populations.

  6. Dietary Habits and Health Related Behaviors in Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN- IV Study

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    Fatemeh Azizi-Soleiman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity has a growing global epidemic with several risk factors including lifestyle habits, physical activity, and prolonged screen time. This study aimed to compare the dietary habits and self-reported health behaviors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional nationwide study was conducted in the framework of the fourth survey of a national school-based surveillance program, entitled Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non‑communicable disease (CASPIAN-IV Study. Participants were 14,880 students aged 6-18 years from 30 provinces in Iran. The World Health Organization- Global Student Health Survey questionnaire was utilized to assess their relationship with peers, body image, dietary, life-style and smoking habits, physical activity, and violence behaviors. Apart from the questionnaire, additional information on dietary habits was obtained as well. The Chi-square test and the student t-test were used to compare the groups. Results: Boys had higher proportions of obesity (P

  7. On Your Own: Older Adults' Food Choice and Dietary Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Emily; Ensaff, Hannah

    2018-03-27

    The United Kingdom, in common with many countries, has an ageing demographic. Changes accompanying ageing can influence food choice and dietary habits. This study explored older adults' perceptions and practices related to dietary behaviour and the factors influencing their food choice in later life. Semi-structured focus-group discussions were conducted with 30 individuals (aged 63-90 years) in a UK city. An inductive thematic approach was adopted for data analysis, and 4 themes and 12 sub-themes emerged: age-related changes (lower appetite, food changes, declining physical function); food access (food cost, support with food, maintaining independence); on your own (cooking for one, eating alone, shopping for one); and relationship with food (food variety, eating what you want, dieting). These influenced participants' food acquisition, food preparation and cooking, as well as eating habits. Living alone and its substantial influence, as well as associated social isolation and loneliness, were highlighted in many of the discussions. Given the possible implications for nutritional intake, further work is recommended in this area. Likewise, steps should be taken to improve food access, increase opportunities for commensal eating and, fundamentally, address social isolation and loneliness in the older population.

  8. Dietary habits and lifestyle among adolescents in Damascus, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Kalam, Faiza

    2014-01-01

    Dietary and lifestyle behaviours among adolescents are risk factors for several chronic diseases in adulthood. To examine the differences in dietary habits and lifestyle between male and female adolescents in Syria. A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified sampling study was carried out on adolescents, 15-18-years-old, in Damascus, Syria. The total sample selected was 365 (178 males and 187 females). Data were collected with a pretested questionnaire. There were significant differences between males and females in the frequency of intake of vegetables, milk and dairy products, red meat, sugary beverages and fast foods. Females were more likely to skip breakfast than males (52.4% vs. 43%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Males were significantly more likely to consume larger portions of fast foods and soft drinks. Significant differences were found between genders in eating while watching television, hours using Internet, practicing physical activity and emotional eating. A significant variation between male and female Syrian adolescents in their food habits and lifestyle was observed. Interventions should consider the gender differences to promote a healthy lifestyle for schoolchildren in Syria.

  9. On Your Own: Older Adults’ Food Choice and Dietary Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Whitelock

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The United Kingdom, in common with many countries, has an ageing demographic. Changes accompanying ageing can influence food choice and dietary habits. This study explored older adults’ perceptions and practices related to dietary behaviour and the factors influencing their food choice in later life. Semi-structured focus-group discussions were conducted with 30 individuals (aged 63–90 years in a UK city. An inductive thematic approach was adopted for data analysis, and 4 themes and 12 sub-themes emerged: age-related changes (lower appetite, food changes, declining physical function; food access (food cost, support with food, maintaining independence; on your own (cooking for one, eating alone, shopping for one; and relationship with food (food variety, eating what you want, dieting. These influenced participants’ food acquisition, food preparation and cooking, as well as eating habits. Living alone and its substantial influence, as well as associated social isolation and loneliness, were highlighted in many of the discussions. Given the possible implications for nutritional intake, further work is recommended in this area. Likewise, steps should be taken to improve food access, increase opportunities for commensal eating and, fundamentally, address social isolation and loneliness in the older population.

  10. Dietary Habits and Cardiometabolic Health in Obese Children

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    Luisa Gilardini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates of cardiometabolic risk factors vary largely among overweight children. This study investigated the relationships between dietary habits and cardiometabolic health among obese children living in a city of Northern Italy. Methods: Dietary habits were collected in 448 obese subjects aged 6-18 years, attending an obesity outpatient center in Milan. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP, lipids, fasting and post-load glucose, and insulin were measured. Physical activity was assessed in adolescents using a questionnaire. Results: Frequency of glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia was 0.7%, 13% and 27.2%, respectively. Plausible reporters consumed more animal protein and sodium and less legumes than recommended in nutritional recommendations and adequate amounts of fiber mainly derived from whole grains. Subjects skipping breakfast had unhealthy diets and greater body fatness. After adjustment for confounders, waist/height and fasting glucose were associated with sodium intake (r =0.149 and r = 0.142, respectively; p Conclusions: The cardiometabolic health of obese children improves with vegetable protein and whole grain intake, whereas dysglycemia and adiposity increase with sodium intake.

  11. Dietary habits and lifestyle among adolescents in Damascus, Syria

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    Abdulrahman Musaiger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Dietary and lifestyle behaviours among adolescents are risk factors for several chronic diseases in adulthood. objective. To examine the differences in dietary habits and lifestyle between male and female adolescents in Syria. materials and method. A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified sampling study was carried out on adolescents, 15–18-years-old, in Damascus, Syria. The total sample selected was 365 (178 males and 187 females. Data were collected with a pretested questionnaire. results. There were significant differences between males and females in the frequency of intake of vegetables, milk and dairy products, red meat, sugary beverages and fast foods. Females were more likely to skip breakfast than males (52.4% vs. 43%, but the difference was not statistically significant. Males were significantly more likely to consume larger portions of fast foods and soft drinks. Significant differences were found between genders in eating while watching television, hours using Internet, practicing physical activity and emotional eating. conclusion. A significant variation between male and female Syrian adolescents in their food habits and lifestyle was observed. Interventions should consider the gender differences to promote a healthy lifestyle for schoolchildren in Syria.

  12. Dietary Habits of Saudi Medical Students at University of Dammam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Mohammad H

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the dietary habits and life style of medical students. This is a cross sectional study as self-reported questionnaire for the male and female medical students at College of Medicine University of Dammam, eastern province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, comparing their habits and life style according to their gender and to their academic levels; 1(st), 3(rd) and 6(th) year. 562 students participated in the study with response rate of 91%, average age: 20.2776± 2.06175), males students were 333 (59.25%) and female students were 229 (40.75%) corresponding to the actual male to female ratio in this medical school. The majority of the students (91.3%) were consuming fast foods, majority are males (85%) do it 3 times or more per week, only 8.7% denied eating fast food with no significant difference between the three academic levels. Majority of students are aware of the benefits of the vegetables and fruits and the disadvantage of the soft drinks yet most of them consume a lot of soft drinks and less of vegetables and fruits. Physical exercise was not done regularly in 65% of the male medical students and 80% of the female with almost similar percentage in all the three levels. Contrary to the expectations and regardless of studying in medical college, our medical students; both male and females at different academic levels are having major bad dietary habits and life style that is comparable to the general population in the kingdom.

  13. Dietary habits and life style among the students of a private medical university Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Nighat; Qadri, Majid Hafeez; Fatima, Kiran; Perveen, Shakeela

    2009-02-01

    To determine the dietary habits and life style of the students of a private medical university in Karachi. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Baqai Medical University, from August 2005 to September 2005. A total of 384 medical students from the batches of 2002 to 2005 participated in this study. A pre-tested semi structured questionnaire was self administered to the students after taking their consent. The data included sociodemographic characteristics, life style, exercise, dietary habits and family history of diabetes mellitus. The collected data was analyzed by statistical program SPSS version 11. Out of the total participants, 53.4% were male and 46.6% were female students. The mean age was 20 +/- 1.58 years. The average income of the household of students was 50,000 Pakistani rupees per month. Only 7% students were tobacco users. About 33% students had a history of diabetes mellitus among their parents. Nearly ninety-seven percent reported consumption of junk food while 60% reported use of whole grain food in their diet. Seventy percent students walked 30 minutes and 47% exercised daily. According to the body mass index, 58.3% students were of normal weight and 41.7% were overweight. No significant difference was found among male and female students when dietary habits and life style were compared by sex. Junk food and soft-drink consumption was associated with being overweight. Eating whole grain food and doing exercise showed a protective association against overweight. Unhealthy lifestyle and poor dietary habits were highly prevalent in the overweight study population. Type-2 diabetes mellitus was common among parents and grandparents of the students making them prone to this disorder. Our study concluded that dietary and exercise counselling is necessary as a preventive strategy.

  14. [Changes on dietary habits of the late-breakfast in a school population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja Fernández, A; Muñoz Weigand, C; Ballesteros Pomar, Ma D; Vidal Casariego, A; López Gómez, J J; Cano Rodríguez, I; García Arias, Ma T; García Fernández, Ma C

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of healthy eating habits in children at school and in family life is very important for preventing obesity in children. To know the habits of late-breakfast in a scholar population, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and establish healthy dietary habits through the late-breakfast. A prospective interventional study was performed in a school group. Children from 10 to 13 years-old were included. The study had three phases: pre-intervention (anthropometric assessment and questionnaire of late-breakfast frequency), intervention (parents and teachers received information about "the importance of proper nutrition in school" focused on the transcendence of a healthy and balanced diet that includes a suitable late-breakfast every day at school, and the students received the late-breakfast during two weeks that included milk, fruit and a traditional sandwich), and post-intervention (questionnaire of late-breakfast frequency). Frequency of overweight was 10.6% and obesity 2.6%. After the intervention the proportion of children who had late-breakfast increased by 9.2%, and the kind of food which they ate changed. Dietary habits can be modified in a scholar population with an easy nutritional intervention.

  15. Does a population-based multi-factorial lifestyle intervention increase social inequality in dietary habits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Jakobsen, Iris Marie; Aadahl, Mette

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether the effect of an individualised multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on dietary habits differs across socioeconomic groups.......To investigate whether the effect of an individualised multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on dietary habits differs across socioeconomic groups....

  16. Relationships of adolescent's dietary habits with personality traits and food neophobia according to family meal frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi Sook; Kim, Miseon; Cho, Wookyoun

    2014-08-01

    A higher frequency of family meals is associated with good dietary habits in young people. This study focused on the relationships of family meal frequency with food neophobia and personality traits in adolescents. For this purpose, we administered a survey to 495 middle school students in Seoul metropolitan city, after which the data were analyzed using the SPSS (18.0) program. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationships among dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia according to frequency of family meals. Dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia all showed significant differences according to the frequency of family meals. Further, eating regular family meals was associated with good dietary habits (P food neophobia (P food neophobia showed a negative correlation (P food neophobia showed a negative correlation (P frequency of family meals affects dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia in adolescents.

  17. SCHOOL DIETARY HABITS AND INCIDENCE OF DENTAL CARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, Celia; Téllez, Francisco; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibañez-Peinado, Diana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2015-07-01

    healthy dietary habits are considered to improve oral health and tooth quality. Caries treatment comprises tooth restoration with dental composites and sealants, almost all (> 90%) of which contain bisphenol A (BPA). Study hypotheses were: a) breakfast and oral hygiene habits are important factors in dental caries development; and b) dental caries treatment with epoxy-resins entails a risk of oral exposure to monomers migrating from the polymeric material. We evaluated caries in the teeth of a Spanish school population and determined the percentage treated with dental composites. to relate consumption of breakfast components and oral hygiene habits to dental caries and determine the presence of sealants/composites as potential sources of BPA exposure. subjects: 582 schoolchildren from Granada city (Southern Spain) aged 7 yrs; mean (SD) of 7.55 (0.64) yrs. caries was detected in 21.7% of their teeth. Mean breakfast quality index (BQI) score, based on nutritional questionnaires, was 5.18 (1.29). Breakfast with foods rich in simple sugars representing > 5% of total daily energy was consumed by 24% of the population and was significantly associated with caries frequency in binary logistic regression analysis. Biscuit consumption was reported by 35.8% and significantly associated with caries frequency. Breakfast intake of bakery products/ cereals and of dairy products showed a significant inverse association with caries frequency. No significant relationship was observed between caries and BQI score or oral hygiene factors. further research is required to elucidate the role of diet in caries and the associated risk of exposure to estrogenic xenobiotics such as BPA. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

  19. Dietary habits, economic status, academic performance and body mass index in school children: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulu, Kamile; Sarvan, Süreyya; Muslu, Leyla; Yirmibesoglu, Serife Gözde

    2010-12-01

    The changes in dietary habits and way of life of adolescents can lead to some nutrition problems. The purpose of this study was to compare dietary habits of children living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas regarding their physical characteristics, socio-economic milieu and educational level. A total of 737 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th grades of two different primary schools took part in the study. Data were collected by a questionnaire including dietary habits of participants. Furthermore, the weight and height of students were measured and their body mass index was calculated. During the study, while 4.3 percent of students living in the non-metropolitan area were found obese, this figure was 8.4 percent in the metropolitan area. A big majority of non-metropolitan students have breakfast and lunch at home. Metropolitan students not having lunch at home have their lunch at restaurants or school canteens and generally consume more snacks. The obesity risk of students participating in the study was found to be high. Intervention programs should be organized in order to inform the students about the importance of healthy nutrition and lead them to change their current consumption behavior.

  20. Association of dietary habits and parental-reported sleep tooth grinding with tooth wear in children with mixed dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Claudia; Manfredini, Daniele; Manrique, Ruben; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2017-12-20

    Tooth wear has a multifactorial etiology, thus it should be assessed within a multiple-variable framework. The objective of this investigation was to assess the association of dietary habits and parental-reported sleep tooth grinding (STG) with tooth wear in children with mixed dentition. One hundred twenty-one (N = 121) subjects (mean age 9.6 years) participated in a cross-sectional study. Wear of 1637 teeth was evaluated using the screening module of the Tooth Wear Evaluation System (TWES). Parental-report of STG was evaluated by means of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), whilst dietary habits were investigated by means of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Food-Frequency Questionnaire (HBSC-FFQ). Data were analyzed with the Spearman correlation test and ordinal-multiple-variable regression analyses. Odds Ratio (OR) and ordinal OR were obtained for the independent variables included in the models. Parental-report of STG is not associated with tooth wear in the mixed dentition; some dietary habits were found to be correlated with specific tooth wear patterns, but the correlation values were weak. Associations were found between dietary habits and the increase-to-increase severity of occlusal/incisal and non-occlusal/non-incisal tooth wear of some teeth (OR > 2). A strong correlation of dietary habits and sleep tooth grinding with tooth wear in the mixed dentition was not demonstrated. However, dietary habits showed to have effects in terms of increase-to-increase severity.

  1. Does the social gradient remain in the dietary habits of a health-conscious population? A study of Seventh-Day Adventists in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Min Min; Chan, Carina K Y; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2017-12-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong predictor of health, and individuals with higher SES generally have better health than those with lower SES. One of the pathways that SES influences health is through health behaviors, such as dietary intake, and a higher SES has been associated with a better diet. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a social gradient in dietary habits among the Seventh-Day Adventists, a group of conservative Christians, where healthy eating is part of the doctrinal teaching. Data from a survey of 574 Adventists residing in West Malaysia, aged 18-80 years, were analyzed. Dietary habits were measured using the Nutrition subscale of Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II. Education and income were significantly associated with dietary habits before and after controlling for demographics. There was a gradient of association; a higher level of education and higher income were associated with better dietary habits. However, only education remained significantly associated with dietary habits when the other two socioeconomic variables were included. Employment was not significantly associated with dietary habits before or after controlling for demographic variables and the other two sociodemographic variables. This study showed that education is the strongest predictor of healthy diet, and a social gradient in dietary habits still exists even among health-conscious population. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Building healthy eating habits in childhood: a study of the attitudes, knowledge and dietary habits of schoolchildren in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Kazi Enamul; Kamaluddin, Megat Ahmad; Abdul Razak, Ahmad Zabidi; Abdul Wahid, Afiq Athari

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity have increased rapidly in incidence to become a global issue today. Overweight and obesity problems are significantly linked to unhealthy dietary patterns, physical inactivity and misperception of body image. This study aimed to determine whether Malaysian children build healthy eating habits from childhood. Methods A survey on eating habits was conducted among primary school students in standards 4 to 6 in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The findings of the...

  3. [Dietary habits and cardiovascular disease: the experience of EPIC Italian collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello, Amalia; Chiodini, Paolo; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Krogh, Vittorio; Grioni, Sara; Fasanelli, Francesca; Vineis, Paolo; Saieva, Calogero; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Frasca, Graziella; Giurdanella, Maria Concetta; Panico, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    to report and evaluate the evidence produced by the EPIC Italian collaboration (EPICOR Project) on the dietary determinants of cardiovascular diseases in Italy. prospective study carried out in a large Italian population, composed by cohorts recruited in Northern, Central and Southern Italy. data on dietary habits collected at the baseline observation through standardised questionnaires on 47,749 free-living adults at the time of the recruitment of the study (1993-1998). major coronary and cerebrovascular events (acute coronary syndrome, PTCA, CABG, ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke, TEA of supraortic vessels) identified at follow-up. The longitudinal analyses here reported have measured risks through the use of multivariate Cox regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. the longitudinal analyses of EPICOR indicate that Mediterranean-oriented dietary habits, measured through specific indicators and the consumption of various typical food, are able to reduce coronary and cerebrovascular risks, and that this protection is possible even nowadays, although many changes in diet have occurred in the last decades in Italy. Habitual consumption of plant origin products, including all foods with low glycemic index, is an advantage for cardiovascular risk. the EPICOR Project is the largest, long-lasting Italian study on the relationship between diet and cardiovascular diseases. It is also the study with the greater number of observed variables. Its results point out the importance to support preventive programmes and industrial policies able to favour a dietary style inspired to the Italian Mediterranean tradition.

  4. Relationship between dietary habits and nutritional status among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary assessment included intake of main meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner), skipping meals; methods used to control weight in the previous 30days; knowledge and preference of a balanced diet and food choices. Subject's height and weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) were determined using the 2007 WHO charts.

  5. Role of dietary habits and diet in caries occurrence and severity among urban adolescent school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punitha, V. C.; Amudhan, A.; Sivaprakasam, P.; Rathanaprabu, V.

    2015-01-01

    To identify the role of dietary habits (type of diet, skipping meals, snacking in-between meals and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants) in caries occurrence and severity. To explore the correlation between frequency of intake of selected foods and dental caries. A cross-sectional study was carried out on adolescent children (n = 916) of age 13-19, following a two-stage random sampling technique. Data were collected using a pretested questionnaire. Questionnaire included demographic details, dietary habits of children and food frequency table that listed selected food items. The dependent variable-dental caries was measured using the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index. The prevalence of dental caries in this study population was 36.7% (95% confidence interval: 33.58-39.82). The mean DMFT was 1.01 (±1.74). No statistically significant difference found between caries occurrence and type of diet (P = 0.07), skipping meals (P = 0.86), frequency of eating in fast food stalls (0.86) and snacking in between meals (0.08). Mean DMFT values were higher among nonvegetarians and among children who had the habit of snacking in between meals. Frequency of intake of selected food items showed that mean frequency intake of carbonated drinks and confectionery was higher among children who presented with caries when compared to caries-free children (P = 0.000). Significant correlation found between mean DMFT and mean frequency intake of carbonated drinks and confectionery. Odds ratios were calculated for the same for frequency ≥4 times/day for confectionery and ≥4/week for carbonated drinks and results discussed. Frequent intake of carbonated drinks and confectionery is harmful to oral health that eventually reflects on general health. Educating the adolescent children on healthy dietary habits should be put in the forefront. PMID:26015737

  6. Role of dietary habits and diet in caries occurrence and severity among urban adolescent school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V C Punitha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the role of dietary habits (type of diet, skipping meals, snacking in-between meals and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants in caries occurrence and severity. To explore the correlation between frequency of intake of selected foods and dental caries. A cross-sectional study was carried out on adolescent children (n = 916 of age 13-19, following a two-stage random sampling technique. Data were collected using a pretested questionnaire. Questionnaire included demographic details, dietary habits of children and food frequency table that listed selected food items. The dependent variable-dental caries was measured using the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT index. The prevalence of dental caries in this study population was 36.7% (95% confidence interval: 33.58-39.82. The mean DMFT was 1.01 (±1.74. No statistically significant difference found between caries occurrence and type of diet (P = 0.07, skipping meals (P = 0.86, frequency of eating in fast food stalls (0.86 and snacking in between meals (0.08. Mean DMFT values were higher among nonvegetarians and among children who had the habit of snacking in between meals. Frequency of intake of selected food items showed that mean frequency intake of carbonated drinks and confectionery was higher among children who presented with caries when compared to caries-free children (P = 0.000. Significant correlation found between mean DMFT and mean frequency intake of carbonated drinks and confectionery. Odds ratios were calculated for the same for frequency ≥4 times/day for confectionery and ≥4/week for carbonated drinks and results discussed. Frequent intake of carbonated drinks and confectionery is harmful to oral health that eventually reflects on general health. Educating the adolescent children on healthy dietary habits should be put in the forefront.

  7. Teen Dietary Habits Related to Those of Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Diamant, Allison L.; Babey, Susan H.; Jones, Malia; Brown, E. Richard

    2009-01-01

    Every day, over two million California adolescents (62%) drink soda and 1.4 million (43%) eat fast food, but only 38% eat five or more servings of fruits and vegetables. This policy brief examines adolescent consumption of fruits and vegetables, soda (not including diet soda) and fast food and the relationship to parental dietary behaviors using data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2005). It finds that adolescents are more likely to eat at least five servings of fruits...

  8. [Dietary habits among type 2 diabetic patients attending the Abidjan Diabetes Centre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purifine Ake-Tano, Sassor Odile; Ekou, Franck Kokora; Konan, Yao Eugène; Tetchi, Ekissi Orsot; Kpebo, Denise Olga; Sable, Stéphane Parfait; Aka, Félix; Dagnan, Ncho Simplice

    2017-07-10

    Objectives: The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. Healthy lifestyle and dietary conditions play a key role in the control of blood sugar imbalance and cardiovascular complications of diabetes. This study was designed to describe the profile and dietary habits of type 2 diabetic patients attending the Abidjan Diabetes Centre (CADA), and to identify related factors. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study was conducted in 2014 at the CADA. A total of 384 patients were included. Results: Patients had a mean age of 56.2 (SD: 11.7) years and had been living with diabetes for a mean duration of 8.6 years. Main comorbidities associated with diabetes were overweight (56.8%) and high blood pressure (45.3%). More than one-half of patients (60.7%) did not have a good knowledge of the recommended diet for diabetics: 88.5% did not have regular meal times, 11.7% reported snacking and 61.5% had their meals outside of the home. In addition, 60.4% stated that, during the week preceding the survey, they had eaten at least one “not recommended” food, most commonly fatty meals and fried food (31.5%). Patients who did not know that eating fatty meals and fried food was not recommended for diabetics were 3 times more likely to each this type of food (p improve dietary habits among type 2 diabetic patients in Ivory Coast.

  9. Dietary habits of colorectal neoplasia patients in comparison to their first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajzrlikova, Ivana Mikoviny; Vitek, Petr; Chalupa, Josef; Dite, Petr

    2014-05-07

    To compare the dietary habits between colorectal neoplasia patients, their first-degree relatives, and unrelated controls. From July 2008 to April 2011, we collected epidemiological data relevant to colorectal cancer from patients with colorectal neoplasias, their first-degree relatives, and also from a control group consisting of people referred for colonoscopy with a negative family history of colorectal cancer and without evidence of neoplasia after colonoscopic examination. The first-degree relatives were divided into two groups following the colonoscopic examination: (1) patients with neoplasia or (2) patients without neoplasia. Dietary habits of all groups were compared. A χ (2) test was used to assess the association between two dichotomous categorical variables. The study groups consisted of 242 patients with colorectal neoplasias (143 men, 99 women; mean age: 64 ± 12 years) and 160 first-degree relatives (66 men, 94 women; mean age: 48 ± 11 years). Fifty-five of the first-degree relatives were found to have a neoplastic lesion upon colonoscopy, while the remaining 105 were without neoplasia. The control group contained 123 individuals with a negative family history for neoplastic lesions (66 men, 57 women; mean age: 54 ± 12 years). Two hypotheses were tested. In the first, the dietary habits of first-degree relatives with neoplasia were more similar to those of patients with neoplasia, while the dietary habits of first-degree relatives without neoplasia were similar to those of the control group. In the second, no sex-related differences in dietary habits were expected between the particular groups. Indeed, no significant differences were observed in the dietary habits between the groups of patients, controls and first-degree relatives with/without neoplastic lesions. Nevertheless, statistically significant sex-related differences were observed in all groups, wherein women had healthier dietary habits than men. In all groups examined, women had

  10. Dietary Habits in Adolescence Related to Sociodemographic Factors, Physical Activity and Self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Henningsen, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Unhealthy eating during adolescence has shown to have multiple negative consequences. The aim of this paper is to acquire knowledge of dietary habits in adolescence and consider how this behaviour varies across different groups of adolescents. Correlations between dietary habits, age and gender have several times been found, in terms of girls eating healthier than boys, and the intake of healthy food decreasing with age. Additionally, adolescents of low socioeconomic position are at higher ri...

  11. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Abahussain, Nada A; Al-Sobayel, Hana I; Qahwaji, Dina M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-12-21

    Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p intake but not with sedentary behaviors. The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among

  12. Dietary habits and physical activity in students from the Medical University of Silesia in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likus, Wirginia; Milka, Daniela; Bajor, Grzegorz; Jachacz-Łopata, Małgorzata; Dorzak, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Some of the major human health problems being confronted in the 21st century are cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. It is recognised that having proper dietary habits (nutritional behaviour) and taking moderate physical exercise seem to be the best methods for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. To assess whether the dietary habits and levels of physical activity in first year medical students (freshers) are suitable for preventing cardiovascular disease. Subjects surveyed were Polish freshers studying medicine, physiotherapy, nursing and midwifery at the Medical University of Silesia in Katowice situated in South Western Poland (n = 239, mean age 19.82 +/- 1.2 years). Assessments, by questionnaire, included daily food intake, frequency of consuming foodstuffs with an adequate nutritional value and evaluating adverse dietary habits. Also considered were students' health, types of physical activity undertaken, or if not, then awareness of the consequences so arising. Statistical analysis was performed by the Chi2 test. These showed that 25% of students did not eat breakfast, 45.6% snacked in between main meals and 25% ate just before bedtime. Only 29% ate fruit and vegetables daily and 12% never had fish. Energy drinks were consumed by 39% of students daily and also 40% daily drank sweetened beverages. Furthermore, 40% of all subjects rated themselves as physically active, among which the highest were physiotherapy students at 70%. Regular physical activity was not considered essential to health by 5% subjects and 22% of nursing students believed that a lack of exercise, despite eating a healthy diet, did not affect health. The main reasons cited for not performing physical exercise were a lack of time (60%) and energy (26%). Despite being aware of the importance that a proper diet and adequate levels of physical activity confers on health, the students of medicine and related disciplines, nevertheless, did not implement theory into practice.

  13. Comparison of dietary habits and plans for dietary changes in black and white women seeking bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kendall L; Moore, Carolyn E; Miketinas, Derek C; Champagne, Catherine M

    2018-01-01

    Achieving weight loss after bariatric surgery depends on the individual's ability to sustain lifestyle changes involving dietary modifications. Presurgical dietary assessment is critical to evaluate usual dietary habits and identify the need for intervention before surgery. The objective of this study was to identify usual dietary habits of black and white women seeking bariatric surgery and to examine potential differences between these ethnic groups. An additional aim was to describe participants' plans to change dietary behaviors after surgery. This study examined data from an observational study sponsored by a benefits management group in Louisiana. In this cross-sectional study, a presurgical dietary assessment interview questionnaire collected information on dietary habits. Participants (n = 200) were adult women being screened for bariatric surgery; 54% were white, and 46% were black. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differences between groups were tested using 2-way analysis of the variance. Participants reported consuming fast food 2.9 ± 2.6 times per week, fried foods 2.1 ± 1.8 times per week, and desserts 3.4 ± 3.2 times per week. Blacks reported more frequent consumption of fast food (Psurgery were similar between ethnic groups. Findings indicated that frequent consumption of fast foods, fried foods, desserts, and sugar-sweetened beverages was common among women seeking bariatric surgery. Blacks tended to consume these foods and beverages more often than whites. Current dietary habits and future plans to change dietary behaviors should be addressed before surgery for success. Follow-up studies investigating the assessment instrument's ability to predict dietary adherence and weight loss after surgery are warranted. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sociodemographic differences in dietary habits described by food frequency questions - results from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe; Haraldsdóttir, J.; Holm, Karen Lotte

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a modest number of food frequency questions are sufficient to describe sociodemographic differences in dietary habits, and to identify sociodemographic characteristics of subjects adhering to food-based dietary guidelines operationalised in a "healthy-diet index...

  15. Psychometric evaluation of dietary habits questionnaire for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, W.; Ansari, T.; Butt, N. S.; Hamid, M. R. Ab

    2017-09-01

    This research evaluated the psychometric properties of English version of dietary habits questionnaires developed for type 2 diabetic patients. There is scarcity of literature about availability of standardized questionnaires for assessing dietary habits of type 2 diabetics in Saudi Arabia. As dietary habits vary from country to country, therefore, this was an attempt to develop questionnaires that can serve as a baseline. Through intensive literature review, four questionnaires were developed / modified and subsequently tested for psychometric properties. Prior to pilot study, a pre-test was conducted to evaluate the face validity and content validity. The pilot study was conducted from 23 October - 22 November, 2016 to evaluate the questionnaires’ reliability and validity. Systematic random sampling technique was used to collect the data from 132 patients by direct investigation method. Questionnaires assessing diabetes mellitus knowledge (0.891), dietary knowledge (0.869), dietary attitude (0.841) and dietary practices (0.874) had good internal consistency reliability. Factor analysis conducted on dietary attitude questionnaire showed a valid 5 factor solution. Directions of loadings were positive and free from factorial complexity. Relying on the data obtained from type 2 diabetics, these questionnaires can be considered as reliable and valid for the assessment of dietary habits in Saudi Arabia and neighbouring Gulf countries population.

  16. Disparities in dietary habits and physical activity in Denmark and trends from 1995 to 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    ACTIVITY WERE SEEN FOR ALL EXAMINED TIME PERIODS AND WITH NO SIGNIFICANT CHANGE THEREFORE, THERE IS NO SUPPORT TO THE HYPOTHESIS OF WIDENING SOCIAL DISPARITIES IN ALL EDUCATIONAL GROUPS SOME IMPROVEMENT OF DIETARY HABITS WAS FOUND, ESPECIALLY FOR THOSE FOODS WHERE COMPREHENSIVE INITIATIVES HAD TAKEN PLACE......In all analyses, both diet quality and physical inactivity differed systematically with educational group and with healthier habits for the group with long education. Only for alcohol habits was an opposite social gradient seen. Disparities persisted over all time periods. The analyses using "The...... Concentration Index" did not change any of the conclusions. Gender also influenced diet quality. Men had dietary and alcohol habits furthest away from the guidelines. A trend of healthier habits was also found over the time period. CONCLUSIONS SOCIAL DISPARITIES IN DIET QUALITY AND LEISURE-TIME PHYSICAL...

  17. Changing dietary habits of ethnic groups in Europe and implications for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Penelope A; Khokhar, Santosh

    2008-04-01

    A systematic review of the literature suggests the dietary habits of some ethnic groups living in Europe are likely to become less healthy as individuals increase consumption of processed foods that are energy dense and contain high levels of fat, sugar, and salt. Such products often replace healthy dietary components of the native diet, such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Mixed food habits are emerging mainly amongst younger people in the second and third generations, most likely due to acculturation and adoption of a Western lifestyle. Age and immigrant generation are the major factors accounting for changes in dietary habits, whilst income, level of education, dietary laws, religion, and food beliefs are also important factors. Obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension present major problems for the mainstream European population. However, the risk of chronic disease is reported to be higher in ethnic populations, particularly South Asians, African Caribbeans, and Mexicans.

  18. THE DIETARY HABITS OF McDONALD’S RESTAURANT EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Michota-Katulska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Both the amount and the quality of consumed food have a direct impact on health. There has been a noticeable increase in frequency of fast food consumption. The aim of the paper was to assess the food habits in a selected group of quick service restaurant employees, who have easy access to fast food. The survey was conducted at the end of 2014/beginning 2015 among 270 purposively selected McDonald’s Warsaw restaurant employees. An original survey questionnaire was employed. Statistica software was used to process the data; correlation coeffi cient was calculated taking p < 0.5 as the level of statistical signifi cance. The survey points to many nutritional errors committed by the employees, including too long intervals between meals and frequent fast food consumption. Additionally, it was observed that seniority played a role in food preferences: the longer the employee’s length of service, the more often would they consume McDonald’s-bought products. It was determined that place of employment was a determining factor in food choices. The respondents with longer seniority reported more frequent consumption of products bought during work hours and use of McDonald’s restaurants in general. Although almost half of the respondents were aware of the negative health eff ects of fast food, they did not limit its consumption. It appears essential to introduce health education for the surveyed group.

  19. Dietary habits of hypertensive patients in a tertiary hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The prescriptions regarding non-pharmacological care in the management of hypertension has been carefully defined by the various practice guidelines. However, there is paucity of data on dietary practices in our environment, therefore this study set out to determine the dietary practices of hypertensive ...

  20. Sociodemographic conditions, knowledge of dental diseases, dental care, and dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Brittmarie; Ho Thi, Thanh; Hoang Ngoc, Chuong; Hugoson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This study's aim was to present data on the sociodemographic conditions, knowledge of dental diseases, dental care, and dietary habits among children aged 3, 5, 10, and 15 years in Da Nang, Vietnam. A cross-sectional epidemiological questionnaire study was conducted in a population of 840 children randomly selected by their year and month of birth (January to July), including 210 individuals in each age group. A self-reported questionnaire was completed by the parents of 3- and 5-year-olds, and a modified questionnaire was given to 10- and 15-year-olds to complete by themselves. Mass media constituted the main source of oral healthcare information. Parents assisted with tooth brushing in 86 percent of 3-year-olds and 71 percent of 5-year-olds. Fluoride toothpaste was used by 44-78 percent of children, with no clear age-related trend. Within the past year, 60 percent of 3- and 5-year-olds, 20 percent of 10-year-olds, and 49 percent of 15-year-olds reported they had not visited a dental professional. Sweets were consumed between principal meals by 70-80 percent of children. Milk with sugar was regularly consumed by 71 percent of 3-year-olds and 91 percent of 5-year-olds. Children showed frequent sugar consumption and insufficient frequency of brushing their teeth with fluoride toothpaste. Food-based dietary guidelines should play a significant role in nutrition and oral health. It is especially important that oral health prevention programs reach preschool children before they establish unhealthy dietary habits. Parental education about oral health and access to oral healthcare services are also needed to improve children's oral health. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  1. Application of Cluster Analysis in Assessment of Dietary Habits of Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalewska Magdalena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of proper health and prevention of diseases of civilization are now significant public health problems. Nutrition is an important factor in the development of youth, as well as the current and future state of health. The aim of the study was to show the benefits of the application of cluster analysis to assess the dietary habits of high school students. The survey was carried out on 1,631 eighteen-year-old students in seven randomly selected secondary schools in Bialystok using a self-prepared anonymous questionnaire. An evaluation of the time of day meals were eaten and the number of meals consumed was made for the surveyed students. The cluster analysis allowed distinguishing characteristic structures of dietary habits in the observed population. Four clusters were identified, which were characterized by relative internal homogeneity and substantial variation in terms of the number of meals during the day and the time of their consumption. The most important characteristics of cluster 1 were cumulated food ration in 2 or 3 meals and long intervals between meals. Cluster 2 was characterized by eating the recommended number of 4 or 5 meals a day. In the 3rd cluster, students ate 3 meals a day with large intervals between them, and in the 4th they had four meals a day while maintaining proper intervals between them. In all clusters dietary mistakes occurred, but most of them were related to clusters 1 and 3. Cluster analysis allowed for the identification of major flaws in nutrition, which may include irregular eating and skipping meals, and indicated possible connections between eating patterns and disturbances of body weight in the examined population.

  2. Perceptions of Dietary Habits and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes among Congolese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daudet Ilunga Tshiswaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the perceptions of dietary habits and type 2 diabetes risk among Congolese immigrants living in the US. Methods. Data were collected from 20 in-depth interviews and photo-elicitation techniques conducted with Congolese immigrants. The PEN-3 cultural model was used as a guide to analyze the data collected. Results. Participants identified positive, existential, and negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers associated with dietary habits and type 2 diabetes risk. Participants also acknowledged intrinsic cultural ways of understanding and interpreting the interaction between dietary habits and type 2 diabetes risk among the Congolese people which may influence their health-seeking practices. Conclusions. The findings underscore the importance of culture and how sociocultural factors may play a role with designing culturally appropriate interventions aimed at addressing the risk for type 2 diabetes among Congolese immigrants in the US.

  3. A Systematic Review on the Relationship of Dietary Habits and Blood Pressure in the Pediatric Age Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya kelishadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Tracking of blood pressure from early life to adulthood and the increasing prevalence of elevated blood pressure in the pediatric age group are considered as important health issues. Rapid lifestyle change and dietary habits are considered as important determinants of this problem. This study aimed to systematically review the studies on the association of dietary habits and blood pressure in the pediatric age group.  Materials and Methods The search was conducted from November 2015 to August 2016 .Those papers were included that investigated the association of dietary habits on blood pressure in children and adolescents aged less than 18 years. The following medical subject headings and keywords were used to search all field (Diet OR nutrition OR nutrient OR food OR food habits OR food preferences AND (Blood pressure OR hypertension OR high blood pressure OR systolic pressure OR diastolic pressure OR Systolic Blood Pressure [TIAB] OR Diastolic Blood Pressure [TIAB] AND (child [Mesh] OR children [TIAB] OR adolescent [Mesh] [TIAB] OR pediatrics [Mesh] OR paediatric [TIAB] Results A total of 549 studies were initially identified in the databases. After excluding duplicate studies, 270 articles were retrieved and we reviewed them based on their titles and abstracts; then 161 articles were selected for more detail review. Findings of multiple studies showed the beneficial effect of fruits, vegetables and dairy products on blood pressure in children. Conclusion Increasing evidences indicate that dietary habits, notably daily salt intake of children is directly related to their blood pressure level. Our findings serve as confirmatory evidence on the necessity of paying more attention to primordial and primary prevention of hypertension.

  4. INFANTILE LACTASE DEFICIENCY AND DIETARY HABITS. CLIUNICAL CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Ipatova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contains analysis of modern data upon infantile lactase deficiency, diagnostics and clinical presentation. Special attention is paid to the disease treatment analysis and its dietary correction. We present clinical variants of the disorder.

  5. Genetics of dietary habits and obesity - a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

    2010-01-01

    mass, but only limited evidence for associations between habitual dietary intake and anthropometry exists. Differences in habitual dietary intake are also partly determined by differences in genes influencing smell and taste preferences. But, so far, only few studies have investigated genetic...... exposures as well as genetic differences between individuals, resulting in differentiated susceptibility to environmental exposures. The evidence for genetic influence on anthropometry has previously been established and has been estimated to be 60-70% based on twin studies. These inter...... influences on dietary intake in adults and the interplay between diet, genes and obesity. The focus of the thesis was to investigate the genetic and environmental influence on habitual diet and obesity as well as the association between habitual diet and anthropometry. The thesis is based on structural...

  6. Genetics of dietary habits and obesity - a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

    2010-01-01

    equation modelling of twin data from the Danish Twin Registry with special focus on the GEMINAKAR twin study that was performed in 1997-2000. In this study, anthropometric traits of the twin pairs were measured and habitual dietary intake was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). When...... residual genetic influence existed. Based on information about habitual diet from the FFQ the genetic influence on total energy intake, macronutrient intake, as well as intake of energy from 20 food groups, was estimated. The proportion of variation in dietary intake explained by variation in genes...

  7. Relationship between dietary habits and nutritional status among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-09

    Feb 9, 2017 ... lescence.2 A WHO school-based student health survey in Oman that described the pattern of dietary behaviour among adolescents; showed that about 50% missed breakfast, 33.4% usually drink sugar-sweetened carbon- ated soft drinks, 10% ate fast-foods regularly and 70% ate fruits and vegetable ...

  8. Anthropometric Characteristics, Nutritional Status And Dietary Habits In A College Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljanovic Gora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The college student population is prone to irregular food intake and the excessive intake of carbohydrates and snacks. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships among anthropometric characteristics, dietary habits and nutritional knowledge in female students attending a healthcare college.

  9. Comparison of anthropometrical parameters and dietary habits of young women with and without menstrual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łagowska, Karolina; Kazmierczak, Daria; Szymczak, Katarzyna

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and dietary habits of young women, in order to explore their relationship with the menstrual cycle and to determine the proportion of women with menstrual cycle irregularities. A total of 348 young women aged 15-25 years (19.7 ± 3.7 years) participated in the study and were assigned to a younger group (15-18 years; YG) or an older group (19-25 years; OG). Two subgroups were also distinguished: women with menstrual disorders (MD) and women with regular cycles (RC). Body mass, waist circumference, fat mass (FM), energy and nutrient intakes, and eating behaviour of the subjects were evaluated. In both age groups, women with menstrual cycle disorders were more likely to have higher body weight, higher body mass index, larger waist circumference and higher body FM. The daily diets of these women contained larger quantities of animal protein and fat, including saturated fat (in OG), but were poorer in vitamins B 1 and B 6 (in YG) and in iron. Disinhibition was significantly more common in the MD group. The results of this study suggest that nutritional habits and status can interfere with the course of the menstrual cycle in young women. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  10. Thyroid nodules in centenarians: prevalence and relationship to lifestyle characteristics and dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Chen, Xianghui; Wu, Shengzheng; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Hao; Zhu, Qiao; Tang, Jie; Luan, Fuxin; Zhao, Yali; Lv, Faqin; He, Yao

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid nodules (TNs) are common thyroid lesions in older population. Few studies have focused on the prevalence of TNs and their relationship to lifestyle characteristics and dietary habits in centenarians. The current study aimed at determining the prevalence of TNs in Chinese centenarians by using high-resolution ultrasound (US) equipment and at investigating its relationship to lifestyle characteristics and dietary habits. The current study was part of the China Hainan Centenarian Cohort Study that was conducted in Hainan, an iodine-sufficient region in People's Republic of China. A total of 874 permanent residents aged ≥100 years (mean age =102.8±2.8 years) without any missing data were included in the analysis. Among the participants, 649 of them were detected at least one TN under the US examinations. The overall prevalence rate of TNs was 74.3%. The prevalence of TNs was higher in participants who were women, had hypertension, had diabetes, and were underweight compared with their counterparts. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that being female, hypertensive, and diabetic; betel quid consumption; and red meat consumption were independent risk factors, while being underweight and nut consumption were independent protective factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that the presence of TNs was highly prevalent in Chinese centenarians, particularly in women. In addition to gender, having hypertension, having diabetes, and being underweight, the presence of TNs was independently associated with betel quid, red meat, and nut consumption. Further prospective studies are warranted to verify these associations in populations from different age strata, races, cultures, and iodine supplementation.

  11. A study on dietary habits, health related lifestyle, blood cadmium and lead levels of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Nari; Hyun, Whajin; Lee, Hongmie; Ro, Mansoo; Song, Kyunghee

    2012-08-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate dietary habits, health related lifestyle and blood cadmium and lead levels in female college students. 80 college students (43 males and 37 females) participated in the survey questionnaires. Body weight and height, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. The systolic blood pressure of male and female students were 128.9 ± 13.9 and 109.8 ± 12.0, respectively. The diastolic blood pressure of male and female students were 77.1 ± 10.3 and 66.0 ± 6.9, respectively, showing that male students had significantly higher blood pressure than female students (P habits score of female students was significantly higher than that of male students (P improve their dietary and health related living habits.

  12. Dietary habits among health professionals working in a district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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    Siyabonga H. Kunene

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The burden of diseases associated with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours continues to increase in the low- and middle-income countries including South Africa. Among the affected population are the health professionals who are assumed to be knowledgeable about healthy eating.Aim: This study aimed to determine the dietary habits of health professionals in a public district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among 109 randomly selected health professionals. Each received a questionnaire consisting of mostly closed and few open-ended questions. Its main focus was the dietary and eating habits of the professionals. An ethical clearance was granted by the Medunsa Research and Ethics committee at the University of Limpopo. Permission to conduct the study was sought and obtained from participants as well. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were used to analyse data.Results: A 100% (109 response rate was achieved. The majority skipped meals especially breakfast with a significant positive correlation between breakfast intake per week and age (r = 0.98, p = 0.048. The majority consumed a lot of unhealthy foods and carbonated beverages with sugar. Consumption of fruits, vegetables, high fibre and whole grain foods was less common.Conclusion: The study showed poor eating habits among participants. Urgent health interventions are therefore indicated to highlight the importance of healthy eating habits among the entire population.

  13. Dietary habits among health professionals working in a district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunene, Siyabonga H; Taukobong, Nomathemba P

    2017-06-28

    The burden of diseases associated with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours continues to increase in the low- and middle-income countries including South Africa. Among the affected population are the health professionals who are assumed to be knowledgeable about healthy eating. This study aimed to determine the dietary habits of health professionals in a public district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among 109 randomly selected health professionals. Each received a questionnaire consisting of mostly closed and few open-ended questions. Its main focus was the dietary and eating habits of the professionals. An ethical clearance was granted by the Medunsa Research and Ethics committee at the University of Limpopo. Permission to conduct the study was sought and obtained from participants as well. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were used to analyse data. A 100% (109) response rate was achieved. The majority skipped meals especially breakfast with a significant positive correlation between breakfast intake per week and age (r = 0.98, p = 0.048). The majority consumed a lot of unhealthy foods and carbonated beverages with sugar. Consumption of fruits, vegetables, high fibre and whole grain foods was less common. The study showed poor eating habits among participants. Urgent health interventions are therefore indicated to highlight the importance of healthy eating habits among the entire population.

  14. Determination of prevalence of dental erosion in 12-14 years school children and its relationship with dietary habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbaz, U.; Hosein, T.; Fauzia, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of dental erosion in 12-14 years school children and its association with dietary habits. Study Design: Observational cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Fatima Jinnah Dental College, Karachi, from January to June 2010. Methodology: School children aged between 12 - 14 years were included in this study. Dental erosion was detected by visual examination. Aself-developed questionnaire was used to assess the dietary habits of children. Acidic diet was considered a diet that has an acidic pH. The amount of consumption of acidic drinks and food per week was categorized into low consumption (1 - 7 times / week) and medium consumption (8 - 21 times / week). Chi-square test was applied to see any statistical difference between diet and tooth erosion at 95 percent CI. Results: The Results showed a high frequency of (46 percent) dental erosion in children, which was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in children with more acidic diet. Conclusion: This study highlights the impact of dietary habits on the prevalence of dental erosion in children. Acidic diets need to be controlled in frequency to prevent dental erosion. (author)

  15. Changes in dietary habits and eating practices in adolescents living in urban South Africa: the birth to twenty cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Alison; Musenge, Eustasius; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2012-07-01

    To assess changes in the dietary habits and eating practices of a longitudinal cohort of adolescents over a 5-y period living in Soweto and Johannesburg. An interviewer-assisted questionnaire was used to gather data on the dietary habits and eating practices across three environments: in the home, in the school, and in the community. Participants (n = 1451, 49.1% male, 89% black, and 11% with mixed ancestry) 13, 15, and 17 y old with complete data were included in the analyses. The weekday breakfast consumption decreased over the 5-y period, from 76% to 65% (P breakfast during the weekend more regularly but this also decreased with age. Snacking while watching television increased with age, from 3.6 ± 4.6 to 6.7 ± 5.9 snacks/week, with female subjects consistently consuming more snacks than male subjects (P portion/week over the 5 y and confectionery consumption stayed the same, around 9 items/week in male subjects and 10 items/week in female subjects (P < 0.02). Lunch box usage decreased with age; conversely, the number of tuck shop purchases increased. Poor eating habits in all three environments were found; the participants' propensity for foods that were energy dense and micronutrient poor was high. This study also found that dietary patterns are well established by 13 y of age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in food neophobia and dietary habits of international students

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, John; Hartwell, Heather; Brown, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Background\\ud International study is becoming more prevalent, yet aspects such as food neophobia often militate against the consumption of a nutritionally balanced diet of visiting students. The purpose of this paper, therefore, was to evaluate the extent to which international postgraduate students experience food neophobia, how this might vary by nationality and other demographic characteristics, and how acculturation might manifest itself in students’ dietary behaviour.\\ud Methods\\ud Inter...

  17. Fostering sustainable dietary habits through optimized school meals in Sweden – OPTIMAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eustachio Colombo, Patricia; Schäfer-Elinder, Liselotte; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    The fulfilment of commitments to international agreements that relate to sustainable development requires fundamental changes in food consumption. This project aims to promote healthy and sustainable dietary habits in Sweden through optimized school meals. Several studies are planned. The first...... is an analysis of children’s dietary intake in relation to school meal quality. The second is a modelling study where nutritious, affordable and theoretically acceptable food baskets, optimized for low emissions of greenhouse gases, are developed. Menus based on these baskets will be developed and tested...... for acceptability in schools. Lastly, challenges in the implementation of climate-friendlier school meals will be studied. Currently, the collection of data on dietary habits and school meal quality has been finalised. Preliminary optimisation analyses have also been performed. This project has the potential...

  18. Dietary habits and physical activity levels in Jordanian adolescents attending private versus public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O

    2014-07-08

    The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.

  19. Building healthy eating habits in childhood: a study of the attitudes, knowledge and dietary habits of schoolchildren in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaluddin, Megat Ahmad; Abdul Razak, Ahmad Zabidi; Abdul Wahid, Afiq Athari

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity have increased rapidly in incidence to become a global issue today. Overweight and obesity problems are significantly linked to unhealthy dietary patterns, physical inactivity and misperception of body image. This study aimed to determine whether Malaysian children build healthy eating habits from childhood. Methods A survey on eating habits was conducted among primary school students in standards 4 to 6 in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The findings of the study were reported in the form of descriptive statistics involving frequencies and percentages. Data from 400 respondents were analyzed. Results Our findings showed that the students understood the definition of healthy food and the types of food that are considered healthy. Although the students knew that food such as deep-fried drumsticks and hamburgers contain a high amount of saturated fat and cholesterol, these foods were still consumed by them. There was also a high consumption of foods that are fried and contain sugar, salt and saturated fat. In choosing food, two major factors contributed to the students’ decisions: cleanliness (65.8%) and the preference of their parents (12.3%). Discussion Our findings indicate that by implementing the Integrated School Health Program (ISHP) properly, students’ eating habits can be improved by creating a school with a healthy environment. PMID:27904803

  20. Building healthy eating habits in childhood: a study of the attitudes, knowledge and dietary habits of schoolchildren in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Kazi Enamul; Kamaluddin, Megat Ahmad; Abdul Razak, Ahmad Zabidi; Abdul Wahid, Afiq Athari

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity have increased rapidly in incidence to become a global issue today. Overweight and obesity problems are significantly linked to unhealthy dietary patterns, physical inactivity and misperception of body image. This study aimed to determine whether Malaysian children build healthy eating habits from childhood. A survey on eating habits was conducted among primary school students in standards 4 to 6 in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The findings of the study were reported in the form of descriptive statistics involving frequencies and percentages. Data from 400 respondents were analyzed. Our findings showed that the students understood the definition of healthy food and the types of food that are considered healthy. Although the students knew that food such as deep-fried drumsticks and hamburgers contain a high amount of saturated fat and cholesterol, these foods were still consumed by them. There was also a high consumption of foods that are fried and contain sugar, salt and saturated fat. In choosing food, two major factors contributed to the students' decisions: cleanliness (65.8%) and the preference of their parents (12.3%). Our findings indicate that by implementing the Integrated School Health Program (ISHP) properly, students' eating habits can be improved by creating a school with a healthy environment.

  1. Building healthy eating habits in childhood: a study of the attitudes, knowledge and dietary habits of schoolchildren in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Enamul Hoque

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Overweight and obesity have increased rapidly in incidence to become a global issue today. Overweight and obesity problems are significantly linked to unhealthy dietary patterns, physical inactivity and misperception of body image. This study aimed to determine whether Malaysian children build healthy eating habits from childhood. Methods A survey on eating habits was conducted among primary school students in standards 4 to 6 in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The findings of the study were reported in the form of descriptive statistics involving frequencies and percentages. Data from 400 respondents were analyzed. Results Our findings showed that the students understood the definition of healthy food and the types of food that are considered healthy. Although the students knew that food such as deep-fried drumsticks and hamburgers contain a high amount of saturated fat and cholesterol, these foods were still consumed by them. There was also a high consumption of foods that are fried and contain sugar, salt and saturated fat. In choosing food, two major factors contributed to the students’ decisions: cleanliness (65.8% and the preference of their parents (12.3%. Discussion Our findings indicate that by implementing the Integrated School Health Program (ISHP properly, students’ eating habits can be improved by creating a school with a healthy environment.

  2. The associations between domain-specific sedentary behaviours and dietary habits in European adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the SPOTLIGHT survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Compernolle

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviour has been associated with obesity and related chronic diseases. Disentangling the nature of this association is complicated due to interactions with other lifestyle factors, such as dietary habits, yet limited research has investigated the relation between domain-specific sedentary behaviours and dietary habits in adults. The aim of this paper was to examine the association between domain-specific sedentary behaviours and dietary habits in adults and to test the moderating effect of age and gender on this association. Methods A total of 6,037 participants from five urban regions in Europe completed an online survey, of which 6,001 were included in the analyses. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses were used to examine main associations and interaction effects. Results All domain-specific sedentary behaviours, except transport-related sitting time, were significantly related to dietary habits. In general, having a higher sitting time was related to having less healthy dietary habits, especially for television viewing. Gender did not moderate any of the relations, and age was only a significant moderator in the relation between other leisure sitting time and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Domain-specific sitting behaviours were related to unhealthy dietary behaviours. However, the small effect sizes suggest that individual level behavioural interventions focusing on sedentary behaviour will not be sufficient to improve dietary habits. The fact that almost none of the associations were moderated by age or gender suggests that these associations, and possibly also the effects of interventions targeting both behaviours, may hold across age and gender groups.

  3. The associations between domain-specific sedentary behaviours and dietary habits in European adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the SPOTLIGHT survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, Sofie; De Cocker, Katrien; Teixeira, Pedro J; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Roda, Célina; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Lakerveld, Jeroen; McKee, Martin; Glonti, Ketevan; Rutter, Harry; Bardos, Helga; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-10-06

    Sedentary behaviour has been associated with obesity and related chronic diseases. Disentangling the nature of this association is complicated due to interactions with other lifestyle factors, such as dietary habits, yet limited research has investigated the relation between domain-specific sedentary behaviours and dietary habits in adults. The aim of this paper was to examine the association between domain-specific sedentary behaviours and dietary habits in adults and to test the moderating effect of age and gender on this association. A total of 6,037 participants from five urban regions in Europe completed an online survey, of which 6,001 were included in the analyses. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses were used to examine main associations and interaction effects. All domain-specific sedentary behaviours, except transport-related sitting time, were significantly related to dietary habits. In general, having a higher sitting time was related to having less healthy dietary habits, especially for television viewing. Gender did not moderate any of the relations, and age was only a significant moderator in the relation between other leisure sitting time and alcohol consumption. Domain-specific sitting behaviours were related to unhealthy dietary behaviours. However, the small effect sizes suggest that individual level behavioural interventions focusing on sedentary behaviour will not be sufficient to improve dietary habits. The fact that almost none of the associations were moderated by age or gender suggests that these associations, and possibly also the effects of interventions targeting both behaviours, may hold across age and gender groups.

  4. Associations between dietary habits and body mass index with gut microbiota composition and fecal water genotoxicity: an observational study in African American and Caucasian American volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rashmi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans (AA suffer from an increased incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC. Environmental exposures including dietary habits likely contribute to a high burden of CRC, however, data on the dietary habits of AA is sparse. Diet might change the composition and the activities of the intestinal microbiota, in turn affecting fecal genotoxicity/mutagenicity that is thought to be associated with carcinogenesis. Methods We assessed dietary habits by food frequency questionnaire and by food records in 52 AA and 46 CA residents of the Eastern Shore of MD. Fecal microbiota composition was determined using 16S rRNA based methods and fecal genotoxicity measured using the Comet assay. Results AA reported an increased intake of heterocyclic amines and a decreased dietary intake of vitamins including vitamin D (p Conclusion Dietary habits of African Americans, including increased HCA intake and decreased vitamin D intake might at least partially contribute to CRC through modifications of gut microbiota composition that result in changes of the intestinal milieu.

  5. Dietary habits in patients with ischemic stroke: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodríguez-Campello

    Full Text Available Diet appears to have some role in stroke development. The objective of our study was to describe the dietary habits in patients admitted with acute ischemic stroke and compare selected dietary components with healthy controls. Adherence to healthy diet behaviors was also assessed.A case-control study of consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to the Neurology Department of Hospital del Mar from 2007 to 2010. Patients were matched by age and sex with control subjects. A previously validated nutritional survey was administered to patients and controls. Demographic data, vascular risk factors, caloric intake and dietary nutrients were evaluated. Intention to follow a healthy diet was also assessed in both groups.A total of 300 acute ischemic stroke patients and 300 controls with evaluation of dietary habits. No differences were observed in vascular risk factors, except smoking habit, diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Stroke patients reported a higher caloric intake: 2444.8(1736.8-3244.5 vs 2208.7(1753.1-2860.7 Kcal, p = 0.001. After adjusting for energy intake, patients had higher intake of proteins (p<0.001; OR 1.02, total cholesterol (p = 0.001; OR 1.04, and breaded foods (p = 0.001; OR 1.94 and lower consumption of probiotic yogurt (p = 0.002; OR 0.88. Compared to patients, control participants indicated greater intention to eat vegetables (p = 0.002; OR 1.5 and whole foods (p = 0.000; OR 2.4 and reduce their intake of salt (p = 0.002; OR 1.7, fat (p = 0.000; OR 3.7 and sweets (p = 0.004; OR 1.7 than patients.We observed different dietary patterns between stroke patients and controls. Stroke patients have a higher caloric intake and are less concerned about maintaining healthy nutritional habits.

  6. Genetics of dietary habits and obesity - a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

    2010-01-01

    influences on dietary intake in adults and the interplay between diet, genes and obesity. The focus of the thesis was to investigate the genetic and environmental influence on habitual diet and obesity as well as the association between habitual diet and anthropometry. The thesis is based on structural......Obesity has become a major health concern due to the increased risk of co-morbidities, resulting in decreased quality of life, stigmatization, reduced working ability and early death. This causes a great challenge for the health care systems and results in increased direct costs related...... to treatment of obesity and co-morbidities, as well as increased indirect costs related to reduced function and withdrawal from the labour market. Both between and within societies, large variation in the prevalence of overweight and obesity exists. This variation is caused by differences in environmental...

  7. Dietary habits in women with recurrent idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meschi Tiziana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition has been widely recognized to influence the risk of kidney stone formation. Therefore the aim of our study was to assess: a whether usual diet of women with idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis (ICN living in Parma (Northern-Italy is different compared to healthy controls, b how their diet differs from Italian National guidelines and c whether it is related to nephrolithiasis clinical course. Methods 143 women with recurrent ICN (mean age 43 ± 13 ys and 170 healthy women (mean age 42 ± 11 ys were enrolled. All women completed a food frequency questionnaire for the last 60-days and a 3-day dietary diary analysed with a dedicated software. Results Stone formers showed a higher consumption of sausages, ham, meat and sweets than healthy controls (43.1% vs 11.1%, 29.4% vs 13.9%, 21.6% vs 4.2%, 66.7% vs 18.1%, p 40 years, the differences described above were amplified in the class ≤30 years, where nephrolithiasis presented a more serious course (shorter recurrence interval, greater stone-rate. In this age group the intake of fruit and vegetables was notably lower than guideline recommendations. Conclusions We conclude that the usual diet of women with recurrent ICN is different from controls and characterized by low intake of fruits and vegetables and higher consumption of simple sugars and foods with high protein and salt content. This dietary imbalance could play a role in the ICN pathogenesis, especially in younger women. This work was financed by grants from Italian Ministry of University and Research as part of a larger project about the prevention of kidney stones (PRIN 2005063822 and by Fondazione per la Ricerca Scientifica Termale (FoRST. No potential conflict of interest relevant to this paper was reported.

  8. [Dietary habits during lactation in the Llerena (Badajoz) health area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Paiva, F; García Rodríguez, A M

    1994-10-15

    To analyse the feeding habits used for nursing children in the Llerena Health Area (Badajoz). A descriptive and inferential study, using questionnaires given to the mothers. Schools chosen at random from the eight health districts which make up the above-stated Health Area. Mothers (N = 369) of school-children in the first to eighth years of EGB (basic) for the 1991-2 school year. We studied the type of feeding used, finding 29.15% exclusive breast-feeding, 46.5% mixed and 24.2% bottle. We investigated the average time of breast-feeding (4.7 months) and how supplementary feeding (Beikost) was started: usually with cereals (at 4.7 months), fruit (5.16 months) and vegetables, meat and fish (7.27 months). We found that advice on the lacteal preparation used for mixed and bottle lactation was provided by health professionals in 84.2% of cases and in lay persons, 15.8%. The most common reasons for stopping breast-feeding were Hypogalactia in 64.6% of cases and work in 23.1%. There was more exclusive breast-feeding in the lowest socio-economic classes (p supplementary feeding. We noted a tendency in favour of breast-feeding. The social and work-related changes in womens' lives are having a decisive influence on the feeding practices of nursing children.

  9. Reproductive factors, lifestyle and dietary habits among pregnant women in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Anne Seneca; Long, Manhai; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2018-01-01

    Background: During past decades the formerly active lifestyle in Greenland has become sedentary, and the intake of traditional food has gradually been replaced with imported food. These lifestyle and dietary habits may affect pregnant women. Aim: To describe age and regional differences...... factors, lifestyle and dietary habits were compared in relation to two age groups (median age ≤28 years and >28 years). Results: In total, 72.4% were Inuit, 46.6% had BMI >25.0 kg/m2, 29.0% were smoking during pregnancy and 54.6% had used hashish. BMI, educational level, personal income, previous......, the highest number of smokers during pregnancy and the most frequent intake of sauce with hot meals and fast-food. Conclusions: Overall a high BMI and a high smoking frequency were found. Age differences were found for BMI and planned breastfeeding period, while regional differences were found for smoking...

  10. 13C evidence for dietary habits of prehistoric man in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, H.

    1981-01-01

    The 13 C fractionation pattern which is affected by the type of metabolism used by plants to fix CO 2 and differs in marine and terrestrial plants, has been used to investigate the dietary habits of prehistoric man in northwestern Europe. The results show that whereas Danish Mesolithic man lived on a diet dominated by sea food, in the Neolithic the human diet consisted predominantly of terrestrial food. (U.K.)

  11. Are dietary habits of the Polish population consistent with the recommendations for prevention of cardiovascular disease? - WOBASZ II project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waśkiewicz, Anna; Szcześniewska, Danuta; Szostak-Węgierek, Dorota; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Pająk, Andrzej; Stepaniak, Urszula; Kozakiewicz, Krystyna; Tykarski, Andrzej; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Zujko, Małgorzata E; Drygas, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To assess diet quality in the adult Polish population, taking into consideration consumption of various nutrients as well as the total diet quality. Within the frame of the National Multicentre Health Survey (WOBASZ II), a random sample of the whole Polish population aged 20 years and above was screened during the years 2013-2014. Dietary habits were assessed in 5690 subjects (2554 men and 3136 women). Nutrient intakes were compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Total diet quality was measured using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI) score, based on the World Health Organisation recommendations for CVD prevention, that includes 7 nutrients (saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, dietary fibre, fruits and vegetables, free sugars) and ranges from 0 (the least healthy diet) to 7 (the healthiest diet). The studied group was characterised by a high prevalence of overweight and obesity (69% in men vs. 59% in women), hypercholesterolaemia (56% vs. 55%, respectively), hypertension (50% vs. 42%), and diabetes (12% vs. 10%). At the same time, a significant percentage of Poles had improper dietary habits. A low fat and low cholesterol diet was reported by only 8% and a low calorie diet by 1% of the respondents. Adding salt to already seasoned dishes was reported by 27% of men and 18% of women, and 56% and 30% of them, respectively, consumed meat products with visible fat. The diet of most adult Polish citizens was found to be not balanced. Vitamins A, C, E, B1, B2, B6, and B12, protein, dietary cholesterol and fruits/vegetables were consumed in recommended doses only by 44-80% of the respondents. The recommended intake of fat, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which significantly affect lipid levels, was found in 18-37% of the respondents. Dietary intakes of folate and minerals important for the prevention of hypertension were insufficient. The desired level of folate

  12. [Differences in dietary habits and food preferences of adults depending on the age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Edyta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Adamska, Ewelina; Maliszewska, Katarzyna; Citko, Anna; Waszczeniuk, Magdalena; Przystupa, Wojciech; Majewski, Radosław; Wasilewska, Anna; Milewski, Robert; Krytowski, Adam; Górska, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the structure and functioning of the body occur with age. Also nutrition is continually modified. Eating habits may affect favorably or unfavorably on the process of aging and the functioning of various tissues, organs and the whole body. The purpose of the study was to evaluate dietary habits and food preferences of patients in different age groups. In the studied groups also body mass index (BMI) and body fat content were analyzed. 237 people (133 women and 104 men, age 18-79 years) were examined. The participants completed questionnaires of the frequency of food consumption and food preferences. The height, weight, body mass index (BMI), the percentage of body fat (BIA) were also measured. For statistical analysis the assessment of correlation Spearman's rank order and nonparametric ANOVA rank Kruskal-Wallis were used. With age, the frequency of milk (p habits vary depending on age and may be one of the elements affecting the increase in BMI, body fat content, bone mass loss and increased risk of metabolic disorders. The observed changes in dietary habits can contribute to the development of dyslipidemia, glucose dysmetabolism and arterial hypertension, especially in the presence of overweight and obesity.

  13. Endomyocardial fibrosis in Sub Saharan Africa: The geographical origin, socioeconomic status, and dietary habits of cases reported in Yaounde, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chelo

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion : Apart from geographical similarities all patients of our series shared the same dietary habits. Our study was conducted in a hospital setting; therefore a screening of the disease in the whole national territory would enable a more reliable mapping.

  14. Dietary Habits and Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis in 6 to 7-Year-Old Schoolchildren in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Tamay

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions:: Frequent consumption of cereals, rice, pasta and chocolates may have beneficial effect on symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis. Although dietary habits may affect the prevalence of symptoms of current rhinoconjunctivitis, the Mediterranean diet alone may not be protective against rhinoconjunctivitis.

  15. [Relationship between determining factors for depressive symptoms and for dietary habits in older adults in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Funes, José Alberto; Garant, Marie-Pierre; Aguilar-Navarro, Sara

    2006-05-01

    To determine the factors that are commonly associated with both the dietary habits of older adults living in the community and depressive symptoms in this group. Secondary analysis of data on Mexico City obtained by means of the multicenter study on Health, Well-being, and Aging (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento, SABE) that was carried out in 1999 and 2000. The following variables were examined: presence or absence of depressive symptoms, according to Yesavage's Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS); mental status, as reflected by the score obtained on a modified, shortened version of Folstein's Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE); and functional capacity, as measured by Katz' Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living. Those whose score on the shortened MMSE was 12 points or less were asked to respond to the Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire, which was used to assess their ability to perform the basic activities of daily living. Information was obtained through self-report on the material, physical, psychological, and social aspects of purchasing, preparing, and consuming food products and of oral health status during the most recent 12-month period. Variables that were significantly associated with the results obtained on the GDS were included in a multivariate regression analysis; several statistical models were created, and variables that were shown to be statistically significant in the stepwise multivariate linear regression were used to determine the best-fitting explanatory model for the results obtained on the GDS. The average age of study participants was 64.4 +/- 8.6 years, and the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 66%. The score obtained on the GDS showed a significant association with the presence of arterial hypertension (P < 0.01), but not with the self-reported presence of diabetes, neoplasia, stroke, lung disease or heart disease. However, the use of dental prostheses (P < 0.01), urinary incontinence (P < 0.01), and falls (P < 0

  16. [Weight status, dietary habits and physical activity among 6-12 year-old children in Castile-La Mancha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, S; Cuervo, M; Zazpe, I; Ortega, A; García-Perea, A; Martínez, J A

    2014-02-01

    Childhood obesity is a multifactorial disease, in which unhealthy dietary patterns and sedentary lifestyles play a decisive role. The aim of this study was to assess the weight status, dietary habits and physical activity in Castile-La Mancha children. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3061 children 6-12 years-old who were participating in the programme, "Alimenta su salud". Anthropometric measurements, food consumption frequency, dietary habits and physical activity were assessed by a questionnaire, including gender, age and geographical influences. The prevalence of subjects with excess weight-for-height was 24.0% and obesity was 14.3%, with geographical differences. Girls more often have mid-morning snacks, consume more supplements, and reported to be less active than boys. Special diets and sports activities were lower in children aged 6-9 years as compared to the 10-12 years old group. The intake of vegetables and fruit is low, while there is overconsumption of sausages, pastries, salted snacks, sweets and fast food, with some differences by age group. One out of four children is overweight or obese in this population. Children do not meet recommendations for fruit and vegetables and there is a high consumption of foods associated with obesity risk. Physical inactivity was more prevalent during the weekends, and among girls. Copyright © 2010 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Modiehi Heather Sedibe; Pedro T. Pisa; Alison B. Feeley; Titilola M. Pedro; Kathleen Kahn; Shane A. Norris

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural (n = 392, mean age = 13 years) and urban (n = 3098, mean age = 14 years) adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to ...

  18. Assessing Overweight/Obesity, Dietary Habits, and Physical Activity in Hispanic College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulku S. Karabulut

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study examined the overweight, obesity, dietary habits, and physical activity among Hispanic college students. Methods Eighty seven (n=87, age= 24.03 ± 5.69 Hispanic college students participated in the study. Descriptive and anthropometric measurements including resting heart rate (RHR, resting blood pressure (RBP, height, weight, body mass index (BMI, circumference measurements [waist at narrowest point (Xiphoid, and hip at widest point (Hip, body composition (BC were collected. Subjects completed the Dietary Screener Questionnaire (DSQ. PA was estimated via Godin’s (2011 Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Results The mean BMI was 27.29±6.20 kg/m2, in the overweight range. The mean WC for males was 90.86±13.23 and for females was 82.35±14.61. Independent t-test showed that males had significantly higher values in height (p<0.01, weight (p<0.01, WC (p<0.01, and PA (p<0.01 compared to females. DSQ data indicated that participants consumed fruits, green leafy or lettuce salad, and milk less than recommended amount. It also showed high intake of sugary food. Conclusions Hispanic young adults are in a poorest condition regarding the level of obesity as opposed to White and African American counterparts. This may be due to the decrease in PA. Diet behavior; less consumption of dairy, fruits and vegetable but frequent consumption of high sugary might be related to obesity in Hispanic young adults.

  19. Dietary habits changes and quality of life in patients undergoing chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardas, Marcin; Jamka, Małgorzata; Mądry, Radosław; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Krótkopad, Marietta; Stelmach-Mardas, Marta

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary habit changes in patients undergoing chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer. Sixty one patients undergoing chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer were enrolled to the study and 44 completed. The dietary intake was evaluated by 7-day food records, and the changes in dietary intake and food-preparing methods were estimated based on a 101-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Nutritional status was checked with the use of body weight and height, waist and hip circumferences, skinfolds and subjective global assessment tool. Quality of life was measured with the use of EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-OV28. Despite high average body mass index (BMI) (26.7-28.0 kg/m(2)), malnutrition risk was observed in 43.7 and 10.7 % of patients receiving first-line and subsequent-line chemotherapy, respectively (p bread, pasta, buttermilk, vegetable, fruit, oils, nuts, and juices. Women undergoing first-line chemotherapy consumed more milk, cottage cheese, cream, eggs, fish and seafood, meat offal, salty snacks, and jam. Additionally, women undergoing subsequent-line chemotherapy more often applied cooking in water (p cancer change their dietary habits in a pro healthy direction, and these changes are more expressed in patients undergoing subsequent-line chemotherapy.

  20. Oral Hygiene and Dietary Habits in Adolescents with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaripour, Adriano; Willershausen, Ines; Hassan, Muhamed; Ebenezer, Supriya; Willershausen, Brita

    2016-03-01

    Fixed orthodontic appliances (FOAs) may cause a temporary deterioration of oral hygiene with corresponding gingival inflammatory changes. Optimal oral hygiene and dietary changes are essential in order to avoid periodontal inflammation. The present study investigates to what extent the recommendations made by the orthodontist are followed by young patients. A total of 67 adolescent patients with FOA were examined and interviewed. The control group consisted of 70 patients of the same age who had not undergone any orthodontic treatment. A specific questionnaire (assessing dietary habits, oral hygiene measures) was used and comprehensive oral findings along with oral hygiene status were evaluated. The analysis of the data showed that despite intensive oral hygiene and dietary advice in the patients with FOA, there was no change in diet or oral hygiene habits. There were significantly higher signs of gingival inflammation and amount of dental plaque in FOA patients. Nutritional recommendations and oral hygiene measures for young people with FOA were not adequately enforced. The findings indicate that frequent recalls should be scheduled with repeated reinforcement of oral hygiene and dietary modifications in FOA patients.

  1. Changes in dietary habits following temporal migration. The case of international students in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cueto, Federico; Verbeke, Wim; Lachat, Carl; Remaut-De Winter, Anne Marie

    2009-02-01

    This paper reports findings from a cross-sectional survey carried out in April-May 2006 among international students enrolled at Ghent University in Belgium. The aim of the study was to assess their knowledge and attitudes related to nutrition, perceived changes in dietary habits, perceived barriers to healthy eating and the determinants of dietary changes since their arrival in Belgium. In total, 235 students from 60 countries participated. Following the reported dietary changes, which were factor-analyzed into "less energy-dense" foods, "more fruits and vegetables" and "less processed" foods, three clusters could be identified. Cluster 1 composed of students who increased their fruits, vegetables and fiber intake. Cluster 2, the largest, reported dietary changes overall and in particular towards less processed foods. Cluster 3 composed of students who changed in the main towards less energy-dense foods. Gender differences were observed in healthy dietary changes, particularly in males. Healthier choices were hindered by a perceived unavailability of healthy food products. Gender and availability of healthy foods should be taken into consideration when informing temporal migration populations, such as international students in this study, about the healthy food options available during their stay in a different cultural, food and dietary environment.

  2. [Assessment of the dietary habits of short girls and boys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Edyta

    2006-01-01

    The problem of body height deficiency, being the effect of undernutrition of children in developing countries, is widely described in the literature, whereas very little attention is devoted to the estimation of the nourishment of children and adolescents with a simple body height deficiency in developed countries. The purpose of the study was to estimate the nourishment of short-height girls and boys, with special regard to the realisation of the norms of daily demand for basic nutrients. The investigation included 60 subjects in two age groups: 10.5 and 13.5 years old. The body height of the investigated children was below 10 centile in relation to the development norms for a given age and gender. Estimations of nourishment were made with the use of an interview about the consumption in the last 24 hours. In 22% of the investigated, energy intake was found to be lower than 75% of the daily demand. The percentage of the realisation of the norm for mineral components amounted on average to: 38.6-56.7% for calcium; 49.2-77.4% for iron; 50.1-93.2% and 45.9-72.2% for zinc and copper, respectively. Hypovitaminosis was relatively much less marked in comparison with the deficiency of mineral components. A lower consumption of animal protein and vitamin C was noted among adolescents from rural areas. Among short girls and boys a frequent occurrence of deficiency of energy and mineral components (calcium, zinc, copper and iron) was found. The irregularly balanced diet could be the cause of a smaller body height in relation to peers among a considerable percentage of the investigated adolescents.

  3. Comparing acculturation models in evaluating dietary habits among low-income Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sonya; Castro, Cynthia; Albright, Cheryl; King, Abby

    2004-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that Hispanic women in the United States who are more acculturated tend to consume fewer fruits and vegetables, and more fat, compared to less acculturated women. However, some studies have found an opposite trend. Such discrepancies could be caused by inconsistencies in the assessment of acculturation. The goal of the current study was to determine whether different methods of defining acculturation could identify dietary fat use practices among Hispanic women living in the United States. One hundred nineteen Hispanic women were recruited from adult education vocational rehabilitation classes, and completed questionnaires assessing dietary fat practices, acculturation, and demographic information. Years living in the United States was not associated with higher or lower fat use in this sample. A preference for speaking English at home was significantly associated with less consumption of beans and peas. Being born in the United States was significantly associated with greater consumption of convenience foods and chocolate candy. Being born in the United States and exhibiting a preference for English were significantly associated with greater consumption of convenience foods and salty snacks, as well as greater frequency of eating higher fat foods, overall. The operational definition of acculturation significantly influences whether acculturation is associated with dietary fat practices in low-income Hispanic women. The discrepancies in the conclusions about dietary fat practices between these 4 methods demonstrate the need for a better understanding of cultural influences on dietary habits, as well as a consistent measure of acculturation in this field.

  4. Physical activity, nutritional status, and dietary habits of students of a medical university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna; Tomczak, Andrzej; Krulikowska, Natalia; Przysławski, Juliusz; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta

    Nutritional habits and physical activity influence the health status of young adults. In this study, we engaged a group of 151 students from a medical university (90 female and 61 male subjects). Anthropometric parameters, dietary habits (a 7-day dietary recall), and level of physical activity were measured. It was found that the daily food rations of female (F) and male (M) students were improperly balanced and characterized by high amount of total and animal protein, phosphorus, vitamin A, cholesterol, and insufficient intake of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and vitamin C. Female subjects consumed low amounts of total fat and calcium. The intake of protein (total and animal), fat, phosphorus, and cholesterol correlated with higher body mass. The physical activity of the students was found to be higher than the average physical activity of the European Union populations, and a general tendency of lowering level of physical activity with age was observed. Students with the highest level of physical activity (MET > 1500) consumed lower amounts of simple carbohydrates (galactose and saccharose) when compared to students with lower physical activity (MET students and they should be encouraged to participate in high level of physical activity so as to promote good health status.

  5. Dietary Habits, Poverty, and Chronic Kidney Disease in an Urban Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Deidra C.; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; III, Edgar R. Miller; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.; Powe, Neil R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Poverty is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the US and worldwide. Poor dietary habits may contribute to this disparity. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 2,058 community-dwelling adults aged 30-64 years residing in Baltimore City, Maryland. Predictors Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH scoring based on 9 target nutrients (total fat, saturated fat, protein, fiber, cholesterol, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium); adherence defined as score ≥4.5 out of maximum possible score of 9. Poverty (self-reported household income DASH score tertile and CKD, stratified by poverty status. Results Among 2,058 participants (mean age 48 years; 57% black; 44% male; 42% with poverty), median DASH score was low, 1.5 (IQR, 1-2.5). Only 5.4% were adherent. Poverty, male sex, black race, and smoking were more prevalent among the lower DASH score tertiles, while higher education and regular health care were more prevalent among the highest DASH score tertile (PDASH tertile (compared to the highest) was associated with more CKD among the poverty [AOR 3.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.51-6.56], but not among the non-poverty group (AOR 0.73, 95% CI 0.37-1.43). P interaction 0.001. Conclusions Poor dietary habits are strongly associated with CKD among the urban poor and may represent a target for interventions aimed at reducing disparities in CKD. PMID:25238697

  6. Dietary habits, lifestyle pattern and obesity among young Saudi university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabaz, Mohamad Nidal; Bakarman, Marwan Abdulrahman; Baig, Mukhtiar; Ghabrah, Tawfik Mohammed; Gari, Mamdouh Abdullah; Butt, Nadeem Shafiq; Alghanmi, Faisal; Balubaid, Abdulaziz; Alzahrani, Ahmed; Hamouh, Safwan

    2017-10-01

    To investigate dietary habits, lifestyle pattern and obesity in young university students. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Rabigh campus of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from March to May 2016, and comprised healthy male students. A close-ended questionnaire was filled by all students about their dietary habits and lifestyle pattern and the lipid profile, blood glucose levels and body mass index was determined. The participants were selected by convenience sampling method. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis. Of the 116 participants, 34(29.3%) were obese, 34(29.3%) were overweight and 48(41.4%) had normal body mass index. Overall, 66(57%) participants were taking 3 to 4 fast food meals weekly and was also taking junk food at least once in a day. Also, 50(43%) participants were using soft/energy drink more than once per day. Besides, 82(70.7%) respondents were spending 3 to 4 hours daily in watching TV, using the Internet or PlayStation. Significant differences were observed for low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (p=0.02 and p=0.006, respectively) among overweight and obese subjects as compared to those having normal weight. The majority of the overweight and obese participants' had experienced shame or other uncomfortable feelings and had a negative impact on their activity (p<0.001). Dietary habits and lifestyle of the majority of the participants were not up to the mark and the obesity prevalence was common.

  7. Household environment, lifestyle behaviors, and dietary habits in relation to childhood atopic eczema in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiao; Liu, Wei; Hu, Yu; Zou, Zhijun; Shen, Li; Huang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    We aim to investigate associations of the child's individual characteristics, building characteristics, home environmental exposures, family lifestyle behaviors, and dietary habits on childhood eczema during lifetime-ever and in the last year before the survey. During April 2011-April 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study and collected 13,335 parents-reported questionnaires of 4-6-year-old children from 72 kindergartens in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression model was used to investigate associations. After adjusted for sex, age, family history of atopy, and questionnaire reporter, the factors which were strongly associated (increased odds >30% and p value child's first year of life (1.31), using laminate (1.58) and solid (1.42) wood as material of floor covering (compared to using cement), residence located in urban district (1.38), and dampness-related exposures in the early residence (mold spots/stains: 1.41; mold odor: 1.41) and in the current residence (water damage: 1.33; damp stains: 1.34; mold spots: 1.32; and windows pane condensation: 1.31). Parental smoking, pet-keeping, and incense-burning had no significant associations with childhood eczema. Similar associations were found for eczema in the last year before the survey. Families with sick children likely changed lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits. Childhood eczema could be influenced by many household environmental and non-environmental factors. Exposures during early lifetime likely have greater impact on childhood eczema than current exposures. Associations of lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits with childhood eczema could be modified by family avoidance behaviors.

  8. Association of dietary habits with levels of physical activity and screen time among adolescents living in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazzaa, H M; Al-Sobayel, H I; Abahussain, N A; Qahwaji, D M; Alahmadi, M A; Musaiger, A O

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the inter-relationships between lifestyle factors in youth is important with respect to the development of effective promotional programmes for healthy eating and active living. The present study aimed to explore the associations of dietary habits (DH) with physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Saudi adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years of age relative to gender. Data were obtained from the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study, a school-based multicentre lifestyle study conducted in 2009/2010 in three major cities in Saudi Arabia. A multistage stratified cluster random sampling technique was used. The number of participants with complete data for DH and PA was 2886 and the respective number for DH and ST was 2822. Assessment included weight, height, body mass index, total daily ST (television viewing, video/computer games and Internet use), PA and DH using self-reported questionnaires. Females were significantly more sedentary and less active than males (P foods, cake/doughnuts and energy drinks. Healthful dietary habits were associated mostly with PA, whereas sedentary behaviours, independent of PA, negatively impacted upon eating behaviours. The low PA levels and high sedentary levels of Saudi females represent a great concern. The results reported in the present study have important implications for both youth public health policies and intervention programmes. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Differential dietary habits among 570 young underweight Japanese women with and without a desire for thinness: a comparison with normal weight counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Nagisa; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The strong social pressure for thinness in Japanese society has produced a dramatic increase in underweight (body mass index: underweight is associated with several negative health outcomes, including nutritional deficiency, osteoporosis, and unfavourable pregnancy outcomes. However, evidence which would help deal with this problem from a public health perspective is scarce. Here, we aimed to identify the dietary characteristics of underweight female university students, particularly those with a desire for thinness. Data on dietary habits and other lifestyle variables, including the desire for thinness, were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire survey conducted at 54 academic institutions in Japan, from which we selected 3634 female students for analysis. The subjects were divided into three groups of normal weight (84.3%), and underweight with (6.4%) or without (9.3%) a desire for thinness. After adjusting for potential confounders, the underweight subjects with a desire for thinness consumed less cereal and rice, whereas those without a desire for thinness consumed more cereal and rice than the normal weight subjects. In addition, those without a desire for thinness consumed less confectionaries, including candies and ice cream, and less fats and oils than the normal weight subjects. These results suggest that dietary habits differ between underweight women with and without a desire for thinness. Although both groups require nutritional education to maintain appropriate body weight, underweight women with a desire for thinness require particular attention to improve recognition of their constitution and dietary habits.

  10. Habitability of super-Earth planets around other suns: models including Red Giant Branch evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bloh, W; Cuntz, M; Schröder, K-P; Bounama, C; Franck, S

    2009-01-01

    The unexpected diversity of exoplanets includes a growing number of super-Earth planets, i.e., exoplanets with masses of up to several Earth masses and a similar chemical and mineralogical composition as Earth. We present a thermal evolution model for a 10 Earth-mass planet orbiting a star like the Sun. Our model is based on the integrated system approach, which describes the photosynthetic biomass production and takes into account a variety of climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamical processes. This allows us to identify a so-called photosynthesis-sustaining habitable zone (pHZ), as determined by the limits of biological productivity on the planetary surface. Our model considers solar evolution during the main-sequence stage and along the Red Giant Branch as described by the most recent solar model. We obtain a large set of solutions consistent with the principal possibility of life. The highest likelihood of habitability is found for "water worlds." Only mass-rich water worlds are able to realize pHZ-type habitability beyond the stellar main sequence on the Red Giant Branch.

  11. [Life style, dietary habits and nutritional evaluation of Hospital de Mérida health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez Moreno, Raúl; Beato Víbora, Pilar Isabel; Tormo García, M Ángeles

    2015-04-01

    Living habits, several nutritional aspects and relationship between them were studied of Hospital de Mérida health professional of the Extremadura Health Service (SES). Forty-three employed workers participates voluntary in this project by submitting a questionary about personal details and life style, and a seven-days-food-intake-dietary. Finally, their anthropometric data were also measured. Men tend to play more physical activities than women. They also were more sedentary. They use to smoke less than women, but they do drink more. Normal-weight subjects tried to practice sport during more time than overweight and obese ones. However, they also remained sitting for longer periods on a weekly basis. The average daily intakes of kilocalories were higher in men, but protein intakes were higher in women. Fat intake was increased in both sexes. The average daily intake of kilocalories was lower in obese subjects than over and normal-weights ones. An increase in the body mass index was accompanied by a bigger waist perimeter, waist to hip ratio, fat mass and body fat percentage. The majority of people interviewed in the survey have healthy living and dietary habits. Protein and fat daily intake is slightly higher than the values recommended by the WHO. Carbohydrates intake, by contrast, is lower. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationships between dietary habits and the prevalence of fatigue in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Mizuno, Kei; Fukuda, Sanae; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2008-10-01

    Fatigue, which is a common complaint among medical students, is related to poor academic outcomes. Because impaired dietary habits, such as skipping breakfast and taking meals irregularly, are correlated with poor school performances, whether those dietary habits were associated with the prevalence of fatigue was determined in medical students. The study group consisted of 127 healthy second-year medical students attending Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine. They completed a questionnaire dealing with fatigue (Japanese version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale), lifestyle, and academic performance. On multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and nocturnal sleeping hours, skipping breakfast (completely skipping breakfast everyday versus having breakfast everyday; odds ratio 7.81, 95% confidence interval 2.00-30.52, P = 0.003) and taking meals irregularly (completely irregular versus always regular; odds ratio 6.89, 95% confidence interval 1.20-39.55, P = 0.030) were positively correlated with the prevalence of fatigue. Skipping breakfast and taking meals irregularly are associated with the prevalence of fatigue in medical students.

  13. Iodine status in pregnancy: role of dietary habits and geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Caterina; Vitaliano, Pantaleo; Pozza, Dina; Barollo, Susi; Pitton, Mariangela; Callegari, Giovanna; Di Gianantonio, Elena; Casaro, Anna; Nacamulli, Davide; Busnardo, Benedetto; Mantero, Franco; Girelli, Maria Elisa

    2009-05-01

    A study was conducted on iodine status during pregnancy and its dependence on dietary habits, racial and geographical origin, and time since arrival in Italy. We enrolled 322 consecutive pregnant women: 217 Italians, 62 Eastern Europeans and 43 from Northern and Central Africa. All women completed a food frequency questionnaire on their dietary habits. The urinary iodide concentration (UIC) was determined in spot morning urine samples. In the group as a whole, the median UIC was 83 microg/l; the UIC was Iodine supplements were used by 40% of the women, and UIC were higher in those who did so than in those who did not (median 103 vs. 75 microg/l, P = 0.03), particularly if the latter did not drink milk (median 98 vs. 42 microg/l, P = 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that milk was the only variable influencing UIC (OR 1.29, P = 0.0005). (i) Iodine levels are too low among pregnant women in our region, and particularly in foreign women. (ii) Cow's milk intake is their main source of iodine. (iii) Iodine supplementation is mandatory during pregnancy, particularly for women do not drink milk.

  14. Dietary habits, poverty, and chronic kidney disease in an urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Deidra C; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Miller, Edgar R; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K; Powe, Neil R

    2015-03-01

    Poverty is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States and worldwide. Poor dietary habits may contribute to this disparity. Cross-sectional study. A total of 2,058 community-dwelling adults aged 30 to 64 years residing in Baltimore City, Maryland. Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH scoring based on 9 target nutrients (total fat, saturated fat, protein, fiber, cholesterol, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium); adherence defined as score ≥4.5 of maximum possible score of 9. Poverty (self-reported household income poverty status. Among 2,058 participants (mean age 48 years; 57% black; 44% male; 42% with poverty), median DASH score was low, 1.5 (interquartile range, 1-2.5). Only 5.4% were adherent. Poverty, male sex, black race, and smoking were more prevalent among the lower DASH score tertiles, whereas higher education and regular health care were more prevalent among the highest DASH score tertile (P poverty compared with nonpoverty group (P poverty and 3.8% of the nonpoverty group had CKD (P = .05). The lowest DASH tertile (compared with the highest) was associated with more CKD among the poverty (AOR 3.15, 95% confidence interval 1.51-6.56), but not among the nonpoverty group (AOR 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.37-1.43; P interaction = .001). Poor dietary habits are strongly associated with CKD among the urban poor and may represent a target for interventions aimed at reducing disparities in CKD. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. EATING HABITS, DIETARY DIVERSITY AND APTITUDE FOR PRACTICING HORTICULTURE OF PERI-URBAN FAMILIES FROM CARDEL, VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Toral Juárez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The urban and peri-urban families represent 75% of the Mexican population. The poverty and form of feed seem to be associated with obesity, degenerative diseases and malnutrition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the eating habits and dietary diversity of Cardel city, Veracruz, Mexico peri-urban families and know the aptitude of families to practice horticulture at home. Dietary diversity was determined using the scoring method of staple foods. Eating habits and aptitude to practice horticulture were obtained by a survey type Likert scale. The 35% of the families presented good eating habits, 19% regular and 46% of households showed poor dietary habits. Dietary diversity was 29.4 ± 8.7 in primary foods. The Likert general index was 2.9 and represented an average availability to practice peri-urban horticulture. Food diversity of families peri-urban is a function of family economic capacity, in contrast, food habits and socioeconomic status are not associated and finally there were identified multiple factors that positively influence the willingness of the mother of family to practice horticulture.

  16. Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji-Yeon; You, Jeong-Soon; Chang, Kyung-Ja

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students. Methods In this study, research data were collected in March 2009 and 65 patients with depression and 65 controls without depression participated. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) scale was used for depression measure and controls were matched for age. A 3-day recall method was used...

  17. [Validation of a dietary habits questionnaire related to fats and sugars intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aráuz Hernández, Ana Gladys; Roselló Araya, Marlene; Guzmán Padilla, Sonia; Padilla Vargas, Gioconda

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to design and validate a psychometric tool to measure dietary practices related to the intake of fats and sugars in a sample of overweight and obese adults. Classical test theory was applied. The validated construct was dietary habits, and the following theoretical dimensions were utilized: exclusion, modification, substitution and replacement. These had been previously defined in similar studies conducted in other countries. The tool was validated with 139 adults, males and females, with body mass indexes equal to or higher than 25. Construct validity for each section of the tool was obtained through factor analysis. The final tool was made up of 47 items. Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient was 0.948, which indicates a highly satisfactory internal consistency. Using sediment graph data and factor analysis of the four proposed theoretical dimensions of behavior, items were fused into two dimensions with a cumulative variance of 58%. These were renamed "elimination" and "modification". Cronbach's Alphas were 0.906 and 0.873, respectively, indicating a high level of reliability for construct measurement. Results show the need to adapt foreign tools to our socio-cultural context before utilizing them in interventions intended to modify dietary patterns, since these are interrelated to other aspects of the culture itself.

  18. Dietary habits and physical activity patterns among Slovenian elderly: cross-sectional survey with cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joca Zurc

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity and a healthy diet are significant predictors of healthy ageing—they help the elderly maintain their physical and mental health, and prevent chronic diseases. Methods: The data for the empirical quantitative survey were collected on the sample of 218 elderly community-dwelling participants (aged 65 years or more, using a structured questionnaire for self-reporting. Data analyses were proceed with the bivariate statistics, and multivariate hierarchical cluster analysis. Results: Most respondents reported good dietary habits (83.1% and a satisfactory physical activity level (60.5%. On average, the elderly eat 3-4 meals per day (59.8% and engage in physical activity at least three times a week (58.6%, with interventions lasting 15 minutes or more (84.4 % and non-organized activity prevailing (96.2%. Ward’s method yielded three clusters with homogenous dietary and physical activity patterns: ‘Health Conscious’ (30.8%, ‘At Risk’ (42.7% and ‘Special Requirements’ (26.5%. Significant differences were identified between clusters and educational level (p = 0.001. Discussion and conclusions: In the future, special attention should be placed on the elderly group with a lower educational level and special dietary and physical activity requirements. Additional studies on representative samples are required for a comprehensive investigation into the lifestyle behaviours of elderly individuals.

  19. Factors associated with dietary habits and mood states affecting taste sensitivity in Japanese college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karita, Kanae; Harada, Matsuko; Yoshida, Masao; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey to evaluate the factors associated with dietary habits and mood states affecting taste sensitivity in 127 Japanese college women with a mean age of 19.2 y. Differential thresholds for the four basic tastes on the tongue were determined by the filter paper disc method, while dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Psychological mood states were evaluated by the Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire. Differential thresholds for saltiness and bitterness in alcohol drinkers were higher than those in alcohol non drinkers, whereas differential thresholds for the other tastes did not differ significantly between any of the stratified groups. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that among the five POMS mood states, POMS fatigue scores showed relatively stronger association with combined variables of taste thresholds. Logistic regression analysis revealed significant involvement of zinc and iron intake, and that POMS fatigue and anger scores affected the differential threshold for sourness. Specific mood and dietary factors were shown to be associated with sensitivity to sourness and bitterness. Among the five POMS mood states, high POMS fatigue scores and low POMS anger scores appeared to be associated with decreased taste sensitivity.

  20. Nutritive value of meals, dietary habits and nutritive status in Croatian university students according to gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colić Barić, Irena; Satalić, Zvonimir; Lukesić, Zeljka

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily menus at students' restaurants and to report dietary habits and other health-related behaviour of Croatian university students (n=2075) according to gender. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was used. One hundred and twenty daily menus were chosen by random sampling, and the nutritive value was calculated using food composition tables. Daily menus on average provide an adequate amount of energy, protein and most micronutrients: 88.2% of daily menus provide a balanced intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates, 22.5% of daily menus provide more than 300 mg of cholesterol, and 58.8% have more than 25 g dietary fibre. On average, students had 2.4 meals and 1.3 snacks per day. Breakfast was the most often skipped meal. Red meat, cereals and fast food were consumed more often by males (Pconsumption it was vice versa: 88.9 and 84.8% of males and females, respectively. A total of 80.4% of students were well nourished. This study showed that meals offered at students' restaurants are adequate. Dietary and other health-related behaviour differed according to gender. Clustering of some behaviours was observed.

  1. Overweight and obesity and their relation to dietary habits and socio-demographic characteristics among male primary school children in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Ali, Ayub

    2008-09-01

    Several studies were carried out to study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Saudi children, but those assessed the association between eating habits, socio-demographic differentials and obesity in these children are scarce. To assess the magnitude of obesity and overweight among male primary schoolchildren and to find the possible association between obesity/overweight with dietary habits and socio-demographic differentials among them. A cross-sectional descriptive study including 1,139 Saudi male enrolled in the fifth and sixth grades in public primary schools in Al Hassa, KSA, through a multistage random sampling technique, submitted to interview using Youth and Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, gathering data regarding dietary intake, some dietary habits, followed by anthropometric measurements with calculation of body mass index, the interpretation of which was based on using Cole's tables for standard definition of overweight and obesity. Socio-demographics data were collected through parental questionnaire form. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS 12 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA), univariate as well as multivariate analyses were conducted. The age ranged from 10 to 14 years. The prevalence of overweight among the included subjects was 14.2% while obesity was 9.7%, more in urban, older age students, mothers of obese and overweight were less educated, more working. Missing and or infrequent intake of breakfast at home, frequent consumption of fast foods, low servings of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy product per day, with frequent consumption of sweets/candy and carbonated drinks were all predictors of obesity and overweight among the included male schoolchildren. The prevalence of childhood obesity is escalating and approaching figures reported in the developed countries. Less healthy dietary habits and poor food choices may be responsible for this high prevalence.

  2. Assessment of dietary habits, nutritional status and blood biochemical parameters in patients prepared for bariatric surgery: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Jastrzębska-Mierzyńska, Marta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Morbid obesity needs to be treated by bariatric procedures. Proper dietary preparation of patients before surgery conditions their postoperative status. Aim Assessment of dietary habits, nutritional status and biochemical parameters of the blood in patients being prepared for different bariatric procedures. Material and methods The study involved a group of 27 obese adults: 19 women (mean age: 40.4 ±13.9 years) and 8 men (mean age: 39.6 ±12.7 years) qualified for bariatric proced...

  3. Assessment of dietary habits, nutritional status and blood biochemical parameters in patients prepared for bariatric surgery: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębska-Mierzyńska, Marta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    Morbid obesity needs to be treated by bariatric procedures. Proper dietary preparation of patients before surgery conditions their postoperative status. Assessment of dietary habits, nutritional status and biochemical parameters of the blood in patients being prepared for different bariatric procedures. The study involved a group of 27 obese adults: 19 women (mean age: 40.4 ±13.9 years) and 8 men (mean age: 39.6 ±12.7 years) qualified for bariatric procedures. Body composition, dietary habits and selected biochemical parameters of blood were assessed. Statistical analysis of the results was conducted using Statistica 9.0. Daily food rations consumed by women provided 1910.6 ±915.9 kcal/day, and by men 2631 ±1463.2 kcal/day on average. In both groups, the consumption of major nutrients was found to be inadequate. In both groups, deficiency was observed in the dietary intake of folic acid and potassium. Additionally, there was a decrease in the intake of vitamin D(3), calcium and iron in women and magnesium in men. In the two groups, disturbances were noted in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Our study indicates the necessity for dietary instructions in bariatric patients with regard to proper dietary habits and to reduce the risk of malnutrition before and after surgery.

  4. Dietary patterns, toothbrushing habits and caries experience of schoolchildren in West Yorkshire, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R S; Nugent, Z J; Rudolf, M C J; Sahota, P

    2007-06-01

    The present study followed a group of 608 children, aged 7-11 years from six primary schools, for whom detailed dietary information was available. These children were traced four years later when they were in secondary school. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the original dietary pattern, current dietary pattern, toothbrushing habit and oral health. Of the original children, 500 were traced to 32 secondary schools over a wide geographic area. For logistical reasons those in 18 schools were selected and positive consent and full data was obtained for 315 together with an additional group of 122 of their classmates. Three-day, self-reported dietary data was obtained, together with information on toothbrushing habits. A dental examination was carried out using BASCD survey methodology. The children in this study had a lower DMFT (0.82) than found in the most recent survey for the area (1.39). No significant relationship was found between sugar-sweetened foods or drinks at age 7-11 and caries in the first permanent molar teeth at age 11-15 years, however a significant relationship was found between current sugar-sweetened drinks consumption and caries. Significantly less caries was associated with the reported moderate consumption of dairy products by the children when aged 11-15 years. The bedtime consumption of NMES drinks at 7-11 was significantly associated with an increase in caries as was the bedtime consumption of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) foods at 11-15 years. A significant inverse relationship was found between claimed toothbrushing frequency and caries. Of those children aged 11-15 years claiming to brush at least once a day, 69% were caries-free with a mean DMFT of 0.69. Of the children who claimed to brush only occasionally or never, 52% were caries-free and they had a mean DMFT of 1.05. The reported consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and the lack of regular toothbrushing were found to be the factors most strongly

  5. Physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits among Kuwaiti adolescents: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allafi, Ahmad; Al-Haifi, Ahmad R; Al-Fayez, Mohammad A; Al-Athari, Buthaina I; Al-Ajmi, Fahhad A; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Ahmed, Faruk

    2014-09-01

    The present study was designed to assess physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits among adolescents in Kuwait and to compare the differences between genders. A cross-sectional study was conducted among secondary-school children who participated in the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS), a multi-centre collaborative project. Secondary schools in Kuwait. Adolescents (463 boys and 443 girls), aged 14-19 years. Nearly half (44·6 %) of the boys and three-quarters (76·0 %) of the girls did not meet the recommended daily physical activity levels (≥2520 MET-min/week, moderate to vigorous intensity). Nearly all (96·3 % of boys and 96·7 % of girls) adolescents reported spending >2 h/d on screen time, with girls found to spend more time per day watching television (P = 0·02) and using a computer (P eating and reducing sedentary behaviours among these children.

  6. A study of dietary habits and eating-out behavior of college students in Cheongju area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Eun; Yoon, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    To find out the effects of the general characteristic on dietary habits and eating out behavior of college students in Cheongju area. The ratios of major were 50.3% (80/159) for food and nutrition and 49.7% (79/159) for the others. The most of respondents missed breakfast and the most reason for skipping meal was no time. Older and younger group were different significantly in skipping meal, reason of meal skip, place of lunch, cost of lunch, and preferred lunch menu (Peating-out behaviors in the results of this study through education, and by seeking for alternatives from different angles such as various nutrition education and nutrition improvement programs.

  7. Nutritional Knowledge, Practice, and Dietary Habits among school Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeeni, Marjan Manouchehri; Jafari, Sakineh; Fouladgar, Maryam; Heidari, Kamal; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Fakhri, Maryam; Karami, Parvaneh; Omidi, Razieh

    2014-12-01

    Although nutritional status of children and adolescents is of great concern various interventions and modifications aiming at promotion of healthy eating behaviors have limited impact due to insufficient understanding of dietary habits between different age groups and genders. The aim of this study in not only evaluation of nutritional knowledge, practice, and dietary habits of primary school and junior high school students in Isfahan province, but also this research explore crucial differences regarding gender and living area of the above-mentioned population in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4700 primary school and junior high school pupils in Isfahan province. Data were collected through standard 24-h recall food frequency questionnaire and researcher-designed questionnaire. Independent t-test was applied for comparison of mean values of total units of consumed food materials. Qualitative variables were compared by using the Chi-square test. Data were analyzed by ACCESS 2010 and SPSS 18 software. Nutritional knowledge of female pupils and junior high school students was higher than their male and elementary school students respectively; still, theses superiorities did not lead to higher practice score. Bread and cereals group received daily intakes in accordance with food and drug administration (FDA) recommendations. Indeed, vegetables, milk, and dairy products, as well as meat daily intakes, were lower than the FDA recommendation, whereas fats, oils, and sugars intakes were higher. In comparison to females, male participants had significantly lower consumption of vegetables and fruits whilst they had a higher intake of carbohydrates, fats, and meats. Our results showed that adolescents failed to meet sufficient nutritional requirements, and they had an imbalanced diet, which was considerably low in several essential nutrients and high in some food materials.

  8. Effects of dietary habits and risk factors on allergic rhinitis prevalence among Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamay, Zeynep; Akcay, Ahmet; Ergin, Ahmet; Guler, Nermin

    2013-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a global health problem affecting many people from childhood to adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of AR and related symptoms, and to assess the risk factors, dietary habits and the Mediterranean diet affecting AR. In a cross-sectional study design, 9991 children, aged 13-14 years in 61 primary schools in 32 districts of Istanbul were evaluated. The prevalence of AR symptoms among the children was evaluated using the ISAAC protocol. In our study, total of 10,984 questionnaires were distributed to 13-14yr-old schoolchildren to 61 schools in 32 district of Istanbul and 9991 questionnaires were suitable for analysis with an overall response of 91.7%. The rates of lifetime rhinitis, rhinitis in last 12 months and lifetime doctor diagnosed AR prevalence were 53.5%, 38.3% and 4.5%, respectively. The variation among districts in the prevalence of doctor diagnosed AR was very high. The highest prevalence was about 10 times higher than in the district with the lowest prevalence (range: 1.4-14.5) of Istanbul. A family history of atopy, mother with a university degree, presence of cat at home during last 12 months and adenoidectomy were significant for increased doctor diagnosed AR risk. Additionally, although fish and other sea foods, fermented drinks made from millets and various seeds, animal fats and butter were independent risk factors for doctor diagnosed AR, fish oil and hamburger were protective foods for doctor diagnosed AR. The MD was not associated with the prevalence of doctor diagnosed AR. This study shows that that there are wide variations for the prevalence of AR related symptoms in 13-14yr-old schoolchildren among districts of Istanbul in Turkey. Socio-economical, environmental factors, some dietary habits, but not Mediterranean diet may affect the prevalence of AR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A strategy for weight loss based on healthy dietary habits and control of emotional response to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes Torrado, Yolanda; García-Villaraco Velasco, Ana; Hernández Galiot, Ana; Goñi Cambrodón, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits are major causes of a negative energy balance and excess body weight. The lifestyle of the Mediterranean diet eating pattern significantly reduces risk factors for non communicable diseases. Moreover, emotions have a powerful effect on feeding behavior. There is a direct relationship between food choices (type and amount), emotions and increased energy intake. To know the emotional behavior of individuals as a function of the relation between food intake and emotions to facilitate the establishment of personalized dietary guidelines based on healthy eating habits and increase the patient fidelity until the desired weight. 99 overweight adult people (81 women and 18 men) were subjected to a weight-reduction program based on the establishment of lifestyle and healthy eating habits. The adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and the effect of emotions on the choice of food and eating habits were determined using Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) and Emotional- Eater Questionnaire (EEQ) respectively. The studied population was sedentary, consumed an unhealthy diet and eating behavior was highly affected by emotions. The majority of participants, (66% of women and 71% of men) were classified as emotional eater. During the treatment program eating habits and lifestyle subjects were modified and reduced at least 10% of their body weight. Know the relation between food intake and emotions allows to personalize the dietary strategy for weight loss in overweight and obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of the life-style and dietary habits of a population of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; Cañadas, Gustavo R; Fernández-Castillo, Rafael; Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo Arturo

    2013-11-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to ascertain whether the nutritional status of a population of secondary school students had improved after an educational intervention; (ii) to analyze whether students had adopted healthier eating and exercise habits after participating in a health education intervention; (iii) to discover whether the students spent less time on sedentary leisure activities after the intervention. The population of the sample consisted of 138 adolescents, age range was between 14-19 years old: 67 males (48.6%) and 71 females (51.4%). They were students at two public secondary schools in the city of Almería (Spain). In the first phase (15-30 September 2011) of this three-phase study, the nutritional status of the students was assessed by means of anthropometry. In the second phase (1 October 2012-15 June 2012), the students participated in an educational intervention that fomented awareness of the benefits derived from healthy eating habits and physical exercise. In the third and final phase (16-31 June 2012), the effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated. After the intervention, statistically significant differences (p sedentary leisure activities, there was also a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.000) in the number of hours spent watching television for both male and female subjects. The results of this study show the effectiveness of the contents, activities, and duration of this health education intervention to encourage the subjects to modify their dietary and exercise habits. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of dietary habits and parental-reported sleep tooth grinding with tooth wear in children with mixed dentition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Restrepo, C.; Manfredini, D.; Manrique, R.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tooth wear has a multifactorial etiology, thus it should be assessed within a multiple-variable framework. The objective of this investigation was to assess the association of dietary habits and parental-reported sleep tooth grinding (STG) with tooth wear in children with mixed

  12. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  13. The Impact of Dietary and Tooth-Brushing Habits to Dental Caries of Special School Children with Disability

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    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Chun-Chih; Hu, Wen-Chia; Tang, Ru-Ching; Chen, Cheng-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te

    2010-01-01

    The daily oral activities may severely influence oral health of children with disabilities. In this survey, we analyzed the impact of dietary and tooth-brushing habits to dental caries in special school children with disabilities. This cross-sectional survey investigated 535 special school children with disabilities aged 6-12 years, 60.93% males,…

  14. Association of Dietary Habits with Psychosocial Outcomes in Women with Fibromyalgia : The al-Ándalus Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Cabello, Pilar; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Delgado-Fernandez, M; Alvarez-Gallardo, I C; Segura-Jimenez, V; Estevez-Lopez, F; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Aparicio, Virgina A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex multidimensional disorder with pain as its main symptom. Fibromyalgia imposes a psychosocial burden on individuals that negatively impacts quality of life. The relationship of dietary habits with these psychosocial aspects is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: The

  15. Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and its relation to dietary habits, in adults; a nutrition & health survey in Greece

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    Xenaki Dimitra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension leads to many degenerative diseases, the most common being cardiovascular in origin. This study has been designed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hypertension in a random nationwide sample of adult Greek population, while focus was set to the assessment of participants' nutritional habits in relation to their hypertension status. Methods A random-digit dialed telephone survey. Based on a multistage, stratified sampling, 5003 adults (18 – 74 yr participated (men: 48.8%, women: 51.2%. All participants were interviewed via telephone by trained personnel who used a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle habits and nutritional assessment. Results The prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 13.3% in men and 17.7% in women (P Conclusion Hypertension seems to be a serious public health problem in Greece. It is encouraging that hypertensives may have started adopting some more healthy nutritional behaviour compared to normotensive ones. However, they can gain significant benefits regarding to blood pressure control, if they increase the level of compliance with dietary recommendations.

  16. Reproductive factors, lifestyle and dietary habits among pregnant women in Greenland: The ACCEPT sub-study 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkelsen, Anne Seneca; Long, Manhai; Hounsgaard, Lise; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2018-03-01

    During past decades the formerly active lifestyle in Greenland has become sedentary, and the intake of traditional food has gradually been replaced with imported food. These lifestyle and dietary habits may affect pregnant women. To describe age and regional differences in reproductive factors, lifestyle and diet among Greenlandic pregnant women in their first trimester. A cross-sectional study during 2013-2015 including 373 pregnant women was conducted in five Greenlandic regions (West, Disko Bay, South, North and East). Interview-based questionnaires on reproductive factors, lifestyle and dietary habits were compared in relation to two age groups (median age ≤28 years and >28 years). In total, 72.4% were Inuit, 46.6% had BMI >25.0 kg/m 2 , 29.0% were smoking during pregnancy and 54.6% had used hashish. BMI, educational level, personal income, previous pregnancies and planned breastfeeding period were significantly higher in the age group >28 years of age compared to the age group ≤28 years of age. In region Disko Bay, 90.9% were Inuit, in region South more had a university degree (37.9%) and region East had the highest number of previous pregnancies, the highest number of smokers during pregnancy and the most frequent intake of sauce with hot meals and fast-food. Overall a high BMI and a high smoking frequency were found. Age differences were found for BMI and planned breastfeeding period, while regional differences were found for smoking and intake of sauce with hot meals and fast-food. Future recommendations aimed at pregnant women in Greenland should focus on these health issues.

  17. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with metabolic parameters and dietary habits among medical undergraduate students in southeastern of Iran

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    Omid Eslami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, there is still inconclusive evidence on the extra-gastric manifestations of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori infection. This study aimed to determine whether there is an association between H.pylori infection with metabolic syndrome and dietary habits among medical undergraduate students in south-eastern of Iran, Zahedan. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done among 363 undergraduate students in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences during spring 2014. All subjects completed a questionnaire including demographic factors and dietary habits. Serum H. pylori-specific IgG antibodies, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, and fasting blood sugar (FBS levels were measured after an overnight fast. Results: The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was 45.7%. H. pylori-positive subjects had lower mean levels of TC and TG and higher levels of HDL-C compared to H. pylori-negative subjects. In addition, lower levels of LDL-C (P = 0.044 and FBS (P = 0.05 were observed among subjects with positive H pylori infection. Only rare consumption of raw vegetables (odds ratio [OR] =3.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.37–5.24 as well as higher levels of FBS (OR = 1.031, 95% CI = 1.001–1.99 were significantly associated with higher odds of H. pylori infection in both the univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: In a small population of young students in southeastern of Iran, H. pylori infection was associated with low consumption of raw vegetables and higher serum blood glucose.

  18. Evaluation of dietary habits and nutritional content of food intake in overweight and obese patients

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    Posea Mihaela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims To document the nutritional content of food intake in overweight and obese people, in order to change dietary habits for acquiring the normal weight. Material and methods We assessed the nutritional content of food intake (kilocalories, vitamins and minerals in a sample of 124 overweight and obese people and 33 subjects with normal weight. We also measured abdominal circumference, percent of body fat and resting metabolic rate. Results Overweight and obese patients, compared to normal weight, have a significant increased intake of vitamin A (p=0.002, vitamin B1 (p=0.037, vitamin B5 (p=0.047, vitamin C (p=0.029 and vitamin D (p=0.015, sodium (p=0.036, iron (p=0.032 and selenium (p=0.007. The percent of body fat in obese persons is increased (p=0.00001 and very close to abnormal in patients with no weight problems. An increased food intake, above the calculated resting metabolic rate, is associated with a slower metabolism and a rapid resting metabolic rate is often associated with food intake below resting metabolic rate (p=0.002. Conclusions All subjects had imbalanced intake of vitamins and minerals. The normal weight group didn’t achieve the dietary recommendations for vitamins and minerals and we found that these subjects had risk factors for cardiac diseases like increased abdominal circumference, body fat and sodium intake.

  19. Food neophobia in German adolescents: Determinants and association with dietary habits.

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    Roßbach, Sarah; Foterek, Kristina; Schmidt, Inga; Hilbig, Annett; Alexy, Ute

    2016-06-01

    Food neophobia (FN) is described as the rejection to eat unknown foods. Because only little is known about the role of FN in adolescence the aim of this study was to examine potential determinants of FN and associations with dietary habits of DONALD study participants. FN was measured with Pliner's and Hobden's Food Neophobia Scale (FN Score (FNS): range 10-70) in 166 10-18-year-old adolescents. Participants' age, sex, body weight status and duration of breast-feeding as well as parents' FN and educational status were considered as determinants. Energy intake, distribution of macronutrients and two variety scores were calculated from 3-day weighed dietary records. Multivariable general linear models were performed for data analyses. Boys and girls did not differ in their FNS (median (Min-Max): boys 31 (10-58), girls 32 (14-59)). Increasing age (p = 0.010) and duration of total breast-feeding (p = 0.006) were associated with decreasing FNS in girls only. FN was further positively associated with parental FN in the total sample (p = 0.004). FN was negatively associated with protein intake in the total sample (p = 0.017). The overall low level of FN in the DONALD study can be ascribed to the low level of FN in adolescence in general. Congruently with other studies, age and breast-feeding duration were identified as determinants of girls' FN and parental FN was identified as determinant of FN in the total sample. Further, our results indicate that FN leads to reduced protein intakes. Dietary variety was not strongly affected, possibly because of a broad variety of food supply in Germany. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Associations of dietary habits, physical activity and cognitive views with gestational diabetes mellitus among Chinese women.

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    Li, Qing; Xiong, Ribo; Wang, Liang; Cui, Junying; Shi, Linna; Liu, Yungang; Luo, Bingde

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between dietary habits, physical activity and cognitive views and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese women. A cross-sectional study to explore the potential risk factors of GMD through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, an FFQ and a self-designed structured questionnaire, respectively. Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. Chinese pregnant women (n 571) who underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at their 24th to 28th gestational week. Thirteen per cent of the investigated women were identified as having GDM, and an increased intake of local featured foods and lower physical activity were observed in the GDM-positive group v. the GDM-negative group. Women who regarded early-pregnancy morning sickness as relevant to fetal abnormalities and those with unlimited dietary intake after the ending of morning sickness both had an increased risk for GDM (P = 0·018 and P = 0·038, respectively). After multiple logistic regression analysis, cognitive views for unlimited food intake subsequent to morning sickness, increased consumption of energy-dense snack foods and high-glycaemic-index fruits were strongly associated with the risk of GDM (OR = 1·911, P = 0·032; OR = 1·050, P = 0·001; and OR = 1·002, P = 0·017, respectively). Local featured foods and incorrect cognitive views on pregnancy-related health were closely related to the risk of GDM in Chinese women. Intensive health education about pregnancy physiology and reasonable dietary and physical exercise behaviours should be strengthened for the control of GDM.

  1. Teachers' self-perception of their dietary behavior and needs to teach healthy eating habits in the school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vio, Fernando; Yañez, Marisol; González, Carmen Gloria; Fretes, Gabriela; Salinas, Judith

    2016-04-01

    Through focus groups, we explored 22 third- to fifth-grade teachers' perceptions about their eating habits, including barriers and facilitators to healthy eating. It also explored teachers' thoughts about how to teach students healthy eating habits. The information was transcribed and treated using the content analysis technique. Results were evaluated using the concept of majority and minority group and presented in a sequential way: teachers' perceptions about eating habits, barriers to healthy eating, teacher's culinary habits, abilities to teach students healthy eating habits through Information and Communication Technologies, and cooking activities. Teachers' eating habits were poor, with lack of time, money, and will to improve. They had culinary habits skills and the desire to instruct and guide their students in eating healthier food. They need a program with Information and Communication Technologies and cooking workshops to apply in the classroom.

  2. Body weight status, dietary habits, and physical activity levels of middle school-aged children in rural Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Brenda M; Harrell, Kris; Stewart, Jimmy; King, Deborah S

    2004-06-01

    Obesity and cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent in the Southeast as compared with other geographic regions of the United States. However, few investigations have addressed health disparities among children in rural Southeastern areas. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the risk of overweight and obesity in middle school-aged children residing in a racially diverse rural community, and to characterize their dietary and physical activity habits. Two hundred and five middle school children from Scott County, Mississippi were enrolled in this investigation. Measurements included height, weight, body mass index, dietary intake using a 24-hour recall, and physical activity level using pedometers. Of the 205 children studied, 54% were "overweight" or "at risk for overweight" according to a body mass index-for-age sex-specific percentile. Intake of saturated fat and sodium exceeded recommended levels, whereas intake of calcium, fruits, and vegetables was inadequate. One third of the sample consumed 12 fluid ounces or more of soda on the day of the recall. Physical activity level was below that previously reported for children in this age range, and knowledge of the importance of diet and physical activity in the prevention of cardiovascular disease was poor, particularly among African-American children. The children in our sample are at increased risk for overweight and obesity. Factors that may be targeted for intervention include a reduction in dietary intake of fat, saturated fat, sodium, and soft drinks, and an increased intake of fruits and vegetables. Physical activity should be encouraged. Many of these factors could be improved through changes within the school environment.

  3. Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; You, Jeong-Soon; Chang, Kyung-Ja

    2010-08-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students. In this study, research data were collected in March 2009 and 65 patients with depression and 65 controls without depression participated. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) scale was used for depression measure and controls were matched for age. A 3-day recall method was used for dietary assessment (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day). Average height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were 161.3+/-0.5 cm, 55.3+/-1.0 kg and 21.2+/-0.4 kg/m2 for depression patients and those of control group were 161.4+/-0.7 cm, 53.1+/-0.8 kg and 20.3+/-0.2 kg/m2, respectively. Average dietary taurine intakes of depression patients and control group were 89.1 and 88.0 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine intake between depression patients and control group. The average intakes of vitamin A (phabit score of depression patients (47.2) was significantly lower than that of control group (51.3) (phabit scores of "eating meals at regular times" (peating adequate amount of meals" (peating spicy foods" (peating protein foods such as meat, fish, eggs, beans more than 2 times a day" (pstress (pstress categories of depression patients were significantly higher than those of control group except faculty problem score. These results show that depression patients have poor dietary habits and unbalanced nutrition status. Also depression patients have higher life stress score.Therefore, continuous nutrition education and counselling for good dietary habits and balanced nutrition status are needed to prevent depression in Korean college students.

  4. Association of the duration of residence with obesity-related eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Guerrero, A C; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, P; López-García, Esther; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan L

    2015-01-28

    The dietary patterns of immigrants usually change with the duration of residence and progressively resemble those of the host country. However, very few studies have investigated individuals migrating to countries with a high-quality diet, such as the Mediterranean diet (MD), and none has yet focused on Latin-American immigrants. The present study examined the association of the duration of residence with obesity-related eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants residing in Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008-10 in a representative sample of the adult population residing in Spain. Adherence to the MD was defined as a MD Adherence Screener score ≥ 9. Analyses were conducted by including 419 individuals aged 18-64 years born in Latin-American countries. Compared with immigrants residing in Spain for eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants. Some of the healthy changes observed contrasted the 'Westernisation' of the diet reported in studies conducted in other Western countries. The results of the present study support the role of the food environment of the host country in the modification of the dietary patterns of immigrants.

  5. Stabilization of overweight prevalence and improvement of dietary habits in French children between 2004 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, Caroline; Langevin, Coralie; Déti, Eduoard Kossi; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Maurice, Sylvie; Thibault, Hélène

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to describe changes in overweight and obesity prevalence and eating habits among 7.5-10.5-year-old children in Aquitaine (France) between 2004 and 2008, and to assess how the programme 'Nutrition, Prevention and Health of children and teenagers in Aquitaine' implemented in 2004 may have impacted these changes. Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in two samples of children: the 'before programme' sample during the school year 2004/2005 and the 'after programme' sample during the school year 2008/2009. Settings Data were collected on gender, age, weight, height, area of residence (rural/urban) and socio-economic status of the school (non-low socio-economic/low socio-economic). Multivariate analyses were used to assess the effect of the regional programme intervention on the evolution of overweight and obesity prevalence and eating habits independently. The 'before programme' sample included 1836 children from 163 schools during the school year 2004/2005 and the 'after programme' sample included 3483 children from 210 schools during the school year 2008/2009. After adjustment of the model for age, residential area and socio-economic status of the area of residence, the prevalence of overweight including obesity (OR = 1.05; 95% CI 0.89, 1.23, P = 0.56) and of obesity (OR = 0.99; 95% CI 0.71, 1.39, P = 0.96) was found to have stabilized and eating habits had improved: intake of light afternoon meals had increased (OR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.13, 1.69, P = 0.002) while snacking in the morning (OR = 0.50; 95 % CI 0.45, 0.57, P eating habits in order to stabilize or decrease the prevalence of overweight.

  6. Assessing the impact of dietary habits on health-related quality of life requires contextual measurement tools

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    Cristina eRuano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of non-communicable diseases at all ages has fostered the general concern for sustaining population health worldwide. Unhealthy lifestyles and dietary habits impacting physical and psycho-social health are well known risk factors for developing life threatening diseases. Identifying the determinants of quality of life is an important task from a Public Health perspective. Consumer-Reported Outcome measures of health-related quality of life are becoming increasingly necessary and relevant in the field of nutrition. However, quality of life questionnaires are seldom used in the nutrition field. We conducted a scientific literature search to find out the questionnaires used to determine the association between dietary habits and quality of life. A total of 13 studies were eligible for inclusion. Across these studies the Short Form–36, a generic (nondisease-specific health-related quality of life measurement instrument was the most widely used. However, generic measures may have limited content validity in the context of dietary habits interventions. We recommend additional contextual diet-specific health-related quality of life measures are also needed for evaluating the impact of diet habits on daily life functioning and well-being.

  7. Dietary habits and lifestyle in school-aged children from Bucharest, Romania

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    Anca Pantea Stoian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study evaluated the difference between boys and girls in terms of nutritional status, lifestyle, and dietary habits during school life. Materials and Methods. A descriptive and observational study was conducted in 2016, in which 251 children, aged 7-17, from 3 elementary schools and a high school inBucharest,Romania, were evaluated. A questionnaire was used to assess food behavior, eating, and lifestyle habits. Results. Boys had a significantly higher waist circumference (71.18±9 than girls (67.46±9.91 (p=0.004. Thus 27% of boys were overweight or obese compared with only 22% of the girls. Differences were also seen between the two groups in terms of main meals and snacks and following a rhythm of meals: a statistically significant percentage of girls (36.3% skip breakfast, while most boys (63.8% take a food package to school. A total of 23.8% of the boys and 24% of the girls state that they eat while sitting in front of the computer or TV. Conclusions. We found that boys are more overweight or obese than girls. Obesity in the pediatric population of Romania could be explained by the country’s emergence from communism 25 years ago, pattern typical of all Eastern European countries and which currently involve an overexposure of people to fast food, fizzy drinks and sweets, as well as to a high consumption of salt and food additives. Unbalanced and highly caloric food had been preferable to healthy food in the last period. Leisure time is rather spent in front of the TV, tablet, detrimental to rational physical exercise, recreational sports or hiking. The family environment is very important and all our actions should be focused on continuous education about the risks of unhealthy food and a sedentary lifestyle.

  8. The effect of the Ramadan fast on physical performance and dietary habits in adolescent soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckel, Yoav; Ismaeel, Aobeida; Eliakim, Alon

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the Ramadan fast on performance capacities, dietary habits, and the daily behavioral patterns in adolescent (14-16-year-old) soccer players. Nineteen male players performed a series of fitness tests before and at the end of Ramadan fast. Caloric intake, physical activity pattern and sleep habits were evaluated during the week before the Ramadan fast and during the last week of the Ramadan fast. The fast resulted in a significant reduction in aerobic capacity [3,000 m run time (mean +/- SD): 812.8 +/- 73.3 s vs. 819.9 +/- 73.4 s, P performance decrement: 9.0 +/- 1.5% vs. 9.5 +/- 1.7%, P performance (44.8 +/- 4.5 cm vs. 44.0 +/- 4.5 cm, P performance (7.38 +/- 0.25 s vs. 7.40 +/- 0.26 s, P = 0.20) or agility (4 x 10 m shuttle run time: 9.53 +/- 0.35 s vs. 9.55 +/- 0.37 s, P = 0.26). Daily intense physical activity was significantly reduced during Ramadan (6.4 +/- 0.2 h/week vs. 4.5 +/- 0.1 h/week, P sleeping hours (8.6 +/- 0.7 h/day vs. 8.6 +/- 0.5 h/day, P = 0.80) between Ramadan and a regular month. The results indicate that Ramadan fasting can lead to a significant decrease in athletic performance capacities. The decrease in performance does not necessarily relate to changes in caloric intake and sleeping hours during the fast.

  9. Overweight and Obesity and their Association with Dietary Habits, and Sociodemographic Characteristics Among Male Primary School Children in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Ali, Ayub

    2008-07-01

    To assess the magnitude of obesity and overweight among male primary school children, and to find the possible association between obesity/overweight and dietary habits and sociodemographic differentials among them. A cross-sectional descriptive study, including 1139 Saudi male children enrolled in the 5(th) and 6(th) grades in public primary schools in Al Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), was conducted. The test included a multistage random sampling technique, based on interview using Youth and Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, gathering data regarding dietary intake, dietary habits, followed by anthropometric measurements with the calculation of body mass index (BMI), the interpretation of which was based on Cole's tables for the standard definition of overweight and obesity. Sociodemographic data were collected through a parental questionnaire from. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS 12 software (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA); both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The age of the school children ranged from 10-14 years. The prevalence of overweight among the subjects was 14.2%, while that of obesity was 9.7%; the prevalence was more in the urban, older age students. The mothers of obese and overweight children were less educated and more working. Missing and or infrequent intake of breakfast at home, frequent consumption of fast foods, low servings per day of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, with frequent consumption of sweets/candy and carbonated drinks were all predictors of obesity and overweight among the schoolchildren studied. The prevalence of childhood obesity is escalating and approaching figures that have been reported till now from the developed countries. Less healthy dietary habits and poor selection of food may be responsible for this high prevalence.

  10. Overweight and obesity and their association with dietary habits, and sociodemographic characteristics among male primary school children in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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    Amin Tarek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the magnitude of obesity and overweight among male primary school children, and to find the possible association between obesity/overweight and dietary habits and sociodemographic differentials among them. Study design and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study, including 1139 Saudi male children enrolled in the 5 th and 6 th grades in public primary schools in Al Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, was conducted. The test included a multistage random sampling technique, based on interview using Youth and Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, gathering data regarding dietary intake, dietary habits, followed by anthropometric measurements with the calculation of body mass index (BMI, the interpretation of which was based on Cole′s tables for the standard definition of overweight and obesity. Sociodemographic data were collected through a parental questionnaire from. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS 12 software (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA; both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: The age of the school children ranged from 10-14 years. The prevalence of overweight among the subjects was 14.2%, while that of obesity was 9.7%; the prevalence was more in the urban, older age students. The mothers of obese and overweight children were less educated and more working. Missing and or infrequent intake of breakfast at home, frequent consumption of fast foods, low servings per day of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, with frequent consumption of sweets/candy and carbonated drinks were all predictors of obesity and overweight among the schoolchildren studied. Conclusion: The prevalence of childhood obesity is escalating and approaching figures that have been reported till now from the developed countries. Less healthy dietary habits and poor selection of food may be responsible for this high prevalence.

  11. Family affluence, socio - economic status and dietary habits of 1st year University students

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    Eirini Syligardou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low socio-economic status (SES is associated with health risk behaviours contributing to the social inequalities in health. However, the associations of dietary habits with socio-economic status have not been investigated in emerging adulthood in detail yet. Aim: To investigate the associations of dietary habits with socio-economic status in 1st year undergraduate university students. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis draws data from the LATO study, a longitudinal study of all 1st year undergraduate students of TEI Crete during the academic year 2012/13 (Ν=1138, 54% girls, Mean age 18,31 years, response rate 96,7%. The consumption frequencies of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks, breakfast and delivery food were associated with the following socio-economic indicators: Family affluence (FAS II, paternal and maternal educational level and self-reported economic status. The SPSS v21.0 was used to perform logistic regression models after adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Only 24,9%, 12% and 17% of the students were consuming breakfast, fruits and vegetables, respectively, in a daily basis. Soft drinks were consumed daily by 6,1% of the participants but most of them consumed delivery/junk food less than 1/week (73,8%. Higher family affluence was associated with increased odds of consuming breakfast (OR=2,90, 95%CI=1,13-7,44, soft drinks (OR=8,10, 95%CI=1,38-47,68 and delivery/junk food (OR=2,44, 95%CI=1,27-4,70 in boys. High paternal educational level was associated in a protective way with boys’ consumption of delivery food (OR=0,42, 95%CI=0,18-0,95 and soft drinks (OR=0,19, 95%CI=0,05-0,72. Fruits and vegetables consumption was not associated with any SES indicator. Conclusions: The majority of 1st year university students were not following current diet recommendations irrespective of SES. Interventions targeting eating behaviours are needed at higher education institutes.

  12. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedibe, Modiehi Heather; Pisa, Pedro T; Feeley, Alison B; Pedro, Titilola M; Kahn, Kathleen; Norris, Shane A

    2018-01-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural ( n = 392, mean age = 13 years) and urban ( n = 3098, mean age = 14 years) adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary habits and eating practices, with overweight and obesity risk. Differences in dietary habits and eating practices by gender and by site within the three environments were identified. After adjusting for gender, site, dietary habits, and eating practices within the home, community and school environment, eating the main meal with family some days (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.114-2.835; p ≤ 0.02), eating the main meal with family almost every day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.106-2.343; p ≤ 0.01), and irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekdays (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.007-1.896; p ≤ 0.05) were all associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For "Year 15" adolescents, irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekends within the home environment (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.099-2.129, p ≤ 0.01), was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For both early- and mid-adolescents, being male (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.299-0.537; p ≤ 0.00; OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.218-0.397; p ≤ 0.00) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity, while residing in a rural setting (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.324-0.924; p ≤ 0.02) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity only among early-adolescents. Only dietary habits and eating practices within the home environment were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity.

  13. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents

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    Modiehi Heather Sedibe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural (n = 392, mean age = 13 years and urban (n = 3098, mean age = 14 years adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary habits and eating practices, with overweight and obesity risk. Differences in dietary habits and eating practices by gender and by site within the three environments were identified. After adjusting for gender, site, dietary habits, and eating practices within the home, community and school environment, eating the main meal with family some days (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.114–2.835; p ≤ 0.02, eating the main meal with family almost every day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.106–2.343; p ≤ 0.01, and irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekdays (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.007–1.896; p ≤ 0.05 were all associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For “Year 15” adolescents, irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekends within the home environment (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.099–2.129, p ≤ 0.01, was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For both early- and mid-adolescents, being male (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.299–0.537; p ≤ 0.00; OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.218–0.397; p ≤ 0.00 was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity, while residing in a rural setting (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.324–0.924; p ≤ 0.02 was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity only among early-adolescents. Only dietary habits and eating practices within the home environment were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity.

  14. Animal Models for Elucidation of the Mechanisms of Neuropsychiatric Disorders Induced by Sleep and Dietary Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoita, Fukie

    2016-01-01

    Numerous changes in human lifestyle in modern life increase the risk of disease. Especially, modern sleep and dietary habits are crucial factors affecting lifestyle disease. In terms of sleep, decreases in total sleep time and in rapid eye movement sleep time have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. From a dietary perspective, mastication during eating has several good effects on systemic, mental, and physical functions of the body. However, few animal experiments have addressed the influence of this decline in sleep duration or of long-term powdered diet feeding on parameters reflecting systemic health. In our studies, we examined both the influence of intermittent sleep deprivation (SD) treatment and long-term powdered diet feeding on emotional behavior in mice, and focused on the mechanisms underlying these impaired behaviors. Our findings were as follows: SD treatment induced hypernoradrenergic and hypodopaminergic states within the frontal cortex. Furthermore, hyperactivity and an explosive number of jumps were observed. Both the hypernoradrenergic state and the jumps were improved by treatment with ADHD therapeutic drugs. On the other hand, long-term powdered diet feeding increased social interaction behaviors. The feeding affected the dopaminergic function of the frontal cortex. In addition, the long-term powdered diet fed mice presented systemic illness signs, such as elevations of blood glucose, and hypertension. This review, describing the SD mice and long-term powdered diet fed mice can be a useful model for elucidation of the mechanism of neuropsychiatric disorders or the discovery of new therapeutic targets in combatting effects of the modern lifestyle.

  15. Health, Dietary Habits, and Achievement Motivation in College Students With Self-Reported ADHD Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkt, Julia; Gawrilow, Caterina

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate aspects of health and motivation in a subpopulation of college students with ADHD. Seventy-seven college students with self-reported ADHD (49 women; M age = 25.82, SD = 4.62) and 120 college students without ADHD (65 women; M age = 25.17, SD = 5.41) participated in an online survey assessing their health, dietary habits, and achievement motivation. College students with ADHD showed impairment in psychological functioning, impairment in their mental health, and reported more ambition and less self-control. Furthermore, we found gender differences: Women with ADHD reported worse psychological functioning, and the gender differences in obsessive-compulsive behavior and compensatory effort were mediated by the timing of diagnosis. College students, especially women, with ADHD struggle with health-related issues. Some of these gender differences might be due to under diagnosis of girls in childhood. Differences in achievement motivation might indicate compensatory mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Patterns of dietary habits in relation to obesity in Iranian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Feizi, Awat; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-03-01

    Findings from few studies that investigated the relation between dietary behaviors and obesity are inconsistent. We aimed to assess the relation between patterns of dietary habits, identified by latent class analysis (LCA), and obesity in a large sample of Iranian adults. In a cross-sectional study on 7958 adults, dietary behaviors were assessed in five domains (meal patterns, eating rate, intra-meal fluid intake, meal-to-sleep interval, and fatty foods intake) using a pretested questionnaire. LCA was applied to identify classes of diet-related practices. Anthropometric measures were assessed through the use of a validated self-reported questionnaire. General and abdominal obesity were defined as a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2), and a waist circumference ≥ 88 cm for women and ≥ 102 cm for men. General and abdominal obesity were prevalent in 9.7 and 27.7 % of the study population, respectively. We identified three distinct classes of eating rates (moderate, moderate to slow, and moderate to fast), two classes of meal patterns (regular and irregular), two classes of intra-meal fluid intake (moderate and more intra-meal drinking), three classes of meal-to-sleep interval (short, moderate, and long meal-to-sleep interval), and three classes of fatty food intake (low to moderate, moderate to high, and low intake of fatty foods). After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals with 'irregular meal pattern' were 21, 24, and 22 % more likely to be overweight/obese, abdominally overweight/obese, and abdominally obese, compared with those who had a 'regular meal pattern.' Individuals with 'more intra-meal drinking' had greater odds of overweight (OR 1.37; 1.19-1.458) and obesity (OR 1.51; 1.16-1.97) than those with 'moderate intra-meal drinking.' Moderate-to-high intake of fatty foods was inversely associated with abdominally overweight/obese (OR 0.85; 0.73-1.00) and abdominally obesity (OR 0.80; 0.68-0.96) compared with 'low-to-moderate intake of fatty foods

  17. [Effects of an intervention program for community-dwelling elderly to improve frailty and dietary habits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Teruko; Takemi, Yukari; Murayama, Hiroshi; Nishi, Mariko; Shimizu, Yumiko; Narita, Miki; Kim, Mi-Ji; Shinkai, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    The effects of a comprehensive intervention program for community-dwelling elderly on frailty and dietary habits were examined. We conducted randomized control trials to examine the efficacy of the intervention. To examine lasting changes, we made paired comparisons between pre- and post- intervention and at a three-month follow-up. The subjects were recruited in Hatoyama town, Saitama prefecture. The program was composed of exercise, nutritional education, and social participation and was held from October to December 2011. The exercise program aimed at fall prevention and took place twice per week for 60 min. The nutritional education aimed at prevention of malnutrition, and the social participation program aimed at prevention of "homeboundness"; both were held once per week for 30 min. Questionnaires inquired about frailty and dietary variety. A blood test was conducted to ascertain nutritional state, and a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire was used to estimate food and nutrient intake. To examine the efficacy of the intervention, 22 control subjects (CR) and 21 subjects in the intervention group (IV) were analyzed with intention to treat. To examine lasting changes, 16 subjects in IV who correctly completed surveys at each of the three time points were analyzed, using repeated ANOVA and a multiple comparison procedure. 1. Men comprised 70-80% of subjects, and the average age was 75.7±5.4 and 74.7±5.4 years in IV and CR, respectively. 2. There was no significant difference in pre- and post-intervention changes between IV and CR in frailty, which was the main outcome of the study. 3. A significant difference in pre- and post-intervention values was noted in ① "homeboundness", one of the components of frailty (median [25-75%tile]): IV 0 [0-0] and CR 0 [0-1] (P=0.023); ② nutrient intake (mean±standard deviation [SD], energy ratio [%E]): protein, IV 2.3±0.7 and CR -0.3±2.0 (P=0.002); animal protein, IV 2.4±1.5 and CR -0.5±1.5 (P=0

  18. Dietary habits, physical activity and diabetes perception among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tabuk City, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mountashiri, Nadiyah Abdullah; AL-Zhrani, Amal Mohammad; Ibrahim, Shereen Fawzy Hafez; Mirghani, Hyder Othman

    2017-01-01

    Background Medical nutritional therapy is an important aspect of diabetes care, there is an increasing awareness of breakfast skipping, late dinner and meal contents on diabetes control. Aim To assess dietary habits, physical activity and diabetes perception among patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods This case-control study was conducted among patients with diabetes mellitus at the diabetes center in Tabuk City, Saudi Arabia during the period from March through June 2017. One hundred patien...

  19. Dental caries associated with dietary and toothbrushing habits of 6- to 12-year-old mentally retarded children in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Huang, Shun-Te; Hsuao, Szu-Yu; Chen, Chun-Chih; Hu, Wen-Chia; Yen, Ya-Yin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the influence of dietary factors and toothbrushing habits on dental caries in children with mental retardation (MR). Materials and methods: In total, 168 children with MR, aged 6–12 years, were selected from a large cross-sectional survey entitled “Oral health survey and oral hygiene education for the disabled in Taiwan”, which used a stratified cluster sampling design and probability proportional to size for sampling. Oral examinations were carried out by dentis...

  20. Stuck in a vicious circle of stress. Parental concerns and barriers to changing children's dietary and physical activity habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Åsa; Berlin, Anita; Sundblom, Elinor; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer; Nyberg, Gisela

    2015-04-01

    Dietary habits and physical activity are often the focus of obesity prevention programmes and involving parents in such programmes has proven to be effective. The aims of this study were to describe parents' concerns about their children's diet and physical activity habits and to describe barriers to change. The study used archival data gathered unobtrusively in the form of memos taken after sessions of Motivational Interviewing as part of the parental support programme, A Healthy School Start. The 74 MI-sessions were conducted from October 2010 to April 2011 with either a mother or father or both, all with children in pre-school class. Thematic analysis was applied. Three themes were identified regarding children's dietary habits: amount of food consumed influenced by behaviour in the family, eating situations influenced by stressful everyday life and family interplay, and food choices influenced by stressful everyday life and family interplay. One theme appeared regarding physical activity: physical activity influenced by stressful everyday life and family interplay. Family interplay appears to be an important link between the work-life stress perceived by parents and less healthy food and physical activity habits in the home. Both lack of parental cooperation and negative parent-child interactions may act as barriers to healthy eating and physical activity and should be addressed in future intervention studies on health-related behaviours of children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Home food availability, parental dietary intake, and familial eating habits influence the diet quality of urban Hispanic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Torres, Margarita; Adams, Alexandra K; Carrel, Aaron L; LaRowe, Tara L; Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-10-01

    The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality. Hispanic children, 10-14 years of age (n=187), and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used to determine diet quality based on reported dietary intake obtained through a food frequency questionnaire administered to the children. Parents self-reported home food availability, familial eating habits, and their own habitual diet through a home environment survey. The children's HEI total score was 59.4±8.8. Reported diets did not adhere to the dietary recommendations for total vegetables, greens and beans, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. None of the participants had "good" scores (HEI, >80), 86% had scores that "need improvement" (HEI, 51-80), and 14% had "poor" scores (HEI, food availability, parental diet, and familial eating habits seem to play an important role in the diet quality of children. Interventions targeting family education on healthful dietary habits at home could have a positive impact on children's diet quality and overall health.

  2. Eating Habits and Dietary Intake: Is Adherence to Dietary Guidelines Associated with Importance of Healthy Eating among Undergraduate University Students in Finland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Suominen, Sakari; Samara, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    Poor eating habits among young adults are a public health concern. This survey examined the eating habits of undergraduate university students in Finland. We assessed students' dietary intake of a variety of food groups, their adherence to international dietary guidelines (whole sample and by gender), and the associations between importance of eating healthy and dietary guidelines adherence (whole sample and by gender). During the 2013-2014 academic year, 1,189 undergraduate students enrolled at the University of Turku in southwestern Finland completed an online self-administered questionnaire. Students reported their eating habits of 12 food groups, the number of daily servings of fruits/vegetables they consume and how important it is for them to eat healthy. For dietary adherence recommendations, we employed WHO guidelines. Chi-square statistic tested the differences in dietary guidelines adherence between males and females and also the associations between the gradients of importance of healthy eating and the self reported eating habits for each of the food groups, for the whole sample and by gender. We observed high levels of dietary adherence (>70%) for most of the 'unhealthy food' items (cake/cookies, snacks, fast food/canned food, and lemonade/soft drinks), and moderate adherence for most of the 'healthy food' items (>50%) (dairy/dairy products, fruit/vegetables servings/day, fresh fruit, salads/raw vegetables and cereal/cereal products). Fish/seafood, meat/sausage products and cooked vegetables had levels eat healthy (78.8%). The importance of eating healthy was significantly associated with adherence for all food groups besides sweets and cake/cookies. These associations remained significant for women but some of them not for men (cereal/cereal products, snacks and sweets). The results suggest high adherence to the guidelines mainly for 'unhealthy food' groups, and moderate adherence for healthier food groups. There was also accordance between regarding

  3. Dietary habits; concentration of copper, zinc, and Cu-to-Zn ratio in serum and ability status of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Katarzyna; Karpińska, Elżbieta; Kochanowicz, Jan; Soroczyńska, Jolanta; Jakoniuk, Marta; Wilkiel, Marianna; Mariak, Zenon D; Borawska, Maria H

    Dietary habits and adequate intake of antioxidants in the diet-for example, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)-may be an environmental factor in the occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of dietary habits on the concentration of Cu, Zn in the serum, and the effect of Cu-to-Zn ratio on the ability status of patients with relapsing-remitting MS. This was an observational case-control study that included 101 individuals with MS and 68 healthy individuals (controls). Food frequency questionnaires were used to collect dietary data. Serum concentrations of Cu and Zn were determined by the electrothermal and flame atomic absorption spectrometry method, respectively. The ratio of Cu to Zn was calculated and compared with the Expanded Disability Status Scale of patients. The concentration of Zn was significantly lower in the serum of individuals with MS (0.776 ± 0.195 mg/L) than in the control group (0.992 ± 0.315 mg/L). The ratio of Cu to Zn was higher in the examined patients (1.347 ± 0.806) than in the healthy volunteers (1.012 ± 0.458). Lower ability status (P habits have a significant influence on Cu and Zn concentration in the serum of patients with MS. Lower serum concentrations of Zn and higher ratio of Cu to Zn in patients with MS can suggest a relationship between MS and oxidative stress. Products that are a source of Zn should be included in the diet, which can improve the clinical condition of people with MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lunch habits of German children and adolescents: composition and dietary quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, U; Freese, J; Kersting, M; Clausen, K

    2013-01-01

    Data from the ongoing, open-cohort Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study were used to describe warm family lunch meals and the association of the lunch composition with total diet quality. 2,095 three-day weighed dietary records, collected between 2004 and 2009, from a 4- to 18-year-old DONALD study subgroup were used. Warm lunch (eating occasions between 11.30 a.m. and 2.29 p.m. including at least one course that is typically consumed warm) was eaten on 68.8% of all record days. Meat lunch (>50%) was predominant, followed by vegetarian (25%), fish (13%) and sweet lunch meals (3%). The prevalence of desserts at lunch was high and beverages were drunk at 80% of lunch meals. A meat lunch was associated with a higher protein (+1.4% energy intake, %E) and fat intake (+1.7%E) than a sweet lunch; also densities of vitamin A, folate and iron were higher. A dessert at lunch decreased protein intake slightly (-0.2%E), but increased carbohydrate (+0.7%E) and added sugar intake (+1.4%E) as well as density of calcium (+18 mg/MJ). Our study proves the impact of lunch on daily dietary quality and yields valuable insights on the development of food and meal-based dietary guidelines. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Dietary habits and nutritional status in adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parízková, J

    2000-03-01

    The overall situation as regards dietary intake and nutritional status in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe has varied considerably during previous decades; however, after the political, social and economic changes during the nineties these differences have increased further, especially in the areas with low GDP and war, and in the regions affected by radionuclides etc. No systematic surveillance systems in representative samples of adolescents were in effect at the beginning of the nineties in Central and Eastern Europe. There exists relatively more data on nutritional status characterized by body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness measurements. Food intake has mainly been followed in smaller samples of adolescents, and or in special groups (athletes, obese, vegetarians, allergies, Romanies, pupils of special schools etc.). In the countries and/or areas with sufficient GDP and income the food intake has most often been too abundant when considering the real needs of the growing organism, especially from the point of view of energy output. The composition of the diet is not adequate, i.e. too much protein, fats, sugar etc. This situation is similar to that in Western countries, USA etc. On the other hand, adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe consume too few vegetables, fruit and milk products in their diet (i.e. low intakes of Ca, fibre and vitamin C), which is less apparent in Western countries. This is mainly due to bad eating habits and nutritional traditions in the families, but also due to the changes of the prices of the mentioned foodstuffs after political and economic changes in this part of the world. Certain nutritional deficiencies were also shown as factors increasing the health risks from the Chernobyl disaster, mainly in the Ukraine, Belorussia and certain parts of Poland.

  6. Dietary habits and exercise practices among the students of a Saudi Teachers' Training College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gelban, Khalid S

    2008-05-01

    To assess the dietary habits and exercise practices among Saudi male students of a Teacher's Training College. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the academic year 2005/2006 in Abha, Aseer Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study sample was drawn using the systematic random sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Out of a total sample of 500 students, 456 questionnaires were returned giving a response rate of 91.2%. Approximately 10% of the students reported some type of organic disease, while psychiatric disorders were reported by 4.6% of the students. Nearly half of the students had a body mass index of more than 25 kg/m2. Practice of exercise was not prevalent in 14% of the students, while 69.3% were engaged in exercise only twice per month. Half of the students ate lunch and dinner, while snacks after lunch was taken by 76.1% of them. Addition of salt (55.5%), consumption of ghee (91.4%), and watching television while eating (85.3%) was noted among the students. Breakfast was the most commonly missed meal. Approximately 11.4% students did not take vegetable and 28.9% did not take fish at all while softdrinks were consumed by more than 85% of the students ranging from 1-4 times to more than 7 times per week. There is an urgent need to assess barriers to the healthy life style and to design an effective intervention program to improve the lifestyle of the future teachers.

  7. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutte, Aurélie; Cherel, Yves; Churlaud, Carine; Ponthus, Jean-Pierre; Massé, Guillaume; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N = 132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ 13 C and δ 15 N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ 13 C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters. - Highlights: • Trace elements and stable isotopes were analyzed in seven Antarctic fish species. • Levels of trace elements in liver and in muscle differed among species. • Hg load was higher in benthic fish than in cryopelagic and pelagic fish. • These findings could be due to the high methylation rate of Hg in the sediment.

  8. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutte, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.goutte@ephe.sorbonne.fr [École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), SPL, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7619 METIS, F-75005, 4 place Jussieu, Paris (France); Cherel, Yves [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UMR 7372, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France); Churlaud, Carine [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Ponthus, Jean-Pierre [École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), SPL, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7619 METIS, F-75005, 4 place Jussieu, Paris (France); Massé, Guillaume [Unité Mixte Internationale Takuvik, Pavillon Alexandre-Vachon, Université Laval, QC, Québec (Canada); Bustamante, Paco [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2015-12-15

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N = 132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ{sup 13}C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters. - Highlights: • Trace elements and stable isotopes were analyzed in seven Antarctic fish species. • Levels of trace elements in liver and in muscle differed among species. • Hg load was higher in benthic fish than in cryopelagic and pelagic fish. • These findings could be due to the high methylation rate of Hg in the sediment.

  9. Association of Dietary Habits and Interest for Food and Science versus Weight Status in Children Aged 8 to 18 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhulst, Els; Faik, Aicha; Vansintejan, Johan; Van Rossem, Inès; Devroey, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to describe the association between dietary habits and weight status and the interest in food and science. We examined in a cross-sectional study 525 children aged between 8 and 18 years, who attended the Brussels Food Fair or the Belgian Science Day in 2013. They were divided into three groups: special interest in science, special interest in food, and a general control group. They completed a questionnaire, and body parameters were measured. The weight status of the children was identified using the growth charts and the calculated BMI. In total, 525 children were included: 290 children in the reference group, 194 in the food group, and 41 in the science group. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 28% in the general control group, 14% in the food group, and 15% in the science group. Breakfast and dinner were skipped more often by children with overweight or obesity. Children from the food and science groups had more sweets and meat, had less fruit, and skipped less meals. In our study, 28% of the reference group had overweight or obesity. The children with special interest in food or science differed from the control group.

  10. Extending Galactic Habitable Zone Modeling to Include the Emergence of Intelligent Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ian S; Gowanlock, Michael G

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies of the galactic habitable zone have been concerned with identifying those regions of the Galaxy that may favor the emergence of complex life. A planet is deemed habitable if it meets a set of assumed criteria for supporting the emergence of such complex life. In this work, we extend the assessment of habitability to consider the potential for life to further evolve to the point of intelligence--termed the propensity for the emergence of intelligent life, φI. We assume φI is strongly influenced by the time durations available for evolutionary processes to proceed undisturbed by the sterilizing effects of nearby supernovae. The times between supernova events provide windows of opportunity for the evolution of intelligence. We developed a model that allows us to analyze these window times to generate a metric for φI, and we examine here the spatial and temporal variation of this metric. Even under the assumption that long time durations are required between sterilizations to allow for the emergence of intelligence, our model suggests that the inner Galaxy provides the greatest number of opportunities for intelligence to arise. This is due to the substantially higher number density of habitable planets in this region, which outweighs the effects of a higher supernova rate in the region. Our model also shows that φI is increasing with time. Intelligent life emerged at approximately the present time at Earth's galactocentric radius, but a similar level of evolutionary opportunity was available in the inner Galaxy more than 2 Gyr ago. Our findings suggest that the inner Galaxy should logically be a prime target region for searches for extraterrestrial intelligence and that any civilizations that may have emerged there are potentially much older than our own.

  11. Socioeconomic differences in selected dietary habits among Norwegian 13–14 year-olds: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelene Skårdal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social inequalities in health are a major and even growing problem in all European countries. Objective: The aim of the present study was to describe 1 differences in dietary habits among Norwegian adolescents by gender and socioeconomic status; 2 differences in self-reported knowledge of dietary guidelines among their parents according to socioeconomic status. Design: In 2012, a cross-sectional study where students filled in a web-based food frequency questionnaire at school was conducted in nine lower secondary schools in Vest-Agder County, Norway. Socioeconomic status (SES and knowledge of dietary guidelines were obtained from the parents using a web-based questionnaire. In total, 517 ninth-grade students (mean age 13.9 out of 742 invited students participated in the study, giving a participation rate of 69.7%. The total number of dyads with information on both parents and students was 308 (41.5%. Results: The findings indicate that there is a tendency for girls to have a healthier diet than boys, with greater intake of fruits and vegetables (girls intake in median 3.5 units per day and boys 2.9 units per day, and lower intake of soft drinks (girls 0.25 l in median versus boys 0.5 l per week. Students from families with higher SES reported a significant higher intake of vegetables and fish, and lower intake of soft drinks and fast food than those from lower SES. Parents with higher SES reported a significantly better knowledge of dietary guidelines compared to those with lower SES. Conclusions: Differences in dietary habits were found between groups of students by gender and SES. Differences were also found in parents’ self-reported knowledge of dietary guidelines. This social patterning should be recognized in public health interventions.

  12. Dietary habits and prevalence of allergic rhinitis in 6 to 7-year-old schoolchildren in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamay, Zeynep; Akcay, Ahmet; Ergin, Ahmet; Güler, Nermin

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and other allergies has risen worldwide. Dietary habits are considered to be among the potential risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and its relationship with dietary habits and other risk factors among 6 to 7-year-old Turkish schoolchildren. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 11483 children aged 6-7 years were surveyed. The prevalence of symptoms of allergic rhinitis was assessed using the ISAAC protocol. Dietary information was collected using a food frequency questionnaire. Of them, 9875 (50.7% M 49.3% F) questionnaires were appropriately completed. The prevalence rates of lifetime rhinitis, current rhinitis, current rhinoconjunctivitis and physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis, were 44.3%, 29.2%, 8.5% and 8.1%, respectively. Consumption of rice, and cereals ≥3 times per week showed protective effect on physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32-0.87 and aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.36-0.92). Eating pasta, and chocolates ≥3 times per week showed protective effect on current rhinoconjunctivitis (aOR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.25-0.79 and aOR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.29-0.86). Eating lollipops, candies and animal fats ≥3 times per week was positively associated with current rhinoconjunctivitis (aOR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.00-2.17 and aOR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.11-4.56). Protective effect of the Mediterranean diet was not significant. Frequent consumption of cereals, rice, pasta and chocolates may have beneficial effect on symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis. Although dietary habits may affect the prevalence of symptoms of current rhinoconjunctivitis, the Mediterranean diet alone may not be protective against rhinoconjunctivitis.

  13. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L.; Rollo, Megan E.; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G.; Garg, Manohar L.; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E.

    2017-01-01

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers. PMID:28216582

  14. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E

    2017-02-14

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design ( n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records ( n = 7), 24-h diet recalls ( n = 5), food frequency questionnaires ( n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener ( n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority ( n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers ( r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  15. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Burrows

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9. Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7, 24-h diet recalls (n = 5, food frequency questionnaires (n = 3 and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1. Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11 automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25. This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  16. Relationships between bone mass and dietary/lifestyle habits in Japanese women at 3-4 months postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, A; Yamada, A; Tanabe, R; Noda, S; Nakaoka, K; Oku, Y; Katayama, C; Haraikawa, M; Nakano, H; Harada, M; Uenishi, K; Goseki-Sone, M

    2017-11-01

    The relationships between calcaneal bone mass and dietary/lifestyle habits in women at 3-4 months postpartum were examined in the context of osteoporosis prevention. Cross-sectional survey. We measured bone mass using calcaneal ultrasound in mothers who brought their 3- to 4-month-old babies to healthcare centers in Japan for health examination and administered a self-report questionnaire on physical characteristics and dietary/lifestyle habits to those who agreed to participate in the survey. Valid data were available for 1220 women (valid response rate, 97.5%). Based on their stiffness score, a measure of bone mass, 70.9% (n = 865) of the participants were classified as 'no apparent abnormality (stiffness score ≥78.8)' (low-risk group), 18.2% (n = 222) as 'guidance required (≥70.1-eating habits, such as increased consumption of calcium-rich foods, and prevent osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The association between self-rated eating habits and dietary behavior in two Latino neighborhoods: Findings from Proyecto MercadoFRESCO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mienah Z; Rizzo, Shemra; Marino, Enrique; Belin, Thomas R; Glik, Deborah C; Kuo, Alice A; Ortega, Alexander N; Prelip, Michael L

    2016-06-01

    Latinos are the largest racial and ethnic minority group in the United States and bear a disproportionate burden of obesity related chronic disease. Despite national efforts to improve dietary habits and prevent obesity among Latinos, obesity rates remain high. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between self-rated dietary quality and dietary behavior among Latinos and how this may vary by socio-demographics to help inform future public health efforts aiming to improve eating habits and obesity rates. Cross-sectional study using a series of chi-square tests, the non-parametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test and logistic regression to explore self-rated eating habits. Two urban, low-income, predominantly Latino neighborhoods in Los Angeles County. 1000 adults who self-identified as their household's primary food purchaser and preparer were interviewed from 2012 to 2013. Households were randomly selected based on their proximity to corner stores participating in a project to improve the food environment. Most respondents (59%) report "good" eating habits. Significant associations between "good" eating habits and overall health, fruit and vegetable consumption were observed (p habits are associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among Latinos in two urban neighborhoods. However, there is a need for more targeted health promotion and nutrition education efforts on the risks associated with soda and energy-dense food consumption to help improve dietary habits and obesity levels in low-income Latino communities.

  18. Taking dietary habits into account: A computational method for modeling food choices that goes beyond price.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah Beheshti

    Full Text Available Computational models have gained popularity as a predictive tool for assessing proposed policy changes affecting dietary choice. Specifically, they have been used for modeling dietary changes in response to economic interventions, such as price and income changes. Herein, we present a novel addition to this type of model by incorporating habitual behaviors that drive individuals to maintain or conform to prior eating patterns. We examine our method in a simulated case study of food choice behaviors of low-income adults in the US. We use data from several national datasets, including the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and the USDA, to parameterize our model and develop predictive capabilities in 1 quantifying the influence of prior diet preferences when food budgets are increased and 2 simulating the income elasticities of demand for four food categories. Food budgets can increase because of greater affordability (due to food aid and other nutritional assistance programs, or because of higher income. Our model predictions indicate that low-income adults consume unhealthy diets when they have highly constrained budgets, but that even after budget constraints are relaxed, these unhealthy eating behaviors are maintained. Specifically, diets in this population, before and after changes in food budgets, are characterized by relatively low consumption of fruits and vegetables and high consumption of fat. The model results for income elasticities also show almost no change in consumption of fruit and fat in response to changes in income, which is in agreement with data from the World Bank's International Comparison Program (ICP. Hence, the proposed method can be used in assessing the influences of habitual dietary patterns on the effectiveness of food policies.

  19. Taking dietary habits into account: A computational method for modeling food choices that goes beyond price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Rahmatollah; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Igusa, Takeru

    2017-01-01

    Computational models have gained popularity as a predictive tool for assessing proposed policy changes affecting dietary choice. Specifically, they have been used for modeling dietary changes in response to economic interventions, such as price and income changes. Herein, we present a novel addition to this type of model by incorporating habitual behaviors that drive individuals to maintain or conform to prior eating patterns. We examine our method in a simulated case study of food choice behaviors of low-income adults in the US. We use data from several national datasets, including the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and the USDA, to parameterize our model and develop predictive capabilities in 1) quantifying the influence of prior diet preferences when food budgets are increased and 2) simulating the income elasticities of demand for four food categories. Food budgets can increase because of greater affordability (due to food aid and other nutritional assistance programs), or because of higher income. Our model predictions indicate that low-income adults consume unhealthy diets when they have highly constrained budgets, but that even after budget constraints are relaxed, these unhealthy eating behaviors are maintained. Specifically, diets in this population, before and after changes in food budgets, are characterized by relatively low consumption of fruits and vegetables and high consumption of fat. The model results for income elasticities also show almost no change in consumption of fruit and fat in response to changes in income, which is in agreement with data from the World Bank's International Comparison Program (ICP). Hence, the proposed method can be used in assessing the influences of habitual dietary patterns on the effectiveness of food policies.

  20. Effects of dietary counselling on food habits and dietary intake of Finnish pregnant women at increased risk for gestational diabetes - a secondary analysis of a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Tarja I; Puhkala, Jatta; Raitanen, Jani; Ahonen, Suvi; Aittasalo, Minna; Virtanen, Suvi M; Luoto, Riitta

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing and GDM might be prevented by improving diet. Few interventions have assessed the effects of dietary counselling on dietary intake of pregnant women. This study examined the effects of dietary counselling on food habits and dietary intake of Finnish pregnant women as secondary outcomes of a trial primarily aiming at preventing GDM. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 14 municipalities in Finland, including 399 pregnant women at increased risk for developing GDM. The intervention consisted of dietary counselling focusing on dietary fat, fibre and saccharose intake at four routine maternity clinic visits. Usual counselling practices were continued in the usual care municipalities. A validated 181-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess changes in diet from baseline to 26-28 and 36-37 weeks gestation. The data were analysed using multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models. By 36-37 weeks gestation, the intervention had beneficial effects on total intake of vegetables, fruits and berries (coefficient for between-group difference in change 61.6 g day(-1), 95% confidence interval 25.7-97.6), the proportions of high-fibre bread of all bread (7.2% units, 2.5-11.9), low-fat cheeses of all cheeses (10.7% units, 2.6-18.9) and vegetable fats of all dietary fats (6.1% -units, 2.0-10.3), and the intake of saturated fatty acids (-0.67 energy-%-units, -1.16 to -0.19), polyunsaturated fatty acids (0.38 energy-%-units, 0.18-0.58), linoleic acid (764 mg day(-1), 173-1354) and fibre (2.07 g day(-1) , 0.39-3.75). The intervention improved diet towards the recommendations in pregnant women at increased risk for GDM suggesting the counselling methods could be implemented in maternity care. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. DIETARY HABITS of CHILDREN 5-10 Years old: A Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In developing countries research in nutrition has primarily be focusing on preschool children and women of reproductive age.1,2 A large, multicountry study on the anthropometric status of rural school children in Ghana, Tanzania, Indonesia, Vietnam, and India found a high prevalence of stunting and underweight, ranging from 48% to 56% for stunting and from 34% to 62% for underweight.1 Anemia is estimated to affect 46% of 5- to 12-year-old children in low-income countries, with the highest prevalence in South Asia (50%.2 Because school-age children undergo a period of rapid growth, nutrient deficiencies at this age can lead to retarded growth3, anemia2, reduced immune function4 and impaired motor and cognitive development5, all of which may adversely affect academic performance through reduced learning capacity and poor school attendance6. Nutritional deficiency in children of school going age result from increased micronutrient needs for growth, as well as changes in eating and lifestyle habits arising from increasing independence from the family. During this time, nutritional requirements are high, yet vitamin and mineral intakes tend to be reduced as there is a greater consumption of ‘empty calories’, frequent meal skipping, adoption of inappropriate weight control behavior and decreased vegetable and fruit intake.7,8,9 In spite of the fact that in many countries much is known about the nutritional situation of children and adolescents10-16, less information is available for this age group than for adults, and no data exist on risk factors associated with inadequate intakes in the younger cohort. The quantity and quality of available information is scarce. There is mutual synergistic interrelationship between infections and nutritional status. Poor nutritional status increases the likelihood of acquiring an infectious disease and increased severity of infectious episode whereas infectious disease leads to worsening of

  2. [Effects of dietary habits modifications on selected metabolic parameters during weight loss in obese persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowska, Lucyna; Stefańska, Ewa; Jastrzebska, Marta; Adamska, Edyta; Wujek, Anita; Waszczeniuk, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a serious social problem, one of the most important health issues of the modern world, especially in industrialized countries. Due to the prevalence obesity is a social disease, chronic and also a risk factor for many diseases such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, gall stones or cancers. The aim of the study was to examine and evaluation whether the systematic one-year modifications of dietary habits affect the changes in body weight and some metabolic parameters in obese patients. 30 women and 30 men who declared intentions to decrease body weight were examined. The mean age of women was 48 +/- 12.5 years (range 31-72 years), men 51 +/- 13.2 years (range 23-70 years). The questionnaire survey concerning the subject matter was designed in the Department of Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition, Medical University of Bialystok. At the initial and final visit the frequency of some products consumption were assessed and concentrations of some biochemical parameters in the peripheral blood were measured. Women after one-year dietotherapy significantly reduced the incidence of eating: pasta, fruit and vegetable juices, potatoes, ripening cheese, sugar, meat, bacon and lard, butter and cream, and increased incidence of eating dark bread, groats, rice, vegetables and fruit, cottage cheese, fish and vegetable oils. Men significantly reduced the incidence of eating: pasta, potatoes, ripening cheese, sweet beverages, bacon and lard, margarine, and increased the incidence of eating dark bread, groats, rice, vegetables, cottage cheese and fish. After one year the average body weight decrease was 2.8 +/- 7.1 kg in women and 1.4 +/- 3.2 kg in men. The average reduction in waist circumference was 3.6 +/- 6.5 cm in women and 3.6 +/- 4,8 cm in men. HDL cholesterol levels increased significantly in women and not significantly in men. LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased significantly in both groups. In women systolic blood

  3. Dietary habits, oral impact on daily performance and type 2 diabetes: a matched case-control study from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hasaan G; Mustafa, Kamal; Ibrahim, Salah O; Åstrøm, Anne N

    2017-05-22

    It is evident that social and behavioural factors influence on individuals' general health and quality of life. Nevertheless, information about the influence of dietary habits on oral health-related quality of life is limited; especially among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of this study was to examine the influence of dietary habits and clinical oral health indicators on oral health-related quality of life in individuals with and without T2D. A total of 149 T2D cases and 298 controls were recruited for this age and gender matched case-control study. Questionnaire-guided interviews were conducted to collect data about socio-demographic characteristics, consumption of food items per week (milk, meat, eggs, vegetables, fruits, sweets and bread) and oral impact on daily performance (OIDP). Plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, tooth mobility, decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMFT) and root caries were recorded. Difficulty with eating and sleeping were more frequently reported by T2D cases (23.5% and 16.1%, respectively) than by the controls (10.7% and 5.0%, respectively) (P  0). The corresponding ORs were 1.23 (1.01-4.89) and 2.10 (1.08-4.09), respectively. Participants with low consumption of meat and vegetables were more likely than their counterparts with high consumption to report any oral impact. The corresponding ORs were 0.46 (0.25-0.83) and 0.38 (0.17-0.87), respectively. There was a significant interaction between diabetic status and meat consumption as well as between diabetic status and bread consumption. Oral impacts were more frequently reported in T2D cases than controls. Independent of diabetic- and oral clinical status, dietary habits discriminated between individuals with and without oral impacts. The influence of meat and bread consumption on OIDP varied significantly according to T2D status.

  4. Impact of learning nutrition on medical students: their eating habits, knowledge and confidence in addressing dietary issues of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Shama; Dwivedi, Shraddha; Khan, Maroof A

    2011-12-01

    Nutrition is an important component in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases and is a cornerstone in strategies for disease prevention and health promotion. Despite the acknowledged importance of nutrition, there is evidence to indicate that the nutrition training of medical students is inadequate in both quality and quantity. The study aimed to know the dietary/eating habits of medical students, assess their knowledge on nutrition and to assess their confidence in addressing the dietary issues of patients. It was a cross-sectional study conducted on final year medical students, interns and postgraduate students of Moti Lal Nehru Government Medical College, Allahabad. The sampling was purposive and a total of 218 participated in the study voluntarily. Overall 55% of the students were less knowledgeable and only 45% of them were more knowledgeable. Most (62%) postgraduates were more knowledgeable (p habits. There was no association between their healthy habits and more knowledge (p > 0.340). Only 45.4% of them were confident in assessing the diet of patients and 44% of them were confident in recommending change of diet in patients. However this study shows no association between increase in the level of knowledge and confidence levels of the students (p > 0.339 and p > 0.109) suggesting that we need to incorporate innovative teaching methods to increase their confidence. Most students (79%) said that the medical curriculum was either just enough or not enough in preparing them to deal with the dietary issues of patients and 55% of them were of the opinion that the faculty should be trained in nutrition. The study results intend to stimulate active consideration of proper role of nutrition learning in medical education.

  5. Dietary changes and dietary supplement use, and underlying motives for these habits reported by colorectal cancer survivors of the Patient Reported Outcomes Following Initial Treatment and Long-Term Evaluation of Survivorship (PROFILES) registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bours, M.J.; Beijer, S.; Winkels, R.G.F.; van Duijnhoven, F.J.; Mols, F.; Breedveld-Peters, J.J.; Kampman, E.; Weijenberg, M.P.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to describe dietary changes made post-diagnosis and current dietary supplement use by survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC), and explore the underlying motives for these lifestyle habits. Cross-sectional analyses were performed for 1458 stage I–IV CRC survivors of the

  6. Dietary changes and dietary supplement use, and underlying motives for these habits reported by colorectal cancer survivors of the Patient Reported Outcomes Following Initial Treatment and Long-Term Evaluation of Survivorship (PROFILES) registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bours, M.J.; Beijer, S.; Winkels, R.M.; van Duijnhoven, F.J.; Mols, F.; Breedveld-Peters, J.J.; Kampman, E.; Weijenberg, M.P.; van de Poll-Franse, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to describe dietary changes made post-diagnosis and current dietary supplement use by survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC), and explore the underlying motives for these lifestyle habits. Cross-sectional analyses were performed for 1458 stage I-IV CRC survivors of the

  7. Dietary changes and dietary supplement use, and underlying motives for these habits reported by colorectal cancer survivors of the Patient Reported Outcomes Following Initial Treatment and Long-Term Evaluation of Survivorship (PROFILES) registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bours, Martijn J.; Beijer, Sandra; Winkels, Renate M.; Duijnhoven, van Fränzel; Mols, Floortje; Breedveld-Peters, José J.; Kampman, Ellen; Weijenberg, Matty P.; De Poll-Franse, Van Lonneke V.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to describe dietary changes made post-diagnosis and current dietary supplement use by survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC), and explore the underlying motives for these lifestyle habits. Cross-sectional analyses were performed for 1458 stage I-IV CRC survivors of

  8. The Factors That Influence Dietary Habits among International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakaam, Amir A.; Castellanos, Diana C.; Bodzio, Jessica; Harrison, Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the dietary intake changes and factors related to dietary acculturation in international students attending an urban university in the United States. The researchers administered seven focus groups of college-age international students (n = 32) between June and August 2012. The participants were enrolled in Northeastern and…

  9. Body image, weight management behavior, nutritional knowledge and dietary habits in high school boys in Korea and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Hwajin; Lee, Hongmie; Ro, Yoona; Gray, Heewon L; Song, Kyunghee

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is an important period with rapid physical growth transitioning from childhood to adulthood. Distorted body image can result in eating disorders or inadequate nutrient intakes in adolescence. Limited research has been done with high school boys in both Korea and China. To examine body image, weight control behaviors, nutritional knowledge, and dietary habits in Korean and Chinese teenage boys, and to evaluate any differences in these measures between two countries. High school boys in Yongin of Korea and Weihai region of China (n=201 Korean and n=196 Chinese) participated in a selfreport survey. A previously validated questionnaire assessed height and weight, body image, nutritional knowledge, and dietary habits. Descriptive statistics, t-test, Chi-square, and Pearson correlations were used for data analysis. About 41.4% of Korean students and 40.8% of Chinese students desired to be thinner. The majority of the students from both countries showed a perception gap between ideal body image and current body image. Korean students had a higher frequency of weight control attempts compared with Chinese students (p=0.004). Overall, Korean students had higher scores in nutritional knowledge (ppositive correlation with body shape satisfaction (pbody image among high school boys is important in Korea and China. Different educational strategies might be beneficial to Korean or Chinese students.

  10. [Analysis of food intake and dietary habits in a population of adolescents in the city of Granada (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-Río-Valle, Jacqueline; García-López, Pedro A; García-García, Carmen J

    2013-01-01

    The main research objective was to analyze the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients in a population of adolescents. The purpose of the study was to verify a significant correlation between the habit of breafasting at home each morning and the nutritional status of the sample population. The sample population was composed of 100 adolescents, 12-15 years of age, who attended two public secondary schools in the city of Granada. The study conducted was descriptive, cross-sectional, and multi-centered, and involved a comprehensive evaluation of the nutritional status of the subjects by using anthropometry. The analysis of food intake and dietary habits was based on a 72-hour record of the subjects' food intake. The protocol used had previously been elaborated and validated by the research team. For all subjects, the energy intake was found to be higher than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). The female subjects had a mean protein intake of 16% in regards to total calorific value (TCV). In the case of the male subjects, the mean protein intake was 15%. The mean consumption of fats was 106.1 for the male subjects, whereas for the females, it was 110.4 grams. The females were found to ingest more carbohydrates at a rate of 297.4 grams per day in comparison to the male subjects, whose rate of carbohydrate ingestion was 251 grams per day. The ingestion of minerals varied in both sexes though in all cases it was lower than the RDA. However, the male subjects had a calcium and zinc intake higher than the RDA for these minerals. The vitamin intake was varied and balanced in both male and female subjects, and covered the requirements for both age and sex. Regarding the variable, breakfast, a significant relation was found (p habit of breakfasting at home before going to school and the nutritional status of the students. The results of this study showed that an optimal nutritional and health status requires a balanced food intake and healthy dietary habits. Copyright

  11. A healthy school start - Parental support to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in children: Design and evaluation of a cluster-randomised intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinder Liselotte

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is multi-factorial and determined to a large extent by dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Previous research has shown that school-based programmes are effective but that their effectiveness can be improved by including a parental component. At present, there is a lack of effective parental support programmes for improvement of diet and physical activity and prevention of obesity in children. Methods/Design This paper describes the rationale and design of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in six-year-old children starting school. The study is performed in close collaboration with the school health care and is designed as a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a mixed methods approach. In total, 14 pre-school classes are included from a municipality in Stockholm county where there is large variation in socio-economic status between the families. The school classes are randomised to intervention (n = 7 and control (n = 7 groups including a total of 242 children. The intervention is based on social cognitive theory and consists of three main components: 1 a health information brochure; 2 two motivational interviewing sessions with the parents; and 3 teacher-led classroom activities with the children. The primary outcomes are physical activity in the children measured objectively by accelerometry, children's dietary and physical activity habits measured with a parent-proxy questionnaire and parents' self-efficacy measured by a questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are height, weight and waist circumference in the children. The duration of the intervention is six months and includes baseline, post intervention and six months follow-up measurements. Linear and logistic regression models will be used to analyse differences between intervention and control groups in the outcome variables. Mediator and moderator analysis will be performed

  12. A healthy school start - parental support to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in children: design and evaluation of a cluster-randomised intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Gisela; Sundblom, Elinor; Norman, Asa; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer

    2011-03-25

    Childhood obesity is multi-factorial and determined to a large extent by dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Previous research has shown that school-based programmes are effective but that their effectiveness can be improved by including a parental component. At present, there is a lack of effective parental support programmes for improvement of diet and physical activity and prevention of obesity in children. This paper describes the rationale and design of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in six-year-old children starting school. The study is performed in close collaboration with the school health care and is designed as a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a mixed methods approach. In total, 14 pre-school classes are included from a municipality in Stockholm county where there is large variation in socio-economic status between the families. The school classes are randomised to intervention (n = 7) and control (n = 7) groups including a total of 242 children. The intervention is based on social cognitive theory and consists of three main components: 1) a health information brochure; 2) two motivational interviewing sessions with the parents; and 3) teacher-led classroom activities with the children. The primary outcomes are physical activity in the children measured objectively by accelerometry, children's dietary and physical activity habits measured with a parent-proxy questionnaire and parents' self-efficacy measured by a questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are height, weight and waist circumference in the children. The duration of the intervention is six months and includes baseline, post intervention and six months follow-up measurements. Linear and logistic regression models will be used to analyse differences between intervention and control groups in the outcome variables. Mediator and moderator analysis will be performed. Participants will be interviewed. The results from

  13. Community-based intervention to improve dietary habits and promote physical activity among older adults: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mika; Moriyasu, Ai; Kumagai, Shu; Furuna, Taketo; Akita, Shigeko; Kimura, Shuichi; Suzuki, Takao

    2013-01-23

    The fastest growing age group globally is older adults, and preventing the need for long-term nursing care in this group is important for social and financial reasons. A population approach to diet and physical activity through the use of social services can play an important role in prevention. This study examined the effectiveness of a social health program for community-dwelling older adults aimed at introducing and promoting physical activity in the home at each individual's pace, helping participants maintain good dietary habits by keeping self-check sheets, and determining whether long-standing unhealthy or less-than-ideal physical and dietary habits can be changed. This cluster randomized trial conducted at 6 community centers in an urban community involved 92 community-dwelling older adults aged 65-90 years. The intervention group (3 community centers; n = 57) participated in the social health program "Sumida TAKE10!" which is an educational program incorporating the "TAKE10!® for Older Adults" program, once every 2 weeks for 3 months. The control group (3 community centers; n=35) was subsequently provided with the same program as a crossover intervention group. The main outcome measures were changes in food intake frequency, food frequency score (FFS), dietary variety score (DVS), and frequency of walking and exercise. The secondary outcome measures were changes in self-rated health, appetite, and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG) Index of Competence score. Compared to baseline, post-intervention food intake frequency for 6 of 10 food groups (meat, fish/shellfish, eggs, potatoes, fruits, and seaweed), FFS, and DVS were significantly increased in the intervention group, and interaction effects of FFS and DVS were seen between the two groups. No significant differences were observed between baseline and post-intervention in the control group. Frequency of walking and exercise remained unchanged in both groups, and no

  14. Community-based intervention to improve dietary habits and promote physical activity among older adults: a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Mika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fastest growing age group globally is older adults, and preventing the need for long-term nursing care in this group is important for social and financial reasons. A population approach to diet and physical activity through the use of social services can play an important role in prevention. This study examined the effectiveness of a social health program for community-dwelling older adults aimed at introducing and promoting physical activity in the home at each individual’s pace, helping participants maintain good dietary habits by keeping self-check sheets, and determining whether long-standing unhealthy or less-than-ideal physical and dietary habits can be changed. Method This cluster randomized trial conducted at 6 community centers in an urban community involved 92 community-dwelling older adults aged 65–90 years. The intervention group (3 community centers; n = 57 participated in the social health program “Sumida TAKE10!” which is an educational program incorporating the “TAKE10!® for Older Adults” program, once every 2 weeks for 3 months. The control group (3 community centers; n=35 was subsequently provided with the same program as a crossover intervention group. The main outcome measures were changes in food intake frequency, food frequency score (FFS, dietary variety score (DVS, and frequency of walking and exercise. The secondary outcome measures were changes in self-rated health, appetite, and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG Index of Competence score. Results Compared to baseline, post-intervention food intake frequency for 6 of 10 food groups (meat, fish/shellfish, eggs, potatoes, fruits, and seaweed, FFS, and DVS were significantly increased in the intervention group, and interaction effects of FFS and DVS were seen between the two groups. No significant differences were observed between baseline and post-intervention in the control group. Frequency of walking and

  15. Dietary Habits and Risk of Kidney Function Decline in an Urban Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Miller, Edgar R; Nava, M Berenice; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K; Powe, Neil R; Crews, Deidra C

    2017-01-01

    Explore the association between following a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-accordant diet and kidney end points among urban adults. Prospective cohort study. Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study. A total of 1,534 urban dwelling participants of the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/minute/1.73 m 2 . DASH diet accordance determined via a score based on nine target nutrients. Rapid kidney function decline (eGFR decline >3 mL/minute/1.73 m 2 per year), incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) (follow-up eGFR 25%. Participants' mean age was 48 years, and 59% were African-American. Median DASH score was 1.5 (range, 0-8). Over a median of 5 years, 13.4% experienced rapid eGFR decline, including 15.2% among participants not following a DASH-accordant diet (score ≤1) and 12.0% with higher accordance (score >1) (P = .08). Outcomes varied by hypertension status. In multinomial logistic regression models, following adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical factors, including total energy intake, low DASH diet accordance was associated with rapid eGFR decline among participants with hypertension (risk ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.42) but not among those without hypertension (risk ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.24; P interaction .001). There was no statistically significant association between DASH diet accordance and incident CKD or eGFR decline >25%. Results were similar when DASH diet accordance was analyzed in tertiles. Among urban adults, low accordance to a DASH-type diet was not associated with incident CKD, but was associated with higher risk of rapid eGFR decline among those with hypertension, yet not among those without hypertension. Further study of dietary patterns as a potential target for improving kidney outcomes among high-risk populations is warranted. Copyright © 2016

  16. Diversity of dietary habits in the population as important factor of the regional radioecological sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnikova, I.; Bruk, G.; Shutov, V.

    2001-01-01

    The assessment of the ways and regularities of internal dose formation in the population is impossible without the determination of food consumption habits for the population residing in contaminated areas. Food habits of peoples inhabiting the former Soviet Union differ both due to historical reasons and to religious traditions. Variation of food consumption is an important factor of radio-ecological sensitivity of the population. We try to show this on the example of south-west districts of the Bryansk region contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. In these regions, a set of countermeasures has been applied that strongly deformed traditional food consumption. (orig.)

  17. Oral Candidal Carriage in Subjects with Pure Vegetarian and Mixed Dietary Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Raj, A Thirumal; Sanketh, D S; Sarode, Sachin; Sarode, Gargi

    2017-07-01

    Candida albicans being a part of the normal oral microbial flora is one of the most commonly isolated species from the oral cavity. Recent studies have shown a steady rise in the number of non C. albicans species, which are relatively resistant to common antifungal agents and are being recognized as potential pathogens. It is vital to ascertain the predisposing factors leading to such a shift in the oral candidal flora. To estimate the prevalence of candidal species among vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Clinical data including age, gender, and diet preference of 238 participants were noted. Participants with a history of systemic disorders, oral prosthesis, salivary gland disorders and habits such as smoking, alcoholism, and tobacco usage were excluded from the study. The participants were asked to gargle a 10 ml solution of phosphate buffered saline for one minute before depositing the same in a sterile container. The samples were cultured using Hicrome agar media. Data analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software) version 10.5 and differences between individual groups were tested by Chi-square test. Among 238 samples, 127 (53.3%) samples were positive for Candida . The candidal prevalence in vegetarians (68.5%) was higher than non-vegetarians (40.7%). C. albicans was the most common species to be isolated in both vegetarians (35.1%) and non-vegetarians (39.2%). Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis showed a higher prevalence in vegetarians (30.5% and 10.1%, respectively) in comparison to non-vegetarians (8.4% and 2.3%, respectively). Candida krusei was isolated only from vegetarians (4.6%). Results indicate that diet plays a major role in oral candidal prevalence and species specificity which in turn may predispose the vegetarians toward these pathogenic organisms.

  18. Effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of older adults living alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Park, JeeWon; Kim, Chun-Ja

    2017-09-07

    The effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of 71 older adults living alone were examined. Although a regular dietary meal plan is recommended for improving nutritional status of older adults living alone, little research is done in this field in Korea. A pre- and post-test controlled quasi-experimental design was used at public health centres. The intervention group participated in an intensive nutritional education and support programme once a week for 8 weeks with dietary menus provided by home visiting nurses/dieticians; control group received usual care. Dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were assessed using structured questionnaires; nutritional intake status was analysed using Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program 5.0. The mean age of participants was 77.6 years, and 81.7% of the participants were women. At 8 weeks, there were significant interactions of group by time for dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and selected nutritional status of protein, iron and vitamins of B 2 and C. Changes over time in the mean score of dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were significantly improved in the intervention group compared to the control group. The percentages of normal nutrition intake of protein, iron and vitamins A and C in the intervention group were significantly higher than the control group at 8 weeks. Nutritional education and support programme positively impacted dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and selected nutritional status in older adults living alone, and we highlight the need for community-based nutritional education and counselling programmes. Older adults living alone in a community have relatively poor nutritional status and thus require tailored nutritional intervention according to objective nutritional analysis. It is necessary to link visiting nurses with dieticians in the community to manage effective nutritional

  19. An Investigation of Dietary Supplementation as a Potential Source of Nutrition Misinformation Hindering the Development of Healthy Eating Habits in th College Population

    OpenAIRE

    Dimmick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Current dietary supplement legislation allows nutrition misinformation to flourish; misleading structure‐function and health‐claims now abound on supplement labels. Meanwhile, college students tend to be open to experimentation and exploration. Hence, this study’s objective was to discover if students at USU are being influenced by such claims to unjustifiably take dietary supplements in a manner which hinders the development of healthy eating habits. During August of 2009, 1,300 USU freshmen...

  20. Macro and Micro-Nutrients Intake, Food Groups Consumption and Dietary Habits among Female Students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Azadbakht, L; Esmaillzadeh, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Improving the dietary intake among different groups and population is important for improving the health status. This study determines the nutrients and food group intake as well as dietary habits among female students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Methods Two hundreds and eighty nine healthy female youths who were randomly selected among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran were enrolled. A validated semi quantitative food frequency ques...

  1. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swine industry is under a great deal of pressure to return sows to group housing. However, aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrate. ...

  2. Changing Dietary Habits of Alberta Nutrition Students Enrolled in a Travel Study Program in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawson, Cynthia; Bell, Rhonda C; Farmer, Anna; Downs, Shauna M; Olstad, Dana L; Willows, Noreen D

    2015-06-01

    This study describes dietary changes among university students who completed a travel study program. Seventeen undergraduate nutrition students travelled from Edmonton to Italy for 6 weeks to take 2 courses on the Mediterranean diet. In both locations students completed a 24-h dietary recall and a Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their Mediterranean Diet Quality Index Score (MDQIS). A MDQIS of 48 indicates perfect adherence to eating patterns of the Traditional Healthy Mediterranean Diet Pyramid (THMDP). While in Italy students altered their diets in positive ways (increased consumption of fish and seafood (P = 0.002), wine (P Students had a significant increase in the percentage of energy from polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and alcohol. The MDQIS was low in Edmonton (21.9 ± 3.7) and Italy (22.9 ± 3.9). The overall dietary pattern of students did not adhere to the THMDP. Education about the THMDP and living in Italy for 6 weeks was insufficient to change students' dietary patterns to one characterized as traditional Mediterranean. The findings highlight the challenges of implementing dietary changes even with nutrition education and increased food access.

  3. A survey of dietary intake habits and nutritional status in women aged 60-90 years suffering from sleep disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna; Fugiel, Joanna; Salmanowicz, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Disturbances to the rhythms of the sleep-wake cycle adversely impact the quality of everyday living. Amongst those factors predisposing, causing and consolidating sleeping disorders are inappropriate nutrition and its effect on nutritional status To survey by questionnaire the nutritional status and habits in women aged 60-90 years suffering from sleeping disorders Subjects were 141 women aged 60-90 years, attending lectures at the Szczecin Humanistic University for Seniors, of whom 110 (78%) were selected as having declared sleep disorders. Three age groups were established, of 60-65 years (n=39), 65-75 years (n=52) and above 75 years (n=19). Anthropometric measurements were performed (body mass and height) and the BMI (Body Mass Index) calculated. Calorific/energy and nutritional values of the daily dietary intakes were assessed in 330 meals using the PDCAAS calculation (Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score). Subjects had previously undergone a two-month pro-health nutrition course Daily sleeping disorders were declared by 24.5% women, whilst 45.4% demonstrated inappropriate nutrition. Daily dietary intakes showed insufficiencies in the following: calories, consuming assimilative carbohydrates, cellulose, potassium, calcium, vitamin D3 and water. Simultaneously, excessive intake of Na, P, Fe, Zn, Cu and vitamins: A, B2, B6, B12, niacin and C were found. The smallest quantity of nutritious foodstuffs were consumed by the eldest women (significance of p ≤0.05). The share of protein-derived calories was significantly the highest in the 66-75 age group (p ≤0.01). Leucine was the amino acid that limited the biological value of consumed protein. Such dietary faults/errors were due to an inappropriate structure of foodstuff consumption The dietary intake habits of women in all the age groups were found to be unbalanced in terms of calories and nutritional value, which may affect neurotransmitter synthesis that regulates the sleep and wake cycle along

  4. Relative Contribution of Obesity, Sedentary Behaviors and Dietary Habits to Sleep Duration Among Kuwaiti Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haifi, Ahmad A; AlMajed, Hana Th; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Arab, Mariam A; Hasan, Rasha A

    2015-05-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI), eating habits and sedentary behaviours were associated with sleep duration among Kuwaiti adolescents. The study is part of the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS), which is a school-based cross-sectional multi-center collaborative study. A sample of 906 adolescents (boys and girls) aged 14-19 years was randomly selected from 6 Kuwaiti Governances using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. The findings revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 50.5% in boys and 46.5% in girls. The majority of boys (76%) and of girls (74%) fell into the short sleep duration category (6 hours/day or less). Sleep duration were found to be negatively associated with BMI (girls only). Watching television (boys and girls) and working on computers (boys only) were also negatively associated with sleep duration. While the consumption of breakfast (both genders) and milk (boys only) was positively associated with sleep duration (pgenders), sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets (boys only) potatoes (girls only) were negatively associated with sleep duration (peating habits and more sedentary behaviors. The findings also suggest gender differences in these associations. Therefore, adequate sleep is an important modifiable risk factor to prevent obesity and was positively associated with some unhealthy lifestyle habits.

  5. Religiosity, dietary habit, intake of fruit and vegetable, and vegetarian status among Seventh-Day Adventists in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Min-Min; Chan, Carina K Y; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-08-01

    Religion has been shown to be salutary on health, and a possible link between religion and positive health outcomes is diet. Research has shown that religiosity is associated with better diet but most studies were conducted in a multi-denominational context, which might be confounded with theological differences. This study examined the relationship between religiosity and diet within a homogenous group of believers. Data from survey of 574 Seventh-Day Adventists residing in West Malaysia, aged 18-80, were analyzed using multiple regressions. While none of the religious variables were significantly associated with fruit and vegetable intake, a higher level of religiosity was associated with a better dietary habit and vegetarian status. The mixed relationship between religiosity and diet suggest that further research is needed to explore how religion might influence the diet of adherents.

  6. Differences in lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofan; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Yang; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Zhou, Xinghu; Zhang, Xingang; Sun, Zhaoqing; Sun, Yingxian

    2012-10-02

    Pediatric obesity has become a global public health problem. Data on the lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors of overweight and obese children and adolescents are limited. The present study aims to compare health-related factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisted of 4262 children and adolescents aged 5-18 years old from rural areas of the northeast China. Anthropometric measurements and self-reported information on health-related variables, such as physical activities, sleep duration, dietary habits, family income, and recognition of weight status from the views of both children and parents, were collected by trained personnel. The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 15.3 and 6.4%, respectively. Compared to girls, boys were more commonly overweight (17.5% vs. 12.9%) and obese (9.5% vs. 3.1%). Approximately half of the parents with an overweight or obese child reported that they failed to recognize their child's excess weight status, and 65% of patients with an overweight child reported that they would not take measures to decrease their child's body weight. Obese children and adolescents were more likely to be nonsnackers [odds ratio (OR): 1.348; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.039-1.748] and to have a family income of 2000 CNY or more per month (OR: 1.442; 95% CI: 1.045-1.99) and less likely to sleep longer (≥7.5 h) (OR: 0.475; 95% CI: 0.31-0.728) than the normal-weight participants. Our study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large Chinese pediatric population. Differences in sleep duration, snacking, family income, and parental recognition of children's weight status among participants in different weight categories were observed, which should be considered when planning prevention and treatment programs for pediatric obesity.

  7. Diets/dietary habits and certain gastrointestinal disorders in the tropics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of these factors contain chemical carcinogens, irritants as additives or preservatives, high cholesterol, highly spiced foods, alcohol, nicotine, xanthines, caffeine, most of which provoke gastric acid secretions dyspepsia and heartburn, and they lack vegetables and dietary fibres known to protect the G.I tract against ...

  8. The impact of a population-based multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on changes in long-term dietary habits The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, U.; Kristoffersen, L.; Ladelund, S.

    2008-01-01

    group (n=3 324) was followed by questionnaires. Dietary habits were measured by a validated 48-item food frequency questionnaire and changes were analyzed by multilevel analyses. RESULTS: At the 5-year follow-up the intervention group compared to the control group had significantly increased...

  9. LEARNING AS A TOOL FOR CANCER PREVENTION THROUGH THE ACQUISITION OF NEW DIETARY HABITS AND BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Brito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to promote knowledge of health entails, in part, by encouraging healthy eating habits. The creation of popular science materials, especially at schools, by promoting guidance for the eating habits is presented as an important tool. Foods that contain bioactive compounds are called nutraceutical foods and about 35% of various cancers occur due to inadequate diets. Conventional therapies are used in the treatment of cancer, even though they are efficient in fighting tumors, to cause many harmful effects to the patient, and therefore the researches for alternative therapies have increased. Especially those act strengthening the immunologic system. The mushrooms are able to modulate carcinogenesis in all stages of the disease through different mechanisms of action of the bioactive compounds, thus having an antitumor effect that is assigned to restore and improve the immune response through stimulation of cellular immunity which are present polysaccharides the composition of the mushrooms, such as beta-glucans that besides the anticancer effect, it still has activity as immunostimulant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, which are already used in Japan as drugs for treating cancer patients. The aim of this work was to use learning as a tool for acquiring habits and eating behaviors in the general community and ownership and acquisition of knowledge about the antitumor potential of bioactive compounds in foods which are applied in cancer prevention through the scientific dissemination / education. Because it is a popular science work using written material and the dissemination of the material make for yourself the methodology used for the dissemination of scientific knowledge. Thus, the inclusion of consumption of mushrooms in the diet may represent an important step in the cancer prevention as the best form of prevention, and therefore it shows the need for available information to everyone, as it has proposed this work, disclosure.

  10. [Assessment of dietary habits in students of the Medical University of Bialystok with differentiated nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańiska, Ewa; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Sajewicz, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The research was conducted into 360 students of Medical University in Bialystok with differentiated nutritional status. The study involved 251 female students (46 with underweight, 186 with normal weight, 19 with excessive body weight) and 69 male students (7 with underweight, 47 with normal weight, 15 with excessive body weight). The quantity analyze of daily food rations was conducted on the base of the previous day 24 h dietary recall method. The computer program Diet 2.0 designed in the Institute of Food and Nutrition in Warsaw was used for calculations. Energetic value and basic nutrients supply was estimated and also the average content of dietary fiber and cholesterol. The results of the conducted research indicate lack ofbalanced content ofessential nutrients in daily food rations of the tested students of both sexes, irrespective of nutritional status. Energy supply was far too low comparing to recommended standards. It was proved that carbohydrate and fat supply was definitely lower than recommended standards. The research also showed low consumption of dietary fiber in all investigated groups and high consumption of cholesterol in men.

  11. Relative Contribution of Obesity, Sedentary Behaviors and Dietary Habits to Sleep Duration Among Kuwaiti Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haifi, Ahmad A.; AlMajed, Hana Th.; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Arab, Mariam A.; Hasan, Rasha A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI), eating habits and sedentary behaviours were associated with sleep duration among Kuwaiti adolescents. The study is part of the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS), which is a school-based cross-sectional multi-center collaborative study. A sample of 906 adolescents (boys and girls) aged 14-19 years was randomly selected from 6 Kuwaiti Governances using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. The findings revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 50.5% in boys and 46.5% in girls. The majority of boys (76%) and of girls (74%) fell into the short sleep duration category (6 hours/day or less). Sleep duration were found to be negatively associated with BMI (girls only). Watching television (boys and girls) and working on computers (boys only) were also negatively associated with sleep duration. While the consumption of breakfast (both genders) and milk (boys only) was positively associated with sleep duration (pfoods (both genders), sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets (boys only) potatoes (girls only) were negatively associated with sleep duration (phabits and more sedentary behaviors. The findings also suggest gender differences in these associations. Therefore, adequate sleep is an important modifiable risk factor to prevent obesity and was positively associated with some unhealthy lifestyle habits. PMID:26234983

  12. Relationship of Social Cognitive Theory Concepts to Dietary Habits of Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkan, Nasrin; Kazemi, Ashraf; Paknahad, Zamzam; Bahadoran, Parvin

    2018-01-01

    Background: Nutrition during pregnancy is undoubtedly one of the most important factors affecting maternal health. In this regard, considering the cognitive-behavioral factors associated with feeding, behaviors will play an important role in the effectiveness of interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the correlation between food habits and structures of social cognitive theory in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 192 pregnant women were randomly selected. Data were collected using a questionnaire based on the social cognitive theory structures and food habits questionnaire in the questioning manner and was also analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression with the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 19. Results: There was a significant correlation between nutritional behavior with self-regulation (p = 0.001), self-efficacy (p = 0.001), outcome expectations (p = 0.001), social support (p = 0.002), and access (p = 0.001). A significant correlation was observed between lack of consumption of unnecessary and unhelpful food with self-regulation (p = 0.02). In the multivariable regression analysis, only self-regulation revealed significant and direct contribution in relation to nutritional behavior (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Results of this study showed that self-regulation is one of the important factors associated with feeding behavior in pregnant women so that it is suggested to be considered in nutritional interventions in order to improve nutritional behavior. PMID:29628960

  13. Relationship of Social Cognitive Theory Concepts to Dietary Habits of Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkan, Nasrin; Kazemi, Ashraf; Paknahad, Zamzam; Bahadoran, Parvin

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy is undoubtedly one of the most important factors affecting maternal health. In this regard, considering the cognitive-behavioral factors associated with feeding, behaviors will play an important role in the effectiveness of interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the correlation between food habits and structures of social cognitive theory in pregnant women. In this cross-sectional study, 192 pregnant women were randomly selected. Data were collected using a questionnaire based on the social cognitive theory structures and food habits questionnaire in the questioning manner and was also analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression with the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 19. There was a significant correlation between nutritional behavior with self-regulation ( p = 0.001), self-efficacy ( p = 0.001), outcome expectations ( p = 0.001), social support ( p = 0.002), and access ( p = 0.001). A significant correlation was observed between lack of consumption of unnecessary and unhelpful food with self-regulation ( p = 0.02). In the multivariable regression analysis, only self-regulation revealed significant and direct contribution in relation to nutritional behavior ( p < 0.001). Results of this study showed that self-regulation is one of the important factors associated with feeding behavior in pregnant women so that it is suggested to be considered in nutritional interventions in order to improve nutritional behavior.

  14. Relationship of social cognitive theory concepts to dietary habits of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Torkan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutrition during pregnancy is undoubtedly one of the most important factors affecting maternal health. In this regard, considering the cognitive-behavioral factors associated with feeding, behaviors will play an important role in the effectiveness of interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the correlation between food habits and structures of social cognitive theory in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 192 pregnant women were randomly selected. Data were collected using a questionnaire based on the social cognitive theory structures and food habits questionnaire in the questioning manner and was also analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression with the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 19. Results: There was a significant correlation between nutritional behavior with self-regulation (p = 0.001, self-efficacy (p = 0.001, outcome expectations (p = 0.001, social support (p = 0.002, and access (p = 0.001. A significant correlation was observed between lack of consumption of unnecessary and unhelpful food with self-regulation (p = 0.02. In the multivariable regression analysis, only self-regulation revealed significant and direct contribution in relation to nutritional behavior (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Results of this study showed that self-regulation is one of the important factors associated with feeding behavior in pregnant women so that it is suggested to be considered in nutritional interventions in order to improve nutritional behavior.

  15. Dietary habits among health professionals working in a district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyabonga H. Kunene

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The study showed poor eating habits among participants. Urgent health interventions are therefore indicated to highlight the importance of healthy eating habits among the entire population.

  16. Effect of meals with milk on body iron stores and improvement of dietary habit during weight loss in female rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Yukari; Ishizaki, Sakuko; Sasamoto, Shigeko; Katoh, Youko; Kobayashi, Shuhei

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of different timings of milk intake on body iron stores and improvement in the dietary habit of female collegiate rhythmic gymnasts. Subjects took iron tablets at both breakfast and dinner times during a weight-loss period. In addition, subjects ingested low-fat milk twice a day either at breakfast or dinner (group I; n = 7), or between meals (group II; n = 6) for 3 mo. Blood was collected four times. Red blood cell count, hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin and erythropoietin concentrations were measured. Subjects completed a dietary survey for three consecutive days before each blood sampling. The mean body fat in both groups I and II was significantly lower after 3 mo than at the start of the study (p meals. In conclusion, iron-supplemented meals via milk ingestion did not decrease body iron stores and maintained higher body iron stores compared to a diet that included milk intake between meals. Further, milk intake with meals is related to keeping regular meal times and frequency.

  17. Diet quality: associations with health messages included in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, personal attitudes and social factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Groth, Margit Velsing; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    used to explore the independent effects of energy intake, leisure-time physical activity, food variety, BMI, age, gender, education, household income, location of residence and intention to eat healthily on the likelihood to have high diet quality measured by an index based on the intake of dietary...... with healthy eating. The dietary habits reported were strongly influenced by personal intentions. Thus, the biggest challenge for public health nutritionists will be to reach non-compliers who seldom have intentions to eat healthily.......Objective: To Study the association between diet quality and the new health messages in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, i.e. 'Eat a varied diet', 'Engage in regular physical activity' and 'Maintain a healthy body weight'. Design/setting/subjects: The study was cross-sectional, comprising...

  18. Dietary changes and dietary supplement use, and underlying motives for these habits reported by colorectal cancer survivors of the Patient Reported Outcomes Following Initial Treatment and Long-Term Evaluation of Survivorship (PROFILES) registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bours, Martijn J; Beijer, Sandra; Winkels, Renate M; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J; Mols, Floortje; Breedveld-Peters, José J; Kampman, Ellen; Weijenberg, Matty P; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we aimed to describe dietary changes made post-diagnosis and current dietary supplement use by survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC), and explore the underlying motives for these lifestyle habits. Cross-sectional analyses were performed for 1458 stage I-IV CRC survivors of the Patient Reported Outcomes Following Initial Treatment and Long-Term Evaluation of Survivorship (PROFILES) registry, diagnosed between 2000 and 2009. Lifestyle, sociodemographic and clinical information was collected. Prevalence of and motivations for dietary changes and supplement use were assessed. Associations between lifestyle, sociodemographic and clinical variables were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. CRC survivors (57% male) were on average 70 (SD 9) years of age and diagnosed 7 (SD 3) years ago. Dietary changes post-diagnosis were reported by 36% of the survivors and current supplement use by 32%. Motivations for dietary changes were mostly cancer-related (44% reported 'prevention of cancer recurrence' as the main reason), while motivations for supplement use were less frequently related to the cancer experience (38% reported 'to improve health and prevent disease in general' as the main reason). Dietary changes were significantly associated with dietary supplement use (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.1). Survivors who had received dietary advice, were non-smokers, under 65 years of age, and had no stoma were more likely to have changed their diet. Survivors who were female, had multiple co-morbidities, and no overweight or obesity were more likely to use supplements. In conclusion, many CRC survivors alter their diet post-diagnosis and use dietary supplements, in part for different reasons. Insights into motivations behind these lifestyle habits and characteristics of CRC survivors adopting these habits can improve the tailoring of lifestyle counselling strategies.

  19. Breast cancer and smoking, vodka drinking and dietary habits. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlega, J

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between cigarette smoking, vodka drinking and consumption of 44 food items typical of the Polish diet were analysed in a case-control study in Cracow, Poland, among 127 cases of breast cancer and 250 controls randomly selected from the general population. Cigarette smoking was not significantly influencing the breast cancer risk. Compared with never-drinkers, the habit of vodka drinking 20 years earlier significantly increased breast cancer risk in women below 50 years of age (multivariate OR was 4.4 with 95% CI 1.6-12.4). Frequent consumption of boiled vegetables 20 years earlier (greater than 3 times per week) was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer in women aged 50 years and more (multivariate OR was 0.4 with 95% CI 0.2-0.8).

  20. Dietary habits, ethanol and tobacco consumption as predictive factors in the development of esophageal carcinoma in patients with head and neck neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A R A L; Hashimoto, C L; Iriya, K; Zerbini, C; Baba, E R; Moraes-Filho, J P P

    2008-01-01

    Patients with primary head and neck cancers have a higher risk of developing esophageal cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate esophageal cancer prevalence, its risk factors (ethanol and tobacco consumption) and dietary habits in patients with head and neck cancer. Three hundred and twenty-six adults with primary head and neck cancer were followed by a retrospective observational study in a general university hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Flexible videoendoscopy with lugol chromoscopy was the method used to investigate esophageal cancer prevalence. All subjects were interviewed face-to-face, revealing detailed information about their tobacco and alcohol use, as well as their dietary habits. Thirty-six patients with esophageal cancer were diagnosed and the overall prevalence rate was 11.04%. Patients who developed second esophageal tumors had the following characteristics: earlier age of initial ethanol consumption (P habits in patients who developed esophageal neoplasms, compared with those who did not. Prevalence rate of esophageal neoplasms was 11.04% in patients with head and neck carcinoma, whose ethanol consumption was associated with esophageal cancer. There was an increased risk between ethanol and tobacco consumption and esophageal carcinoma development. On the other hand, there was no association regarding dietary habits between patients who developed esophageal cancer and those who did not.

  1. Dietary Habits of Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Variety and Frequency of Food Intake

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    Senadheera Pathirannehelage Anuruddhika Subhashinie Senadheera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to observe the dietary patterns and food frequencies of type 2 diabetes patients attending the clinics of the Family Practice Center of the University of Sri Jayewardenepura, located in a highly urbanized area in Sri Lanka. An interviewer administered questionnaire based cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 100 type 2 diabetes patients [age 35–70 years; mean age 55±9 (males = 44; females = 56]. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 18.0 software. Vegetables, fatty foods, and poultry consumption were in accordance with the national guidelines. A significant percentage (45.5% consumed rice mixed meals for all three meals and only 67% consumed fruits at least once a day. Majority (71% consumed full-cream milk and sugar intake (77% was in accordance with the guidelines. Noncaloric sweetener usage was nonexistent. Daily green leafy vegetable intake and the quantity consumed were inadequate to obtain beneficial effects. From the study population, 44% [females 50%; males 36%] of the patients were either overweight or obese. However, only 60% of those patients accepted that they were either overweight or obese. Only 14% exercised daily while 69% never exercised. Study revealed the importance of educating patients with type 2 diabetes on dietary changes and more importantly the involvement in regular physical exercises.

  2. Prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to dietary habits, in Greek adults; a national nutrition & health survey

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    Panagopoulos George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strong causal role of hypercholesterolaemia on the progression of atherosclerosis and subsequently on the development of cardiovascular disease is well described. Main aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to nutritional habits, in a representative nationwide sample of adult Greek population. Methods Cross sectional survey. Based on a multistage sampling, 5003 adults (18 – 74 yr were enrolled (men: 48.8%, women: 51.2%. All participants were interviewed by trained personnel who used a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle habits and nutritional assessment. Results The prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia was 16.4% in men and 21.8% in women (P Conclusion Hypercholesterolaemia seems to affect a large part of Greek population. It is hopeful that hypercholesterolaemics may have started adopting some more healthy nutritional behaviour compared to normocholesterolaemic ones.

  3. Changes in dietary habits after migration and consequences for health: a focus on South Asians in Europe

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    Gerd Holmboe-Ottesen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immigrants from low-income countries comprise an increasing proportion of the population in Europe. Higher prevalence of obesity and nutrition related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD is found in some immigrant groups, especially in South Asians. Aim: To review dietary changes after migration and discuss the implication for health and prevention among immigrants from low-income countries to Europe, with a special focus on South Asians. Method: Systematic searches in PubMed were performed to identify relevant high quality review articles and primary research papers. The searches were limited to major immigrant groups in Europe, including those from South Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka. Articles in English from 1990 and onwards from Europe were included. For health implications, recent review articles and studies of particular relevance to dietary changes among South Asian migrants in Europe were chosen. Results: Most studies report on dietary changes and health consequences in South Asians. The picture of dietary change is complex, depending on a variety of factors related to country of origin, urban/rural residence, socio-economic and cultural factors and situation in host country. However, the main dietary trend after migration is a substantial increase in energy and fat intake, a reduction in carbohydrates and a switch from whole grains and pulses to more refined sources of carbohydrates, resulting in a low intake of fiber. The data also indicate an increase in intake of meat and dairy foods. Some groups have also reduced their vegetable intake. The findings suggest that these dietary changes may all have contributed to higher risk of obesity, T2D and CVD. Implications for prevention: A first priority in prevention should be adoption of a low-energy density – high fiber diet, rich in whole grains and grain products, as well as fruits, vegetables and pulses. Furthermore

  4. The impact of dietary and tooth-brushing habits to dental caries of special school children with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Chun-Chih; Hu, Wen-Chia; Tang, Ru-Ching; Chen, Cheng-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te

    2010-01-01

    The daily oral activities may severely influence oral health of children with disabilities. In this survey, we analyzed the impact of dietary and tooth-brushing habits to dental caries in special school children with disabilities. This cross-sectional survey investigated 535 special school children with disabilities aged 6-12 years, 60.93% males, 39.07% females from 10 special schools in Taiwan. Oral examinations were carried out by dentists with a Kappa score of their inter-examiner agreement exceeding 0.8. Data on demographics, diet, and tooth-brushing habits of children with disabilities were collected using a standardized questionnaire completed by parents/caregivers. More than three quarters of the participants were combined with severe or profound disability. Children with profound severity in disability had a higher percentage (67.37%) in teeth-brushing by parents/caregivers compared to those children with mild/moderate severity in disability which had a higher percentage (81.60%) in teeth-brushing by themselves. Children whose teeth were brushed by parents/caregivers had a better dental health, and lower caries prevalence. The main risk factors related to decayed teeth of children with disabilities are frequency of sweets intake, ability to brush teeth and with plaque or not. The dental health education, prevention program and periodical oral check-up to children with disabilities and their parents/caregivers should be reinforced. Brushing skill should be taught to children according to their type, severity and individual characteristics of disability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary habits in three Central and Eastern European countries: the HAPIEE study

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    Gilis-Januszewska Aleksandra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high cardiovascular mortality in Eastern Europe has often been attributed to poor diet, but individual-level data on nutrition in the region are generally not available. This paper describes the methods of dietary assessment and presents preliminary findings on food and nutrient intakes in large general population samples in Russia, Poland and the Czech Republic. Methods The HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe study examined random samples of men and women aged 45-69 years at baseline in Novosibirsk (Russia, Krakow (Poland and six Czech urban centres in 2002-2005. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (at least 136 items; complete dietary information was available for 26,870 persons. Results Total energy intakes among men ranged between 8.7 MJ in the Czech sample and 11.7 MJ in the Russian sample, while among women, energy intakes ranged between 8.2 MJ in the Czech sample and 9.8 MJ in the Russian sample. A Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI, ranging from a score of 0 (lowest to 7 (highest, was developed using the World Health Organisation's (WHO guidelines for the prevention of chronic diseases. The mean HDI scores were low, ranging from 1.0 (SD = 0.7 among the Polish subjects to 1.7 (SD = 0.8 among the Czech females. Very few subjects met the WHO recommended intakes for complex carbohydrates, pulses or nuts; intakes of saturated fatty acids, sugar and protein were too high. Only 16% of Polish subjects met the WHO recommendation for polyunsaturated fat intake. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was lower than recommended, especially among those Russian subjects who were assessed during the low intake season. Fewer than 65% of subjects consumed adequate amounts of calcium, magnesium and potassium, when compared with the United Kingdom's Reference Nutrient Intake. Conclusion This first large scale study of individual-based dietary intakes in the general population in Eastern

  6. Dramatic effect on Selenium concentration in blood serum due to the difference between the Hungarian and Indian dietary habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuecs, Z.; Lahiri, S.; Andrasi, D.; Kovacs, B.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The importance of Selenium as trace element in animals, as well as in humans is well known. The deficiency of Selenium was observed in case of several heavy or fatal clinical events such as high infant mortality, premature, malformations and even prostate cancer. Hungary is in the top of their worldwide statistic with parallel of the low concentration of Selenium in soil as well as in food. The direct correlation can explain in Venezuela, where the prostate cancer is 'unknown disease'. The concentration of Selenium in India is higher than the worldwide level. Under the scientific bilateral cooperation 'Speciation dependent studies on physicochemical behavior of some elements in trace scale in natural and synthetic system' the Selenium was determined in human blood serum from the group of Hungarian and group of Indian patients. The samples were given in same time from each group. The main goal of the study was explain the effect of the traditional dietary habit for the level of Selenium. Therefore the samples were taken from the visiting scientist just arrived to the host institute as well as from the host scientists too. After 2 weeks stay the sampling was repeated, when the guest scientists eat the same food as the host scientists. The measurements were done in Thermo-2 ICP-MS from blood-serum separated by centrifuge. The results are summarized in Table 1. Dramatic effect was found for the level of Selenium in blood serum. As it was expected the Hungarian samples showed low concentration of Selenium in starting of the visit, as well as the high concentration was found in Indian sample, comparing to the Hungarian sample. After two weeks the Hungarian sample showed much higher concentration, however it was still less, than in Indian sample. Similar effect was found during the visit the Indian scientists in Hungary, however their Selenium concentration decreased not so spectacular due to the Selenium 'store' in body. The general

  7. Dietary habits of Serbian preschool and schoolchildren with regard to food of animal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, V.; Šarčević, D.; Glišić, M.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to explore attitudes and habits of Serbian preschool and school children in consumption of meat products, milk and milk products, eggs and egg products and honey and bee products. The survey was conducted on a sample of 227 children, divided into three different age groups: preschool (ages 4-6), primary school I-IV grade (ages 7-11) and primary school V-VIII grade (ages 12-15). The results showed that all examined groups of children consumed meat products, milk and milk products, eggs and egg products, and honey and bee products. In all groups of children, the most frequently consumed food (among our food category choices) was dried ham (consumed by 19.64% of preschool children; 23.75% of schoolchildren from I-IV grade; 19.74% of schoolchildren from V-VIII grade). Fewer preschool children consumed sterilized milk compared to children of school age. The results showed that in all three groups of children, the most commonly consumed milk products were yoghurt (from 12.20 to 15.29% of children consumed these) and sour cream (from 11.57 to 12.74% of children consumed this), while kefir was the least-consumed product. In addition, there was no difference in consumption of boiled or fried eggs in the examined groups of children, while the consumption of egg products (mayonnaise) was higher in the group of preschool children than in the group of schoolchildren from V-VIII grade. Preschool children consumed honey 14.99% more often than schoolchildren from I-IV grade, and 14.49% more often than did schoolchildren from grade V-VIII.

  8. Relationship between Dietary and Other Lifestyle Habits and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Men

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    Katano Sayuri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of men with cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF is increasing in Japan. Few studies have comprehensively examined the relation between lifestyles and CMRF. Methods We examined the baseline data from 3,498 male workers ages 19 to 69 years who participated in the high-risk and population strategy for occupational health promotion (HIPOP-OHP study at 12 large-scale companies throughout Japan. The physical activity of each participant was classified according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Dietary intake was surveyed by a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. We defined four CMRF in this study as follows: 1 high blood pressure (BP: systolic BP ≥ 130 mmHg, or diastolic BP ≥ 85 mmHg, or the use of antihypertensive drugs; 2 dyslipidemia: high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration 2. Results Those who had 0 to 4 CMRF accounted for 1,597 (45.7%, 1,032 (29.5%, 587 (16.8%, 236 (6.7%, and 44 (1.3% participants, respectively, in the Poisson distribution. Poisson regression analysis revealed that independent factors that contributed to the number of CMRF were age (b = 0.020, P Conclusions Alcohol intake, percent protein and total energy intake were positively associated, whereas drinking frequency and IPAQ were inversely associated, with the number of CMRF.

  9. Effects of food allergy on the dietary habits and intake of primary schools' Cypriot children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulou, E; Christoforou, C; Andreou, E; Heraclides, A

    2017-07-01

    Aim. To determine whether food allergy affects overall dietary intake and food choices in Cypriot primary school children. Methods. As part of the first epidemiological study in Cyprus on food allergy in primary school children, two 24-hour recalls (one from a week and one from a weekend day) of twenty-eight food allergic children (21 girls) and thirty healthy children (20 girls) aged 6-11 years old, were analysed and compared regarding their macro- and micronutrient content, food choices and meal distribution. Results. Significant differences between the two subgroups of children were estimated regarding the total energy intake and macronutrients, where food allergic children were found to consume in lower quantities, as well as for calcium, niacin, fiber and vitamin E. Food allergic children were also found to avoid combining foods from the various food groups in their meals, and to prefer specific food products from each category, whereas they consumed higher amounts of sugar and fructose. Conclusion. Food allergy in Cypriot food allergic children impacts on both the quality and quantity of food choices, probably due to lack of nutritional education regarding proper elimination diet and alternative nutrient sources.

  10. Obesity, Dietary Habits, and Sedentary Behaviors Among Adolescents in Sudan: Alarming Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases in a Poor Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Nabag, Fatima O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity, dietary habits, and sedentary patterns among Sudanese adolescents. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 945 adolescents (507 males and 438 females) aged 14 to 18 years, from Khartoum State, Sudan. A self-reported pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Overweight and obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force standard, which is based on body mass index for sex and age. Overweight and obesity were growing problems among urban Sudanese adolescents (10.7%). Breakfast was commonly consumed on a daily basis by the majority of adolescents (74.2%), followed by lunch (63.9%) and supper (33.5%). Snacking was not a common practice among these individuals. Vegetables (63.9%) were more frequently consumed (more than 3 days per week) than fruit (30.1%). There were significant differences between genders regarding intake of vegetables (P adolescents in Sudan. This creates the need for immediate action to prevent and control these risk factors before these diseases become major public health problems. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Diet and dietary habits of the fish Schilbe mystus (Siluriformes: Schilbeidae in two artificial lakes in Southwestern Nigeria

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    Adedolapo Ayoade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet and dietary habits of African Butter Catfish Schilbe mystus (Linne, 1766, an economically important fish in Oyan and Asejire lakes (Southwest Nigeria were examined between July 2000 and December 2001. Stomach contents were analysed using the numerical, frequency of occurrence and points methods. The fish is predatory but the diet differs among lakes and seasons. Insects were more important in the diet of small (La dieta y los hábitos alimenticios de Schilbe mystus (Linne, 1766, un pez de importancia comercial en los lagos de Oyan y Asejire (Nigeria, fueron examinados desde diciembre del 2000 a diciembre del 2001. Se realizaron análisis de contenido estomacal utilizando métodos numéricos, de frecuencia de presencia y puntuales. Existe variación estacional en los organismos seleccionados para alimento y los insectos son más importantes para peces pequeños (<18 cm. También hay diferencias en la cantidad de alimento encontrado en los estómagos de machos con respecto a las hembras de S. mystus en ambos hábitats. El patrón de selección y consumo de alimento en estas especies es distinto en los dos lagos.

  12. Dietary habits, physical activity and diabetes perception among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tabuk City, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mountashiri, Nadiyah Abdullah; Al-Zhrani, Amal Mohammad; Ibrahim, Shereen Fawzy Hafez; Mirghani, Hyder Othman

    2017-09-01

    Medical nutritional therapy is an important aspect of diabetes care, there is an increasing awareness of breakfast skipping, late dinner and meal contents on diabetes control. To assess dietary habits, physical activity and diabetes perception among patients with type 2 diabetes. This case-control study was conducted among patients with diabetes mellitus at the diabetes center in Tabuk City, Saudi Arabia during the period from March through June 2017. One hundred patients with type 2 diabetes and 150 control subjects were interviewed to collect demographic data regarding, breakfast skipping, late dinner intake, and fruit, vegetables, sweet food, and fast food consumption. Diabetic patients' perception of their disease was also assessed. (If diabetes is serious, it can be prevented and reversible). Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 using Chi-square and independent-samples t-test. In the present study, body mass index (BMI) (pfast food consumption (pdiabetes compared to controls. No differences were found regarding the level of exercise, smoking, late dinner intake and diabetes perception. A significant statistical difference was observed between poor and accepted control regarding sweet food intake (p=0.046) and exercise (p=0.017). Patients with type 2 diabetes had higher BMI, and were more likely to skip breakfast, consume less fast food and more fruits than control subjects. More physical activity and less sweet food consumption was observed among patients with accepted glycemic control.

  13. Broad geographic, taxonomic and ecological patterns of interpopulation variation in the dietary habits of snakes

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    L. Luiselli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of their unique morphological and ecological characteristics (i.e. being obligate carnivorous, solitary, and ingesting their prey whole, snakes are expected to show unusual dietary patterns compared to other ectothermic vertebrates, and the best way to explore this is to analyse the snake dietary patterns globally. Here I review and analyse the peer-reviewed snake diet literature available in order to explore whether there are broad patterns in the interpopulation variability of diet composition in these unique ectothermic predators. I collated data for 181 independent populations belonging to 58 species of snakes from some of the main families (1 Boidae, 2 Pythonidae, 27 Colubridae, 10 Elapidae, and 18 Viperidae and from all the continents (4 from South and Central America, 13 from North America, 12 from Europe, 18 from Africa, 4 from Asia, and 7 from Australia. All these populations satisfied some precise criteria of inclusion, and were therefore re-analysed in a comparative perspective. I classified each literature entry according to 1 snake species, 2 snake family, 3 geographic position (continent of the study areas, 4 climatic region (temperate versus tropical, 5 guild (if the species is aquatic, terrestrial, or arboreal, 6 hunting strategy (sit-and-wait versus active forager, and 7 venom (if the species is venomous or not. All these seven factors were analysed by GLM procedures to evaluate their effects on the interpopulation diet variation within snake species, that was assessed by using a univariate similarity index. The various taxonomical categories of snake prey were grouped according to two different levels of taxonomic affinity: a general affinity, e.g. frogs and toads, salamanders, lizards, birds, etc., and b close affinity, by grouping prey types belonging to a same genus. My study revealed that, within-species snake populations showed a very low variability in terms of diet composition. As for the general affinity

  14. Colon-cancer and dietary habits - a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrikson, M; Hardell, L; Bengtsson, N; Axelson, O

    1995-07-01

    The importance of dietary factors in colon carcinogenesis was analyzed as part of a case-control study from Northern Sweden encompassing 312 cases and 623 controls. Data on 28 different food items, each divided into consumption before and after the age of 25, were collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (MH-ORs) were calculated for various food items and nutritients and are given in parentheses where A represents consumption before and B after the age of 25. Reduced MH-ORs were seen for daily cheese intake (A=0.64, B=0.41) and also for intake of crisp bread, boiled and fried fish although not significantly. A non-significantly decreased risk was seen for fibre-rich food. When food items were grouped with regard to their content of certain nutrients, decreased risks were associated with food rich in selenium (A=0.74, B=0.82). Also food rich in vitamin C gave a reduced MH-OR but only for intake before the age of 25 (A=0.75, B=1.09). For daily consumption of 2 or more cups of tea a reduced MH-OR of 0.61 was seen. Frequent intake of smoked food gave increased MH-ORs for both age groups (A=1.52, B=1.36) whereas high fat intake was not identified as a risk factor for colon cancer. Intake of alcohol or coffee was not associated with colon cancer risk in this study.

  15. Prevalence and association of female weight status and dietary habits with sociodemographic factors: a cross-sectional study in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Atika; Westergren, Albert; Berggren, Vanja; Ekblom, Örjan; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2015-04-01

    Research about the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity in the Saudi Arabian female population is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the dietary habits and the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity and associated factors among female university students. A cross-sectional study. A university centre for female students in south-western Saudi Arabia. The study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who self-reported their physical activities, nutritional habits and socio-economic factors. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with the students' BMI, dietary variables, underweight and overweight/obesity. The majority of the university females were normal weight (56.9%), but a high prevalence of underweight (19.2%) and overweight/obesity (23.8%) occurred. Social factors significantly associated with BMI were the presence of obese parents and siblings as well as physical activity levels, marital status, number of sisters, father's level of education and more frequent intake of French fries/potato chips (>3 times/week). Several variables were found to correlate with dietary habits, underweight and overweight/obesity. Of special interest is the association between the number of siblings and the participants' BMI and dietary intake in both negative and positive ways. The findings of this research have implications for health promotion and prevention of malnutrition among college-aged females. Health-care providers and policy makers need to involve the whole family when promoting females' physical activity. The study serves as an evidence-based background for planning and implementation of interventions targeting improvement of highly educated populations' nutritional habits.

  16. Associations between obesity (BMI and waist circumference) and socio-demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits, life events, resilience, mood, perceived stress and hopelessness in healthy older Europeans

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart-Knox, Barbara; E Duffy, Maresa; Bunting, Brendan; Parr, Heather; Vas de Almeida, Maria Daniel; Gibney, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background It is important to understand the psycho-social context of obesity to inform prevention and treatment of obesity at both the individual and public health level. Methods Representative samples of middle-aged adults aged ≥43 years were recruited in Great Britain (GB) (n = 1182) and Portugal (n = 540) and interviewed to explore associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits (FFQ), life events (LES),...

  17. Synergistic Effect of Family History of Diabetes and Dietary Habits on the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Family history of diabetes (FHD and lifestyle are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM, but little is known about the FHD diet interactions. We aimed to analyze the interactions of FHD and lifestyle factors in Chinese T2DM onset. Methods. This was a cross-sectional survey in central urban China (n=1234 patients with T2DM and n=8615 non-T2DM subjects. The biological interactions, defined by Rothman interactions, between FHD and each dietary factor were analyzed by using the synergy index (S scores. Results. After adjustment for age, gender, BMI, and WHR, a uniparental FHD (OR=2.84, 95% CI: 2.36–3.42, P<0.001, a paternal history of FHD (OR=2.53, 95% CI: 1.91–3.35, P<0.001, a maternal history of FHD (OR=3.27, 95% CI: 2.67–4.02, P<0.001, a biparental history of FHD (OR=5.26, 95% CI: 2.98–9.31, P<0.001, and a FHD, irrespective of the parent (OR=3.59, 95% CI: 3.08–4.17, P<0.001, were associated with T2DM onset. There were significant interactions between FHD and consuming <15 g/d of potatoes (S=1.54, 95% CI: 1.12–2.12, <8 g/d of poultry (S=1.51, 95% CI: 1.04–2.17, <85 g/d of fresh fruits (S=2.17, 95% CI: 1.63–2.88, and no freshly squeezed juice (S=2.25, 95% CI: 1.46–3.49. Conclusions. Risk of T2DM was synergistically affected by FHD and dietary habits. Nutrition educational intervention may decrease the prevalence of T2DM in the Chinese with FHD.

  18. Macro and Micro-Nutrients Intake, Food Groups Consumption and Dietary Habits among Female Students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakht, L; Esmaillzadeh, A

    2012-04-01

    Improving the dietary intake among different groups and population is important for improving the health status. This study determines the nutrients and food group intake as well as dietary habits among female students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Two hundreds and eighty nine healthy female youths who were randomly selected among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran were enrolled. A validated semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used. Folate, iron, calcium and fiber intake were lower than the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) amounts (70, 76, 90, 56% of RDA, respectively). Forty five percent of the population consumed fast foods 2 times a week and 35% used the frying oils for cooking most of the time. Female youths had lower amount of some micronutrients. Consuming frying oils, hydrogenated vegetable oils, and fast food intake should be limited among this group.

  19. Relationship of dietary habits and obesity to oxidative stress in Palauan people: compared with Japanese and Mongolian people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Fumio; Kagawa, Yasuo; Kawabata, Terue; Kaneko, Yoshinori; Ishiguro, Kiyomi

    2009-12-01

    The Republic of Palau belongs to Micronesia, and obese people and lifestyle-related diseases are prevalent there. We investigated the relationship of dietary habits and obesity to oxidative stress in Palauan people, as compared with those of Japanese and Mongolian people. A total of 126 healthy Palauan subjects were enrolled. Oxidative stress was evaluated by serum level of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM). Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by serum level of biological antioxidant potential (BAP). In Palauan subjects, BMI> or =30 was observed in 45.0% of males and 59.1% of females (Japanese: males 1.3%, females 0.8%, Mongolian: males 6.3%, females 14.7%). Palauan subjects consumed 2553 kcal per day (Japanese 2121 kcal, Mongolians 2534 kcal). The ratios of carbohydrate energy to total energy were 59.8 % (Japanese 54.7 %, Mongolians 50.2%). The ratios of fat energy to total energy were 22.9% (Japanese 26.7%, Mongolians 34.5%). ROM levels in Palauan subjects showed higher than those in Japanese subjects, while BAP levels of Palauan subjects did not decrease compared to those of Japanese. ROM levels correlated with body fat ratio, and showed a reverse correlation with handgrip strength. Handgrip strength decreased in the subjects of more than forty years of age. These findings suggest that the obesity in Palauan people may have a connection with high intake of calories through carbohydrate eating rather than through fat eating. Their high oxidative stress may be induced by obesity, and contribute to an early decline of handgrip strength, ultimately in early aging.

  20. Understanding Cultural Influences on Dietary Habits in Asian, Middle Eastern, and Latino Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Review of Current Literature and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Natalie; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2017-10-23

    This review focuses on evaluating and identifying gaps in the current literature regarding culturally specific dietary influences for patients with type 2 diabetes. As this topic has previously been examined in African American populations, we chose to focus on four other distinct populations (Hispanic, Middle Eastern, Western Pacific, South Asian). Given the rapid increase in global rates of type 2 diabetes and high rates of diabetes among certain ethnic groups, it is important to understand how culturally adapted strategies in diabetes management have been described in different regions and populations. The specific role of nutrition in controlling diabetes is tied to cultural habits and customs. Variation in cultural practices, including diet, create unique environments in which patients with diabetes must navigate. The role of family, particularly among Hispanics, is crucial to cultural adaptations of diabetes management. Incorporating alternative medicine, namely observed in Chinese and Indian populations, also guided diabetes care strategies. Language barriers, health literacy, and acculturation were all unique factors affecting cultural approaches to diabetes management in these four populations. Understanding such cultural determinants is crucial to addressing diabetes disparities and improving outcomes.

  1. Dietary intake and habits of South Asian immigrants living in Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCroy, Madison N; Stevens, June

    2017-06-01

    Previous reviews have indicated that immigration from South Asian to Western countries leads to unhealthy changes in diet; however, these reviews have been limited by the methods used in some included studies. This critical narrative review summarizes findings from original research articles that performed appropriate statistical analyses on diet data obtained using culturally appropriate diet assessment measures. All studies quantitatively compared the diets of South Asian immigrants with those of residents of Western or South Asian countries or with those of South Asian immigrants who had varying periods of time since immigration. Most studies examined total energy and nutrient intake among adults. Total energy intake tended to decrease with increasing duration of residence and immigrant generation, and immigrants consumed less protein and monounsaturated fat compared with Westerners. However, findings for intakes of carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and micronutrients were mixed. Studies that examine food group intake and include South Asians living in South Asia as a comparison population are needed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Feasibility of including green tea products for an analytically verified dietary supplement database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) is a federally-funded, publically-accessible dietary supplement database that currently contains analytically derived information on micronutrients in selected adult and children’s multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplements. Other constituents in di...

  3. The mercury concentration in breast milk resulting from amalgam fillings and dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, H; Schaller, K H

    1998-05-01

    Health risks from amalgam fillings are a subject of controversy. In Germany it is not advised to use amalgam fillings during breast feeding. Objectives of this study were to examine the concentration of mercury in human breast milk and the confounders which may modify the mercury levels. Women who gave birth between August 1995 and May 1996 in a district hospital were asked to participate in the study. The examination included a standardized anamnesis and an inspection of the teeth by an dentist. Blood and urine samples of 147 women and breast milk samples of 118 women were collected in the first week after birth. After 2 months of breast feeding a second breast milk sample was collected from 85 of women. Mercury was measured by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentration of mercury in the breast milk collected immediately after birth showed a significant association with the number of amalgam fillings as well as with the frequency of meals. Urine mercury concentrations correlated with the number of amalgam fillings and amalgam surfaces. In the breast milk after 2 months of lactation, the concentrations were lower (mean: consumption but no longer with the number of the amalgam fillings. Accordingly, the additional exposure to mercury of breast-fed babies from maternal amalgam fillings is of minor importance compared to maternal fish consumption. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  4. Lipid profile and dietary habits in an elderly rural population in the southern Spain: the Sierra de Huelva study

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    Vicario, Isabel M.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We have assessed serum lipids, systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure in a healthy, free living population over 70 years old residing for more than 20 years in a rural area located in the southern Spain, the Sierra de Huelva. 401 elderly, 229 women (F and 179 men (M mean age 79.36 ± 6.9 were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Dietary habits were assessed by means of a Modification of the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDDS, which comprised 11 components. A total score ranging from 0-44 was calculated. Mean concentration for lipids were: Total cholesterol (TC 193.8 ± 23.1, M 195.2 ± 25.7 and F 192.7 ± 20.8 (p = 0.29; HDLc 60.3 ± 7.6 mg/dl, M 60.0 ± 8.0 and F 60.5 ± 7.2 (p = 0.49; TC/HDLc 3.3 ± 1.1 mg/dl, M 3.4 ± 1.2 and F 3.3 ± 1.1 mg/dl (p Hemos evaluado los lípidos séricos, la presión sistólica (SBP y diastólica (DBP en un grupo de ancianos no institucionalizados de más de 70 años que residen en una zona rural localizada en el sur de España, la Sierra de Huelva. 401 ancianos, 229 mujeres (F and 179 hombres (M con una edad media de 79,36 ± 6,9 años, se incluyeron en este estudio observacional transversal. Los hábitos alimentarios fueron evaluados mediante una modificación del Mediterranean Diet Score MMDS que incluyó a 11 grupos de alimentos. Se obtuvo una puntuación total que oscilaba entre 0-44. La concentración media de lípidos fue: colesterol total (TC 193,8 ± 23,1, M 195,2 ± 25,7 y F 192,7 ± 20,8 (p = 0,29; HDLc 60,3 ± 7,6 mg/dl, M 58,0 ± 8,0 y F 60,5 ± 7,2 (p = 0,49; TC/HDLc 3,3 ± 1,1 mg/dl, M 3,4 ± 1,2 and F 3,3 ± 1,1 mg/dl (p < 0,35; LDLc 127,3 ± 30,1 mg/dl, M 129,0 ± 32.9 F 127,3 ± 30,1 mg/dl (p < 0,33; TG 137,7 ± 18,8, M 138,8 ± 19,4 y F 136,0 ± 17,4 (p < 0,30. La prevalencia total de hipercolesterolemia (TC 200 mg/dl fue de 8,7%, F 7,9% y M 9,9%; 10,7% de la población presentó niveles de LDLc≥160 mg/dl. La edad se correlacionó negativamente (p < 0,05 con TC, LDLc, TG

  5. Inverse association between dietary habits with high total antioxidant capacity and prevalence of frailty among elderly Japanese women: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Asakura, K; Suga, H; Sasaki, S

    2014-11-01

    To examine the association of dietary habits with high total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with frailty among elderly Japanese women. Cross-sectional multicenter study. Thirty-five of 47 prefectures in Japan. 2121 grandmothers or acquaintances of dietetic students aged 65 and older. Dietary TAC and food intakes were calculated using a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. The TAC value of each food was assigned using four different assays, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). Frailty was defined as the presence three or more of the following four components: slowness and weakness (two points), exhaustion, low physical activity, and unintentional weight loss. The number of subjects with frailty was 486 (23%). Multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CI) for frailty in the highest compared to the lowest quintile were 0.35 (0.24, 0.53) for FRAP, 0.35 (0.23, 0.52) for ORAC, 0.40 (0.27, 0.60) for TEAC, and 0.41 (0.28, 0.62) for TRAP. The intakes of green tea, coffee, vegetables, and fruits which contribute to dietary TAC were also associated with lower odds of frailty (the range of multivariate adjusted OR: 0.47 for vegetables to 0.77 for green tea), although the odds ratios were less marked than those of dietary TAC. Dietary habits with high TAC showed a stronger inverse association with frailty in elderly Japanese women than the individual foods examined.

  6. Is There a Possible Association between Dietary Habits and Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo in the Elderly? The Importance of Diet and Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Adriane Rocha; Neves-Souza, Rejane Dias; Costa, Viviane de Souza Pinho; Meneses-Barriviera, Caroline Luiz; Franco, Pricila Perini Rigotti; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Poor diet habits and inadequate intake of nutrients are a concern in the elderly. Nutritional education with guidance may improve the results of the treatment of vertigo. Objective Evaluate the presence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) associated with feeding habits. Methods Cross-sectional study with elderly people living independently. We evaluated nutritional habits through the method of dietary 24-hour recall and manipulation of Dix-Hallpike. Results Based on a sample of 487 individuals, 117 had BPPV. Among the 117 elderly patients with BPPV, 37 (31.62%) had inadequate feeding. From those 370 individuals without BPPV, 97 (26.21%) had inappropriate feeding. No significant association between nutritional habits and BPPV in the total population was observed (p = 0.3064). However, there was significant relation between BPPV and inadequate carbohydrate intake (p = 0.0419) and insufficient fiber intake (p = 0.03), and the diet of these subjects was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.0084). Conclusion These data correlate with the dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia status, making it extremely important to reduce the intake of fats and carbohydrates and increase the fiber intake to stabilize triglycerides and thus minimize harmful effects on the inner ear. Food readjustment is suggested in patients with BPPV, along with the work of a multidisciplinary team to improve the quality of the elderly.

  7. Is There a Possible Association between Dietary Habits and Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo in the Elderly? The Importance of Diet and Counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz, Adriane Rocha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Poor diet habits and inadequate intake of nutrients are a concern in the elderly. Nutritional education with guidance may improve the results of the treatment of vertigo. Objective Evaluate the presence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV associated with feeding habits. Methods Cross-sectional study with elderly people living independently. We evaluated nutritional habits through the method of dietary 24-hour recall and manipulation of Dix-Hallpike. Results Based on a sample of 487 individuals, 117 had BPPV. Among the 117 elderly patients with BPPV, 37 (31.62% had inadequate feeding. From those 370 individuals without BPPV, 97 (26.21% had inappropriate feeding. No significant association between nutritional habits and BPPV in the total population was observed (p = 0.3064. However, there was significant relation between BPPV and inadequate carbohydrate intake (p = 0.0419 and insufficient fiber intake (p = 0.03, and the diet of these subjects was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.0084. Conclusion These data correlate with the dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia status, making it extremely important to reduce the intake of fats and carbohydrates and increase the fiber intake to stabilize triglycerides and thus minimize harmful effects on the inner ear. Food readjustment is suggested in patients with BPPV, along with the work of a multidisciplinary team to improve the quality of the elderly.

  8. The dietary habits of the upside-down catfish, Synodontis membranaceus (Osteichthyes: Mochokidae in Jebba lake, Nigeria

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    Olufemi David Owolabi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary habits of the up side-down Mochokid catfish, Synodontis membranaceus were investigated for 24 months (April 2002-March 2004, in Jebba lake, Nigeria using frequency of occurrence, numerical, gravimetric and index of relative importance (RI methods. The fish is euryphagus and feeds more at night. RI values indicate that 10 of the 16 food items were major diet components. The main five food categories are detritus (10.64 %, Aspatharia (9.08 %, plant parts (8.85 %, seeds (8.61 % and Spirogyra (8.43 %, while the 5 less prominent food categories were gastropods (7.05 %, insect appendages (6.88 %, copepods (6.31 %, adult Povilla adusta (5.89 % and coleoptera larvae (5.36 %. The remaining six food items, dragon flies, P. adusta larvae, chironomid larvae, Daphnia, water mites and fish scales had RI values considerably under 5 %. The prominence of detritus in the diet indicated that the fish is a bottom or benthic feeder. The wide variability in food supply enables S. membranaceus to maintain its overwhelming prominence in Jebba lake, and its euryphagus habit makes it suited for pond culture. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 931-936. Epub 2008 June 30.Los hábitos alimenticios del pez Synodontis membranaceus fueron investigados durante 24 meses (abril 2002-marzo 2004 en el lago Jebba, Nigeria; utilizando frecuencia de aparición, métodos numéricos, métodos gravimétricos y el Índice de Importancia Relativa (IR. El incremento de estómagos llenos durante la noche, en comparación con el día, indica una intensidad alta de alimentación durante la noche. El pez tiene una dieta eurífaga. De los 16 tipos de comida ingeridos, 10 constituyen la dieta principal, según los valores del IR. Las cinco principales categorías fueron detritos (10.64 %, Aspatharia (9.08 %, plantas (8.85 %, semillas (8.61 % y Spirogyra (8.43 %, mientras que las cinco categorías menores corresponden a gastrópodos (7.05 %, apéndices de insectos (6.88 %, copépodos (6.31 %, adultos

  9. Probiotic-enriched foods and dietary supplement containing SYNBIO positively affects bowel habits in healthy adults: an assessment using standard statistical analysis and Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvi, Stefania; Verdenelli, M Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, M Magdalena; Bernabei, M Simonetta; Rosati, Jessica; De Leone, Renato; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study assessed in healthy adults how daily consumption of the probiotic combination SYNBIO®, administered in probiotic-enriched foods or in a dietary supplement, affected bowel habits. Primary and secondary outcomes gave the overall assessment of bowel well-being, while a Psychological General Well-Being Index compiled by participants estimated the health-related quality of life as well as the gastrointestinal tolerance determined with the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. Support Vector Machine models for classification problems were used to validate the total outcomes on bowel well-being. SYNBIO® consumption improved bowel habits of volunteers consuming the probiotic foods or capsules, while the same effects were not registered in the control groups. The recovery of probiotic bacteria from the faeces of a cohort of 100 subjects for each supplemented group showed the persistence of strains in the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. CYP2E1 genetic polymorphism with dietary, tobacco, alcohol habits, H. pylori infection status and susceptibility to stomach cancer in Mizoram, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Mridul; Devi, K Rekha; Phukan, Rup Kumar; Kaur, Tanvir; Deka, Manab; Puia, Lalhriat; Baruah, Debajit; Mahanta, Jagadish; Narain, Kanwar

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of stomach cancer in India is highest in the state of Mizoram. In this population based matched case-control study, we evaluated the relationship between CYP450 2E1 RsaI polymorphism and risk of stomach cancer taking into considering various important dietary habits along with tobacco, alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection status. A total of 105 histologically confirmed stomach cancer cases and 210 matched healthy population controls were recruited. CYP2E1 RsaI genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP and H. pylori infection status by ELISA. Information on various dietary, tobacco and alcohol habits was recorded in a standard questionnaire. Our study revealed no significant association between the CYP2E1 RsaI polymorphism and overall risk of stomach cancer in Mizoram. However, we observed a non-significant protective effect of the variant allele (A) of CYP2E1 against stomach cancer. Tobacco smokers carrying C/C genotype have three times more risk of stomach cancer, as compared to non-smokers carrying C/C genotype. Both Meiziol and cigarette current and past smokers who smoked for more than 10 times per day and carrying the (C/C) genotype are more prone to develop stomach cancer. Smoke dried fish and preserved meat (smoked/sun dried) consumers carrying C/C genotype possesses higher risk of stomach cancer. No significant association between H. pylori infection and CYP2E1 RsaI polymorphism in terms of stomach cancer was observed. Although no direct association between the CYP2E1 RsaI polymorphism and stomach cancer was observed, relations with different tobacco and dietary risk habits in terms of developing stomach cancer exist in this high risk population of north-eastern part of India. Further in-depth study recruiting larger population is required to shed more light on this important problem.

  11. Migration as a turning point in food habits: the early phase of dietary acculturation among women from South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern Countries living in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terragni, Laura; Garnweidner, Lisa M; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the early phase of dietary acculturation after migration. South Asian, African and Middle Eastern women (N = 21) living in Norway were interviewed about their early experiences with food in a new context. The findings pointed to abrupt changes in food habits in the first period after migration. To various degrees, women reported unfamiliarity with foods in shops, uncertainty about meal formats and food preparation and fear of eating food prohibited by their religion. Their food consumption tended to be restricted to food items perceived as familiar or safe. Our findings indicate that the first period after migration represents a specific phase in the process of dietary acculturation. Early initiatives aimed at enhancing confidence in food and familiarity with the new food culture are recommended.

  12. Integrating mindfulness training in school health education to promote healthy behaviors in adolescents: Feasibility and preliminary effects on exercise and dietary habits

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    Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Whether mindfulness training (MT could improve healthy behaviors is unknown. This study sought to determine feasibility and acceptability of integrating MT into school-based health education (primary outcomes and to explore its possible effects on healthy behaviors (exploratory outcomes. Two high schools in Massachusetts (2014–2015 were randomized to health education plus MT (HE-MT (one session/week for 8 weeks or to health education plus attention control (HE-AC. Dietary habits (24-h dietary recalls and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA/7-day recalls were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (EOT, and 6 months thereafter. Quantile regression and linear mixed models were used, respectively, to estimate effects on MVPA and dietary outcomes adjusting for confounders. We recruited 53 9th graders (30 HEM, 23 HEAC; average age 14.5, 60% white, 59% female. Retention was 100% (EOT and 96% (6 months; attendance was 96% (both conditions, with moderate-to-high satisfaction ratings. Among students with higher MVPA at baseline, MVPA was higher in HE-MT vs. HE-AC at both EOT (median difference = 81 min/week, p = 0.005 and at 6 months (p = 0.004. Among males, median MVPA was higher (median difference = 99 min/week in HE-MT vs. HEAC at both EOT (p = 0.056 and at 6 months (p = 0.04. No differences were noted in dietary habits. In sum, integrating school-based MT into health education was feasible and acceptable and had promising effects on MVPA among male and more active adolescents. These findings suggest that MT may improve healthy behaviors in adolescents and deserve to be reproduced in larger, rigorous studies.

  13. Integrating mindfulness training in school health education to promote healthy behaviors in adolescents: Feasibility and preliminary effects on exercise and dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Druker, Susan; Frisard, Christine; Dunsiger, Shira I; Crawford, Sybil; Meleo-Meyer, Florence; Bock, Beth; Pbert, Lori

    2018-03-01

    Whether mindfulness training (MT) could improve healthy behaviors is unknown. This study sought to determine feasibility and acceptability of integrating MT into school-based health education (primary outcomes) and to explore its possible effects on healthy behaviors (exploratory outcomes). Two high schools in Massachusetts (2014-2015) were randomized to health education plus MT (HE-MT) (one session/week for 8 weeks) or to health education plus attention control (HE-AC). Dietary habits (24-h dietary recalls) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA/7-day recalls) were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (EOT), and 6 months thereafter. Quantile regression and linear mixed models were used, respectively, to estimate effects on MVPA and dietary outcomes adjusting for confounders. We recruited 53 9th graders (30 HEM, 23 HEAC; average age 14.5, 60% white, 59% female). Retention was 100% (EOT) and 96% (6 months); attendance was 96% (both conditions), with moderate-to-high satisfaction ratings. Among students with higher MVPA at baseline, MVPA was higher in HE-MT vs. HE-AC at both EOT (median difference = 81 min/week, p  = 0.005) and at 6 months ( p  = 0.004). Among males, median MVPA was higher (median difference = 99 min/week) in HE-MT vs. HEAC at both EOT ( p  = 0.056) and at 6 months ( p  = 0.04). No differences were noted in dietary habits. In sum, integrating school-based MT into health education was feasible and acceptable and had promising effects on MVPA among male and more active adolescents. These findings suggest that MT may improve healthy behaviors in adolescents and deserve to be reproduced in larger, rigorous studies.

  14. Dental caries associated with dietary and toothbrushing habits of 6- to 12-year-old mentally retarded children in Taiwan

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    Hsiu-Yueh Liu

    2009-06-01

    Conclusion: Children with MR tend to have poor oral health. A higher number of decayed teeth and a higher prevalence of caries were statistically significantly related to eating sweets and not having good oral hygiene habits of toothbrushing after eating.

  15. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, A; Marchant-Forde, J N; Richert, B T; Lay, D C

    2016-05-01

    Aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrates. Sows were housed in individual stalls 7 to 14 d after breeding (moving day was considered d 0 of treatment) and were fed (at 0700 h) with a CONTROL (corn-soybean meal based with no additional fiber sources), RSTARCH (10.8% resistant starch), BEETPULP (27.2% sugar beet pulp), SOYHULLS (19.1% soybean hulls), or INCSOY (14.05% soybean hulls) for 21 d (5 sows/diet × 5 diets × 8 replications = 200 sows). The CONTROL diet was targeted to contain 185 g(d∙sow) NDF and the other diets were targeted to contain 350 g(d∙sow) NDF. The INCSOY diet was fed at 2.2 kg/(d∙sow) and the other diets were fed at 2 kg(d∙sow). On d 22, sows were mixed in groups of 5 (at 1200 h). Behaviors in stalls (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21) and after mixing (d 22 and 23), heart rate (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21), blood metabolites (on d 2, 8, 15, 22, and 25), and the effects of diets on production were collected and analyzed. Sows stood more ( 0.05). Average birth weight was lowest in the INCSOY diet ( = 0.02). This study demonstrates that RSTARCH and SOYHULLS can improve the welfare of sows by reducing aggression and increasing satiety in limit-fed pregnant sows without affecting production.

  16. Why Are Incretin-Based Therapies More Efficient in East Asians? Perspectives from the Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes and East Asian Dietary Habits

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    Daisuke Yabe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is one of the most serious global health problems. This is partly a result of its drastic increase in East Asia, which now comprises more than a quarter of the global diabetes population. Ethnicity and lifestyle factors are two determinants in the aetiology of T2D, and changes such as increased animal fat intake and decreased physical activity link readily to T2D in East Asians, which is characterised primarily by β-cell dysfunction that is evident immediately after ingestion of glucose or a meal, and less adiposity compared with T2D in Caucasians. These pathophysiological differences have an important impact on therapeutic approaches. Incretin-based therapies, such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA, have become widely available for the management of T2D. Incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1 are secreted from the gut in response to the ingestion of various nutrients, including carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and enhance insulin secretion via a glucose-dependent pathway to exert their glucose-lowering effects. Recent meta-analyses of clinical trials of DPP-4i and GLP-1RA found the drugs to be more effective in East Asians, most likely due to amelioration of the primary β-cell dysfunction by increased stimulation through incretin activity. In addition, our finding that the glycosylated haemoglobin-lowering effects of DPP-4i are enhanced by fish intake, and possibly worsened by animal fat intake, suggests that dietary habits such as eating more fish and less meat can affect the secretion of incretins, and supports the greater efficacy of incretin-based therapies in East Asians.

  17. Effects of living alone versus with others and of housemate type on smoking, drinking, dietary habits, and physical activity among elderly people

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    Seungmin Jeong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study examined differences in health behaviors between elderly people living alone and with others; it also investigated whether the effect of living with others differs according to housemate type, namely a spouse and/or younger generations. METHODS Gender-stratified data from the 2013 Korea Community Health Survey for individuals aged 60 to 74 living in Seoul were analyzed. Logistic regression modeling was conducted to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of the outcome variables (smoking, drinking, eating salty foods, inactive lifestyle for the variables of interest (living alone/with others, housemate type. Models were adjusted for confounding variables including history of medical conditions, employment type, and adjusted household income. RESULTS Analysis involved 1,814 men and 2,199 women. Risk of smoking was 1.80 times (95% CI, 1.21 to 2.67 higher for men living alone than living with others. Risk of eating salty foods was 0.78 times lower (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.98 for men living with a spouse than a spouse and younger generations. Risk of inactive lifestyle was 1.47 times higher (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.92 for women living alone. Risk of smoking was higher for women living alone (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.92 or with younger generations (OR, 9.12; 95% CI, 2.04 to 40.80 than with a spouse and younger generations. CONCLUSIONS Living alone was associated with smoking in men and physical activity in women; housemate type was associated with dietary habits in men and smoking in women. These gender-specific findings can help identify groups of individuals vulnerable to risky health behaviors and to develop policies.

  18. Effects of living alone versus with others and of housemate type on smoking, drinking, dietary habits, and physical activity among elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seungmin; Cho, Sung Il

    2017-01-01

    This study examined differences in health behaviors between elderly people living alone and with others; it also investigated whether the effect of living with others differs according to housemate type, namely a spouse and/or younger generations. Gender-stratified data from the 2013 Korea Community Health Survey for individuals aged 60 to 74 living in Seoul were analyzed. Logistic regression modeling was conducted to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the outcome variables (smoking, drinking, eating salty foods, inactive lifestyle) for the variables of interest (living alone/with others, housemate type). Models were adjusted for confounding variables including history of medical conditions, employment type, and adjusted household income. Analysis involved 1,814 men and 2,199 women. Risk of smoking was 1.80 times (95% CI, 1.21 to 2.67) higher for men living alone than living with others. Risk of eating salty foods was 0.78 times lower (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.98) for men living with a spouse than a spouse and younger generations. Risk of inactive lifestyle was 1.47 times higher (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.92) for women living alone. Risk of smoking was higher for women living alone (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.92) or with younger generations (OR, 9.12; 95% CI, 2.04 to 40.80) than with a spouse and younger generations. Living alone was associated with smoking in men and physical activity in women; housemate type was associated with dietary habits in men and smoking in women. These gender-specific findings can help identify groups of individuals vulnerable to risky health behaviors and to develop policies.

  19. Prevalence of overweight/obesity in relation to dietary habits and lifestyle among 7-17 years old children and adolescents in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanina, Natalija; Albaviciute, Edita; Babinska, Veslava; Karinauskiene, Lina; Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Verkauskiene, Rasa

    2015-10-01

    Until recently increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among pediatric population in Europe and worldwide contributes to major well-known risks for metabolic consequences in later life. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight/obesity among children and adolescents in Lithuania and assess its association with energy balance related behaviors as well as familial demographic and socioeconomic factors. Cross-sectional study included 3990 7-17 years old schoolchildren from 40 schools of Kaunas region, Lithuania. Study participants underwent anthropometric measurements. Body mass index (BMI) was evaluated according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria for children and adolescents. Children and adolescents and their parents filled in the questionnaires on parental sociodemographic characteristics, dietary habits, TV watching time, and family socioeconomic status. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity among boys and girls was 6.9 and 11.7 % (P  0.05), and 4.9 and 3.4 % (P overweight/obesity (P overweight/obesity was directly associated with lower paternal education and unemployment (OR 1.30, P = 0.013 and OR 1.56, P = 0.003, respectively). The prevalence of overweight and obesity among 7-17 years old Lithuanian children and adolescents was more prevalent in younger age, still being one of the lowest across the European countries. Meals frequency, breakfast skipping, paternal education and unemployment as well as a family history of arterial hypertension were found to be associated with children's and adolescents' overweight/obesity.

  20. Nutritional education and carbohydrate counting in children with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion: the effects on dietary habits, body composition and glycometabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigliano, Marco; Morandi, Anita; Maschio, Maddalena; Sabbion, Alberto; Contreas, Giovanna; Tomasselli, Francesca; Tommasi, Mara; Maffeis, Claudio

    2013-12-01

    Carbohydrate counting (CHC) in combination with nutritional education has been used to optimize the insulin dose in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to test the impact of CHC and nutritional education on changes in dietary habits, body composition and body fat distribution in children with T1D treated with insulin pumps (CSII). Twenty-five children with T1D and CSII were recruited and valuated at baseline and after 18 months of follow-up. They were trained in CHC and following standard nutrition education program (based on American Diabetes Association and International Society of Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes guidelines); clinical, biochemical and nutritional variables were measured. In the total population, body composition, body fat distribution and biochemical variables did not change, at follow-up; HbA1c was significantly reduced (8.50 ± 0.77 vs 7.92 ± 0.74 %; p education, does not affect dietary habits, body composition and body fat distribution in children with T1D treated with CSII. Moreover, the sub-group of subjects showing a significant improvement in glycometabolic control reported an increase in CHO intake and a reduction in fat and protein intake.

  1. Health behavior and academic achievement among adolescents: the relative contribution of dietary habits, physical activity, body mass index, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfúsdóttir, Inga Dóra; Allegrante, John P

    2010-02-01

    This study tested a structural equation model to estimate the relationship between health behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and self-esteem and the academic achievement of adolescents. The authors analyzed survey data from the 2000 study of Youth in Iceland , a population-based, cross-sectional sample of 6,346 adolescents in Iceland. The model demonstrated good fit with chi-square of 2685 (n = 5,810, df = 180), p Comparative Fit Index value of .94, and a root mean square error of approximation of .049. Lower BMI, physical activity, and good dietary habits were all associated with higher academic achievement; however, health behavior was positively and robustly associated with greater self-esteem. Self-esteem was positively influenced both through physical activity (beta = .16) and the consumption of fruits and vegetables (beta = .14). In contrast, poor dietary habits negatively influenced self-esteem and academic achievement, and self-esteem was negatively influenced by increasing levels of BMI (beta = -.05).

  2. Stress, Depression, Social Support, and Eating Habits Reduce Dietary Quality in the 1st Trimester in Low-Income Women: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Jamie; Bryant, Miranda; Kim, SungHun

    2012-01-01

    Maternal diet quality influences birth outcomes. Yet little research exists that assesses women’s diet quality during the 1st trimester of pregnancy, a crucial time of placental and fetal development. This cross-sectional study describes diet quality and its relationship with stress, depression, social support, and eating habits in the 1st trimester that may identify low-income women needing intensive dietary intervention. Seventy-one low-income women completed validated instruments measuring stress, depression, social support, and eating habits, had their height and weight measured, received training on portion-size estimation, and completed three 24-hour dietary recalls (1 weekend day and 2 nonconsecutive weekdays) from July, 2009 to February, 2010. Comparative and correlational analyses were performed. Women with diet quality scores below the median (n = 35) had more depression (9.6 ± 5.1 vs. 6.7 ± 5.1) and stress (22.1 ± 5.4 vs. 19.3 ± 4.8) and less control over meal preparation (5.0 ± 1.5 vs. 4.2 ± 1.5) and support from others (52.0 ± 12.0 vs. 57.4 ± 7.2) than did women with high diet quality scores (n = 36). Diet quality was negatively related to depression (r = −.41), stress (r = −.35), skipping meals (r = −.41), and control over meal preparation (r = −33), and positively related to support from others (r = .38). Low-income women experiencing life stressors represent an at-risk group for low diet quality and may need intensive dietary intervention before and during pregnancy. Efforts targeting this group to test hypotheses aimed at improving diet quality should be undertaken. PMID:23017572

  3. Benefits of dietary phytochemical supplementation on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage: Is including antioxidants enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Panza, Vilma Simões; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically discuss studies that investigated the effects of supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. The performance of physical activities that involve unaccustomed eccentric muscle actions-such as lowering a weight or downhill walking-can result in muscle damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These events may be accompanied by muscle weakness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. According to the current evidences, supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals appears to have the potential to attenuate symptoms associated with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. However, there are inconsistencies regarding the relationship between muscle damage and blood markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of strategies appear to depend on a number of aspects inherent to phytochemical compounds as well as its food matrix. Methodological issues also may interfere with the proper interpretation of supplementation effects. Thus, the study may contribute to updating professionals involved in sport nutrition as well as highlighting the interest of scientists in new perspectives that can widen dietary strategies applied to training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of food neophobia in pre-school children from southern Poland and its association with eating habits, dietary intake and anthropometric parameters: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozioł-Kozakowska, Agnieszka; Piórecka, Beata; Schlegel-Zawadzka, Małgorzata

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of food neophobia in pre-school children and its association with eating habits, dietary intake and anthropometric parameters. Cross-sectional survey performed in 2012-2013. The Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS) adapted by Wardle, Carnell and Cooke was used to assess the level of food neophobia. Dietary intake was measured using an FFQ and dietary records from three days. Anthropometric measurements were taken to determine children's nutritional status and BMI was computed based on Polish growth charts. Wilcoxon's rank test and Pearson's rank-correlation coefficient were applied to compare the level of food neophobia and frequency of consumption of food products and nutrient intakes. Kindergartens in southern Poland located in or near Cracow. Three hundred and twenty-five pre-school children and their parents. Low neophobia was observed in 12·3 % and high neophobia in 10·8 % of the children examined. Children with a high level of neophobia were significantly less likely (Pfood neophobia were observed. High levels of neophobia are associated with diet variation and may enhance the risk of nutritional deficiencies in children.

  5. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relative contribution of physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and dietary habits to the prevalence of obesity among Kuwaiti adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haifi, Ahmad R; Al-Fayez, Mohammad A; Al-Athari, Buthaina I; Al-Ajmi, Fahhad A; Allafi, Ahmad R; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2013-03-01

    The increasing rate of obesity among Kuwaiti adolescents is associated with immediate and long term-risks to their health and well-being. To update data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Kuwaiti adolescents and to examine the relative contribution of selected lifestyle factors to overweight and obesity in this population. The present study is part of the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). A total of 906 adolescents (463 boys and 443 girls) aged between 14 and 19 years were selected from Kuwaiti schools by a multistage stratified randomization process. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data on physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, and eating habits. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cutoff values for adolescents under 18 years of age were used to define overweight and obesity. Total energy expenditure was calculated using metabolic equivalent-minutes per week. A general linear model was used to establish the proportion of the variance (expressed in partial eta squared) in excess weight attributable to differences in eating habits and physical activity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 50.5% in boys and 46.5% in girls. Among boys, moderate and vigorous activities were found to be significantly negatively associated with overweight and obesity (p foods (boys and girls) and potatoes, cakes and doughnuts, and sweets (girls only) was significantly associated with overweight and obesity (p habits explained less than 1.8% in boys compared with 2.5% in girls. Physical activity explains a greater proportion of variation in body mass index than do eating habits, particularly in boys. Eating habits explain a greater proportion of variation in body mass index than does physical activity in girls. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the relative effects of sedentary behaviors on overweight in adolescents.

  7. Impact of Dietary Acculturation on the Food Habits, Weight, Blood Pressure, and Fasting Blood Glucose Levels of International College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohanna, Amal; Conforti, Frank; Eigel, William; Barbeau, William

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of dietary acculturation on the health status of newly arrived international students at Virginia Tech in Fall 2010. Thirty-five international students, 18-36 years of age, completed the study. Data were collected at 3 different time periods (V1, V2, and V3) approximately 6 weeks apart. A food frequency- and dietary pattern-related questionnaire was administered and numerically coded responses were analyzed. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data were also collected at V1, V2, and V3. Body weight, fasting blood glucose level, and blood pressure of study participants were also determined at each time period. Total sample population (TSP) had a significant increase in mean weight of 2.79 lb from visit 1 (V1) to visit 3 (V3) (p = .0082). Ten participants gained an average of 9.0 lb (participants who gained weight; n = 10). There was also an increase in the frequency of consumption of high-calorie American food items from V1 to V3. However, there were no significant changes in mean systolic blood pressure and mean fasting blood glucose was significantly lower at V3 than at V1. There was a gradual shift in the dietary patterns of international students towards the American diet. Dietary acculturation led to weight gain among some of the students, which may potentially have a negative impact on their health status if continued for longer time periods.

  8. High prevalence of preobesity and obesity among medical students of Lahore and its relation with dietary habits and physical activity

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    Zeeshan Nasir Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among students of medical colleges of Lahore and to study its correlation with high-caloric diet intake and physical inactivity. Study Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at four medical colleges of Lahore, Pakistan between March and June 2012. Methods: A total of 244 medical students (85 males, 159 females of the median age of 20 years (range: 18–25 were randomly included in the study. Anthropometric measures were obtained. High-caloric diet intake and physical profile were assessed through a self-reported questionnaire. The relationships between obesity indices (body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio were investigated and correlated with the studied dietary and physical activity factors. Results: Approximately, 30.5% males and 16% females had BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2 overall affecting 21% of total medical students. Central obesity was found in 46% of male and 31.4% of female students. Central obesity was associated with a higher total daily caloric intake, studying at private medical college and male gender. Overall, 197 of 244 (80.7% students played no sports in college. Median time to watch television or work on the computer was 120 min a day (range: 30–420. Only 70 (28.7% students had regular walk or jogging. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of Pakistani medical students were overweight or obese. Higher total daily caloric intake was associated with central obesity but not a BMI >25. Physical activity parameters favored an overall sedentary aptitude for medical students.

  9. High prevalence of preobesity and obesity among medical students of Lahore and its relation with dietary habits and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zeeshan Nasir; Assir, Muhammad Zaman Khan; Shafiq, Mudassar; Chaudhary, Aghosh-E-Gul; Jabeen, Atika

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among students of medical colleges of Lahore and to study its correlation with high-caloric diet intake and physical inactivity. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at four medical colleges of Lahore, Pakistan between March and June 2012. A total of 244 medical students (85 males, 159 females) of the median age of 20 years (range: 18-25) were randomly included in the study. Anthropometric measures were obtained. High-caloric diet intake and physical profile were assessed through a self-reported questionnaire. The relationships between obesity indices (body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio) were investigated and correlated with the studied dietary and physical activity factors. Approximately, 30.5% males and 16% females had BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2) overall affecting 21% of total medical students. Central obesity was found in 46% of male and 31.4% of female students. Central obesity was associated with a higher total daily caloric intake, studying at private medical college and male gender. Overall, 197 of 244 (80.7%) students played no sports in college. Median time to watch television or work on the computer was 120 min a day (range: 30-420). Only 70 (28.7%) students had regular walk or jogging. A substantial proportion of Pakistani medical students were overweight or obese. Higher total daily caloric intake was associated with central obesity but not a BMI >25. Physical activity parameters favored an overall sedentary aptitude for medical students.

  10. Dietary habits and locus of control assessed in middle-school pupils from the Malopolska region of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The formative years of adolescence are a crucial time for developing eating habits which, amongst other factors, are determined by personality traits. The aim of the study was to estimate eating behaviour in a group of middle school pupils according to gender and locus of control (LOC). Subjects were n = 200 boys and n = 200 girls, aged 14-16 living in the Malopolska region of Poland who were surveyed by questionnaire about their eating habits. A standardised Delta questionnaire, by Drwal, was used to assess LOC. Based on the median from the raw LOC scale scores, groups of boys and girls were thereby identified as having high internal (below the median) or high external (above the median) loci of control. The Chi2 test assessed the dependence between LOC and eating habits using PQStat software ver. 1.4.2.324 adopting values of p differences in certain eating behaviour have been found in middle school students that relate to their gender and LOC. The more rational and appropriate choices were taken by subjects with an internal LOC.

  11. Role of household exposure, dietary habits and glutathione S-Transferases M1, T1 polymorphisms in susceptibility to lung cancer among women in Mizoram India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phukan, Rup Kumar; Saikia, Bhaskar Jyoti; Borah, Prasanta Kumar; Zomawia, Eric; Sekhon, Gaganpreet Singh; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the effect of household exposure, dietary habits, smoking and Glutathione S-Transferases M1, T1 polymorphisms on lung cancer among women in Mizoram, India. We selected 230 newly diagnosed primary lung cases and 460 controls from women in Mizoram. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate adjusted odds ratio (OR). Exposure of cooking oil fumes (pkitchen inside living room (p=0.001), improper ventilated house (p=0.003), roasting of soda in kitchen (p=0.001), current smokers of tobacco (p=0.043), intake of smoked fish (p=0.006), smoked meat (p=0.001), Soda (poil emission and wood smoke, intake of smoked meat, smoked fish and soda (an alkali preparation used as food additives in Mizoram) and tobacco consumption for increase risk of lung cancer among Women in Mizoram.

  12. Impact of health beliefs, social support and self-efficacy on physical activity and dietary habits during the post-partum period after gestational diabetes mellitus: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Barbara; Razurel, Chantal; Jeannot, Emilien

    2013-06-21

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a glucose intolerance of variable severity occurring or diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy. Numerous epidemiological studies show that this disorder affects between 1 and 18% of pregnancies, depending on the ethnicity of the populations studied, the diagnostic criteria, or the body mass index (BMI). Its incidence is constantly rising worldwide. Patients with GDM have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the months after delivery. For this reason, GDM patients are encouraged to practice specific health behaviors (dietary habits, physical activity) during the postpartum period. It is important to identify the factors that may impact adherence to these behaviors. A targeted sample size of 200 eligible pregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM will be enrolled in this prospective, cohort study. They will be recruited from 30-36 weeks of gestation as part of their diabetes consultation in Geneva University Hospital (GUH) maternity unit. Psychosocial variables that could impact adherence to health behaviors in the postpartum period (behavioral intentions, risk perceptions, general knowledge about diabetes, health beliefs, social support, self-efficacy) will be evaluated using specific tools at the end of pregnancy, at 6 weeks postpartum and at 6 months postpartum. Multiple regression analyses will be performed on SPSS. For the first time in Europe, the objective of this research is to study in women with very recent GDM the link between dietary habits, physical activity levels, and psychosocial and cognitive factors possibly involved in the adoption of health behaviors in the postpartum period. These factors have been identified in the literature, but to date have never been combined in a single study. The study will allow a predictive theoretical model of health behavior to be established and used as a basis for reflection to optimize interventions carried out on women who have had GDM.

  13. Nurses' health-related behaviours: protocol for a quantitative systematic review of prevalence of tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neall, Rosie A; Atherton, Iain M; Kyle, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    To enumerate nurses' health-related behaviour by critically appraising studies on tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits. Nurses represent the largest occupational group in healthcare systems internationally and have an established and expanding public health role. Nurses own health-related behaviour is known to impact nurses' ability and confidence to engage in health promotion, and how patients receive and respond to advice and guidance nurses' give. However, there has been no comprehensive and comparable assessment of evidence on nurses' health-related behaviours. Quantitative systematic review of prevalence of tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits. Systematic searches for literature published between January 2000 and February 2015 and indexed in Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and Psychological Information. Eligibility criteria will be applied to titles and abstracts by two reviewers independently. Full text will be reviewed and the same criteria and process applied. Two reviewers will independently assess study quality guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute handbook for the systematic review of prevalence and incidence data. Discrepancies in eligibility or quality assessment will be resolved through discussion and, where required, a third reviewer. Data synthesis will be conducted and findings reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. Enumerating prevalence of nurses' health-related behaviours is crucial to direct future research, inform public health policy, particularly around health promotion and to better support the nursing workforce through the development of behaviour change interventions. PROSPERO registration: CRD42015016751. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A randomized controlled trial of physical activity, dietary habit, and distress management with the Leadership and Coaching for Health (LEACH) program for disease-free cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Ho; Kim, Young Ae; Lee, Myung Kyung; Sim, Jin Ah; Nam, Byung-Ho; Kim, Sohee; Lee, Eun Sook; Noh, Dong-Young; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Sung; Kim, Si-Young; Cho, Chi-Heum; Jung, Kyung Hae; Chun, Mison; Lee, Soon Nam; Park, Kyong Hwa; Park, Sohee

    2017-05-02

    We aimed to evaluate the potential benefits of the Leadership and Coaching for Health (LEACH) program on physical activity (PA), dietary habits, and distress management in cancer survivors. We randomly assigned 248 cancer survivors with an allocation ratio of two-to-one to the LEACH program (LP) group, coached by long-term survivors, or the usual care (UC) group. At baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months, we used PA scores, the intake of vegetables and fruits (VF), and the Post Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) as primary outcomes and, for secondary outcomes, the Ten Rules for Highly Effective Health Behavior adhered to and quality of life (QOL), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). For primary outcomes, the two groups did not significantly differ in PA scores or VF intake but differed marginally in PTGI. For secondary outcomes, the LP group showed a significantly greater improvement in the HADS anxiety score, the social functioning score, and the appetite loss and financial difficulties scores of the EORTC QLQ-C30 scales from baseline to 3 months. From baseline to 12 months, the LP group showed a significantly greater decrease in the EORTC QLQ-C30 fatigue score and a significantly greater increase in the number of the Ten Rules for Highly Effective Health Behavior. Our findings indicate that the LEACH program, coached by long-term survivors, can provide effective management of the QOL of cancer survivors but not of their PA or dietary habits. Clinical trial information can be found for the following: NCT01527409 (the date when the trial was registered: February 2012).

  15. Impact of Dietary Acculturation on the Food Habits, Weight, Blood Pressure, and Fasting Blood Glucose Levels of International College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohanna, Amal; Conforti, Frank; Eigel, William; Barbeau, William

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to determine the impact of dietary acculturation on the health status of newly arrived international students at Virginia Tech in Fall 2010. Participants: Thirty-five international students, 18-36 years of age, completed the study. Methods: Data were collected at 3 different time periods (V1, V2, and V3)…

  16. Prognostic value of alcohol consumption and some other dietary habits for survival in a cohort of Chinese men with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Tse, Lap Ah; Au, Joseph S K; Yu, Kai Shing; Wang, Feng; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2017-02-10

    Alcohol consumption and some other dietary habits are thought to be associated with lung cancer incidence. However, the effects of these habits on lung cancer prognosis have been studied rarely. The purpose of this study was to address these gaps in knowledge. We studied a cohort of 1052 Chinese men in Hong Kong who were diagnosed with primary lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the prognostic values of consumption of alcohol, fresh fruits or vegetables, meat, and fried or preserved food. Compared with never drinkers, men who drank alcohol 1-3 days per week had a more favorable lung cancer prognosis (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68-0.97); however, this survival advantage was not significant in men who drank alcohol more frequently (HR: 0.91, 95% CI 0.73-1.14). Compared with men who consumed preserved or fried food only occasionally, men who consumed these foods frequently had a higher risk of lung cancer mortality (HR: 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.42). Occasional consumption of alcohol was a favorable survival factor for Chinese men with lung cancer. However, this survival benefit did not exist for frequent drinkers of alcohol. Chinese men with lung cancer who were frequent consumers of fried or preserved food had a worse prognosis than those who consumed these foods only occasionally.

  17. Effects of regularly consuming dietary fibre rich soluble cocoa products on bowel habits in healthy subjects: a free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarriá Beatriz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibre is both preventive and therapeutic for bowel functional diseases. Soluble cocoa products are good sources of dietary fibre that may be supplemented with this dietary component. This study assessed the effects of regularly consuming two soluble cocoa products (A and B with different non-starch polysaccharides levels (NSP, 15.1 and 22.0% w/w, respectively on bowel habits using subjective intestinal function and symptom questionnaires, a daily diary and a faecal marker in healthy individuals. Methods A free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention was carried out in 44 healthy men and women, between 18-55 y old, who had not taken dietary supplements, laxatives, or antibiotics six months before the start of the study. In the four-week-long intervention stages, separated by a three-week-wash-out stage, two servings of A and B, that provided 2.26 vs. 6.60 g/day of NSP respectively, were taken. In each stage, volunteers' diet was recorded using a 72-h food intake report. Results Regularly consuming cocoa A and B increased fibre intake, although only cocoa B significantly increased fibre intake (p Conclusions Regular consumption of the cocoa products increases dietary fibre intake to recommended levels and product B improves bowel habits. The use of both objective and subjective assessments to evaluate the effects of food on bowel habits is recommended.

  18. Dietary intake habits and controlled training on body composition and strength in elite female volleyball players during the season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Zourdos, Michael C; Calleja-González, Julio; Urdampilleta, Aritz; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake of elite female volleyball players (EFVPs, n = 22) during the first 11 weeks of the competitive season. Further, we compared findings for total energy intake and specific macronutrient distribution with the established recommendations for high-intensity athletes. Subjects also engaged in periodized training and we assessed changes in body composition (BC) and strength. Twenty-two EFVPs had dietary intake (7-day dietary recall and food-frequency questionnaire), BC (body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, fat mass, muscle mass), and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength (bench press, military press, back squat, power clean, clean and jerk, pull-over) assessed at baseline (T0, before preseason) and 11 weeks later (T11). Athletes consumed less total kilocalories and carbohydrates (CHO) compared with established recommendations (total kilocalories: 40.7 ± 5.2 kcal/(kg · day)(-1) vs. 50-80 kcal/(kg · day)(-1); CHO: 4.3 ± 0.6 g/(kg · day)(-1) vs. 5-8 g/(kg · day)(-1)). Further, subjects consumed greater protein (2.1 ± 0.4 g/(kg · day)(-1)) compared with recommendations (1.6-1.8 g/(kg · day)(-1)) and greater fat (36.1 ± 4.6% of total kilocalories) than recommendations (20%-35% of total kilocalories). There were improvements (p 0.05) in BMI or military press and pull-over. Back squat (p = 0.054; +33.0% ± 83.7%) and power clean (p = 0.056; +26.2% ± 49.0%) increases approached significance. Our findings indicate that EFVPs improved BC and strength despite a dietary intake different from recommendations. This is possibly due to different substrate utilization during exercise in females versus males, thus new recommendations should be considered for high-intensity athletes, which are sex-specific.

  19. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

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    Elizabeth Hormann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25, 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas, while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%, was low in carbohydrates (49.6%, and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%. Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%, fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%, protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%, vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%, Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%, Fe (56.3% vs. 48%, Ca (55.1% vs. 41% and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%. The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80% than in urban (65.1% areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  20. Nutritional status, dietary habits and social and health profile of home meal service users for elderly of Vitoria-Gasteiz

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    Fernando Gómez-Busto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The home meals service (HMS is a little-developed resource in the Basque Country, and is dependent on social services. The aim of this study is to establish the nutritional status, eating habits and main social and healthcare characteristics of the users of this service.Material and Methods: A descriptive and transversal study carried out in 2 phases: (a phase 1: an assessment of nutritional status and eating habits using an abbreviated version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment and a questionnaire on food consumption. (b phase 2: the assessment of the dependency risk at home and quality of life related to health by means of Barber and EuroQoL-5D questionnaires.Results: Eighty users (35 men, 45 women fulfilled the criteria for inclusion; average age: 83.62 years (± 5.53. Nutritional status: the prevalence of malnutrition was 11% and that of risk of malnutrition 39%. Eating habits: the meal provided guaranteed a minimal provision of legumes, pasta, rice or potatoes (once or twice a week, fish (once or twice a week, and meat (three or four times a week. In spite of this, the frequency of consumption of vegetables, fish, rice, eggs or meat was less than recommended in over 70% of the group. Social and healthcare profile: 127 users (60 men, 67 women took part; average age: 83.82 years (± 6.17. Barber’s questionnaire: living alone: 48%; housebound through illness: 20%. Poor hearing: 44%; poor sight: 34%; although: 30% needed help, 95% were receiving support. EuroQoL-5D: Serious problems reported: 4.7% had difficulties with mobility; 7.9% with personal care; 23.6% had problems with carrying out daily activities; 15% reported pain or discomfort; 3.9% anxiety/depression. Perceived health status: 32.3% considered their health to be good or very good, 34,6% fair, and 33% bad or very bad.Conclusions: The group studied consists of a vulnerable people, with social and health problems and more malnutrition than the older population living at

  1. Evaluating the Impact of Health Promoting School Initiative on Dietary Habits and BMI of Students in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shama, Mona E; Abdou, Sahar S

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating health promoting schools (HPS) initiative carried out on a sample of schools from all regions in Oman. The evaluation sought to assess the impact of the initiative on students' dietary behavior and body mass index (BMI). The static group comparison design was employed. The study was conducted in 15 health promoting schools comprising grades eight and nine and 15 matching conventional schools (CS). A total sample of 1535 students (752 intervention group-HPS, 783 comparison group-CS) participated in the study. The self administered questionnaire directed to students was used to collect data. Weight and height of each student were measured and BMI was calculated. Male students in HPS showed significant favorable behavior than those in CS regarding eating fruits, consuming fast food and soft drinks. On the other hand, female students in HPS showed significant favorable behavior than those in CS regarding eating breakfast and vegetables. Male and female students in HPS showed significantly higher mean total dietary behavior score than male and female students in CS. Lower percentage of HPS male students were underweight and obese compared to students from CS with significant difference. Positive changes in students' dietary behaviors were achieved by adopting the health promoting school initiatives with obvious difference between male and female students. Expansion of HPS initiative to other schools in Oman is recommended. Innovative nutrition program need to be developed and implemented by HPS to further impact eating behaviors and nutritional status of school children. Given the differences in the effectiveness of HPS initiative between male and female students, there is a need to develop and evaluate separate interventions for each of them.

  2. Validation of a simplified food frequency questionnaire for the assessment of dietary habits in Iranian adults: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadifard, Noushin; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Alikhasi, Hassan; Nilforoushzadeh, Farzaneh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2015-03-01

    Dietary assessment is the first step of dietary modification in community-based interventional programs. This study was performed to validate a simple food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) for assessment of selected food items in epidemiological studies with a large sample size as well as community trails. This validation study was carried out on 264 healthy adults aged ≥ 41 years old living in 3 district central of Iran, including Isfahan, Najafabad, and Arak. Selected food intakes were assessed using a 48-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was interviewer-administered, which was completed twice; at the beginning of the study and 2 weeks thereafter. The validity of this SFFQ was examined compared to estimated amount by single 24 h dietary recall and 2 days dietary record. Validation of the FFQ was determined using Spearman correlation coefficients between daily frequency consumption of food groups as assessed by the FFQ and the qualitative amount of daily food groups intake accessed by dietary reference method was applied to evaluate validity. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to determine the reproducibility. Spearman correlation coefficient between the estimated amount of food groups intake by examined and reference methods ranged from 0.105 (P = 0.378) in pickles to 0.48 (P food groups (P food groups intake. Thus, it can serve as a valid tool in epidemiological studies and clinical trial with large participants.

  3. Alcoholic Beverage Preference and Dietary Habits in Elderly across Europe: Analyses within the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; Jankovic, Nicole; O'Doherty, Mark G; Geelen, Anouk; Schöttker, Ben; Rolandsson, Olov; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Ferrieres, Jean; Bamia, Christina; Fransen, Heidi P; Boer, Jolanda M A; Eriksson, Sture; Martínez, Begoña; Huerta, José María; Kromhout, Daan; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Franco, Oscar H; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Kee, Frank; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-01

    The differential associations of beer, wine, and spirit consumption on cardiovascular risk found in observational studies may be confounded by diet. We described and compared dietary intake and diet quality according to alcoholic beverage preference in European elderly. From the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES), seven European cohorts were included, i.e. four sub-cohorts from EPIC-Elderly, the SENECA Study, the Zutphen Elderly Study, and the Rotterdam Study. Harmonized data of 29,423 elderly participants from 14 European countries were analyzed. Baseline data on consumption of beer, wine, and spirits, and dietary intake were collected with questionnaires. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI). Intakes and scores across categories of alcoholic beverage preference (beer, wine, spirit, no preference, non-consumers) were adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic status, self-reported prevalent diseases, and lifestyle factors. Cohort-specific mean intakes and scores were calculated as well as weighted means combining all cohorts. In 5 of 7 cohorts, persons with a wine preference formed the largest group. After multivariate adjustment, persons with a wine preference tended to have a higher HDI score and intake of healthy foods in most cohorts, but differences were small. The weighted estimates of all cohorts combined revealed that non-consumers had the highest fruit and vegetable intake, followed by wine consumers. Non-consumers and persons with no specific preference had a higher HDI score, spirit consumers the lowest. However, overall diet quality as measured by HDI did not differ greatly across alcoholic beverage preference categories. This study using harmonized data from ~30,000 elderly from 14 European countries showed that, after multivariate adjustment, dietary habits and diet quality did not differ greatly according to alcoholic beverage preference.

  4. Food frequency questionnaire is a valid tool for the assessment of dietary habits of South Indian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Soares, Mario J; Thomas, Tinku; Vaz, Mario; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Kurpad, Anura V

    2014-09-01

    The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was validated against multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HDRs) and for a few blood biomarkers in 154 pregnant women at the obstetrics and gynecology department of St John's Medical College Hospital, Bangalore, India. Absolute nutrient intakes from the FFQ correlated positively with the average 24-HDR during pregnancy. Energy-adjusted nutrients from the FFQ in all trimesters, except proteins, carbohydrate, folate intake, and vitamin B6 in the third trimester, correlated positively with average 24-HDR. Overestimation by the FFQ compared with the 24-HDR ranged from 9% to 41%. Vitamin B12 status in the first and second trimesters positively correlated with energy-adjusted and absolute vitamin B12 intakes from the FFQ. The Bland Altman plots showed a pattern such that a trend was seen toward underreporting of intakes through the FFQ, with increasing mean intakes by the 2 methods, considering 24-HDR as the reference tool. We conclude that the FFQ is a valid tool to measure dietary intakes during pregnancy. © 2012 APJPH.

  5. Dietary habits of the hypertensive population of Spain: accordance with the DASH diet and the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Muñoz, Luz M; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Graciani, Auxiliadora; López-García, Esther; Mesas, Arthur E; Taboada, José M; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    Dietary treatment is appropriate for all patients with hypertension. However, only a few population-based studies have evaluated the diet of hypertensive individuals, and none of them has been conducted in Europe. This study examined accordance with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and the Mediterranean diet in the hypertensive population of Spain. A cross-sectional study conducted in 2008-2010 among 12 948 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged at least 18 years. Blood pressure was measured with validated devices under standardized conditions. Habitual food consumption was assessed with a computerized diet history. DASH accordance was defined as at least 4.5 points on a score using nine nutrient targets, and Mediterranean diet accordance as at least 9 points on the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener score. Among the diagnosed hypertensive individuals, 17.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 15.4-19.2%] had a DASH-accordant diet, and 17.2% (95% CI 15.4-19.1%) had a Mediterranean-accordant diet. The frequency of DASH accordance increased with age, was higher among women and hypercholesterolaemic individuals, and lower in current smokers. Similar results were found for Mediterranean diet accordance. Only 60% of the diagnosed hypertensive individuals reported receiving and following a diet prescribed to control hypertension; this group showed a better accordance with the DASH diet [age and sex-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.43; 95% CI 1.08-1.88]. As compared with the 1518 hypertensive individuals unaware of their condition, those who were diagnosed showed a similar frequency of accordance with the DASH diet (aOR 1.08; 95% CI 0.87-1.34) and the Mediterranean diet (aOR 0.98; 95% CI 0.79-1.20). The diet of hypertensive individuals in Spain has a low accordance with the DASH and Mediterranean dietary patterns. The similarity in healthy-diets accordance between the diagnosed and undiagnosed hypertensive individuals suggests that

  6. [Relationships of the stages of behavior change in dietary habits of the mothers of school-age children with the breakfast intake of the children and the health-associated behavior of the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Kayoko; Senoue, Aya; Wada, Miyuki; Sakoda, Makiko; Seto, Kozue; Haraguchi, Miho; Matsukida, Emi; Maruyama, Chizuko

    2012-04-01

    We aimed to clarify the relationships of the different stages of behavior change in dietary habits followed by the mothers of school-age children with the actual breakfast intake of these children and the health-associated behavior of the family. We carried out a questionnaire-based survey of 1949 children at 18 elementary schools and of 881 families with children attending seven elementary schools in Kagoshima prefecture. We were supplied with information about children's breakfast intake and content on the day they took the survey and information about mothers' breakfast intake and the stage of behavior change in dietary habits to which they belonged, for which five stages were defined using the stage-of-change model. The collection rates were 83.3% and 83.1% among children and mothers respectively. Of the children, 83.1% ate breakfast every day, while 15.1% were not in the habit of having breakfast. Furthermore, 98.6% children had eaten breakfast on the day of the survey, but 15.1% had eaten only staple foods such as rice or bread; only 34.0% children combined staple foods, a main dish, and vegetables/fruits in their breakfast. Regarding dietary stage, 28.1% of the mothers belonged to the "maintenance" stage; 24.0%, the "action" stage; 6.9%, the "preparation" stage; 9.8%, the "contemplation" stage; and 5.7%, the "precontemplation" stage. Mothers belonging to the first two stages constituted the "action group," because they were already taking care of their dietary habits, and mothers belonging to the latter three stages constituted the "no-action group", because they were not taking care of their dietary habits. The mothers who could provide no answers to the question constituted the "no-answer group" (25.5%). A comparison of the three groups revealed that mothers belonging to the no-answer group had more children who went without breakfast than the action group (P = 0.000). The children of mothers belonging to the no-action group (P = 0.003) and the no

  7. [Dietary habits and food consumption in Spanish children and adolescents (1998-2000): socioeconomic and demographic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Majem, Lluís; Ribas Barba, Lourdes; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Roman Viñas, Blanca; Aranceta Bartrina, Javier

    2003-06-28

    Although children and adolescents have special nutritional requirements due to their physical development, little is known about the concept of a healthy diet. This study shows the food consumption of the Spanish population aged 2-24 years in relation to socio-economic and geographic factors. A representative sample of the Spanish population (n = 3.534 individuals, 1.905 female and 1.629 male) was studied. Both a 24-hours recall and a general questionnaire with socio-economic, demographic and life style items were administered. Most individuals consumed meals at home. The consumption of vegetables (90.4 g), cereals (181.1 g) and potatoes (69.7 g) was low, the consumption of red meat (71.6 g) and sausages (46.8 g) was high, and fish consumption was low (47.7 g). Girls had insufficient intakes of milk (280.9 g). We noticed geographical differences in food consumption which may be reflected in various health outcomes in adulthood. The familiar socioeconomic status and the educational level of the mother showed some influence on the intakes of meat, fish, fruits and vegetables, yoghurt and cheese. Nutritional education programs are needed to settle the observed nutritional inadequacies in the food habits of Spanish children and adolescents so that the future health of the population improves. It is also needed to reduce the inequalities linked to geographic and socio-economic factors.

  8. Perception of sugar reduction, nutrition education, and frequency of snacking in children by the self-perceived sweet dietary habits of mothers in Busan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Jee-Young; Lee, Soon-Kyu

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of sugar reduction, nutrition education, and frequency of snacking in children according to the self-perceived dietary preferences for sweet taste by mothers in Busan. A total of 277 mothers were surveyed, and their perceptions of sugar reduction and the frequency of snacking in children were assessed using a questionnaire. The subjects were classified into either a sweet (n = 91) or an unsweet (n = 186) group according to their self-perceived preferences for a sweet taste. In the sweet group, the results for sweet products were sweetened ice (86.8%), confectionery (74.7%), processed milk (73.6%), carbonated beverages (71.4%), and fermented milk (53.9%). In the unsweet group, the results were sweetened ice (88.7%), carbonated beverages (78.5%), processed milk (75.8%), confectionery (69.4%), and fermented milk (50.5%). The necessity of sugar intake reduction was high in both groups (sweet = 89.0%, unsweet = 82.8%). Beverage purchases after identifying the nutrition labeling was significantly lower in the sweet group than in the unsweet group ( P < 0.05). The reasons for the beverage purchases instead of water were "habitually" (50.5%) and "like sweet taste" (25.3%) in the sweet group ( P < 0.01). Snacking in children was significantly higher in the sweet group based on the increased frequencies of carbonated drinks ( P < 0.01), fast food ( P < 0.001), candy and chocolate ( P < 0.05), crackers ( P < 0.01), ramen ( P < 0.01), and fish paste/hotdogs ( P < 0.01). The frequency of purchase education after identifying the nutrition labeling was significantly lower in the sweet group than in the unsweet group ( P < 0.01). These findings suggest that a perception of sugar reduction and practical nutrition education aimed at reducing the sugar intake are necessary to improve dietary habits.

  9. The relationship between dietary habits, blood glucose and insulin levels among people without cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes; the ATTICA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Tzima, Natalia; Pitsavos, Christos; Chrysohoou, Christina; Papakonstantinou, Emilia; Zampelas, Antonis; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2005-01-01

    Diet has long been associated with a risk of insulin resistance and poor glycemic control. We sought to investigate the association between food groups and indices of glycemic control in adults without type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. During 2001 - 2002 we randomly enrolled 1514 men (18-87 years old) and 1528 women (18-89 years old) without evidence of cardiovascular disease from the Attica area of Greece. Of them, 118 men and 92 women were excluded from the present analysis due to a history of diabetes mellitus (type 2). Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were measured, while dietary habits were evaluated through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Red meat consumption was positively associated with hyperglycemia (p = 0.04), hyperinsulinemia (p = 0.04), and HOMA levels (p = 0.03), even after adjusting for BMI and various other potential confounders. The intake of fruits, vegetables, legumes, yogurt and other dairy products was not associated with levels of glycemic control indices. A higher consumption of red meat and its products may aggravate hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in non-diabetic people.

  10. Dietary habits of urban pigeons (Columba livia and implications of excreta pH – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spennemann Dirk H. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pigeons are considered to be urban pests, causing untold damage to buildings and potentially impacting the health of humans who come into contact with them or their faeces. Pigeon faecal matter has been implicated in both health impacts and building damage, with the acidity of the excreta playing an important role. Purpose of the Review. This paper is a wide-ranging review of the chemical processes of excreta in the pigeon to aid our understanding of the potential problems of pigeons to buildings and human amenity in the urban space. The natural pH of pigeons is shown to vary based on the bird’s and age as well as reproductive stage. Key findings of the review. The influences of the altered diet between the rock dove (the wild progenitor of the feral pigeon and the feral pigeon are detailed, indicating that the human-based diet of urban pigeons most likely causes the feral pigeon excreta to be more acidic than the rock dove excreta. This higher acidity is due in part to diet, but also to potential increases in faecal and/or uric acid volumes due to the low quality of human-based diets. Again, this area of interest is highly data deficient due to the few number of studies and unspecified dietary intake before pH measurement. Implications of the review. Humans are increasingly concerned about pigeon populations (and presumably their accumulated faeces in the urban space, and control comprises a large part of the interaction between humans and feral pigeons. This review provides a greater understanding of feral pigeons and the true effects of their excreta.

  11. A potential link between lateral semicircular canal orientation, head posture, and dietary habits in extant rhinos (Perissodactyla, Rhinocerotidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhorn, Rico

    2018-01-01

    Extant rhinoceroses share the characteristic nasal horn, although the number and size of horns varies among the five species. Although all species are herbivores, their dietary preferences, occipital shapes, and common head postures vary. Traditionally, to predict the "usual" head posture (the most used head posture of animals during normal unstressed activities, i.e., standing) of rhinos, the occipital shape was used. While a backward inclined occiput implies a downward hanging head (often found in grazers), a forward inclined occiput is related to the horizontal head posture in browsing rhinos. In this study, the lateral semicircular canal (LSC) of the bony labyrinth was virtually reconstructed from µCT-images in order to investigate a possible link between LSC orientation and head posture in extant rhinoceroses. The usual head posture was formerly reconstructed for several non-rhinoceros taxa with the assumption that the LSC of the inner ear is held horizontal (parallel to the ground) during normal activity of the living animal. The current analysis of the LSC orientation resulted in a downward inclined usual head posture for the grazing white rhinoceros and a nearly horizontal head posture in the browsing Javan rhinoceros. The other three browsing or mixed feeding species show subhorizontal (closer to horizontal than a downgrade inclination) head postures. The results show that anatomical and behavioral aspects, like occipital shape, presence and size of horns/tusk-like lower incisors, as well as feeding and feeding height preferences influence the usual head posture. Because quantitative behavioral data are lacking for the usual head postures of the extant rhinos, the here described relationship between the LSC orientation and the resulting head posture linked to feeding preferences gives new insights. The results show, that the inner ear provides additional information to interpret usual head postures linked to feeding preferences that can easily be adapted

  12. Effectiveness of a universal parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in 6-year-old children: the Healthy School Start Study, a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Nyberg

    Full Text Available To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children.A cluster-randomised controlled trial was carried out in areas with low to medium socio-economic status. Participants were six-year-old children (n = 243 and their parents. Fourteen pre-school classes were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 7 and control groups (n = 7. The intervention lasted for 6 months and included: 1 Health information for parents, 2 Motivational Interviewing with parents and 3 Teacher-led classroom activities with children. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, dietary and physical activity habits and parental self-efficacy through a questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured and BMI standard deviation score was calculated. Measurements were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up. Group differences were examined using analysis of covariance and Poisson regression, adjusted for gender and baseline values.There was no significant intervention effect in the primary outcome physical activity. Sub-group analyses showed a significant gender-group interaction in total physical activity (TPA, with girls in the intervention group demonstrating higher TPA during weekends (p = 0.04, as well as in sedentary time, with boys showing more sedentary time in the intervention group (p = 0.03. There was a significantly higher vegetable intake (0.26 servings in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.003. At follow-up, sub-group analyses showed a sustained effect for boys. The intervention did not affect the prevalence of overweight or obesity.It is possible to influence vegetable intake in children and girls' physical activity through a parental support programme. The programme needs to be intensified in order to increase effectiveness and sustain the effects long-term. These findings

  13. Implementation of Lifestyle Modification Program Focusing on Physical Activity and Dietary Habits in a Large Group, Community-Based Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Falcon, Ashley; Arheart, Kris; Stasi, Selina; Portacio, Francia; Stepanenko, Bryan; Lan, Mary L.; Castruccio-Prince, Catarina; Nackenson, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modification programs improve several health-related behaviors, including physical activity (PA) and nutrition. However, few of these programs have been expanded to impact a large number of individuals in one setting at one time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a PA- and nutrition-based lifestyle…

  14. Obesity, unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary behaviors among university students in Sudan: growing risks for chronic diseases in a poor country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Khalifa, Fatima; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to highlight nutritional status, dietary habits and sedentary patterns among university students in Khartoum state, Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 400 university students (183 males and 217 females) from University of Khartoum, Sudan. A pre-validated self-reported questionnaire was used to collect the data. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was used to determine obesity status. Of the students, 20.5, 14.7, and 1.7 % were underweight, overweight and obese, respectively. The majority of students (85.5 %) consumed breakfast daily. About 45 and 21.8 % of students consumed vegetables and fruit, respectively, on more than 3 days a week. Fast food was consumed significantly more (p < 0.01) for more than 3 days per week by females (44.2 %) than males (27.3 %). Females (42.9 %) were more likely to watch television for 3 h and more per day than males (30.6 %) (p < 0.039). Males (33.9 %) were more prone to sleep for fewer than 7 h per day than females (23 %) (p < 0.016). The health authority in Sudan should not only focus on prevention of malnutrition among children but also should organize programs to promote healthy eating and lifestyle among children and youths to prevent and control alarming risk factors for chronic diseases.

  15. NutriNet-Salud México. Prospective study online: 2018-2028. Relationship between nutrition and health and determinants of dietary habits and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriguete-Meléndez, Jorge Armando; Hercberg, Serge; Galán, Pilar; Parodi, André; Baulieux, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    NutriNet-Salud Mexico is a digital health information system, e-epidemiology instrument, online, open and free, to recording and analysis the determinants of dietary habits and nutritional status of the Mexican population, for the prevention of overweight, obesity and noncommunicable diseases for the period 2018-2028. Describe the design, development and implementation of NutriNet-Salud Mexico from the French model NutriNet-Santé France 2008-2018. NutriNet-Salud Mexico platform is the basis for the development of health information system for prospective cohort study, scheduled for a period of 10 years (2018-2028), with a dedicated website, and its development will enable to have multiple study populations within an initial set of five self-applicable questionnaires validated in Mexican population. The information will enable to develop applied research, learn and monitor food contributions and nutritional status of the population, assess the impact of public health actions on feeding behavior and nutritional status, comparing populations between countries (Mexico, France, Belgium and Switzerland) and national institutes, universities and states. NutriNet-Salud Mexico will provide information for assist in research and public action, especially to guide public policies on nutrition Mexico. The scientific elements will make appropriate nutritional recommendations to different populations and access to a representative nominal population sample with low-cost, in real-time, and with dual approach to e-epidemiology: cohort study to identify causality and cross-sectional studies (descriptive research, monitoring and evaluation). Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  16. Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Martin S; Fuglei, Eva; König, Max; Lipasti, Inka; Pedersen, Åshild Ø; Polder, Anuschka; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Routti, Heli

    2015-04-01

    Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (δ13C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p'-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4-11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and δ13C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, β-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of δ13C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary habits, food taboos, and perceptions towards weight gain during pregnancy in Arsi, rural central Ethiopia: a qualitative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerfu, Taddese Alemu; Umeta, Melaku; Baye, Kaleab

    2016-07-25

    The nutritional status of women before and during pregnancy can be determined by maternal knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions towards certain foods. The present study aimed to explore maternal dietary habits, food taboos, and cultural beliefs that can affect nutrition during pregnancy in rural Arsi, central Ethiopia. A qualitative, cross-sectional study, involving 38 key informant in-depth interviews and eight focus group discussions, was conducted among purposefully selected pregnant women and their husbands, elderly people, community leaders, health workers, and agriculture office experts. Participants were selected purposefully from all the major agro-ecologic areas of the study site. Data was analyzed manually using the thematic framework analyses method. The pregnant women reported that they did not change the amount and type of foods consumed to take into account their increased nutritional need during pregnancy. The consumption of meat, fish, fruits, and some vegetables during pregnancy remained as low as the pre-pregnancy state, irrespective of the women's income and educational status. Although not practiced by all, a number of taboos related to the intake of certain food items and misconceptions that can adversely affect nutritional status during pregnancy were identified. The most common taboos were related to the consumption of green leafy vegetables, yogurt, cheese, sugar cane, and green pepper. However, the frequency and extent of the practice varied by maternal age, family composition, and literacy level. Older mothers, from rural villages, and those with no formal education were more likely to practice the taboos than younger and educated ones. Almost all of the participants disfavored weight gain during pregnancy in fear of obstetric complications associated with the delivery of a bigger infant. Misconceptions about weight gain during pregnancy and food taboos were widespread, particularly among older and illiterate rural communities. Thus

  18. Associations between obesity (BMI and waist circumference and socio-demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits, life events, resilience, mood, perceived stress and hopelessness in healthy older Europeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart-Knox Barbara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to understand the psycho-social context of obesity to inform prevention and treatment of obesity at both the individual and public health level. Methods Representative samples of middle-aged adults aged ≥43 years were recruited in Great Britain (GB (n = 1182 and Portugal (n = 540 and interviewed to explore associations between body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits (FFQ, life events (LES, Resilience (RS11, Mood (MS, Hopelessness (BDI and Perceived Stress (PSS4. BMI (kg/m2 and WC (cm were dependent variables in separate multiple linear regression models for which predictors were entered in 4 blocks: 1. demographic factors; 2. stressful life events; 3. diet/activity; and, 4. psychological measures. Results In the GB sample, BMI (kg/m2 was predicted by less education, illness in a close friend or relative, frequent alcohol consumption and sedentary behaviour. Among the Portuguese, higher BMI (kg/m2 was predicted by lower resilience. Being male and less education were independent predictors of having a larger WC (cm in both countries. Within GB, not working, illness in a close friend or relative, sedentary lifestyle and lower resilience were also independent predictors of a larger WC (cm. Conclusions These data suggest that intervention to treat and/or prevent obesity should target males, particularly those who have left education early and seek to promote resilience. In GB, targeting those with high alcohol consumption and encouraging physical activity, particularly among those who have experienced illness in a close friend or relative may also be effective in reducing obesity.

  19. Eating on the Edge. A study focusing on dietary habits and nutritional status among illicit drug addicts in Oslo, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Sæland, Mone Eli

    2014-01-01

    The use of illicit drugs is initially about entering an elevated state of joy, relief and power that not is accessible in other ways. Unfortunately, drug abuse also has various unintended and undesirable consequences, including withdrawal symptoms, hyperactivity, impulsivity, compulsion and loss of control with consequential relapse. Furthermore, it often leads to degrading activities such as prostitution and criminal conduct, increased susceptibility to acute and chronic infections, drug ove...

  20. An analysis of dietary fiber and fecal fiber components including pH in rural Africans with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruk, Mohammed; Ibrahim, Sani; Adamu, Ahmed; Rafindadi, Abdulmumini Hassan; Ukwenya, Yahaya; Iliyasu, Yawale; Adamu, Abdullahi; Aminu, Surajo Mohammed; Shehu, Mohammed Sani; Ameh, Danladi Amodu; Mohammed, Abdullahi; Ahmed, Saad Aliyu; Idoko, John; Ntekim, Atara; Suleiman, Aishatu Maude; Shah, Khalid Zahir; Adoke, Kasimu Umar

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now a major public health problem with heavy morbidity and mortality in rural Africans despite the lingering dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs consumption. Studies have shown that increased intake of dietary fiber which contribute to low fecal pH and also influences the activity of intestinal microbiota, is associated with a lowered risk for CRC. However, whether or not the apparent high dietary fiber consumption by Africans do not longer protects against CRC risk is unknown. This study evaluated dietary fiber intake, fecal fiber components and pH levels in CRC patients. Thirty-five subjects (CRC=21, control=14), mean age 45 years were recruited for the study. A truncated food frequency questionnaire and modified Goering and Van Soest procedures were used. We found that all subjects consumed variety of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs. There is slight preponderance in consumption of dietary fiber by the control group than the CRC patients. We also found a significant difference in the mean fecal neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents from the CRC patients compared to the controls ( P fiber components and stool pH levels between the 2 groups may relate to CRC incidence and mortality in rural Africans. There is crucial need for more hypothesis-driven research with adequate funding on the cumulative preventive role of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs against colorectal cancer in rural Africans "today."

  1. Comparative analysis of methods of training and dietary habits of skilled bodybuilders in the run-general preparatory stage

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    Dzhym V.Y.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : comparative analysis of the characteristics of methods of training and nutrition bodybuilders in the run-general of the preparatory phase (duration 4 - 5 months or 20 microcycles. Analyzed the characteristics of different methods of training bodybuilders to increase muscle mass. Material : the study involved 8 skilled bodybuilders, are included in the team of the Kharkiv region. Results : a comparative characteristic of the most commonly used methods of exercise and nutrition in bodybuilding. Discovered and proved the optimal technique for athletes depending on the original form at the beginning of general-preparatory phase of training. Driven changes in body weight, depending on the amount used Athlete of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Conclusions : throughout the training period was characterized by severe protein diet orientation. The proportion of the nutrient was 40% in the first quarter, 50% - in the second, 60% in the third. Only in the last two microcycle decreased to 50%.

  2. Spatial distributions of inorganic elements in honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and possible relationships to dietary habits and surrounding environmental pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsing-Hai; Jian, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Kong; Wang, Fu-Nien; Wang, Chu-Fang

    2013-05-29

    In this study, the laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was adopted to determine the distribution of inorganic elements, including Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, S, P, Pb, and Zn, in honeybees (Apis melifera L.). Two features are particularly noteworthy. First, it was found there is a significant amount of Fe located at the fringe of the abdomen in worker bees; ultrasonic imaging, scanning electron microscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed that it arose from magnetic Fe-bearing nanoparticles (NPs) having an average diameter of approximately 40 nm. Interestingly, only worker bees contained these magnetic Fe-bearing NPs; no similar features appeared in larvae, pupae, wasps, or drones. Second, a detectable amount of Pb accumulated particularly in the alimentary canals of worker bees. Again, no detectable amounts of Pb in larvae, pupae, drones, or wasps, yet a level of 0.24 ± 0.05 mg/kg of Pb in pollen; therefore, the diet appears to be the primary pathway for environmental pollutants entering the honeybees' food chain.

  3. Knowledge and practice of healthy lifestyle and dietary habits in medical and non-medical students of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajwani, Rubina A; Shoukat, Sana; Raza, Rushna; Shiekh, Muhammad Muhyeuddin; Rashid, Quratulain; Siddique, Momin Saulat; Panju, Sukaina; Raza, Hasan; Chaudhry, Sophia; Kadir, Masood

    2009-09-01

    To objectively compare the differences in knowledge and practices regarding healthy lifestyle among medical and non-medical students of Karachi along with assessment of any perceived barriers. This cross-sectional study included 350 students between ages 17-24 years from 6 private universities of Karachi--three medical and three non-medical Institutions. A self-reported questionnaire was employed to assess attitude and barriers to healthy practices among the simple random selection of students. On a 10-point scale, the average knowledge score of students on general and clinical nutritional knowledge was 5.7 +/- 1.51 and 4.4 +/- 1.77, respectively and the difference was statistically significant (p lifestyle score (85-point scale) among medical (41.3) and non medical students (40.8) was not significant (p = 0.646). There was no difference between the perception of medical and non-medical students regarding 'work-related stress' in their life. 'Lack of time' was cited as the most important reason for skipping meals and as a barrier to exercising regularly among both groups. The knowledge, attitudes and practices of medical students in Karachi suggest that superior knowledge about healthy lifestyle does not necessarily result into better practices.

  4. Exoplanet habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Sara

    2013-05-03

    The search for exoplanets includes the promise to eventually find and identify habitable worlds. The thousands of known exoplanets and planet candidates are extremely diverse in terms of their masses or sizes, orbits, and host star type. The diversity extends to new kinds of planets, which are very common yet have no solar system counterparts. Even with the requirement that a planet's surface temperature must be compatible with liquid water (because all life on Earth requires liquid water), a new emerging view is that planets very different from Earth may have the right conditions for life. The broadened possibilities will increase the future chances of discovering an inhabited world.

  5. An analysis of dietary fiber and fecal fiber components including pH in rural Africans with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Faruk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Colorectal cancer (CRC is now a major public health problem with heavy morbidity and mortality in rural Africans despite the lingering dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs consumption. Studies have shown that increased intake of dietary fiber which contribute to low fecal pH and also influences the activity of intestinal microbiota, is associated with a lowered risk for CRC. However, whether or not the apparent high dietary fiber consumption by Africans do not longer protects against CRC risk is unknown. This study evaluated dietary fiber intake, fecal fiber components and pH levels in CRC patients. Methods: Thirty-five subjects (CRC=21, control=14, mean age 45 years were recruited for the study. A truncated food frequency questionnaire and modified Goering and Van Soest procedures were used. Results: We found that all subjects consumed variety of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs. There is slight preponderance in consumption of dietary fiber by the control group than the CRC patients. We also found a significant difference in the mean fecal neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents from the CRC patients compared to the controls (P<0.05. The CRC patients had significantly more fecal pH level than the matched apparently healthy controls (P=0.017. Conclusions: The identified differences in the fecal fiber components and stool pH levels between the 2 groups may relate to CRC incidence and mortality in rural Africans. There is crucial need for more hypothesis-driven research with adequate funding on the cumulative preventive role of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs against colorectal cancer in rural Africans “today.”

  6. Role of dietary factors and food habits in the development of childhood obesity: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Carlo; Braegger, Christian; Decsi, Tamas; Kolacek, Sanja; Koletzko, Berthold; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis A; Puntis, John; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2011-06-01

    This Comment by the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to provide a summary of the role of nutrition-related factors on obesity prevention in children ages 2 to 18 years. This Comment emphasizes that dietary interventions should be incorporated into a multidisciplinary strategy for obesity prevention. No single nutrient has been unequivocally associated with the development of obesity. Methodological limitations in study design and the complex nature of obesity must be taken into account when interpreting the association with reported dietary factors. Energy intake should be individually determined, taking into account energy expenditure and growth. Preferential intake of slowly absorbed carbohydrates and limiting the ingestion of rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and simple sugars should be promoted. No specific recommendations for macronutrient intakes to prevent obesity can be made. Plant foods can be used as the main food contributors to a well-balanced diet with adequate monitoring of nutrient intake. Plain water should be promoted as the main source of fluids for children instead of sugar-sweetened beverages. Children should eat at least 4 meals, including breakfast, every day. Regular family meals should be encouraged. Regular consumption of fast food with large portion sizes and high energy density should be avoided. Healthy food options should be promoted for snacking. Food portion sizes should be appropriate for age and body size. Nutrition and lifestyle education aimed at the prevention of obesity should be included in the routine care of children by health care professionals.

  7. Martian Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, F.

    2012-09-01

    Due to the reported Mars surface environmental conditions (Klein, 1978) (oxidative stress, high UV radiation levels, etc.) the possibility for life development in the surface of the red planet is very small. The identification of water-ice on the subsurface on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer onboard of the Mars Odyssey (Kieffer and Titus, 2001) and from the High Energy Neutron Detector (Litvak, et al., 2006) has important astrobiological connotations, because in addition to be a potential source for water, these locations are shielding habitats against the harsh conditions existing on the planet, like UV radiation (Gomez, et al., 2007; Gomez, et al., 2012). Martian habitability potential could change in particular located micro-niches. Salt deliquescence and hard environmental parameters modification could be relevant for life under protected niches. An example could be endolithic niches inside salt deposits used by phototrophs for taking advantage of sheltering particular light wavelengths. Similar acidic salts deposits are located in Río Tinto extreme environment with shelter life forms which are difficult to localize by eye. Techniques for its localization and study during space missions are needed to develop. Extreme environments are good scenarios where to test and train those techniques and where hypothetical Astrobiological space missions could be simulated for increasing possibilities of micro niches identification. Here we will report some experiments of bacteria exposition to Martian surface conditions in Mars Simulation chamber. Bacteria were shelter and exposed included in simulated salty endolithic micro niches. High percentage of bacteria resistance and adaptation to harsh extreme those conditions was reported (Gómez, F. et al., 2010). These results were used to develop and implement a Habitability Index to study Martian habitability during the next MSL mission to Mars landed on August 2012 on the surface of the red planet.

  8. Deep Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Morten O. Ravn; Stephanie Schmitt-Grohe

    2004-01-01

    This paper generalizes the standard habit formation model to an environment in which agents form habits over individual varieties of goods as opposed to over a composite consumption good. We refer to this preference specification as ‘deep habit formation’. Under deep habits, the demand function faced by individual producers depends on past sales. This feature is typically assumed ad-hoc in customer market and brand switching cost models. A central result of the paper is that deep habits giv...

  9. Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Martin S. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Fuglei, Eva; König, Max [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Lipasti, Inka [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pedersen, Åshild Ø. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Polder, Anuschka [Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås (Norway); Yoccoz, Nigel G. [Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Routti, Heli, E-mail: heli.routti@npolar.no [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway)

    2015-04-01

    Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (δ{sup 13}C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and δ{sup 13}C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, β-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of δ{sup 13}C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard. - Highlights: • POPs were analyzed in the arctic foxes' liver (n = 141) from Svalbard collected in 1997–2013. • PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year.

  10. Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Martin S.; Fuglei, Eva; König, Max; Lipasti, Inka; Pedersen, Åshild Ø.; Polder, Anuschka; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Routti, Heli

    2015-01-01

    Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (δ 13 C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and δ 13 C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, β-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of δ 13 C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard. - Highlights: • POPs were analyzed in the arctic foxes' liver (n = 141) from Svalbard collected in 1997–2013. • PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year.

  11. The occurence of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and the effect of selected dietary habits on the lipid profile and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kopčeková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE In a group of 204 randomly selected patients hospitalized in the Cardiocentre Nitra, of which 63 were women (30.88% and 141 men (69.12%, we evaluated the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and the impact of dietary habits on the lipid profile and body mass index (BMI. We have recorded a high prevalence of risk factors, especially overweight and obesity, where 87.3% of women and 92.91% of men had BMI ≥25. Normal weight was observed only in 12.70% of women and in 7.09% of men. In the study group up to 60.32% of women and 57.45% of men had blood pressure higher than ≥130/85 mmHg. More than half of the respondents were simultaneously overweighted or obese together with high blood pressure occurence. The total cholesterol level higher than 5.2 mmol/Ll was recorded in 41.24% of women and 34.75% of men. There was statistically significant difference between men and women (P <0.05 in the prevalence of low HDL cholesterol to the detriment of men while the value below 1.3 mmol/L was recorded in 31.75% of women and the value lower than 1.1 mmol/L in 52.48 % of men. Values of triglycerides (TG ≥1.7 mmol/L were recorded in 28.57% of women and in 35.42% of men. Fasting blood glucose levels ≥5.6 mmol/L were recorded in up to 68.25% of women and 71.63% of men. There was not statistically significant difference (P >0.05 in the occurrence of increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure and glycemia according to gender. We found out that most of the respondents consumed food 3-4 times per day, i.e. 53.97% of women and 60.99% of men. Food intake for five to six times a day was reported only by 28.57% of women and 19.15% of men. The number of daily meals was significantly reflected in the BMI values in men who consumed food 1-2 times a day compared to the men who ate 3-4 meals daily (P <0.001. We detected lower BMI values in women with more frequent food

  12. The impact of dietary habits and nutritional deficiencies in urban African patients living with heart failure in Soweto, South Africa--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Sandra

    2013-03-01

    In South Africa, rapid urbanisation and epidemiological transition have left the black urban population vulnerable to diseases of lifestyle such as diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity and heart disease, as well as chronic heart failure. This is in part due to the fact that changes in dietary patterns during urbanisation play an important role in the increase of risk factors of these diseases. The South African population is made up of many different ethnic and cultural groups, each with its own way of eating and food choices. The black African population is one such an ethnic group, with its own distinct eating patterns and food choices. The diets of people living in rural areas tend to still be higher in carbohydrates, lower in fat, lower in sugar and higher in fibre, corresponding to the more traditional way of eating. With urbanisation their diet has changed to a more westernised diet with the resultant decrease in carbohydrates and fibre and an increased fat, processed food and salt consumption. Factors that might contribute to this change in dietary patterns include lack of awareness and knowledge around nutritional recommendations for persons suffering from chronic heart failure, urbanisation, socio-economic circumstances, food insecurity and level of education. Nutritional recommendations and intervention programs for the prevention and management of CHF focusing on food that is culturally sensitive and affordable should be implemented.

  13. Weight management including dietary and physical activity advice provided by Australian physiotherapists: a pilot cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Carter, Amy E; Guest, Maya; Collins, Clare E; James, Carole; Kable, Ashley K; Ashby, Samantha E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2014-08-01

    Physiotherapists may have an impact on obesity prevention and treatment by providing nutrition and physical activity advice to overweight or obese clients; yet little is known about physiotherapists' beliefs and practices related to client weight management. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the practices, beliefs, attitudes and knowledge of physiotherapists regarding the provision of weight management advice to overweight or obese clients. Physiotherapists (n = 65) working in multiple practice settings completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression determined factors associated with the provision of dietary and physical activity advice for weight management. The majority of physiotherapists (n = 53 [81.5%]) believed providing weight management advice was within their scope of practice, yet only a minority had received training during their professional entry level education (n = 13 [20%]) or through professional development (n = 7 [11%]). Most physiotherapists (n = 55 [84.6%]) provided physical activity advice for weight management, but a minority (n = 27 [41.5%]) provided dietary advice. Having received training in weight management during their professional entry level education was associated with providing dietary advice (Odds ratio 8.8, 95% confidence interval 2.0-38.9, p = 0.004). Training in weight management may increase the likelihood of physiotherapists providing dietary advice, improving physiotherapists' management of obesity.

  14. Dietary differences between elderly Iranians living in Sweden and Iran a cross-sectional comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Sven-Erik

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decades, global migration has increased and many immigrant groups have a higher prevalence than the native born population of several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including poor dietary habits. However, it is uncertain if dietary habits in immigrant populations reflect dietary habits in their country of origin or if the current diet is a consequence of the migration and possible change of dietary habits. The aim of this study was to examine possible dietary differences between elderly Iranians living in Stockholm, Sweden with elderly Iranians living in Tehran, Iran, taking into account sex, age, marital status, and education. Methods Dietary intakes were assessed by semi - quantitative food frequency questionnaire in a cross-sectional study of 121 Iranians living in Stockholm and 52 Iranians living in Tehran, aged 60-80. Differences in dietary habits between the two groups was analysed by bootstrapped regression analyses with 1000 replications. Results Iranians living in Sweden had significantly higher intake of protein, total fat, fiber than Iranians living in Iran, but lower consumption of carbohydrates. The observed differences in intake of macronutrients were reflected in consumed amount of all food items, which were higher among Iranians living in Iran with the exception of bread and grain consumption which was lower. Conclusions There are general differences in dietary habits between Iranians living in Iran and Iranians living in Sweden. Parts of observed differences in dietary habits may reflect a favourable adoption process to the Swedish dietary habits after migration. Meanwhile other differences are point of concern in light of the high prevalence of overweight, among Iranians living in Sweden and can have unfavourable impact in particular in the context of cardiovascular health.

  15. Food choice motives including sustainability during purchasing are associated with a healthy dietary pattern in French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allès, B; Péneau, S; Kesse-Guyot, E; Baudry, J; Hercberg, S; Méjean, C

    2017-09-18

    Sustainability has become a greater concern among consumers that may influence their dietary intake. Only a few studies investigated the relationship between sustainable food choice motives and diet and they focused on specific food groups. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the associations between food choice motives during purchasing, with a focus on sustainability, and dietary patterns in a large sample of French adults. Food choice motives were collected in 31,842 adults from the NutriNet-Santé study, using a validated 63 items questionnaire gathered into 9 dimension scores: ethics and environment, traditional and local production, taste, price, environmental limitation (i.e. not buying a food for environmental concerns), health, convenience, innovation and absence of contaminants. Dietary intake was assessed using at least three web-based 24-h food records. Three dietary patterns were obtained through factor analysis using principal component analysis. The associations between food choice motive dimension scores and dietary patterns were assessed using linear regression models, stratifying by sex. Individuals were more likely to have a "healthy diet" when they were more concerned by not buying a food for environmental concerns (only for 3 rd tertile versus 1 st tertile β women =0.18, 95% CI=0.15-0.20, β men =0.20 95% CI=(0.15-0.25)), ethics and environment (women only, β=0.05, 95% CI=0.02-0.08), absence of contaminants (women only, β=0.05, 95% CI=0.01-0.07), local production (women only, β=0.08, 95% CI=0.04-0.11), health (women only) and innovation (men only), and when they were less concerned by price. Individuals were also less likely to have traditional or western diets when they gave importance to food choice motive dimensions related to sustainability. Individuals, especially women, having higher concerns about food sustainability dimensions such as ethics and environment and local production, appear to have a healthier diet. Further

  16. Changes in food habits among Farsi and Dari speaking immigrant women in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Bayanzadeh, Mana

    2008-01-01

    Changes in dietary habits due to international migration have been associated with chronic diseases including obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in immigrant populations. Four focus groups (n= 20) were conducted with the objective to provide information on food habit changes and the influencing factors on such changes in Farsi and Dari-speaking immigrant women after migration from their home countries to British Columbia, Canada .The find...

  17. Hábitos alimentares e fatores de risco para aterosclerose em estudantes de Bento Gonçalves (RS Dietary habits and risk factors for atherosclerosis in students from Bento Gonçalves (state of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosana Maria Speranza Cimadon

    2010-08-01

    risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of risk factors for atherosclerosis with emphasis on dietary habits in a predominantly Italian colonization town. METHODS: Population-based cross sectional study, involving 590 primary school students aged between 9 and 18 years, with a cluster sample. The following were collected: identification data, family history and personal history, and information regarding students' eating habits. Dietary habits considered inappropriate included: consumption of fast food, sugary snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages and animal fats four or more times a week, and fruits, green vegetables, and leguminous vegetables less than four times a week. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight among students was 24.6% (n = 145, high blood pressure, 11.1% (n = 65; passive smoking, 35.4% (n = 208; sedentary lifestyle, 52.3% (n = 306, family history of 1st degree disease: hypertension, 21.4%, obesity 36.5%. Food items eaten four or more times a week: fast food, 70.3% (n = 411; sugary snacks, 42.7% (n = 252, sugar-sweetened beverages, 71% (n = 419, and animal fats, 24.4% (n = 143. Food items eaten less than four times a week: fruits, 36.8% (n = 215, green vegetables, 49.5% (n = 292 and leguminous vegetables, 63.7% (n = 374. CONCLUSION: Interventions are needed to promote changes in students' eating habits: higher level of consumption of fruits, green vegetables and leguminous vegetables, and increased level of physical activity.

  18. Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Few Evidence-Based Features of Dietary Interventions Included in Photo Diet Tracking Mobile Apps for Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Sarah; Dunn, Caroline; Wilcox, Sara; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2016-11-01

    Apps using digital photos to track dietary intake and provide feedback are common, but currently there has been no research examining what evidence-based strategies are included in these apps. A content analysis of mobile apps for photo diet tracking was conducted, including whether effective techniques for interventions promoting behavior change, including self-regulation, for healthy eating (HE) are targeted. An initial search of app stores yielded 34 apps (n = 8 Android and Apple; n = 11 Android; n = 15 Apple). One app was removed (unable to download), and other apps (n = 4) were unable to be rated (no longer available). Remaining apps (n = 29) were downloaded, reviewed, and coded by 2 independent reviewers to determine the number of known effective self-regulation and other behavior change techniques included. The raters met to compare their coding of the apps, calculate interrater agreement, resolve any discrepancies, and come to a consensus. Six apps (21%) did not utilize any of the behavior change techniques examined. Three apps (10%) provided feedback to users via crowdsourcing or collective feedback from other users and professionals, 7 apps (24%) used crowdsourcing or collective feedback, 1 app (3%) used professionals, and 18 apps (62%) did not provide any dietary feedback to users. Few photo diet-tracking apps include evidence-based strategies to improve dietary intake. Use of photos to self-monitor dietary intake and receive feedback has the potential to reduce user burden for self-monitoring, yet photo diet tracking apps need to incorporate known effective behavior strategies for HE, including self-regulation. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. Opioid Addiction: Social Problems Associated and Implications of Both Current and Possible Future Treatments, including Polymeric Therapeutics for Giving Up the Habit of Opioid Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina Benéitez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Detoxification programmes seek to implement the most secure and compassionate ways of withdrawing from opiates so that the inevitable withdrawal symptoms and other complications are minimized. Once detoxification has been achieved, the next stage is to enable the patient to overcome his or her drug addiction by ensuring consumption is permanently and completely abandoned, only after which can the subject be regarded as fully recovered. Methods. A systematic search on the common databases of relevant papers published until 2016 inclusive. Results and Conclusion. Our study of the available oral treatments for opioid dependence has revealed that no current treatment can actually claim to be fully effective. These treatments require daily oral administration and, consequently, regular visits to dispensaries, which in most cases results in a lack of patient compliance, which causes fluctuations in drug plasma levels. We then reviewed alternative treatments in the available scientific literature on polymeric sustained release formulations. Research has been done not only on release systems for detoxification but also on release systems for giving up the habit of taking opioids. These efforts have obtained the recent authorization of polymeric systems for use in patients that could help them to reduce their craving for drugs.

  20. An Investigation into the Lifestyle, Health Habits and Risk Factors of Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Al-Nakeeb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This project examined the lifestyle, health habits and risk factors of young adults at Qatar University. It explored the clustering and differences in dietary habits, body mass index (BMI and physical activity (PA amongst male and female students, both Qatari and non-Qatari. Seven hundred thirty two students aged 18–25 years completed a self-reported questionnaire and an objective measure of BMI. Males and females had a high prevalence of being overweight and obesity and low levels of PA, according to well-established international standards. Three clusters were identified based on the students’ lifestyle and dietary habits. Cluster 1 (high risk factors included those who engaged the least in healthy dietary practices and consumed the most unhealthy foods, participated in less PA and had the highest BMI. Cluster 2 (moderate risk factors included those with considerably more habits falling into the moderate category, engagement in the most PA, the least TV and computer viewing time and had the lowest BMI. Cluster 3 (low risk factors included those who engaged the most with the four healthy dietary practices, the least with the four unhealthy dietary practices and participated in moderate PA per week. This project provides valuable data that could be used by policy makers to address issues concerning student’s health.

  1. A review on early gut maturation and colonization in pigs, including biological and dietary factors affecting gut homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Everaert, Nadia; Van Cruchten, Steven; Weström, Björn

    2017-01-01

    During the prenatal, neonatal and post-weaning periods, the mammalian gastrointestinal tract undergoes various morphological and physiological changes alongside with an expansion of the immune system and microbial ecosystem. This review focuses on the time period before weaning and summarizes...... the current knowledge regarding i) structural and functional aspects ii) the development of the immune system, and iii) the establishment of the gut ecosystem of the porcine intestine. Structural and functional maturation of the gastrointestinal tract gradually progress with age. In the neonatal period...... in digestive function coincides with development in both the adaptive and innate immune system. This secures a balanced immune response to the ingested milk-derived macromolecules, and colonizing bacteria. Husbandry and dietary interventions in early life appear to affect the development of multiple components...

  2. Habitable Trinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Dohm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Habitable Trinity is a newly proposed concept of a habitable environment. This concept indicates that the coexistence of an atmosphere (consisting largely of C and N, an ocean (H and O, and a landmass (supplier of nutrients accompanying continuous material circulation between these three components driven by the Sun is one of the minimum requirements for life to emerge and evolve. The life body consists of C, O, H, N and other various nutrients, and therefore, the presence of water, only, is not a sufficient condition. Habitable Trinity environment must be maintained to supply necessary components for life body. Our Habitable Trinity concept can also be applied to other planets and moons such as Mars, Europa, Titan, and even exoplanets as a useful index in the quest for life-containing planetary bodies.

  3. Clustering eating habits: frequent consumption of different dietary patterns among the Italian general population in the association with obesity, physical activity, sociocultural characteristics and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoth, Francesca; Scalese, Marco; Siciliano, Valeria; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2016-06-01

    (a) To identify clusters of eating patterns among the Italian population aged 15-64 years, focusing on typical Mediterranean diet (Med-diet) items consumption; (b) to examine the distribution of eating habits, as identified clusters, among age classes and genders; (c) evaluate the impact of: belonging to a specific eating cluster, level of physical activity (PA), sociocultural and psychological factors, as elements determining weight abnormalities. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected using self-reporting questionnaires administered to a sample of 33,127 subjects participating in the Italian population survey on alcohol and other drugs (IPSAD(®)2011). The cluster analysis was performed on a subsample (n = 5278 subjects) which provided information on eating habits, and adapted to identify categories of eating patterns. Stepwise multinomial regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations between weight categories and eating clusters, adjusted for the following background variables: PA levels, sociocultural and psychological factors. Three clusters were identified: "Mediterranean-like", "Western-like" and "low fruit/vegetables". Frequent consumption of Med-diet patterns was more common among females and elderly. The relationship between overweight/obesity and male gender, educational level, PA, depression and eating disorders (p eating habit benefits in combination with an appropriate lifestyle.

  4. Short sleep duration is associated with increased obesity markers in European adolescents: effect of physical activity and dietary habits. The HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R; Rey-López, J P; Béghin, L; Manios, Y; Cuenca-García, M; Plada, M; Diethelm, K; Kafatos, A; Molnár, D; Al-Tahan, J; Moreno, L A

    2011-10-01

    Adequate sleep is a critical factor for adolescent's health and health-related behaviors. (a) to describe sleep duration in European adolescents from nine countries, (b) to assess the association of short sleep duration with excess adiposity and (c) to elucidate if physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors and/or inadequate food habits underlie this association. A sample of 3311 adolescents (1748 girls) aged 12.5-17.49 years from 10 European cities in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden was assessed in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Study between 2006 and 2008. We measured anthropometric data, sleep duration, PA (accelerometers and questionnaire), television watching and food habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). Average duration of daily sleep was 8 h. Shorter sleepers showed higher values of BMI, body fat, waist and hip circumferences and fat mass index (Pwatching TV (Pobesity parameters. In European adolescents, short sleep duration is associated with higher adiposity markers, particularly in female adolescents. This association seems to be related to both sides of the energy balance equation due to a combination of increased food intake and more sedentary habits.

  5. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and vegetables Dietary fiber adds bulk to ...

  6. Impact of Mediterranean diet education versus posted leaflet on dietary habits and serum cholesterol in a high risk population for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, W.J.E.; Broer, J.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; May, J.F.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of intensive group education on the Mediterranean diet on dietary intake and serum total cholesterol after 16 and 52 weeks, compared to a posted leaflet with the Dutch nutritional guidelines, in the context of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

  7. Role of dietary factors and food habits in the development of childhood obesity: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agostoni, Carlo; Braegger, Christian; Decsi, Tamas; Kolacek, Sanja; Koletzko, Berthold; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis A.; Puntis, John; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    This Comment by the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to provide a summary of the role of nutrition-related factors on obesity prevention in children ages 2 to 18 years. This Comment emphasizes that dietary interventions

  8. Impact of Mediterranean diet education versus posted leaflet on dietary habits and serum cholesterol in a high risk population for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Broer, Jan; de Vries, Jeanne H. M.; Hulshof, Karin F. A. M.; May, Jo F.; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty

    Objective: To investigate the impact of intensive group education on the Mediterranean diet on dietary intake and serum total cholesterol after 16 and 52 weeks, compared to a posted leaflet with the Dutch nutritional guidelines, in the context of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

  9. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Baghurst, Katrine; Meyer, Barbara J

    2015-10-19

    Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as "excellent" "good" and "moderate"). The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i) fish only; (ii) moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods); (iii) fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only); and (iv) lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only). Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT). The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i) 2 "excellent" fish; (ii) 1 "excellent" and 1 "good" fish, and depending on life-stage, 3-4 lean red meat, 0-2 eggs and 3-26 enriched foods; (iii) 4 lean red meat, and 20-59 enriched foods; (iv) 37-66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods.

  10. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Fayet-Moore

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA. The aim was (i to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as “excellent” “good” and “moderate”. The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i fish only; (ii moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods; (iii fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only; and (iv lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only. Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT. The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i 2 “excellent” fish; (ii 1 “excellent” and 1 “good” fish, and depending on life-stage, 3–4 lean red meat, 0–2 eggs and 3–26 enriched foods; (iii 4 lean red meat, and 20–59 enriched foods; (iv 37–66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods.

  11. Dietary habits and cardiovascular risk in the Spanish population: the DRECE study (II) micronutrient intake. Dieta y Riesgo de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares en España.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Pomar, M D; Rubio-Herrera, M A; Gutiérrez-Fuentes, J A; Gómez-Gerique, J A; Gómez-de-la-Cámara, A; Pascual, O; Gárate, I; Montero, R; Campiña, S

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the dietary micronutrient intake in the adult Spanish population participating in the DRECE study. The cross-sectional study was performed in two stages in 1991 and 1996 in 43 primary care clinics. One thousand two hundred people 'with cardiovascular risk' and 600 'without risk' answered a food frequency questionnaire. Significant increases in vitamin C, retinol, lycopenes, beta-cryptoxanthin and vitamin E intakes were found. Vitamin A, alpha-carotenoid and lutein intakes decreased. Vitamin B(12), B(6) and folic acid intakes increased in people with cardiovascular risk, whereas only the last two increased in the control group. Nearly 100% of the people consumed the recommended dietary allowances for vitamins B(12) and B(6) and >70% for folic acid. Calcium, iron, and zinc intake increased in both groups, but magnesium and selenium intake increased only in people at risk. Vitamin A, B(1) and zinc intakes have decreased, and >50% of the people do not consume the recommended dietary allowance. Antioxidant vitamins and vitamin B(12), B(6) and folic acid intakes seem to be adequate in the adult Spanish population, no significant differences appear regarding their cardiovascular risk status. Vitamin A, B(1) and zinc intakes are not appropriate. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stage, S.A.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs

  13. Eating Habits of Malaysian Children: Findings of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age. © 2016 APJPH.

  14. Individualized Tailor-Made Dietetic Intervention Program at Schools Enhances Eating Behaviors and Dietary Habits in Obese Hispanic Children of Low Socioeconomic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Elizondo-Montemayor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hispanic children and those from low-socioeconomic status are predisposed to unhealthy eating habits and obesity. Aim. to implement an individualized, face-to-face, parent supported, and school-partnership dietetic intervention to promote healthy eating habits and decrease body mass index. Prospective school year dietetic intervention of 101 obese, Hispanic, low-socioeconomic school-age children representative of Monterrey, Mexico, consisted of anthropometrics, dietetic assessment, energy-restriction tailor-made daily menus, and parental education every three weeks. Student’s t-test was used for means comparison. A significant decrease was found in body mass index percentile (96.43±3.32 to 93.42±8.12/P=0.00 and energy intake/day of −755.7 kcal/day (P=0.00. Among other energy dense foods with significant decline in servings/day and servings/week were processed meats (3.13 ± 1.43 to 2.19 ± 1.04/P=0.00 and 5.60 ± 1.75 to 4.37 ± 2.10/P=0.00, resp., saturated fat (1.47 ± 1.08 to 0.78 ± 0.79/P=0.00 and 2.19±2.18 to 1.1±1.36/P=0.00, sweetened beverages (2.79±1.99 to 1.42±1.21 and 6.21±1.72 to 3.89±2.80/P=0.00, and desserts and refined-grain bakery (1.99±1.54 to 1.32±1.59 and 2.85 ± 2.54 to 1.57 ± 2.20/P=0.00. There was a significant increase in servings/day and servings/week of water (2.98 ± 2.02 to 4.91 ± 2.37 and 6.62 ± 2.03 to 6.87 ± 0.91/P=0.00, resp. and nutrient dense foods such as fruits (1.31 ± 0.89 to 1.66 ± 0.96 and 3.34 ± 2.24 to 4.28 ± 2.43/P=0.00 and fish and poultry (3.76 ± 2.15 to 4.54 ± 2.25/P=0.00. This intervention created healthy eating habits and decreased body mass index in a high risk population. Trial registration number: NCT01925976.

  15. Individualized Tailor-Made Dietetic Intervention Program at Schools Enhances Eating Behaviors and Dietary Habits in Obese Hispanic Children of Low Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Sànchez, Diana; Gutierrez, Norma G.; Lamadrid-Zertuche, Ana C.; Hernandez-Torre, Martin M.

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic children and those from low-socioeconomic status are predisposed to unhealthy eating habits and obesity. Aim. to implement an individualized, face-to-face, parent supported, and school-partnership dietetic intervention to promote healthy eating habits and decrease body mass index. Prospective school year dietetic intervention of 101 obese, Hispanic, low-socioeconomic school-age children representative of Monterrey, Mexico, consisted of anthropometrics, dietetic assessment, energy-restriction tailor-made daily menus, and parental education every three weeks. Student's t-test was used for means comparison. A significant decrease was found in body mass index percentile (96.43 ± 3.32 to 93.42 ± 8.12/P = 0.00) and energy intake/day of −755.7 kcal/day (P = 0.00). Among other energy dense foods with significant decline in servings/day and servings/week were processed meats (3.13 ± 1.43 to 2.19 ± 1.04/P = 0.00 and 5.60 ± 1.75 to 4.37 ± 2.10/P = 0.00, resp.), saturated fat (1.47 ± 1.08 to 0.78 ± 0.79/P = 0.00 and 2.19 ± 2.18 to 1.1 ± 1.36/P = 0.00), sweetened beverages (2.79 ± 1.99 to 1.42 ± 1.21 and 6.21 ± 1.72 to 3.89 ± 2.80/P = 0.00), and desserts and refined-grain bakery (1.99 ± 1.54 to 1.32 ± 1.59 and 2.85 ± 2.54 to 1.57 ± 2.20/P = 0.00). There was a significant increase in servings/day and servings/week of water (2.98 ± 2.02 to 4.91 ± 2.37 and 6.62 ± 2.03 to 6.87 ± 0.91/P = 0.00, resp.) and nutrient dense foods such as fruits (1.31 ± 0.89 to 1.66 ± 0.96 and 3.34 ± 2.24 to 4.28 ± 2.43/P = 0.00) and fish and poultry (3.76 ± 2.15 to 4.54 ± 2.25/P = 0.00). This intervention created healthy eating habits and decreased body mass index in a high risk population. Trial registration number: NCT01925976. PMID:24592170

  16. Dietary pattern, lifestyle and nutritional status of hypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inappropriate eating habits and sedentary lifestyle predispose to hypertension. This study assessed dietary pattern, lifestyle and nutritional status of hypertensive outpatients attending Cardiology Clinic of University College Hospital, Ibadan. This research was descriptive and cross-sectional, including 92 hypertensive ...

  17. Habit persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther Møller, Stig

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses an iterated GMM approach to estimate and test the consumption based habit persistence model of Campbell and Cochrane (1999) on the US stock market. The empirical evidence shows that the model is able to explain the size premium, but fails to explain the value premium. Further......, the state variable of the model - the surplus consumption ratio - explains counter-cyclical time-varying expected returns on stocks. The model also produces plausible low real risk-free rates despite high relative risk aversion....

  18. Lifestyle and specific dietary habits in the Italian population: focus on sugar intake and association with anthropometric parameters-the LIZ (Liquidi e Zuccheri nella popolazione Italiana) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Franca; Brignoli, Ovidio; Cricelli, Claudio; Poli, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    In order to collect information on food intake, lifestyle and health status of the Italian population, a random cohort of about 2000 adults was selected in collaboration with the Italian society of general practitioners' network (SIMG). Cohort subjects underwent a full clinical evaluation, by their family doctor, who also collected anthropometric data and information on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors; they were also administered diary forms developed to assess dietary use of simple sugars, of sugar-containing food and of selected food items. Data obtained indicate that the consumption of simple sugars (either added or as natural part of food) by the Italian adult population is, on average, not high (65 and 67 g/day, among women and men, respectively) and mostly derived from food items such as fruit, milk and yogurt. In addition, no correlations were found, in this low-sugar-consuming cohort, between sugar intake and weight, body mass index and waist circumference. Intakes of simple sugars in the LIZ cohort are not associated with weight, BMI and waist circumference. Prospective data, from cohorts like the LIZ one, might shed further light on the contribution of simple sugar intake to health in countries like Italy.

  19. Eating habits of a population undergoing a rapid dietary transition: portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods and beverages consumed by Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Tony; Roache, Cindy; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-06-02

    To determine the portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods being consumed by Inuit adults in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada. A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and October, 2008. Trained field workers collected dietary data using a culturally appropriate, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed specifically for the study population. Caribou, muktuk (whale blubber and skin) and Arctic char (salmon family), were the most commonly consumed traditional foods; mean portion sizes for traditional foods ranged from 10 g for fermented seal fat to 424 g for fried caribou. Fried bannock and white bread were consumed by >85% of participants; mean portion sizes for these foods were 189 g and 70 g, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were also widely consumed. Mean portion sizes for regular pop and sweetened juices with added sugar were 663 g and 572 g, respectively. Mean portion sizes for potato chips, pilot biscuits, cakes, chocolate and cookies were 59 g, 59 g, 106 g, 59 g, and 46 g, respectively. The present study provides further evidence of the nutrition transition that is occurring among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. It also highlights a number of foods and beverages that could be targeted in future nutritional intervention programs aimed at obesity and diet-related chronic disease prevention in these and other Inuit communities.

  20. [Dietary life style of Japanese college students: relationship between dietary life, mental health and eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yuji; Nouchi, Rui; Takano, Haruka; Kojima, Akiko; Sato, Shinichi

    2009-10-01

    A scale was constructed to investigate the dietary life style of Japanese college students relating to dietary life, mental health, and eating disorders. Exploratory factor analysis found four factors, termed "dietary mood," "dietary regulation," "dietary stress avoidance behavior," and "food safety." Cluster analysis revealed four typical dietary habits of Japanese college students: "deprecating food safety," "dietary regulation oriented and infrequent dietary stress avoidance behavior," "deprecating dietary moods," and "frequent dietary stress avoidance behavior." Regarding eating disorders, a high percentage of the moderate eating disorder group exhibited frequent dietary stress avoidance behavior. Regarding mental health, a high percentage of the healthy group showed dietary regulation orientation and infrequent dietary stress avoidance behavior. A high percentage of the neurotic-level participants deprecated dietary moods. These results suggest that dietary regulation and deprecatory mood and infrequent dietary stress avoidance behavior lead to college students having a healthy dietary life.

  1. Incidence of colorectal cancer and influence of dietary habits in fifteen European countries from 1971 to 2002 Incidencia de cáncer colorrectal e influencia de los hábitos alimenticios en 15 países europeos desde 1971 hasta 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Luis M. Béjar; Miguel Gili; Beatriz Infantes; Pamela F. Marcott

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to analyze the incidence of colorectal cancer in 15 European countries in recent decades and the relationship between the incidence found and changes in dietary habits. Methods: Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated by comparing incidence rates obtained from the International Agency for Research on Cancer for 1971-2002 with data on per capita consumption obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations using 10-ye...

  2. Changes in healthy food habits after transition to old age retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helldán, Anni; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2012-08-01

    Retirement is one of the major transitions in the life course. However, it is poorly understood how health behaviours, such as food habits, might change after retirement. This study aimed to examine whether healthy food habits change after the transition to old age retirement and whether socio-demographic or health-related factors explain the association between retirement, being continuously employed and healthy food habits at follow-up. The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort on the staff of the City of Helsinki, Finland. The baseline questionnaire survey data were collected in 2000-02 and the follow-up in 2007. We included only participants who were aged 55-60 years at baseline and entered old age retirement during the follow-up (n = 1156, 76% women) or remained continuously employed (n = 1269, 79% women). Food habits from a food frequency questionnaire included eight items formed according to the Finnish and Nordic dietary recommendations. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine the associations between retirement, being continuously employed and healthy food habits at follow-up. Healthy food habits increased more among retired women than those continuously employed (P = 0.03). At follow-up retired women had healthier food habits than continuously employed women after adjusting for baseline food habits [OR = 1.36 (1.12-1.65)]. Among men, healthy food habits were unassociated with retirement. Transition to old age retirement is likely to have beneficial effects on food habits among women. This helps prevent major diseases and supports better public health among ageing people.

  3. Association of folate intake, dietary habits, smoking and COX-2 promotor-765G > C polymorphism with K-ras mutation in patients with colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M.M.; Youssef, O.Z.; Lotfy, A.N.; Elsaed, E.T.; Fawzy, M.M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding the role of environmental and molecular influences on the nature and rate of K-ras mutations in colorectal neoplasms is crucial. COX-2 polymorphisms -765G > C may play a role in carcinogenic processes in combination with specific life-style conditions or dependent on the racial composition of a particular population. If mutational events play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis sequence, one can hypothesize that modification of these events by life-style or other factors would be a useful prevention strategy. Aim of work: To explore the association between K-ras mutation and potential variables known or suspected to be related to the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as determining the possible modulating effect of the COX-2 polymorphism, —765G > C. Subjects and methods: The study was conducted on 80 patients with colorectal cancer from Tropical Medicine and Gastrointestinal Tract endoscopy Departments and those attending clinic of the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University during the period extending from April 2009 to March 2010. Full history taking with emphasis on the risk factors of interest, namely age, sex, family history, smoking and dietary history. Serum CEA and CA19-9, RBCs folic acid and occult blood in stool were done to all samples. K-ras protooncogene mutation at codon 12 (exon 1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) —765G > C polymorphism were determined by PCR-RFLP. Results: The K-ras mutation was positive in 23 (28.7%) patients. COX-2 polymorphism revealed GG in 62.5%, GC in 26.2 % and CC genotype was found in 11.3 % of cases. The mean red blood cell folic acid level was lower in the K-ras positive group (100.96 ± 51.3 ng/ml) than the negative group (216.6 ± 166.4 ng/ml), (P < 0.01). Higher folate levels were found in males than females (median = 173 ng/ml and 85 ng/ml; respectively, P = 0.002) with adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.984. Only, the RBCs folate (P = 0.0018) followed by gender (P = 0

  4. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... much do we know about dietary supplements for diabetes? Many studies have investigated dietary supplements, including vitamins, ...

  5. Association between cognitive impairment and eating habits in elderly Chinese subjects over 90 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingyun; Dong, Birong; Hao, Qiu Kui; Ding, Xiang

    2013-08-01

    Eating habits may have a key influence on cognitive function, however, the relationship between dietary intake and cognitive impairment in the elderly Chinese population has not been explored. The present study investigated the association between cognitive impairment and eating habits in elderly Chinese subjects >90 years of age. This study comprised data from subjects included in the 2005 Project of Longevity and Ageing in Dujiangyan, China. Subjects were divided into two groups: cognitive impairment group and normal group. Sociodemographic and dietary habit data were collected and cognitive function was assessed in all subjects using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data from 763 subjects (249 men, 514 women) were included. There was no statistically significant difference in eating habits between the two groups. Education level in the cognitive impairment group was significantly lower than in the normal group. Significant between-group differences were detected in factors relating to subjects' professions. Eating habits were not related to cognitive impairment in elderly Chinese people >90 years of age.

  6. Dietary intake and ghrelin and leptin changes after sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bužga, Marek; Zavadilová, Vladislava; Holéczy, Pavol; Švagera, Zdeněk; Švorc, Pavol; Foltys, Aleš; Zonča, Pavel

    2014-12-01

    Surgical intervention in obesity is today the most effective treatment method in high level obesity management. Bariatric interventions not only ensure body weight reduction, but may influence dietary habits. To assess changes in adipose hormones and dietary habits in obese patients after sleeve gastrectomy. The study set comprised 37 subjects (29 females and 8 males) 24 to 68 years old with body mass index 43.0 ±4.9 kg/m(2). Pre-operative examination included baseline measurements of body composition. Dietary habits and intake frequency were monitored by a questionnaire method. Follow-up examinations were carried out in a scope identical to the pre-operative examination, 6 and 12 months after surgery, respectively. The average patient weight loss 12 months after surgery was 31.7 kg. Excess weight loss was 55.2 ±20.6%. Patients reported reduced appetite (p meal portions per day (p = 0.003) and a decrease in consuming the largest portions during the afternoon and evening (p = 0.030). Plasma levels of fasting glucose, leptin and ghrelin significantly decreased (p = 0.006; p = 0.0.043); in contrast, the level of adiponectin significantly increased (p weight reduction within 1 year after surgery. An improvement of certain dietary habits in patients was registered. At 12 months after surgery, there were no statistically significant differences in decreases in ghrelin and leptin concentrations between patients without changed appetite and those reporting decreased appetite.

  7. Food Habits and Food Taboos of the Marams of Manipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    G. Meithuanlungpou; Kh. N. Singh

    2015-01-01

    The Marams are one of the sub-tribe of Naga tribes inhabiting at Senapati district of Manipur of northeast India. Marams have distinct food habit and food choices. The dietary habits of Maram are quite simple and mostly depend on the local sources of variety of vegetables and meats and other non vegetarian food items. Rice is the staple food and rice beer prepared from the locally available rice species is the favourite drink of the Marams, Their daily food intake normally includes rice, meat...

  8. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Baghurst, Katrine; Meyer, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as ?excellent? ?good? and ?moderate?). The four model...

  9. Nutritional and physical activity behaviours and habits in adolescent population of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević-Nikić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Proper nutrition and regular physical activity are essential parts of a adolescent's overall health. The aim of this research was to evaluated eating and physical activity behaviours and habits, nutritional and food knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy related to diet and health of the adolescents of the city of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested in adolescent population from Italy was self-administrated. We evaluated eating habits, physical activity, meaning of healthy and unhealthy dietary habits and food, self-efficacy, barriers affecting food choices, nutritional and food safety, and body mass index (BMI of the adolescents. The sample included 707 adolescents, the mean age of 15,8 ± 2 years enrolled in the first grade at several high schools in Belgrade. Results. Only 27% of the adolescents had satisfactory eating habits; 31% have a very active lifestyle; 7% good nutritional knowledge and 6- 12% satisfactory food safety knowledge and hygiene practices. Conclusion. Significant deviations from recommendations for healthy lifestyle was noted in adolescents’ habits, knowledge and practice. It is therefore necessary to develop and organize programs for promotion of healthy behaviours adapted to the adolescents’ needs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47015

  10. Sodium/glucose cotransporter-1, sweet receptor, and disaccharidase expression in the intestine of the domestic dog and cat: two species of different dietary habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, D J; Al-Rammahi, M; Moran, A W; Brand, J G; Li, X; Haskins, M; German, A J; Shirazi-Beechey, S P

    2011-01-01

    The domestic cat (Felis catus), a carnivore, naturally eats a very low carbohydrate diet. In contrast, the dog (Canis familiaris), a carno-omnivore, has a varied diet. This study was performed to determine the expression of the intestinal brush border membrane sodium/glucose cotransporter, SGLT1, sweet receptor, T1R2/T1R3, and disaccharidases in these species adapted to contrasting diets. The expression (this includes function) of SGLT1, sucrase, maltase and lactase were determined using purified brush border membrane vesicles and by quantitative immunohistochemistry of fixed tissues. The pattern of expression of subunits of the sweet receptor T1R2 and T1R3 was assessed using fluorescent immunohistochemistry. In proximal, middle, and distal small intestine, SGLT1 function in dogs was 1.9- to 2.3-fold higher than in cats (P = 0.037, P = 0.0011, P = 0.027, respectively), and SGLT1 protein abundance followed an identical pattern. Both cats and dogs express T1R3 in a subset of intestinal epithelial cells, and dogs, but not cats, express T1R2. In proximal and middle regions, there were 3.1- and 1.6-fold higher lactase (P = 0.006 and P = 0.019), 4.4- and 2.9-fold higher sucrase (both P cats. Dogs have a potential higher capacity to digest and absorb carbohydrates than cats. Cats may suffer from carbohydrate malabsorption following ingestion of high-carbohydrate meals. However, dogs have a digestive ability to cope with diets containing significant levels of carbohydrate.

  11. Dietary habits during the 2 months following the Chernobyl accident and differentiated thyroid cancer risk in a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhaard, Constance; Rubino, Carole; Souchard, Vincent; Maillard, Stéphane; Ren, Yan; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Sassolas, Geneviève; Schvartz, Claire; Colonna, Marc; Lacour, Brigitte; Woronoff, Anne Sophie; Velten, Michel; Marrer, Emilie; Bailly, Laurent; Mariné Barjoan, Eugènia; Schlumberger, Martin; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Bouville, Andre; Orgiazzi, Jacques; Adjadj, Elisabeth; de Vathaire, Florent

    2018-02-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident occurred in Ukraine on April 26th 1986. In France, the radioactive fallout and thyroid radiation doses were much lower than in highly contaminated areas. However, a number of risk projections have suggested that a small excess in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) might occur in eastern France due to this low-level fallout. In order to investigate this potential impact, a case-control study on DTC risk factors was started in 2005, focusing on cases who were less than 15 years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident. Here, we aim to evaluate the relationship between some specific reports of potentially contaminated food between April and June 1986 - in particular fresh dairy products and leafy vegetables - and DTC risk. After excluding subjects who were not born before the Chernobyl accident, the study included 747 cases of DTC matched with 815 controls. Odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regression models and were reported for all participants, for women only, for papillary cancer only, and excluding microcarcinomas. The DTC risk was slightly higher for participants who had consumed locally produced leafy vegetables. However, this association was not stronger in the more contaminated areas than in the others. Conversely, the reported consumption of fresh dairy products was not statistically associated with DTC risk. Because the increase in DTC risk associated with a higher consumption of locally produced vegetables was not more important in the most contaminated areas, our study lacked power to provide evidence for a strong association between consumption of potentially contaminated food and DTC risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship Between Nutritional Habits and Hair Calcium Levels in Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectr...

  13. Dietary habits and children's family lives

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeting, H.; West, P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose : To investigate associations between 'less healthy eating' and 'unhealthy snacking' at age 11, and family life (family structure, meals and maternal employment status) together with potential socio-economic confounders and gender. \\ud \\ud Methods : Children participated in a school-based survey, questionnaires also being completed by parents. Analyses were based on those with complete data, weighted to account for bias in return of parental questionnaires (N = 2146). Data from a diet...

  14. Dietary Fibre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, van der J.W.; Asp, N.G.; Miller Jones, J.; Schaafsma, G.

    2004-01-01

    In this book invited expert scientists of leading research groups all over the world will address the following issues: Definitions, health claims and new challenges, Analytical tools, technological aspects and applications, Health Benefits of dietary fibre, including both authoritative generic

  15. Associations between usual school lunch attendance and eating habits and sedentary behaviour in French children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, C; Lioret, S; Dufour, A; Volatier, J L; Lafay, L; Turck, D

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether school lunch attendance was associated with overall eating habits and sedentary behaviour in a French sample of children and adolescents. Data for the study were taken from the second French cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2-2006-07). In total, 1413 school children aged 3-17 years old were classified according to their school type and their usual school lunch attendance. Eating habits included meal regularity, dietary diversity, purchase in vending machine, snacking habits and frequency of eating in fast-foods. Two composite indices of eating habits were derived from multiple correspondence analyses. Sedentary behaviour was assessed by the average daily screen times for TV and computer. The association between school lunch attendance and each variable was tested. Multivariate association between school lunch attendance and the composite indices of eating habits and sedentary behaviours was studied. In all, 69.0% (CI(95%): 64.2-73.9) of secondary school children and 63.0% (CI(95%): 58.5-67.5) of pre- and elementary school children usually attended school lunch at least once a week. Pre- and elementary school children attending school lunches showed a higher dietary diversity score (P=0.02) and ate morning snacks more frequently (P=0.02). In secondary school children, attending school canteen was related to a lower rate of skipping breakfast (P=0.04) and main meals (P=0.01). In all school children, school lunch attendance was simultaneously associated with healthier overall eating habits and less sedentary behaviour. In France, children attending school canteens seem to have healthier eating habits and display less sedentary behaviour, independently of their socio-economic and demographic background.

  16. Eating Habits and Lifestyles among a Sample of Obese Working Egyptian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nayera E; Wahba, Saneya A; El-Masry, Sahar A; Elhamid, Enas R Abd; Boseila, Samia A W; Ahmed, Nihad H; Ibrahim, Tarek S

    2015-03-15

    The fundamental cause of obesity and overweight is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended. To figure out food habits and different lifestyle pattern among a sample of Egyptian females working at the National Research Centre. A cross-sectional, descriptive study, including 138 overweight and obese Egyptian females (BMI ≥ 25 Kg/m(2)); working at the National Research Centre; was done. A specific questionnaire was used to gather information regarding lifestyle including dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. The prevalence of overweight among the studied subjects was 27%, while that of obesity was 38%. Missing and or infrequent intake of breakfast at home, frequent consumption of snacks, low serving per day of fruits and vegetables with frequent consumption of sweets, fried food, eating while watching TV and sedentary behaviour were all predictors of obesity and overweight among the current sample. The present study identified several lifestyle factors and improper dietary habits associated with overweight and obesity among Egyptian females. There is a great need to change these habits to avoid the increasing risk of obesity. A national plan of action to overcome obesity is urgently needed to reduce its economic and health burden.

  17. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabinsky, Marianne S; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K; Tetens, Inge

    2012-11-01

    School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality of school lunches for children aged 7-13 years. A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7-13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated against calculated nutrient contents of school lunches both provided by the school and brought from home. At eight public schools from all over Denmark, data were collected on 191 individual lunches brought from home (which is most common in Denmark) and thirty-one lunches provided as part of a school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included. A total of 254 school lunches. A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home.

  18. Collaborative Research and Support of Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center Defense Women's Health Research Program Projects Assessment of Dietary Calcium Intake, Physical Activity and Habits Affecting Skeletal Health Among Premenopausal Military Women (Protocol #9)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDermott, Michael

    1996-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to survey 1,000 active duty military premenopausal women in regards to skeletal health habits such as current levels of calcium intake, exercise, smoking, alcohol intake...

  19. Collaborative Research and Support of Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center DWH Research Program Projects. Assessment of Dietary Calcium Intake, Physical Activity and Habits Affecting Skeletal Health Among Premenopausal Military Women. Protocol 9

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayes, Robert

    1995-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study is to survey 1,000 active duty military premenopausal women in regards to skeletal health habits such as current levels of calcium intake, exercise, smoking, alcohol intake...

  20. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  1. Qualitative study of eating habits in Bruneian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talip, Tajidah; Serudin, Rajiah; Noor, Salmah; Tuah, Nik

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health issue globally and poor eating habits are an important contributing factor. This study aimed to explore the perceptions, practices and attitudes towards healthy eating in Bruneian primary school children. A qualitative study was conducted among 40 subjects involving 18 children (aged 9-10 years old), 12 parents and 10 teachers, who were recruited from two primary schools using convenience sampling. Five focus group discussion sessions were conducted, and recorded discussions were translated. The transcripts were entered into NVivo10 and thematic analysis was conducted. All participants had differing perceptions of the term 'healthy eating'. Children reported 'healthy eating' by identifying foods or food groups they perceived as healthy and unhealthy. Only a few mentioned fruits and vegetables as essential to a healthy diet. Parents mainly perceived 'healthy eating' as consuming 'any quality food' that contains 'vitamins and minerals'. Teachers described a healthy diet as including balanced and varied dietary practices, having breakfast and eating regularly at the right, set times. They also associated eating healthily with traditional, home-grown and home-cooked food. All participants had positive attitudes towards healthy eating, however most children demonstrated unhealthy eating habits and frequently consumed unhealthy foods. The Bruneian primary school children reported favourable knowledge despite having poor healthy eating habits. The factors influencing participants eating behavior included food preferences, familial factors (parental style and parenting knowledge), food accessibility and availability, time constraints, as well as convenience. These factors hindered them from adopting healthy eating practices.

  2. Rearing a reading habit

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the importance and ways of inculcating reading habit in children at the right age, describes the five reading phases in children along with interest and the material to satiate the need, explains how four deterministic factors affect the reading habit of children, enlists motivations that are behind the reading process with tips to improve reading habit of children.

  3. Coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary nutrients from broiler feeds that include oil industry by-products (rapeseeds, grapes, buckthorn, flax and pumpkin meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dumitra PANAITE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 42-day feeding trial was conducted on 120, day-old ROSS 308 chicks assigned to 4 (C; E1; E2; E3 groups. The broilers were housed in three-tier digestibility cages (5 broilers/cage which allowed the daily recording of the feed intake and excreta located in an experimental hall with controlled environmental conditions (27.07±2.750 C; humidity 64,80±9,57%; light regimen 23h. During the starter stage (1-10 days all chicks received a conventional compound feed (C. During the grower and finisher stages, compared to C formulation, the experimental diets different proportions, varying with the stage of development, of rapeseeds and grape meals (E1, buckthorn and flax meals (E2, pumpkin meal (lot E3. The balance study was conducted for 5 days, during weeks 4 and 6. During this period, average weights from each two cages (6 samples/group of feed consumed and excreta voided (dry matter basis were recorded and sampled for: dry matter, nitrogen, fat, fibre, ash and gross energy analysis. The chicks from E1 group had a lower (P≤0.05 coefficient of dietary nitrogen absorption than E2 chicks. The coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary fat varied with the period of development. During the finishing stage, E3 chicks had a higher (P≤0.05 coefficient of fibre absorption than groups C, E1 and E2.

  4. Family food involvement is related to healthier dietary intake in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Jessica Jarick; Fiese, Barbara H

    2018-03-27

    Children in the United States fall far short of meeting federal dietary recommendations. The unhealthy diets common amongst young children are of crucial public health concern, given that they can inhibit healthy development and are predictive of chronic diseases in adulthood. Research investigating behaviors that are related to dietary habits is crucial to allow a better understanding of the causes of unhealthy dietary practices. Involvement in food preparation is known to be associated with healthy dietary behaviors in school-aged children, but little is known about these behaviors and their correlates in younger children. The present study sought to examine the influences and correlates of involvement in family food preparation in children at ages three and four. Parents of preschool aged children (n = 497) completed surveys including information about demographic background, their children's family food involvement, dietary intake, mealtime routines, and problematic eating behaviors. Data were collected when children were three (wave one of the survey) and four years of age (wave two). Findings from this study indicate that family food involvement at age three is predictive of healthier dietary intake at age four (increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, decreased consumption of fast food). These findings indicate that family food involvement is predictive of healthier dietary behaviors in young children, and that outreach efforts focused on family food involvement in early childhood may improve children's dietary habits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Dietary patterns in Mexican children and adolescents: Characterization and relation with socioeconomic and home environment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan-Portillo, Marcia; Sánchez, Emanny; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Luz Mery; Karam, Roberto; Claudio, Luz; Cruz, Miguel; Burguete-García, Ana I

    2018-02-01

    Eating habits in children and adolescents are influenced by multiple determinants, which include socioeconomic and home environmental factors. To characterize the dietary patterns in Mexican children and adolescents and to assess its association with socioeconomic and home environmental factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 878 children and adolescents aged 5-15 years, unrelated, selected randomly from Morelos Sports Unit at north of Mexico City. Dietary, anthropometric, family, and socioeconomic information was obtained from each participant. Dietary patterns were identified through cluster analysis. The association between dietary patterns with socioeconomic and home environmental factors was assessed by a multivariate multinomial logistic regression model. Three major dietary patterns were identified: diverse dietary pattern (D), high fat dietary pattern (HF), and high sugar dietary pattern (HS). 87% of the participants followed the HF or HS dietary patterns (36% & 51%, respectively). Mother's occupation and the child's screen time was associated with a significant likelihood of following a HF and HS dietary patterns. A high percentage of children and adolescents reported following a HS or HF dietary pattern, which in turn were associated with socioeconomic and home environmental factors. These results suggests priority groups for prevention and control actions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole, E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  7. A dietary pattern including nopal, chia seed, soy protein, and oat reduces serum triglycerides and glucose intolerance in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Tovar, Armando R; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Medina-Vera, Isabel; Gil-Zenteno, Lidia; Hernández-Viveros, Isaac; López-Romero, Patricia; Ordaz-Nava, Guillermo; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Guillen Pineda, Luz E; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a health problem throughout the world and is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effects of a dietary pattern (DP; soy protein, nopal, chia seed, and oat) on the biochemical variables of MetS, the AUC for glucose and insulin, glucose intolerance (GI), the relationship of the presence of certain polymorphisms related to MetS, and the response to the DP. In this randomized trial, the participants consumed their habitual diet but reduced by 500 kcal for 2 wk. They were then assigned to the placebo (P; n = 35) or DP (n = 32) group and consumed the reduced energy diet plus the P or DP beverage (235 kcal) minus the energy provided by these for 2 mo. All participants had decreases in body weight (BW), BMI, and waist circumference during the 2-mo treatment (P < 0.0001); however, only the DP group had decreases in serum TG, C-reactive protein (CRP), and AUC for insulin and GI after a glucose tolerance test. Interestingly, participants in the DP group with MetS and the ABCA1 R230C variant had a greater decrease in BW and an increase in serum adiponectin concentration after 2 mo of dietary treatment than those with the ABCA1 R230R variant. The results from this study suggest that lifestyle interventions involving specific DP for the treatment of MetS could be more effective if local foods and genetic variations of the population are considered.

  8. Host Star Evolution for Planet Habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Florian; Charbonnel, Corinne; Amard, Louis

    2016-11-01

    With about 2000 exoplanets discovered within a large range of different configurations of distance from the star, size, mass, and atmospheric conditions, the concept of habitability cannot rely only on the stellar effective temperature anymore. In addition to the natural evolution of habitability with the intrinsic stellar parameters, tidal, magnetic, and atmospheric interactions are believed to have strong impact on the relative position of the planets inside the so-called habitable zone. Moreover, the notion of habitability itself strongly depends on the definition we give to the term "habitable". The aim of this contribution is to provide a global and up-to-date overview of the work done during the last few years about the description and the modelling of the habitability, and to present the physical processes currently includes in this description.

  9. Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Achkar, Alice; Abdallah, Abbass; Rizk, Sandra

    2008-10-30

    In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut) and to examine their eating habits. A cross-sectional survey of 220 students (43.6% male and 56.4% female), aged 20 +/- 1.9 years, were chosen randomly from the Lebanese American University (LAU) campus during the fall 2006 semester. Students were asked to fill out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their eating, drinking and smoking habits. Also, their weight, height, percentage body fat and body mass index were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was used to assess students' weight status. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (version 13.0) to determine overweight and obesity among students and to categorize eating habits. This study showed that the majority of the students (64.7%) were of normal weight (49% male students compared to 76.8% female students). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was more common among male students compared to females (37.5% and 12.5% vs. 13.6% and 3.2%, respectively). In contrast, 6.4% female students were underweight as compared to 1% males. Eating habits of the students showed that the majority (61.4%) reported taking meals regularly. Female students showed healthier eating habits compared to male students in terms of daily breakfast intake and meal frequency. 53.3% of female students reported eating breakfast daily or three to four times per week compared to 52.1% of male students. There was a significant gender difference in the frequency of meal intake (P = 0.001). Intake of colored vegetables and

  10. Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Abbass

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut and to examine their eating habits. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 220 students (43.6% male and 56.4% female, aged 20 ± 1.9 years, were chosen randomly from the Lebanese American University (LAU campus during the fall 2006 semester. Students were asked to fill out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their eating, drinking and smoking habits. Also, their weight, height, percentage body fat and body mass index were measured. Body mass index (BMI was used to assess students' weight status. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (version 13.0 to determine overweight and obesity among students and to categorize eating habits. Results This study showed that the majority of the students (64.7% were of normal weight (49% male students compared to 76.8% female students. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was more common among male students compared to females (37.5% and 12.5% vs. 13.6% and 3.2%, respectively. In contrast, 6.4% female students were underweight as compared to 1% males. Eating habits of the students showed that the majority (61.4% reported taking meals regularly. Female students showed healthier eating habits compared to male students in terms of daily breakfast intake and meal frequency. 53.3% of female students reported eating breakfast daily or three to four times per week compared to 52.1% of male students. There was a significant gender difference in the frequency of meal intake (P

  11. Relación entre los factores que determinan los síntomas depresivos y los hábitos alimentarios en adultos mayores de México Relationship between determining factors for depressive symptoms and for dietary habits in older adults in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Ávila-Funes

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar los factores comunes asociados tanto con los hábitos alimentarios de los adultos mayores que viven en la comunidad como con los síntomas depresivos. MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un análisis secundario de los datos provenientes de México, D.F., del estudio multicéntrico Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE realizado entre 1999 y 2000. Se estudiaron las siguientes variables: presencia o ausencia de síntomas depresivos, según la escala de depresión geriátrica de Yesavage (EDG; el estado cognoscitivo, según la puntuación obtenida en una versión modificada del examen mínimo del estado mental de Folstein (EMEM abreviado; y la funcionalidad, mediante el índice de actividades básicas de la vida diaria de Katz. A las personas que obtuvieron una suma total de 12 puntos o menos en el EMEM abreviado se les aplicó el cuestionario sobre actividades funcionales o de Pfeffer, para evaluar su capacidad de realizar las actividades cotidianas. Mediante autoinforme se obtuvo información acerca de las características materiales, físicas, psicológicas y sociales relacionadas con la compra, la preparación y el consumo de los alimentos y del estado de la salud bucal en los últimos 12 meses. Con las variables asociadas significativamente con el resultado de la EDG se realizó un análisis de regresión multifactorial, se elaboraron diversos modelos y se utilizaron las variables asociadas significativamente en un análisis de regresión lineal multifactorial por pasos para conocer el conjunto que mejor explicaba el resultado obtenido con la EDG. RESULTADOS: La edad promedio de los participantes fue de 64,4 ± 8,6 años y la prevalencia de síntomas depresivos fue de 66%. El puntaje obtenido en la EDG mostró una asociación con la hipertensión arterial (P OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors that are commonly associated with both the dietary habits of older adults living in the community and depressive symptoms in this group

  12. Irregular sleep habits of parents are associated with increased sleep problems and daytime sleepiness of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komada, Yoko; Adachi, Naomi; Matsuura, Noriko; Mizuno, Koh; Hirose, Kazuhiro; Aritomi, Ryoji; Shirakawa, Shuichiro

    2009-10-01

    Longitudinal studies in Japan indicate that nocturnal sleep onset has become later and sleep duration has been progressively shortened. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep patterns and sleep problems among children, and to determine the association between parents and their children's sleep habits. Questionnaires about sleep problems and life habits were administered to families living in Tokyo metropolitan areas of Japan. We analyzed the data of pre-school-age (1-5 years old; n = 319, including 175 girls) and elementary school-age children (6-11 years; n = 217, including 116 girls) as well as their parents (402 mothers: 37.0 +/- 4.9 years, 402 fathers: 39.0 +/- 5.9 years). Subjects were categorized as morning (evening) type when they answered their lifestyle habit as "definitely or moderately morning (evening) type". Sleep was categorized into regular, irregular, and intermediate from the sleeping-waking regularity scores. The frequency of daytime dozing is significantly high in children with evening-irregular sleep. Moreover, mothers of children (aged 1-5 and 6-11 years) with evening-irregular sleep have significantly more irregular sleep habits than those of children with morning-regular sleep. Likewise, fathers of children (aged 1-5 years) with evening-irregular sleep have significantly more irregular sleep habits. Thus, irregular late bedtime of parents is associated with sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and irregular dietary habits of children. Mothers' sleep habits have a stronger influence on their children's sleep than fathers'. Our study indicates the importance of promoting sleep hygiene that encourages healthy sleep for all family members.

  13. SMEs’ Purchasing Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre S. Ozmen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although micro companies overpower the small and medium enterprise (SME segment, generalizations are often with medium size companies, and therefore, there are many unknowns, especially when it comes to its buying behavior. Conformist studies and industry practices assume SMEs to be “normative” or “conservative” buyers; however, this hypothesis is untested. This article aims to scrutinize the reality, and proposes a unified model that rejects pre-containerization in buying behavior typologies, as well as selectiveness in terms of audience type, whether it is corporate, SME, or consumer. While replacing researchers’ perceptions with the audience’s, the model yields actual knowledge that can lead to audience’s beliefs in lieu of the opposite, which is used to mislead stakeholders. The study shows that SMEs also buy like individuals and spend in a similar way to consumers’, including not only “normative” and “conservative” but also “negligent” and “impulse” zones. From the research-implications perspective, future studies by behaviorists can explore why SMEs purchase in this way. Marketers may benefit from the finding that SMEs buy like individuals. In addition, SMEs may want to be conscious of their purchasing habits, and—utilizing the newly introduced “risk score” frontier—policymakers should assess the consequences of these habits at the macro level.

  14. Dietary acculturation in Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafica, Reimund C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to promote a better understanding of the construct of dietary acculturation in recent years and how it affects dietary intake of Asian-American population. Four databases were searched simultaneously using the following key terms: Asian-Americans, dietary practices, eating habits, and dietary acculturation. A total of seven articles were relevant and met the inclusion criteria. The findings from these studies of dietary acculturation in Asian Americans are generally in agreement with other dietary acculturation research conducted in non-Asian population samples. Although the studies presented in this literature review represent the recent researches conducted in Asian populations in the US, the research in dietary acculturation remains sparse.

  15. 5035 Volume 11 No. 4 July 2011 DIETARY AND SOCIO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    julianna.jayne

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... There is a lack of data on trends in body composition among developing countries and the distribution of malnutrition among adults is poorly understood. Thus, the objective was to establish nutritional status, demographic make-up, dietary habits, and to determine if socioeconomic variables or dietary habits ...

  16. Dietary cholesterol increases paraoxonase 1 enzyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel S.; Burt, Amber A.; Ranchalis, Jane E.; Richter, Rebecca J.; Marshall, Julieann K.; Nakayama, Karen S.; Jarvik, Ella R.; Eintracht, Jason F.; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Furlong, Clement E.; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2012-01-01

    HDL-associated paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity has been consistently associated with cardiovascular and other diseases. Vitamins C and E intake have previously been positively associated with PON1 in a subset of the Carotid Lesion Epidemiology and Risk (CLEAR) cohort. The goal of this study was to replicate these findings and determine whether other nutrient intake affected PON1 activity. To predict nutrient and mineral intake values, 1,402 subjects completed a standardized food frequency survey of their dietary habits over the past year. Stepwise regression was used to evaluate dietary and covariate effects on PON1 arylesterase activity. Five dietary components, cholesterol (P < 2.0 × 10−16), alcohol (P = 8.51 × 10−8), vitamin C (P = 7.97 × 10−5), iron (P = 0.0026), and folic acid (0.037) were independently predictive of PON1 activity. Dietary cholesterol was positively associated and predicted 5.5% of PON1 activity, second in variance explained. This study presents a novel finding of dietary cholesterol, iron, and folic acid predicting PON1 activity in humans and confirms prior reported associations, including that with vitamin C. Identifying and understanding environmental factors that affect PON1 activity is necessary to understand its role and that of HDL in human disease. PMID:22896672

  17. Soldier use of dietary supplements, including protein and body building supplements, in a combat zone is different than use in garrison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Krista G; McLellan, Tom M; Farina, Emily K; McGraw, Susan M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    United States Army personnel in garrison who are not deployed to combat theater report using dietary supplements (DSs) to promote health, increase physical and mental strength, and improve energy levels. Given the substantial physical and cognitive demands of combat, DS use may increase during deployment. This study compared DS use by garrison soldiers with DS use by personnel deployed to a combat theater in Afghanistan. Prevalence and patterns of DS use, demographic factors, and health behaviors were assessed by survey (deployed n = 221; garrison n = 1001). Eighty-two percent of deployed and 74% of garrison soldiers used DSs ≥ 1 time·week(-1). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for significant demographic and health predictors of DS use, showed deployed personnel were more likely than garrison soldiers to use protein, amino acids, and combination products. Deployed females were more likely to use protein supplements and deployed males were more likely to use multivitamins, combination products, protein, and body building supplements than garrison respondents. Significantly more deployed (17%) than garrison (10%) personnel spent more than $50∙month(-1) on DSs. Higher protein supplement use among deployed personnel was associated with higher frequency of strength training and lower amounts of aerobic exercise for males but similar amounts of strength training and aerobic exercise for females. Protein supplements and combination products are used more frequently by deployed than garrison soldiers with the intent of enhancing strength and energy.

  18. Food habits, physical activities and sedentary lifestyles of eutrophic and obese school children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchis-Gil, Jenny; Galván-Portillo, Marcia; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel; Cruz, Miguel; Flores-Huerta, Samuel

    2015-02-11

    Civilization has produced lifestyle changes; currently, people ingest more calories than are expended, resulting in obesity. This study assessed the association between dietary habits, physical activities, and sedentary behaviors and the risk of obesity in schoolchildren in Mexico City. Of 1,441 children (6-12 years old) screened in elementary schools, 202 obese (BMI ≥95(th) pc) and 200 normal-weight children (BMI 25(th)- 75(th) pc), as defined by the 2000 CDC criteria, were included in a case-control study. The children's eating, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle habits were recorded using validated questionnaires. The quantity and quality of the foods were obtained, and the energy that was expended was transformed into METs. Sedentary behavior was assessed in hours. Logistic regression models were used to determine the risks of certain habits and their association with obesity. Obese children ingested around of 270 Kcal less than eutrophic children. However, compared with the eutrophic children, obese children had significantly worse lifestyle habits; the children with healthy dietary habits (eating breakfast at home, bringing a school lunch, and not bringing money to purchase food) had a lower risk of obesity (OR 0.59, CI 0.46; 0.75). The quality of the eaten food was associated with a risk of obesity. Consuming fruit demonstrated an inverse association with risk of obesity (p Trend = 0.01); consumption of sweetened beverages (p Trend Children who were more physically active at school had an OR of 0.37 (CI 0.16; 0.89), those who had 3-4 televisions at home had an OR of 2.13 (CI 1.20; 3.78), and the risk of developing obesity was independent of caloric intake. Poorer eating habits as well as less physical activity were associated with the risk of obesity. An obesogenic environment could change if teachers and parents worked together to form healthy food intake and physical activity habits.

  19. BHMcalc: Binary Habitability Mechanism Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Mason, Paul; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A.; Clark, Joni

    2018-02-01

    BHMcalc provides renditions of the instantaneous circumbinary habital zone (CHZ) and also calculates BHM properties of the system including those related to the rotational evolution of the stellar components and the combined XUV and SW fluxes as measured at different distances from the binary. Moreover, it provides numerical results that can be further manipulated and used to calculate other properties.

  20. The SONG (Salt intake and OrigiN from General foods) Study - A Large-scale Survey of the Eating Habits and Dietary Salt Intake in the Working-age Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, Yoshitaka; Moriyama, Toshiki; Kanda, Kiyomi

    2017-09-15

    Objective Dietary salt reduction is important for the prevention and treatment of lifestyle-related diseases, including hypertension. Thus, in order to follow a strict low-salt diet, it is necessary to assess one's salt intake and to become aware of the importance of salt reduction. Methods More than 2,000 employees of a company, who received a periodic health checkup, participated in the present study. They assessed their day-to-day diet-related lifestyle, using the Salt Check Sheet, and we analyzed the correlations among the Salt Check Sheet scores, the daily salt intake (as estimated by a spot urine sample), and the results of the periodic health checkup. Results In the overall survey population, we only found a weak correlation between the salt check scores and the salt intake. In a subgroup analysis, significant correlations between these two variables were observed among untreated hypertensive participants, but not among treated hypertensive participants. We examined the association between 13 individual questionnaire items and the estimated daily salt intake using a multivariate linear regression model and found that only 5 of the 13 questionnaire items were correlated with the daily salt intake. Conclusion We found that a Salt Check Sheet composed of the 5 items that showed a strong correlation with the salt intake might be more useful for periodic health checks of the working-age population.

  1. Eating habits of children and adolescents from rural regions depending on gender, education, and economic status of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołłątaj, Witold; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Karwat, Irena Dorota; Kołłątaj, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The proper lifestyle of a child, including proper eating habits, should be monitored to ensure proper physical and psychological development. This applies particularly to rural areas which are economically, socially and educationally backward. The study included 1,341 rural schoolchildren and adolescents aged 9-13 years (734 females, 607 males). The representative survey research was conducted in 2008, making use of an original survey questionnaire. The results showed that the majority of respondents eat improperly. 83.2% of them have regular breakfast, and 62.6% have regular light lunch. Most respondents do not eat more than 4 meals a day (usually 3-4). It is worrying that the consumption of sweets is high (34.9% of the surveyed group eat them regularly), whereas fruit and vegetable consumption is low. In this study, relationships between types of diet and such descriptive variables as gender, parents' educational status, and economic situation of the households are described. In families where the parents have a higher education and the household situation is good, the eating habits are much better. The list of poor dietary habits of pupils from rural schools includes skipping breakfast and/or light lunch, high consumption of sweets and low consumption of fruit and vegetables. There are correlations between improper dietary habits and gender of the children and adolescents, educational status of parents, economic situation of households, and housing conditions.

  2. Genetic Architecture of Dietary Fiber and Oligosaccharide Content in a Middle American Panel of Edible Dry Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Samira Mafi; Brick, Mark A; Echeverria, Dimas; Thompson, Henry J; Brick, Leslie A; Lee, Rian; Mamidi, Sujan; McClean, Phillip E

    2018-03-01

    Common bean ( L.) is the most consumed edible grain legume worldwide and contains a wide range of nutrients for human health including dietary fiber. Diets high in beans are associated with lower rates of chronic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, and the content of dietary fibers varies among different market classes of dry bean. In this study, we evaluated the dietary fiber content in a Middle American diversity panel (MDP) of common bean and evaluated the genetic architecture of the various dietary fiber components. The dietary fiber components included insoluble and soluble dietary fibers as well as the antinutritional raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs; raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose). All variables measured differed among market classes and entries. Colored bean seeds had higher levels of insoluble dietary fibers with the black market class showing also the highest raffinose and stachyose content. Cultivars and lines released since 1997 had higher insoluble dietary fibers and RFO content in race Durango. Higher levels of RFOs were also observed in cultivars with type II growth habit that was a recent breeding target in Durango race germplasm. Candidate genes for dietary fiber traits, especially homologs to two main genes in the RFO biosynthesis pathway, were identified. The knowledge of diversity of dietary fibers in the MDP accompanied with the identification of candidate genes could effectively improve dietary fiber components in common bean. Copyright © 2018 Crop Science Society of America.

  3. Habitability: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, C S; Bush, T; Bryce, C; Direito, S; Fox-Powell, M; Harrison, J P; Lammer, H; Landenmark, H; Martin-Torres, J; Nicholson, N; Noack, L; O'Malley-James, J; Payler, S J; Rushby, A; Samuels, T; Schwendner, P; Wadsworth, J; Zorzano, M P

    2016-01-01

    Habitability is a widely used word in the geoscience, planetary science, and astrobiology literature, but what does it mean? In this review on habitability, we define it as the ability of an environment to support the activity of at least one known organism. We adopt a binary definition of "habitability" and a "habitable environment." An environment either can or cannot sustain a given organism. However, environments such as entire planets might be capable of supporting more or less species diversity or biomass compared with that of Earth. A clarity in understanding habitability can be obtained by defining instantaneous habitability as the conditions at any given time in a given environment required to sustain the activity of at least one known organism, and continuous planetary habitability as the capacity of a planetary body to sustain habitable conditions on some areas of its surface or within its interior over geological timescales. We also distinguish between surface liquid water worlds (such as Earth) that can sustain liquid water on their surfaces and interior liquid water worlds, such as icy moons and terrestrial-type rocky planets with liquid water only in their interiors. This distinction is important since, while the former can potentially sustain habitable conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis that leads to the rise of atmospheric oxygen and potentially complex multicellularity and intelligence over geological timescales, the latter are unlikely to. Habitable environments do not need to contain life. Although the decoupling of habitability and the presence of life may be rare on Earth, it may be important for understanding the habitability of other planetary bodies.

  4. The Habitable Zone Gallery 2.0: The Online Exoplanet System Visualization Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, C. O.; Kane, S. R.; Gelino, D. M.

    2017-11-01

    The Habitable Zone Gallery 2.0 provides new and improved visualization and data analysis tools to the exoplanet habitability community and beyond. Modules include interactive habitable zone plotting and downloadable 3D animations.

  5. Web-based Dietary Assessment for 8-11 Year Old School-children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    DASC the children’s school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after lunch. During the week after the baseline food- and activity recording fasting blood samples were taken. The acceptability of WebDASC was assessed with a questionnaire. Energy intake (EI) estimated with WebDASC was evaluated against......Background and aim The potential health effects of a New Nordic Diet (NND) are to be tested in the Danish OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal study among 8-11- year-old school-children. Valid and reliable dietary...... assessment methods are essential for identifying how eating habits may change in response to the intervention and for identifying the impact of the children’s dietary habits on their health and weight status. Several challenges are connected to collecting dietary data from children including their cognitive...

  6. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  7. Identification of Critical Groups in Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic Through Specific Dietary Surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liland, A.; Skuterud, L.; Malatova, I.; Mirchi, R.; Krajewski, P.; Eged, K.; Somlai, J.; Sanchez, A.; Tarjan, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: This work has been performed as part of the EC project SAVEC (Spatial Analysis of Vulnerable Areas in Central Europe), expanding the EC project SAVE (Spatial Analysis of Vulnerable Ecosystems in Europe). Spatial analysis of dietary habits can be used as a tool for predicting areas where people are more vulnerable to radioactive fallout. Common dietary data such as national statistics and household budget surveys can be used for this purpose. The resolution of such data is not good enough, though, for identifying smaller critical groups with respect to dietary habits. Wild berries and mushrooms, wild fowl, game meat and freshwater fish usually have higher 137 Cs activity concentration levels than agricultural products. In the long term, these foodstuffs can contribute substantially to the internal dose even if consumed in small amounts. Yet, they are usually not included in household budget surveys or national consumption statistics. A specific dietary survey in the form of a questionnaire is the best way to get accurate information on individual diets. The questionnaires can be designed to cover radiologically important foodstuffs, such as those from the forest ecosystem. Within the SAVEC project a questionnaire detailing the consumption of foods from the forest ecosystem has been distributed to hunters in Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic. The results from this investigation and the identification of critical groups with respect to dietary habits in the three Central European countries will be presented. (author)

  8. Eating and shift work - effects on habits, metabolism and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowden, Arne; Moreno, Claudia; Holmbäck, Ulf; Lennernäs, Maria; Tucker, Philip

    2010-03-01

    Compared to individuals who work during the day, shift workers are at higher risk of a range of metabolic disorders and diseases (eg, obesity, cardiovascular disease, peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal problems, failure to control blood sugar levels, and metabolic syndrome). At least some of these complaints may be linked to the quality of the diet and irregular timing of eating, however other factors that affect metabolism are likely to play a part, including psychosocial stress, disrupted circadian rhythms, sleep debt, physical inactivity, and insufficient time for rest and revitalization. In this overview, we examine studies on food and nutrition among shift workers [ie, dietary assessment (designs, methods, variables) and the factors that might influence eating habits and metabolic parameters]. The discussion focuses on the quality of existing dietary assessment data, nutritional status parameters (particularly in obesity), the effect of circadian disruptions, and the possible implications for performance at work. We conclude with some dietary guidelines as a basis for managing the nutrition of shift workers.

  9. Epidemiological study: Correlation between diet habits and constipation among elderly in Beijing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Jiao; Zhang, Mei; Zhu, Hong-Ming; Tang, Zhe; Zhao, Dan-Dan; Li, Bang-Yi; Gabriel, Amanda

    2016-10-21

    To investigate correlations between diet and prevalence of constipation among elderly people in Beijing. A total of 2776 (≥ 60 years) were selected in Beijing region for investigation. Data regarding constipation and diet habits was collected via hierarchical status, segmentation and random cluster sampling. Investigation included constipation-related demographic indicators and diet habits. Door-to-door questionnaires and surveys included daily staple food intakes, frequency of fish, egg, fruits and vegetables consumption. Constipation was defined according to the China Chronic Constipation Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline (2013), with the following constipation judgment indicators: decreased defecation frequency, dry and hard stool, and difficulty in defecation. The prevalence of constipation among elderly people in Beijing region was 13%. There was a positive correlation between prevalence of constipation and age, but negative correlations between prevalence of constipation and staple food, fish and dietary fibres (fruits and vegetables) intakes. These differences were all statistically significant. The prevalence of elderly constipation in Beijing region is closely related to diet habits, and is significantly decreased by high staple foods intake, fish eating and high dietary fibres (fruits and vegetables) consumption.

  10. On the Habitability of Aquaplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Cardenas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An Aquatic Habitability Index is proposed, based on Quantitative Habitability Theory, and considering a very general model for life. It is a primary habitability index, measuring habitability for phytoplankton in the first place. The index is applied to some case studies, such as the habitability changes in Earth due to environmental perturbations caused by asteroid impacts.

  11. Dietary soy isoflavone intake in older Japanese American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, M M; LaCroix, A Z; Lampe, J W; van Belle, G; Kestin, M; Sumitani, M; Graves, A B; Larson, E B

    2001-10-01

    In a sample of older Japanese American women, we aimed to: (1) describe the most commonly consumed soy foods, (2) estimate dietary soy isoflavone intake, (3) describe characteristics associated with dietary soy isoflavone intake, and (4) compare our estimates with previously published estimates in other Japanese samples. A 14-item soy food-frequency questionnaire was administered to older Japanese American women and responses were converted to quantitative estimates of soy isoflavones (genistein plus daidzein). Multiple regression was used to examine characteristics associated with dietary soy isoflavone intake, including self-reported lifestyle and cultural factors and dietary intake of various foods ascertained from a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. To compare our estimates with other samples, a review of the literature was conducted. Data are from 274 women aged 65+ years, recruited from a longitudinal cohort study of Japanese Americans in King County, Washington State. The soy foods most commonly consumed were tofu (soybean curd), miso (fermented soybean paste) and aburaage (fried thin soybean curd). The mean intake of dietary soy isoflavones was 10.2 (standard deviation (SD), 12.4) mg day(-1), approximately a quarter to a half that of previously published estimates in Japanese samples. Dietary soy isoflavone intake was positively associated with speaking Japanese, the consumption of traditional Japanese dishes (kamaboko, manju and mochi), low-fat/non-fat milk and yellow/red vegetables, vitamin E supplement use, and walking several blocks each day. Dietary soy isoflavone intake was negatively associated with the consumption of butter. The estimated dietary soy isoflavone intake in Japanese American women living in King County, Washington State was about a quarter to a half that of women living in Japan. Dietary soy isoflavone intake was associated with speaking Japanese and healthy lifestyle and dietary habits.

  12. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    consequences. Since the decision is made quite automatically and only one choice alternative is considered (the habitually chosen one), behaviour guided by habit is difficult to change. The implications of car use habits for converting drivers to commuters using public transportation is analysed based......It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding...... to do so, car use habit, and the interaction between the two, confirms the theory-derived hypothesis that car use habits act as an obstacle to the transformation of intentions to commute by public transportation into action....

  13. Tides and the evolution of planetary habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rory; Raymond, Sean N; Jackson, Brian; Greenberg, Richard

    2008-06-01

    Tides raised on a planet by the gravity of its host star can reduce the planet's orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity. This effect is only relevant for planets orbiting very close to their host stars. The habitable zones of low-mass stars are also close in, and tides can alter the orbits of planets in these locations. We calculate the tidal evolution of hypothetical terrestrial planets around low-mass stars and show that tides can evolve planets past the inner edge of the habitable zone, sometimes in less than 1 billion years. This migration requires large eccentricities (>0.5) and low-mass stars ( less or similar to 0.35 M(circle)). Such migration may have important implications for the evolution of the atmosphere, internal heating, and the Gaia hypothesis. Similarly, a planet that is detected interior to the habitable zone could have been habitable in the past. We consider the past habitability of the recently discovered, approximately 5 M(circle) planet, Gliese 581 c. We find that it could have been habitable for reasonable choices of orbital and physical properties as recently as 2 Gyr ago. However, when constraints derived from the additional companions are included, most parameter choices that indicate past habitability require the two inner planets of the system to have crossed their mutual 3:1 mean motion resonance. As this crossing would likely have resulted in resonance capture, which is not observed, we conclude that Gl 581 c was probably never habitable.

  14. Usability Test of an Interactive Dietary Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee; Wong, Thomas Kwok Shing

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake methods are used to collect one's diet habit which is essential in nutrition assessment. Food diary, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recalls are the most common dietary intake methods. However, they are not welcomed by most clients. Digital handheld devices are now readily available, and the cost of digital…

  15. Healthy habits for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn healthy eating into a habit. These healthy eating habits can help you lose weight and keep it ... The family kitchen can trigger unhealthy eating habits if your ... make diet-boosting foods the most natural choice. Keep healthy ...

  16. A KAP STUDY AND SURVEY OF EATING HABITS AMONG MEDICAL FACULTY AT MEDICAL COLLEGE IN SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colonel Jai Prakash (Retd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition intervention is a component of first step therapy for many common diseases including Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity and its role in health promotion, disease-prevention & treatment of chronic diseases is well recognized. Rationale: Nutrition knowledge plays an important role in public health and also interfaces significantly and relevantly with every field of medicine. However physicians’ knowledge on this issue is not very satisfactory. Objective: The objective of present study was to assess nutritional knowledge, attitude and practices pertaining to eating habits among medical faculty of a medical college of South India and also their feedback on present medical curriculum at MBBS level dealing with dietary issues. Material & Methods : It was a cross-sectional study conducted among almost all faculty members (150 participated in the study voluntarily. Faculty members were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire about KAP and dietary habits through multiple-choice questions based on balanced diet, containing a variety of food in quantities and proportion, derived from green leafy vegetables, fresh fruits, milk, curd, egg, pulse, rice and cereals. Results: Nutritional knowledge was 70 % (mean score of correct answers, 78% scored 60-80% marks & 20% scored less than 60% and majority (79.4% of them have healthy eating habits. 40% faculty members were over weight (BMI 23-24.9 and 40% were obese (BMI >25. Most of the members replied that the medical curriculum was inadequate or just adequate in dealing with the dietary issues; 68.6% of them were of the opinion that comprehensive nutrition curriculum is needed; 66% suggested a separate nutrition department. Conclusion: A total 150 members participated in the survey voluntarily. Their nutritional knowledge was found to be 70 % and majority (70.4% of them have healthy eating habit. Most of the members replied that the medical curriculum is

  17. Dietitians use and recommend dietary supplements: report of a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Annette

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplement use is common in the United States, with more than half of the population using such products. Nutrition authorities consistently advocate a "food first" approach to achieving nutritional adequacy but some, including the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association, also recognize that dietary supplements have a role to play in improving nutrient intake to support health and wellness. Surveys show that many health professionals use dietary supplements themselves and also recommend dietary supplements to their patients or clients. Methods As one component of a series of surveys of healthcare professionals (the "Life...supplemented" HCP Impact Studies, 300 registered dietitians were surveyed in 2009 regarding their personal use of dietary supplements and whether they recommend dietary supplements to their clients. Respondents were registered dietitians whose business involved seeing clients in a private practice or at a clinic. Results Seventy-four percent of the dietitians surveyed said they were regular users of dietary supplements, while 22% said they used dietary supplements occasionally or seasonally. The primary reasons for using dietary supplements were for bone health (58%, overall health and wellness (53%, and to fill nutrient gaps (42%. When asked if they "ever recommend dietary supplements to clients," 97% of the respondents said they did. The primary reasons were for bone health (70%, to fill nutrient gaps (67%, and overall health and wellness (49%. Eighty-seven percent of the dietitians agreed with the statement, "There are gaps in clients' diets that could effectively be addressed with dietary supplements." The dietitians surveyed said they followed healthy habits including eating a balanced diet (96%, managing stress (92%, visiting their own healthcare professional regularly (86%, exercising regularly (83%, maintaining a healthy weight (80%, and getting a good

  18. Dietitians use and recommend dietary supplements: report of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Annette; Bonci, Leslie; Boyon, Nicolas; Franco, Julio C

    2012-03-14

    Dietary supplement use is common in the United States, with more than half of the population using such products. Nutrition authorities consistently advocate a "food first" approach to achieving nutritional adequacy but some, including the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association), also recognize that dietary supplements have a role to play in improving nutrient intake to support health and wellness. Surveys show that many health professionals use dietary supplements themselves and also recommend dietary supplements to their patients or clients. As one component of a series of surveys of healthcare professionals (the "Life...supplemented" HCP Impact Studies), 300 registered dietitians were surveyed in 2009 regarding their personal use of dietary supplements and whether they recommend dietary supplements to their clients. Respondents were registered dietitians whose business involved seeing clients in a private practice or at a clinic. Seventy-four percent of the dietitians surveyed said they were regular users of dietary supplements, while 22% said they used dietary supplements occasionally or seasonally. The primary reasons for using dietary supplements were for bone health (58%), overall health and wellness (53%), and to fill nutrient gaps (42%). When asked if they "ever recommend dietary supplements to clients," 97% of the respondents said they did. The primary reasons were for bone health (70%), to fill nutrient gaps (67%), and overall health and wellness (49%). Eighty-seven percent of the dietitians agreed with the statement, "There are gaps in clients' diets that could effectively be addressed with dietary supplements." The dietitians surveyed said they followed healthy habits including eating a balanced diet (96%), managing stress (92%), visiting their own healthcare professional regularly (86%), exercising regularly (83%), maintaining a healthy weight (80%), and getting a good night's sleep (72%). Nearly all respondents

  19. [Diabetes and sleeping habits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinsuke; Inaba, Masaaki

    2012-07-01

    Number of diabetic patients has continued to increase in the world, disturbance of sleep habits have been pointed out as one of the factor recently. Sleep habits are categorized into quantity and quality of sleep. Inappropriate sleep duration and decline in quality of sleep have caused the exacerbation and onset of diabetes. On the other hand, it is known that many patients with diabetes have already suffered from sleep disorders. Here, we will give an outline of the relationship between sleep habits and diabetes.

  20. Preschoolers' dietary behaviours: parents' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patricia; Irwin, Jennifer D; He, Meizi; Bouck, L Michelle Sangster; Pollett, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Preschoolers' dietary intake behaviours are described from the perspective of their parents. A maximum variation sample of 71 parents of preschoolers participated in this qualitative study. Ten semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted. Two experienced moderators facilitated all focus groups, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Strategies to ensure trustworthiness of the data were employed throughout the study. Two team members independently performed inductive content analysis. NVivo software was used to code the emerging themes. Parents identified food and food issues as key health-related behaviours among preschoolers. Parents discussed challenges to healthy eating, including time limitations and societal pressures, as well as methods for facilitating healthy food choices, including bribery, education, and being creative with food. Dietary intake is on the minds of preschoolers' parents. Unfortunately, some methods that parents currently use to promote healthy food choices may be more detrimental than beneficial for children in the long term. Parents' keen interest in their preschoolers' eating habits may make them particularly receptive to learning about and facilitating healthy choices in more behaviourally appropriate ways. Widespread educational messages about the benefits and detriments of various strategies to facilitate healthy eating among preschoolers therefore seem warranted.

  1. Preschoolers’ Dietary Behaviours: Parents’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    TUCKER, PATRICIA; IRWIN, JENNIFER D.; HE, MEIZI; BOUCK, L. MICHELLE SANGSTER; POLLETT, GRAHAM

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Preschoolers’ dietary intake behaviours are described from the perspective of their parents. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents of preschoolers participated in this qualitative study. Ten semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted. Two experienced moderators facilitated all focus groups, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Strategies to ensure trustworthiness of the data were employed throughout the study. Two team members independently performed inductive content analysis. NVivo software was used to code the emerging themes. Results Parents identified food and food issues as key health-related behaviours among preschoolers. Parents discussed challenges to healthy eating, including time limitations and societal pressures, as well as methods for facilitating healthy food choices, including bribery, education, and being creative with food. Conclusions Dietary intake is on the minds of preschoolers’ parents. Unfortunately, some methods that parents currently use to promote healthy food choices may be more detrimental than beneficial for children in the long term. Parents’ keen interest in their preschoolers’ eating habits may make them particularly receptive to learning about and facilitating healthy choices in more behaviourally appropriate ways. Widespread educational messages about the benefits and detriments of various strategies to facilitate healthy eating among preschoolers therefore seem warranted. PMID:16759432

  2. Present Food Shopping Habits in the Spanish Adult Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Achón

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on grocery shopping patterns is one key to understanding dietary changes in recent years in Spain. This report presents an overview of Spanish food shopping patterns in the adult population. A cross-sectional, nationally representative telephone survey was conducted in Spain. Individuals were asked about food shopping responsibility roles, types of visited food stores, time spent, additional behaviors while shopping, the influence of marketing/advertising and, in particular, fresh produce shopping profile. Binary logistic regression models were developed. The final random sample included 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years, of which 1223 were women and 803 were men. Women reported being in charge of most of the food shopping activities. Looking for best prices, more than looking for healthy or sustainable foods, seemed to be a general behavior. Supermarkets were the preferred retail spaces for food price consideration, convenience, variety and availability. Fresh produce shopping was associated with traditional markets and neighborhood stores in terms of reliance and personalized service. It is essential to highlight the importance of the role played by women. They are the main supporters concerned in preserving adequate dietary habits. Economic factors, more than health or food sustainability, are commonly considered by the population. Traditional markets may play an important role in preserving some healthy dietary habits of the Mediterranean food culture in Spain.

  3. Present Food Shopping Habits in the Spanish Adult Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achón, María; Serrano, María; García-González, Ángela; Alonso-Aperte, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2017-05-18

    Information on grocery shopping patterns is one key to understanding dietary changes in recent years in Spain. This report presents an overview of Spanish food shopping patterns in the adult population. A cross-sectional, nationally representative telephone survey was conducted in Spain. Individuals were asked about food shopping responsibility roles, types of visited food stores, time spent, additional behaviors while shopping, the influence of marketing/advertising and, in particular, fresh produce shopping profile. Binary logistic regression models were developed. The final random sample included 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years, of which 1223 were women and 803 were men. Women reported being in charge of most of the food shopping activities. Looking for best prices, more than looking for healthy or sustainable foods, seemed to be a general behavior. Supermarkets were the preferred retail spaces for food price consideration, convenience, variety and availability. Fresh produce shopping was associated with traditional markets and neighborhood stores in terms of reliance and personalized service. It is essential to highlight the importance of the role played by women. They are the main supporters concerned in preserving adequate dietary habits. Economic factors, more than health or food sustainability, are commonly considered by the population. Traditional markets may play an important role in preserving some healthy dietary habits of the Mediterranean food culture in Spain.

  4. Nutritional habits in Italian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleman, Adele Anna; de Waure, Chiara; Soffiani, Valentina; Poscia, Andrea; Di Pietro, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Dietary habits have been indicated by research as key elements in both disease pathogenesis and prevention and health promotion. We analyzed data collected from Italian university students regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast-foods, sweets, energizing drinks, and coffee, average number of eating episodes per day and regularity of breakfast habits. 44% of the university student population eats in average at least 1 portion of fruit per day. 22.5% eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. 8.5% eats in average 5 times per day with 48.6% declaring an average of 3 eating episodes per day. 11.3% consumes eccessive amounts of caffeine. 49.1% of the females reaches the recommended consumption of fruit, compared to only 33.8% of males (p portions of vegetables per day, compared to 12.0% of males (p portion of fruit per day and less than 1 out of 4 eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. Less than 10% of the students eats in average 5 times per day and more than 1 out of 3 does not have breakfast regularly every morning. Interventions targeting university students are required in order to increase their knowledge on healthy eating habits and to ameliorate their dietary behaviours.

  5. Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warchoł, Wojciech; Jamka, Małgorzata; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2014-10-14

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat.

  6. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  7. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  8. Food Habits Database (FHDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Food Habits Database has two major sources of data. The first, and most extensive, is the standard NEFSC Bottom Trawl Surveys Program. During these...

  9. Incidence of colorectal cancer and influence of dietary habits in fifteen European countries from 1971 to 2002 Incidencia de cáncer colorrectal e influencia de los hábitos alimenticios en 15 países europeos desde 1971 hasta 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Béjar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to analyze the incidence of colorectal cancer in 15 European countries in recent decades and the relationship between the incidence found and changes in dietary habits. Methods: Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated by comparing incidence rates obtained from the International Agency for Research on Cancer for 1971-2002 with data on per capita consumption obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations using 10-year delay intervals. Results: Incidence rates increased in all countries except France in men and except Austria, Denmark, England and France in women. Of the dietary variables considered, there were marked increasing trends (linear regression coefficient, R >0.5 in red meat consumption in Germany (R = 0.9, Austria (R = 0.7, Finland (R = 0.8, Italy (R = 0.9, Poland (R = 0.5, Spain (R = 2.1, Sweden (R = 0.6, and the Netherlands (R = 0.7. Conclusions: Changes in dietary habits may be consistent with the observed trends in the incidence of colorectal cancer in the distinct European countries.Introducción: Este estudio analiza la incidencia de cáncer colorrectal en 15 países europeos en las últimas décadas y su relación con cambios en los hábitos alimenticios. Métodos: Coeficientes de correlación de Pearson/Spearman calculados comparando las tasas de incidencia obtenidas de International Agency for Research on Cancer durante 1971-2002 con los consumos per cápita obtenidos de Food and Agriculture Organization con intervalos de retardo de 10 años. Resultados: Las tasas de incidencia aumentan en todos los países, excepto en Francia, en los hombres, y en Austria, Dinamarca, Inglaterra y Francia en las mujeres. De las variables de la dieta estudiadas, hay marcadas tendencias crecientes (coeficiente de regresión lineal, R >0,5 para carne roja en Alemania (R = 0,9, Austria (R = 0,7, España (R = 2,1, Finlandia (R = 0,8, Italia (R = 0,9, Países Bajos (R = 0

  10. Eating habits of students

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, Silvestra; Zupančič, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with eating habits of students. Its purpose was to ascertaineating habits of students living outside their primary home and are under different forms of stress. Methods: the pattern is represented by students living in student homer where they can cook and prepare their own meals. In the research, 81 students living in the students home on Cesta v Mestni log in Ljubljana. The inquiry was composed from 34 questions. The data were processed with Microsoft Excel. Body mass inde...

  11. Hygiene habits through time

    OpenAIRE

    Kalan, Petra

    2013-01-01

    In this work I did a research about hygiene habits of people and their home environment. The work presents how the hygiene habits changed in people home environment through time. The work presents changes of the body hygiene standards adopted by people from the middle ages onward. Todays customs are quite different from the ones we had some time ago. Moreover, hygiene of living environment has also changes which resulted into lower death rate and death illness related to bad hygiene among pop...

  12. A Review of Habit Reversal with Childhood Habit Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Douglas W.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper first reviews four classes of habit disorders in children: motor and vocal tics, nervous habits, stuttering, and Tourette's disorder. It then describes the habit reversal procedure and reviews the literature on its use and variations to treat each of the four classes of habit disorders. Emphasis is on simplified versions of the original…

  13. [THE COMPARISON BETWEEN FOOD HABITS AND PHYSICAL CONDITION AMONG PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND OTHER UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes-Badilla, Pablo; Godoy-Cumillaf, Andrés; Herrera-Valenzuela, Tomás; Durán-Agüero, Samuel

    2015-08-01

    college students show a great susceptibility to acquire inadequate habits during their university studies, which they could maintain along their life. compare the dietary habits and physical fitness among physical education students and other university careers at the same university and campus. the sample included 343 students, mainly men (70%), 212 students from the career of Physical Education (PE) and 131 students of other careers (OC) of the Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Temuco campus. A validated survey about eating habits and physical fitness tests were applied to each student. in comparison with the students from other careers, the men of PE have a lower frequency of consumption of dairy, vegetables, alcohol (p food, biscuits and sweet snacks (p habits of students PE and OC from the same university, while physical fitness is consistent with the greater stimulus that the PE students receive in their academic training, which would serve as a excuse to consume more sugary drinks, junk food, cookies and sweet snacks. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Not Salt Taste Perception but Self-Reported Salt Eating Habit Predicts Actual Salt Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-01-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a s...

  15. Dietary Guidelines for Breast Cancer Patients: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon-Miro, Ana Teresa; Lopez-Teros, Veronica; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto

    2017-07-01

    Current dietary guidelines for breast cancer patients (BCPs) fail to address adequate dietary intakes of macro- and micronutrients that may improve patients' nutritional status. This review includes information from the PubMed and Biomed Central databases over the last 15 y concerning dietary guidelines for BCPs and the potential impact of a personalized, nutrient-specific diet on patients' nutritional status during and after antineoplastic treatment. Results indicated that BCPs should receive a nutritional assessment immediately after diagnosis. In addition, they should be encouraged to pursue and maintain a healthy body weight [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) 20-24.9], preserving their lean mass and avoiding an increase in fat mass. Therefore, after nutritional status diagnosis, a conservative energy restriction of 500-1000 kcal/d could be considered in the dietary intervention when appropriate. Based on the reviewed information, we propose a personalized nutrition intervention for BCPs during and after antineoplastic treatment. Specifications in the nutritional therapy should be based on the patients' nutritional status, dietary habits, schedule, activities, and cultural preferences. BCPs' daily energy intake should be distributed as follows: nutrition therapy. Adequate dietary intakes of food-based macro- and micronutrients rich in β-carotene and vitamins A, E, and C can both prevent deterioration in BCPs' nutritional status and improve their overall health and prognosis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. [Diet counseling through "Shoku-dietary Coaching"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Naoko

    2005-11-01

    "Shoku-dietary Coaching" is a skill under development by Kageyama, who applies "coaching," widely used in the business field, to diet counseling. This counseling aims at improving conventional "nutritional guidance-type diet counseling" and promoting self-motivation so that healthy clients eagerly improve their own health, and clients with obesity or lifestyle-related diseases can learn self-control. In Shoku-dietary Coaching, the basis for the differentiation between healthy and unhealthy conditions is not only the parameters measured by medical devices. In Shoku-dietary Coaching, attention is directed to clients' assessment of their own lifestyle, dietary goals they have, and actions they will take to achieve them. To increase the health level of clients, we are developing techniques to enhance their motivation by showing sympathy with and support for their dietary behavior and health awareness. In addition, we give guidance through both theory and the practice of such things as having three meals a day at regular hours, knowing the kinds and daily amounts of foods appropriate for each client, and clarifying the percentages of seasonings necessary for cooking. The habit of having meals at regular hours alleviates stress, promotes communication with people sitting at the same table, and increases the health level of both the client and the others. These are important elements in the theory of Shoku-dietary Coaching. Putting the above into practice should not be limited to clients, but should include the clinic staff so as to deepen their own understanding and communication. Enhanced communication reinforces team medical care in the clinic. Communication skills which involve respect for others, continuous motivation of individuals, and achievement of purposes that may even require a long time may be useful for all people.

  17. Effects of changes in dietary habits on colorectal cancer incidence in twenty countries from four continents during the period 1971-2002 Efectos de cambios en los patrones dietéticos sobre la incidencia de cáncer colorrectal en veinte países de cuatro continentes durante 1971-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Béjar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the incidence of colorectal cancer is one of the highest on a global level. Many epidemiological studies have identified risk and protective factors, many of which have a behavioral component and, therefore, are potentially avoidable or subject to modification. This study investigated the incidence rates of colorectal cancer by gender in twenty different countries, taking into account the dietary habits of the habitants of each country. Material and methods: adjusted incidence rates, according to gender, were obtained for each country from the International Agency for Research on Cancer during the period 1971-2002. Annual per capita consumption data of the different dietary variables were obtained for the period 1961-2007 from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated comparing incidence rates according to gender with different dietary variable using ten-year delay intervals. Results: there is an important variation in trends of colorectal cancer incidence worldwide which were found to be related with the dietary habits of each country. Discussion: based on the trends observed, each country was classified into one of four different situations based on the range of values of their incidence rates and linear trends observed. Due to the potential of primary prevention programs for colorectal cancer and to the delay between changes in the exposure to risk and protective factors and the effects on the incidence of this tumor, the application of legislative and educational measures promoting a healthy diet has become an urgent issue to stop the increasing tendency of colorectal cancer reported worldwide.Introducción: el cáncer colorrectal es uno de los tumores de mayor incidencia a nivel mundial. Numerosos estudios epidemiológicos han identificado diversos factores de riesgo y protección, muchos de ellos asociados al comportamiento y que, por tanto, son

  18. Eating Habits and Lifestyles among a Sample of Obese Working Egyptian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSION: The present study identified several lifestyle factors and improper dietary habits associated with overweight and obesity among Egyptian females. There is a great need to change these habits to avoid the increasing risk of obesity. A national plan of action to overcome obesity is urgently needed to reduce its economic and health burden.

  19. Akula Udongo (Earth Eating Habits): A Social and Cultural Practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper illuminates the practice of geophagy (earth eating habit) among Chagga women. This paper is a part of an MPhil thesis in Gender and Development. I documented dietary practices and perceptions among pregnant women in rural Tanzania. My focus was on foods and non-foods consumed during pregnancy and ...

  20. Breakfast Habits among School Children in Selected Communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: A cross sectional study was conducted among school children (n=359) between the ages of 6-19 years in Manya Krobo in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Questionnaires were used to collect information on background characteristics and breakfast consumption habits. The 24-hour dietary recall method was used to ...

  1. [Eating habits in physical therapy students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayona-Marzo, I; Navas-Cámara, F J; Fernández de Santiago, F J; Mingo-Gómez, T; de la Fuente-Sanz, Ma A; Cacho del Amo, A

    2007-01-01

    a) To know the eating and exercising habits of undergraduate Physical Therapy students; b) To promote awareness among these future health professionals and educators of the need to foster adequate eating habits among patients and the general population. A dietary and physical activity questionnaire, regarding a seven-day period, distributed among students of the School of Physical Therapy (University of Valladolid) in the city of Soria, Spain (n = 131; sex (m/f): 38/93). Results show that a high percentage of the subjects follow the recommendations of the new Nutritional Pyramid of the Spanish Nutrition Society (SEN) regarding intake of meat, fish, milk, dairy products and exercise habits. This is not the case, however, for products such as pasta, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruits, legumes and olive oil. Furthermore, fast food is taken, on average, once a week despite the recommended sporadic monthly intakes. According to results, formative programmes should be carried out to enable these students to encourage healthy diets. Thus, diseases related to non-healthy eating habits could be prevented, and information on the issue could be spread among the population.

  2. Bedtime habits for infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infants - bedtime habits; Children - bedtime habits; Sleep - bedtime habits; Well child care - bedtime habits ... or sweet conversation. If your child simply cannot sleep, tell him ... bedtime habits can be disrupted by changes or stresses, such ...

  3. Nutritional habits in Italian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Anna Teleman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dietary habits have been indicated by research as key elements in both disease pathogenesis and prevention and health promotion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data collected from Italian university students regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast-foods, sweets, energizing drinks, and coffee, average number of eating episodes per day and regularity of breakfast habits. RESULTS: 44% of the university student population eats in average at least 1 portion of fruit per day. 22.5% eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. 8.5% eats in average 5 times per day with 48.6% declaring an average of 3 eating episodes per day. 11.3% consumes eccessive amounts of caffeine. 49.1% of the females reaches the recommended consumption of fruit, compared to only 33.8% of males (p < 0.05. 27.7% of females eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day, compared to 12.0% of males (p < 0.05. Eccessive coffee drinkers pass from 8.9% in the 18-21 age group to 16% in the 25-30 year old age group (p < 0.05. DISCUSSION: This study showed that the eating habits of young adults do not follow national recommendations. Less than 50% of university students eats at least 1 portion of fruit per day and less than 1 out of 4 eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. Less than 10% of the students eats in average 5 times per day and more than 1 out of 3 does not have breakfast regularly every morning. CONCLUSION: Interventions targeting university students are required in order to increase their knowledge on healthy eating habits and to ameliorate their dietary behaviours.

  4. The Supergalactic Habitable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Habitability in the local universe is examined. Constrained by metal abundance and exposure to sterilizing events, life as we know it requires significantly long periods of stable environmental conditions. Planets within galaxies undergoing major mergers, active AGN, starburst episodes, and merging black holes pose serious threats to long-term habitability. Importantly, the development of several layers of protection from high-energy particles such as a thick atmosphere, a strong planetary magnetic field, an astrosphere, and a galactic magnetic field is of great benefit. Factors such as star type and activity, planet type and composition, the location of a planet within its host galaxy, and even the location within a supercluster of galaxies can affect the potential habitability of planets. We discuss the concept of the Supergalactic Habitable Zone introduced by Mason and Biermann in terms of habitability in the local universe and find that galaxies near the center of the Virgo cluster, for example, have a much lower probability for the development of life as we know it as compared to locations in the Milky Way.

  5. Nutritional habits, lifestyle, and genetic predisposition in cardiovascular and metabolic traits in Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Sefayet; Erge, Sema; Cesuroglu, Tomris; Polimanti, Renato

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular and metabolic traits (CMT) are influenced by complex interactive processes including diet, lifestyle, and genetic predisposition. The present study investigated the interactions of these risk factors in relation to CMTs in the Turkish population. We applied bootstrap agglomerative hierarchical clustering and Bayesian network learning algorithms to identify the causative relationships among genes involved in different biological mechanisms (i.e., lipid metabolism, hormone metabolism, cellular detoxification, aging, and energy metabolism), lifestyle (i.e., physical activity, smoking behavior, and metropolitan residency), anthropometric traits (i.e., body mass index, body fat ratio, and waist-to-hip ratio), and dietary habits (i.e., daily intakes of macro- and micronutrients) in relation to CMTs (i.e., health conditions and blood parameters). We identified significant correlations between dietary habits (soybean and vitamin B12 intakes) and different cardiometabolic diseases that were confirmed by the Bayesian network-learning algorithm. Genetic factors contributed to these disease risks also through the pleiotropy of some genetic variants (i.e., F5 rs6025 and MTR rs180508). However, we also observed that certain genetic associations are indirect since they are due to the causative relationships among the CMTs (e.g., APOC3 rs5128 is associated with low-density lipoproteins cholesterol and, by extension, total cholesterol). Our study applied a novel approach to integrate various sources of information and dissect the complex interactive processes related to CMTs. Our data indicated that complex causative networks are present: causative relationships exist among CMTs and are affected by genetic factors (with pleiotropic and non-pleiotropic effects) and dietary habits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relation between eating habits and a high body mass index among freshman students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Fatma Esra; Bekiroglu, Nural; Imeryuz, Nese; Agirbasli, Mehmet

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the relation between eating habits and a high body mass index (BMI) in first-year freshman university students and included 2525 freshman university students 18 to 22 years old from a Turkish population. İn this study, 48% of the students were men. They were asked to complete a questionnaire on their dietary habits including the frequency of their consumption of individual food items, demographic data, and smoking habit. The effects of eating habits on increased BMI (≥25) were analyzed. Of 2259 subjects included in the analyses, 322 were overweight or obese and 1937 had normal and thin BMI (ender, recent weight change, and high number of meals as independent predictors of obesity/overweight. Frequent consumptions of beer, alcoholic drinks other than beer and wine (e.g., spirits including whisky, gin, raki, vodka), coffee, tea, coke, red meat, variety meat, and eggs were associated with a significantly higher risk of obesity/overweight, whereas frequent consumption of snacks was associated with a low risk. Findings of further studies, possibly taking into consideration the absolute quantities of consumption along with cultural and local issues, would guide the adoption of healthier feeding behaviors in this particular age group.

  7. Setting the Stage for Habitable Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Gonzalez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the processes that are relevant to the formation and maintenance of habitable planetary systems is advancing at a rapid pace, both from observation and theory. The present review focuses on recent research that bears on this topic and includes discussions of processes occurring in astrophysical, geophysical and climatic contexts, as well as the temporal evolution of planetary habitability. Special attention is given to recent observations of exoplanets and their host stars and the theories proposed to explain the observed trends. Recent theories about the early evolution of the Solar System and how they relate to its habitability are also summarized. Unresolved issues requiring additional research are pointed out, and a framework is provided for estimating the number of habitable planets in the Universe.

  8. Setting the Stage for Habitable Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the processes that are relevant to the formation and maintenance of habitable planetary systems is advancing at a rapid pace, both from observation and theory. The present review focuses on recent research that bears on this topic and includes discussions of processes occurring in astrophysical, geophysical and climatic contexts, as well as the temporal evolution of planetary habitability. Special attention is given to recent observations of exoplanets and their host stars and the theories proposed to explain the observed trends. Recent theories about the early evolution of the Solar System and how they relate to its habitability are also summarized. Unresolved issues requiring additional research are pointed out, and a framework is provided for estimating the number of habitable planets in the Universe. PMID:25370028

  9. Military experience can influence Women's eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Jessica Y; Donalson, Rosemary; Nevedal, Andrea; Dinh, Julie V; Maguen, Shira

    2017-11-01

    Disordered eating, ranging from occasional binge eating or restriction to behaviors associated with eating disorder diagnoses, is common among military personnel and veterans. However, there is little information on how military service affects eating habits. To describe possible pathways between military service and disordered eating among women veterans, a high risk group. Twenty women veterans who reported changing eating habits in response to stress participated in audio-recorded focus groups or dyadic interviews between April 2013 and October 2014. We used thematic analysis of transcripts to identify and understand women's self-reported eating habits before, during, and after military service. Participants reported entering the military with varied eating habits, but little disordered eating. Participants described several ways military environments affected eating habits, for example, by promoting fast, irregular, binge-like eating and disrupting the reward value of food. Participants believed military-related stressors, which were often related to gender, also affected eating habits. Such stressors included military sexual trauma and the need to meet military weight requirements in general and after giving birth. Participants also reported that poor eating habits continued after military service, often because they remained under stress. For some women, military service can result in socialization to poor eating habits, which when combined with exposure to stressors can lead to disordered eating. Additional research is needed, including work to understand possible benefits associated with providing support in relation to military weight requirements and the transition out of military service. Given the unique experiences of women in the military, future work could also focus on health services surrounding pregnancy-related weight change and the stress associated with being a woman in predominantly male military environments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Eating Habits after Gastrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    新井, 治子; 二渡, 玉江; 伊藤, 善一

    1990-01-01

    Follow-up study of eating habits in patients who had undergone subtotal (44 patients) or total gastrectomy (19 patients) showed that the characteristics of diet and the manner of meal tended to change in this order with time after surgery. The patients were able to follow the general family diet about three months after gastrectomy. Within an additional one or two months, patients usually acquired the habit of taking three meals a day. A constant amount of food in almost every regular meal wa...

  11. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  12. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  13. Corresponding Habits of Mind and Mathematical Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwirahayu, G.; Kustiawati, D.; Bidari, I.

    2017-09-01

    Objective of learning process regarding system of Indonesia government should be consist of knowledge, attitudes, and skills, or in general we call cognitive, affective and psychomotor. These objective are apply to mathematics education also. Attitude in mathematics known as habits of mind. The teacher should create a learning objective which including all, cognitive, affective and psychomotor. In general, math teachers in Indonesia pay attention to aspects of knowledge, and they ignore other aspects. Habits of mind is term which means the tendency to behave intellectually or intelligently when faced with problems which is immediately known solution. This article examines the math teacher’s attention to students’ habits of mind. The research done by survey method to 38 students at Islamic School 32 Jakarta academic year 2015/2016 from April to May 2016. Habits of mind are observed in this research restricted to persisting, thinking about thinking, thinking flexible and applying past knowledge to new situation. Based on survey, conclude that teacher, without realizing, they have to improve students’ habits of mind, as long as teaching and learning only persisting and thinking about thinking are already well developed, while flexible thinking and applying past knowledge to new situation has not well developed. We hope, math teacher can pay attention not only cognitive aspect but habits of mind also.

  14. Geophysical Limitations on the Habitable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, L.; Van Hoolst, T.

    2015-10-01

    Planets are typically classified as potentially life-bearing planets (i.e. habitable planets) if they are rocky planets and if a liquid (e.g. water) could exist at the surface. The latter depends on several factors, like for example the amount of available solar energy, greenhouse effects in the atmosphere and an efficient CO2-cycle. However, the definition of the habitable zone should be updated to include possible geophy-sical constraints, that could potentially influence the CO2-cycle. Planets like Mars without plate tectonics and no or only limited volcanic events can only be considered to be habitable at the inner boundary of the habitable zone, since the greenhouse effect needed to ensure liquid surface water farther away from the sun is strongly reduced. We investigate how these geophysical processes depend on the mass and interior structure of terrestrial planets. We find that plate tectonics, if it occurs, always leads to sufficient volcanic outgassing and therefore greenhouse effect needed for the outer boundary of the habitable zone (several tens of bar CO2). One-plate planets, however, may suffer strong volcanic limitations if their mass and/or iron content exceeds a critical value, reducing their possible surface habitability.

  15. Habitable worlds with no signs of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S

    2014-04-28

    'Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life' is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in the study of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable Worlds); planets with life, but lacking any detectable surface signatures of that life (laboratory examples are provided); and planets with life, where the concentrations of atmospheric gases produced or removed by biota are impossible to disentangle from abiotic processes because of the lack of detailed knowledge of planetary conditions (the 'problem of exoplanet thermodynamic uncertainty'). A rejection of the hypothesis would require that the origin of life usually occurs on habitable planets, that spectrally detectable pigments and/or metabolisms that produce unequivocal biosignature gases (e.g. oxygenic photosynthesis) usually evolve and that the organisms that harbour them usually achieve a sufficient biomass to produce biosignatures detectable to alien astronomers.

  16. Association of dietary patterns with insulin resistance and clinically silent carotid atherosclerosis in apparently healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, S; Nicolucci, A; Mattina, A; Rosafio, G; Massenti, F M; Lucisano, G; Galvano, F; Amodio, E; Pellegrini, F; Barile, A M; Maniaci, V; Grosso, G; Verga, S; Sprini, D; Rini, G B

    2013-12-01

    Dietary habits are important determinants of individual cardiovascular and metabolic risk. This study investigated the association between dietary patterns and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis, defined as the presence of plaques and/or increased intima-media thickness, and metabolic biomarkers of insulin resistance, including the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the trygliceride/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (Tg/HDL) ratio in a cohort of adults without known diabetes or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Nine hundred and twenty-nine randomly selected participants were cross-sectionally investigated. Each participant answered a food frequency questionnaire, and underwent high-resolution ultrasonographic evaluation of both carotid arteries. Laboratory blood measurements were obtained in a subsample of 507 participants. A dietary pattern that could be defined as unhealthy (high consumption of soft drinks, fried foods, seed oils, cured meats, butter, red meat and sweets) was identified in 21% of the cohort, whereas 34% of the cohort exhibited a dietary pattern that resembled the Mediterranean diet (high intakes of fruit, milk and cheese, olive oil, vegetables, pasta and bread). Intermediate habits characterized the remaining 45%. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and hypertension on treatment, the Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with significantly lower HOMA-IR (β-coefficient=-0.51; P=0.003). After adjusting for gender, BMI and HbA1c, the unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with a significantly higher Tg/HDL-cholesterol ratio (β-coefficient=0.43; P=0.006). No significant association was found between dietary patterns and carotid atherosclerosis. This study suggests that, independent of measures of adiposity, a Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with lower insulin resistance.

  17. Dietary and socio-economic correlates of nutritional status in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a lack of data on trends in body composition among developing countries and the distribution of malnutrition among adults is poorly understood. Thus, the objective was to establish nutritional status, demographic make-up, dietary habits, and to determine if socioeconomic variables or dietary habits are associated ...

  18. [Food habits of the school population from La Mancha-Centro Health Area (Ciudad Real)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-González, A; Falero-Gallego, M P; Redondo-González, O; Muñoz-Serrano, A

    2016-03-01

    To assess the dietary pattern of the school population from La Mancha-Centro Health Area (Ciudad Real). A cross-sectional study conducted on a representative sample of schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years, using a questionnaire to determine their general dietary habits and a record of their 24-hour intake. A total of 1142 schoolchildren were included, with 612 boys (53.6%) and 530 girls (46.4%), and a mean age of 9.3 ± 1.7 years of age. The frequency of food intake was 4.62 ± 0.6 times a day, which decreased with the age of the schoolchildren (P=.044), and increased with the educational level of parents (P=.004). Food preference influenced the choice in the meals consumed. The level of appetite was related directly with weight and body mass index (BMI) (Pfood intakes by the children (P=.038). The food groups most frequently consumed were cereals and their derivatives (92.8%), milk and dairy products (90.45%), while vegetables were the least consumed (35.46%). Over 70% of the sample usually consumed olive oil. The dietary pattern of the school population maintains some of the features of traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern, such as the habit of daily breakfast, the greater consumption of olive oil and cereals. On the other hand, other characteristics are remarkable, such as the low consumption of fruit and vegetables and the high consumption of meat. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. [Influence of school health promotion on the life habits of schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriscado Alsina, D; Muros Molina, J J; Zabala Díaz, M; Dalmau Torres, J M

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, attention has been directed at global theories that attempt to prevent childhood obesity by exposing them to healthy environments. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of health-promoting environments in primary schools in Logroño (La Rioja, Spain) on the habits of school children. The directors of the 31 primary schools in the city completed a questionnaire which examined the health promotion activities of their schools. In addition, anthropometric measurements, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and sedentary and physical activity habits were recorded from a representative sample of 329 schoolchildren in the sixth year of primary education (11-12 year-olds). The majority of schools had developed nutritional and/or physical activity programs (77.4% and 61.3%, respectively); however, teachers had generally not received specific training in that area. Guidelines regarding healthy habits were not formally included in the School Educational Project. Physical activity, which was greater amongst boys (P<.001), was mostly promoted after school hours. The major influences on school children's physical activity and dietary habits of the children were training of teachers, existence of guidelines, and access to sports grounds (P<.05). Although further research is required, this study shows that certain modifiable aspects in the organizational or school environment can influence the habits of school children at a fundamental stage of their development. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Empirically derived dietary patterns and health-related quality of life in the SUN project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ruano

    Full Text Available The analysis of dietary patterns has become a valuable tool to examine diet-disease relationships but little is known about their effects on quality of life. Our aim was to ascertain the association between major dietary patterns and mental and physical quality of life after 4 years of follow-up.This analysis included 11,128 participants from the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN cohort. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Quality of life was measured with the validated Spanish version of the SF-36 Health Survey.Two major dietary patterns were identified, the 'Western' dietary pattern (rich in red meats, processed pastries and fast-food and the "Mediterranean" dietary pattern (high in fruits, vegetables and olive oil. After controlling for confounders, the Western dietary pattern was associated with quality of life in all domains. The magnitude of these differences between the subjects in the highest (quintile 5 and the lowest quintile of adherence to the Western pattern ranged from -0.8 (for mental health to -3.5 (for vitality. On the contrary, the Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with better quality of life domains: differences ranged from +1.3 (for physical functioning to +3.4 (for vitality when comparing extreme quintiles of adherence. Additional sensitivity analyses did not change the reported differences.Whereas baseline adherence to a Western dietary pattern was inversely associated with self-perceived quality of life after 4 years of follow-up, baseline adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was directly associated with better scores in quality of life four years later in the SUN Project.

  1. Dietary Intake Among US Adults, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Peñalvo, José L; Afshin, Ashkan; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-06-21

    Most studies of US dietary trends have evaluated major macronutrients or only a few dietary factors. Understanding trends in summary measures of diet quality for multiple individual foods and nutrients, and the corresponding disparities among population subgroups, is crucial to identify challenges and opportunities to improve dietary intake for all US adults. To characterize trends in overall diet quality and multiple dietary components related to major diseases among US adults, including by age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Repeated cross-sectional investigation using 24-hour dietary recalls in nationally representative samples including 33,932 noninstitutionalized US adults aged 20 years or older from 7 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles (1999-2012). The sample size per cycle ranged from 4237 to 5762. Calendar year and population sociodemographic subgroups. Survey-weighted, energy-adjusted mean consumption and proportion meeting targets of the American Heart Association (AHA) 2020 continuous diet scores, AHA score components (primary: total fruits and vegetables, whole grains, fish and shellfish, sugar-sweetened beverages, and sodium; secondary: nuts, seeds, and legumes, processed meat, and saturated fat), and other individual food groups and nutrients. Several overall dietary improvements were identified (P US adults with poor diets (defined as income level; for example, the estimated percentage of non-Hispanic white adults with a poor diet significantly declined (53.9% to 42.8%), whereas similar improvements were not observed for non-Hispanic black or Mexican American adults. There was little evidence of reductions in these disparities and some evidence of worsening by income level. In nationally representative US surveys conducted between 1999 and 2012, several improvements in self-reported dietary habits were identified, with additional findings suggesting persistent or worsening disparities based on race

  2. Dietary changes among breast cancer patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharudin, Soraya Hanie; Sulaiman, Suhaina; Shahril, Mohd Razif; Emran, Nor Aina; Akmal, Sharifah Noor

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer patients often show an interest in making dietary changes after diagnosis of breast cancer to improve their health condition and prevent cancer recurrence. The objective of the study was to determine changes in dietary intake 2 years after diagnosis among breast cancer patients. One hundred sixteen subjects were asked to complete a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, diet recalls, and dietary changes questionnaire to assess dietary intake before and after diagnosis. The information on sociodemographic background, cancer treatment history, and anthropometric indices was also collected. Seventy-two subjects considered diet as a contributing factor to breast cancer, and 67 subjects changed their dietary habits after breast cancer diagnosis. The reasons for changes in diet were physician and dietitian advice and desire to cure cancer. The sources of information were derived from their physician, mass media, and family members. Total energy, protein, total fat, fatty acids, and vitamin E intake were significantly decreased after diagnosis. Meanwhile, the intake of β-carotene and vitamin C increased significantly after diagnosis. The changes included reduction in red meat, seafood, noodles, and poultry intake. An increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, fish, low-fat milk, and soy products was observed. The subjects tended to lower high-fat foods intake and started to eat more fruits and vegetables. Breast cancer patients had changed to a healthier diet after breast cancer diagnosis, although the changes made were small. This will be helpful to dietitians in providing a better understanding of good eating habits that will maintain patients' health after breast cancer diagnosis.

  3. Whole-grain ready-to-eat oat cereal, as part of a dietary program for weight loss, reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with overweight and obesity more than a dietary program including low-fiber control foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Beiseigel, Jeannemarie M; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Gugger, Carolyn K; Reeves, Matthew S; Farmer, Mildred V; Kaden, Valerie N; Rains, Tia M

    2010-02-01

    Weight loss and consumption of viscous fibers both lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. We evaluated whether or not a whole-grain, ready-to-eat (RTE) oat cereal containing viscous fiber, as part of a dietary program for weight loss, lowers LDL cholesterol levels and improves other cardiovascular disease risk markers more than a dietary program alone. Randomized, parallel-arm, controlled trial. Free-living, overweight and obese adults (N=204, body mass index 25 to 45) with baseline LDL cholesterol levels 130 to 200 mg/dL (3.4 to 5.2 mmol/L) were randomized; 144 were included in the main analysis of participants who completed the trial without significant protocol violations. Two portions per day of whole-grain RTE oat cereal (3 g/day oat b-glucan) or energy-matched low-fiber foods (control), as part of a reduced energy ( approximately 500 kcal/day deficit) dietary program that encouraged limiting consumption of foods high in energy and fat, portion control, and regular physical activity. Fasting lipoprotein levels, waist circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and body weight were measured at baseline and weeks 4, 8, 10, and 12. LDL cholesterol level was reduced significantly more with whole-grain RTE oat cereal vs control (-8.7+/-1.0 vs -4.3+/-1.1%, P=0.005). Total cholesterol (-5.4+/-0.8 vs -2.9+/-0.9%, P=0.038) and non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (-6.3+/-1.0 vs -3.3+/-1.1%, P=0.046) were also lowered significantly more with whole-grain RTE oat cereal, whereas high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride responses did not differ between groups. Weight loss was not different between groups (-2.2+/-0.3 vs -1.7+/-0.3 kg, P=0.325), but waist circumference decreased more (-3.3+/-0.4 vs -1.9+/-0.4 cm, P=0.012) with whole-grain RTE oat cereal. Larger reductions in LDL, total, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and waist circumference were evident as early as week 4 in the whole-grain RTE oat cereal group. Consumption of a

  4. Dental hygiene habits and oral health status of seafarers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Syed Sarosh; Sibilio, Fabio; Amenta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This study has assessed the dental hygiene habits and problems of seafarers and their attitudes/ perceptions regarding oral hygiene using a dental hygiene/habits questionnaire. A research questionnaire on oral hygiene habits was prepared along with a summary of all the questions and sent to ships via e-mail by Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM) networks. CIRM, is the Italian Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS), and represents the Centre with the largest number of seafarers assisted on board ships worldwide. CIRM proposed the questionnaire to all ships (n = 1,198) asking for medical advice from 1 July 2014 till 31 October 2014. Two dental professionals were involved in the development and analysis of the questionnaire. Seafarers are at risk of several dental health problems due to their oral hygiene and dietary habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, poor oral hygiene knowledge and motivation. Dietary habits during voyages were also questionable and seafarers consume food rich in fermentable carbohydrates, which is a major risk factor for dental caries. Seafarers need better oral hygiene education and care to enable them to manage their oral health in a better way. Life at the sea, under challenging circumstances is not without stress, that is why it is important that seafarers are given complete information about correct oral hygiene protocols and dental hygiene and the advantages for their health of keeping a healthy mouth.

  5. Habit Formation: Deep and Uncertain

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Choudhary; Young-Bae Kim

    2007-01-01

    We extend the Ravn, Schmitt-Grohe and Uribe (Review of Economic Studies, 2006) model of external deep-habits with the idea that some product varieties are more prone to habit formation than others. This s uncertainty in habit formation which affects firm's pricing. Provided that uncertainty is strong, a profound implication is that role of market frictions, such as habit formation, and its consequences for the dynamic variations in the markups can be reversed.

  6. Effecting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.