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Sample records for included developing parent

  1. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Hohwü

    Full Text Available Early parental separation may be a stress factor causing a long-term alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity possibly impacting on the susceptibility to develop overweight and obesity in offspring. We aimed to examine the body mass index (BMI and the risk of overweight and obesity in children whose parents lived separately before the child was born.A follow-up study was conducted using data from the Aarhus Birth Cohort in Denmark and included 2876 children with measurements of height and weight at 9-11-years-of-age, and self-reported information on parental cohabitation status at child birth and at 9-11-years-of-age. Quantile regression was used to estimate the difference in median BMI between children whose parents lived separately (n = 124 or together (n = 2752 before the birth. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number of obese children, OR for obesity was adjusted for the a priori confounder maternal pre-pregnancy BMI only.The difference in median BMI was 0.54 kg/m2 (95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.10; 0.98 between children whose parents lived separately before birth and children whose parents lived together. The risk of overweight and obesity was statistically significantly increased in children whose parents lived separately before the birth of the child; OR 2.29 (95% CI: 1.18; 4.45 and OR 2.81 (95% CI: 1.05; 7.51, respectively. Additional, adjustment for possible intermediate factors did not substantially change the estimates.Parental separation before child birth was associated with higher BMI, and increased risk of overweight and obesity in 9-11-year-old children; this may suggest a fetal

  2. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang; Graversen, Lise

    2015-01-01

    change the estimates. CONCLUSION: Parental separation before child birth was associated with higher BMI, and increased risk of overweight and obesity in 9-11-year-old children; this may suggest a fetal programming effect or unmeasured difference in psychosocial factors between separated and non...

  3. Restructuring the Public School Curriculum To Include Parenting Education Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Carolyn L.; And Others

    Although the current educational climate stresses a back-to-basics approach, there is nonetheless overwhelming evidence of a need for an appropriately structured parenting education program in the public school curriculum. Reasons for this need include the large number of teenage pregnancies and abortions. These lead teens to miss high school…

  4. Including as a Care-ful Journey: A Parent's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorgie, Kate; Wilgosh, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue for the need of a cyclical, rather than a linear, model of family coping and life management when a child has a disability. Longitudinal support for such a cyclical model of family life management is presented, with recognition that parental control of outcome lessens as the young person ages, because the adult world is not…

  5. Web-Based Parenting Support: Development of the COPING Confident Parenting Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Hutchings

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Parents have the most significant impact on children’s development and the key parenting factors that promote child development and wellbeing are well known. Furthermore, many behavioural, social and emotional problems in children are associated with poor parenting practices. Parenting interventions that address parental skill deficits and teach positive parenting principles based on social learning theory are effective and are the recommended treatment for conduct disorder. Alongside the development of treatment programmes, universal parenting programmes have been developed; many present the same core parenting principles but their rationales vary from promoting children’s development to addressing common behavioural challenges and the evidence for these programmes is less well established. Most parents now have internet access and are making daily use of it, including seeking advice on parenting matters but that advice is often anecdotal and lacking evidence. In the meantime, a small number of web-based programmes, including parenting programmes have been developed and evaluated. This paper summarises the rationale for web-based universal programmes to support parents and briefly describes the history, content and a summary of the initial research on the COPING (confident parent internet guide programme developed by the authors. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions.

  6. Analysis of general and specific combining abilities of popcorn populations, including selfed parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of general and specific combining ability effects in a diallel analysis of cross-pollinating populations, including the selfed parents, is presented in this work. The restrictions considered satisfy the parametric values of the GCA and SCA effects. The method is extended to self-pollinating populations (suitable for other species, without the selfed parents. The analysis of changes in population means due to inbreeding (sensitivity to inbreeding also permits to assess the predominant direction of dominance deviations and the relative genetic variability in each parent population. The methodology was used to select popcorn populations for intra- and inter-population breeding programs and for hybrid production, developed at the Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Two yellow pearl grain popcorn populations were selected.

  7. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  8. Understanding Early Sexual Development (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get both in and out of the home. Preschool (Ages 3 to 5) By preschool, most kids have developed a strong sense of ... swim together. Issues that parents of elementary school-age kids might face include: Bad language. Children will pick up bad language and inappropriate ...

  9. Consequences of Parental Divorce for Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Sik

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I propose a three-stage estimation model to examine the effect of parental divorce on the development of children's cognitive skills and noncognitive traits. Using a framework that includes pre-, in-, and post-divorce time periods, I disentangle the complex factors affecting children of divorce. I use the Early Childhood…

  10. Development of a Positive Youth Development Program: Helping Parents to Improve Their Parenting Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T.L. Shek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs is a positive youth development program that attempts to promote holistic development in adolescents in Hong Kong. In the Tier 2 Program of this project, social workers are expected to develop positive youth development programs for adolescents having greater psychosocial needs. They are required to submit proposals that will be evaluated in terms of whether the proposals are evidence based, and appropriate evaluation mechanisms are included. With reference to the literature on parental control processes that Chinese parents may be loose in their behavioral control and they tend to overemphasize academic excellence, it is argued that improvement of the parenting skills of parents of Chinese adolescents is an important area to be addressed. To facilitate social workers to prepare the related proposals, a sample proposal on how to improve the parenting skills of Chinese parents is described, including its conceptual framework, proposed program, and evaluation plan. It is argued that this supportive approach (i.e., preparation of a sample proposal can help social workers to develop quality proposals on positive youth development programs in Hong Kong.

  11. Parental Alcohol Use, Parenting, and Child On-Time Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmannova, Katarina; Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hartigan, Lacey A.; Small, Candice M.; Hawkins, J. David

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether parental alcohol use in adolescence, adulthood, and for mothers, during pregnancy, was related to their young children's functioning in terms of their on-time development as indicated by the number of developmental areas in which children experienced delay. Observed parenting practices and family socioeconomic status…

  12. Empathic parenting and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Simonič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our experience of the world and life is associated with our sense of ‘self’, which begins to grow in the preverbal period through the child’s primary relationships with his/her parents. Such relationships should be optimal and full of true, genuine and deep contact, marked with a parent’s empathic responsiveness. Empathic parents encourage positive development, while lack of empathy is many times associated with dysfunctional patterns of behaviour in later life. Empathy is a critical factor for the healthy development of a child, especially for the growth of a creative and genuine sense of ‘self’, which in adulthood is essential for a healthy and vibrant personality, one who is capable of coping with life and living empathic relationships. Empathy in the narrowest sense of the word is the ability to share and comprehend the feelings and thoughts of another, e.g. the ability to have insight into experiencing. In a broader sense, it is the basic dynamics of relationships that fully enable us to feel safe and accepted with others and thereby give us space for growth and development.

  13. Parenting a Child with ASD: Comparison of Parenting Style between ASD, Anxiety, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventola, Pamela; Lei, Jiedi; Paisley, Courtney; Lebowitz, Eli; Silverman, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Parenting children with ASD has a complex history. Given parents' increasingly pivotal role in children's treatment, it is critical to consider parental style and behaviours. This study (1) compares parenting style of parents of children with ASD, parents of children with anxiety disorders, and parents of typically developing (TD) children and (2)…

  14. Individualized Education Programs for Students with Autism: Including Parents in the Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    The involvement of parents in developing individualized education programs (IEPs) for their children with autism is discussed. Essential components of IEP documents are outlined, and strategies that professionals can use to promote significant family involvement are considered. (Author/SW)

  15. Parental Preferences for the Organization of Preschool Vaccination Programs Including Financial Incentives: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Flynn PhD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish preferences of parents and guardians of preschool children for the organization of preschool vaccination services, including financial incentives. Design: An online discrete choice experiment. Participants: Parents and guardians of preschool children (up to age 5 years who were (n = 259 and were not (n = 262 classified as at high risk of incompletely vaccinating their children. High risk of incomplete vaccination was defined as any of the following: aged less than 20 years, single parents, living in one of the 20% most deprived areas in England, had a preschool child with a disability, or had more than three children. Main Outcome Measures: Participant preferences expressed as positive (utility or negative (disutility on eight attributes and levels describing the organization of preschool vaccination programs. Results: There was no difference in preference for parental financial incentives compared to no incentive in parents “not at high risk” of incomplete vaccination. Parents who were “at high risk” expressed utility for cash incentives. Parents “at high risk” of incomplete vaccination expressed utility for information on the risks and benefits of vaccinations to be provided as numbers rather than charts or pictures. Both groups preferred universally available, rather than targeted, incentives. Utility was identified for shorter waiting times, and there were variable preferences for who delivered vaccinations. Conclusions: Cash incentives for preschool vaccinations in England would be welcomed by parents who are “at high risk” of incompletely vaccinating their children. Further work is required on the optimal mode and form of presenting probabilistic information on vaccination to parents/guardians, including preferences on mandatory vaccination schemes.

  16. Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    . By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers’ schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers’ does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers’ schooling has...

  17. Relationships among Parenting Practices, Parental Stress, Child Behaviour, and Children's Social-Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Nicole R.; Snyder, Gregory; Petersen, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    The present study included observational and self-report measures to examine associations among parental stress, parental behaviour, child behaviour, and children's theory of mind and emotion understanding. Eighty-three parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children participated. Parents completed measures of parental stress, parenting (laxness,…

  18. Parental Involvement, Parenting Behaviors, and Children's Cognitive Development in Low-Income and Minority Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mido; Park, Boyoung; Singh, Kusum; Sung, Youngji Y.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the longitudinal association of parental involvement in Head Start parent-focused programs, parenting behaviors, and the cognitive development of children by specifying two longitudinal growth models. Model 1 examined the longitudinal effects of the parental involvement in three Head Start parenting programs (parenting classes,…

  19. Parenting a Child with ASD: Comparison of Parenting Style Between ASD, Anxiety, and Typical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventola, Pamela; Lei, Jiedi; Paisley, Courtney; Lebowitz, Eli; Silverman, Wendy

    2017-09-01

    Parenting children with ASD has a complex history. Given parents' increasingly pivotal role in children's treatment, it is critical to consider parental style and behaviours. This study (1) compares parenting style of parents of children with ASD, parents of children with anxiety disorders, and parents of typically developing (TD) children and (2) investigates contributors to parenting style within and between groups. Parents of children with anxiety had a distinct parenting style compared to ASD and TD parents. Unique relationships between child symptoms and parenting behaviours emerged across the three groups. Understanding factors that impact parenting between and within clinical groups can guide the development of interventions better tailored to support the needs of parents, particularly parents of children with ASD.

  20. Development of the General Parenting Observational Scale to assess parenting during family meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; Dickstein, Susan; Jelalian, Elissa; Boutelle, Kerri; Seifer, Ronald; Wing, Rena

    2015-04-10

    There is growing interest in the relationship between general parenting and childhood obesity. However, assessing general parenting via surveys can be difficult due to issues with self-report and differences in the underlying constructs being measured. As a result, different aspects of parenting have been associated with obesity risk. We developed a more objective tool to assess general parenting by using observational methods during a mealtime interaction. The General Parenting Observational Scale (GPOS) was based on prior work of Baumrind, Maccoby and Martin, Barber, and Slater and Power. Ten dimensions of parenting were included; 4 were classified in the emotional dimension of parenting (warmth and affection, support and sensitivity, negative affect, detachment), and 6 were classified in the behavioral dimension of parenting (firm discipline and structure, demands for maturity, psychological control, physical control, permissiveness, neglect). Overweight children age 8-12 years old and their parent (n = 44 dyads) entering a weight control program were videotaped eating a family meal. Parents were coded for their general parenting behaviors. The Mealtime Family Interaction Coding System (MICS) and several self-report measures of general parenting were also used to assess the parent-child interaction. Spearman's correlations were used to assess correlation between measures. The emotional dimensions of warmth/affection and support/sensitivity, and the behavioral dimension of firm discipline/structure were robustly captured during the family meals. Warmth/affection and support/sensitivity were significantly correlated with affect management, interpersonal involvement, and communication from the MICS. Firm discipline/structure was inversely correlated with affect management, behavior control, and task accomplishment. Parents who were older, with higher educational status, and lower BMIs were more likely to display warmth/affection and support/sensitivity. Several

  1. The Role of Parenting Styles and Socio-Economic Status in Parents' Knowledge of Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    September, Shiron Jade; Rich, Edna Grace; Roman, Nicolette Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood development (ECD) has been recognised to be the most important contributor to long-term social and emotional development. Therefore, positive parenting is paramount to foster quality parent-child interaction. Previous research shows that for parents to adopt a positive parenting style, some degree of parental knowledge is required.…

  2. Responses to Including Parents in Teacher Evaluation Policy: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Erica; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2018-01-01

    The intersection of development in family and school settings has been well established and education policies have begun to promote ways to bridge the two contexts (i.e. teacher evaluations). For this manuscript, authors focus on how teachers and principals used a state educator evaluation policy to position parents as authorities on education.…

  3. Perceived parenting, school climate and positive youth development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Positive youth development is the ideal process of human development that includes five psychological, behavioral, and social indices as competence, connection, confidence, caring and character. The present study was conducted aiming at predicting positive youth development based on perception of parenting and ...

  4. Parental tobacco consumption and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine F. Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between parental tobacco consumption and the prevalence of psychomotor development disorders in children between 6 and 22 months of age.METHOD: One hundred and nine mothers, fathers, and their babies participated in the study. The sociodemographic and clinical conditions were assessed using questionnaires. Tobacco consumption was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND. Child development was evaluated using the Scale of Psychomotor Development in Early Childhood.RESULTS: There was a significant negative correlation between the father's morning smoking (FTND and the child's language development quotient; r = -0.41, p = 0.005, r2 =0.15. The children of mothers without nicotine dependence had a higher mean language development quotient than children of mothers with nicotine dependence; F(1, 107 = 5.51, p = 0.021, ?p2 = 0.05.CONCLUSION: Parental smoking appears to have a detrimental effect on child development.

  5. A Preliminary Investigation of the Relationship between Parenting, Parent-Child Shared Reading Practices, and Child Development in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Casey A.; Stacks, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relations between parenting, shared reading practices, and child development. Participants included 28 children (M = 24.66 months, SD = 8.41 months) and their parents. Measures included naturalistic observations of parenting and shared reading quality, assessments of child cognitive and language development, and home reading…

  6. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-06-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70% of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement.

  7. Developing Relationships between Parents and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnie, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    It is well documented that parental involvement in their children's education is a key factor in improving outcomes for young people, and yet many schools struggle to engage parents. This article discusses the rationale for working in partnership with parents and makes the case for building parental participation in school life so that parents are…

  8. Neighborhood Context, SES, and Parenting: Including a Focus on Acculturation among Latina Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballo, Rosario; Hurd, Noelle

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the influence of contextual factors on parenting strategies among a sample of 104 Latina, European American, and African American mother-child pairs. The parenting constructs under investigation were selected as part of a collaborative research project among members of the parenting subgroup of the Study Group on Race, Culture,…

  9. Parenting behaviors, perceptions, and psychosocial risk: impacts on young children's development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, Frances Page; Leew, Shirley

    2010-02-01

    The goal of this study was to assess which parenting behaviors, perceptions, and risk factors were associated with optimal versus delayed development. A total of 382 families from the national Brigance Infant and Toddler Screens standardization and validation study participated. Data sources included parent questionnaires, child testing, and examiner observations of parent-child interactions. Parenting styles research was operationalized with the Brigance Parent-Child Interactions Scale, a brief measure of parenting behaviors and perceptions. Six positive parenting behaviors and perceptions predicted average to above-average development on the Brigance screens. Conversely, parenting behaviors and negative perceptions of children indicated child performance nearly 2 SDs below the mean on Brigance screens. Psychosocial risk factors associated with fewer positive parenting behaviors and with negative perceptions included >3 children in the home, multiple moves, limited English, and parental depression. A dearth of positive parenting behaviors plus negative perceptions of children, with or without psychosocial risk factors, negatively affect child development, which is apparent as early as 6 months of age. The older the child is, the greater the performance gaps are. Language development is particularly at risk when parenting is problematic. Findings underscore the importance of early development promotion with parents, focusing on their talking, playing, and reading with children, and the need for interventions regarding psychosocial risk factors.

  10. Parental tobacco consumption and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nadine F; Costa, Raquel A

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the association between parental tobacco consumption and the prevalence of psychomotor development disorders in children between 6 and 22 months of age. One hundred and nine mothers, fathers, and their babies participated in the study. The sociodemographic and clinical conditions were assessed using questionnaires. Tobacco consumption was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Child development was evaluated using the Scale of Psychomotor Development in Early Childhood. There was a significant negative correlation between the father's morning smoking (FTND) and the child's language development quotient; r=-0.41, p=0.005, r(2)=0.15. The children of mothers without nicotine dependence had a higher mean language development quotient than children of mothers with nicotine dependence; F(1, 107)=5.51, p=0.021, ηp(2)=0.05. Parental smoking appears to have a detrimental effect on child development. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Parental Schooling and Child Development: Learning from Twin Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    . By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers' schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers' does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers' schooling has...

  12. Development and validation of a parenting assessment tool for Chinese parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Dai, Y; Zhu, Z; Xie, X; Chen, L

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a parenting assessment tool (PAT) for parents of children aged 3 to 6 years to assess parenting attitudes and skills within the Chinese socio-cultural context. Focus group discussions were used to gather information for composing the PAT test items. Factor analysis was performed to build and refine the factor structure of PAT. Ten cities included in a larger programme, the Early Childhood Development Promotion Project carried out by the Capital Institute of Pediatrics in China, were chosen as the study area. Six hundred and twelve parents and their single children were chosen from those 10 cities by convenience sampling for the large-scale investigation of PAT, and the results were used to test and validate the psychometric properties of PAT. The internal consistency of total PAT scores was 0.87, and those of the eight subscales ranged from 0.53 to 0.79. Test-retest reliability over 2 weeks was also significant for the total scores and all subscales (range: 0.68-0.89). For the factor structure, an eight-factor solution accounting for 65.54% of the variance was most consistently fit. Concurrent validity was supported by significant positive correlations between total PAT scores and children's language ability, sociability and adaptive ability as assessed by the Developmental Diagnostic Scale of Children Aged 0-6 Years. The newly devised PAT test is a reliable instrument to assess the parenting skills and attitudes of parents of young children in urban China. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Identifying relevant components to include in a parenting intervention for homeless families in transitional housing: Using parent input to inform adaptation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Kendal; Chaviano, Casey L; Scott, Jenna C; McNeil Smith, Shardé

    2015-11-01

    Homeless families in transitional housing face a number of distinct challenges, yet there is little research seeking to guide prevention and intervention work with homeless parents. Informed by the tenets of community-based participatory research, the purpose of this study was to identify relevant components to include in a parenting intervention for this population. Data were gathered from 40 homeless parents through semistructured individual interviews and were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The resulting 15 categories suggest several topics, approach considerations, and activities that can inform parenting intervention work with homeless families in transitional housing. Study findings are discussed within the context of intervention fidelity versus adaptation, and implications for practice, research, and policy are suggested. This study provides important insights for informing parenting intervention adaptation and implementation efforts with homeless families in transitional housing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Including Fathers in the Picture: A Meta-Analysis of Parental Involvement and Students' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung won; Hill, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Extant research on parental involvement in education has been conducted largely without respect to which parent is involved. The implicit assumption is that family-school relationship frameworks function similarly for fathers and mothers. Although there is a growing body of research examining fathers' involvement in education, this assumption has…

  15. Development Of Parental Involvement Towards Children Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Sucuoğlu, Hale; Özkal, Neşe; Yıldız Demirtaş, Vesile; Güzeller, Cem Oktay

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a scale to measure the parental involvement of preschool children and to show the areas they are mostly involved in. In this reliability and validity study, the scale was administered to the mothers (n= 462) and fathers ( n=429) of the children aged at 4 - 6 in preschool public and private institutions. The five-point Likert scale was composed of two different versions posed for mothers and fathers separately. For the validity of the scale, the opinions...

  16. Personal Growth and Development of Parent Leaders through a Group Parent Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Lai Ha

    2017-01-01

    Many scholars assert that current parent education practices in Hong Kong are dominated by the transmission perspective. This perspective assumes inadequacies in the knowledge and skills of parents; hence, the goal of parent education appears to be the transmission of facts as well as skills development and values information that prepare children…

  17. Early Head Start: Factors Associated with Caregiver Knowledge of Child Development, Parenting Behavior, and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Watkins, Katara; Johnson, Elizabeth; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the role of socioeconomic status, parental mental health, and knowledge of child development on parenting styles and perceived parenting stress in caregivers of children, ages 3 months to 3 years, enrolled in Early Head Start (EHS). Caregivers of EHS students were interviewed using the Knowledge of Infant Development…

  18. Development of the General Parenting Observational Scale to assess parenting during family meals

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Kyung E; Dickstein, Susan; Jelalian, Elissa; Boutelle, Kerri; Seifer, Ronald; Wing, Rena

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Rhee et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Background: There is growing interest in the relationship between general parenting and childhood obesity. However, assessing general parenting via surveys can be difficult due to issues with self-report and differences in the underlying constructs being measured. As a result, different aspects of parenting have been associated with obesity risk. We developed a more objective tool to assess general parenting by using observational methods during a ...

  19. Parental Factors Influencing the Development of Early Childhood Caries in Developing Nations: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nayanjot Kaur; Tiwari, Tamanna

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is one of the most prevalent and chronic conditions of childhood. Various factors including biological and dietary factors along with an overlay of parental social factors have been found to be associated with the progression of ECC. The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize available literature and to identify parent-level proximal and distal risk factors associated with the development of ECC in developing nations. Studies conducted in developing nations, published between 2005 and 2017 in English, that included children younger than 6 years and examined ECC were included. The outcome of interest were parental risk factors, which included parental knowledge, behavior, attitudes, sense of coherence (SOC), stress, socioeconomic status (SES), education, and breastfeeding duration. The studies were retrieved from MEDLINE, Ovid Medline, and PubMed. The search yielded 325 studies, of which 18 were considered eligible for inclusion in this review. Ten studies found maternal education, and seven studies found parental education to be significantly associated with ECC. SES was significantly associated with ECC in 13 studies in the form of annual household income and occupation level. Four studies observed the significant association between oral health knowledge and attitudes with ECC, whereas only two studies found maternal attitude to be associated with ECC. Breastfeeding duration was a significant risk factor in four studies. One study each found significant associations of SOC, parental distress, and secondary smoke with ECC. To date, most of the researches done in developing countries have reported distal parental factors such as income and education being significant risk factors in caries development compared to proximal risk factors in low-income groups. Only a few studies analyzed the psychosocial and behavioral factors. Interventions could be designed to improve parental oral health knowledge and behaviors in these

  20. Parents' views of including young boys in the Swedish national school-based HPV vaccination programme: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottvall, Maria; Stenhammar, Christina; Grandahl, Maria

    2017-02-28

    To explore parents' views of extending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme to also include boys. Explorative qualitative design using individual, face-to-face, interviews and inductive thematic analysis. 11 strategically chosen municipalities in central Sweden. Parents (n=42) who were offered HPV vaccination for their 11-12 years old daughter in the national school-based vaccination programme. The key themes were: equality from a public health perspective and perception of risk for disease . Parents expressed low knowledge and awareness about the health benefits of male HPV vaccination, and they perceived low risk for boys to get HPV. Some parents could not see any reason for vaccinating boys. However, many parents preferred gender-neutral vaccination, and some of the parents who had not accepted HPV vaccination for their daughter expressed that they would be willing to accept vaccination for their son, if it was offered. It was evident that there was both trust and distrust in authorities' decision to only vaccinate girls. Parents expressed a preference for increased sexual and reproductive health promotion such as more information about condom use. Some parents shared that it was more important to vaccinate girls than boys since they believed girls face a higher risk of deadly diseases associated with HPV, but some also believed girls might be more vulnerable to side effects of the vaccine. A vaccine offered only to girls may cause parents to be hesitant to vaccinate, while also including boys in the national vaccination programme might improve parents' trust in the vaccine. More information about the health benefits of HPV vaccination for males is necessary to increase HPV vaccination among boys. This may eventually lead to increased HPV vaccine coverage among both girls and boys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Parental Wellbeing, Parenting and Child Development in Ghanaian Families with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Bornheimer, Lindsay A; Dankyi, Ernestina; de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2018-03-27

    Approximately one-third of early childhood pupils in Ghana are struggling with meeting basic behavioral and developmental milestones, but little is known about mechanisms or factors that contribute to poor early childhood development. With a lack of developmental research to guide intervention or education program and policy planning, this study aimed to address these research gaps by examining a developmental mechanism for early childhood development. We tested a mediational mechanism model that examined the influence of parental wellbeing on parenting and children's development. Two hundred and sixty-two Ghanaian parents whose children attended early childhood classes (nursery to 3rd grade) were recruited. Data were gathered through parent interviews and Structural Equation Modeling was utilized to examine pathways of the model. Results support the mediational model that Ghanaian parents' depression was associated with less optimal parenting, and in turn greater child externalizing behavioral problems. This study adds new evidence of cross cultural consistency in early childhood development.

  2. Parenting Style and the Development of Human Capital in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Cosconati

    2011-01-01

    There is little consensus among social science researchers about the effectiveness of alternative parenting strategies in producing desirable child outcomes. Some argue that parents should set strict limits on the activities of their adolescent children, while others believe that adolescents should be given relatively wide discretion. In this paper, I develop and estimate a model of parent-child interaction in order to better understand the relationship between parenting styles and the develo...

  3. Becoming a Parent: The development of the parental process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Araújo Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the transitions that family system faces, the transition to parenthood is highlighted as one of the most dramatic and intense. It adds complexity to the family system and requires identity and role reorganization. This study aimed to understand the transition to a parenthood role during the child’s first year of life. The Grounded Theory and semi-structured interviews (a total of 75 were used, complemented by observation, on five data collection moments. The emerging explanatory theory evidences that becoming a father or a mother as a complex identity transforming process, which occurs in continuous interaction with multiple interrelated systems and overheads the temporality of the parental condition. The methodology adopted in the study allowed the understanding of the psychosocial nature of the parenthood phenomenon, bringing knowledge that constitutes a reflexion and awareness point towards change and innovation in the matter of nursing practice with families.

  4. Exhausted Parents: Development and Preliminary Validation of the Parental Burnout Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Roskam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Can parents burn out? The aim of this research was to examine the construct validity of the concept of parental burnout and to provide researchers which an instrument to measure it. We conducted two successive questionnaire-based online studies, the first with a community-sample of 379 parents using principal component analyses and the second with a community- sample of 1,723 parents using both principal component analyses and confirmatory factor analyses. We investigated whether the tridimensional structure of the burnout syndrome (i.e., exhaustion, inefficacy, and depersonalization held in the parental context. We then examined the specificity of parental burnout vis-à-vis professional burnout assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory, parental stress assessed with the Parental Stress Questionnaire and depression assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The results support the validity of a tri-dimensional burnout syndrome including exhaustion, inefficacy and emotional distancing with, respectively, 53.96 and 55.76% variance explained in study 1 and study 2, and reliability ranging from 0.89 to 0.94. The final version of the Parental Burnout Inventory (PBI consists of 22 items and displays strong psychometric properties (CFI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.06. Low to moderate correlations between parental burnout and professional burnout, parental stress and depression suggests that parental burnout is not just burnout, stress or depression. The prevalence of parental burnout confirms that some parents are so exhausted that the term “burnout” is appropriate. The proportion of burnout parents lies somewhere between 2 and 12%. The results are discussed in light of their implications at the micro-, meso- and macro-levels.

  5. Sanctification of Parenting, Moral Socialization, and Young Children's Conscience Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L; Mahoney, Annette; Rauer, Amy J

    2009-02-01

    Religion is important to most U.S. families, but is often overlooked in research on children's development. This study examined parental religious beliefs about the sanctification of parenting, parental disciplinary strategies, and the development of young children's conscience in a sample of 58 two-parent families with a preschool child. Fathers were more punitive and used less induction when disciplining their children than did mothers. Maternal and paternal reports of the sanctification of parenting were positively related to positive socialization/praise and the use of induction. When mothers and fathers in the family were both using induction, children had higher scores on moral conduct. Parents' use of positive socialization combined with a belief in the sanctification of parenting predicted children's conscience development.

  6. Development, reliability, and validity of the Alberta Perinatal Stroke Project Parental Outcome Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemister, Taryn B; Brooks, Brian L; Kirton, Adam

    2014-07-01

    Perinatal stroke is a leading cause of cerebral palsy and lifelong disability, although parent and family outcomes have not yet been studied in this specific population. The Alberta Perinatal Stroke Project Parental Outcome Measure was developed as a 26-item questionnaire on the impact of perinatal stroke on parents and families. The items were derived from expert opinion and scientific literature on issues salient to parents of children with perinatal stroke, including guilt and blame, which are not well captured in existing measures of family impact. Data were collected from 82 mothers and 28 fathers who completed the Parental Outcome Measure and related questionnaires (mean age, 39.5 years; mean child age, 7.4 years). Analyses examined the Parental Outcome Measure's internal consistency, test-retest reliability, validity, and factor structure. The Parental Outcome Measure demonstrated three unique theoretical constructs: Psychosocial Impact, Guilt, and Blame. The Parental Outcome Measure has excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.91) and very good test-retest reliability more than 2-5 weeks (r = 0.87). Regarding validity, the Parental Outcome Measure is sensitive to condition severity, accounts for additional variance in parent outcomes, and strongly correlates with measures of anxiety, depression, stress, quality of life, family functioning, and parent adjustment. The Parental Outcome Measure contributes to the literature as the first brief measure of family impact designed for parents of children with perinatal stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Parenting Style as an Investment in Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Salamanca, Nicolas; Zhu, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We propose a household production function approach to human development in which the role of parenting style in child rearing is explicitly considered. Specifically, we model parenting style as an investment in human development that depends not only on inputs of time and market goods, but also on attention, i.e. cognitive effort. Socioeconomic disadvantage is linked to parenting style and human development through the constraints that it places on cognitive capacity. Our model finds empiric...

  8. Parenting Talent: A Qualitative Investigation of the Roles Parents Play in Talent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Amanda L.; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kasson, Sarah C.; Perry, Kyle R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has linked talent development to four factors--early experience, coaching, practice, and motivation. In addition to these factors, contemporary talent experts suggest that parents play a critical role in talent development. The purpose of the present study was to uncover parents' in-time perspectives on the talent development…

  9. Balanced parenting style and its impact on the development of child personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Kapustin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes research results of families, who have never applied to psychological counselling. To assess the normality and abnormality of parent and child personality existential criterion was used. In these families a so-called balanced style of parenting was revealed. This style indicates the compromising parental position in the education of their children concerning the existential dichotomies help and autonomy, nature and culture, self-actualization and conditional values, determinism and self-determination. The study results suggest that this position is developed by parents independently and on a rational basis. In accordance with the existential criterion mentioned above, characteristics of the educational position of parents indicate normality of their personality. It is shown that a balanced style of parenting contributes to developing child personality type with a dual, contradictory orientation for both children and their parents when solving life problems. Children with this type of personality, as well as their parents, manifest inherent willingness to compromise position towards the same existential dichotomies help and autonomy, nature and culture, self-actualization and conditional values, determinism and self-determination. Thanks to a balanced style of parenting favourable personal prerequisites for the development of normal personality are shown. As balanced style of parenting contributes to the normal development of child personality, these children have lack personal prerequisites for emerging difficulties in social adaptation, and therefore in families with such style of solving parent-child problems, due to these difficulties are completely absent.

  10. Parental Invalidation and the Development of Narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Elizabeth; Bizumic, Boris

    2017-02-17

    Parenting behaviors and childhood experiences have played a central role in theoretical approaches to the etiology of narcissism. Research has suggested an association between parenting and narcissism; however, it has been limited in its examination of different narcissism subtypes and individual differences in parenting behaviors. This study investigates the influence of perceptions of parental invalidation, an important aspect of parenting behavior theoretically associated with narcissism. Correlational and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using a sample of 442 Australian participants to examine the relationship between invalidating behavior from mothers and fathers, and grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Results indicate that stronger recollections of invalidating behavior from either mothers or fathers are associated with higher levels of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism when controlling for age, gender, and the related parenting behaviors of rejection, coldness, and overprotection. The lowest levels of narcissism were found in individuals who reported low levels of invalidation in both parents. These findings support the idea that parental invalidation is associated with narcissism.

  11. Parental Involvement in Early Childhood Development (ECD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the extent of parental involvement in ECD programmes and the impact thereof on the quality of care in Harare primary schools as perceived by the school heads, ECD teachers and parents. The research is part of a larger study by the researcher on assessing the quality of ECD programmes in ...

  12. Supporting Parents with Two Essential Understandings: Attachment and Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Eugenia Hepworth

    1999-01-01

    Readiness to learn is a constant state. Two critical aspects of early childhood provide parents sufficient understanding of their child's development: attachment and brain development. Children develop attachments to caregivers but need consistent parental care and love. Human brains continue to quickly grow during the first two years of life.…

  13. Parental influences on the development of adolescent autonomy and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, R D; Lapsley, D K; Drivas, A E; Fehr, L A

    1980-12-01

    Two studies were undertaken to examine parental influences on autonomy and identity development. In Study 1, 262 adolescents in seventh and eleventh grades were given Kurtines's autonomy measure, Simmons's identity measure, and Elder's questions regarding the adolescents' perceptions of their parents' autocratic, democratic, or permissive parenting styles. Study 2 was a replication with 168 subjects. Across both studies it was found that sex-role socialization is more influential for automony development than is either level of parental power or age. Both age and father's use of democracy were the most influential variables on identity development.

  14. Caregivers of children with a disorder of sex development: associations between parenting capacities and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Fedele, David A; Kirk, Katherine; Mullins, Larry L; Lakshmanan, Yegappan; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2014-06-01

    Caregivers of children with a disorder of sex development (DSD) are at increased risk for maladaptive parenting capacities, such as high levels of parental overprotection and perceived vulnerability of their child, in addition to parenting stress. The current study aims to examine whether there are relationships between these parenting capacities and psychological distress, including depressive and anxious symptoms. Participants included 134 caregivers of 90 children with a DSD. Caregivers completed measures of parental overprotection, perceived vulnerability, parenting stress, anxiety, and depression. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that higher levels of parenting stress were related to more anxious and depressive symptoms in caregivers. Higher levels of perceived vulnerability were related to more anxious symptoms. Levels of parental overprotection were unrelated to anxious or depressive symptoms. There is a relationship between parenting capacities and mental health outcomes in caregivers of children with DSD, although the direction of this relationship is not clear. Given the strong relationships between parenting stress and anxious and depressive symptoms, targeting parenting stress and/or psychological distress in these caregivers could result in better functioning overall. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Role of Parents in the Development of Deaf Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IWONA JAGOSZEWSKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Both the parents and the deaf children live with a disability. The specificity of deafness has a significant impact on the functioning of the families which often requires support of their care and educational functions. Therefore, it is vital to establish a cooperation between parents and proper institutions and specialists. Hearing dysfunction requires intensification of parents actions in the field of recognizing and developing the strong sides of deaf child

  16. Development of the Parental Acceptance Questionnaire (6-PAQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Ryan L.

    2013-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is an empirically based psychological intervention established as effective in the treatment of a number of clinical problems. ACT has been utilized with parents in a variety of contexts, thus creating a need to assess ACT-pertinent factors within parenting frameworks. However, a psychometrically sound measure designed to assess parental psychological flexibility is currently unavailable. The present study sought to develop a reliable and valid measure ...

  17. Parent-child relationship disorders. Part I. Parental overprotection and the development of the Parent Protection Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P; Edelbrock, C; Shonkoff, J P

    1995-08-01

    There is a spectrum of parental protective behaviors promoting child safety and security, ranging from neglect to overprotection. This paper describes the development and psychometric properties of a new measure of parental protective behaviors toward children age 2 to 10 years, the Parent Protection Scale (PPS). Items were selected to represent key dimensions of protective behaviors. Factor analyses suggested four subscales: Supervision, Separation Problems, Dependence, and Control. The PPS has acceptable internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and clinical validity. Norms by child age in the form of cutoff points corresponding to +1 SD were determined. Clinical and research uses for the PPS are noted.

  18. A Reformed CDM - including new mechanisms for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Olsen, K.; Fenhann, J.

    2009-07-01

    The annual CD4CDM Perspectives Series features a topic of pivotal importance to the global carbon market. The series seeks to communicate the diverse insights and visions of leading actors in the carbon market to better inform the decisions of professionals and policymakers in developing countries. The second theme of the series focuses on how the CDM can be reformed in a post-2012 climate regime, including new mechanism for sustainable development. Seventeen contributors from the private sector, Designated National Authorities, the Executive Board, research, and development agencies present their perspective on meeting challenges such as the unequal regional distribution of CDM projects, concerns about environmental integrity and technology transfer, complex governance procedures, and questions about the CDM's contribution to sustainable development. The new ideas and solutions to these challenges proposed by the authors in this edition of Perspectives have been solicited to help professionals and policy makers make the best decisions in the lead-up to COP 15 in Copenhagen and beyond. (au)

  19. Collection Development "Gay Parenting": Building Rainbow Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    While gay parenthood has existed from time immemorial, it has only emerged as a viable means of family building within the past 20 years. Celebrities like Melissa Etheridge, who had children with ex-partner Julie Cypher and sperm donor David Crosby, and Rosie O'Donnell, who adopted, have ushered gay parenting into the popular consciousness and…

  20. Career-Specific Parental Behaviors in Adolescents' Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Julia; Kracke, Barbel

    2009-01-01

    Parents are major partners in helping adolescents prepare for a career choice. Although several studies have examined links between general aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship and adolescents' career development, little research has addressed the mechanisms involved. This study aimed to validate a three-dimensional instrument for the…

  1. Parents Role and Home Environment as Factors of Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study surveyed parental and environmental contributions to the development of reading skills of Junior Secondary School Students in Gwagwalada Area Council of Abuja, Nigeria. The sample for the study involved 200 respondents, consisting of 50 Parents and 150 Junior Secondary School Students. Data collected ...

  2. Overcoming Parental Resistance to Change in a Professional Development School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, James R.; Young, James R.; Egan, M. Winston; Ostlund, Margaret R.; Cook, Paul F.; Tibbitts, Cathy B.; Dewitt, Paul F.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the role of two parents who helped design and implement a field-based teacher-preparation program at one professional-development school. Interviews with participants led to four main themes that illuminated the stages parents experienced: excluding breeds suspicion, holding our ground, saying the same thing, and establishing a new…

  3. Development of a survey to identify vaccine-hesitant parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione-Smith, Rita; Taylor, James A; Korfiatis, Carolyn; Wiese, Cheryl; Catz, Sheryl; Martin, Diane P

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a survey to accurately assess parental vaccine hesitancy. Results The initial survey contained 17 items in four content domains: (1) immunization behavior; (2) beliefs about vaccine safety and efficacy; (3) attitudes about vaccine mandates and exemptions; and (4) trust. Focus group data yielded an additional 10 survey items. Expert review of the survey resulted in the deletion of nine of 27 items and revisions to 11 of the remaining 18 survey items. Parent pretesting resulted in the deletion of one item, the addition of one item, the revision of four items, and formatting changes to enhance usability. The final survey contains 18 items in the original four content domains. Methods An iterative process was used to develop the survey. First, we reviewed previous studies and surveys on parental health beliefs regarding vaccination to develop content domains and draft initial survey items. Focus groups of parents and pediatricians generated additional themes and survey items. Six immunization experts reviewed the items in the resulting draft survey and ranked them on a 1–5 scale for significance in identifying vaccine-hesitant parents (5 indicative of a highly significant item). The lowest third of ranked items were dropped. The revised survey was pretested with 25 parents to assess face validity, usability and item understandability. Conclusions The Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines survey was constructed using qualitative methodology to identify vaccine-hesitant parents and has content and face validity. Further psychometric testing is needed. PMID:21389777

  4. Development and preliminary validation of the Parenting around SNAcking Questionnaire (P-SNAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, K K; Blake, C E; Kachurak, A; Lumeng, J C; Coffman, D L; Miller, A L; Hughes, S O; Power, T G; Vaughn, A F; Blaine, R E; Younginer, N; Fisher, J O

    2018-06-01

    Snacking makes significant contributions to children's dietary intake but is poorly understood from a parenting perspective. This research was designed to develop and evaluate the psychometrics of a theoretically grounded, empirically-informed measure of snack parenting. The Parenting around SNAcking Questionnaire (P-SNAQ) was developed using a conceptual model derived from current theory and mixed-methods research to include 20 hypothesized snack parenting practices along 4 parenting dimensions (autonomy support, structure, coercive control and permissiveness). Expert panel evaluation and cognitive interviews were used to refine items and construct definitions. The initial instrument of 105 items was administered to an ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 305 parents (92% mothers) of children aged 1-6 y participating in three existing cohort studies. The sample was randomly split into two equal samples. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted with the first sample to identify snack parenting practices within each parenting dimension, followed by confirmatory factor analysis with the second sample to test the hypothesized factor structure. Internal consistency of sub-scales and associations with existing measures of food parenting practices and styles and child weight status were evaluated. The final P-SNAQ scale included 51 items reflecting 14 snack parenting practices across four parenting dimensions. The factor structure of the P-SNAQ was consistent with prior theoretical frameworks. Internal consistency coefficients were good to very good for 12 out of 14 scales and subscale scores were moderately correlated with previously validated measures. In conclusion, initial evidence suggests that P-SNAQ is a psychometrically sound measure for evaluating a wide range of snack parenting practices in young children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Poverty and language development: roles of parenting and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Suzanne C; Finegood, Eric D; Swain, James E

    2013-04-01

    Socioeconomic status affects a variety of mental and physical health outcomes, such as language development. Indeed, with poverty, disparities in the development of language processing are arguably among the most consistently found- with decreases in vocabulary, phonological awareness, and syntax at many different developmental stages. In this review, after considering basic brain systems affected by low socioeconomic status that are important for language development and related peripartum issues, we focus on two theoretical models that link poverty with the brain systems affected in language problems. The family stress model connects poverty with parental emotional distress that affects parenting, whereas the parental investment model involves a focus on basic needs that affects children's language. Understanding the mechanisms through which poverty affects the brain, parenting behaviors and language development may have implications for identification and treatment of individuals as well as social policy.

  6. Sleep, health and memory: comparing parents of typically developing children and parents of children with special health-care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbean, Amanda L; Schlosnagle, Leo

    2016-02-01

    Parents of children with special healthcare needs (CSHCNs) report poorer sleep than parents of typically developing (TD) children, which has been associated with poorer mental health. The relations between sleep disturbances and general health and memory among this population are unknown. The current study aimed to replicate the findings that parents of CSHCNs report poorer sleep quality than parents of TD children, and further examine how sleep is related to general health and memory. Participants (75 parents of TD children; 97 parents of CSHCNs) completed an online questionnaire consisting of: demographics, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Prospective Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) and the Healthy Days Measure. Parents of CSHCNs reported worse global sleep than parents of TD children. Parents of CSHCNs took longer to fall asleep at night, had shorter sleep duration and worse subjective sleep quality than parents of TD children. Parents of CSHCNs also had worse prospective memory and were more likely to report poor general health than parents of TD children. Poorer sleep quality was associated with worse memory and health among both parents of TD children and parents of CSHCNs. Results from this study highlight the importance of addressing the sleep of parents of CSHCNs and support the need for more research in this area. By recognizing factors associated with parent's health and functioning, service providers may be better able to implement support programs for parents of CSHCNs. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Preventing interpersonal violence in Panama: is a parenting intervention developed in Australia culturally appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Anilena; Ulph, Fiona; Calam, Rachel

    2016-11-01

    To explore cultural appropriateness of a transported parenting intervention in Panama. Panamanian parents (n = 25) were interviewed after participation in an Australian parenting intervention. A thematic analysis was conducted to interpret qualitative data. Three themes emerged; cultural context, appropriateness of the intervention, and development of support networks. In terms of cultural context, parents described economic difficulties, living in a dangerous world, struggling to balance parenting and work, and using aggressive communication patterns. In terms of appropriateness of the intervention, they rated materials as appropriate, although suggested modifications to its delivery by including children and teachers in the training. Finally, parents commented that the intervention prompted the development of social networks within their communities. Overall, parents considered a transported parenting intervention as appropriate to their local needs. This study might be useful to local governments and international funders in charge of deciding whether transporting parenting interventions North to South as a strategy for violence prevention would be respectful of local needs. Our findings cannot be generalized beyond Panama, but the methodology can be replicated to answer this question in other settings.

  8. Applicability of bioanalysis of multiple analytes in drug discovery and development: review of select case studies including assay development considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2006-05-01

    The development of sound bioanalytical method(s) is of paramount importance during the process of drug discovery and development culminating in a marketing approval. Although the bioanalytical procedure(s) originally developed during the discovery stage may not necessarily be fit to support the drug development scenario, they may be suitably modified and validated, as deemed necessary. Several reviews have appeared over the years describing analytical approaches including various techniques, detection systems, automation tools that are available for an effective separation, enhanced selectivity and sensitivity for quantitation of many analytes. The intention of this review is to cover various key areas where analytical method development becomes necessary during different stages of drug discovery research and development process. The key areas covered in this article with relevant case studies include: (a) simultaneous assay for parent compound and metabolites that are purported to display pharmacological activity; (b) bioanalytical procedures for determination of multiple drugs in combating a disease; (c) analytical measurement of chirality aspects in the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and biotransformation investigations; (d) drug monitoring for therapeutic benefits and/or occupational hazard; (e) analysis of drugs from complex and/or less frequently used matrices; (f) analytical determination during in vitro experiments (metabolism and permeability related) and in situ intestinal perfusion experiments; (g) determination of a major metabolite as a surrogate for the parent molecule; (h) analytical approaches for universal determination of CYP450 probe substrates and metabolites; (i) analytical applicability to prodrug evaluations-simultaneous determination of prodrug, parent and metabolites; (j) quantitative determination of parent compound and/or phase II metabolite(s) via direct or indirect approaches; (k) applicability in analysis of multiple compounds in select

  9. Cognitive Development Includes Global and Domain-Specific Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Robert V.

    2004-01-01

    Global accounts of cognitive development, best illustrated by Piaget's theory, dominated the field until the 1970s and 1980s, when they were gradually superseded by domain-specific accounts. In this article I present evidence suggesting that both global and domain-specific processes make important contributions to cognitive development, and I…

  10. The Intergenerational Transmission of Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Understanding the causal relationship between parental schooling and child development is important to create polices raising schooling level. We use unique Danish administrative data with information on identical twins to estimate the effect of parental schooling on short-run and long-run outcomes....... By applying within twin fixed effect techniques we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. We find OLS to be consistently upward biased due to endowments. Further, paternal schooling has no causal effect on infant and early childhood health but increases children...

  11. The development of children's inhibition: does parenting matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Stievenart, Marie; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2014-06-01

    Whereas a large body of research has investigated the maturation of inhibition in relation to the prefrontal cortex, far less research has been devoted to environmental factors that could contribute to inhibition improvement. The aim of the current study was to test whether and to what extent parenting matters for inhibition development from 2 to 8years of age. Data were collected from 421 families, with 348 mother-child dyads and 342 father-child dyads participating. Children's inhibition capacities and parenting behaviors were assessed in a three-wave longitudinal data collection. The main analyses examined the impact of parenting on the development of children's inhibition capacities. They were conducted using a multilevel modeling (MLM) framework. The results lead to the conclusion that both mothers and fathers contribute through their child-rearing behavior to their children's executive functioning, even when controlling for age-related improvement (maturation) and important covariates such as gender, verbal IQ, and place of enrollment. More significant relations between children's inhibition development and parenting were displayed for mothers than for fathers. More precisely, parenting behaviors that involve higher monitoring, lower discipline, inconsistency and negative controlling, and a positive parenting style are associated with good development of inhibition capacities in children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Moldova Power Sources Development including Nuclear Power Plant possible participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comendant

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available For the new power market conditions Moldova power sources development options up to 2030 are evaluated, attempting to propose the best solutions in this respect and the ways they be realized.

  13. ANTICIPATORY GUIDANCE MODULE CHANGES THE AUTHORITARITATIVE PARENTING OF PARENTS IN STIMULATING CHILDREN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hasinuddin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anticipatory guidance is a method used by nurses to help parents provide the development of behavior change towards a better understanding of their children. The purpose of this study was to analyze the provision modul of anticipatory guidance to parents and their effects on patterns of authoritarian parenting in stimulating development in kindergarten Dharmawanita Bangkalan Regency. Method: The design in this study was experimental pre post test with control group. The population was the parents of students in Dharmawanita Bangkalan kindergarten in 2010. Respondents were 15 people in the treatment group and 15 people in control group who meet the inclusion criteria. Data collected by using a questionnaire. Data then analyzed using Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney test. Result: The result showed that the differences in upbringing the parents before and after the anticipatory guidance given p value of 0.001, whereas in the control group there was no difference with a p value of 0.083. To find out the difference of counselling terms between treatment and control groups were performed by mann whitney test with p-value (0,004 < α (0.05. Discussion: Based on these results we can conclude that modul of anticipatory guidance has an impact on the upbringing of parents in stimulating growth in children in kindergarten Dharmawanita Bangkalan. Research on the effect of anticipatory guidance by the nurse to child development is necessary as a follow up of this research by considering the factors that in fl uence the development of the child itself.

  14. The development of the PARENTS: a tool for parents to assess residents' non-technical skills in pediatric emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Katherine A; Eady, Kaylee; Tang, Kenneth; Jabbour, Mona; Frank, Jason R; Campbell, Meaghan; Hamstra, Stanley J

    2017-11-14

    Parents can assess residents' non-technical skills (NTS) in pediatric emergency departments (EDs). There are no assessment tools, with validity evidence, for parental use in pediatric EDs. The purpose of this study was to develop the Parents' Assessment of Residents Enacting Non-Technical Skills (PARENTS) educational assessment tool and collect three sources of validity evidence (i.e., content, response process, internal structure) for it. We established content evidence for the PARENTS through interviews with physician-educators and residents, focus groups with parents, a literature review, and a modified nominal group technique with experts. We collected response process evidence through cognitive interviews with parents. To examine the internal structure evidence, we administered the PARENTS and performed exploratory factor analysis. Initially, a 20-item PARENTS was developed. Cognitive interviews led to the removal of one closed-ended item, the addition of resident photographs, and wording/formatting changes. Thirty-seven residents and 434 parents participated in the administration of the resulting 19-item PARENTS. Following factor analysis, a one-factor model prevailed. The study presents initial validity evidence for the PARENTS. It also highlights strategies for potentially: (a) involving parents in the assessment of residents, (b) improving the assessment of NTS in pediatric EDs, and (c) capturing parents' perspectives to improve the preparation of future physicians.

  15. Music Therapy Assessment and Development of Parental Competences in Families Where Children Have Experienced Emotional Neglect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl

    2012-01-01

    group of 18 parents with neglected children and a nonclinical group of 34 parents with non-neglected children. The study also included an experimental design with a randomized controlled trial only applied to the clinical group. In the experimental design there were two conditions: a music therapy...... treatment condition (n = 9) and a control condition (n = 9) consisting of treatment as usual. The data consisted of APC data analysed by means of video recordings and participant responses to standardized questionnaires on parenting competencies. A small embedded flexible design was conducted on the basis......In trying to aid difficulties within social services of assessing families at risk, the thesis sat out to strengthen, further develop, and test a music therapy assessment tool, Assessment of Parenting Competencies (APC). The study also aimed to examine the effect of music therapy on parenting...

  16. [Development of the Parenting in Adolescence Scale (PAS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Shoka

    2013-08-01

    The present study developed the Parenting in Adolescence Scale (PAS) based on the three-factor model of parenting by Schaefer (1965), and examined its psychometric properties. Adolescents (n = 103 junior high, 273 high school and 667 university students) completed a questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis identified three distinct factors labeled "Acceptance" (6 items), "Psychological control" (6 items) and "Parental monitoring" (3 items). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated the stability of the factor structure with adequate goodness of fit indices. The three subscales of PAS had adequate internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The three scales also correlated significantly with measures of adolescent conduct problems, peer problems, risk-taking experience, prosocial behavior, self-esteem, and another parenting scale, which indicated construct and concurrent validity. The practical use of the PAS was discussed.

  17. Impact of attachment, temperament and parenting on human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Rha Hong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present the basic concepts of attachment theory and temperament traits and to discuss the integration of these concepts into parenting practices. Attachment is a basic human need for a close and intimate relationship between infants and their caregivers. Responsive and contingent parenting produces securely attached children who show more curiosity, selfreliance, and independence. Securely attached children also tend to become more resilient and competent adults. In contrast, those who do not experience a secure attachment with their caregivers may have difficulty getting along with others and be unable to develop a sense of confidence or trust in others. Children who are slow to adjust or are shy or irritable are likely to experience conflict with their parents and are likely to receive less parental acceptance or encouragement, which can make the children feel inadequate or unworthy. However, the influence of children’s temperament or other attributes may be mitigated if parents adjust their caregiving behaviors to better fit the needs of the particular child. Reflecting on these arguments and our childhood relationships with our own parents can help us develop the skills needed to provide effective guidance and nurturance.

  18. Parental roles in the development of obesity in children: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danford CA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cynthia A Danford,1 Celeste M Schultz,2 Donna Marvicsin2 1Department of Health Promotion and Development, University of Pittsburgh, School of Nursing, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Department of Health Promotion/Risk Reduction, University of Michigan, School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity has become a global concern and evolves from the complex interaction of multiple factors. In particular, the influence of socioeconomic status and ethnicity when combined with family dynamics are important, yet remain inconsistent in their association with childhood obesity. Parents, as influential family members, play a primary role in the development of their children’s eating and activity behaviors that may contribute to increased weight. This integrative review 1 examines the parental role in the development of childhood obesity and 2 identifies implications for health programs and policies. Method: Systematic searches using five databases followed by a lateral search were conducted between April and June 2014. Inclusion criteria included empirical research published in the last 5 years addressing the role that parents with children 12 years and younger play in their child being or becoming obese. Nineteen publications were identified. Results: Six themes related to the association between parental role and childhood obesity emerged from our review. These themes included parenting style, parent influence on feeding, modeling, self-efficacy, concern, and bidirectional interaction of the parent-child dyad. Parenting style, modeling, and self-efficacy were not consistently associated with childhood obesity. Parental concern, however, was linked to specific feeding practices. Parental restriction and pressure to eat certain foods were both found to be inversely related to a child’s weight status. Parent’s role in promoting activity was infrequently addressed. Conclusion: When addressing eating and activity behaviors

  19. Sleep Problems of Parents of Typically Developing Children and Parents of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Wagner, Muriel C.; Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.; Hodge, Danelle; Gilliam, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Few researchers have investigated the relation of children's sleep problems to their parents' sleep problems. Children with autism have been reported to evidence greater sleep problems than do typically developing children (C. D. Hoffman, D. P. Sweeney, J. E. Gilliam, & M. C. Lopez-Wagner, 2006; P. G. William, L. L. Sears, & A. Allard, 2004). In…

  20. Including All Families in Education: School District-Level Efforts to Promote Parent Engagement in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Parent engagement plays an essential role in student achievement and well-being, but not all families are able to participate in their children's education. This article focuses on strategies for reaching and supporting parents who face challenges to engagement such as poverty and cultural diversity. Five district-level parent engagement projects…

  1. The parental reflective functioning questionnaire: Development and preliminary validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Luyten

    Full Text Available This paper reports on three studies on the development and validation of the Parental Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (PRFQ, a brief, multidimensional self-report measure that assesses parental reflective functioning or mentalizing, that is, the capacity to treat the infant as a psychological agent. Study 1 investigated the factor structure, reliability, and relationships of the PRFQ with demographic features, symptomatic distress, attachment dimensions, and emotional availability in a socially diverse sample of 299 mothers of a child aged 0-3. In Study 2, the factorial invariance of the PRFQ in mothers and fathers was investigated in a sample of 153 first-time parents, and relationships with demographic features, symptomatic distress, attachment dimensions, and parenting stress were investigated. Study 3 investigated the relationship between the PRFQ and infant attachment classification as assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP in a sample of 136 community mothers and their infants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested three theoretically consistent factors assessing pre-mentalizing modes, certainty about the mental states of the infant, and interest and curiosity in the mental states of the infant. These factors were generally related in theoretically expected ways to parental attachment dimensions, emotional availability, parenting stress, and infant attachment status in the SSP. Yet, at the same time, more research on the PRFQ is needed to further establish its reliability and validity.

  2. Parent Stress and Perceptions of Language Development: Comparing Down Syndrome and Other Developmental Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.; Adamson, Lauren B.; Barker, R. Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study extended research on the Down syndrome advantage by examining differences in parent stress and parent perceptions of language development between 29 parents of young children with Down syndrome and 82 parents of children with other developmental disabilities. Parents of children with Down syndrome reported lower levels of total stress, child-related stress, and stress surrounding the parent-child interaction. Parents of children in both groups reported that they felt successful in ...

  3. The Comprehensive Snack Parenting Questionnaire (CSPQ: Development and Test-Retest Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorus W. M. Gevers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The narrow focus of existing food parenting instruments led us to develop a food parenting practices instrument measuring the full range of food practices constructs with a focus on snacking behavior. We present the development of the questionnaire and our research on the test-retest reliability. The developed Comprehensive Snack Parenting Questionnaire (CSPQ covers 21 constructs. Test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating intra class correlation coefficients and percentage agreement after two administrations of the CSPQ among a sample of 66 Dutch parents. Test-retest reliability analysis revealed acceptable intra class correlation coefficients (≥0.41 or agreement scores (≥0.60 for all items. These results, together with earlier work, suggest sufficient psychometric characteristics. The comprehensive, but brief CSPQ opens up chances for highly essential but unstudied research questions to understand and predict children’s snack intake. Example applications include studying the interactional nature of food parenting practices or interactions of food parenting with general parenting or child characteristics.

  4. Adolescent psychological development, parenting styles, and pediatric decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Brian C

    2010-10-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child risks harm to adolescents insofar as it encourages not only poor decision making by adolescents but also parenting styles that will have an adverse impact on the development of mature decision-making capacities in them. The empirical psychological and neurophysiological data weigh against augmenting and expression of the rights of children. Indeed, the data suggest grounds for expanding parental authority, not limiting its scope. At the very least, any adequate appreciation of the moral claims regarding the authority of parents with respect to the decision-making capacity of adolescents needs to be set within an understanding of the psychological and neurophysiological facts regarding the development of adolescent decision-making capacity.

  5. Collaborating With Parents of Children With Chronic Conditions and Professionals to Design, Develop and Pre-pilot PLAnT (the Parent Learning Needs and Preferences Assessment Tool).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Ruth; Wirz, Lucy; Cook, Wendy; Swallow, Veronica

    This study aimed to design, develop and pre-pilot an assessment tool (PLAnT) to identify parents' learning needs and preferences when carrying out home-based clinical care for their child with a chronic condition. A mixed methods, two-phased design was used. Phase 1: a total of 10 parents/carers and 13 professionals from six UK's children's kidney units participated in qualitative interviews. Interview data were used to develop the PLAnT. Eight of these participants subsequently took part in an online survey to refine the PLAnT. Phase 2: thirteen parents were paired with one of nine professionals to undertake a pre-pilot evaluation of PLAnT. Data were analyzed using the Framework approach. A key emergent theme identifying parents' learning needs and preferences was identified. The importance of professionals being aware of parents' learning needs and preferences was recognised. Participants discussed how parents' learning needs and preferences should be identified, including: the purpose for doing this, the process for doing this, and what would the outcome be of identifying parents' needs. The evidence suggests that asking parents directly about their learning needs and preferences may be the most reliable way for professionals to ascertain how to support individual parents' learning when sharing management of their child's chronic condition. With the increasing emphasis on parent-professional shared management of childhood chronic conditions, professionals can be guided by PLAnT in their assessment of parents' learning needs and preferences, based on identified barriers and facilitators to parental learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Parents' perspectives on homelessness and its effects on the educational development of their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rita I; Butt, Rachael A

    2003-02-01

    This qualitative study explored parents' perceptions of how their homelessness affected the development and academic achievement of their children. Grounded theory with symbolic interactionism was the framework for this study. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 34 homeless families in a variety of settings. Multiple factors were found, including unstable relationships, abuse and violence, abdication of parental responsibility, poor parenting models, and resilient children. The findings present a case for supportive educational services for homeless school-age children. School nurses play a dual role. They can ensure that school personnel and resource providers understand the culture of homelessness, and they can develop and implement innovative programs for parents and school personnel to help homeless children.

  7. The development of a parenting program for incarcerated mothers in Australia: a review of prison-based parenting programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Claire; Fowler, Cathrine; Cashin, Andrew

    2011-08-01

    The increasing population of children with an incarcerated parent is a significant public health issue. A literature search highlighted that children of incarcerated parents experience psychological stressors that may potentially impact on health and behavioural outcomes. Parenting programs for prisoners may be of benefit as early parenting experiences during childhood have a significant impact on a child's future experiences as an adolescent and adult. A review of identified evaluation-based studies of parenting programs for prisoners (N = 11), although varied in program delivery approaches and evaluation methods, suggest that such programs have the potential to improve the parenting skills, knowledge and confidence of incarcerated parents. Finally, this paper provides an outline of the development of an Australian based parenting program for incarcerated mothers and their young children.

  8. Parental Effects on Children's Emotional Development over Time and across Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Dale M.; Serbin, Lisa A.; Enns, Leah N.; Ruttle, Paula L.; Barrieau, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Principal tasks of the early childhood years, including attaining self-efficacy, self-control, social integration, and preparedness for education, require the development of adaptive and competent emotional development. Results from longitudinal and intergenerational studies examining the effect of parenting behaviors on children's emotional…

  9. Association of teen mothers' and grandmothers' parenting capacities with child development: A study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Damali; Gross, Deborah; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2017-12-01

    Children born to teen mothers may experience less responsive and supportive parenting and are at heightened risk for a range of social, developmental, and health issues. There is literature to support the positive impact of grandmothers on teen parents and their children. However, what if the teen's mother is also limited in her parenting capacities? How do parenting capacities across these two generations of mothers affect the developing child? In this ongoing study we are examining two important aspects of parenting capacities, attachment quality and executive functioning, in teen mothers (TM) and their biological, co- residing mothers or grandmothers (GM or GGM). Both are essential components of effective parenting, but little is known about their impact on young children's development when raised by two generations of parents. In a cross- sectional, descriptive design, a convenience sample of 50 TM/GM dyads with children 1 to 3 years old is being recruited from two urban teen-tot clinics. Participants complete a paper-and-pencil measure of attachment quality and a computerized measure of multiple aspects of executive function (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). A standardized maternal report measure is used to assess child developmental status. The biggest challenges of the study thus far include recruitment and transience of the study population. Progress to date and experiences from recruitment and data collection are discussed, as well as successful strategies to address challenges. © 2017 The Authors. Research in Nursing & Health Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Changing Faces: Parenting, Culture, and Child Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iruka, Iheoma U.; Durden, Tonia; Kennel, Portia

    2015-01-01

    This article identifies how parenting, culture, and education of ethnically diverse children influence their development and learning outcomes. As U.S. communities become more ethnically diverse, it is critical for educators, practitioners, researchers, and policy leaders to have an ideological and pedagogical understanding of how to maximize the…

  11. Literature Review The development of parent-infant/child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper takes the form of an account of the emergence of the field of psychoanalytically informed parent-infant/child psychotherapy in South Africa. It traces the origins and the development of the South African field by locating local practice within the international field. The influential links between international ...

  12. Developing adolescent sexuality in context: Relations with parents and peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongardt, D. van de

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation it was investigated how various aspects of adolescents’ developing sexuality (behaviors, cognitions, emotions) are intertwined over time with adolescents’ relations with parents and peers. The overall goal of the six empirical studies, which utilized a multi-method approach

  13. Personality development of the adolescent: Peer group versus parents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim was firstly to determine if peers and parents had a different impact on the personality development of the adolescent. A second aim was to determine if gender played a role in this regard. An empirical investigation was carried out involving 98 learners from Grades 8 to 11 (53 boys and 55 girls). The respondents ...

  14. Effects of Parental Aging During Embryo Development and Adult Life: The Case of Nothobranchius furzeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Api, Martina; Biondi, Piera; Olivotto, Ike; Terzibasi, Eva; Cellerino, Alessandro; Carnevali, Oliana

    2018-01-05

    Studies on parental aging are a very attractive field, although it is poorly understood how parental age affects embryonic development and adult traits of the offspring. In this study, we used the turquoise killifish Nothobranchius furzeri, as is the vertebrate with shortest captive lifespan and an interesting model. The embryos of N. furzeri can follow two distinct developmental pathways either entering diapause or proceeding through direct development. Thus, this embryonic plasticity allows this model to be used to study different factors that could affect their embryonic development, including parental age. The first goal of the present study was to investigate whether parental aging could affect the embryo development. To do this, we collected F1 embryos from two breeder groups (old parents and young parents). We monitored the duration of embryonic development and analyzed genes involved in dorsalization process. The second goal was to investigate if embryonic developmental plasticity could be modulated by an epigenetic process. To this end, the expression of DNMTs genes was examined. Our data support the hypothesis that diapause, occurring more frequently in embryos from old parents, is associated with increased expression of DNMT3A and DNMT3B suggesting an epigenetic control. Finally, we analyzed whether parental age could affect metabolism and growth during adult life. Morphometric results and qPCR analysis of genes from IGF system showed a slower growth in adults from old breeders. Moreover, a gender-specificity effect on growth emerged. In conclusion, these results may contribute to the better understanding of the complex mechanism of aging.

  15. Development and validation of the Parents' Beliefs About Children's Emotions Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Amy G; Dunsmore, Julie C; Bryant, Alfred; Parker, Alison E; Beale, Karen S; Thompson, Julie A

    2013-12-01

    Parents' beliefs about children's emotions comprise an important aspect of parental emotion socialization and may relate to children's mental health and well-being. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop the multifaceted Parents' Beliefs About Children's Emotions (PBACE) questionnaire. Central to our work was inclusion of multiple ethnic groups throughout the questionnaire development process, from initial item creation through assessment of measurement invariance and validity. Participants included 1,080 African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian parents of 4- to 10-year-old children who completed the initial item pool for the PBACE. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted with 720 of these parents to identify factor structure and reduce items. Confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted with a holdout sample of 360 parents to evaluate model fit and assess measurement invariance across ethnicity and across parent gender. Finally, validity of the PBACE scales was assessed via correlations with measures of parental emotional expressivity and reactions to children's emotions. The PBACE is composed of 33 items in 7 scales. All scales generally demonstrated measurement invariance across ethnic groups and parent gender, thereby allowing interpretations of differences across these ethnic groups and between mothers and fathers as true differences rather than by-products of measurement variance. Initial evidence of discriminant and construct validity for the scale interpretations was also obtained. Results suggest that the PBACE will be useful for researchers interested in emotion-related socialization processes in diverse ethnic groups and their impact on children's socioemotional outcomes and well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Simulated parents: developing paediatric trainees' skills in giving bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Jenny K; Frydenberg, Alexis R; Donath, Susan K; Marks, Michael M

    2009-03-01

    In curriculum documents for medicine in undergraduate, post-graduate and continuing professional development, there is now a focus on communication skills. The challenges are to place communication skills in the crowded curriculum and then to construct and sustain a programme that uses an evidence-based approach to the teaching and learning of communication skills. For 6 years, we have conducted a programme that involves simulated parents supporting junior medical staff to refine their skills in communication, particularly in giving parents bad news. The aim of our study was to obtain a better understanding of the trainees' experiences of the programme. Nine junior residents individually worked through two scenarios and received feedback from the simulated parent. They gave bad news to a simulated parent/actor who then gave feedback. A recording of the simulation was provided for discussion with a designated colleague at an arranged time. The tapes were then separately appraised by two independent raters - another actor and a paediatrician. Brief written reports and conducted semi-structured interviews provided more insights into the trainees' experience of the simulation. Other participating medical/medical education staff were interviewed about the simulation programme. Five themes emerged from the qualitative data: timeliness, emotional safety, the complexity of communication, practical usefulness and the challenge of effecting change. In addition, the ratings of the videos helped to clarify those 'parent-centred' communication skills that trainees may neglect in difficult conversations: 'ask about support', 'encourage the parent to ask questions' and 'repeat key messages'. The evaluation highlighted the value of an early-career experiential programme to highlight the importance of communication skills in post-graduate paediatrics practice.

  17. Parents' management of the development of their children with disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2010-01-01

     Being the parent of a disabled child is not easy, it is experienced as a situation marked by stress, crises and grief. As Vygotsky described eighty years ago, the development of children with disabilities and the culture do not fit as they do for non-disabled children. The development of a child...... with disabilities is not determined by the child's physical defect alone, but constituted by the incongruence between the physical defect and the culture. In this study, the lives of four families with deafblind children were followed for two years. Interviews and observations were conducted in different settings....... This study finds that because of the incongruence between the physical defect and the culture, it is difficult to reach and maintain the zone of proximal development for a child with disabilities. This study illustrates how the network of professionals and parents around the child can make a local congruence...

  18. Investimento parental e desenvolvimento da criança Parental investment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulina Rocha Lordelo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Segundo a teoria do investimento parental, seria esperada uma relação entre condições de criação da mãe e sua carreira reprodutiva e, por conseqüência, seus padrões de cuidado aos filhos, com repercussões no desenvolvimento das crianças. Esta pesquisa buscou verificar essas relações, em amostra de 37 mães e seus filhos entre um e quatro anos, de um bairro pobre de Salvador, Bahia. Foi investigada a história familiar e reprodutiva das mães, associada a resultados desenvolvimentais das crianças, medidos através das escalas Bayley e WIPPSI-R, em quatro avaliações realizadas ao longo de três anos. Foram encontradas correlações entre condições de criação da mãe e sua carreira reprodutiva subseqüente. Por sua vez, esses padrões mostraram-se modestamente relacionados ao desenvolvimento cognitivo de seus filhos, favorecendo as crianças cujas mães iniciaram sua vida reprodutiva mais tarde. Os resultados são, em geral, compatíveis com a teoria do investimento parental. Limitações do estudo e perspectivas futuras são discutidas.According to the parental investment theory, it would be expected an association between maternal family environment and her reproductive behavior and, as a consequence, her patterns of parental investment on her children, with effects on their development. This study aimed to verify that association, in a sample of 37 mothers and their children (one to four years old, in a poor neighborhood of Salvador, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. We studied the family and reproductive history of the mothers and assessed the cognitive development of children, through Bayley and WIPPSI-R scales, in four assessments during three years. We found correlation between the raising environment of the mother and her subsequent reproductive patterns. These patterns were related to cognitive development of children, favoring children whose mothers started their reproductive life later. The results are, in general

  19. Observed Measures of Negative Parenting Predict Brain Development during Adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Whittle

    Full Text Available Limited attention has been directed toward the influence of non-abusive parenting behaviour on brain structure in adolescents. It has been suggested that environmental influences during this period are likely to impact the way that the brain develops over time. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between aggressive and positive parenting behaviors on brain development from early to late adolescence, and in turn, psychological and academic functioning during late adolescence, using a multi-wave longitudinal design. Three hundred and sixty seven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans were obtained over three time points from 166 adolescents (11-20 years. At the first time point, observed measures of maternal aggressive and positive behaviors were obtained. At the final time point, measures of psychological and academic functioning were obtained. Results indicated that a higher frequency of maternal aggressive behavior was associated with alterations in the development of right superior frontal and lateral parietal cortical thickness, and of nucleus accumbens volume, in males. Development of the superior frontal cortex in males mediated the relationship between maternal aggressive behaviour and measures of late adolescent functioning. We suggest that our results support an association between negative parenting and adolescent functioning, which may be mediated by immature or delayed brain maturation.

  20. Which Characteristics of Gifted Students should be Developed? Student, Teacher and Parent Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Serdar Köksal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate parent, student and teacher opinions about which characteristics of gifted students should be developed in cognitive, affective, psychomotor and social learning areas. The participants included 609 gifted students, 350 parents and 157 teachers from Science and Art Canters. Participants were surveyed using “The Which Characteristics of Gifted Students Should Be Developed”. The results of research revealed that students, parents and teachers agreed that social and affective skills should be improved. On the other hand, they held different opinions on the importance of music, art, dance, role-play, sport, domestic economy skills. This result indicates that these skills are thought by participants to be less important for gifted students’ development. In addition, teachers did not think technology so important for the development of gifted students, placing more emphasis on cognitive and affective domains.

  1. Parents' Beliefs about Young Children's Literacy Development and Parents' Literacy Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jacqueline; Anderson, Jim; Anderson, Ann; Shapiro, Jon

    2006-01-01

    This research examined parents' literacy beliefs and their self-reported behaviors of how they help their children learn to read and to write. There were 35 parents of preschool-age children involved in this study. Parents were interviewed about their beliefs and behaviors using the "Parents' Perceptions of Literacy Learning Interview Schedule"…

  2. Parenting Classes, Parenting Behavior, and Child Cognitive Development in Early Head Start: A Longitudinal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mido; Park, Boyoung; Kim, Sunha

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed Early Head Start Research and Evaluation (EHSRE) study data, examining the effect of parenting classes on parenting behaviors and children's cognitive outcomes. The study analyzed three sets of dependent variables: parental language and cognitive stimulation, parent-child interactive activities, and the Bayley Mental…

  3. Development of an item bank for food parenting practices based on published instruments and reports from Canadian and US parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Teresia M; Pham, Truc; Watts, Allison W; Tu, Andrew W; Hughes, Sheryl O; Beauchamp, Mark R; Baranowski, Tom; Mâsse, Louise C

    2016-08-01

    Research to understand how parents influence their children's dietary intake and eating behaviors has expanded in the past decades and a growing number of instruments are available to assess food parenting practices. Unfortunately, there is no consensus on how constructs should be defined or operationalized, making comparison of results across studies difficult. The aim of this study was to develop a food parenting practice item bank with items from published scales and supplement with parenting practices that parents report using. Items from published scales were identified from two published systematic reviews along with an additional systematic review conducted for this study. Parents (n = 135) with children 5-12 years old from the US and Canada, stratified to represent the demographic distribution of each country, were recruited to participate in an online semi-qualitative survey on food parenting. Published items and parent responses were coded using the same framework to reduce the number of items into representative concepts using a binning and winnowing process. The literature contributed 1392 items and parents contributed 1985 items, which were reduced to 262 different food parenting concepts (26% exclusive from literature, 12% exclusive from parents, and 62% represented in both). Food parenting practices related to 'Structure of Food Environment' and 'Behavioral and Educational' were emphasized more by parent responses, while practices related to 'Consistency of Feeding Environment' and 'Emotional Regulation' were more represented among published items. The resulting food parenting item bank should next be calibrated with item response modeling for scientists to use in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The development of children's inhibition: Does parenting matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Roskam, I.; Stievenart, Marie; Meunier, J.-C.; Noël, M.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas a large body of research has investigated the maturation of inhibition in relation to the prefrontal cortex, far less research has been devoted to environmental factors that could contribute to inhibition improvement. The aim of the current study was to test whether and to what extent parenting matters for inhibition development from 2 to 8. years of age. Data were collected from 421 families, with 348 mother-child dyads and 342 father-child dyads participating. Children's inhibition ...

  5. Obese parents--obese children? Psychological-psychiatric risk factors of parental behavior and experience for the development of obesity in children aged 0-3: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Matthias; Bergmann, Sarah; Keitel, Anja; Herfurth-Majstorovic, Katharina; Wendt, Verena; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2013-12-17

    The incidences of childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially and with them the prevalence of associated somatic and psychiatric health problems. Therefore, it is important to identify modifiable risk factors for early childhood overweight in order to develop effective prevention or intervention programs. Besides biological factors, familial interactions and parental behavioral patterns may influence children's weight development. Longitudinal investigation of children at overweight risk could help to detect significant risk and protective factors. We aim to describe infants' weight development over time and identify risk and protective factors for the incidence of childhood obesity. Based on our findings we will draw up a risk model that will lay the foundation for an intervention/prevention program. We present the protocol of a prospective longitudinal study in which we investigate families with children aged from 6 months to 47 months. In half of the families at least one parent is obese (risk group), in the other half both parents are normal weight (control group). Based on developmental and health-psychological models, we consider measurements at three levels: the child, the parents and parent-child-relationship. Three assessment points are approximately one year apart. At each assessment point we evaluate the psychological, social, and behavioral situation of the parents as well as the physical and psychosocial development of the child. Parents are interviewed, fill in questionnaires, and take part in standardized interaction tasks with their child in a feeding and in a playing context in our research laboratory. The quality of these video-taped parent-child interactions is assessed by analyzing them with standardized, validated instruments according to scientific standards. Strengths of the presented study are the prospective longitudinal design, the multi-informant approach, including the fathers, and the observation of parent

  6. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  7. Development of Physical Activity-Related Parenting Practices Scales for Urban Chinese Parents of Preschoolers: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Yi-Nam; Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Huang, Wendy Y J; Mellecker, Robin R

    2017-09-01

    Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children's physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers' PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong. Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined. The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child's PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89). We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.

  8. Parental Influence on Children's Talent Development: A Case Study with Three Chinese American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Echo H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development through a specific perspective of several Chinese American families with gifted children. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the parents, and research questions focused on the daily practice of parenting and parents' beliefs…

  9. Parents of Children with Disabilities Benefit from the Internet for Development, Learning and Connecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Denise L.; Boles, Jessika C.

    2011-01-01

    Good Parenting! What it means and being prepared to do it is highly ambiguous in nature. Most parents-to-be want to be good parents and readily believe they are prepared to be good parents. That is until the baby arrives. With every birth comes an even distribution of positive and negative thoughts and emotions. In typically developing pregnancies…

  10. The Role of Parents in College Students' Sociopolitical Awareness, Academic, and Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Casandra E.; Sax, Linda J.; Wolf, De'Sha S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental contact (frequency of student-parent communication) and involvement (parents' interest and/or involvement in students' academic progress and decision-making) with college students' personal, social, and academic development. Parental involvement accounted for over two-thirds of the significant…

  11. Parenting for Yourself and Your Child. A Parenting Curriculum for High Risk Families. Neglectful and Abusive Parents: Curriculum Development and Pilot Program. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Janet

    Developed for use by parent educators and others working with high risk, abusive, or neglectful families, this curriculum guide is intended to enable and facilitate the growth of this target population in key parenting learning and skill areas. Section 1 provides an overview of the manual, offers suggestions for home visits following each class…

  12. Parenting around child snacking: development of a theoretically-guided, empirically informed conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Kirsten K; Blake, Christine E; Blaine, Rachel E; Younginer, Nicholas A; Orloski, Alexandria; Hamtil, Heather A; Ganter, Claudia; Bruton, Yasmeen P; Vaughn, Amber E; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2015-09-17

    Snacking contributes to excessive energy intakes in children. Yet factors shaping child snacking are virtually unstudied. This study examines food parenting practices specific to child snacking among low-income caregivers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in English or Spanish with 60 low-income caregivers of preschool-aged children (18 non-Hispanic white, 22 African American/Black, 20 Hispanic; 92% mothers). A structured interview guide was used to solicit caregivers' definitions of snacking and strategies they use to decide what, when and how much snack their child eats. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using an iterative theory-based and grounded approach. A conceptual model of food parenting specific to child snacking was developed to summarize the findings and inform future research. Caregivers' descriptions of food parenting practices specific to child snacking were consistent with previous models of food parenting developed based on expert opinion [1, 2]. A few noteworthy differences however emerged. More than half of participants mentioned permissive feeding approaches (e.g., my child is the boss when it comes to snacks). As a result, permissive feeding was included as a higher order feeding dimension in the resulting model. In addition, a number of novel feeding approaches specific to child snacking emerged including child-centered provision of snacks (i.e., responding to a child's hunger cues when making decisions about snacks), parent unilateral decision making (i.e., making decisions about a child's snacks without any input from the child), and excessive monitoring of snacks (i.e., monitoring all snacks provided to and consumed by the child). The resulting conceptual model includes four higher order feeding dimensions including autonomy support, coercive control, structure and permissiveness and 20 sub-dimensions. This study formulates a language around food parenting practices specific to child snacking

  13. Parents' management of the development of their children with disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2010-01-01

     Being the parent of a disabled child is not easy, it is experienced as a situation marked by stress, crises and grief. As Vygotsky described eighty years ago, the development of children with disabilities and the culture do not fit as they do for non-disabled children. The development of a child...... with disabilities is not determined by the child's physical defect alone, but constituted by the incongruence between the physical defect and the culture. In this study, the lives of four families with deafblind children were followed for two years. Interviews and observations were conducted in different settings...

  14. Development of a survey to identify vaccine-hesitant parents: the parent attitudes about childhood vaccines survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, Douglas J; Mangione-Smith, Rita; Taylor, James A; Korfiatis, Carolyn; Wiese, Cheryl; Catz, Sheryl; Martin, Diane P

    2011-04-01

    To develop a survey to accurately assess parental vaccine hesitancy. The initial survey contained 17 items in four content domains: (1) immunization behavior; (2) beliefs about vaccine safety and efficacy; (3) attitudes about vaccine mandates and exemptions; and (4) trust. Focus group data yielded an additional 10 survey items. Expert review of the survey resulted in the deletion of nine of 27 items and revisions to 11 of the remaining 18 survey items. Parent pretesting resulted in the deletion of one item, the addition of one item, the revision of four items, and formatting changes to enhance usability. The final survey contains 18 items in the original four content domains. An iterative process was used to develop the survey. First, we reviewed previous studies and surveys on parental health beliefs regarding vaccination to develop content domains and draft initial survey items. Focus groups of parents and pediatricians generated additional themes and survey items. Six immunization experts reviewed the items in the resulting draft survey and ranked them on a 1-5 scale for significance in identifying vaccine-hesitant parents (5 indicative of a highly significant item). The lowest third of ranked items were dropped. The revised survey was pretested with 25 parents to assess face validity, usability and item understandability. The Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines survey was constructed using qualitative methodology to identify vaccine-hesitant parents and has content and face validity. Further psychometric testing is needed.

  15. Development Parenting Model to Increase the Independence of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarty, Kustiah; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2015-01-01

    This study examines parenting and the child's independence model. The research problem is whether there is a relationship between parenting and the child's independence. The purpose of research is to determine: firstly, the type of parenting in an effort to increase the independence of the child; and the relationship between parenting models and…

  16. Developing Parent Education Courses: A Review of Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Phyllis A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews current resources (books and films) that are available for family life educators offering general parenting courses. Focuses on contemporary views of parenting, parenting and psychological theory, parenting strategies and techniques, changing family configurations, and developmental needs of children. (Author/ABB)

  17. [Participation of parents in a nutritional education program in schools and development of eating behaviours of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Fatoumata B; Potvin, Louise; Bédard, Johanne; Larose, François

    2014-11-06

    To describe the various dimensions of parental involvement in the interventions initiated in schools and to identify the relationship between each of these dimensions and the development of children's food choices following their exposure to a nutrition-education project implemented in eight primary schools in underprivileged neighbourhoods in Montréal - the Junior Cooks - Parents Network project (Petits cuistots - Parents en réseaux (PC-PR)). This descriptive research was conducted thanks to a secondary analysis of data from a sample of 502 parents of children attending schools that participated in the PC-PR project. Parental participation is described in four aspects, making reference to the idea of a mesosystem, suggested by Bronfenbrenner (1979). Children's eating-related behaviour, as reported by the parents, included: talking about workshops, asking to buy certain foods, reading labels on product wrapping and helping to prepare the meal. Bivariate and multivariate descriptive analyses were performed. The data gathered from the parents show a positive association between in-home parental involvement and overall food behaviour in the students. However, there is no association between parental involvement at school and any of the behaviours. This research suggests the importance of parental participation in nutrition education interventions in schools. The results contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field and serve as impetus for reflection on how to better direct health promotion interventions.

  18. Parents' preparedness for their infants' discharge following first-stage cardiac surgery: development of a parental early warning tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Kerry L; Barron, David J; Daniels, Amanda

    2016-10-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to explore parental preparedness for discharge and their experiences of going home with their infant after the first-stage surgery for a functionally univentricular heart. Technological advances worldwide have improved outcomes for infants with a functionally univentricular heart over the last 3 decades; however, concern remains regarding mortality in the period between the first and second stages of surgery. The implementation of home monitoring programmes for this group of infants has improved this initial inter-stage survival; however, little is known about parents' experiences of going home, their preparedness for discharge, and parents' recognition of deterioration in their fragile infant. This study was conducted in 2011-2013; eight sets of parents were consulted in the research planning stage in September, 2011, and 22 parents with children aged 0-2 years responded to an online survey during November, 2012-March, 2013. Description of categorical data and deductive thematic analysis of the open-ended questions were undertaken. Not all parents were taught signs of deterioration or given written information specific to their baby. The following three themes emerged from the qualitative data: mixed emotions about going home, knowledge and preparedness, and support systems. Parents are not adequately prepared for discharge and are not well equipped to recognise deterioration in their child. There is a role for greater parental education through development of an early warning tool to address the gap in parents' understanding of signs of deterioration, enabling appropriate contact and earlier management by clinicians.

  19. Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: a 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn E; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L

    2012-08-01

    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined the longitudinal relationships between perceived parenting style and psychological flexibility among students at five Australian schools (N= 749) over 6 years, beginning in Grade 7 (50.3% female, mean age 12.39 years). Parenting style was measured in Grades 7 and 12, and psychological flexibility from Grade 9 through 12. Psychological flexibility decreased, on average, with age. Multi-level modelling indicated that authoritarian parenting (low warmth, high control) in Grade 7 predicted later (low) psychological flexibility. Moreover, increases in authoritarian parenting and decreases in authoritative parenting (high warmth and control) were associated with adolescent psychological flexibility across the high school years. Change in parenting predicted future psychological flexibility but did not predict change over time. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that adolescent psychological flexibility in Grade 9 predicted later decreases in authoritarian and increases in authoritative parenting. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how parenting changes and the consequences of such change for the development of psychological flexibility.

  20. Parenting and development of one-year-olds: Links with parental, contextual, and child characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakel, H.J.A. van; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    A set of hypotheses derived from Belsky's process model of the determinants of parenting was tested in a sample of 129 Dutch parents with their 15-month-old infants. Parental ego-resiliency and education, partner support, and infant social fearfulness were found to explain significant and unique

  1. Parent Stress and Perceptions of Language Development: Comparing Down Syndrome and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.; Adamson, Lauren B.; Barker, R. Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study extended research on the Down syndrome advantage by examining differences in parent stress and parent perceptions of language development between 29 parents of young children with Down syndrome and 82 parents of children with other developmental disabilities. Parents of children with Down syndrome reported lower levels of total stress, child-related stress, and stress surrounding the parent-child interaction. Parents of children in both groups reported that they felt successful in their ability to impact their children’s communication development but did differ on perceptions of difficulty such that parents of children with Down syndrome perceived their children’s communication difficulties as less severe despite the children exhibiting similar language skills. Finally, after accounting for potential explanatory confounding variables, child diagnosis remained a significant predictor of parent stress and perceptions of language development. Results highlight the importance of considering etiology when assisting families raising a child with a disability. PMID:24753637

  2. Parent Stress and Perceptions of Language Development: Comparing Down Syndrome and Other Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashlyn L; Romski, Maryann; Sevcik, Rose A; Adamson, Lauren B; Barker, R Michael

    2014-02-01

    This study extended research on the Down syndrome advantage by examining differences in parent stress and parent perceptions of language development between 29 parents of young children with Down syndrome and 82 parents of children with other developmental disabilities. Parents of children with Down syndrome reported lower levels of total stress, child-related stress, and stress surrounding the parent-child interaction. Parents of children in both groups reported that they felt successful in their ability to impact their children's communication development but did differ on perceptions of difficulty such that parents of children with Down syndrome perceived their children's communication difficulties as less severe despite the children exhibiting similar language skills. Finally, after accounting for potential explanatory confounding variables, child diagnosis remained a significant predictor of parent stress and perceptions of language development. Results highlight the importance of considering etiology when assisting families raising a child with a disability.

  3. Parenting style, parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.

  4. Retrofitting the Low Impact Development Practices into Developed Urban areas Including Barriers and Potential Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad; Kim, Reeho

    2017-06-01

    Low impact development (LID)/green infrastructure (GI) practices have been identified as the sustainable practices of managing the stormwater in urban areas. Due to the increasing population, most of the cities are more developing which results in the change of natural area into impervious areas (roads, buildings etc.). Moreover, urbanization and climate change are causing many water-related problems and making over cities unsafe and insecure. Under these circumstances, there is a need to introduce new stormwater management practices into developed cities to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization. For this purpose, retrofitting low impact development practices demands more attention to reduce these water-related problems and trying to make our cities sustainable. In developed areas, there is a little space is available for the retrofitting of LID practices for the stormwater management. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate place to retrofitting LID practices needs more concern. This paper describes the successfully applied retrofitting LID practices around the globe. It also includes the process of applying retrofitting LID practices at the suitable place with the suitable combination. Optimal places for the retrofitting of different LID practices are also mentioned. This paper also highlights the barriers and potential solutions of retrofitting LID practices in urban areas.

  5. Retrofitting the Low Impact Development Practices into Developed Urban areas Including Barriers and Potential Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low impact development (LID/green infrastructure (GI practices have been identified as the sustainable practices of managing the stormwater in urban areas. Due to the increasing population, most of the cities are more developing which results in the change of natural area into impervious areas (roads, buildings etc.. Moreover, urbanization and climate change are causing many water-related problems and making over cities unsafe and insecure. Under these circumstances, there is a need to introduce new stormwater management practices into developed cities to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization. For this purpose, retrofitting low impact development practices demands more attention to reduce these water-related problems and trying to make our cities sustainable. In developed areas, there is a little space is available for the retrofitting of LID practices for the stormwater management. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate place to retrofitting LID practices needs more concern. This paper describes the successfully applied retrofitting LID practices around the globe. It also includes the process of applying retrofitting LID practices at the suitable place with the suitable combination. Optimal places for the retrofitting of different LID practices are also mentioned. This paper also highlights the barriers and potential solutions of retrofitting LID practices in urban areas.

  6. Parent Involvement in Head Start and Children's Development: Indirect Effects Through Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arya; Gershoff, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    The authors examined the extent to which parent involvement in Head Start programs predicted changes in both parent and child outcomes over time, using a nationally representative sample of 1,020 three-year-old children over 3 waves of the Family and Child Experiences Survey. Center policies that promote involvement predicted greater parent involvement, and parents who were more involved in Head Start centers demonstrated increased cognitive stimulation and decreased spanking and controlling behaviors. In turn, these changes in parenting behaviors were associated with gains in children's academic and behavioral skills. These findings suggest that Head Start programs should do even more to facilitate parent involvement because it can serve as an important means for promoting both parent and child outcomes.

  7. Parents Working Together: development and feasibility trial of a workplace-based program for parents that incorporates general parenting and health behaviour messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L; Lero, Donna; Smofsky, Allan; Gross, Deborah; Haines, Jess

    2016-11-10

    desired direction post-intervention; however, confidence intervals substantially overlapped zero. Contrary to expectations, parents also reported an increase in restrictive feeding practices. Our results indicate that a workplace-based program that addresses general parenting skills and weight-related behaviours may be a feasible way to engage and educate parents, including fathers. A full-scale trial is needed to examine the effectiveness of this approach.

  8. Challenges in educating patients and parents about differences in sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Elizabeth

    2017-06-01

    This article reviews practical approaches to talking with parents and youth about Differences in Sex Development (DSD) which are conditions that affect chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sexual development, one of the most personal, and in our society, private areas of life. Talking with parents and patients about these conditions can be challenging given the complexity of sexual development and the sensitive nature of the information being shared. Changing approaches to disclosing or communicating information about conditions, such as DSD are reviewed as well as factors leading to revision in the diagnostic nomenclature. Building on these developments, strategies used by an established DSD team to enhance shared decision making and partnership with families and patients are presented followed by examples of how some particularly challenging, but not uncommon clinical situations were approached. The paper concludes by endorsing the importance of understanding the social and cultural needs and beliefs of the parents and patients with DSD to set the stage for effective disclosure of medical facts. To be most useful to parents and youth, medical disclosure needs to include discussion of practical implications and strategies to help families and patients digest, understand, and work with the information provided. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effect of Training Programme on Developing Functional Sign Language among Parents of Students with Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswari, N. R.; Srivastava, Abhishek Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Parents' involvement is highly needed for ensuring holistic development of their words; however parents can only assist the child when they themselves have adequate knowledge, required skills, and proper awareness regarding various aspects of children's growth and development. To have adequate communication skill among parents, ensuring better…

  10. Parents' "Perezhivanie" Supports Children's Development of Emotion Regulation: A Holistic View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    Parents play an influential role in children's emotional development. Numerous quantitative studies have examined the correlations between a "single" dimension of parents' emotion socialisation practices (e.g. parental emotion expression or attitudes) and children's emotional development. However, little attention has been paid to a…

  11. Influence of parenting styles on development of children aged three to six years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Ngaosusit, Chutima; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai

    2007-05-01

    To investigate the influences of parenting styles on development of children aged three to six years. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 360 children and their parents selected by multi-stage random sampling. The data were collected from July 24th to August 31st, 2004. The Denver II test kit and the scale by Baumrind D were used to test the child development and parenting styles respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect the family and child factors. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution and Multiple logistic regression with the significant level set at p-value of Parenting styles had significant influences on child development (p-value parenting style had a 1.9 times higher chance of having delayed development compared with those with democratic parenting style. In addition, significant family and child factors for explaining child development were family type, mother's education, father's occupation, relationship within the family, nutritional status and sex. Parenting styles had a significant influence on child development. The children raised with mixed parenting style had a 1.9 timds higher chance of having delayed development compared to those whose parents used democratic parenting style. Therefore, the parents should rear their children by using the democratic parenting style that leads to the age-appropriate development child

  12. Parental preference for fluoride varnish: a new concept in a rapidly developing nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendaus, Mohamed A; Jama, Hibaq A; Siddiqui, Faisal J; Elsiddig, Sohair A; Alhammadi, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate parental preference for fluoride varnish in a country where the average percentage of dental caries in young children is up to ~73%. Consequently, the aim of this study, despite being a pilot, was to create a nationwide project in the State of Qatar to promote oral health in children. A cross-sectional perspective study was conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar. Parents of children aged ≤5 years were offered an interview survey. A total of 200 questionnaires were completed (response rate =100%). The study was conducted between December 1, 2014 and March 30, 2015, and included all children aged >1 year and health, we found that >90% of families were aware that dental health affects the health of the whole body. The study showed that ~70% of parents were not aware of the existence of fluoride varnish, but would allow a health provider to apply fluoride varnish. Furthermore, ~80% of parents would not stop brushing their child's teeth and would not skip dentist appointments if varnish was to be applied. Approximately 40% of parents conveyed some concerns regarding the safety of fluoride varnish, despite being considered as a new concept. The main concern was that the child might swallow some of the fluoride. Another important concern expressed by parents was the availability of the fluoride varnish in all clinics. The robust positive attitude of parents in this sample suggests that introducing fluoride varnish is feasible and acceptable in our community. Actions to augment fluoride varnish acceptability in the developing world, such as focusing on safety, could be important in the disseminated implementation of fluoride varnish.

  13. Strategies for developing and delivering a parental physical activity intervention: answers to the what and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M

    2014-01-01

    Parents are at risk for physical inactivity; however, few studies have designed physical activity (PA) interventions specifically applied to individuals with young children. To ensure the effectiveness of interventions, it may be useful to first elicit the needs from the target population and incorporate salient strategies identified to the design and delivery of a resultant intervention. We aimed to explore strategies for what to include in and how to best deliver a program designed to increase parental PA. Twelve parents (6 mothers, 6 fathers) of children younger than 5 years participated in focus group discussions exploring strategies for an intervention program designed to increase parental PA. A range of themes such as Focus on the Children and Flexible Life/Family Plans imbedded in strategies such as persuasion and information, problem-solving, skill building, and environmental approaches were identified. In addition, a range of strategies for how to best deliver a parental PA intervention evidenced in emerging themes such as Diverse and Brief and Individualized Approach was discussed. Future research should continue to adopt a ground up, community-based approach to the development and implementation of interventions for this at-risk group to ensure sustained involvement in regular PA.

  14. Effects of parenting role and parent-child interaction on infant motor development in Taiwan Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lin, Dai-Chan; Lee, Chun-Yang; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have rarely focused on healthy infants' motor development, and nationwide birth cohort studies in Taiwan are limited. It has been shown that parent-child interactions significantly influence infant motor development and the effect of mother-infant attachment on infant development is stronger than father-infant attachment. However, it is not well understood that whether the mother-infant or father-infant interaction has the confounding effect on infant motor development. To understand healthy infant motor development in Taiwan; and to investigate the effects of parenting roles and parent-child interactions on infant motor development. Data were derived from the 1st through the 2nd waves of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Pilot Database. Infants were classified into two categories (complete or incomplete development) according to their developmental milestones. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) and random effects models were used to clarify the possible long-term effects. The rate of infants who completed development in 6 months was 30.50%; however the rate was increased in 18 month-old children (80.01%). A mother's perceived infant care competence was the most important factor for infant motor development. "Whether or not the infant was the only baby in the family" and "parent-child interaction" had slightly significant effect on infant motor development. In conclusion, the mother's perceived competence must be strengthened and parent-infant interactions should be emphasized on a daily basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effects of a Family Support Program Including Respite Care on Parenting Stress and Family Quality of Life Perceived by Primary Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…

  16. Parental Practices and the Development of Maladaptive Schemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunty, Amy L.; Buri, John R.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between Young's (1999) Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and several parental variables was investigated. The parental variables of interest were: (a) Nurturance, (b) Authority, (c) Intrusiveness, (d) Psychological Control, (e) Overprotection, and (f) Parentification. Regression analyses revealed that these parental practices…

  17. Development and Validation of the Children's Voice Handicap Index-10 for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci-Maccarini, Andrea; De Maio, Vincenzo; Murry, Thomas; Schindler, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The Children's Voice Handicap Index-10 (CVHI-10) was introduced as a tool for self-assessment of children's dysphonia. However, in the management of children with voice disorders, both parents' and children's perspectives play an important role. Because a self-tool including both a children's and a parents' version does not exist yet, the aim of the study was to develop and validate an assessment tool which parallels the CVHI-10 for parents to assess the level of voice handicap in their child's voice. Observational, prospective, cross-sectional study. To develop a CVHI-10 for parents, called "CVHI-10-P", the CVHI-10 items were adapted to reflect parents' responses about their child. Fifty-five children aged 7-12 years completed the CVHI-10, whereas their parents completed the CVHI-10-P. Each child's voice was also perceptually assessed by an otolaryngologist using the Grade Breathness Roughness (GRB) scale. Fifty-one of the 55 children underwent voice therapy (VT) and were assessed afterward using the GRB, CVHI-10, and CVHI-10-P. CVHI-10-P internal consistency was satisfactory (Cronbach alpha = .78). Correlation between CVHI-10-P and CVHI-10 was moderate (r = 0.37). CVHI-10-P total scores were lower than CVHI-10 scores in most of the cases. Single-item mean scores were always lower in CVHI-10-P compared with CVHI-10, with the exception of the only one item of the CVHI-10-P that directly involves the parent's experience (item 10). Data gained from one tool are not directly related to the other, suggesting that these two tools appraise the child's voice handicap from different perspectives. The overall perceptual assessment scores of the 51 children after VT significantly improved. There was a statistically significant reduction of the total scores and for each item in CVHI-10 and CVHI-10-P after VT. These data support the adoption of the CVHI-10-P as an assessment tool and an outcome measure for management of children's voice disorders. CVHI-10-P is a valid tool to

  18. Like parent, like child? Development of prejudice and tolerance towards immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklikowska, Marta

    2016-02-01

    Although intergroup attitudes are assumed to develop due to the influence of parents, there is no longitudinal evidence supporting this claim. In addition, research on socialization of intergroup attitudes has omitted possible effects of adolescents on their parents. We also know little about the conditions under which intergroup attitudes are transmitted. This two-wave, 2 years apart, study of adolescents (N = 507) and their parents examined the relations between parents and adolescents' prejudice and tolerance from a longitudinal perspective. The study tested whether parental prejudice and tolerance would predict over-time changes in adolescents' attitudes and whether adolescents' prejudice and tolerance would elicit changes in parental attitudes. Additionally, it explored whether some of the effects would depend on perceived parental support. Results showed significant bidirectional influences between parents and adolescents' attitudes. In addition, adolescents who perceived their parents as supportive showed higher parent-adolescent correspondence in prejudice than youth with low parental support. These findings show that intergroup attitudes develop as a result of mutual influences between parents and adolescents. Hence, the unidirectional transmission model and previous research findings should be revisited. The results also suggest that parents' prejudice influence adolescents' attitudes to the extent that youth perceive their parents as supportive. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  19. The Development of Children's Ethnic Identity in Immigrant Chinese Families in Canada: The Role of Parenting Practices and Children's Perceptions of Parental Family Obligation Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tina F.; Costigan, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Parents' role in children's ethnic identity development was examined among 95 immigrant Chinese families with young adolescents living in Canada. Children reported their feelings of ethnic identity and perceptions of parental family obligation expectations. Parents reported their family obligation expectations; parents and children reported on…

  20. Could cash and good parenting affect child cognitive development? A cross-sectional study in South Africa and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, Lorraine; Macedo, Ana; Tomlinson, Mark; Skeen, Sarah; Cluver, Lucie Dale

    2017-05-12

    Social protection interventions, including cash grants and care provision have been shown to effectively reduce some negative impacts of the HIV epidemic on adolescents and families. Less is known about the role of social protection on younger HIV affected populations. This study explored the impact of cash grants on children's cognitive development. Additionally, we examined whether combined cash and care (operationalised as good parenting) was associated with improved cognitive outcomes. The sample included 854 children, aged 5 - 15, participating in community-based organisation (CBO) programmes for children affected by HIV in South Africa and Malawi. Data on child cognitive functioning were gathered by a combination of caregiver report and observer administered tests. Primary caregivers also reported on the economic situation of the family, cash receipt into the home, child and household HIV status. Parenting was measured on a 10 item scale with good parenting defined as a score of 8 or above. About half of families received cash (55%, n = 473), only 6% (n = 51) reported good parenting above the cut-off point but no cash, 18% (n = 151) received combined cash support and reported good parenting, and 21% (n = 179) had neither. Findings show that cash receipt was associated with enhanced child cognitive outcomes in a number of domains including verbal working memory, general cognitive functioning, and learning. Furthermore, cash plus good parenting provided an additive effect. Child HIV status had a moderating effect on the association between cash or/plus good parenting and cognitive outcomes. The association between cash and good parenting and child cognitive outcomes remained significant among both HIV positive and negative children, but overall the HIV negative group benefited more. This study shows the importance of cash transfers and good parenting on cognitive development of young children living in HIV affected environments. Our data clearly

  1. Pathways from parental AIDS to child psychological, educational and sexual risk: developing an empirically-based interactive theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Sherr, Lorraine; Makasi, Daphne; Nikelo, Joy

    2013-06-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates negative psychological, health, and developmental outcomes for children associated with parental HIV/AIDS illness and death. However, little is known about how parental AIDS leads to negative child outcomes. This study used a structural equation modelling approach to develop an empirically-based theoretical model of interactive relationships between parental or primary caregiver AIDS-illness, AIDS-orphanhood and predicted intervening factors associated with children's psychological distress, educational access and sexual health. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2009-2011, from 6002 children aged 10-17 years in three provinces of South Africa using stratified random sampling. Comparison groups included children orphaned by AIDS, orphaned by other causes and non-orphans, and children whose parents or primary caregivers were unwell with AIDS, unwell with other causes or healthy. Participants reported on psychological symptoms, educational access, and sexual health risks, as well as hypothesized sociodemographic and intervening factors. In order to build an interactive theoretical model of multiple child outcomes, multivariate regression and structural equation models were developed for each individual outcome, and then combined into an overall model. Neither AIDS-orphanhood nor parental AIDS-illness were directly associated with psychological distress, educational access, or sexual health. Instead, significant indirect effects of AIDS-orphanhood and parental AIDS-illness were obtained on all measured outcomes. Child psychological, educational and sexual health risks share a common set of intervening variables including parental disability, poverty, community violence, stigma, and child abuse that together comprise chain effects. In all models, parental AIDS-illness had stronger effects and more risk pathways than AIDS-orphanhood, especially via poverty and parental disability. AIDS-orphanhood and parental AIDS-illness impact

  2. Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time, as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59…

  3. Child Art Therapy and Parent Consultation: Facilitating Child Development and Parent Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Annette

    2000-01-01

    Explores outpatient art therapy methodology which integrates D. W. Winnicott's (1971) model of parent consultation, child art therapy theories, and contemporary theories of child and brief psychotherapy. Two case studies that illustrate effective symptom management and structural change with the child and the child-parent bond are presented.…

  4. Reconciling parenting and smoking in the context of child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Johnson, Joy L; Chan, Anna

    2013-08-01

    In this article we explore the micro-social context of parental tobacco use in the first years of a child's life and early childhood. We conducted individual interviews with 28 mothers and fathers during the 4 years following the birth of their child. Using grounded theory methods, we identified the predominant explanatory concept in parents' accounts as the need to reconcile being a parent and smoking. Desires to become smoke-free coexisted with five types of parent-child interactions: (a) protecting the defenseless child, (b) concealing smoking and cigarettes from the mimicking child, (c) reinforcing smoking as bad with the communicative child, (d) making guilt-driven promises to the fearful child, and (e) relinquishing personal responsibility to the autonomous child. We examine the agency of the child in influencing parents' smoking practices, the importance of children's observational learning in the early years, and the reciprocal nature of parent-child interactions related to parents' smoking behavior.

  5. Co-Working: Parents' Conception of Roles in Supporting Their Children's Speech and Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Karen E.; Marshall, Julie; Brown, Laura J. E.; Goldbart, Juliet

    2017-01-01

    Speech and language therapists' (SLTs) roles include enabling parents to provide intervention. We know little about how parents understand their role during speech and language intervention or whether these change during involvement with SLTs. The theory of conceptual change, applied to parents as adult learners, is used as a framework for…

  6. Parents Working Together: development and feasibility trial of a workplace-based program for parents that incorporates general parenting and health behaviour messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wilson

    2016-11-01

    parents’ reports of family interfering with work were in the desired direction post-intervention; however, confidence intervals substantially overlapped zero. Contrary to expectations, parents also reported an increase in restrictive feeding practices. Conclusion Our results indicate that a workplace-based program that addresses general parenting skills and weight-related behaviours may be a feasible way to engage and educate parents, including fathers. A full-scale trial is needed to examine the effectiveness of this approach.

  7. Role of Positive Parenting in the Association Between Neighborhood Social Disadvantage and Brain Development Across Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Simmons, Julian G; Dennison, Meg; Schwartz, Orli; Pantelis, Christos; Sheeber, Lisa; Byrne, Michelle L; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-08-01

    The negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on lifelong functioning are pronounced, with some evidence suggesting that these effects are mediated by changes in brain development. To our knowledge, no research has investigated whether parenting might buffer these negative effects. To establish whether positive parenting behaviors moderate the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on brain development and adaptive functioning in adolescents. In this longitudinal study of adolescents from schools in Melbourne, Australia, data were collected at 3 assessments between 2004 and 2012. Data were analyzed between August 2016 and April 2017. Both family (parental income-to-needs, occupation, and education level) and neighborhood measures of socioeconomic disadvantage were assessed. Positive maternal parenting behaviors were observed during interactions in early adolescence. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at 3 times (early, middle, and late adolescence) from ages 11 to 20 years. Global and academic functioning was assessed during late adolescence. We used linear mixed models to examine the effect of family and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage as well as the moderating effect of positive parenting on adolescent brain development. We used mediation models to examine whether brain developmental trajectories predicted functional outcomes during late adolescence. Of the included 166 adolescents, 86 (51.8%) were male. We found that neighborhood, but not family, socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with altered brain development from early (mean [SD] age, 12.79 [0.425] years) to late (mean [SD] age, 19.08 [0.460] years) adolescence, predominantly in the temporal lobes (temporal cortex: random field theory corrected; left amygdala: B, -0.237; P adolescence. Results have relevance for designing interventions for children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds.

  8. Developing a Practical Parenting Workshop: A Case Study in Family Sexual Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croatt, Heidi S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation discusses the development and assessment of a parent intervention and training program. Out of concern for the sexual health of adolescents in the United States, both parents and researchers have called for programs assisting parents in the sexual education of their children. Encouraging sexual communication and increasing the…

  9. Parental Overprotection Predicts the Development of Functional Somatic Symptoms in Young Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Karin A. M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    Objective To examine whether parental overprotection contributes to die development of functional somatic symptoms (FSS) in young adolescents. In addition, we aimed to study whether this potential effect of parental overprotection is mediated by parenting distress and/or moderated by the

  10. The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  11. Parents' Assessment of Their Preschool Children's Bilingual Development in the Context of Family Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Parents' assessment of children's development in the first and the second language is an essential part of their family language policy (FLP) and an important component of parent-child communication. This paper presents a pilot study focused on Russian-speaking immigrant parents' assessment of their children's language knowledge in Russian as a…

  12. Parents' Discourses about Language Strategies for Their Children's Preschool Bilingual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor; Leikin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The study focused on immigrant parents' discourses about strategies for their children's preschool bilingual development and education. The article investigated how immigrant parents described and explained these strategies. The study was based on semi-structured interviews with 4 families. The 8 parents were Russian-speaking immigrants to Israel…

  13. Marital relationship, parenting practices, and social skills development in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Hosokawa, Rikuya; Katsura, Toshiki

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examined the pathways by which destructive and constructive marital conflict leading to social skills development in preschool children, are mediated through negative and positive parenting practices. Methods: Mothers of 2931 Japanese children, aged 5-6 years, completed self-report questionnaires regarding their marital relationship (the Quality of co-parental communication scale) and parental practices (the Alabama parenting questionnaire). The children's teachers eval...

  14. Association of teen mothers’ and grandmothers’ parenting capacities with child development: A study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Damali; Gross, Deborah; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Deater‐Deckard, Kirby

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Children born to teen mothers may experience less responsive and supportive parenting and are at heightened risk for a range of social, developmental, and health issues. There is literature to support the positive impact of grandmothers on teen parents and their children. However, what if the teen's mother is also limited in her parenting capacities? How do parenting capacities across these two generations of mothers affect the developing child? In this ongoing study we are examining...

  15. Parent-child feeding practices in a developing country: Findings from the Family Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wai Yew; Burrows, Tracy; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Williams, Lauren T; Collins, Clare E; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee

    2018-02-03

    Given the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Malaysia, examination of family environmental factors is warranted. Reviews from developed countries report inconsistent findings on the relationship between parental-child feeding practices and child weight-related health outcomes. The current study aimed to examine parent-child feeding practices by familial-child characteristics in Malaysia. The Family Diet Study was conducted with urban Malay families and included a child aged 8-12 years and their main carer(s). Seven domains of parent-child feeding practices were assessed using the child feeding questionnaire and familial demographics, including socio-economic status, child anthropometry and dietary intake were collected. Inferential statistics were used to explore the relationships between variables. Of the 315 families enrolled, 236 completed all measures, with the majority of parent-reporters being mothers (n = 182). One-third of the children were classified as overweight/obese. Three domains of parent-child feeding practices had median scores of 4.0 out of 5.0 [concern about child overweight (CCO) (Interquartile range (IQR): 3.3, 4.7); pressure-to-eat (PTE) (IQR: 3.3, 4.5) and food monitoring (IQR: 3.0, 5.0)]. The domain of 'perceived child overweight' was positively associated with child age (r = 0.45, p < 0.001). Children who were overweight (F = 37.4; p < 0.001) and under-reported energy intake (F = 13.1; p = 0.001) had higher median scores for the parental perception of risk of child being overweight. Median scores for the CCO and PTE domains were significantly higher in low-income families (F = 7.87; F = 9.75; p < 0.05, respectively). Malay parents in this present study are concerned about their child's weight, particularly for those overweight. Family size, household income, and child weight status significantly influence parent-child feeding practices. Further research examining the cultural context of

  16. Parental preference for fluoride varnish: a new concept in a rapidly developing nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendaus MA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed A Hendaus,1,2 Hibaq A Jama,1 Faisal J Siddiqui,1,3 Sohair A Elsiddig,1 Ahmed H Alhammadi1,2 1Department of Pediatrics, General Academic Pediatrics Section, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, 2Department of Clinical Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College, 3Pediatric Residency Program, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate parental preference for fluoride varnish in a country where the average percentage of dental caries in young children is up to ~73%. Consequently, the aim of this study, despite being a pilot, was to create a nationwide project in the State of Qatar to promote oral health in children. Methods: A cross-sectional perspective study was conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar. Parents of children aged ≤5 years were offered an interview survey. A total of 200 questionnaires were completed (response rate =100%. The study was conducted between December 1, 2014 and March 30, 2015, and included all children aged >1 year and <5 years who came to the outpatient clinics for well-child and sick visits. We also included children who were admitted to the inpatient wards. Results: The mean age of participant children was 2.8±1.1 years. When inquiring regarding parents’ knowledge and awareness of dental health, we found that >90% of families were aware that dental health affects the health of the whole body. The study showed that ~70% of parents were not aware of the existence of fluoride varnish, but would allow a health provider to apply fluoride varnish. Furthermore, ~80% of parents would not stop brushing their child’s teeth and would not skip dentist appointments if varnish was to be applied. Approximately 40% of parents conveyed some concerns regarding the safety of fluoride varnish, despite being considered as a new concept. The main concern was that the child might swallow some of the fluoride. Another important concern expressed by parents was the

  17. Portraiture of constructivist parental involvement: A model to develop a community of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Christopher Anthony

    This qualitative research study addressed the problem of the lack of parental involvement in secondary school science. Increasing parental involvement is vital in supporting student academic achievement and social growth. The purpose of this emergent phenomenological study was to identify conditions required to successfully construct a supportive learning environment to form partnerships between students, parents, and educators. The overall research question in this study investigated the conditions necessary to successfully enlist parental participation with students during science inquiry investigations at the secondary school level. One hundred thirteen pairs of parents and students engaged in a 6-week scientific inquiry activity and recorded attitudinal data in dialogue journals, questionnaires, open-ended surveys, and during one-one-one interviews conducted by the researcher between individual parents and students. Comparisons and cross-interpretations of inter-rater, codified, triangulated data were utilized for identifying emergent themes. Data analysis revealed the active involvement of parents in researching with their child during inquiry investigations, engaging in journaling, and assessing student performance fostered partnerships among students, parents, and educators and supported students' social skills development. The resulting model, employing constructivist leadership and enlisting parent involvement, provides conditions and strategies required to develop a community of practice that can help effect social change. The active involvement of parents fostered improved efficacy and a holistic mindset to develop in parents, students, and teachers. Based on these findings, the interactive collaboration of parents in science learning activities can proactively facilitate a community of practice that will assist educators in facilitating social change.

  18. Obese parents – obese children? Psychological-psychiatric risk factors of parental behavior and experience for the development of obesity in children aged 0–3: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidences of childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially and with them the prevalence of associated somatic and psychiatric health problems. Therefore, it is important to identify modifiable risk factors for early childhood overweight in order to develop effective prevention or intervention programs. Besides biological factors, familial interactions and parental behavioral patterns may influence children’s weight development. Longitudinal investigation of children at overweight risk could help to detect significant risk and protective factors. We aim to describe infants’ weight development over time and identify risk and protective factors for the incidence of childhood obesity. Based on our findings we will draw up a risk model that will lay the foundation for an intervention/prevention program. Methods/Design We present the protocol of a prospective longitudinal study in which we investigate families with children aged from 6 months to 47 months. In half of the families at least one parent is obese (risk group), in the other half both parents are normal weight (control group). Based on developmental and health-psychological models, we consider measurements at three levels: the child, the parents and parent–child-relationship. Three assessment points are approximately one year apart. At each assessment point we evaluate the psychological, social, and behavioral situation of the parents as well as the physical and psychosocial development of the child. Parents are interviewed, fill in questionnaires, and take part in standardized interaction tasks with their child in a feeding and in a playing context in our research laboratory. The quality of these video-taped parent–child interactions is assessed by analyzing them with standardized, validated instruments according to scientific standards. Discussion Strengths of the presented study are the prospective longitudinal design, the multi-informant approach, including the

  19. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed.

  20. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  1. Adverse effects of parental zinc deficiency on metal homeostasis and embryonic development in a zebrafish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Laura M; Nkrumah-Elie, Yasmeen M; Truong, Lisa; Barton, Carrie L; Knecht, Andrea L; Gonnerman, Greg D; Wong, Carmen P; Tanguay, Robert L; Ho, Emily

    2017-05-01

    The high prevalence of zinc deficiency is a global public health concern, and suboptimal maternal zinc consumption has been associated with adverse effects ranging from impaired glucose tolerance to low birthweights. The mechanisms that contribute to altered development and poor health in zinc deficient offspring are not completely understood. To address this gap, we utilized the Danio rerio model and investigated the impact of dietary zinc deficiency on adults and their developing progeny. Zinc deficient adult fish were significantly smaller in size, and had decreases in learning and fitness. We hypothesized that parental zinc deficiency would have an impact on their offspring's mineral homeostasis and embryonic development. Results from mineral analysis showed that parental zinc deficiency caused their progeny to be zinc deficient. Furthermore, parental dietary zinc deficiency had adverse consequences for their offspring including a significant increase in mortality and decreased physical activity. Zinc deficient embryos had altered expression of genes that regulate metal homeostasis including several zinc transporters (ZnT8, ZnT9) and the metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF-1). Zinc deficiency was also associated with decreased expression of genes related to diabetes and pancreatic development in the embryo (Insa, Pax4, Pdx1). Decreased expression of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt4, Dnmt6) was also found in zinc deficient offspring, which suggests that zinc deficiency in parents may cause altered epigenetic profiles for their progeny. These data should inform future studies regarding zinc deficiency and pregnancy and suggest that supplementation of zinc deficient mothers prior to pregnancy may be beneficial. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Development of suicidality within socioeconomic context: mediation effect of parental control and anomie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Arash; Teymoori, Ali; Nasiri, Hedayat

    Despite some scientific research on suicide as one of the most serious social and mental health problems in Iran, there is still lack of research on the effective structural and socio-familial factors contributing to the issue in Iran. The purpose of this study is to investigate some of the effective variables conditioning suicidality while also establishing a synthetic model. Three hundred-fifty university students (165 males, 185 females) were randomly chosen from Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran. The participants were asked to complete a package of self-report questionnaires including subjective socioeconomic status (SES), feeling of anomie, perceived parental control, and suicidality. The results show that all correlations among variables are significant. For testing the theoretical model, results of standardized regression coefficients suggest that SES has direct effect on suicidality and indirect effect via anomie and parental control. In addition, parental control has direct effects on suicidality and indirect effect via anomie as well. The findings confirm the expected paths hypothesized among variables which are consistent with the theories of Durkheim, Merton, Kohn, and Agnew. It implies that the development of suicidality takes place within socioeconomic context through the influence of parental control and feeling of anomie.

  3. Chilean Adolescents' and Parents' Views on Autonomy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M. Loreto; Pérez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand Chilean parents' and adolescents' conceptions of autonomy and whether they hold different expectations for autonomous behaviors by generation and socioeconomic level. A qualitative approach to data collection was used through separate focus groups of parents and adolescents from different socioeconomic condition.…

  4. Bidirectional Associations among Sensitive Parenting, Language Development, and Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A.; Gustafsson, Hanna; Deng, Min; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Cox, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in language skills and social competence, both of which are linked to sensitive parenting, characterize early childhood. The present study examines bidirectional associations among mothers' sensitive parenting and children's language skills and social competence from 24 to 36?months in a community sample of 174 families. In addition,…

  5. Parental Evaluation of a Nurse Practitioner-Developed Pediatric Neurosurgery Website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tina Kovacs; Kleib, Manal; Davidson, Sandra J; Scott, Shannon D

    2016-04-12

    Parents often turn to the Internet to seek health information about their child's diagnosis and condition. Information, support, and resources regarding pediatric neurosurgery are scarce, hard to find, and difficult to comprehend. To address this gap, a pediatric nurse practitioner designed a website called the Neurosurgery Kids Fund (NKF). Analyzing the legitimacy of the NKF website for parents seeking health information and fulfilling their social and resource needs is critical to the website's future development and success. To explore parental usage of the NKF website, track visitor behavior, evaluate usability and design, establish ways to improve user experience, and identify ways to redesign the website. The aim of this study was to assess and evaluate whether a custom-designed health website could meet parents' health information, support, and resource needs. A multimethod approach was used. Google Analytic usage reports were collected and analyzed for the period of April 23, 2013, to November 30, 2013. Fifty-two online questionnaires that targeted the website's usability were collected between June 18, 2014, and July 30, 2014. Finally, a focus group was conducted on August 20, 2014, to explore parents' perceptions and user experiences. Findings were analyzed using an inductive content analysis approach. There were a total of 2998 sessions and 8818 page views, with 2.94 pages viewed per session, a 56.20% bounce rate, an average session duration of 2 minutes 24 seconds, and a 56.24% new sessions rate. Results from 52 eligible surveys included that the majority of NKF users were Caucasian (90%), females (92%), aged 36-45 years (48%), with a university or college degree or diploma (69%). Half plan to use the health information. Over half reported turning to the Internet for health information and spending 2 to 4 hours a day online. The most common reasons for using the NKF website were to (1) gather information about the 2 summer camps, (2) explore the Media

  6. Development and initial validation of the comprehensive early childhood parenting questionnaire (CECPAQ) for parents of 1-4 year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, M.R.W.; Dekoviç, M.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Baar, A.L. van

    2017-01-01

    Parenting is a multifaceted task and the way in which parents fulfill this task plays an important role in children's growth and development, especially in early childhood. Conceptualization and assessment of parenting behavior is elementary for research on child and family development and would

  7. Development and initial validation of the comprehensive early childhood parenting questionnaire (CECPAQ) for parents of 1–4 year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Dekovic, Maja; Bodden, Denise; van Baar, Anneloes

    2017-01-01

    Parenting is a multifaceted task and the way in which parents fulfill this task plays an important role in children’s growth and development, especially in early childhood. Conceptualization and assessment of parenting behavior is elementary for research on child and family development and would

  8. Measuring responsive style in parents who use AAC with their children: development and evaluation of a new instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Malin; Ferm, Ulrika; Thunberg, Gunilla

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an instrument - the Responsive Augmentative and Alternative Communication Style (RAACS) scale Version 2 - to assess the communicative style of parents as they interact with their children using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). This scale was used to analyze play interactions between 43 parents and 28 children with different diagnoses (including Down syndrome, autism, cerebral palsy, and intellectual disability), aged between 12 and 60 months. Parent-child interactions were observed both before and after parent participation in ComAlong, a training course on using responsive communication and AAC to support interaction with children. Based on an analysis of the results, Version 3 of the RAACS scale was developed and is recommended for future use. Analyses of Version 3 showed acceptable inter- and intra-coder reliability, and excellent internal consistency.

  9. Development and validation of parenting measures for body image and eating patterns in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based parenting interventions are important in assisting parents to help their children develop healthy body image and eating patterns. To adequately assess the impact of parenting interventions, valid parent measures are required. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the validity and reliability of two new parent measures, the Parenting Intentions for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Parenting Intentions BEC) and the Knowledge Test for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Knowledge Test BEC). Participants were 27 professionals working in research or clinical treatment of body dissatisfaction or eating disorders, and 75 parents of children aged 2-6 years, who completed the measures via an online questionnaire. Seven scenarios were developed for the Parenting Intentions BEC to describe common experiences about the body and food that parents might need to respond to in front of their child. Parents ranked four behavioural intentions, derived from the current literature on parenting risk factors for body dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating patterns in children. Two subscales were created, one representing positive behavioural intentions, the other negative behavioural intentions. After piloting a larger pool of items, 13 statements were used to construct the Knowledge Test BEC. These were designed to be factual statements about the influence of parent language, media, family meals, healthy eating, and self-esteem on child eating and body image. The validity of both measures was tested by comparing parent and professional scores, and reliability was assessed by comparing parent scores over two testing occasions. Compared with parents, professionals reported significantly higher scores on the Positive Intentions subscale and significantly lower on the Negative Intentions subscale of the Parenting Intentions BEC; confirming the discriminant validity of six out of the seven scenarios. Test-retest reliability was also confirmed as

  10. Parenting Behavior in Mothers of Preschool Children with ASD: Development of a Self-Report Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greet Lambrechts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD encounter many daily challenges and often experience much stress. However, little research exists about parenting behavior among these parents. With this study, we aim to address this gap. We examined the structure and internal consistency of a questionnaire intended to measure parenting behavior among mothers of young children with ASD. Furthermore, we compared parenting behavior among mothers of young children with and without ASD between two and six years old. Factor analyses resulted in a factor solution with seven subscales of parenting behavior. Two additional subscales especially relevant for parenting preschoolers with ASD were also considered. Analyses of covariance, controlling for gender and age, showed significantly higher scores for Discipline and Stimulating the Development in the control group in comparison with the ASD group. These findings suggest that mothers of preschoolers with ASD are still trying to find strategies to guide and stimulate their child’s behavior and development effectively.

  11. Development and validation of the collaborative parent involvement scale for youths with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansel, Tonja R; Rovner, Alisha J; Haynie, Denise; Iannotti, Ronald J; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Wysocki, Timothy; Anderson, Barbara; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; Laffel, Lori

    2009-01-01

    To develop and test a youth-report measure of collaborative parent involvement in type 1 diabetes management. Initial item development and testing were conducted with 81 youths; scale refinement and validation were conducted with 122 youths from four geographic regions. Descriptive statistics, Cronbach's alpha, and factor analyses were conducted to select items comprising the scale. Correlations with parenting style and parent diabetes responsibility were examined. Multiple regression analyses examining associations with quality of life, adherence, and glycemic control were conducted to assess concurrent validity. The measure demonstrated strong internal consistency. It was modestly associated with parenting style, but not with parent responsibility for diabetes management. A consistent pattern of associations with quality of life and adherence provide support for the measure's concurrent validity. This brief youth-report measure of parent collaborative involvement assesses a unique dimension of parent involvement in diabetes management associated with important youth outcomes.

  12. Two Approaches to Estimating the Effect of Parenting on the Development of Executive Function in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele; Berry, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    In the current article, we contrast 2 analytical approaches to estimate the relation of parenting to executive function development in a sample of 1,292 children assessed longitudinally between the ages of 36 and 60 months of age. Children were administered a newly developed and validated battery of 6 executive function tasks tapping inhibitory control, working memory, and attention shifting. Residualized change analysis indicated that higher quality parenting as indicated by higher scores on widely used measures of parenting at both earlier and later time points predicted more positive gain in executive function at 60 months. Latent change score models in which parenting and executive function over time were held to standards of longitudinal measurement invariance provided additional evidence of the association between change in parenting quality and change in executive function. In these models, cross-lagged paths indicated that in addition to parenting predicting change in executive function, executive function bidirectionally predicted change in parenting quality. Results were robust with the addition of covariates, including child sex, race, maternal education, and household income-to-need. Strengths and drawbacks of the 2 analytic approaches are discussed, and the findings are considered in light of emerging methodological innovations for testing the extent to which executive function is malleable and open to the influence of experience. PMID:23834294

  13. Developmental Inventories Using Illiterate Parents as Informants: Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) Adaptation for Two Kenyan Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, K. J.; Rimba, K.; Holding, P.; Kitsao-Wekulo, P.; Abubakar, A.; Newton, C. R. J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs, parent-completed language development checklists) are a helpful tool to assess language in children who are unused to interaction with unfamiliar adults. Generally, CDIs are completed in written form, but in developing country settings parents may have insufficient literacy to complete them alone. We…

  14. 34 CFR 606.11 - What must be included in individual development grant applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... development grant applications? In addition to the information needed by the Secretary to determine whether... application for a development grant must include— (a) The institution's comprehensive development plan; (b) A... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must be included in individual development grant...

  15. Parent Reports of Young Spanish-English Bilingual Children's Productive Vocabulary: A Development and Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Gámez, Perla B; Vagh, Shaher Banu; Lesaux, Nonie K

    2016-01-01

    This 2-phase study aims to extend research on parent report measures of children's productive vocabulary by investigating the development (n = 38) of the Spanish Vocabulary Extension and validity (n = 194) of the 100-item Spanish and English MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Toddler Short Forms and Upward Extension (Fenson et al., 2000, 2007; Jackson-Maldonado, Marchman, & Fernald, 2013) and the Spanish Vocabulary Extension for use with parents from low-income homes and their 24- to 48-month-old Spanish-English bilingual children. Study participants were drawn from Early Head Start and Head Start collaborative programs in the Northeastern United States in which English was the primary language used in the classroom. All families reported Spanish or Spanish-English as their home language(s). The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories as well as the researcher-designed Spanish Vocabulary Extension were used as measures of children's English and Spanish productive vocabularies. Findings revealed the forms' concurrent and discriminant validity, on the basis of standardized measures of vocabulary, as measures of productive vocabulary for this growing bilingual population. These findings suggest that parent reports, including our researcher-designed form, represent a valid, cost-effective mechanism for vocabulary monitoring purposes in early childhood education settings.

  16. Children with disorders of sex development: A qualitative study of early parental experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crissman Halley P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical research on psychological aspects of disorders of sex development (DSD has focused on psychosexual differentiation with relatively little attention directed toward parents' experiences of early clinical management and their influence on patient and family psychosocial adaptation. Objectives To characterize parental experiences in the early clinical care of children born with DSD. Study Design Content analysis of interviews with parents (n = 41 of 28 children, newborn to 6 years, with DSD. Results Four major domains emerged as salient to parents: (1 the gender assignment process, (2 decisions regarding genital surgery, (3 disclosing information about their child's DSD, and (4 interacting with healthcare providers. Findings suggested discordance between scientific and parental understandings of the determinants of "sex" and "gender." Parents' expectations regarding the benefits of genital surgery appear largely met; however, parents still had concerns about their child's future physical, social and sexual development. Two areas experienced by many parents as particularly stressful were: (1 uncertainties regarding diagnosis and optimal management, and (2 conflicts between maintaining privacy versus disclosing the condition to access social support. Conclusions Parents' experiences and gaps in understanding can be used to inform the clinical care of patients with DSD and their families. Improving communication between parents and providers (and between parents and their support providers throughout the early clinical management process may be important in decreasing stress and improving outcomes for families of children with DSD.

  17. Development and Validation of the Collaborative Parent Involvement Scale for Youths with Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Nansel, Tonja R.; Rovner, Alisha J.; Haynie, Denise; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Wysocki, Timothy; Anderson, Barbara; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; Laffel, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Objective To develop and test a youth-report measure of collaborative parent involvement in type 1 diabetes management. Methods Initial item development and testing were conducted with 81 youths; scale refinement and validation were conducted with 122 youths from four geographic regions. Descriptive statistics, Cronbach's α, and factor analyses were conducted to select items comprising the scale. Correlations with parenting style and parent diabetes responsibility were examined. Multiple regr...

  18. Parental Reports of Stigma Associated with Child’s Disorder of Sex Development

    OpenAIRE

    Aimee M. Rolston; Melissa Gardner; Eric Vilain; David E. Sandberg

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex development is atypical. DSD-associated stigma is purported to threaten positive psychosocial adaptation. Parental perceptions of DSD-related stigma were assessed in 154 parents of 107 children (newborn?17 years) questionnaire comprising two scales, child-focused and parent-focused, and three subscales, perceived stigmatization, future worries, and feelings about the child's condition. ...

  19. CONCEPTUAL AND DESIGN ISSUES IN INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT FOR RESEARCH WITH BEREAVED PARENTS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briller, Sherylyn H.; Schim, Stephanie Myers; Thurston, Celia S.; Meert, Kathleen L.

    2013-01-01

    Many childhood deaths in the United States occur in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and parents have special needs in this death context. As an interdisciplinary research team, we discuss conceptual and design issues encountered in creating a new instrument, the Bereaved Parent Needs Assessment–PICU, for assessing parents’ needs in this setting. Using a qualitative approach, our team previously explored how the culture and related ways of providing care in one urban Midwestern children’s hospital PICU affected parents’ bereavement needs and experiences. We describe using this qualitative foundation in the development of a new quantitative instrument to more widely validate and measure bereaved parents’ needs around the time of a child’s death across multiple PICUs. We highlight a series of issues that warrant consideration in designing a research instrument for this vulnerable population including setting and context, format and content, temporality, recruitment, and content expertise. PMID:22953511

  20. The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    Play is essential to development because it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social, and emotional well-being of children and youth. Play also offers an ideal opportunity for parents to engage fully with their children. Despite the benefits derived from play for both children and parents, time for free play has been markedly reduced for some children. This report addresses a variety of factors that have reduced play, including a hurried lifestyle, changes in family structure, and increased attention to academics and enrichment activities at the expense of recess or free child-centered play. This report offers guidelines on how pediatricians can advocate for children by helping families, school systems, and communities consider how best to ensure that play is protected as they seek the balance in children's lives to create the optimal developmental milieu.

  1. Maternal weight predicts children’s psychosocial development via parenting stress and emotional availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bergmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Maternal obesity has been shown to be a risk factor for obesity in children and may also affect children’s psychosocial outcomes. It is not yet clear whether there are also psycho-emotional mechanisms explaining the effects of maternal weight on young children’s weight and psychosocial development. We aimed to evaluate whether maternal body mass index (BMI, mother-child emotional availability (EA and maternal parenting stress are associated with children’s weight and psychosocial development (i.e. internalizing/externalizing symptoms and social competence and whether these predictors interact with each other. Methods: This longitudinal study included 3 assessment points (approx. 11 months apart. The baseline sample consisted of N=194 mothers and their children aged 5 to 47 months (M=28.18, SD=8.44, 99 girls. At t1, we measured maternal weight and height to calculate maternal BMI. We videotaped mother-child interactions, coding them with the Emotional Availability Scales (4th edition. We assessed maternal parenting stress with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI short form. At t1 to t3, we measured height and weight of children and calculated BMI-SDS scores. Children’s externalizing and internalizing problems (t1-t3 and social competence (t3, N=118 were assessed using questionnaires: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL1, 5-5, Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ: prosocial behavior and a checklist for behavioral problems at preschool age (VBV 3-6: social-emotional competence. Results: By applying structural equation modeling (SEM and a latent regression analysis, we found maternal BMI to predict higher BMI-SDS and a poorer psychosocial development (higher externalizing symptoms, lower social competence in children. Higher parenting stress predicted higher levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and lower social competence. Better maternal EA was associated with higher social competence. We found parenting stress to

  2. 34 CFR 607.11 - What must be included in individual development grant applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must be included in individual development grant applications? 607.11 Section 607.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... Does an Institution Apply for a Grant? § 607.11 What must be included in individual development grant...

  3. Development of a Multisystemic Parent Management Training Intervention for Incarcerated Parents, Their Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, J. Mark; Martinez, Charles R.; Schiffmann, Tracy; Newton, Rex; Olin, Laura; Leve, Leslie; Foney, Dana M.; Shortt, Joann Wu

    2008-01-01

    The majority of men and women prison inmates are parents. Many lived with children prior to incarceration, and most have at least some contact with their children and families while serving their sentences. Because prison populations have increased in the United States, there has been a renewed interest in finding ways not only to reduce…

  4. The Long Term Effect of Parental Time Use on Children's Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    This paper develops a structural model which links parental time use to a child's development in a household with two parents and one child. Since the allocation of home time and market work has become more equally distributed within households during the latest decades and since fathers seem...... to the child's development, and it is shown that the quality of market provided childcare vs. the quality of parental childcare is crucial for the parents' decisions. The availability of paternal childcare does not seem to affect the mother's labor supply decision, though. Several different policy scenarios...... to be an increasingly important part of their children's daily life, this study, opposite of most other studies within the childcare literature, explicitly takes both parents' time spent on childcare into account as well as childcare bought in the market. The parents' optimal labor supply decisions are linked...

  5. The development of satisfaction with service-related choices for disabled young people with degenerative conditions: evidence from parents' accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Jane; Beresford, Bryony

    2012-07-01

    Satisfaction with service-related choices has not received much research attention, especially beyond medical/health-related decisions. This paper reports findings from an analysis of parents' accounts of making service-related choices with, or on behalf of, a disabled son or daughter with a degenerative condition. It focuses particularly on factors and processes, which contribute to parents' satisfaction. This is particularly interesting given that sub-optimal outcomes or negative consequences are often experienced following a service-related choice being implemented. The data reported here were collected as part of a larger, longitudinal study (the Choice and Change project) of service users' experiences of choice-making, including the outcomes and consequences of those choices. Parents of disabled young people with degenerative conditions formed part of this sample. The accounts of 14 of these parents, collected over three interviews during a two and a half-year period, all of whom expressed satisfaction with the medium- to long-term outcomes of a service-related choice, were selected for specific analyses to understand what underlies satisfaction with service-related choices. Clarity of the desired outcome for the young person supported effective decision-making and led parents to feel confident that the best possible choice was being made. Evidence of desired outcomes being attained were used by parents to 'trade off' the negative consequences of a choice. These included the considerable demands placed on parents' personal, financial and practical resources to operationalise a choice, and the emotional impact incurred by significant changes such as the loss of the carer role. The passage of time was important in allowing evidence of positive outcomes to emerge, psychological or emotional adjustments to be made, and for parents to develop trust in new service providers. The findings suggest that practitioners can have an important role in both practical and

  6. Development of a measure of the impact of chronic parental illness on adolescent and adult children. The parental illness impact scale (Parkinson's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Anette; Morley, David; Quinn, Niall; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2004-10-01

    Although chronic illness is likely to affect the well-being of patients' children, no assessment tools are currently available to measure this impact of parental illness. We therefore developed such an instrument based on interviews with children of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This questionnaire and other measures of psychological well-being were completed by 89 children, aged 12-48, years of patients with PD. Factor analysis revealed six domains with 38 questions. These six domains of the 'Parental Illness Impact Scale (Parkinson's disease)' or PIIS (PD) had satisfactory internal consistency and validity. Its six sub-scales correlated significantly and differentially with corresponding measures, including the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory for Adolescents (QOLIE-AD-48; r = -0.2 to 0.85), the Beck Depression Inventory (r = -0.07 to -0.40) or Birleson Depression Self-Rating Scale (r = 0.04 to -0.62), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (r = -0.01 to 0.33) as well as age (r = -0.37 to 0.28) and parent's disease duration (r = -0.31 to 0.34). The PIIS is the first instrument to assess the impact of parental illness on children. Its psychometric properties should be tested further in larger samples, including children of patients with other chronic disorders such as multiple sclerosis or chronic heart disease.

  7. The Conditional Effect of Parental Drug Use on Parental Attachment and Adolescent Drug Use: Social Control and Social Development Model Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapela, Laurie A.; Mosher, Clayton

    2007-01-01

    The effect of parental deviance on adolescent deviance has been a source of considerable debate in the criminological literature. Classic theoretical explanations of the relationships between parental and adolescent deviance posit additive effects of parental deviance on youth behavior. Proponents of the Social Development Model have hypothesized…

  8. Child regulative temperament as a mediator of parenting in the development of depressive symptoms: a longitudinal study from early childhood to preadolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Martina; Esser, Guenter; Schmidt, Martin H; Hohm, Erika; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-05-01

    Child temperament as well as parenting behaviors have been linked to adolescent depression. Beyond their main effects, the interplay between these factors is of interest. For example, in an interactive model, a differential susceptibility of temperamental variants to parenting has been suggested. However, so far, the differential susceptibility hypothesis has mostly been studied with a focus on externalizing disorders. On the other hand, parenting may shape the child's temperament and vice versa in a transactional process. In a prospective, longitudinal at-risk sample (163 boys, 176 girls), we assessed emotional (easy-difficult) and regulative (self-control) temperament at ages 4.5, and 8 years, respectively, as well as parenting quality at age 4.5 years using the HOME inventory. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was used to investigate the prediction of depressive symptoms at age 11, measured by the Child Depression Inventory, including interaction terms between the temperament variable and parenting. We additionally tested whether parenting was mediated by child temperament. As previously reported, both self-control and parenting were longitudinally associated with preadolescent depressive symptoms. There were no interactive effects between temperament and parenting. However, the effects of parenting were partly mediated by self-control. Our data do not support a differential susceptibility of temperamental variants in the development of preadolescent depression. However, our results are in line with the assumption that parenting may shape young children's temperament, with positive parenting in the early childhood fostering the development of regulative temperament.

  9. Parenting and Preschooler TV Viewing in Low-Income Mexican Americans: Development of the Parenting Practices Regarding TV Viewing (PPRTV) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Johnson, Susan L; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Schmiege, Sarah J; Boles, Richard E; Lev, Jerusha; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2016-01-01

    To develop and test a comprehensive, culturally based measure of parenting practices regarding television (TV) viewing in low-income Mexican-American mothers of preschoolers. Low-income Mexican-American female primary caregivers of preschoolers were recruited in urban safety-net pediatric clinics during the 2013 to 2014 academic year. Items on parenting practices regarding TV viewing were developed from a prior scale, review of the literature, and results from semistructured interviews. Items were administered by phone, and analyses included evaluation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of a 40-item measure of parenting practices regarding TV viewing (PPRTV). Using exploratory factor analysis, a 7-factor model emerged as the best fit for the data representing the following domains of parenting practices: time restriction, behavioral control, instructive practices, coviewing, planful restriction, reactive content restriction, and commercial endorsement. Internal reliabilities were acceptable (Cronbach's alpha >.75). Correlations among the resulting subscales were small to moderate (rs = 0.01-0.43). Subscales were correlated with child TV viewing amounts: time restriction (-0.14, p TV use. Results of such work will be important to informing the design of interventions aiming to ensure healthy screen media habits in young children.

  10. "Doug C. v. Hawaii Department of Education": Parental Participation in IEP Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Losinski, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    Parental participation is a crucial component of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. When developing students' Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), school-based teams must place a high priority on involving students' parents in a collaborative effort to develop their children's educational programs and determine their placements.…

  11. Divergence Between Adolescent and Parental Perceptions of Conflict in Relationship to Adolescent Empathy Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lissa, C.J.; Hawk, S.T.; Branje, S.J.T.; Koot, H.M.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents’ developing empathy may be associated with the frequency of conflict with parents, as well as the level of agreement between adolescent and parental perceptions of the frequency of such conflicts. This 6-year longitudinal study investigated the link between adolescent empathy development

  12. Annual Research Review: Parenting and Children's Brain Development--The End of the Beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Jay; de Haan, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    After questioning the practical significance of evidence that parenting influences brain development--while highlighting the scientific importance of such work for understanding "how" family experience shapes human development--this paper reviews evidence suggesting that brain structure and function are "chiselled" by parenting. Although the…

  13. Divergence between adolescent and parental perceptions of conflict in relationship to adolescent empathy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lissa, Caspar J.; Hawk, Skyler T.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Koot, Hans M.; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents’ developing empathy may be associated with the frequency of conflict with parents, as well as the level of agreement between adolescent and parental perceptions of the frequency of such conflicts. This 6-year longitudinal study investigated the link between adolescent empathy development

  14. Developing the Pedagogical Culture of Parents by Means of Social Partnership with a Supplementary Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Venera G.; Nikitina, Ekaterina L.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the research is due to the current requirements to develop the pedagogical culture of parents, which can help them to be successful parents, to effectively interact with their children avoiding family upbringing mistakes. In this respect, the article aims to identify the conditions for development of the pedagogical culture of…

  15. Parenting Behaviours and Children's Development from Infancy to Early Childhood: Changes, Continuities and Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Leslie Morrison; Feinstein, Leon

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated trajectories of parenting behaviours and children's development from infancy to early childhood, associations between parenting behaviours and children's development and how these associations vary according to socioeconomic indicators. Mothers and children were examined from an ongoing longitudinal study of families…

  16. Important non-parental adults and positive youth development across mid- to late-adolescence: the moderating effect of parenting profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Edmond P; Johnson, Sara K; Buckingham, Mary H; Gasca, Santiago; Warren, Daniel J A; Lerner, Jacqueline V; Lerner, Richard M

    2014-06-01

    Both parents and important non-parental adults have influential roles in promoting positive youth development (PYD). Little research, however, has examined the simultaneous effects of both parents and important non-parental adults for PYD. We assessed the relationships among youth-reported parenting profiles and important non-parental adult relationships in predicting the Five Cs of PYD (competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring) in four cross-sectional waves of data from the 4-H Study of PYD (Grade 9: N = 975, 61.1% female; Grade 10: N = 1,855, 63.4% female; Grade 11: N = 983, 67.9% female; Grade 12: N = 703, 69.3% female). The results indicated the existence of latent profiles of youth-reported parenting styles based on maternal warmth, parental school involvement, and parental monitoring that were consistent with previously identified profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) as well as reflecting several novel profiles (highly involved, integrative, school-focused, controlling). Parenting profile membership predicted mean differences in the Five Cs at each wave, and also moderated the relationships between the presence of an important non-parental adult and the Five Cs. In general, authoritative and highly involved parenting predicted higher levels of PYD and a higher likelihood of being connected to an important non-parental adult. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research on adult influences of youth development and for programs that involve adults in attempts to promote PYD.

  17. Balanced parenting style and its impact on the development of child personality

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey A. Kapustin

    2015-01-01

    The paper includes research results of families, who have never applied to psychological counselling. To assess the normality and abnormality of parent and child personality existential criterion was used. In these families a so-called balanced style of parenting was revealed. This style indicates the compromising parental position in the education of their children concerning the existential dichotomies help and autonomy, nature and culture, self-actualization and conditional values, determi...

  18. Development of infant common marmosets' (Callithrix jacchus) preference for their parents over adults from another group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Atsuko; Izumi, Akihiro; Nakamura, Katsuki

    2011-01-01

    Parent-offspring attachment is important for animals which have offspring that require parental care for their development. Infant attachment to the mother has been examined in macaques, but it remains poorly understood in common marmosets. Here, we examined the abilities of 14 common marmoset infants to show preference for their parents over adults from another group at the ages of 4, 10, and 15 weeks. Each infant was exposed to its parent and an adult from another group in an I-shaped maze. Although 4-week-old infants did not show a significant difference between approach behaviors toward their parents and other adults, 10- and 15-week-old infants approached and stayed longer near their parents than adults from another group. These results suggest selective approach behavior develops in marmosets by the age of 10 weeks.

  19. Language development in early childhood in relation to child's gender and parental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies show that parental education and child's gender are the factors that influence child's language development. The purpose of the longitudinal study was to examine the effect of parental education and child's gender on language competence of children aged 3 to 4 years. The sample included 80 randomly chosen children, 39 girls and 41 boys, who were included in one of 13 preschool institutions from different regions of Slovenia. The average age of the children was 3;1 years at the first assessment and 4;1 years at the second assessment, one year later. The characteristics of child'slanguage development were assessed by 3 assessors in 3 different social contexts, in test situation by a trained examiner, in child's home environment by his mother and in the preschool institution by his preschool teacher. Results show a positive effect of mother's educational level on some of the measures of child's language development, e.g. achievements on Language development scale; developmental level of storytelling, mother's estimation of child's language competence, while the father's educational level had no significant effect on any of the obtained measures. Child's gender had only a small effect on his achievements on language expression subscale at the age of 3 and 4 as well as on the preschool teacher's estimations of child's language competence at 4 years of age.

  20. Assessment of the Prosocial Behaviors of Young Children with Regard to Social Development, Social Skills, Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulay, Hulya

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was prosocial behaviors of 5-6 years old children were investigated with regard to parental acceptance-rejection, peer relationships, general social development and social skills. The participants of the study included 277 5-6-year-old Turkish children and their parents. The Child Behavior Scale, Social Skills Form, Marmara…

  1. Parental Overprotection Predicts the Development of Functional Somatic Symptoms in Young Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, Karin A. M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine whether parental overprotection contributes to die development of functional somatic symptoms (FSS) in young adolescents. In addition, we aimed to study whether this potential effect of parental overprotection is mediated by parenting distress and/or moderated by the adolescent's sex. Study design FSS were measured in 2230 adolescents (ages 10 to 12 years from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey) by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self Report at...

  2. Parent report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Niss, Nete K; Pejtersen, Jan H; Julian, Megan M; Væver, Mette S

    2017-04-01

    Identifying young children at risk for socio-emotional developmental problems at an early stage, to prevent serious problems later in life, is crucial. Therefore, we need high quality measures to identify those children at risk for social-emotional problems who require further evaluation and intervention. To systematically identify parent report measures of infant and toddler (0-24 months) social-emotional development for use in primary care settings. We conducted a systematic review applying a narrative synthesis approach. We searched Medline, PsychInfo, Embase and SocIndex for articles published from 2008 through September 2015 to identify parent-report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development. Data on the characteristics of the measures, including psychometric data, were collected. Based on 3310 screened articles, we located 242 measures that were screened for eligibility. In all 18 measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development were included. Ten of the measures were developed specifically for measuring social-emotional development, and eight were measures including subscales of social-emotional development. The measures varied with respect to, e.g. the time of publication, number of items, age span, cost and amount of psychometric data available. Several measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development have been developed within the last decade. The majority of psychometric data are available through manuals, not peer-reviewed journals. Although all measures show acceptable reliability, the most comprehensive and psychometrically sound measures are the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional-2, Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment and Child Behaviour Checklist 1½-5. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Parenting and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Tamsen; Netsi, Elena; Redinger, Stephanie; Stein, Alan

    2017-06-01

    With the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission the development of HIV-negative children with HIV-positive parents has become an important focus. There is considerable evidence that children's developmental risk is heightened because a parental HIV-diagnosis is associated with a range of potential problems such as depression, stigma and financial difficulties. Up to a third of children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are cared for by an HIV-positive parent or caregiver. We review the mechanisms by which HIV affects parenting including its negative effects on parental responsiveness in the early years of parenting and parental avoidant coping styles and parenting deficits in the later years. We describe low-cost parenting interventions suited for low resourced HIV endemic settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cindy Y; Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S

    2014-02-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children.

  5. Promoting Child Development through Group-Based Parent Support within a Cash Transfer Program: Experimental Effects on Children's Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C. H.; Kagawa, Rose M. C.; Knauer, Heather A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Guerra, Armando Garcia; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

    2017-01-01

    We examined effects on child development of a group-based parenting support program ("Educación Inicial" - EI) when combined with Mexico's conditional cash transfer (CCT) program ("Prospera," originally 'Oportunidades" and "Progresa"). This cluster-randomized trial included 204 communities (n = 1,113 children in…

  6. A Home Economist Speaks Out: Need for a Parenting Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolny, Candice

    1996-01-01

    Social trends indicating change in family structure and roles, more single-parent and blended families, and the important role of parents in socialization demonstrate the need for parenting education. A parenting course should include understanding of healthy family life and parental roles, parenting styles, child development, and parenting…

  7. Parental overprotection predicts the development of functional somatic symptoms in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Karin A M; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2009-06-01

    To examine whether parental overprotection contributes to the development of functional somatic symptoms (FSS) in young adolescents. In addition, we aimed to study whether this potential effect of parental overprotection is mediated by parenting distress and/or moderated by the adolescent's sex. FSS were measured in 2230 adolescents (ages 10 to 12 years from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey) by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self Report at baseline and at follow-up 2 1/2 years later. Parental overprotection as perceived by the child was assessed by means of the EMBU-C (Swedish acronym for my memories of upbringing-child version). Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index. Linear regression analyses were performed adjusted for FSS at baseline and sex. Parental overprotection was a predictor of the development of FSS in young adolescents (beta = 0.055, P overprotection was a predictor of the development of FSS in girls (beta = 0.085, P overprotection was a predictor of the development of FSS in boys (beta = 0.072, P overprotection and FSS was found. Parental overprotection may play a role in the development of FSS in young adolescents.

  8. Assessment of English language learners: using parent report on first language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Emmerzael, Kristyn; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining information on both languages of English language learners for assessment can be a challenge in a multilingual context. It is often difficult or impossible to observe a child's first language directly due to the absence of resources available in every language spoken. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a parent questionnaire on the first language development of English language learners that is not specific to a particular language/cultural group: the Alberta Language and Development Questionnaire (ALDeQ), and (2) to test how well scores on the ALDeQ differentiated between English language learners with typical development and those with language impairment. Participants were 139 typically developing children and 29 children with language impairment, aged 69 months with 18 months of exposure to English through preschool or school, on average. The ALDeQ consists of four sections: early milestones, current first language abilities, behaviour patterns and activity preferences, and family history. ALDeQ total scores are proportions calculated across all sections. t-test analyses revealed robust between-group differences for ALDeQ total scores, and for each section score, with medium to very large effect sizes. Linear discriminant function analysis showed the ALDeQ total scores to be a significant and moderate discriminator between the typically developing and language impaired group, but with better specificity than sensitivity. The early milestones section scores emerged as the strongest discriminator among the four section scores. Parent responses showed that both the typically developing and language-impaired groups included children experiencing first language loss, but nevertheless, the current first language abilities section was the second strongest between-group discriminator. The ALDeQ would be useful to speech-language pathologists for obtaining information on English language learners' first language development, in particular where

  9. Distinct Pathways from Parental Cultural Orientation to Young Children's Bilingual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kim M.; Park, Heejung; Liu, Lisa L.; Lau, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Among immigrant families, parents are important socialization agents in transmitting cultural practices to their children, including the use of the heritage language (HL). In the current study, we examined whether parents' cultural orientation facilitates children's (N = 79; M[subscript age] = 5.11 years; 57% boys; 50% enrolled in HL schools) HL…

  10. Early postnatal development, parental care and interaction in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (4) Dark line where eyelids part. (8) Eyes of one male open (sex distinguishable by Day .... tainly mated again as the female's vulva was red and swollen. In summary it can be said that the young are highly dependant on parental care, such as retrieval (mainly by the mother) and learning to search for food and socialization.

  11. Parental Familism and Antisocial Behaviors: Development, Gender, and Potential Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo, Carmen; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Blanco, Carlos; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation between parental familism (strong values of attachment to nuclear and extended family members) and youth antisocial behaviors over time. Method: Puerto Rican children 5 to 13 years of age at baseline residing in the South Bronx in New York (n = 1,138) and in the Standard Metropolitan Area in San Juan and Caguas,…

  12. Developing Patterns of Parenting in Two Cultural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi; Borke, Joern; Lamm, Bettina; Lohaus, Arnold; Yovsi, Relindis Dzeaye

    2011-01-01

    This paper is aimed at analyzing verbal and nonverbal strategies in terms of body contact, face-to-face contact, and discourse style during the first three months of life in two cultural communities that have been characterized as embodying different cultural models of parenting: German middle-class, and Nso farmer families. It can be demonstrated…

  13. Development of the Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire for caregivers of 5-13 year olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the large number of parenting questionnaires, considerable disagreement exists about how to best assess parenting. Most of the instruments only assess limited aspects of parenting. To overcome this shortcoming, the “Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire” (CGPQ) was systematically developed. Such a measure is frequently requested in the area of childhood overweight. Methods First, an item bank of existing parenting measures was created assessing five key parenting constructs that have been identified across multiple theoretical approaches to parenting (Nurturance, Overprotection, Coercive control, Behavioral control, and Structure). Caregivers of 5- to 13-year-olds were asked to complete the online survey in the Netherlands (N = 821), Belgium (N = 435) and the United States (N = 241). In addition, a questionnaire regarding personality characteristics (“Big Five”) of the caregiver was administered and parents were asked to report about their child’s height and weight. Factor analyses and Item-Response Modeling (IRM) techniques were used to assess the underlying parenting constructs and for item reduction. Correlation analyses were performed to assess the relations between general parenting and personality of the caregivers, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES) indicators, to establish criterion validity. Multivariate linear regressions were performed to examine the associations of SES indicators and parenting with child BMI z-scores. Additionally, we assessed whether scores on the parenting constructs and child BMI z-scores differed depending on SES indicators. Results The reduced questionnaire (62 items) revealed acceptable fit of our parenting model and acceptable IRM item fit statistics. Caregiver personality was related as hypothesized with the GCPQ parenting constructs. While correcting for SES, overprotection was positively related to child BMI. The negative relationship between structure and BMI was

  14. Development of the Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire for caregivers of 5-13 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; O'Connor, Teresia M; Watson, Kathleen B; Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Thijs, Carel; De Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J

    2014-02-10

    Despite the large number of parenting questionnaires, considerable disagreement exists about how to best assess parenting. Most of the instruments only assess limited aspects of parenting. To overcome this shortcoming, the "Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire" (CGPQ) was systematically developed. Such a measure is frequently requested in the area of childhood overweight. First, an item bank of existing parenting measures was created assessing five key parenting constructs that have been identified across multiple theoretical approaches to parenting (Nurturance, Overprotection, Coercive control, Behavioral control, and Structure). Caregivers of 5- to 13-year-olds were asked to complete the online survey in the Netherlands (N = 821), Belgium (N = 435) and the United States (N = 241). In addition, a questionnaire regarding personality characteristics ("Big Five") of the caregiver was administered and parents were asked to report about their child's height and weight. Factor analyses and Item-Response Modeling (IRM) techniques were used to assess the underlying parenting constructs and for item reduction. Correlation analyses were performed to assess the relations between general parenting and personality of the caregivers, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES) indicators, to establish criterion validity. Multivariate linear regressions were performed to examine the associations of SES indicators and parenting with child BMI z-scores. Additionally, we assessed whether scores on the parenting constructs and child BMI z-scores differed depending on SES indicators. The reduced questionnaire (62 items) revealed acceptable fit of our parenting model and acceptable IRM item fit statistics. Caregiver personality was related as hypothesized with the GCPQ parenting constructs. While correcting for SES, overprotection was positively related to child BMI. The negative relationship between structure and BMI was borderline significant. Parents with a high

  15. Development, Theoretical Framework, and Outcome Evaluation from Implementation of a Parent and Teacher-Delivered Adolescent Intervention on Adolescent Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Lisa M.; Herbert, Natasha L.; Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Vogt, Tara M.; Morfaw, Christopher; Jones, LaDawna M.; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Hughes, James M.

    2017-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization schedule for adolescents includes three vaccines (Tdap, HPV, and MCV4) and annual influenza vaccination. Given the increasing number of recommended vaccines for adolescents and health and economic costs associated with non-vaccination, it is imperative that effective strategies for increasing vaccination rates among adolescents be developed. This article describes the development, theoretical framework, and initial first-year evaluation of an intervention designed to promote vaccine acceptance among a middle- and high-school based sample of adolescents and their parents in eastern Georgia. Adolescents, parents, and teachers were active participants in the development of the intervention. The intervention, which consisted of a brochure for parents and a teacher-delivered curriculum for adolescents, was guided by constructs from the Health Belief Model and Theory of Reasoned Action. Evaluation results indicated that our intervention development methods were successful in creating a brochure that met cultural relevance and literacy needs of parents. We also demonstrated an increase in student knowledge of and attitudes toward vaccines. To our knowledge, this study is the first to extensively engage middle- and high-school students, parents, and teachers in the design and implementation of key theory-based educational components of a school-based, teacher-delivered adolescent vaccination intervention. PMID:24440920

  16. Marital relationship, parenting practices, and social skills development in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Rikuya; Katsura, Toshiki

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the pathways by which destructive and constructive marital conflict leading to social skills development in preschool children, are mediated through negative and positive parenting practices. Mothers of 2931 Japanese children, aged 5-6 years, completed self-report questionnaires regarding their marital relationship (the Quality of co-parental communication scale) and parental practices (the Alabama parenting questionnaire). The children's teachers evaluated their social skills using the Social skills scale. Path analyses revealed significant direct paths from destructive marital conflict to negative parenting practices and lower scores on the self-control component of social skills. In addition, negative parenting practices mediated the relationship between destructive marital conflict and lower scores on cooperation, self-control, and assertion. Our analyses also revealed significant direct paths from constructive marital conflict to positive parenting practices, and higher scores on cooperation and assertion. Positive parenting practices mediated the relationship between constructive marital conflict and higher scores on self-control and assertion. These findings suggest that destructive and constructive marital conflict may directly and indirectly influence children's social skills development through the mediation of parenting practices.

  17. Development of materials to support parents whose babies cry excessively: findings and health service implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jaqui; Powell, Charlotte; Bamber, Deborah; Garratt, Rosemary; Brown, Jayne; Dyson, Sue; James-Roberts, Ian St

    2018-01-10

    Aim To develop evidence-based materials which provide information and support for parents who are concerned about their baby's excessive crying. As well as meeting these parents' needs, the aim was to develop a package of materials suitable for use by the UK National Health Service (NHS). Parents report that around 20% of infants in Western countries cry excessively without an apparent reason during the first four months of age. Traditionally, research has focused on the crying and its causes. However, evidence is growing that how parents evaluate and respond to the crying needs to receive equal attention. This focus encompasses parental resources, vulnerabilities, well-being and mental health. At present, the UK NHS lacks a set of routine provisions to support parents who are concerned about their baby's excessive crying. The rationales, methods and findings from a study developing materials for this purpose are reported. Following a literature review, 20 parents whose babies previously cried excessively took part in focus groups or interviews. They provided reports on their experiences and the supports they would have liked when their baby was crying excessively. In addition, they identified their preferred delivery methods and devices for accessing information and rated four example support packages identified by the literature review. Findings During the period their baby cried excessively, most parents visited a health service professional and most considered these direct contacts to have provided helpful information and support. Websites were similarly popular. Telephones and tablets were the preferred means of accessing online information. Groups to meet other parents were considered an important additional resource by all the parents. Three package elements - a Surviving Crying website, a printed version of the website and a programme of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-based support sessions delivered to parents by a qualified practitioner, were developed for

  18. Development of an Instrument to Assess Parent-College Child Communication Regarding Alcohol Use Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Beth H.; Cremeens, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background: Past research suggests that parent-child communication can serve as protective factors to reduce alcohol misuse among college-aged children. Purpose: This article presents the methodology used and preliminary findings for developing and validating an instrument to assess parent-college student communication regarding alcohol use.…

  19. Developing and validating the Perceived Parental Media Mediation Scale: a self-determination perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Piotrowski, J.; Hermanns, J.; de Leeuw, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the Perceived Parental Media Mediation Scale (PPMMS). The PPMMS measures adolescents' perceptions about how frequently their parents restrict or actively discuss their media use, and in what style (i.e., autonomy-supportive, controlling, or inconsistent). In a

  20. Developing and Validating the Perceived Parental Media Mediation Scale: A Self-Determination Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Hermanns, J.; Leeuw, R.N.H. de

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the Perceived Parental Media Mediation Scale (PPMMS). The PPMMS measures adolescents' perceptions about how frequently their parents restrict or actively discuss their media use, and in what style (i.e., autonomy-supportive, controlling, or inconsistent). In a

  1. The influence of parental metabolic state on development of psy-chovegetative syndrome in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu V Naugol'nih

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of parental metabolic state on development of psychovegetative syndrome in children. The data from the present study which involved neuropsychological assessment shows significant deteriorations in immediate audio vocal, visial memory and attention in children with metabolic syndrome which have parents with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  2. Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2012-01-01

    Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…

  3. Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents: Alternatives for Developing School-Based Programs and Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glosson, Linda R.; Lytle, Jacque R.

    This guide suggests ways to develop and implement school-based programs and services for pregnant and parenting adolescents. The guide is organized in 10 sections. The first section summarizes the problem of teen parenthood, with information on the causes and the consequences of early pregnancy. In the second section, teen parents' needs for…

  4. Parental Suicide: An Organizing Event in the Development of Latency Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Cynthia R.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that children are especially vulnerable to parental suicide who have not resolved earlier developmental issues of separation-individuation. Five children were studied intensively. Results indicate parental suicide influences children's ego development and character formation. This trauma is heightened when mourning difficulties for the…

  5. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  6. The Development of Analogical Reasoning in Deaf Children and Their Parents' Communication Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurski, Marcin; Galkowski, Tadeusz

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the results of a study of the development of analogical reasoning in deaf children coming from two different linguistic environments (deaf children of deaf parents--sign language, deaf children of hearing parents--spoken language) and in hearing children, as well as to compare two groups of deaf children…

  7. A new generation: How refugee trauma affects parenting and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankers, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369406060

    2013-01-01

    Parental traumatization has been proposed as a risk factor for child development, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In this dissertation refugee and asylum seeker parents with traumatic experiences were assessed with their young non traumatized children to investigate the effect of

  8. Caring Decisions: The Development of a Written Resource for Parents Facing End-of-Life Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xafis, Vicki; Gillam, Lynn; Hynson, Jenny; Sullivan, Jane; Cossich, Mary; Wilkinson, Dominic

    2015-11-01

    Written resources in adult intensive care have been shown to benefit families facing end of life (EoL) decisions. There are few resources for parents making EoL decisions for their child and no existing resources addressing ethical issues. The Caring Decisions handbook and website were developed to fill these gaps. We discuss the development of the resources, modification after reviewer feedback and findings from initial pilot implementation. A targeted literature review-to identify resources and factors that impact on parental EoL decision-making; development phase-guided by the literature and the researchers' expertise; consultation process-comprised a multi-disciplinary panel of experts and parents; pilot evaluation study-hard-copy handbook was distributed as part of routine care at an Australian Children's Hospital. Twelve experts and parents formed the consultation panel. Eight parents of children with life-limiting conditions and clinicians were interviewed in the pilot study. Numerous factors supporting/impeding EoL decisions were identified. Caring Decisions addressed issues identified in the literature and by the multidisciplinary research team. The consultation panel provided overwhelmingly positive feedback. Pilot study parents found the resources helpful and comforting. Most clinicians viewed the resources as very beneficial to parents and identified them as ideal for training purposes. The development of the resources addressed many of the gaps in existing resources. The consultation process and the pilot study suggest these resources could be of significant benefit to parents and clinicians.

  9. Positive Youth Development in the Midst of Coping with Parental Cancer: Implications for Youth Development Research and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri L. Ashurst

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Four implications for youth development research and practice resulted from a qualitative study on psychosocial developmental experiences of late adolescents coping with parental cancer during late adolescence. The study employed a developmental systems framework and grounded theory methods. Results suggest three primary psychosocial developmental influences, including multilevel influences (individual, familial, and extrafamilial risk and protective factors, coping strategies to maintain control, and responses to uncertainty and anticipatory grief. The particular combination of risk and protective factors present in participants’ lives resulted in positive outcomes; resilience was the central unifying concept that characterized the primary psychosocial developmental outcomes of each participant. This finding illuminates the need to expand our focus in youth development research and practice to include positive developmental outcomes that can result from coping with life crises during adolescence.

  10. Current Themes in Understanding Children’s Emotion Regulation as Developing from within the Parent-Child Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Kalomiris, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    A large existing literature has established that children’s emotion regulation (ER) behaviors and capacities emerge from within the parent-child relationship. This review identified very recently published studies that exemplify contemporary themes in this area of research. Specifically, new research suggests that the influence of fathers, above and beyond that of mothers, becomes more pronounced across development. Further, culture influences how parents socialize emotion and how specific parenting behaviors relate to children’s developing ER. Lastly, studies find child-elicited effects, such that children’s ER predicts parents’ emotion socialization and other relevant behaviors. We suggest several future directions, including understanding the nature of situations that elicit ER patterns, as well as both expanding upon and integrating the areas highlighted in the review. PMID:25745639

  11. Parental combat injury and early child development: a conceptual model for differentiating effects of visible and invisible injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Lisa A; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Blow, Adrian J

    2010-03-01

    The injuries (physical and emotional) sustained by service members during combat influence all members of a family system. This review used a systemic framework to conceptualize the direct and indirect effects of a service member's injury on family functioning, with a specific focus on young children. Using a meta-ethnographic approach to synthesize the health research literature from a variety of disciplines, this review makes relevant linkages to health care professionals working with injured veterans. Studies were included that examined how family functioning (psychological and physical) is impacted by parental illness; parental injury; and posttraumatic stress disorder. The synthesis of literature led to the development of a heuristic model that illustrates both direct and indirect effects of parental injury on family functioning and the development of young children. It further illustrates the contextual factors or moderating variables that buffer detrimental effects and promote family resilience. This model can be a foundation for future research, intervention, and policy.

  12. Children's Development and Parental Input: Evidence From the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alava, Mónica; Popli, Gurleen

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we use the UK Millennium Cohort Study to estimate a dynamic factor model of child development. Our model follows the children from birth until 7 years of age and allows for both cognitive and noncognitive abilities in children. We find a significant self-productivity effect in both cognitive and noncognitive development, as well as some evidence of dynamic dependence across different abilities. The activities that parents carry out with children at home (parental investment) have a significant effect on children's development; we find substantial evidence of two distinct latent parental investment variables with differential effects across the two abilities.

  13. Cultural Aspects on Child's Development and Parenting in Manggarai, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Lon, Yohanes Servatius; Widyawati, Fransiska

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the influence of culture in defining the concept of a child, the stages of development and parenting of children in Manggarai, Flores, East Nusa Tenggara. The main questions are how do Manggaraian people define a child in their culture? How do people divide the stages of child development? What do parenting styles develop by the people to their children? How are these concepts different and similar to the general psychological concept about children? This paper was based ...

  14. Preschool children's communication, motor and social development: Parents' and educators' concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Crowe, Kathryn; McCormack, Jane; White, Paul; Wren, Yvonne; Baker, Elise; Masso, Sarah; Roulstone, Sue

    2017-04-18

    During early childhood, it is important to identify which children require intervention before they face the increased demands of school. This study aimed to: (1) compare parents' and educators' concerns, (2) examine inter-rater reliability between parents' and educators' concerns and (3) determine the group difference between level of concern and children's performance on clinical testing. Parents and educators of 1205 4- to 5-year-old children in the Sound Start Study completed the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status. Children whose parents/educators were concerned about speech and language underwent direct assessment measuring speech accuracy (n = 275), receptive vocabulary (n = 131) and language (n = 274). More parents/educators were concerned about children's speech and expressive language, than behaviour, social-emotional, school readiness, receptive language, self-help, fine motor and gross motor skills. Parents' and educators' responses were significantly correlated (except gross motor). Parents' and educators' level of concern about expressive speech and language was significantly correlated with speech accuracy on direct assessment. Educators' level of concern was significantly correlated with a screening measure of language. Scores on a test of receptive vocabulary significantly differed between those with concern and those without. Children's communication skills concerned more parents and educators than other aspects of development and these concerns generally aligned with clinical testing.

  15. Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA): Development and psychometric properties of a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Caporino, Nicole E; McQuarrie, Susanna; Settipani, Cara A; Podell, Jennifer L; Crawley, Sarah; Beidas, Rinad S; Kendall, Philip C

    2016-04-01

    The Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA) was developed to assess parental beliefs about their child's anxiety, parents' perceived ability to cope with their child's anxiety and to help their child manage anxious symptoms, and to evaluate parents' understanding of various parenting strategies in response to their child's anxiety. The study evaluated the PABUA in mother-child dyads (N=192) seeking treatment for youth anxiety. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution and identified PABUA scales of Overprotection, Distress, and Approach (with Cronbach's alpha ranging from .67 to .83). Convergent and divergent validity of PABUA scales was supported by the pattern of associations with measures of experiential avoidance, beliefs related to children's anxiety, empathy, trait anxiety, and depressive symptoms; parent-reported family functioning; parent- and youth-reported anxiety severity; and parent-reported functional impairment (n=83). Results provide preliminary support for the PABUA as a measure of parental attitudes and beliefs about anxiety, and future studies that investigate this measure with large and diverse samples are encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Parents' postnatal sense of security (PPSS): development of the PPSS instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Eva K; Fridlund, Bengt; Dykes, Anna-Karin

    2007-03-01

    There is a need to develop an instrument that measures both the parents' experiences and sense of security during the first postnatal week. No instrument measuring positive dimensions which can be influenced and supported by the postnatal health care has been developed. The aim of the study was to develop a specific instrument to assess both mothers' and fathers' postnatal sense of security concerning the first postnatal week. The study has a methodological and developmental design and was carried out in four steps: construction of the items, face validity, data collection and data analysis. One hundred and thirteen mothers who had given birth in hospitals in southern Sweden and 99 fathers comprised the study participants. Statistical analysis, testing for construct validity with explorative factor analysis, internal consistency reliability and comparative validity was carried out. The parents' postnatal sense of security (PPSS) instrument, mother's version, was reduced from 37 to 18 items (explained variance 66.8%, Cronbach's coefficient alpha 0.88) comprising the following dimensions: a sense of the midwives'/nurses' empowering behaviour, a sense of general well-being, a sense of affinity within the family and a sense that breast feeding was manageable. The father's version was reduced from 36 to 13 items (explained variance 69%, Cronbach's coefficient alpha 0.77), and comprised the following dimensions: a sense of the midwives'/nurses' empowering behaviour, a sense of the mother's general well-being including breast feeding, a sense of general well-being and a sense of affinity within the family. The PPSS instrument is valid and reliable and the only specific instrument measuring postnatal sense of security that is useful for both parents. The instrument needs to be further evaluated.

  17. Evidence in promoting positive parenting through the Program-Guide to Develop Emotional Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel-Amaya Martínez-González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at providing evidence of the effectiveness of the Program-Guide to Develop Emotional Competences in promoting positive parenting. Contextual, institutional, methodological and professional issues were taken into account to develop a social innovation experience to support parenting as a preventive measure to family conflicts. The study describes both the contents of the Program-Guide and the methodological and evaluation issues that trained professionals need to consider when delivering the Program-Guide to families in natural contexts. Information was gathered and analyzed from 259 parents with children of ages 1-18 who participated in 26 parent training groups. A pre- and post-test design showed that after finishing the sessions parents perceived themselves more competent as parents according to the five dimensions of parenting competences considered: (1 emotional self-regulation abilities; (2 self-esteem and assertiveness; (3 communication strategies; (4 strategies to solve conflicts and to negotiate; and (5 strategies to establish coherent norms, limits and consequences to promote positive discipline. The study presents a discussion on these results from evidence-based parenting programs, as well as some strengths and limitations of the study, together with some suggestions for further research.

  18. Understanding the direct involvement of parents in policy development and school activities in a primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobin Bernie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that parental engagement with children’s learning and education is of vital importance. But, there is a tendency to confuse engagement with learning with engagement with the school. While all types of parents’ involvement can have a positive effect, it is actually what parents do with their child at home that has the greatest impact. However, unless parental involvement in learning is embedded in whole-school processes it is unlikely to as effective as possible. This paper documents an action research study that explores the inclusion of parents and home values in the construction of the teaching and learning environment. This was a small step towards positive parent-teacher collaboration, which allowed an exchange of knowledge, values and cultural background experiences. In acknowledging the ways in which the parents already engaged with their children’s learning, it began to enhance self-efficacy in their ability to directly affect this learning. This work has also provoked reflexive engagement of my influence and understanding of involving parents of children with additional and diverse learning needs. But, it also details the transformative journey that influenced my thinking about how we as a school could begin to develop whole-school processes to directly involve parents in policy development and school activities.

  19. Parental education and family income affect birthweight, early longitudinal growth and body mass index development differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramsved, Rebecka; Regber, Susann; Novak, Daniel; Mehlig, Kirsten; Lissner, Lauren; Mårild, Staffan

    2018-01-07

    This study investigated the effects of two parental socio-economic characteristics, education and income, on growth and risk of obesity in children from birth to 8 years of age. Longitudinal growth data and national register-based information on socio-economic characteristics were available for 3,030 Swedish children. The development of body mass index (BMI) and height was compared in groups dichotomised by parental education and income. Low parental education was associated with a higher BMI from 4 years of age, independent of income, immigrant background, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy. Low family income was associated with a lower birthweight, but did not independently predict BMI development. At 8 years of age, children from less educated families had a three times higher risk of obesity, independent of parental income. Children whose parents had fewer years of education but high income had significantly higher height than all other children. Parental education protected against childhood obesity, even after adjusting for income and other important parental characteristics. Income-related differences in height, despite similar BMIs, raise questions about body composition and metabolic risk profiles. The dominant role of education underscores the value of health literacy initiatives for the parents of young children. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Including Web Sites in the Online Catalog: Implications for Cataloging, Collection Development, and Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, G. Margaret; Bayard, Laura

    1999-01-01

    Describes a pilot project at the University of Notre Dame library that included fully cataloged Web sites in the library's online catalog. Discusses Web site selection criteria and guidelines, access, implications for policies and practices in cataloging and collection development, and bibliographer's resources. (Author/LRW)

  1. More than Just Openness: Developing and Validating a Measure of Targeted Parent-Child Communication about Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Miller-Day, Michelle; Kam, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    Research addressing parent-child communication on the topic of alcohol use relies heavily on assessing frequency of discussions and general assessments of openness in parent-child communication, ignoring the complexity of this communication phenomenon. This study adds to the literature by articulating a conceptualization and developing a measurement of parent-child communication—targeted parent-child communication about alcohol—and comparing the efficacy of targeted parent-child communication...

  2. The role of parenting styles and teacher interactional styles in children's reading and spelling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Torppa, Minna; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Leskinen, Esko; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the associations between parenting styles, teacher interactional styles, and children's reading and spelling skills. The sample consisted of 864 Finnish-speaking children and their parents (864 mothers, 864 fathers) and teachers (N=123). Children's risk for reading disabilities and reader status were assessed in kindergarten. Children were also tested on reading and spelling skills in Grades 1 and 2. Parenting styles and teacher interactional styles were measured using parents' and teachers' self-reports in Grade 1. First, the results indicated that both an authoritative parenting style and authoritative teacher interactional style positively predicted children's spelling skill development. Second, authoritative parenting was particularly beneficial for the spelling skill development of children who were at risk for reading disabilities. Third, authoritative teaching promoted spelling skill development particularly among children who were nonreaders in kindergarten but had no risk for reading disabilities. Finally, some evidence was found that authoritative teaching could compensate for the negative impact of nonauthoritative parenting on reading development among kindergarten nonreaders. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Parents role in the development of soccer players / Papel dos pais no desenvolvimento de jovens futebolistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Moraes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of parents in the development of soccer players. Twenty parents and 12 soccer players, between 15 and 18 years old participated in the study. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used by administrating questionnaires forms and interviews. It was observed that few changes occurred in the family routines and that parents were minimally involved in their sons' sport activities. This did not appear to be a constraint for their sons' development because of their passion for soccer, the total amount of practice, and a potential lucrative professional career. Researchers should carefully adopt important paradigms from first world countries to another country with contextual differences.

  4. Parental practices and beliefs on motor development in the first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcilene Maria Gomes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: In the child’s first year of life, motor development is critical for the other areas of child development. Beliefs and parenting practices influence the parents’ care and encouragement of their children, reflecting in their motor development; however, the Brazilian literature on this subject is scarce. Objective: to characterize the parental practices and beliefs associated with motor development in the first year of life; and to verify if practices and beliefs are interrelated. Methods: Two questionnaires were developed and applied, one about parenting practices and the other about parental beliefs on motor development in the first year life, to 27 caregivers of children between 12 and 24 months of age, who participated in an aquatic stimulation program. The agreement between practices and beliefs was verified by a graphical method, based on the transformation of ordinal scores to an interval scale using Rasch analysis. Results: The participants had higher levels of education and economic status. They reported a variety of practices focused on the motor development of their children, such as family interaction through playing, toy offers, lap time and free movement space. Conclusion: Most of the practices were based on parental beliefs, for some activities, however, beliefs and practices diverged, demonstrating the complexity inherent to the formation of parental beliefs.

  5. Parents and early life environment affect behavioral development of laying hen chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elske N de Haas

    Full Text Available Severe feather pecking (SFP in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings' SFP at one week and offsprings' anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks.

  6. Developing Culturally Sensitive Parent Education Programs for Immigrant Families: The Helping Youth Succeed Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zha Blong Xiong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the process by which the Helping Youth Succeed (HYS curriculum was developed for Cambodian, Hmong, Lao, and Vietnamese immigrants in the United States to help address and minimize conflicts between immigrant parents and their adolescent children. A detailed explanation of this model is provided to encourage the development of additional culturally specific parent education curricula for other immigrant/refugee groups and/or diversepopulations.

  7. Successful Approaches to Helping Students--Including English Learners--Succeed in Elementary School. Parent Guide = Enfoques exitosos para ayudar a los estudiantes--incluyendo a los que aprenden ingles--a triunfar en la escuela primaria. Guia de padres

    Science.gov (United States)

    EdSource, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This guide informs parents about some instructional practices that work well for all elementary school students, in particular English learners. It includes questions parents can ask teachers and principals to help them understand how their children's school approaches teaching and learning. Both English and Spanish versions of the document are…

  8. Development of a preliminary questionnaire to assess parental response to children's food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovidge, Jennifer S; Stone, Kelly D; Twarog, Frank J; Raiselis, Susan Warren; Kalish, Leslie A; Bailey, Evan P; Schneider, Lynda C

    2006-03-01

    Food allergy affects up to 8% of children. Unintentional exposure may result in minor to potentially fatal episodes. Management of allergies depends on strict allergen avoidance and emergency preparedness. The demands of allergy management and concerns for the child's safety may place parents at risk of developing emotional distress or difficulties in coping. To develop a brief condition-specific measure to evaluate parental adjustment to and coping with children's food allergy. A total of 221 parents of children 18 year or younger with food allergy were recruited from a private allergy practice and local food allergy support groups. Parents completed an 18-item questionnaire, the Food Allergy Parent Questionnaire (FAPQ), that assessed parental coping with a child's food allergy and questions related to their child's food allergy diagnosis and course. Factor analysis of the items on the FAPQ suggested 4 factors that accounted for 53.6% of the variance: parental anxiety/distress, psychosocial impact of allergies, parental coping/competence, and family support. Medical variables (greater number of food allergies, positive history of anaphylaxis) were associated with higher scores on the anxiety/distress and psychosocial impact subscales. Internal consistency was good for the anxiety/distress and psychosocial impact subscales (Cronbach alpha = .80 and .77, respectively) but lower for the parental coping/competence and family support subscales (alpha = .57 and .32, respectively). Although further psychometric data for the FAPQ is needed, preliminary findings suggest that the measure may be useful in screening for parental anxiety, perceived impact of food allergies, level of family support, and coping skills.

  9. Parenting Supports for Early Vocabulary Development: Specific Effects of Sensitivity and Stimulation through Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, Claire; Mastergeorge, Ann; Foster, Tricia; Decker, Kalli B; Ayoub, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of disparities in early childhood language environments prompt examination of parent-child interactions which support vocabulary. Research links parental sensitivity and cognitive stimulation to child language, but has not explicitly contrasted their effects, nor examined how effects may change over time. We examined maternal sensitivity and stimulation throughout infancy using two observational methods - ratings of parents' interaction qualities, and coding of discrete parenting behaviors - to assess the relative importance of these qualities to child vocabulary over time, and determine whether mothers make related changes in response to children's development. Participants were 146 infants and mothers, assessed when infants were 14, 24, and 36 months. At 14 months, sensitivity had a stronger effect on vocabulary than did stimulation, but the effect of stimulation grew throughout toddlerhood. Mothers' cognitive stimulation grew over time, whereas sensitivity remained stable. While discrete parenting behaviors changed with child age, there was no evidence of trade-offs between sensitive and stimulating behaviors, and no evidence that sensitivity moderated the effect of stimulation on child vocabulary. Findings demonstrate specificity of timing in the link between parenting qualities and child vocabulary which could inform early parent interventions, and supports a reconceptualization of the nature and measurement of parental sensitivity.

  10. Development of sorption database (JAEA-SDB). Update of sorption data including soil and cement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Tadahiro; Tachi, Yukio

    2012-03-01

    Sorption of radionuclides in buffer materials (bentonite) and rocks is the key process in the safe geological disposal of radioactive waste, because migration of radionuclides in this barrier is expected to be controlled by sorption processes. Distribution coefficient (K d ) is therefore important parameter in the performance assessment (PA) of geological disposal. The sorption database including extensive compilations of K d data measured by batch sorption experiments plays key roles in PA-related K d setting and predictive model development under a variety of geochemical conditions. For this purpose, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed sorption database (JAEA-SDB) as an important basis for the PA of high-level radioactive waste disposal. This sorption database was firstly developed for the H12 PA, and was improved and updated in view of potential future data needs, focusing on assuring the desired quality level and testing the usefulness of the databases for possible applications to PA-related parameter setting. The present report focuses on updating of the sorption database (JAEA-SDB) by adding K d data for various systems including soil and cement systems, to apply JAEA-SDB for the PA-related K d setting for disposal of low level radioactive wastes including TRU wastes and the evaluation of radionuclide transport in surface soil systems. The updated data includes K d data for soil and cement systems extracted from mainly previous published database, and K d data related to our recent activities on the K d setting and mechanistic model development. As a result, 16,000 K d data from 334 references are added, total K d values in the JAEA-SDB are about 46,000. The updated JAEA-SDB is expected to make it possible to obtain quick overview of the available data, and to have suitable access to the respective data for the performance assessment of various types of radioactive waste. (author)

  11. Relationship of working mothers' parenting style and consistency to early childhood development: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lian; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Maruyama, Akiko; Sawada, Yuko; Ishi, Yukiko; Anme, Tokie

    2009-10-01

    This paper is a report of a longitudinal study of the relationship of working mothers' parenting style to their children's social competence and vocabulary/ motor/intellectual development. With an increasing number of women choosing to remain in the workforce after starting a family, there has been a concomitant increase in use of non-parental childcare facilities to help look after the child while the mother is at work. This increase in non-parental care has led to a dramatic change in the traditional child-rearing environment. Long-term investigations were conducted over a period of 2 years in 41 Japanese government-licensed childcare facilities. Child development was evaluated by childcare professionals and parenting style was assessed by questionnaire. A total of 504 children and their mothers participated in the study. Data collection was carried out in 2004 and 2006. We found that the changes in parenting style were statistically significantly related to children's development after 2 years. For instance, changes in the parent-child playing routine contributed to the child's social competence (odds ratio = 11.088). Variation in working mothers' disciplinary practices was also associated with children's vocabulary development after 2 years (odds ratio = 2246). Working mothers should increase interactions with their children in their free time to reduce the risk of developmental delay. Daily childcare support provided by family members or social organizations for long-term working mothers is helpful in mediating the negative relationship of mothers' working with children's development.

  12. 'Is my child developing normally?': a critical review of web-based resources for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nia; Mughal, Sabena; Blair, Mitch

    2008-12-01

    Early detection of developmental problems improves outcomes for parents and children. Parents want to be involved in assessment and need high-quality, accurate, and reliable data on child development to help monitor progress and inform decisions on referral. The aim of this paper is to review which websites are readily accessible to parents on child development and to assess their quality. An internet search (on Google and Yahoo) was conducted using the search terms 'child development', 'parenting', and 'developmental milestones'. Criteria were agreed for evaluating web-based resources, adapted from and based on previously reported methods. Data were collected on site content, diagrams and layout, readability (Flesch Reading Ease Scale), design, navigability, overall design, and interactive features. Forty-four relevant websites were identified for further analysis: six government, three university, 15 health-care professional, four American Academy of Pediatrics, 10 by journalists, and six undisclosed. The best websites are presented, with justification for their choice. Overall, information available for parents about child development is accurate but much of it is incomplete, unclear, or difficult to access. There is a need to develop an easily accessible, clear, and authoritative resource for parents with illustrations. Focus groups are being held to inform this research further.

  13. The Watts-Strogatz network model developed by including degree distribution: theory and computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y W; Zhang, L F; Huang, J P

    2007-01-01

    By using theoretical analysis and computer simulations, we develop the Watts-Strogatz network model by including degree distribution, in an attempt to improve the comparison between characteristic path lengths and clustering coefficients predicted by the original Watts-Strogatz network model and those of the real networks with the small-world property. Good agreement between the predictions of the theoretical analysis and those of the computer simulations has been shown. It is found that the developed Watts-Strogatz network model can fit the real small-world networks more satisfactorily. Some other interesting results are also reported by adjusting the parameters in a model degree-distribution function. The developed Watts-Strogatz network model is expected to help in the future analysis of various social problems as well as financial markets with the small-world property

  14. Developing and piloting community-based self-injury treatment groups for adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, M K; McLagan, Linda; Landell, Susan; Carter, Adrienne; Deshaw, M

    2004-08-01

    Self injurious behaviour is not uncommon in depressed adolescents while little is known about effective treatments for this behaviour in this age group. The objective of this article is to illustrate the development and initial pilot of groups for adolescents who self injure and their parents. Articles and texts derived from a literature search of group treatments for self injuring adolescents were used to develop a pilot group for self injuring adolescents and a separate group for parents. The groups were piloted over the spring of 2004, at a community child and youth mental health clinic. Eight weekly sessions for adolescents and 4 biweekly sessions for parents occurred. The adolescent group was a back to back dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) skills group followed by a therapeutic support group. Two thirds of both the adolescents and parents completed their groups. Overall, adolescents found both theirs and the parent group helpful. Parents reported that their group enabled more balanced and less reactive communication as well as benefit in meeting and talking with other parents facing similar difficulties. Further refinement and formal evaluation of such group therapy approaches to the treatment of self injurious behaviour in adolescents is warranted.

  15. Mediators and Moderators of the Relation Between Parental ADHD Symptomatology and the Early Development of Child ADHD and ODD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P.; Brown, Hallie R.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined mediators and moderators of the relation between parental ADHD symptomatology and the development of child attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms across the preschool years. Participants included 258 (138 boys) 3-year-old children (M = 44.13 months, SD = 3.39) with and without behavior problems and their parents who took part in a 3-year longitudinal study. Maternal ADHD symptoms predicted later ADHD symptoms in children, controlling for early child symptomatology. Both family history of ADHD and paternal comorbid psychopathology predicted later child ADHD and ODD symptoms, but they did not account for the association between maternal and child ADHD symptoms. Although paternal ADHD symptoms were associated with age 3 child ADHD symptoms, they did not significantly predict later child ADHD symptoms controlling for early symptomatology. Family adversity moderated the relation between maternal ADHD and child ADHD symptoms, such that the relation between maternal and child ADHD symptoms was stronger for families with less adversity. Maternal overreactive parenting mediated the relation between maternal ADHD symptoms and later child ADHD and ODD symptoms. Our findings suggest that targeting paternal comorbid psychopathology and maternal parenting holds promise for attenuating the effects of parental ADHD on children’s ADHD. PMID:27752934

  16. Parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress and child behaviour before and after a parenting programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Linda; Kendall, Sally

    2012-10-01

    To explore whether changes in parenting self-efficacy after attending a parenting programme are related to changes in parenting stress and child behaviour. Adverse parenting is a risk factor in the development of a range of health and behavioural problems in childhood and is predictive of poor adult outcomes. Strategies for supporting parents are recognised as an effective way to improve the health, well-being and development of children. Parenting is influenced by many factors including the behaviour and characteristics of the child, the health and psychological well-being of the parent and the contextual influences of stress and support. Parenting difficulties are a major source of stress for parents, and parenting self-efficacy has been shown to be an important buffer against parenting stress. In all, 63 parents who had a child under the age of 10 years took part in the research. Of those, 58 returned completed measures of parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress and child behaviour at the start of a parenting programme and 37 at three-month follow-up. Improvements in parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress were found at follow-up, but there was less evidence for improvements in child behaviour. The findings clearly suggest a relationship between parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress; parents who are feeling less efficacious experience higher levels of stress, whereas greater parenting self-efficacy is related to less stress. This study adds to the evidence that parent outcomes may be a more reliable measure of programme effectiveness than child outcomes at least in the short term.

  17. Parental legacy in insects: variation of transgenerational immune priming during offspring development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Trauer

    Full Text Available In insects, a parental immune challenge can prepare and enhance offspring immune activity. Previous studies of such transgenerational immune priming (TGIP mainly focused on a single offspring life stage. However, different developmental stages may be exposed to different risks and show different susceptibility to parental immune priming. Here we addressed the question (i whether TGIP effects on the immunity of Manduca sexta offspring vary among the different developmental offspring stages. We differentiated between unchallenged and immunochallenged offspring; for the latter type of offspring, we further investigated (ii whether TGIP has an impact on the time that enhanced immune levels persist after offspring immune challenge. Finally, we determined (iii whether TGIP effects on offspring performance depend on the offspring stage. Our results show that TGIP effects on phenoloxidase (PO activity, but not on antibacterial activity, vary among unchallenged offspring stages. In contrast, TGIP effects on PO and antibacterial activity did not vary among immunochallenged offspring stages. The persistence of enhanced immune levels in immunochallenged offspring was dependent on the parental immune state. Antibacterial (but not PO activity in offspring of immunochallenged parents decreased over five days after pupal immune challenge, whereas no significant change over time was detectable in offspring of control parents. Finally, TGIP effects on the developmental time of unchallenged offspring varied among stages; young larvae of immunochallenged parents developed faster and gained more weight than larvae of control parents. However, offspring females of immunochallenged parents laid fewer eggs than females derived from control parents. These findings suggest that the benefits which the offspring gains from TGIP during juvenile development are paid by the adults with reduced reproductive power. Our study shows that TGIP effects vary among offspring stages

  18. Parental legacy in insects: variation of transgenerational immune priming during offspring development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauer, Ute; Hilker, Monika

    2013-01-01

    In insects, a parental immune challenge can prepare and enhance offspring immune activity. Previous studies of such transgenerational immune priming (TGIP) mainly focused on a single offspring life stage. However, different developmental stages may be exposed to different risks and show different susceptibility to parental immune priming. Here we addressed the question (i) whether TGIP effects on the immunity of Manduca sexta offspring vary among the different developmental offspring stages. We differentiated between unchallenged and immunochallenged offspring; for the latter type of offspring, we further investigated (ii) whether TGIP has an impact on the time that enhanced immune levels persist after offspring immune challenge. Finally, we determined (iii) whether TGIP effects on offspring performance depend on the offspring stage. Our results show that TGIP effects on phenoloxidase (PO) activity, but not on antibacterial activity, vary among unchallenged offspring stages. In contrast, TGIP effects on PO and antibacterial activity did not vary among immunochallenged offspring stages. The persistence of enhanced immune levels in immunochallenged offspring was dependent on the parental immune state. Antibacterial (but not PO) activity in offspring of immunochallenged parents decreased over five days after pupal immune challenge, whereas no significant change over time was detectable in offspring of control parents. Finally, TGIP effects on the developmental time of unchallenged offspring varied among stages; young larvae of immunochallenged parents developed faster and gained more weight than larvae of control parents. However, offspring females of immunochallenged parents laid fewer eggs than females derived from control parents. These findings suggest that the benefits which the offspring gains from TGIP during juvenile development are paid by the adults with reduced reproductive power. Our study shows that TGIP effects vary among offspring stages and depend on

  19. Birth and Adoptive Parent Antisocial Behavior and Parenting: A Study of Evocative Gene-Environment Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M; Burt, S Alexandra; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2017-03-01

    Negative parenting is shaped by the genetically influenced characteristics of children (via evocative rGE) and by parental antisocial behavior; however, it is unclear how these factors jointly impact parenting. This study examined the effects of birth parent and adoptive parent antisocial behavior on negative parenting. Participants included 546 families within a prospective adoption study. Adoptive parent antisocial behavior emerged as a small but significant predictor of negative parenting at 18 months and of change in parenting from 18 to 27 months. Birth parent antisocial behavior predicted change in adoptive father's (but not mother's) parenting over time. These findings highlight the role of parent characteristics and suggest that evocative rGE effects on parenting may be small in magnitude in early childhood. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Heroes and housewives: the role of gender and gender stereotypes in parenting and child development

    OpenAIRE

    Endendijk, Joyce Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Gender is one of the most important organizers of social life, from the cradle to the grave. In the family context gender shapes biological, social, and cognitive processes at both the parent and child level. The general aim of the studies presented in this dissertation is to provide more insight into the role of child gender, parent gender, and sibling gender composition in the socio-emotional development of children. In Chapter 2 the extent to which mothers and fathers use differential cont...

  1. Adolescent Egocentrism and Its Relationship to Parenting Styles and the Development of Formal Operational Thought

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, Theo A.

    1984-01-01

    A predicted association between family relations and cognitive development and the emergence of adolescent egocentrism was explored in this study. A sample of seventh grade boys (n=131) and girls (n=120) completed Elkind and Bowen's Imaginary Audience Scale (a measure of egocentrism) and selected items from Heilbrun's Parent-Child Interaction Rating Scale and Schaefer's Parent-Behavior Inventory. A modified version of Lawson's Classroom Test of Formal Operations was used to measure cognitive ...

  2. Chronic suppurative lung disease in a developing country: impact on child and parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Anna Marie; Muthusamy, Ananthan; Thavagnanam, Surendran; Hashim, Azfawahiza; de Bruyne, Jessie

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the impact of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) on growth and lung function in the child as well as quality of life of the child and parent. Cross-sectional study in 60 children with CSLD, bronchiectasis (including cystic fibrosis) and bronchiolitis obliterans. Thirty-five parents were interviewed while the remaining patients' data were collated from medical notes. Anthropometric measurements at first diagnosis and at interview were compared. The most recent lung function was also collected. The Parent Cough-Specific Quality of Life (PC-QOL) and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS21) questionnaires were administered to parents. The median (range) age at diagnosis was 1.3 (0.2-11) years. The median (IQR) duration between anthropometric measurements was 35 (15, 59) months. Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) had improvements both in weight and BMI, whereas children with non-CF CSLD had no improvements in any growth parameter. Seventy-eight percent of children who performed spirometry had values parents had abnormal DASS21 scores with 54% being stressed and 51% being depressed. Mental health was better in parents of children with CF. CSLD had a negative impact on growth, lung function, and quality of life. Children with CF had a better outcome in growth as well as better parental mental health compared to children with other etiologies. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2014; 49:435-440. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Development of a video decision aid to inform parents on potential outcomes of extreme prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Ú; Suh, S; Wang, E; Stickelman, V; Kirpalani, H

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the study is to develop and validate a video-based parental decision aid about the outcomes of extremely premature infants. Thirty-one clinicians and 30 parents of extremely premature infants (prematurity (n=14) and healthy 'naïve' women without prior knowledge of prematurity (n=13). Two iterations of the video were created. Following a simulated counseling session, an eight-question survey and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were administered to parents and 'naïve' participants to assess usefulness and stress provocation. The final 10-min video shows six children/parent dyads of former 23 to 25 week premature children with a wide range of outcomes. This video was well accepted by clinicians as well as parent and 'naïve' participants, who perceived it as 'balanced' with a 'neutral' message. The video was felt to provide useful information and insight on prematurity. The final version of the video did not induce anxiety: parents STAI-S 36.1±12.1; 'naïve' 30.2±8.9. A short video showing the range of outcomes of extreme prematurity has been produced. It is well accepted and does not increase levels of anxiety as measured by the STAI. This video may be a useful and non-stress-inducing aid at the time of counseling parents facing extreme prematurity.

  4. Consumer engagement and the development, evaluation, and dissemination of evidence-based parenting programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R; Kirby, James N

    2012-06-01

    A consumer perspective can contribute much to enhancing the "ecological fit" of population-level parenting interventions so they meet the needs of parents. This approach involves building relationships with consumer groups and soliciting consumer input into the relevance and acceptability of interventions, clarifying the enablers and barriers to engagement and involvement of parents, and clarifying variables that influence a parent's program completion. The adoption of a more collaborative approach to working with consumers is important if meaningful population-level change in the prevalence of serious social, emotional, and behavioral problems in children and young people is to be achieved. Parents seeking assistance for their children's behavior come from a diverse range of socioeconomic backgrounds, educational levels, cultures, and languages. This paper examines consumer engagement strategies that can be employed throughout the process of program development, evaluation, training, and dissemination, and in "scaling up" the intervention. We argue that a multilevel public health approach to parenting intervention requires a strong consumer perspective to enable interventions to be more responsive to the preferences and needs of families and to ensure improved population reach of interventions. Examples from large-scale dissemination trials are used to illustrate how consumer input can result in an increasingly differentiated suite of evidence-based parenting programs. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA): Development and Psychometric Properties of a Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Caporino, Nicole E.; McQuarrie, Susanna; Settipani, Cara A.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Crawley, Sarah; Beidas, Rinad S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    The Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA) was developed to assess parental beliefs about their child’s anxiety, parents’ perceived ability to cope with their child’s anxiety and to help their child manage anxious symptoms, and to evaluate parents’ understanding of various parenting strategies in response to their child’s anxiety. The study evaluated the PABUA in mother-child dyads (N = 192) seeking treatment for youth anxiety. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution and identified PABUA scales of Overprotection, Distress, and Approach (with Cronbach’s alpha ranging from .67 to .83). Convergent and divergent validity of PABUA scales was supported by the pattern of associations with measures of experiential avoidance, beliefs related to children’s anxiety, empathy, trait anxiety, and depressive symptoms; parent-reported family functioning; parent- and youth-reported anxiety severity; and parent-reported functional impairment (n = 83). Results provide preliminary support for the PABUA as a measure of parental attitudes and beliefs about anxiety, and future studies that investigate this measure with large and diverse samples are encouraged. PMID:26970877

  6. 'Love builds brains': representations of attachment and children's brain development in parenting education material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Glenda

    2018-03-01

    A focus on early brain development has come to dominate expert child rearing advice over the past two decades. Recent scholars have noted a reinvigoration of the concept of attachment in this advice and changes in the ways that attachment is framed and understood. The extent to which the concept of attachment is drawn on, the way it is framed, and the consequences for mothers, families and parent-child relationships is examined through a discursive analysis of a current Canadian parental education campaign. Findings support the argument that attachment is receiving a great deal of attention in brain-based parenting education programmes as children's emotional development becomes increasingly prioritized. Attachment is presented as needing to be actively and continually built through expert-guided empathetic and responsive parental behaviour, and is framed as crucial for the development of brain pathways that promote emotional strength and self-regulation in children. Attachment-building is also presented as requiring highly intensive parenting that falls overwhelmingly to mothers. The parent-child relationship that is envisioned is one that is instrumental, lacking in affect and conducive to the creation of ideal self-regulating neo-liberal citizens. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  7. Including capabilities of local actors in regional economic development: Empirical results of local seaweed industries in Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T.J. Vredegoor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stimson, et al. (2009 developed one of the most relevant and well known model for Regional Economic Development. This model covers the most important factors related to economic development question. However, this model excludes the social components of development. Local community should be included in terms of the development of a region. This paper introduced to the Stimson model “Skills” and “Knowledge” at the individual level for local actors indicating the capabilities at the individual level and introduced “Human Coordination” for the capabilities at the collective level. In our empirical research we looked at the Indonesian seaweed market with a specific focus on the region of Baubau. This region was chosen because there are hardly any economic developments. Furthermore this study focuses on the poorer community who are trying to improve their situation by the cultivation of Seaweed. Eighteen local informants was interviewed besides additional interviews of informants from educational and governmental institutions in the cities of Jakarta, Bandung and Yogyakarta. The informants selected had a direct or indirect relationship with the region of Baubau. With the support of the empirical data from this region we can confirm that it is worthwhile to include the local community in the model for regional economic development.  The newly added variables: at the individual level; Skills and Knowledge and at the level of the collective: Human Coordination was supported by the empirical material. It is an indication that including the new variables can give regional economic an extra dimension.  In this way we think that it becomes more explicit that “endogenous” means that the people, or variables closely related to them, should be more explicitly included in models trying to capture Regional Economic Development or rephrased as Local Economic Development Keywords:Regional and endogenous development; Fisheries and seaweed

  8. Paid parental leave and family wellbeing in the sustainable development era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Jody; Sprague, Aleta R; Nandi, Arijit; Earle, Alison; Batra, Priya; Schickedanz, Adam; Chung, Paul J; Raub, Amy

    2017-01-01

    The Sustainable development goals (SDGs) have the potential to have a significant impact on maternal and child health through their commitments both to directly addressing health services and to improving factors that form the foundation of social determinants of health. To achieve change at scale, national laws and policies have a critical role to play in implementing the SDGs' commitments. One particular policy that could advance a range of SDGs and importantly improve maternal and infant health is paid parental leave. This article analyzes literature on paid leave and related policies relevant to SDG 1 (poverty), SDG 3 (health), SDG 5 (gender equality), SDG 8 (decent work), and SDG 10 (inequality). In addition, this article presents global data on the prevalence of policies in all 193 UN Member States. A review of the literature finds that paid parental leave may support improvements across a range of SDG outcomes relevant to maternal and child health. Across national income levels, paid leave has been associated with lower infant mortality and higher rates of immunizations. In high-income countries, studies have found that paid leave increases exclusive breastfeeding and may improve women's economic outcomes. However, factors including the duration of leave, the wage replacement rate, and whether leave is made available to both parents importantly shape the impacts of paid leave policies. While most countries now offer at least some paid maternal leave, many provide less than the 6 months recommended for exclusive breastfeeding, and only around half as many provide paternal leave. To accelerate progress on the SDGs' commitments to maternal and child health, we should monitor countries' actions on enacting or strengthening paid leave policies. Further research is needed on the duration, wage replacement rate, and availability of leave before and after birth that would best support both child and parental health outcomes and social determinants of health more

  9. Long-term effectiveness of a parenting intervention for children at risk of developing conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywater, Tracey; Hutchings, Judy; Daley, David; Whitaker, Chris; Yeo, Seow Tien; Jones, Karen; Eames, Catrin; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor

    2009-10-01

    The typical pattern for intervention outcome studies for conduct problems has been for effect sizes to dissipate over time with decreasing effects across subsequent follow-ups. To establish whether the short-term positive effects of a parenting programme are sustained longer term. To observe trends, and costs, in health and social service use after intervention. Parents with children aged 36-59 months at risk of developing conduct disorder (n = 104) received intervention between baseline and first follow-up (6 months after baseline n = 86) in 11 Sure Start areas in North Wales. Follow-ups two (n = 82) and three (n = 79) occurred 12 and 18 months after baseline. Child problem behaviour and parenting skills were assessed via parent self-report and direct observation in the home. The significant parent-reported improvements in primary measures of child behaviour, parent behaviour, parental stress and depression gained at follow-up one were maintained to follow-up three, as were improved observed child and parent behaviours. Overall, 63% of children made a minimum significant change (0.3 standard deviations) on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory problem scale between baseline and follow-up (using intention-to-treat data), 54% made a large change (0.8 standard deviations) and 39% made a very large change (1.5 standard deviations). Child contact with health and social services had reduced at follow-up three. Early parent-based intervention reduced child antisocial behaviour and benefits were maintained, with reduced reliance on health and social service provision, over time.

  10. The Parenting Anxious Kids Ratings Scale-Parent Report (PAKRS-PR): Initial Scale Development and Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessner, Christopher A; Murphy, Yolanda E; Brennan, Elle; D'Auria, Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Developmental models of pediatric anxiety posit multiple, maladaptive parenting behaviors as potential risk factors. Despite this, a standardized means of assessing multiple of these practices (i.e., anxiogenic parenting) in a comprehensive and efficient manner are lacking. In Study 1531 parents of children 7-17 years old completed an online survey via Amazon Mechanical Turk. In Study 2, a separate community sample (N = 109; 9-17 years old) was recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment battery as part of a larger study. All parents (Study 1 and 2 samples) completed the Parenting Anxious Kids Ratings Scale-Parent Report (PAKRS-PR), a measurement tool designed to assess anxiogenic parenting. Factor analysis conducted as part of Study 1 revealed a 32-item scale consisting of five factors: conflict, overinvolvement, accommodation/beliefs, modeling, and emotional warmth/support. Four of these factors were significantly correlated with parent-report of anxiety severity. Within Study 2, the parents of children diagnosed with an anxiety or related disorder reported significantly higher levels of anxiogenic parenting practices as compared to the parents of healthy controls. The PAKRS-PR and respective subscales demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity in both the internet (Study 1) and community (Study 2) samples. The PAKRS-PR may be a beneficial multidimensional parenting scale for use among anxious youths.

  11. Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C Peter; Minten, Bart

    2012-07-31

    A "supermarket revolution" has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the "newcomers"--India and Vietnam--have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been "precocious" penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a "hub" or "platform" or "park" the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including "bringing modern markets to farmers" by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets.

  12. Perceptions of parental control and the development of indecision among late adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, J R; Olivette, M J

    1993-01-01

    Late adolescent females (N = 86; M age = 19.1 years) completed reliable and valid self-report measures on their perception of both parents' authority style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) and their own tendency toward decisional procrastination. Households where daughters perceived both parents as high authoritarian (n = 32) were significantly more likely to raise daughters with strong indecision tendencies than were parents perceived as low authoritarian (n = 23). Mothers and fathers perceived as high (n = 22) or low (n = 22) authoritative, and high (n = 32) or low (n = 24) permissive, did not produce significant differences in daughters' self-reported decisional procrastination. Results suggest that parental authority characterized by stern inflexibility and overcontrol has the greatest influence on daughters who develop chronic indecision tendencies.

  13. When does time matter? maternal employment, children's time with parents, and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy; Felfe, Christina

    2014-10-01

    This study tests the two assumptions underlying popularly held notions that maternal employment negatively affects children because it reduces time spent with parents: (1) that maternal employment reduces children's time with parents, and (2) that time with parents affects child outcomes. We analyze children's time-diary data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and use child fixed-effects and IV estimations to account for unobserved heterogeneity. We find that working mothers trade quantity of time for better "quality" of time. On average, maternal work has no effect on time in activities that positively influence children's development, but it reduces time in types of activities that may be detrimental to children's development. Stratification by mothers' education reveals that although all children, regardless of mother's education, benefit from spending educational and structured time with their mothers, mothers who are high school graduates have the greatest difficulty balancing work and child care. We find some evidence that fathers compensate for maternal employment by increasing types of activities that can foster child development as well as types of activities that may be detrimental. Overall, we find that the effects of maternal employment are ambiguous because (1) employment does not necessarily reduce children's time with parents, and (2) not all types of parental time benefit child development.

  14. Parental Reports of Stigma Associated with Child’s Disorder of Sex Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee M. Rolston

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of sex development (DSD are congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex development is atypical. DSD-associated stigma is purported to threaten positive psychosocial adaptation. Parental perceptions of DSD-related stigma were assessed in 154 parents of 107 children (newborn–17 years questionnaire comprising two scales, child-focused and parent-focused, and three subscales, perceived stigmatization, future worries, and feelings about the child’s condition. Medical chart excerpts identified diagnoses and clinical management details. Stigma scale scores were generally low. Parents of children with DSD reported less stigma than parents of children with epilepsy; however, a notable proportion rated individual items in the moderate to high range. Stigma was unrelated to child’s age or the number of DSD-related surgeries. Child-focused stigma scores exceeded parent-focused stigma and mothers reported more stigma than fathers, with a moderate level of agreement. Within 46,XY DSD, reported stigma was higher for children reared as girls. In conclusion, in this first quantitative study of ongoing experiences, DSD-related stigma in childhood and adolescence, while limited in the aggregate, is reported at moderate to high levels in specific areas. Because stigma threatens positive psychosocial adaptation, systematic screening for these concerns should be considered and, when reported, targeted for psychoeducational counseling.

  15. Independent Contributions of Early Positive Parenting and Mother-Son Coercion on Emerging Social Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcinar, Berna; Shaw, Daniel S

    2018-06-01

    In the current study, we explored associations between parent-child coercion and positive parenting in the toddler period in relation to children's social-behavioral development during the school-age period. The data were drawn from the Pitt Mother & Child Project, a sample of 310 low-income, ethnically diverse boys. Drawing on tenets of both attachment and social learning theory, it was hypothesized that coercive mother-son interaction would lead to reductions in positive maternal parenting in the toddler period, and that both positive parenting and mother-son coercion in the toddler period would contribute to children's conduct problems at school entry and lower social skills and peer rejection in middle childhood. The results were largely confirmed, such that mother-son coercive interaction at 18 months was related to decreases in positive parenting at 24 months. Additionally, mother-son coercive interaction and positive parenting at 24 months were linked to child conduct problems at age 5, which in turn predicted child social skills and peer rejection during middle childhood. In addition to indirect effects through child conduct problems, mother-son coercion continued to be independently related to school-age peer rejection. The findings are discussed with respect to the importance of early coercive interactions in the growth of child social-behavioral development from early to middle childhood.

  16. Parental Reports of Stigma Associated with Child's Disorder of Sex Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolston, Aimee M; Gardner, Melissa; Vilain, Eric; Sandberg, David E

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex development is atypical. DSD-associated stigma is purported to threaten positive psychosocial adaptation. Parental perceptions of DSD-related stigma were assessed in 154 parents of 107 children (newborn-17 years) questionnaire comprising two scales, child-focused and parent-focused, and three subscales, perceived stigmatization, future worries, and feelings about the child's condition. Medical chart excerpts identified diagnoses and clinical management details. Stigma scale scores were generally low. Parents of children with DSD reported less stigma than parents of children with epilepsy; however, a notable proportion rated individual items in the moderate to high range. Stigma was unrelated to child's age or the number of DSD-related surgeries. Child-focused stigma scores exceeded parent-focused stigma and mothers reported more stigma than fathers, with a moderate level of agreement. Within 46,XY DSD, reported stigma was higher for children reared as girls. In conclusion, in this first quantitative study of ongoing experiences, DSD-related stigma in childhood and adolescence, while limited in the aggregate, is reported at moderate to high levels in specific areas. Because stigma threatens positive psychosocial adaptation, systematic screening for these concerns should be considered and, when reported, targeted for psychoeducational counseling.

  17. Surviving or thriving: quality assurance mechanisms to promote innovation in the development of evidence-based parenting interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R; Kirby, James N

    2015-04-01

    Parenting interventions have the potential to make a significant impact to the prevention and treatment of major social and mental health problems of children. However, parenting interventions fail to do so because program developers pay insufficient attention to the broader ecological context that influences the adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions. This context includes the professional and scientific community, end users, consumers, and broader sociopolitical environment within which parenting services are delivered. This paper presents an iterative stage model of quality assurance steps to guide ongoing research and development particularly those related to program innovations including theory building, intervention development, pilot testing, efficacy and effectiveness trials, program refinement, dissemination, and planning for implementation and political advocacy. The key challenges associated with each phase of the research and development process are identified. Stronger consumer participation throughout the entire process from initial program design to wider community dissemination is an important, but an often ignored part of the process. Specific quality assurance mechanisms are discussed that increase accountability, professional, and consumer confidence in an intervention and the evidence supporting its efficacy.

  18. The Influence of Parents' Backgrounds, Beliefs about English Learning, and a Dialogic Reading Program on Thai Kindergarteners' English Lexical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchprasert, Anongnad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated parents' backgrounds and their beliefs about English language learning, and compared the receptive English vocabulary development of three to six year-old-Thai children before and after participating in a parent-child reading program with the dialogic reading (DR) method. Fifty-four single parents of 54 children voluntarily…

  19. My child is God’s gift to humanity: Development and validation of the Parental Overvaluation Scale (POS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelman, E.; Thomaes, S.; Nelemans, S.A.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Bushman, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is natural for parents to value their children, some parents "overvalue" them, believing that their own children are more special and more entitled than other children are. This research introduces this concept of parental overvaluation. We developed a concise self-report scale to

  20. Relationships of Pubertal Development among Early Adolescents to Sexual and Nonsexual Risk Behaviors and Caregivers' Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…

  1. More than Just the Breadwinner: The Effects of Fathers' Parenting Stress on Children's Language and Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harewood, Tamesha; Vallotton, Claire D.; Brophy-Herb, Holly

    2017-01-01

    Despite numerous studies on parenting stress suggesting negative influences on parent-child interactions and children's development, the majority of these studies focus on mothers' parenting stress with little or no acknowledgement of fathers. Using data from the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, this study examined (1)…

  2. Development and evaluation of a patient decision aid for young people and parents considering fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Zoe; Eddaiki, Abdussalam; Bekker, Hilary L; Benson, Philip E

    2016-12-01

    To develop and evaluate a child-centred patient decision aid for young people, and their parents, supporting shared decision making about fixed orthodontic appliance treatment with dental health professionals, namely the Fixed Appliance Decision Aid (FADA). The studies were undertaken in a UK teaching dental hospital orthodontic department in 2013-2014. The development phase involved an interview study with: (a) 10 patients (12-16 years old), and their parents, receiving orthodontic care to investigate treatment decision making and inform the content of the FADA and (b) 23 stakeholders critiquing the draft decision aid's content, structure and utility. The evaluation phase employed a pre-/post-test study design, with 30 patients (12-16 years old) and 30 parents. Outcomes included the Decisional Conflict Scale; measures of orthodontic treatment expectations and knowledge. Qualitative analysis identified two informational needs: effectiveness of treatment on orthodontic outcomes and treatment consequences for patients' lives. Quantitative analysis found decisional conflict reduced in both patients (mean difference -12.3, SD 15.3, 95% CI 6.6-17.9; p orthodontic treatment increased; expectations about care were unchanged. Using the FADA may enable dental professionals to support patients and their parents, decisions about fixed appliance treatments more effectively, ensuring young people's preferences are integrated into care planning.

  3. Study protocol for Enhancing Parenting In Cancer (EPIC): development and evaluation of a brief psycho-educational intervention to support parents with cancer who have young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Lesley; Sinclair, Michelle; Turner, Jane; Newman, Louise; Wakefield, Claire; Krishnasamy, Mei; Mann, G Bruce; Gilham, Leslie; Mason, Kylie; Rauch, Paula; Cannell, Julia; Schofield, Penelope

    2017-01-01

    Parents with cancer have high rates of psychological morbidity, and their children are at risk of poor psychosocial outcomes, particularly in the context of parental distress and poor family communication. Parents express concerns about the impact of cancer on their children and report a lack of professional guidance in meeting their children's needs. Few parenting interventions exist and current interventions have extensive infrastructure demands making them unsuitable for routine use in most health settings. The aims of this study are to develop and establish the feasibility and acceptability of a novel and accessible psycho-educational intervention to improve parenting efficacy and decrease parental stress among adults with cancer who have children aged 3-12 years. The intervention will be suitable for parents with cancer who are receiving treatment with a view to longer term survival, irrespective of cancer diagnosis, and their respective co-parents. This study comprises two phases using the UK Medical Research Council framework for developing complex interventions. In the development phase, intervention content will be iteratively developed and evaluated in consultation with consumers, and in the piloting phase, feasibility will be tested in a clinical sample of 20 parents with cancer and their co-parents using a single arm, pre-test post-test design. The intervention will comprise an audiovisual resource (DVD), a question prompt list, and a telephone call with a clinical psychologist. Questionnaires administered pre- and 1 month post-intervention will assess parental stress, psychological morbidity, quality of life, self-efficacy and perceptions of child adjustment, and family functioning. Intervention feasibility will be determined by mixed-method participant evaluation of perceived usefulness, benefits, and acceptability. This new initiative will translate existing descriptive evidence into an accessible intervention that supports parenting during cancer

  4. What Parents Really Think about Their Feeding Practices and Behaviors: Lessons Learned from the Development of a Parental Feeding Assessment Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Sitnick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the role that parenting assumes in child obesity has increased the need for valid and reliable screening tools that are specific for populations targeted by programming efforts. While low-income families comprise a large audience for Cooperative Extension obesity prevention programs, valid and reliable self-administered parenting assessments for this population are lacking. Development of such tools requires understanding low-income parents’ interpretations of questions related to their parenting. The current paper reports on interviews conducted with low-income parents (N = 44 of 3- to 5-year-old children during the development of a tool to assess parenting in the context of feeding. Interviews revealed areas of potential discrepancy between parents’ and researchers’ interpretations of items that may affect parents’ responses and subsequent measurement validity when used in Cooperative Extension community intervention setting. Three themes emerged that may interfere with valid and reliable assessments of constructs: fear of being labeled a “harsh parent,” response bias due to previous knowledge, and discrepancy in interpretation of the intended construct. Results highlight complexities of constructing parent-report assessments of parenting for low-income audiences, and potential hazards of using research-focused tools with high respondent burden. Guidelines for educators assessing parents’ feeding behaviors are presented.

  5. Development of Reference Equations of State for Refrigerant Mixtures Including Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Koichi

    In recent years, most accurate equations of state for alternative refrigerants and their mixtures can easily be used via convenient software package, e.g., REFPROP. In the present paper, we described the current state-of-the-art equations of state for refrigerant mixtures including hydrocarbons as components. Throughout our discussion, the limitation of the available experimental data and the necessity of the improvement against the arbitrary fitting of recent modeling were confirmed. The enough number of reliable experimental data, especially for properties in the higher pressures and temperatures and for derived properties, should be accumulated in the near future for the development of the physically-sound theoretical background. The present review argued about the possibility of the progress for the future thermodynamic property modeling throughout the detailed discussion regarding the several types of the equations of state as well as the recent innovative measurement technique.

  6. Design and development of a workflow for microbial spray formulations including decision criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Ana; Sauer, Ursula; Preininger, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    Herein, we present a workflow for the development of talc-based microbial inoculants for foliar spray consisting of four steps. These include together with decision-making criteria (1) the selection of additives based on their capability to wet juvenile maize leaves, (2) their adhesion on the plant, (3) their interaction with the biological systems, and (4) the choice of thickener for good dispersion stability. In total, 29 additives including polysaccharides and proteins, polyols, glycosides, oils, waxes, and surfactants (e.g., chitosan, gelatin, glycerol, saponin, castor oil, polyethylene, rhamnolipid) were evaluated. Contact angle and spreading index measurements revealed that the use of 5% Geloil, 1% rhamnolipid, or suitable combinations of Geloil + rhamnolipid and Nurture Yield S 2002 + rhamnolipid enhanced wetting of hydrophobic maize leaves and adherence, similarly to the commercial wetting agents recommended for plant protection 1% Prev B2 and 1% Trifolio S Forte. Interaction of additives with biological systems was based on biocompatibility and phytotoxicity assays, and cell viability monitoring using the endophytic Gram-negative bacterium Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN. Results from biocompatibility assays indicated that in contrast to rhamnolipid and Prev B2 Geloil, Nurture Yield S 2002 and Trifolio S Forte fully supported bacterial growth within a concentration range of 1 to 5%. Dose-dependent phytotoxicity was observed in plants treated with rhamnolipid. Most efficient formulation was composed of PsJN, talc, xanthan, and Geloil. Beyond that, the proposed workflow is expected to generally provide guidance for the development of spray formulations and help other researchers to optimize their choices in this area.

  7. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Increased Sensory Processing Atypicalities in Parents of Multiplex ASD Families Versus Typically Developing and Simplex ASD Families

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, Chelsea K.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.; Donkers, Franc C. L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that sensory processing atypicalities may share genetic influences with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To further investigate this, the adolescent/adult sensory profile (AASP) questionnaire was distributed to 85 parents of typically developing children (P-TD), 121 parents from simplex ASD families (SPX), and 54 parents from multiplex ASD families (MPX). After controlling for gender and presence of mental disorders, results showed that MPX parents significantly d...

  9. Early postnatal development, parental care and interaction in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behavioural development which is the object of this note. A litter of three (two males and one female) was born in cap- tivity in February 1976. The pups were weighed and measured every day for the first 19 days, thereafter inter- mittently until Day 43 and once more on Day 86. Physical and behavioural development.

  10. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

  11. The development and effectiveness of a health information website designed to improve parents' self-efficacy in managing risk for obesity in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Marilyn A; Terhorst, Lauren; Nakonechny, Amanda J; Skukla, Nimisha; El Saadawi, Gilan

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of web-based information on parental self-efficacy in managing obesity risk in preschoolers. The project included a literature review and the development and field testing of an information website that presented information on how to manage nine obesity risk factors for childhood obesity. Parents stated that they had no problems using the website, and 69% reported improved self-efficacy on at least two risk factors. Many parents access the Internet to obtain health information. A website that offers practical information on managing childhood obesity risk factors is a valuable resource for obesity prevention efforts. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Development of a Scale for Measuring Parental Satisfaction with Services Available for Disabled Children in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyassat, Mizyed A.; Akhayat, Majed M.; Alzyoud, Nwaf

    2015-01-01

    Undoubtedly, parents of children with disabilities are better knowing than anyone else about their children's development and progress. Therefore, considering their perspectives on the services may lead to enhancing service delivery to their disabled children. In this paper, we described the procedure of developing an instrument for measuring…

  13. Supporting Preschool Dual Language Learners: Parents' and Teachers' Beliefs about Language Development and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Manz, Patricia H.; Martin, Kristin A.

    2017-01-01

    Guided by Bronfenbrenner's bio-ecological theory of human development and Moll's theory of funds of knowledge, the aim of this qualitative study was to examine the beliefs of parents and early childhood teachers on (a) the language development of Spanish-speaking preschool dual language learners (DLLs) and (b) how they can collaborate to support…

  14. Social Situation of Development: Parents Perspectives on Infants-Toddlers' Concept Formation in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Shukla

    2015-01-01

    The social situation of development (SSD) specific to each age determines regularly the whole picture of the child's life. Therefore, we need to learn about the whole context surrounding children relevant to their development. The focus of the study is to understand parent's views on infant-toddler's science concept formation in the family…

  15. Parent Reports of Young Spanish-English Bilingual Children's Productive Vocabulary: A Development and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Gámez, Perla B.; Vagh, Shaher Banu; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This 2-phase study aims to extend research on parent report measures of children's productive vocabulary by investigating the development (n = 38) of the Spanish Vocabulary Extension and validity (n = 194) of the 100-item Spanish and English MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Toddler Short Forms and Upward Extension…

  16. The role of Parenting and Goal Selection in Positive Youth Development: A Person-Centered Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Christopher M.; Bowers, Edmond P.; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Depping, Miriam; von Eye, Alexander; Chase, Paul; Lerner, Jacqueline V.

    2011-01-01

    Using a person-centered approach, we examined the relations between goal selection, various indicators of parenting, and positive development among 510 Grades 9 to 11 participants (68% female) in the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD), a longitudinal study involving U.S. adolescents. Goal selection was operationalized by the "Selection"…

  17. Encouraging vegetable intake in children : the role of parental strategies, cognitive development and properties of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra, G.G.

    2010-01-01

    Background
    Despite the health benefits, children’s fruit and vegetable intake is below that
    recommended. This thesis focuses on the role of parental strategies, children’s
    cognitive development and properties of food in order to develop new approaches
    to increase fruit and

  18. Parent and Adolescent Perceptions of Adolescent Career Development Tasks and Vocational Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.; Praskova, Anna

    2018-01-01

    We surveyed Australian adolescents and parents to test differences and congruence in perceptions of adolescent career development tasks (career planning, exploration, certainty, and world-of-work knowledge) and vocational identity. We found that, for adolescents (N = 415), career development tasks (not career exploration) explained 48% of the…

  19. Positive youth development in rural China: the role of parental migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua

    2015-05-01

    This study examined how parental rural-to-urban migration may affect left-behind children's development in rural China. We used two-wave data collected on 864 rural youth age 10-17 years in the Guangxi Province, China in 2010. We tested psychometric properties of a positive youth development (PYD) model theorized and corroborated in the US, compared a range of developmental outcomes among rural youth by their parental migration status, and explored the mediating role of family economic and social resources in observed associations between developmental outcomes and parental migration. The results showed the PYD model had some international validity although modifications would be needed to make it more suitable to Chinese settings. Little difference in the PYD outcomes was detected by parental migration status. On other outcomes (i.e., self-rated health, school grades, educational aspirations, problem behavior), positive influences of parental migration were observed. Increased income but not social resources in migrant families helped explain some of these patterns. The take-home message from this study is that parental migration is not necessarily an injurious situation for youth development. To advance our knowledge about the developmental significance of parental migration for rural Chinese youth, we urgently need large-scale representative surveys to collect comprehensive and longitudinal information about rural children's developmental trajectories and their multilevel social contexts to identify key resources of PYD in order to better help migrant and non-migrant families nurture thriving youth in rural China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of causal attribution of parents on developing the child enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Causal attributions are affirmed as a cognitive element able to explain emotional and motivational aspects of behaviour of some categories of adult psychiatric patients, primarily depressive ones. Theoretical and practical success of cognitive ideas in explaining the origination of depressive disorders, and in the monitoring of depressive patient treatment has led to further development of theory, but also to the attempt to apply the learning about causal attributions to various problems. Characteristic attempts are those that the problems of child abuse, children’s depression, upbringing problems, school failure, hyperactivity, enuresis, and long-term effects of different child treatment, too, are analysed from the point of view of causal attributions. By assessing parent causal attributions regarding child night urination, we wanted to establish to what extent specific attributions for child behaviour differentiate the parents of children having this problem from those parents whose children have established control. Parents were assessed in terms of four dimensions of causal attributions for child’s problem. Those are the dimensions of globality, counter-lability, internality, and the stability of the cause of child’s problem. The analysis of parent causal attributions show that mothers and fathers in both assessed groups similarly experience the cause of enuretic problems of their children. Enuresis is seen as caused by specific, internal, and instable causes. Such a system of dimensions could correspond to the belief that the main etiological factor of the enuresis is maturing. For more reliable verification of this attitude, longitudinal strategy in research is necessary, especially to comprehend whether parental attributions have been developed as an effect of persistent enuresis, or whether the enuresis is developed as an effect of parental attributions.

  1. Consumer engagement and the development, evaluation and dissemination of evidence-based parenting programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R.; Kirby, James N.

    2013-01-01

    A consumer perspective can contribute much to enhancing the “ecological fit” of population level parenting interventions so they meet the needs of parents. This approach involves building relationships with consumer groups and soliciting consumer input into the relevance and acceptability of interventions, clarifying the enablers and barriers to engagement and involvement of parents, and clarifying variables that influence a parent’s program completion. The adoption of a more collaborative approach to working with consumers is important if meaningful population level change in the prevalence of serious social, emotional and behavioral problems in children and young people is to be achieved. Parents seeking assistance for their children’s behavior come from a diverse range of socioeconomic backgrounds, educational levels, cultures and languages. This paper examines consumer engagement strategies that can be employed throughout the process of program development, evaluation, training and dissemination and in “scaling up” the intervention. We argue that a multi-level public health approach to parenting intervention requires a strong consumer perspective to enable interventions to be more responsive to the preferences and needs of families and to ensure improved population reach of interventions. Examples from large scale dissemination trials are used to illustrate how consumer input can result in an increasingly differentiated suite of evidence-based parenting programs. PMID:22440062

  2. Parenting: An Ecological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Tom, Ed.; Okagaki, Lynn, Ed.

    This book examines various aspects of parenting and influences on parents, including such key contexts affecting child development as school, neighborhood, and culture. After a forward by Urie Bronfenbrenner and a preface by Tom Luster and Lynn Okagaki, which together help to introduce the topics to be discussed, the book is divided into nine…

  3. The Development of Adolescent Self-Regulation: Reviewing the Role of Parent, Peer, Friend, and Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Julee P.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulation plays an important role in adolescent development, predicting success in multiple domains including school and social relationships. While researchers have paid increasing attention to the influence of parents on the development of adolescent self-regulation, we know little about the influence of peers and friends and even less about the influence of romantic partners on adolescent development of self-regulation. Extant studies examined a unidirectional model of self-regulation development rather than a bidirectional model of self-regulation development. Given that relationships and self-regulation develop in tandem, a model of bidirectional development between relationship context and adolescent self-regulation may be relevant. This review summarizes extant literature and proposes that in order to understand how adolescent behavioral and emotional self-regulation develops in the context of social relationships one must consider that each relationship builds upon previous relationships and that self-regulation and relationship context develop bidirectionally. PMID:24793391

  4. Structured Parent-Child Observations Predict Development of Conduct Problems: the Importance of Parental Negative Attention in Child-Directed Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; King, Kevin M

    2017-04-01

    Structured observations of parent-child interactions are commonly used in research and clinical settings, but require additional empirical support. The current study examined the capacity of child-directed play, parent-directed play, and parent-directed chore interaction analogs to uniquely predict the development of conduct problems across a 6-year follow-up period. Parent-child observations were collected from 338 families from high-risk neighborhoods during the summer following the child's first-grade year. Participating children were 49.2 % female, 54.4 % white, and 45.6 % black, and had an average age of 7.52 years at the first assessment. Conduct problems were assessed via parent report and teacher report at five assessment points between first grade and seventh grade. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze predictors of conduct problem trajectory across this 6-year follow-up period. When race, sex, socioeconomic status, and maternal depressive symptoms were controlled, parental negative attention during child-directed play predicted higher levels of parent-reported conduct problems concurrently and after a 6-year follow-up period. Parental negative attention during child-directed play also predicted higher teacher-reported conduct problems 6 years later. Findings support the use of child-directed play and parent-directed chore analogs in predicting longitudinal development of conduct problems. The presence of parental negative attention during child-directed play appears to be an especially important predictor of greater conduct problems over time and across multiple domains. Additionally, the potential importance of task-incongruent behavior is proposed for further study.

  5. Family and School Influences on Youths' Behavioral and Academic Outcomes: Cross-Level Interactions between Parental Monitoring and Character Development Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, Namik; Liew, Jeffrey; Luo, Wen

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined the joint (interactive) roles of the Second Step curriculum (a validated social-emotional learning and bullying prevention program; Committee for Children, Seattle, WA) and parenting practices on students' behavioral and academic outcomes in Grades 5-8. Participants were 763 parents and their children from 22 schools (8 control and 14 treatment). A 2-level random coefficient model was conducted to assess the effect of parental monitoring on school outcomes, as well as the interaction between character development curriculum and parental monitoring. Results indicated that parental monitoring was a significant predictor of school behaviors and school grades. Furthermore, the Second Step curriculum moderated the relationship between parental monitoring and problem behaviors, prosocial behaviors, and grades at school. Specifically, in schools without the Second Step curriculum parental monitoring predicted higher school grades but had no impact on students' school behaviors. By contrast, in schools with the Second Step curriculum, parental monitoring predicted fewer problem behaviors as well as more prosocial behaviors. The study results highlight the joint influences of the family and the school in children's behavioral and academic trajectories. Results have implications for education and intervention, including improving the school climate, student behaviors, and learning or achievement.

  6. The Risk of Offspring Developing Substance Use Disorders when Exposed to One versus Two Parent(s) with Alcohol Use Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellentin, Angelina Isabella; Brink, Maria; Andersen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Few population-based, family studies have examined associations between exposure to one vs. two parent(s) with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and the risk of offspring developing substance use disorder (SUD). Moreover, these studies have focused solely on the development of AUD, and not SUD......, in offspring. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether exposure to one vs. two parent(s) with AUD increases the risk of offspring developing SUD. Methods: A population-based, cohort study was conducted in which offspring born in Denmark between 1983 and 1989 were followed through national...... registries until 2011. Register-based data were obtained from the: Psychiatric Central Research Register, National Patient Registry, Civil Registration System, Fertility Database, and Cause of Death Register. Adjusted hazard ratios were calculated using multivariate Cox-regression models. Findings: A total...

  7. Who will develop dyslexia? Cognitive precursors in parents and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, E.

    2013-01-01

    Which children go on to develop dyslexia? This thesis presents findings of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme, a longitudinal study following the progress of children with and without a family history of dyslexia. Since there is a substantial genetic influence on reading ability, many of the children at

  8. Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriweradechachai Suntree

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age Methods Two hundred and sixty children and their parents were recruited into the study. Time spent on television and parental perceptions on television viewing toward their child's development were recorded during face-to-face and telephone interviews. Language development was assessed at the age of 2 years using the Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS, and parents' report. Association between delayed language development and time spent on television viewing, as well as other various parameters such as gender, maternal education and family income, were analysed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Most Thai infants and toddlers watched television at the age of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old (98.0, 95.3 and 96.7%, respectively. On average, 1-year-old children watched television 1.23 ± 1.42 hours per day. This increased to 1.69 ± 1.56 hours per day when they were 2 years old. However, watching television longer than 2 hours per day did not associate with delayed language development. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, gender (male was the only significant factor associated with delayed language development (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.5–31.3. Moreover, 75%, 71%, and 66% of Thai parents believed that television viewing yielded benefits to children's developments. Conclusion Thai children commenced watching television at an early age and the amount of television viewing time increased by age. Most parents had positive perceptions to television viewing. The study found no association between time spent on television viewing (≥ 2 hours per day and delayed language development at the age of 2 years. Gender (male was the only variable associated with delayed language development.

  9. The influence of perceived parenting styles on socio-emotional development from pre-puberty into puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Min Yee; Eilander, Janna; Saw, Seang Mei; Xie, Yuhuan; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P

    2018-01-01

    The relative impact of parenting on socio-emotional development of children has rarely been examined in a longitudinal context. This study examined the association between perceived parenting styles and socio-emotional functioning from childhood to adolescence. We hypothesized that optimal parenting associated with improvement in socio-emotional functioning from childhood into early adulthood, especially for those with more behavioral problems in childhood. Children between ages 7 and 9 years were recruited for the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM). Nine years later, 700 out of 1052 subjects were followed up (67%). During childhood, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), while young adults completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR) and Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Perceived optimal parental care resulted in less internalizing and externalizing problems in early adulthood in comparison to non-optimal parental care styles. Perceived optimal paternal parenting, but not maternal parenting, in interaction with childhood externalizing problems predicted externalizing symptoms in early adulthood. No significant interactions were found between perceived parenting styles and internalizing problems. In conclusion, perceived parental care associates with the quality of socio-emotional development, while optimal parenting by the father is especially important for children with more externalizing problems in childhood.

  10. Parent perceptions of the quality of life of pet dogs living with neuro-typically developing and neuro-atypically developing children: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sophie S; Wright, Hannah F; Mills, Daniel S

    2017-01-01

    There is growing scientific and societal recognition of the role that pet dogs can play in healthy development of children; both those who are neuro-typically developing and those who live with a neuro-developmental disorder, such as autism or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, little attention has been paid to how living with children positively and negatively affects quality of life of a pet dog. In this exploratory study we conducted semi-structured interviews with parents of neuro-typically developing children (n = 18) and those with a neuro-developmental disorder (n = 18) who owned a pet dog, until no new factors were identified. Living with children brought potentially positive benefits to the dog's life including: imposition of a routine, participation in recreational activities and the development of a strong bond between the child and the dog. The importance of maintaining a routine was particularly prevalent in families with children with neuro-developmental disorders. Potential negative factors included having to cope with child meltdowns and tantrums, over stimulation from child visitors, harsh contact and rough and tumble play with the child. The regularity and intensity of meltdowns and tantrums was particularly evident in responses from parents with children with a neuro-developmental disorder. However, child visitors and rough play and contact were mentioned similarly across the groups. Protective factors included having a safe haven for the dog to escape to, parent's awareness of stress signs and child education in dog-interaction. Parents were also asked to complete a stress response scale to provide an initial quantitative comparison of stress responses between dogs living with the two family-types. Parents with neuro-typically developing children more frequently observed their dog rapidly running away from a situation and less frequently observed their dog widening their eyes, than parents with children with a neuro

  11. Parent perceptions of the quality of life of pet dogs living with neuro-typically developing and neuro-atypically developing children: An exploratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie S Hall

    Full Text Available There is growing scientific and societal recognition of the role that pet dogs can play in healthy development of children; both those who are neuro-typically developing and those who live with a neuro-developmental disorder, such as autism or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, little attention has been paid to how living with children positively and negatively affects quality of life of a pet dog. In this exploratory study we conducted semi-structured interviews with parents of neuro-typically developing children (n = 18 and those with a neuro-developmental disorder (n = 18 who owned a pet dog, until no new factors were identified. Living with children brought potentially positive benefits to the dog's life including: imposition of a routine, participation in recreational activities and the development of a strong bond between the child and the dog. The importance of maintaining a routine was particularly prevalent in families with children with neuro-developmental disorders. Potential negative factors included having to cope with child meltdowns and tantrums, over stimulation from child visitors, harsh contact and rough and tumble play with the child. The regularity and intensity of meltdowns and tantrums was particularly evident in responses from parents with children with a neuro-developmental disorder. However, child visitors and rough play and contact were mentioned similarly across the groups. Protective factors included having a safe haven for the dog to escape to, parent's awareness of stress signs and child education in dog-interaction. Parents were also asked to complete a stress response scale to provide an initial quantitative comparison of stress responses between dogs living with the two family-types. Parents with neuro-typically developing children more frequently observed their dog rapidly running away from a situation and less frequently observed their dog widening their eyes, than parents with children with a

  12. Parent Engagement in Youth Drug Prevention in Chinese Families: Advancement in Program Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra K. M. Tsang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The escalating youth drug abuse problem in Hong Kong has attracted intense attention from the government, schools, and youth service professionals. Most preventive efforts have focused directly on positive youth development, very often through school programs delivered to secondary school students. There have been limited efforts to engage parents even though it is obvious that the family is actually the primary context of children and youth development. This paper will assert the importance of parental engagement in youth drug-prevention work, discuss some barriers in such parental involvement, present some promising local attempts and their strengths and limitations, and propose that sustained efforts are needed to build up theory-driven and evidence-based resources for Chinese communities on the subject.

  13. Preservation and Modification of Culture in Family Socialization: Development of Parenting Measures for Korean Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Drankus, Dina; Kim, Hyun Jee

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to describe the family socialization beliefs and practices of Korean immigrant parents through testing psychometric properties of several newly developed items and scales to assess the major components of the Korean traditional concept of family socialization, ga-jung-kyo-yuk . These new measures were examined for validity and reliability. The findings show that Korean immigrant parents largely preserve their traditional and core parenting values, while also showing meaningful, yet not very dramatic, signs of adopting new cultural traits. The results also suggest that the acculturative process may not be simply bilinear but may generate a new, unique and blended value and behavior set from the two (or more) cultures involved. Culturally appropriate practice requires not only further validation of existing knowledge with minority groups, but the development of a theoretical framework of family socialization that recognizes the cultural uniqueness of immigrant families.

  14. Early childhood development: impact of national human development, family poverty, parenting practices and access to early childhood education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T D; Luchters, S; Fisher, J

    2017-05-01

    This study was to describe and quantify the relationships among family poverty, parents' caregiving practices, access to education and the development of children living in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Early childhood development was assessed in four domains: language-cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and approaches to learning. Countries were classified into three groups on the basis of the Human Development Index (HDI). Overall, data from 97 731 children aged 36 to 59 months from 35 LAMIC were included in the after analyses. The mean child development scale score was 4.93 out of a maximum score of 10 (95%CI 4.90 to 4.97) in low-HDI countries and 7.08 (95%CI 7.05 to 7.12) in high-HDI countries. Family poverty was associated with lower child development scores in all countries. The total indirect effect of family poverty on child development score via attending early childhood education, care for the child at home and use of harsh punishments at home was -0.13 SD (77.8% of the total effect) in low-HDI countries, -0.09 SD (23.8% of the total effect) in medium-HDI countries and -0.02 SD (6.9% of the total effect) in high-HDI countries. Children in the most disadvantaged position in their societies and children living in low-HDI countries are at the greatest risk of failing to reach their developmental potential. Optimizing care for child development at home is essential to reduce the adverse effects of poverty on children's early development and subsequent life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Language Development, Delay and Intervention--The Views of Parents from Communities That Speech and Language Therapy Managers in England Consider to Be Under-Served

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Harding, Sam; Roulstone, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based practice includes research evidence, clinical expertise and stakeholder perspectives. Stakeholder perspectives are important and include parental ethno-theories, which embrace views about many aspects of speech, language and communication, language development, and interventions. The Developmental Niche Framework…

  16. Development of a survey to assess adolescent perceptions of teen parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W; Nandakumar, Ratna

    2012-01-01

    Initiatives designed to prevent teen pregnancy are often based on adult perceptions of the negative aspects of a teen birth. Qualitative research has revealed that teens may perceive positive rewards associated with teen parenting. These perceptions have not yet been examined through survey research. The theory of reasoned action proposes that individuals assess the costs and rewards prior to engaging in a behavior and provides a framework for the development of a survey instrument designed to measure adolescent thoughts about the costs and rewards of the teen parenting experience. This manuscript describes the development and testing of a quantitative survey instrument designed to measure adolescents' perceptions. Pretesting, piloting, exploratory factor analysis, and a variety of reliability and validity measures were used to determine the value of the measure. The thoughts on teen parenting survey (TTPS) demonstrates an alpha level of .90. The TTPS yields a cumulative score of teen perceptions about the impact of a teen birth during the adolescent years that may be used to assess youth beliefs, correlated with demographic data, used to identify teens at risk for pregnancy/parenting, or provide a pretest/posttest to assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to foster realistic attitudes toward teen parenting.

  17. Using intervention mapping to develop a home-based parental-supervised toothbrushing intervention for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Burrows, K A; Day, P F; Marshman, Z; Aliakbari, E; Prady, S L; McEachan, R R C

    2016-05-06

    Dental caries in young children is a major public health problem impacting on the child and their family in terms of pain, infection and substantial financial burden on healthcare funders. In the UK, national guidance on the prevention of dental caries advises parents to supervise their child's brushing with fluoride toothpaste until age 7. However, there is a dearth of evidence-based interventions to encourage this practice in parents. The current study used intervention mapping (IM) to develop a home-based parental-supervised toothbrushing intervention to reduce dental caries in young children. The intervention was developed using the six key stages of the IM protocol: (1) needs assessment, including a systematic review, qualitative interviews, and meetings with a multi-disciplinary intervention development group; (2) identification of outcomes and change objectives following identification of the barriers to parental-supervised toothbrushing (PSB), mapped alongside psychological determinants outlined in the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF); (3) selection of methods and practical strategies; (4) production of a programme plan; (5) adoption and implementation and (6) Evaluation. The comprehensive needs assessment highlighted key barriers to PSB, such as knowledge, skills, self-efficacy, routine setting and behaviour regulation and underlined the importance of individual, social and structural influences. Parenting skills (routine setting and the ability to manage the behaviour of a reluctant child) were emphasised as critical to the success of PSB. The multi-disciplinary intervention development group highlighted the need for both universal and targeted programmes, which could be implemented within current provision. Two intervention pathways were developed: a lower cost universal pathway utilising an existing national programme and an intensive targeted programme delivered via existing parenting programmes. A training manual was created to accompany each

  18. An Overview of Seabed Mining Including the Current State of Development, Environmental Impacts, and Knowledge Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A. Miller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising demand for minerals and metals, including for use in the technology sector, has led to a resurgence of interest in exploration of mineral resources located on the seabed. Such resources, whether seafloor massive (polymetallic sulfides around hydrothermal vents, cobalt-rich crusts (CRCs on the flanks of seamounts or fields of manganese (polymetallic nodules on the abyssal plains, cannot be considered in isolation of the distinctive, in some cases unique, assemblages of marine species associated with the same habitats and structures. In addition to mineral deposits, there is interest in extracting methane from gas hydrates on continental slopes and rises. Many of the regions identified for future seabed mining are already recognized as vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs. Since its inception in 1982, the International Seabed Authority (ISA, charged with regulating human activities on the deep-sea floor beyond the continental shelf, has issued 27 contracts for mineral exploration, encompassing a combined area of more than 1.4 million km2, and continues to develop rules for commercial mining. At the same time, some seabed mining operations are already taking place within continental shelf areas of nation states, generally at relatively shallow depths, and with others at advanced stages of planning. The first commercial enterprise, expected to target mineral-rich sulfides in deeper waters, at depths between 1,500 and 2,000 m on the continental shelf of Papua New Guinea, is scheduled to begin early in 2019. In this review, we explore three broad aspects relating to the exploration and exploitation of seabed mineral resources: (1 the current state of development of such activities in areas both within and beyond national jurisdictions, (2 possible environmental impacts both close to and more distant from mining activities and (3 the uncertainties and gaps in scientific knowledge and understanding which render baseline and impact assessments

  19. Simultaneous bilingual language acquisition: The role of parental input on receptive vocabulary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Andrea An; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Boegner-Pagé, Sarah; Fontolliet, Salomé

    2013-02-01

    Parents often turn to educators and healthcare professionals for advice on how to best support their child's language development. These professionals frequently suggest implementing the 'one-parent-one-language' approach to ensure consistent exposure to both languages. The goal of this study was to understand how language exposure influences the receptive vocabulary development of simultaneous bilingual children. To this end, we targeted nine German-French children growing up in bilingual families. Their exposure to each language within and outside the home was measured, as were their receptive vocabulary abilities in German and French. The results indicate that children are receiving imbalanced exposure to each language. This imbalance is leading to a slowed development of the receptive vocabulary in the minority language, while the majority language is keeping pace with monolingual peers. The one-parent-one-language approach does not appear to support the development of both of the child's languages in the context described in the present study. Bilingual families may need to consider other options for supporting the bilingual language development of their children. As professionals, we need to provide parents with advice that is based on available data and that is flexible with regards to the current and future needs of the child and his family.

  20. [Parental socialization styles and psychosocial development in 16 to 19 year old adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, G; Almonte, C; Valenzuela, C; Avendaño, A

    1991-01-01

    To study relationships between perceptions that 16 to 19 year old adolescents have about socialization styles and disciplinary methods used by their parents, with their view of the world, interpersonal relations, moral development, use of psychotropic substances and maladjusted behaviours, 241 adolescents--123 males--which belong to a follow up study on growth and development from northern metropolitan Santiago, Chile, were asked to answer a questionary of psychosocial development, previously elaborated by two of the authors (GS and CA). The most used socialization styles by these fathers and mothers were the negative power one (39.2% and 38.5%) and the inductive one (23.8% and 30.0%), while permissive styles occurred at much lower frequency (1.5% and 1.1%). Coincidence among parents in socialization styles was found in 47.7% and disagreement in 19.2% of cases. The inductive style and coincidence in it's use by both parents, were frequently associated to idealistic world views, autonomous and conventional moral development, satisfactory interpersonal relationships and low frequency of psychotropic consumption, and maladjusted behaviours while negative power based styles by both parents and disagreement of styles among them were rather related to realistic or negative world view, preconventional moral development, higher frequency of relational problems, psychotropic consumption and maladjusted behaviours.

  1. Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Rasmussen, Mette

    2010-01-01

    An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identif...... the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among adolescents between the ages 15 to 21....

  2. When can parents most influence their child's development? Expert knowledge and perceived local realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthman, Carol M; Tomlinson, Mark; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2016-04-01

    Compelling evidence for the long-term impact of conditions in gestation and early childhood on both physical and psychosocial functioning and productivity has stimulated a focus in global health policy and social services on the "first 1000 days". Consequently, related initiatives may assume that rationale for this orientation and the agency of parents during this period is self-evident and widely shared among parents and communities. In 2012, we tested this assumption among a sample of 38 township-dwelling caregivers in Cape Town, by asking a question identified during a study of cultural models of parenting, namely: At what age or stage can a parent or caregiver have the most influence on a child's development? Formal cultural consensus analysis of responses met criteria for strong agreement that the period for greatest impact of parenting on a child's development occurs at adolescence, at a median age of 12 years. In follow-up focus groups and structured interviews, caregivers articulated clear ecological and developmental reasons for this view, related to protection both of developmental potential and against powerful, context-specific ecological risks (early pregnancy, substance ab/use, violence and gangs) that emerge during adolescence. Such risks threaten educational attainment, reproductive health, and social derailment with enduring consequences for lifetime well-being that caregivers are highly motivated to prevent. Developmental needs in pregnancy and early childhood, by contrast, were considered more manageable. These findings resonate with emerging evidence for multiple sensitive periods with corresponding developmental needs, and urge the value of complementing efforts to optimize early development with those to sustain and enhance it during later windows of developmental opportunity such as adolescence. Our results also indicate the need to consult local views of developmental risk and parenting practice in communicating with caregivers and planning

  3. Harsh parenting, parasympathetic activity, and development of delinquency and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-02-01

    Stress response systems are thought to play an important role in the development of psychopathology. In addition, family stress may have a significant influence on the development of stress response systems. One potential avenue of change is through alterations to thresholds for the activation of stress responses: Decreased threshold for responding may mark increased stress sensitivity. Our first aim was to evaluate the interaction between thresholds for parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) responding, operationalized as resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and harsh parenting in the prediction of development of delinquency and adolescent substance use (resting RSA as a biomarker of risk). The second aim was to evaluate if resting RSA changes over time as a function of harsh parenting and stress reactivity indexed by RSA withdrawal (altered threshold for stress responding). Our third aim was to evaluate the moderating role of sex in these relations. We used longitudinal data from 251 children ages 8-16 years. Mother-reports of child delinquency and RSA were acquired at all ages. Adolescents self-reported substance use at age 16 years. Family stress was assessed with child-reported harsh parenting. Controlling for marital conflict and change over time in harsh parenting, lower resting RSA predicted increases in delinquency and increased likelihood of drug use in contexts of harsh parenting, especially for boys. Harsh parenting was associated with declining resting RSA for children who exhibited greater RSA withdrawal to stress. Findings support resting PNS activity as a moderator of developmental risk that can be altered over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Parenting in complex conditions : Does preterm birth provide a context for the development of less optimal parental behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffenkamp, H.N.; Braeken, J.; Hall, R.A.S.; Tooten, A.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Bakel, H.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective  To examine the predictive value of parent, infant, and contextual factors related to preterm childbirth for later parenting behaviors. Methods  Mothers (n = 217) and fathers (n = 204) of term, moderately preterm, and very preterm infants were interviewed 1 month postpartum using the

  5. Adolescents' perceptions of communication with parents relative to specific aspects of relationships with parents and personal development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, A.E.; Bijstra, J.O.; Oostra, L.; Bosma, H.A.

    Adolescents' views of communication with their parents are examined in relation to measures of family satisfaction, adolescent decision-making and disagreement with parents (Study I), and to measures of self esteem, well-being and coping (Study II). The results provide some support for the

  6. Cultural Aspects on Child’s Development and Parenting in Manggarai, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Servatius Lon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the influence of culture in defining the concept of a child, the stages of development and parenting of children in Manggarai, Flores, East Nusa Tenggara. The main questions are how do Manggaraian people define a child in their culture? How do people divide the stages of child development? What do parenting styles develop by the people to their children? How are these concepts different and similar to the general psychological concept about children? This paper was based on a qualitative research. The methods used were ethnography and grounded theory. Through these two mix approaches, the study is to explore and analyze the culture of Manggarai. The research found that: 1 the concept of a child in Manggarai depends on the way the people understand family and community rather than understand a child as just an individual. 2 There are three main stages of childhood development within the culture of Manggarai; 3 As a patriarchal community, the Manggarai people have unique parenting style to the son and daughter; 4. One unique parenting style within the culture of Manggarai was to educate a child to “fear of spirits and ancestors”.

  7. The Chronological Development of Parent Empowerment in Children's Education in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shun-wing

    2007-01-01

    The decentralization of the power of school governance is one of the recent trends of educational development in a global society in which the notion of parents as stakeholders and partners of state education is being gradually recognized, albeit at different paces, in several Asian countries. This paper attempts to analyze the chronological…

  8. Economic Intervention and Parenting: A Randomized Experiment of Statewide Child Development Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju; Wikoff, Nora; Sherraden, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We examine the effects of Child Development Accounts (CDAs) on parenting stress and practices. Methods: We use data from the SEED for Oklahoma Kids (SEED OK) experiment. SEED OK selected caregivers of infants from Oklahoma birth certificates using a probability sampling method, randomly assigned caregivers to the treatment (n = 1,132)…

  9. Going Through the Motions? Development of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Psychosocial Problems during Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322846471

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental phase that is marked by profound transformations in parent-adolescent relationships and it is a rather sensitive period for the development of psychosocial problems. The purpose of the current dissertation was to understand longitudinal associations between

  10. Analyzing empowerment oriented email consultation for parents : Development of the Guiding the Empowerment Process model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer

    2014-01-01

    Background. Online consultation is increasingly offered by parenting practitioners, but it is not clear if it is feasible to provide empowerment oriented support in single session email consultation. Method. Based on empowerment theory we developed the Guiding the Empowerment Process model (GEP

  11. Parents' Perspectives on Homelessness and Its Effects on the Educational Development of Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rita I.; Butt, Rachael A.

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative study explored parents' perceptions of how their homelessness affected the development and academic achievement of their children. Grounded theory with symbolic interactionism was the framework for this study. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 34 homeless families in a variety of settings. Multiple factors…

  12. Development of a Self-Management Theory-Guided Discharge Intervention for Parents of Hospitalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, Kathleen J; Weiss, Marianne E; Johnson, Norah; Gralton, Karen; Malin, Shelly; Klingbeil, Carol; Lerret, Stacee M; Thompson, Jamie J; Zimmanck, Kim; Kaul, Molly; Schiffman, Rachel F

    2017-03-01

    Parents of hospitalized children, especially parents of children with complex and chronic health conditions, report not being adequately prepared for self-management of their child's care at home after discharge. No theory-based discharge intervention exists to guide pediatric nurses' preparation of parents for discharge. To develop a theory-based conversation guide to optimize nurses' preparation of parents for discharge and self-management of their child at home following hospitalization. Two frameworks and one method influenced the development of the intervention: the Individual and Family Self-Management Theory, Tanner's Model of Clinical Judgment, and the Teach-Back method. A team of nurse scientists, nursing leaders, nurse administrators, and clinical nurses developed and field tested the electronic version of a nine-domain conversation guide for use in acute care pediatric hospitals. The theory-based intervention operationalized self-management concepts, added components of nursing clinical judgment, and integrated the Teach-Back method. Development of a theory-based intervention, the translation of theoretical knowledge to clinical innovation, is an important step toward testing the effectiveness of the theory in guiding clinical practice. Clinical nurses will establish the practice relevance through future use and refinement of the intervention. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. Associations between fathers’ and mothers’ psychopathology symptoms, parental emotion socialization, and preschoolers’ social-emotional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Pol, L.D.; Groeneveld, M.G.; Endendijk, J. J.; van Berkel, S. R.; Hallers-Haalboom, E.T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; Mesman, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we tested whether the relation between fathers’ and mothers’ psychopathology symptoms and child social-emotional development was mediated by parents’ use of emotion talk about negative emotions in a sample of 241 two-parent families. Parents’ internalizing and externalizing problems

  14. Analysing empowerment-oriented email consultation for parents : development of the Guiding the Empowerment Process model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer

    2014-01-01

    Online consultation is increasingly offered by parenting practitioners, but it is not clear if it is feasible to provide empowerment-oriented support in a single session email consultation. Based on the empowerment theory, we developed the Guiding the Empowerment Process model (GEP model) to

  15. Review: parent-child relationships and child development in donor insemination families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewaeys, A

    2001-01-01

    The present article reviews the empirical research regarding the parent-child relationships and the development of children in donor insemination (DI) families. Over the years, follow-up studies have appeared sporadically and, despite the varying quality of the research methods, preliminary findings have emerged. Heterosexual DI parents were psychologically well adjusted and had stable marital relationships. DI parents showed a similar or higher quality of parent-child interaction and a greater emotional involvement with their children compared with naturally conceived families. The majority of studies which investigated several aspects of child development found that, overall, DI children were doing well. Findings with regard to emotional/behavioural development, however, were divergent in that some studies identified an increase of such problems while others did not. A steadily growing group within the DI population is lesbian mother families. More recently, follow-up studies have been carried out among DI children who were raised from birth by two mothers. Despite many concerns about the well-being of these children, no adverse effects of this alternative family structure on child development could be identified. As the DI children in all investigations were still young, our knowledge about the long-term effects of DI remains incomplete.

  16. Engagement and guidance: The effects of maternal parenting practices on children's development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramonte, L.; Gauthier, A.H.; Willms, D.

    2015-01-01

    Problems with inattention, physical aggression, and poor cognitive skills when children enter school can have long-term negative effects on their development. In this study, we address the issues of whether and how parental engagement and guidance are related to children’s behavioral and cognitive

  17. The Developing Bilingual Brain: What Parents and Teachers Should Know and Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Juth, Stephanie M.; Kohlmeier, Theresa L.; Schreiber, Kayleen E.

    2018-01-01

    The field of neuroscience is now providing research findings about how the bilingual brain functions that can be used to promote richer and more successful dual-language development. This article summarizes recent research, then provides practical applications for parents and teachers of emergent bilinguals. Key understandings about how the brain…

  18. Associations Between Fathers’ and Mothers’ Psychopathology Symptoms, Parental Emotion Socialization, and Preschoolers’ Social-Emotional Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, Lotte D.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Endendijk, Joyce J.; van Berkel, Sheila R.; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Mesman, Judi

    2016-01-01

    In this study we tested whether the relation between fathers’ and mothers’ psychopathology symptoms and child social-emotional development was mediated by parents’ use of emotion talk about negative emotions in a sample of 241 two-parent families. Parents’ internalizing and externalizing problems

  19. Development and Implementation of a Psychoeducational Group for Ghanaian Adolescents Experiencing Parental Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkyi, Anthony K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents development and informal assessment of a 10-week psychoeducational program designed for 8 adolescent group members experiencing parental divorce in a rural community in Ghana. Group design, cultural considerations, program implementation, and impacts are described. The literature review pertaining to group work as an…

  20. Development of an Interactive Social Media Tool for Parents with Concerns about Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoup, Jo Ann; Wagner, Nicole M.; Kraus, Courtney R.; Narwaney, Komal J.; Goddard, Kristin S.; Glanz, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Describe a process for designing, building, and evaluating a theory-driven social media intervention tool to help reduce parental concerns about vaccination. Method: We developed an interactive web-based tool using quantitative and qualitative methods (e.g., survey, focus groups, individual interviews, and usability testing). Results:…

  1. Parents' Prenatal Mental Health and Emotional, Behavioral and Social Development in Their Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvalevaag, Anne Lise; Ramchandani, Paul G; Hove, Oddbjørn; Eberhard-Gran, Malin; Assmus, Jörg; Havik, Odd E; Sivertsen, Børge; Biringer, Eva

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the association between expectant parents' psychological distress and children's development at 36 months old. This is a prospective population study based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, N = 31,663. Logistic regression models were used to assess whether high scores (cutoff ≥ 2.00) on the symptom checklist-5 in parents predicted higher levels (cutoff ≥ 90 percentile) of developmental problems in their children. The risk of emotional and behavioral problems were significantly increased in children when both parents were affected by psychological distress during pregnancy, fully adjusted OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.36, 4.07) and OR 2.65 (96% CI 1.564.48), respectively. The risk was higher when mothers reported high level of psychological distress than when only the fathers did, but the risk of emotional difficulties in children was highest when both parents presented high levels of psychological distress, indicating an additive effect of parental psychological distress.

  2. Development and validation of the Parents' Perceived Self-Efficacy to Manage Children's Internet Use Scale for parents of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Ping; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims This study developed and validated the Parents' Perceived Self-Efficacy to Manage Children's Internet Use Scale (PSMIS) in the parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods In total, 231 parents of children with ADHD were invited to complete the PSMIS, followed by the Chen Internet Addiction Scale and the short version of Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Version IV Scale - Chinese version for analyzing Internet addiction severity and ADHD symptoms, respectively. Results The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the four-factor structure of the 18-item PSMIS. The significant difference in the levels of parents' perceived self-efficacy between the parents of children with and without Internet addiction supported the criterion-related validity of the PSMIS. The internal consistency and 1-month test-retest reliability were acceptable. Conclusion The results indicate that the PSMIS has acceptable validity and reliability and can be used for measuring parents' perceived self-efficacy to manage children's Internet use among parents of children with ADHD.

  3. Parental age and child growth and development: child health check-up data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwayama, Mariko; Kira, Ryutaro; Kinukawa, Naoko; Sakai, Yasunari; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Nose, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Toshimichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether parental age has any influence on child health. Well-baby check-up data at 1 month and at 12 months of age were used. The trends of parental age in association with growth measurements, incidence of physical and developmental abnormalities, occurrence of low birthweight, and maternal history of spontaneous abortion were analyzed. Associations between increasing paternal age and incidence of psychomotor developmental delay at 12 months, increasing paternal and maternal age and increasing birthweight, and increasing parental age and higher incidence of history of spontaneous abortion were found. The incidence of low-birthweight infants was significantly decreased with increasing paternal age. Not only increasing maternal age but also increasing paternal age have influences on child development and growth in the general population. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. How caring for a parent affects the psychosocial development of the young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jessica; Bayless, Sarah

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the impact of caring for a parent on the psychosocial development of the young person. A total of 20 young carers and 20 non-caregiving peers, aged 11-18 years, were compared on self-report measures of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and behavioural strengths and difficulties. Parental reports on their child's behaviour were obtained and measured. Young carers reported lower life satisfaction and self-esteem compared with non-caregiving peers, and their parents rated them as having more difficulties with peer relationships and more emotional symptoms. There was no evidence of more pro-social behaviour on the part of young carers. Caregiving has a negative effect on young people overall; improved support of and more research around young carers are required.

  5. Insensitive parenting may accelerate the development of the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Sandra; Muetzel, Ryan L; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2017-05-01

    This study examined whether the association between age and amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) connectivity in typically developing 6- to 10-year-old children is correlated with parental care. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 124 children of the Generation R Study who at 4 years old had been observed interacting with their parents to assess maternal and paternal sensitivity. Amygdala functional connectivity was assessed using a general linear model with the amygdalae time series as explanatory variables. Higher level analyses assessing Sensitivity × Age as well as exploratory Sensitivity × Age × Gender interaction effects were performed restricted to voxels in the mPFC. We found significant Sensitivity × Age interaction effects on amygdala-mPFC connectivity. Age was related to stronger amygdala-mPFC connectivity in children with a lower combined parental sensitivity score (b = 0.11, p = .004, b = 0.06, p = .06, right and left amygdala, respectively), but not in children with a higher parental sensitivity score, (b = -0.07, p = .12, b = -0.06, p = .12, right and left amygdala, respectively). A similar effect was found for maternal sensitivity, with stronger amygdala-mPFC connectivity in children with less sensitive mothers. Exploratory (parental, maternal, paternal) Sensitivity × Age × Gender interaction analyses suggested that this effect was especially pronounced in girls. Amygdala-mPFC resting-state functional connectivity has been shown to increase from age 10.5 years onward, implying that the positive association between age and amygdala-mPFC connectivity in 6- to 10-year-old children of less sensitive parents represents accelerated development of the amygdala-mPFC circuit.

  6. Development of a theory-based questionnaire to assess structure and control in parent feeding (SCPF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jennifer S; Rollins, Brandi Y; Kugler, Kari C; Birch, Leann L; Marini, Michele E

    2017-01-26

    Parents shape children's eating environments and act as powerful socialization agents, impacting young children's behavioral controls of food intake. Most feeding measures assess parents' use of control to manage children's intake of energy dense foods. The Structure and Control in Parent Feeding (SCPF) questionnaire was developed to assess more positive aspects of feeding practices with their young children -setting limits, providing routines-that promote self-regulation, as well as controlling feeding practices. A mixed method approach was used to develop the SCPF. In 2013, cognitive interviews informed the modification, deletion and/or replacement of items. In 2014, the survey was distributed statewide to mothers of toddlers aged 12 to 36 months participating in the Women, Infants, and Children program. In 2016, exploratory factor analyses was conducted to test our theoretical parenting model and content validity and criterion validity were assessed (n = 334). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and second-order EFA revealed a 2-factor, 22-item Structure model and a 2-factor, 12-item Control model. Internal consistencies for all factors exceeded 0.70. As predicted, the Structure superfactor was positivity associated with responsiveness, whereas the Control superfactor was positively associated with demandingness on the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. The Structure subscales were also positively associated with mealtime behaviors and Control subscales were positively associated with control-oriented feeding measures from the Control in Parent Feeding Practices questionnaire. The SCPF questionnaire is a reliable tool that can be used to assess aspects of structure- and control-based feeding practices to better understand how parents feed their toddlers.

  7. A phenomenologic investigation of pediatric residents' experiences being parented and giving parenting advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, A C; Shawler, P M; Blackmon, D L; DeGrace, E W; Wolraich, M L

    2016-09-01

    Factors surrounding pediatricians' parenting advice and training on parenting during residency have not been well studied. The primary purpose of this study was to examine pediatric residents' self-reported experiences giving parenting advice and explore the relationship between parenting advice given and types of parenting residents received as children. Thirteen OUHSC pediatric residents were individually interviewed to examine experiences being parented and giving parenting advice. Phenomenological methods were used to explicate themes and secondary analyses explored relationships of findings based upon Baumrind's parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive). While childhood experiences were not specifically correlated to the parenting advice style of pediatric residents interviewed, virtually all reported relying upon childhood experiences to generate their advice. Those describing authoritative parents reported giving more authoritative advice while others reported more variable advice. Core interview themes related to residents' parenting advice included anxiety about not being a parent, varying advice based on families' needs, and emphasis of positive interactions and consistency. Themes related to how residents were parented included discipline being a learning process for their parents and recalling that their parents always had expectations, yet always loved them. Pediatric residents interviewed reported giving family centered parenting advice with elements of positive interactions and consistency, but interviews highlighted many areas of apprehension residents have around giving parenting advice. Our study suggests that pediatric residents may benefit from more general educational opportunities to develop the content of their parenting advice, including reflecting on any impact from their own upbringing.

  8. More than just openness: developing and validating a measure of targeted parent-child communication about alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Day, Michelle; Kam, Jennifer A

    2010-06-01

    Research addressing parent-child communication on the topic of alcohol use relies heavily on assessing frequency of discussions and general assessments of openness in parent-child communication, ignoring the complexity of this communication phenomenon. This study adds to the literature by articulating a conceptualization and developing a measurement of parent-child communication-targeted parent-child communication about alcohol-and comparing the efficacy of targeted parent-child communication about alcohol in predicting positive expectancies of alcohol use and recent alcohol use. The predictive power of general openness in parent-child communication and frequency of communication about alcohol also were assessed. Students in fifth and sixth grade (N = 1,407) from 29 public schools completed surveys. Targeted parent-child communication about alcohol was negatively associated with both outcomes. Frequency and general openness were only negatively associated with positive expectancies regarding alcohol. Implications of these findings for the etiology and prevention of substance use are discussed.

  9. Influence of parental attitudes in the development of children eating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglioni, Silvia; Salvioni, Michela; Galimberti, Cinzia

    2008-02-01

    The present paper is a review of available data on effects of parental feeding attitudes and styles on child nutritional behaviour. Food preferences develop from genetically determined predispositions to like sweet and salty flavours and to dislike bitter and sour tastes. There is evidence for existence of some innate, automatic mechanism that regulate appetite. However, from birth genetic predispositions are modified by experience. There are mechanisms of taste development: mere exposure, medicine effect, flavour learning, flavour nutrient learning. Parents play a pivotal role in the development of their child's food preferences and energy intake, with research indicating that certain child feeding practices, such as exerting excessive control over what and how much children eat, may contribute to childhood overweight. Mothers are of particular interest on children's eating behaviour, as they have been shown to spend significantly more time than fathers in direct interactions with their children across several familial situations.A recent paper describes two primary aspects of control: restriction, which involves restricting children's access to junk foods and restricting the total amount of food, and pressure, which involves pressuring children to eat healthy foods (usually fruits and vegetables) and pressuring to eat more in general. The results showed significant correlations between parent and child for reported nutritional behaviour like food intake, eating motivations, and body dis- and satisfaction. Parents create environments for children that may foster the development of healthy eating behaviours and weight, or that may promote overweight and aspects of disordered eating. In conclusion positive parental role model may be a better method for improving a child's diet than attempts at dietary control.

  10. Parent perceptions of the quality of life of pet dogs living with neuro-typically developing and neuro-atypically developing children: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Hannah F.; Mills, Daniel S.

    2017-01-01

    There is growing scientific and societal recognition of the role that pet dogs can play in healthy development of children; both those who are neuro-typically developing and those who live with a neuro-developmental disorder, such as autism or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, little attention has been paid to how living with children positively and negatively affects quality of life of a pet dog. In this exploratory study we conducted semi-structured interviews with parents of neuro-typically developing children (n = 18) and those with a neuro-developmental disorder (n = 18) who owned a pet dog, until no new factors were identified. Living with children brought potentially positive benefits to the dog’s life including: imposition of a routine, participation in recreational activities and the development of a strong bond between the child and the dog. The importance of maintaining a routine was particularly prevalent in families with children with neuro-developmental disorders. Potential negative factors included having to cope with child meltdowns and tantrums, over stimulation from child visitors, harsh contact and rough and tumble play with the child. The regularity and intensity of meltdowns and tantrums was particularly evident in responses from parents with children with a neuro-developmental disorder. However, child visitors and rough play and contact were mentioned similarly across the groups. Protective factors included having a safe haven for the dog to escape to, parent’s awareness of stress signs and child education in dog-interaction. Parents were also asked to complete a stress response scale to provide an initial quantitative comparison of stress responses between dogs living with the two family-types. Parents with neuro-typically developing children more frequently observed their dog rapidly running away from a situation and less frequently observed their dog widening their eyes, than parents with children with a neuro

  11. Caring Decisions: The Development of a Written Resource for Parents Facing End-of-Life Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Xafis, Vicki; Gillam, Lynn; Hynson, Jenny; Sullivan, Jane; Cossich, Mary; Wilkinson, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Background: Written resources in adult intensive care have been shown to benefit families facing end of life (EoL) decisions. There are few resources for parents making EoL decisions for their child and no existing resources addressing ethical issues. TheCaring Decisionshandbook and website were developed to fill these gaps. Aim: We discuss the development of the resources, modification after reviewer feedback and findings from initial pilot implementation. Design: A targeted...

  12. Parenting and Children's Socioemotional and Academic Development among White, Latino, Asian, and Black families

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hannah Soo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONParenting and Children's Socioemotional and Academic Development among White, Latino, Asian, and Black familiesByHannah S. KangDoctor of Philosophy in Psychology and Social BehaviorUniversity of California, Irvine 2014Professor Chuansheng Chen, ChairA large body of research has demonstrated the crucial role of parenting in children's socioemotional and academic development (Maccoby & Martin, 1983). This literature, however, has major limitations in the following th...

  13. Perceptions of Young Adult Central Nervous System Cancer Survivors and Their Parents Regarding Career Development and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauser, David R.; Wagner, Stacia; Chan, Fong; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Identify barriers to career development and employment from both the survivor and parent perspective. Method: Young adult survivors (N = 43) and their parents participated in focus groups to elicit information regarding perceptions regarding career development and employment. Results: Perceptions of both the young adults and parents…

  14. Development of Emotion Self-Regulation among Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Amy C.; Gorman, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    Emotional self-regulation (ESR) challenges are well-documented in the diagnostic profiles of children with Autism; however, less is known about the development of ESR and the role of parents in ESR development for this population. Thirty-seven young children with autism and one of their parents participated in a home-based, observational study…

  15. [Language development in children with migration background and parental reading to children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenwort, Brigitte; Aslan, Hacire; Yesilyurt, Symeyye Nur; Till, Benedikt; Klier, Claudia M

    2018-03-01

    The majority of children with a migration background suffer from language deficits in one or both languages. The aim of our study was to describe the patterns of language acquisition in children with Turkish background in Austria and to find factors which influence these Patterns. Fifty-two children at the age of 5 to 6 years and their parents were assessed. Inclusion criteria for parents were Turkish migration background and use of Turkish at home. Inclusion criteria for children: no hearing impairment, no blindness, no chronic disease, average cognitive development, born in Austria, and attending a kindergarten. Language competence was measured with Havas 5. Parents were administered a questionnaire about socio-demographics and their child centered literacy orientation (CCLO). There was a significant difference between language patterns in Turkish and German. Moreover, language competence was higher in both Turkish and German, the more parents tended to read to their children in Turkish. Children acquired a grammatically correct but simple Turkish, while their competence in German was reduced. Reading to the children seems to stimulate language development not only of their natural language, but also of German. Early literacy in migrant languages should be integrated in training programs.

  16. The Politics and Consequences of Including Stakeholders in International Development Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Anne E.; Coryn, Chris L. S.; Rugh, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Participatory evaluation approaches have a relatively long history of advocacy and application in the international development evaluation community. Despite widespread use and apparent resonance with practitioners and donors alike, very little empirical research exists on why and how participatory evaluation approaches are used in international…

  17. A Multiobjective Optimization Including Results of Life Cycle Assessment in Developing Biorenewables-Based Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmdach, Daniel; Yaseneva, Polina; Heer, Parminder K; Schweidtmann, Artur M; Lapkin, Alexei A

    2017-09-22

    A decision support tool has been developed that uses global multiobjective optimization based on 1) the environmental impacts, evaluated within the framework of full life cycle assessment; and 2) process costs, evaluated by using rigorous process models. This approach is particularly useful in developing biorenewable-based energy solutions and chemicals manufacturing, for which multiple criteria must be evaluated and optimization-based decision-making processes are particularly attractive. The framework is demonstrated by using a case study of the conversion of terpenes derived from biowaste feedstocks into reactive intermediates. A two-step chemical conversion/separation sequence was implemented as a rigorous process model and combined with a life cycle model. A life cycle inventory for crude sulfate turpentine was developed, as well as a conceptual process of its separation into pure terpene feedstocks. The performed single- and multiobjective optimizations demonstrate the functionality of the optimization-based process development and illustrate the approach. The most significant advance is the ability to perform multiobjective global optimization, resulting in identification of a region of Pareto-optimal solutions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. 'Mixed blessings': parental religiousness, parenting, and child adjustment in global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Lansford, Jennifer E; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Steinberg, Laurence; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2017-08-01

    Most studies of the effects of parental religiousness on parenting and child development focus on a particular religion or cultural group, which limits generalizations that can be made about the effects of parental religiousness on family life. We assessed the associations among parental religiousness, parenting, and children's adjustment in a 3-year longitudinal investigation of 1,198 families from nine countries. We included four religions (Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, and Islam) plus unaffiliated parents, two positive (efficacy and warmth) and two negative (control and rejection) parenting practices, and two positive (social competence and school performance) and two negative (internalizing and externalizing) child outcomes. Parents and children were informants. Greater parent religiousness had both positive and negative associations with parenting and child adjustment. Greater parent religiousness when children were age 8 was associated with higher parental efficacy at age 9 and, in turn, children's better social competence and school performance and fewer child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. However, greater parent religiousness at age 8 was also associated with more parental control at age 9, which in turn was associated with more child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. Parental warmth and rejection had inconsistent relations with parental religiousness and child outcomes depending on the informant. With a few exceptions, similar patterns of results held for all four religions and the unaffiliated, nine sites, mothers and fathers, girls and boys, and controlling for demographic covariates. Parents and children agree that parental religiousness is associated with more controlling parenting and, in turn, increased child problem behaviors. However, children see religiousness as related to parental rejection, whereas parents see religiousness as related to parental efficacy and warmth, which have different

  19. The association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and medical students' personal and professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Angela P C; Chen, Chen-Huan; Su, Tong-Ping; Shih, Wan-Jing; Lee, Chen-Hsen; Hou, Sheng-Mou

    2007-09-01

    In order to commit to their mission and placement requirements, medical education policy-makers are required to understand the background and character of students in order to admit, cultivate and support them efficiently and effectively. This study sample consisted of 408 homogeneous medical students with the same level of education, occupation, school and societal environment. They differed mainly in their family background. Therefore, this study used part of a multidimensional "student portfolio system" database to assess the correlation between family status (indexed by parental education and occupation) and medical students' mental health status and characters. The controls were a group of 181 non-medical students in another university. The parents of the medical students were from a higher socioeconomic status (SES) than the parents of those in the control group. This showed the heritability of genetic and environment conditions as well as the socioeconomic forces at play in medical education. Students' personal and professional development were associated with their parents' SES. The mother's SES was associated with the student's selfreported stress, mental disturbances, attitude towards life, personality, health, discipline, internationalisation and professionalism. The fathers' SES did not show a statistically significant association with the above stress, physical and mental health factors, but showed an association with some of the personality factors. The greater the educational difference between both parents, the more stress, hopelessness and pessimism the student manifested. Medical educators need to be aware that socioeconomic factors have meaningful patterns of association with students' mental and physical health, and their characters relating to personal and professional development. Low maternal SES negatively influences medical students' personal and professional development, suggesting that medical education policy-makers need to initiate

  20. Optimization of the weekly operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric development, including a pumped storage plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, R.; Popa, F.; Popa, B.; Zachia-Zlatea, D.

    2010-08-01

    It is presented an optimization model based on genetic algorithms for the operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric power development consisting in a pumped storage plant (PSP) with weekly operation cycle. The lower reservoir of the PSP is supplied upstream from a peak hydropower plant (HPP) with a large reservoir and supplies the own HPP which provides the required discharges towards downstream. Under these conditions, the optimum operation of the assembly consisting in 3 reservoirs and hydropower plants becomes a difficult problem if there are considered the restrictions as regards: the gradients allowed for the reservoirs filling/emptying, compliance with of a long-term policy of the upper reservoir from the hydroelectric development and of the weekly cycle for the PSP upper reservoir, correspondence between the power output/consumption in the weekly load schedule, turning to account of the water resource at maximum overall efficiencies, etc. Maximization of the net energy value (generated minus consumed) was selected as performance function of the model, considering the differentiated price of the electric energy over the week (working or weekend days, peak, half-peak or base hours). The analysis time step was required to be of 3 hours, resulting a weekly horizon of 56 steps and 168 decision variables, respectively, for the 3 HPPs of the system. These were allowed to be the flows turbined at the HPP and the number of working hydrounits at PSP, on each time step. The numerical application has considered the guiding data of Fantanele-Tarnita-Lapustesti hydroelectric development. Results of various simulations carried out proved the qualities of the proposed optimization model, which will allow its use within a decisional support program for such a development.

  1. Optimization of the weekly operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric development, including a pumped storage plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, R; Popa, B; Popa, F; Zachia-Zlatea, D

    2010-01-01

    It is presented an optimization model based on genetic algorithms for the operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric power development consisting in a pumped storage plant (PSP) with weekly operation cycle. The lower reservoir of the PSP is supplied upstream from a peak hydropower plant (HPP) with a large reservoir and supplies the own HPP which provides the required discharges towards downstream. Under these conditions, the optimum operation of the assembly consisting in 3 reservoirs and hydropower plants becomes a difficult problem if there are considered the restrictions as regards: the gradients allowed for the reservoirs filling/emptying, compliance with of a long-term policy of the upper reservoir from the hydroelectric development and of the weekly cycle for the PSP upper reservoir, correspondence between the power output/consumption in the weekly load schedule, turning to account of the water resource at maximum overall efficiencies, etc. Maximization of the net energy value (generated minus consumed) was selected as performance function of the model, considering the differentiated price of the electric energy over the week (working or weekend days, peak, half-peak or base hours). The analysis time step was required to be of 3 hours, resulting a weekly horizon of 56 steps and 168 decision variables, respectively, for the 3 HPPs of the system. These were allowed to be the flows turbined at the HPP and the number of working hydrounits at PSP, on each time step. The numerical application has considered the guiding data of Fantanele-Tarnita-Lapustesti hydroelectric development. Results of various simulations carried out proved the qualities of the proposed optimization model, which will allow its use within a decisional support program for such a development.

  2. Optimization of the weekly operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric development, including a pumped storage plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, R; Popa, B [Faculty of Power Engineering, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Spl. Independentei, sect. 6, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania); Popa, F [Institute for Hydropower Studies and Design, 5-7 Vasile Lascar, sect. 2, Bucharest, 020491 (Romania); Zachia-Zlatea, D, E-mail: bogdan.popa@rosha.r [Hidroelectrica S.A., 3 Constantin Nacu, sect. 2, Bucharest, 020995 (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    It is presented an optimization model based on genetic algorithms for the operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric power development consisting in a pumped storage plant (PSP) with weekly operation cycle. The lower reservoir of the PSP is supplied upstream from a peak hydropower plant (HPP) with a large reservoir and supplies the own HPP which provides the required discharges towards downstream. Under these conditions, the optimum operation of the assembly consisting in 3 reservoirs and hydropower plants becomes a difficult problem if there are considered the restrictions as regards: the gradients allowed for the reservoirs filling/emptying, compliance with of a long-term policy of the upper reservoir from the hydroelectric development and of the weekly cycle for the PSP upper reservoir, correspondence between the power output/consumption in the weekly load schedule, turning to account of the water resource at maximum overall efficiencies, etc. Maximization of the net energy value (generated minus consumed) was selected as performance function of the model, considering the differentiated price of the electric energy over the week (working or weekend days, peak, half-peak or base hours). The analysis time step was required to be of 3 hours, resulting a weekly horizon of 56 steps and 168 decision variables, respectively, for the 3 HPPs of the system. These were allowed to be the flows turbined at the HPP and the number of working hydrounits at PSP, on each time step. The numerical application has considered the guiding data of Fantanele-Tarnita-Lapustesti hydroelectric development. Results of various simulations carried out proved the qualities of the proposed optimization model, which will allow its use within a decisional support program for such a development.

  3. Language development, delay and intervention-the views of parents from communities that speech and language therapy managers in England consider to be under-served.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Harding, Sam; Roulstone, Sue

    2017-07-01

    Evidence-based practice includes research evidence, clinical expertise and stakeholder perspectives. Stakeholder perspectives are important and include parental ethno-theories, which embrace views about many aspects of speech, language and communication, language development, and interventions. The Developmental Niche Framework provides a useful theory to understand parental beliefs. Ethnotheories, including those about language development, delay and interventions, may vary cross culturally and are less well understood in relation to families who may be considered 'under-served' or 'hard-to-reach' by speech and language therapy services. Who is considered to be under-served and the reasons why some families are under-served are complex. To describe beliefs and reported practices, in relation to speech and language development, delay and intervention, of parents and carers from a small number of groups in England who were perceived to be under-served in relation to SLT services. As part of a wider National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)-funded study (Child Talk), seven focus groups (with a total of 52 participants) were held with parents from three communities in England. Topics addressed included beliefs about language development, language delay and parents' reported responses to language delay. Data were transcribed and analysed using adapted framework analysis, which also drew on directed content analysis. Four themes resulted that broadly matched the topics addressed in the focus groups: language development and the environment; causes and signs of speech and language delay; responses to concerns about speech, language and communication; and improving SLT. These produced some previously unreported ideas, e.g., about how language develops and the causes of delay. The findings are discussed in relation to previous literature and the Developmental Niche Framework. Clinical implications include ideas about issues for SLTs to discuss with families and the

  4. Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Chuthapisith, Jariya; Mo-suwan, Ladda; Kriweradechachai, Suntree; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Choprapawon, Chanpen

    2009-01-01

    Background Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a) study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age television (as recommended by the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP), television toward their child's development. Methods Two hundred and sixty children and their parents were recruited into the study. Time spent on television and parental perceptions on television viewing toward their child's development were recorded during face-to-face and telephone interviews. Language development was assessed at the age of 2 years using the Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS), and parents' report. Association between delayed language development and time spent on television viewing, as well as other various parameters such as gender, maternal education and family income, were analysed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Most Thai infants and toddlers watched television at the age of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old (98.0, 95.3 and 96.7%, respectively). On average, 1-year-old children watched television 1.23 ± 1.42 hours per day. This increased to 1.69 ± 1.56 hours per day when they were 2 years old. However, watching television longer than 2 hours per day did not associate with delayed language development. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, gender (male) was the only significant factor associated with delayed language development (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.5–31.3). Moreover, 75%, 71%, and 66% of Thai parents believed that television viewing yielded benefits to children's developments. Conclusion Thai children commenced watching television at an early age and the amount of television viewing time increased by age. Most parents had positive perceptions to television viewing. The study found no association between time spent on television viewing (≥ 2 hours per day) and delayed language development at the

  5. The influence of perceived parenting styles on socio-emotional development from pre-puberty into puberty

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Min Yee; Eilander, Janna; Saw, Seang Mei; Xie, Yuhuan; Meaney, Michael J.; Broekman, Birit F. P.

    2017-01-01

    The relative impact of parenting on socio-emotional development of children has rarely been examined in a longitudinal context. This study examined the association between perceived parenting styles and socio-emotional functioning from childhood to adolescence. We hypothesized that optimal parenting associated with improvement in socio-emotional functioning from childhood into early adulthood, especially for those with more behavioral problems in childhood. Children between ages 7 and 9 years...

  6. Projects of SR sources including research and development for insertion devices in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulipanov, G.

    1990-01-01

    Some technical information on the electron and positron storage rings - SR sources that are being constructed, used or developed at the Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP), is given. The parameters and construction of wigglers and undulators (electromagnetic, superconducting, and based on permanent magnets) that are intended to be used at such storage rings are described. Various schemes of installation of wigglers, undulators and FEL at storage rings is considered. The ways of minimizing the influence of their magnetic fields on particle motion in storage rings are treated. (author)

  7. Development of a quantitative safety assessment method for nuclear I and C systems including human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol

    2004-02-01

    Conventional PSA (probabilistic safety analysis) is performed in the framework of event tree analysis and fault tree analysis. In conventional PSA, I and C systems and human operators are assumed to be independent for simplicity. But, the dependency of human operators on I and C systems and the dependency of I and C systems on human operators are gradually recognized to be significant. I believe that it is time to consider the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of PSA. But, unfortunately it seems that we do not have appropriate methods for incorporating the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of Pasa. Conventional human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are not developed to consider the interdependecy, and the modeling of the interdependency using conventional event tree analysis and fault tree analysis seem to be, event though is does not seem to be impossible, quite complex. To incorporate the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators, we need a new method for HRA and a new method for modeling the I and C systems, man-machine interface (MMI), and human operators for quantitative safety assessment. As a new method for modeling the I and C systems, MMI and human operators, I develop a new system reliability analysis method, reliability graph with general gates (RGGG), which can substitute conventional fault tree analysis. RGGG is an intuitive and easy-to-use method for system reliability analysis, while as powerful as conventional fault tree analysis. To demonstrate the usefulness of the RGGG method, it is applied to the reliability analysis of Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS), which is the actual plant protection system of Ulchin 5 and 6 nuclear power plants located in Republic of Korea. The latest version of the fault tree for DPPS, which is developed by the Integrated Safety Assessment team in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), consists of 64

  8. Tell me your life: including life stories in an adult development and aging course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Celdran, Montserrat; Fabà, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to determine the learning impact of an assignment that consisted of interviewing and analyzing older people's life stories, and to explore how the assignment was evaluated by students. Participants in the study were 122 first-year social education students enrolled in an adult development and aging course. They evaluated the assignment using an eight-adjective questionnaire and were asked about the benefits of the task. Their answers to the questionnaire were then reviewed using content analysis. The results indicated that marks on the life story assignment predicted marks on an exam about basic course concepts. Students considered that the assignment was interesting, useful, and integrated into the course, although most of them also thought that it was very time-consuming. They identified benefits related to the explicit goals of the course (improvement in the learning of developmental concepts, the acquisition of research-related skills, and the deactivation of aging stereotypes) and personal, growth-related benefits. The authors discuss the difficulties posed by the assignment and its usefulness as a complement to more traditional, lecture-based teaching methods in adult development and aging courses.

  9. States and compacts: Issues and events affecting facility development efforts, including the Barnwell opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    Ten years have passed since the first regional low-level radioactive waste compacts received Congressional consent and initiated their efforts to develop new disposal capacity. During these 10 years, both significant achievements and serious setbacks have marked our efforts and affect our current outlook. Recent events in the waste marketplace, particularly in the operating status of the Barnwell disposal facility, have now raised legitimate questions about the continued rationale for the regional framework that grew out of the original legislation enacted by Congress in 1980. At the same time, licensing activities for new regional disposal facilities are under way in three states, and a fourth awaits the final go-ahead to begin construction. Uncertainty over the meaning and reliability of the marketplace events makes it difficult to gauge long-term implications. In addition, differences in the status of individual state and compact facility development efforts lead to varying assessments of the influence these events will, or should, have on such efforts

  10. Development of a Virtual Museum Including a 4d Presentation of Building History in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, T. P.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Deggim, S.

    2017-02-01

    In the last two decades the definition of the term "virtual museum" changed due to rapid technological developments. Using today's available 3D technologies a virtual museum is no longer just a presentation of collections on the Internet or a virtual tour of an exhibition using panoramic photography. On one hand, a virtual museum should enhance a museum visitor's experience by providing access to additional materials for review and knowledge deepening either before or after the real visit. On the other hand, a virtual museum should also be used as teaching material in the context of museum education. The laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg has developed a virtual museum (VM) of the museum "Alt-Segeberger Bürgerhaus", a historic town house. The VM offers two options for visitors wishing to explore the museum without travelling to the city of Bad Segeberg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Option a, an interactive computer-based, tour for visitors to explore the exhibition and to collect information of interest or option b, to immerse into virtual reality in 3D with the HTC Vive Virtual Reality System.

  11. States and compacts: Issues and events affecting facility development efforts, including the Barnwell opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    Ten years have passed since the first regional low-level radioactive waste compacts received Congressional consent and initiated their efforts to develop new disposal capacity. During these 10 years, both significant achievements and serious setbacks have marked our efforts and affect our current outlook. Recent events in the waste marketplace, particularly in the operating status of the Barnwell disposal facility, have now raised legitimate questions about the continued rationale for the regional framework that grew out of the original legislation enacted by Congress in 1980. At the same time, licensing activities for new regional disposal facilities are under way in three states, and a fourth awaits the final go-ahead to begin construction. Uncertainty over the meaning and reliability of the marketplace events makes it difficult to gauge long-term implications. In addition, differences in the status of individual state and compact facility development efforts lead to varying assessments of the influence these events will, or should, have on such efforts.

  12. “Expectant Parents”: Study protocol of a longitudinal study concerning prenatal (risk factors and postnatal infant development, parenting, and parent-infant relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas A Janneke BM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of the infant-parent relationship from the child’s perspective is acknowledged worldwide, there is still a lack of knowledge about predictors and long-term benefits or consequences of the quality of parent-infant relationships from the parent’s perspective. The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the quality of parent-infant relationships from parents’ perspectives, both in the prenatal and postpartum period. This study therefore focuses on prenatal (risk factors that may influence the quality of pre- and postnatal bonding, the transition to parenthood, and bonding as a process within families with young children. In contrast to most research concerning pregnancy and infant development, not only the roles and experiences of mothers during pregnancy and the first two years of infants’ lives are studied, but also those of fathers. Methods/design The present study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study, in which pregnant women (N = 466 and their partners (N = 319 are followed from 15 weeks gestation until their child is 24 months old. During pregnancy, midwives register the presence of prenatal risk factors and provide obstetric information after the child’s birth. Parental characteristics are investigated using self-report questionnaires at 15, 26, and 36 weeks gestational age and at 4, 6, 12, and 24 months postpartum. At 26 weeks of pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum, parents are interviewed concerning their representations of the (unborn child. At 6 months postpartum, the mother-child interaction is observed in several situations within the home setting. When children are 4, 6, 12, and 24 months old, parents also completed questionnaires concerning the child’s (social-emotional development and the parent-child relationship. Additionally, at 12 months information about the child’s physical development and well-being during the first year of life is retrieved from

  13. Speech recognition and parent-ratings from auditory development questionnaires in children who are hard of hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Ryan W.; Walker, Elizabeth A.; Spratford, Meredith; Oleson, Jacob; Bentler, Ruth; Holte, Lenore; Roush, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Progress has been made in recent years in the provision of amplification and early intervention for children who are hard of hearing. However, children who use hearing aids (HA) may have inconsistent access to their auditory environment due to limitations in speech audibility through their HAs or limited HA use. The effects of variability in children’s auditory experience on parent-report auditory skills questionnaires and on speech recognition in quiet and in noise were examined for a large group of children who were followed as part of the Outcomes of Children with Hearing Loss study. Design Parent ratings on auditory development questionnaires and children’s speech recognition were assessed for 306 children who are hard of hearing. Children ranged in age from 12 months to 9 years of age. Three questionnaires involving parent ratings of auditory skill development and behavior were used, including the LittlEARS Auditory Questionnaire, Parents Evaluation of Oral/Aural Performance in Children Rating Scale, and an adaptation of the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing scale. Speech recognition in quiet was assessed using the Open and Closed set task, Early Speech Perception Test, Lexical Neighborhood Test, and Phonetically-balanced Kindergarten word lists. Speech recognition in noise was assessed using the Computer-Assisted Speech Perception Assessment. Children who are hard of hearing were compared to peers with normal hearing matched for age, maternal educational level and nonverbal intelligence. The effects of aided audibility, HA use and language ability on parent responses to auditory development questionnaires and on children’s speech recognition were also examined. Results Children who are hard of hearing had poorer performance than peers with normal hearing on parent ratings of auditory skills and had poorer speech recognition. Significant individual variability among children who are hard of hearing was observed. Children with greater

  14. Distributed soil loss estimation system including ephemeral gully development and tillage erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. N. Vieira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new modelling system is being developed to provide spatially-distributed runoff and soil erosion predictions for conservation planning that integrates the 2D grid-based variant of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, version 2 model (RUSLER, the Ephemeral Gully Erosion Estimator (EphGEE, and the Tillage Erosion and Landscape Evolution Model (TELEM. Digital representations of the area of interest (field, farm or entire watershed are created using high-resolution topography and data retrieved from established databases of soil properties, climate, and agricultural operations. The system utilizes a library of processing tools (LibRaster to deduce surface drainage from topography, determine the location of potential ephemeral gullies, and subdivide the study area into catchments for calculations of runoff and sheet-and-rill erosion using RUSLER. EphGEE computes gully evolution based on local soil erodibility and flow and sediment transport conditions. Annual tillage-induced morphological changes are computed separately by TELEM.

  15. Recent developments of the MARC/PN transport theory code including a treatment of anisotropic scatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.K.

    1987-12-01

    The computer code MARC/PN provides a solution of the multigroup transport equation by expanding the flux in spherical harmonics. The coefficients of the series so obtained satisfy linked first order differential equations, and on eliminating terms associated with odd parity harmonics a second order system results which can be solved by established finite difference or finite element techniques. This report describes modifications incorporated in MARC/PN to allow for anisotropic scattering, and the modelling of irregular exterior boundaries in the finite element option. The latter development leads to substantial reductions in problem size, particularly for three dimensions. Also, links to an interactive graphics mesh generator (SUPERTAB) have been added. The final section of the report contains results from problems showing the effects of anisotropic scatter and the ability of the code to model irregular geometries. (author)

  16. Developing a scale to measure parental attitudes towards preschool speech and language therapy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowska, M; Campbell, R; Peters, T J; Roulstone, S; Enderby, P

    2001-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been growing recognition of the need to involve clients in decisions about the healthcare they receive and in the evaluation of services offered. In health services research, survey and scaling methods have become important tools for research into 'consumer views' and the perspectives of people receiving healthcare. In spite of the increase in recent years in the participation of parents in their children's Speech and Language Therapy (SLT), there has been little attempt to investigate parents' perceptions and opinions of the services they receive. Moreover, there has been no previous attempt to derive a scale to measure these attitudes. The paper reports a study that explored the attitudes to therapy of 81 parents whose preschool children were receiving SLT intervention. Factor analysis of 12 items on a questionnaire revealed three issues salient in parental attitudes to therapy: practical help, emotional support and the perceived effectiveness of the service. The validity of these factors was supported by other findings from the questionnaire. The properties of the resulting scales are discussed and the ways in which they might be further refined and developed for use in SLT are suggested.

  17. Coastal erosion's influencing factors include development, dams, wells, and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubrey, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The demographic flight to the coast, begun in early civilization, continues unabated worldwide according to latest studies. The percentage of population living on the coast is expected to remain relatively constant over the next few decades, but the total numbers will increase as the population increases. Recent coastal battering by hurricanes and extratropical storms poses questions about coastal habitability and the real economics of coastal development. Repair costs are borne by private individuals as well as the public in various direct and indirect ways. As these costs escalate, it is fitting to ask what the future portends for storm and coastal-flood damage. It is known that development pressures will continue to increase along the coast, but what will happen concurrently to natural-hazard threats to this infrastructure? Though much emphasis has been placed on sea-level rise, the broader issue is climate change in general. Here, the author considers climate change in both its natural and anthropogenic perspectives. Without becoming mired in the debate about the greenhouse effect and human influence on climatic shifts, some of the broad classes of natural hazards that might accompany climate change are examined. There are several categories of possible global-change effects on coastal erosion. In the early 1980's, an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report postulated increases in global sea level up to 4 meters during the next 100 years. Though balanced somewhat by other, lower estimates of sea-level rise, this higher extreme grabbed public attention. During the next decade, scientists attempted to concur on a more reasonable estimate of global sea-level rise due to climate change. Recent credible estimates suggest that approximately 10 to 20 percent of EPA's earlier maximum estimate is most reasonable

  18. Parenting of children with ADHD in South Korea: the role of socio-emotional development of children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won-Oak; Park, Eun Sook; Suk, Min Hyun; Song, Dong Ho; Im, Yeojin

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the factors affecting the self-esteem and social competence of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Many studies have reported parenting variables such as parenting attitude and sense of competence have been suggested as significant determinants of socio-emotional development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In South Korean society, the traditional culture of Confucianism is a strong influence on parenting practices and children's behaviour. However, there have been few studies that examined the relative significance of the parenting and other associated factors for self-esteem and social competence in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Korea living in a strict parenting environment. This study was designed as a cross-sectional and descriptive survey. The subjects were 124 pairs of mothers and their children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, recruited from local paediatric psychiatric clinics in South Korea. Data collection was conducted through the use of questionnaires. Affectionate parenting attitude and co-morbid condition of the child were the most important predictors of self-esteem. Rejecting parenting attitude was the most important predictor of social competence. Higher levels of affectionate parenting attitude of mothers and non-co-morbid status of children both contributed unique variance to the overall prediction of higher self-esteem of children. Higher levels of rejecting parenting attitude of mothers contributed unique variance to the overall prediction of lower social competence in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Parenting attitude is the most important factor to contribute to the healthy socio-emotional development in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Health care providers need to develop and apply a parenting skills improvement program to improve positive parenting attitudes, which will benefit

  19. Educational Guidance for Families. A Support for Developing a Positive Parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel-Amaya Martínez González

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the need to promote Educational Guidance for Family Life as a means to support families in developing a Positive Parenting role, such as suggested by the Council of Europe (2006. This Recommendation is discussed in some detail and some measures that had been put into practice in Spain to support families under special circumstances are revised; in order to do so, Programme-Agreements which had been developed in the last years sponsored by both the central government and the one of the Spanish Autonomous Cities and Communities are described. Moreover, other preventive and community measures focused on socio-educative support for all families through Positive Parenting Programmes are mentioned. This paper ends with some suggestions about actions which require a multidisciplinary, collaborative net approach among the diverse social entities and institutions working in favour of families.

  20. Including operational data in QMRA model: development and impact of model inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaidi, Kenza; Barbeau, Benoit; Carrière, Annie; Desjardins, Raymond; Prévost, Michèle

    2009-03-01

    A Monte Carlo model, based on the Quantitative Microbial Risk Analysis approach (QMRA), has been developed to assess the relative risks of infection associated with the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water. The impact of various approaches for modelling the initial parameters of the model on the final risk assessments is evaluated. The Monte Carlo simulations that we performed showed that the occurrence of parasites in raw water was best described by a mixed distribution: log-Normal for concentrations > detection limit (DL), and a uniform distribution for concentrations risks significantly. The mean annual risks for conventional treatment are: 1.97E-03 (removal credit adjusted by log parasite = log spores), 1.58E-05 (log parasite = 1.7 x log spores) or 9.33E-03 (regulatory credits based on the turbidity measurement in filtered water). Using full scale validated SCADA data, the simplified calculation of CT performed at the plant was shown to largely underestimate the risk relative to a more detailed CT calculation, which takes into consideration the downtime and system failure events identified at the plant (1.46E-03 vs. 3.93E-02 for the mean risk).

  1. Development of Thermal Spraying and Coating Techniques by Using Thixotropic Slurries Including Metals and Ceramics Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirihara, S; Tasaki, S; Itakura, Y

    2013-01-01

    Thermal nanoparticles coating and microlines patterning were newly developed as novel technologies to fabricate fine ceramics layers and geometrical intermetallics patterns for mechanical properties modulations of practical alloys substrates. Nanometer sized alumina particles were dispersed into acrylic liquid resins, and the obtained slurries were sputtered by using compressed air jet. The slurry mists could blow into the arc plasma with argon gas spraying. On stainless steels substrates, the fine surface layers with high wear resistance were formed. In cross sectional microstructures of the coated layers, micromater sized cracks or pores were not observed. Subsequently, pure aluminum particles were dispersed into photo solidified acrylic resins, and the slurry was spread on the stainless steel substrates by using a mechanical knife blade. On the substrates, microline patterns with self similar fractal structures were drawn and fixed by using scanning of an ultra violet laser beam. The patterned pure metal particles were heated by the argon arc plasma spray assisting, and the intermetallics or alloys phases with high hardness were created through reaction diffusions. Microstructures in the coated layers and the patterned lines were observed by using a scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Psychosexual Functioning of Cognitively-able Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Typically Developing Peers: The Development and Testing of the Teen Transition Inventory- a Self- and Parent Report Questionnaire on Psychosexual Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Linda P; van der Vegt, Esther J M; van der Ende, Jan; Tick, Nouchka; Louwerse, Anneke; Maras, Athanasios; Verhulst, Frank C; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2017-06-01

    To gain further insight into psychosexual functioning, including behaviors, intrapersonal and interpersonal aspects, in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), comprehensive, multi-informant measures are needed. This study describes (1) the development of a new measure of psychosexual functioning in both parent- and self-reports (Teen Transition Inventory; TTI) covering all three domains of psychosexual functioning (i.e. psychosexual socialization, psychosexual selfhood, and sexual/intimate behavior). And (2) the initial testing of this instrument, comparing adolescents with ASD (n = 79 parent-report; n = 58 self-report) to Typically Developing (TD) adolescents (n = 131 parent-report; n = 91 self-report) while taking into account gender as a covariate. Results from both informants indicate more difficulties regarding psychosexual socialization and psychosexual selfhood in the ASD group. With regard to sexual/intimate behavior, only parents reported significantly more problems in adolescents with ASD.

  3. Development and evaluation of alternative radioanalytical methods, including mass spectrometry for marine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    One, if not the most important, aspect of environmental protection against radioactive contamination is the ability to measure accurately low-levels of radionuclides present in the environment. This is particularly true of the marine environment where improved and more rapid methods of analysis are required to identify the source and radiological impact of anthropogenic inputs to the oceans. More sensitive and rapid analytical methods with smaller analytical errors are required to study the behaviour of different radionuclides in the marine environment. Some of these radionuclides serve as useful research tracers that aid in understanding many complex oceanographic processes. With the ever-increasing demand for more accurate data, the IAEA considered it necessary to convene an Advisory Group Meeting to identify those long-lived radionuclides that may be measured by alternative techniques and discuss and evaluate the sensitivity of the analytical methods. The meeting was held at the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco from 6 to 9 June 1989 and was attended by 6 invited participants and several observers. This report from the meeting is divided into two parts. The first contains 5 contributing chapters. In these chapters the authors have endeavored to explain the principles of each measurement technique, the strengths and weakness of the method as applied to marine sciences, comparative costs and sensitivities, future developments and topics of interest to the Agency. The reviews and sensitivities were prepared exclusively by the participants on the basis of their own experience and knowledge of the existing literature. The second part of this report is the appendices section in which can be found tables of radionuclides considered in this report and a comparison of sensitivities for different methods of detection. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongracic Jacqueline A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ≥ 10; item reduction ≥ 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.

  5. Good-parent beliefs of parents of seriously ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feudtner, Chris; Walter, Jennifer K; Faerber, Jennifer A; Hill, Douglas L; Carroll, Karen W; Mollen, Cynthia J; Miller, Victoria A; Morrison, Wynne E; Munson, David; Kang, Tammy I; Hinds, Pamela S

    2015-01-01

    Parents' beliefs about what they need to do to be a good parent when their children are seriously ill influence their medical decisions, and better understanding of these beliefs may improve decision support. To assess parents' perceptions regarding the relative importance of 12 good-parent attributes. A cross-sectional, discrete-choice experiment was conducted at a children's hospital. Participants included 200 parents of children with serious illness. Ratings of 12 good-parent attributes, with subsequent use of latent class analysis to identify groups of parents with similar ratings of attributes, and ascertainment of whether membership in a particular group was associated with demographic or clinical characteristics. The highest-ranked good-parent attribute was making sure that my child feels loved, followed by focusing on my child's health, making informed medical care decisions, and advocating for my child with medical staff. We identified 4 groups of parents with similar patterns of good-parent-attribute ratings, which we labeled as: child feels loved (n=68), child's health (n=56), advocacy and informed (n=55), and spiritual well-being (n=21). Compared with the other groups, the child's health group reported more financial difficulties, was less educated, and had a higher proportion of children with new complex, chronic conditions. Parents endorse a broad range of beliefs that represent what they perceive they should do to be a good parent for their seriously ill child. Common patterns of how parents prioritize these attributes exist, suggesting future research to better understand the origins and development of good-parent beliefs among these parents. More important, engaging parents individually regarding what they perceive to be the core duties they must fulfill to be a good parent may enable more customized and effective decision support.

  6. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? 170.807 Section 170.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS...

  7. A population-level approach to promoting healthy child development and school success in low-income, urban neighborhoods: impact on parenting and child conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rhule, Dana; Kolawole, Bukky; Petkova, Eva; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2015-02-01

    Minority children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at high risk for school dropout, delinquency, and poor health, largely due to the negative impact of poverty and stress on parenting and child development. This study evaluated a population-level, family-centered, school-based intervention designed to promote learning, behavior, and health by strengthening parenting, classroom quality, and child self-regulation during early childhood. Ten schools in urban districts serving primarily low-income Black students were randomly assigned to intervention or a "pre-kindergarten education as usual" control condition. Intervention included a family program (a 13-week behavioral parenting intervention and concurrent group for children) and professional development for early childhood teachers. The majority (88 %) of the pre-kindergarten population (N = 1,050; age 4) enrolled in the trial, and nearly 60 % of parents in intervention schools participated in the family program. This study evaluated intervention impact on parenting (knowledge, positive behavior support, behavior management, involvement in early learning) and child conduct problems over a 2-year period (end of kindergarten). Intent-to-treat analyses found intervention effects on parenting knowledge, positive behavior support, and teacher-rated parent involvement. For the highest-risk families, intervention also resulted in increased parent-rated involvement in early learning and decreased harsh and inconsistent behavior management. Among boys at high risk for problems based on baseline behavioral dysregulation (age 4, 23 % of sample), intervention led to lower rates of conduct problems at age 6. Family-centered intervention at the transition to school has potential to improve population health and break the cycle of disadvantage for low-income, minority families.

  8. Development of an intervention map for a parent education intervention to prevent violence among Hispanic middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, N; Kelder, S; Parcel, G; Orpinas, P

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes development of Padres Trabajando por la Paz, a violence prevention intervention for Hispanic parents to increase parental monitoring. The intervention was developed using an innovative new program planning process: intervention mapping. Theory and empirical evidence broadly defined performance objectives and determinants of parental monitoring. These objectives were further refined through group and individual interviews with the target parent group. Learning objectives for the intervention guided the content of the intervention that used modeling as the primary method and role model stories as a strategy delivered through newsletters. Stage-matching members of the target population for their readiness to implement the parental monitoring behaviors further refined the social cognitive message design strategies. Intervention mapping provides an explicit theory- and data-driven guide for intervention development that maximizes intervention impact for a specific target population.

  9. Measurement Properties and Classification Accuracy of Two Spanish Parent Surveys of Language Development for Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the concurrent validity and classification accuracy of 2 Spanish parent surveys of language development, the Spanish Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ; Squires, Potter, & Bricker, 1999) and the Pilot Inventario-III (Pilot INV-III; Guiberson, 2008a). Method: Forty-eight Spanish-speaking parents of preschool-age children…

  10. Increased Sensory Processing Atypicalities in Parents of Multiplex ASD Families versus Typically Developing and Simplex ASD Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Chelsea K.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.; Donkers, Franc C. L.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that sensory processing atypicalities may share genetic influences with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To further investigate this, the adolescent/adult sensory profile (AASP) questionnaire was distributed to 85 parents of typically developing children (P-TD), 121 parents from simplex ASD families (SPX), and 54…

  11. Parental Socioeconomic Status, Communication, and Children's Vocabulary Development: A Third-Generation Test of the Family Investment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Martin, Monica J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Ontai, Lenna; Conger, Rand

    2013-01-01

    This third-generation, longitudinal study evaluated a family investment perspective on family socioeconomic status (SES), parental investments in children, and child development. The theoretical framework was tested for first-generation parents (G1), their children (G2), and the children of the second generation (G3). G1 SES was expected to…

  12. Theory-of-Mind Development and Early Sibling Relationships after the Birth of a Sibling: Parental Discipline Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Hyun; Volling, Brenda L.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated relations among children's Theory-of-Mind (ToM) development, early sibling interactions, and parental discipline strategies during the transition to siblinghood. Using a sample of firstborn children and their parents (N = 208), we assessed children's ToM before the birth of a sibling and 12 months after the birth, and…

  13. Exceeding Parents' Expectations in Ear-Nose-Throat Outpatient Facilities: The Development and Analysis of a Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritis, Eleftherios; Katharaki, Maria; Katharakis, George

    2012-01-01

    The study attempts to develop an outpatient service quality scale by investigating the key dimensions which assess parental satisfaction and provides a recommendation on an improved health service delivery system. The survey was conducted in an Ear-Nose-Throat outpatient clinic of a Greek public pediatric hospital. A total of 127 parents in…

  14. Differential Influences of Parental Home Literacy Practices and Anxiety in English as a Foreign Language on Chinese Children's English Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Chui, Barbie Hiu-Tung; Lai, Michael Wei-Chun; Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the differential influences of maternal and paternal factors on Chinese children's English as a foreign language development. It took into account both behavioral (i.e. parental home literacy practices, HLP; and children's vocabulary knowledge) and emotional (i.e. parental and children's foreign language reading anxiety,…

  15. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majdandžić, M.; Möller, E.L.; de Vente, W.; Bögels, S.M.; van den Boom, D.C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers’ challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this

  16. Predictors of parental discretionary choice provision using the health action process approach framework: Development and validation of a self-reported questionnaire for parents of 4-7-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brittany J; Zarnowiecki, Dorota; Hendrie, Gilly A; Golley, Rebecca K

    2018-02-21

    Children's intake of discretionary choices is excessive. This study aimed to develop a questionnaire measuring parents' attitudes and beliefs towards limiting provision of discretionary choices, using the Health Action Process Approach model. The questionnaire items were informed by the Health Action Process Approach model, which extends the Theory of Planned Behaviour to include both motivational (intention) and volitional (post-intention) factors that influence behaviour change. The questionnaire was piloted for content and face validity (expert panel, n = 5; parents, n = 4). Construct and predictive validity were examined in a sample of 178 parents of 4-7-year-old children who completed the questionnaire online. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analyses, Cronbach's alpha and multiple linear regression. Pilot testing supported content and face validity. Principal component analyses identified constructs that aligned with the eight constructs of the Health Action Process Approach model. Internal consistencies were high for all subscales, in both the motivational (Cronbach's alpha 0.77-0.88) and volitional phase (Cronbach's alpha 0.85-0.92). Initial results from validation tests support the development of a new questionnaire for measuring parent attitudes and beliefs regarding provision of discretionary choices to their 4-7-year-old children within the home. This new questionnaire can be used to gain greater insight into parents' attitudes and beliefs that influence ability to limit discretionary choices provision to children. Further research to expand understanding of the questionnaires' psychometric properties would be valuable, including confirmatory factor analysis and reproducibility. © 2018 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  17. The Impact of Parental Styles on the Development of Psychological Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rocha Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study was to test Rogers’ theory, stating that parental styles characterized by unconditional positive regard (UPR promote healthier adults than parental styles characterized by conditional regard (CR. For both caregivers CR was found to be associated with significantly higher scores on psychological complaints than UPR (on nearly all SCL-90 scales and the SCL-total score, even when controlling for gender. Although lack of emotional warmth by the father and harsh discipline by the mother were significant predictors of SCL-90-Total (indicating state neuroticism it should be noted that both variables only explained a small amount of the total variance. Empirical evidence was found for Rogers’ theory. Others factors than merely emotional warmth and discipline play a role in the etiology of state neuroticism. For future research it is therefore recommended to include other factors, such as daily worries, temperament, and alexithymia

  18. Focus Groups of Parents and Teens Help Develop Messages to Prevent Early Marijuana Use in the Context of Legal Retail Sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Martie L; Haggerty, Kevin P; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Thompson, Ronald W; Buddenberg, Laura; Mason, W Alex

    2017-02-23

    The changes in Washington State and Colorado marijuana laws call for the development of new brief family-focused adolescent marijuana use preventive interventions that are relevant for and tailored to the context of legalization for retail sale. To that end, focus groups with parents and teens were conducted to find out about their concerns and needs in the context of legalization. Six semi-structured focus groups (3 with parents, 3 with teens) were conducted in Washington State in 2013 related to consequences of teen marijuana use and messages that would be effective in helping to prevent teens from using marijuana in the context of legal adult use. A total of 33 teens and 35 parents participated. Three primary themes were common to these parents and teens: the negative consequences of marijuana use during adolescence on mental, physical, and social health; the need for more or better information; and the need for information/messages to come from trusted sources. The themes related to potential prevention messages include the use of fear; stories about real people; focusing on short-term consequences; and teens needing alternative activities (something better to do). The results suggest that parents and teens need information about the new retail marijuana legalization law. Teens are open to both information and guidance from parents as long as it is calm and respectful. Firsthand accounts of consequences of marijuana use from peers and adults, rather than threats from authority figures, could hold some promise for persuading teens to avoid marijuana use.

  19. Examining professionals' and parents' views of using transanal irrigation with children: Understanding their experiences to develop a shared health resource for education and practise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Caroline; Bray, Lucy

    2014-06-01

    Irrigation as a bowel management approach has been reportedly used with children for more than 20 years. Parents managing their child's chronic bowel problem have previously been shown to have increased emotional stress. The aim of this study was to explore professionals' (n = 24) understanding and parents' (n = 18) experiences of using transanal irrigation with children at home as a mid to longer term bowel management approach. This study was underpinned by action research methodology and used mixed methods determined by an action research group of parents, professionals, researchers, a voluntary sector worker, commercial representative and independent observer. Data informed the study outcome which was the development and evaluation of a shared health resource to support professionals in their holistic approach when prescribing transanal irrigation and guide parents in the areas of education, management, problem solving, support and goal setting. The resource includes constructed case studies from parents of their experiences to inform choice and decision-making between parents and professionals. The shared health resource provides an approach to initiating and evaluating transanal irrigation and is available in a paper format from key Internet sites across hospital, community and voluntary services. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Inflexible Parents, Inflexible Kids: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study of Parenting Style and the Development of Psychological Flexibility in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn E.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    2012-01-01

    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined…

  1. Differential susceptibility to environmental influences: the role of early temperament and parenting in the development of externalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Martina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Esser, Guenter; Schmidt, Martin H; Laucht, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    A difficult or undercontrolled temperament, as well as harsh parental discipline or a lack of warmth, has long been regarded as risk factors for the development of externalizing problems. In addition, it has been suggested that children with difficult temperament are especially susceptible to rearing influences. We investigated the impact of early temperament and parenting and their interactions on externalizing behavior at school age. Participants were 148 boys and 160 girls from a prospective longitudinal study on a high-risk sample. At ages 3 months and 2 years, temperament was assessed by a highly structured parent interview and standardized behavioral observations. Maternal parenting was assessed by videotaped behavioral observation and a parent questionnaire. Externalizing problems at age 8 years were measured by the Child Behavior Checklist. Using hierarchical linear regression analyses, we found that externalizing problems were predicted by psychosocial adversity and poor self-control, whereas no main effect for restrictive parenting or maternal empathy was found. Fearful-inhibited boys were positively affected by empathic and sensitive parenting, whereas girls who were low in self-control and/or fearful developed less externalizing problems with restrictive parenting. Our results partly support the differential susceptibility hypothesis. In addition, they point toward gender-specific pathways in the development of externalizing problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adult mortality probability and nest predation rates explain parental effort in warming eggs with consequences for embryonic development time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Boyce, Andy J.; Lloyd, Penn; Ton, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Parental behavior and effort vary extensively among species. Life-history theory suggests that age-specific mortality could cause this interspecific variation, but past tests have focused on fecundity as the measure of parental effort. Fecundity can cause costs of reproduction that confuse whether mortality is the cause or the consequence of parental effort. We focus on a trait, parental allocation of time and effort in warming embryos, that varies widely among species of diverse taxa and is not tied to fecundity. We conducted studies on songbirds of four continents and show that time spent warming eggs varies widely among species and latitudes and is not correlated with clutch size. Adult and offspring (nest) mortality explained most of the interspecific variation in time and effort that parents spend warming eggs, measured by average egg temperatures. Parental effort in warming eggs is important because embryonic temperature can influence embryonic development period and hence exposure time to predation risk. We show through correlative evidence and experimental swapping of embryos between species that parentally induced egg temperatures cause interspecific variation in embryonic development period. The strong association of age-specific mortality with parental effort in warming eggs and the subsequent effects on embryonic development time are unique results that can advance understanding of broad geographic patterns of life-history variation.

  3. Peer-led Aboriginal parent support: Program development for vulnerable populations with participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Ailsa; Toye, Christine; Hegney, Desley; Kickett, Marion; Marriott, Rhonda; Walker, Roz

    2017-10-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) is a credible, culturally appropriate methodology that can be used to effect collaborative change within vulnerable populations. This PAR study was undertaken in a Western Australian metropolitan setting to develop and evaluate the suitability, feasibility and effectiveness of an Aboriginal peer-led home visiting programme. A secondary aim, addressed in this paper, was to explore and describe research methodology used for the study and provide recommendations for its implementation in other similar situations. PAR using action learning sets was employed to develop the parent support programme and data addressing the secondary, methodological aim were collected through focus groups using semi-structured and unstructured interview schedules. Findings were addressed throughout the action research process to enhance the research process. The themes that emerged from the data and addressed the methodological aim were the need for safe communication processes; supportive engagement processes and supportive organisational processes. Aboriginal peer support workers (PSWs) and community support agencies identified three important elements central to their capacity to engage and work within the PAR methodology. This research has provided innovative data, highlighting processes and recommendations for child health nurses to engage with the PSWs, parents and community agencies to explore culturally acceptable elements for an empowering methodology for peer-led home visiting support. There is potential for this nursing research to credibly inform policy development for Aboriginal child and family health service delivery, in addition to other vulnerable population groups. Child health nurses/researchers can use these new understandings to work in partnership with Aboriginal communities and families to develop empowering and culturally acceptable strategies for developing Aboriginal parent support for the early years. Impact Statement Child

  4. Parents of children with eating disorders: developing theory-based health communication messages to promote caregiver well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sheetal; Shafer, Autumn; Brown, Jane; Bulik, Cynthia; Zucker, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children with eating disorders experience extreme emotional burden because of the intensity and duration of the recovery process. While parental involvement in a child's eating disorder treatment improves outcomes, parents often neglect their own well-being, which can impede their child's recovery. This study extends the research on caregivers and on health theory in practice by conducting formative research to develop a theory-based communication intervention encouraging parents to engage in adaptive coping and self-care behaviors. The Transactional Model of Stress and Coping and the Transtheoretical Model guided qualitative assessments of the determinants of parents' coping behaviors. Three focus groups with 19 parents of children with eating disorders and 19 semi-structured interviews with experts specializing in eating disorders were conducted. Findings indicate that parents and experts see parents' need for permission to take time for themselves as the main barrier to self-care. The main motivator for parents to engage in coping behaviors is awareness of a connection between self-care and their child's health outcomes. Participant evaluation of six potential messages for main themes and effectiveness revealed that theory-based elements, such as certain processes of change within the Transtheoretical Model, were important to changing health behavior.

  5. The role of disconnected and extremely insensitive parenting in the development of disorganized attachment: validation of a new measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Out, Dorothee; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2009-09-01

    Early adverse caregiving experiences constitute an important risk factor for the development of disorganized attachment in infancy, especially extreme insensitivity and frightening behavior associated with an unresolved loss or trauma. Using existing measures for frightening parenting and disrupted communication, we developed a new measure assessing Disconnected and extremely Insensitive Parenting (DIP), in order to investigate the unique contribution of disconnected and extremely insensitive parenting behaviors to infant disorganization. Maternal behavior was assessed during a laboratory session in a low-risk sample of 202 mothers and their infants. Construct and discriminant validity of the DIP was established for both types of parental behavior. Disconnected parental behavior predicted infant disorganization but not organized attachment security, whereas extreme insensitivity was marginally related to organized attachment insecurity in boys but not to attachment disorganization.

  6. Future Directions in Parent Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, May

    This paper suggests goals for future research programs in parent education. Suggestions include: (1) developing and replicating long-term studies of the effects of parent education, (2) examining the antecedents of adult behavior disorders to plan parenting programs that aim at preventing such disorders, (3) replacing deficit models of parenting…

  7. A Tool to Record and Support the Early Development of Children Including Those with Special Educational Needs or Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni, Silvana E.; Oates, John

    2014-01-01

    Early intervention is key for children with special educational needs or disabilities (SEND), and therefore early assessment is crucial. Information from parents about children's current ability and their developmental history can make valid and useful contributions to developmental assessments. Parental input is also important in early education…

  8. Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgen Camilla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identify the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among adolescents between the ages 15 to 21. Methods Prospective cohort study conducted in Denmark with baseline examination in 1996 and follow-up questionnaire in 2003 with a mean follow-up time of 6.4 years. A sample of 1,656 adolescents participated in both baseline (mean age 14.8 and follow-up (mean age 21.3. Of these, 1,402 had a body mass index (BMI = weight/height2kg/m2 corresponding to a value below 25 at baseline when adjusted for age and gender according to guidelines from International Obesity Taskforce, and were at risk of developing overweight during the study period. The exposure was parental occupational status. The main outcome measures were change in BMI and development of overweight (from BMI = 25. Results Average BMI increased from 21.3 to 22.7 for girls and from 20.6 to 23.6 in boys during follow-up. An inverse social gradient in overweight was seen for girls at baseline and follow-up and for boys at follow-up. In the full population there was a tendency to an inverse social gradient in the overall increase in BMI for girls, but not for boys. A total of 13.4% developed overweight during the follow-up period. Girls of lower parental socioeconomic position had a higher risk of developing overweight (OR's between 4.72; CI 1.31 to 17.04 and 2.03; CI 1.10-3.74 when compared to girls of high parental socioeconomic position. A tendency for an inverse social gradient in the development of overweight for boys was seen, but it did not meet the significance criteria Conclusions The levels of overweight and

  9. The practice of working with children left without parental care in foreign developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Larin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss different approaches to work with children left without parental care, implemented in developed foreign countries. We emphasize that, to facilitate socialization and adaptation of these children in Russia, we should take into account the experience of all the systems of education, take the best of them, adapt them to the Russian mentality, increase funding for children's homes system, develop a comprehensive approach to prevent homelessness and neglect of children, and create conditions for promoting adoption of children by foster families

  10. Parental perceptions and practices of emergent literacy development in young children with Down syndrome: the development of intervention guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, Cherié; Kritzinger, Alta

    2008-01-01

    Key findings of emergent literacy research conclude that emergent literacy experiences correlate with later reading success and that emergent literacy intervention for children with special needs is essential. As a group with special needs, children with Down syndrome require emergent literacy intervention. They may attain functional literacy skills and their language development determines their reading ability. Speech-language therapists have an important role to play in emergent literacy programme development in South Africa. As a first step towards programme development and emergent literacy intervention goal selection, the aim of this study was to determine the applicability of a self-administered questionnaire to describe parental perceptions and practices regarding the emergent literacy development of their young children with Down syndrome. A quantitative research approach was used within a cross-sectional descriptive survey. Fifteen literate parents, with preschool children with Down syndrome aged between two and five years were selected as participants. Data were collected via email and/or facsimile. The results showed that all participants valued emergent literacy development. They appeared to have knowledge about book-reading but not about the broad spectrum of emergent literacy experiences to which they might expose their children. Participants were actively promoting emergent literacy development of their children, but they had certain needs that could potentially be addressed by speech-language therapists working in early communication intervention. The questionnaire proved to be applicable, but changes are required for application with illiterate parents and those with low literacy skills. Based on the results a framework with guidelines for emergent literacy goal selection is provided.

  11. Current research on parenting styles, dimensions, and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G

    2017-06-01

    For decades, parenting has been characterized in terms of broad global styles, with authoritative parenting seen as most beneficial for children's development. Concerns with greater sensitivity to cultural and contextual variations have led to greater specificity in defining parenting in terms of different parenting dimensions and greater consideration of the role of parenting beliefs in moderating links between parenting and adjustment. New research includes 'domain-specific' models that describe parents as flexibly deploying different practices depending on their goals, children's needs, and the types of behaviors towards which parenting is directed. These trends are described, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and Evaluation of the Thinking About Recovery Scale: Measure of Parent Posttraumatic Cognitions Following Children's Exposure to Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Conroy, Rowena; Anderson, Vicki; Alisic, Eva

    2018-02-01

    Researchers have recently suggested that parent posttraumatic appraisals potentially contribute to the development of posttraumatic stress in both parents and children following children's exposure to trauma. However, a single-instrument, multidimensional measure of parent posttraumatic cognitions as they relate to their child's recovery has yet to be operationalized. This study described the development and evaluation of a parent-report questionnaire of parent posttraumatic cognitions, designed to be used after a child's exposure to trauma. We generated an initial pool of items in reference to existing theories and subjected this list to an iterative process of item writing and revision. Items were subjected to expert review to maximize construct validity. The 33-item Thinking About Recovery Scale (TARS), which measures three domains (My child has been permanently damaged; The world is dangerous for my child; Parents should always promote avoidance) demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .74-88) and convergent validity (r 2 range = .08-.40) when piloted in a sample of 116 parents of children who had been exposed to a serious accidental injury. The TARS augments the available literature by providing a brief measure of parent posttraumatic cognitions, an area which is currently understudied in childhood posttraumatic stress and could have broad clinical and research use. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  13. Development of Parent--School Partnerships in Times of Educational Reform in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shun Wing

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, parents' rights of participating in children's education have been recognized in Hong Kong. Parents have been consulted and invited to participate in PTAs, manage the school, organize school activities, and assist in school functions. However, implementation of parent-school partnerships signifies the notion of parent empowerment that…

  14. Parental Support for Language Development during Joint Book Reading for Young Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; "n" = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; "n" = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions,…

  15. Development of an Asian American parental racial-ethnic socialization scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda P; Shen, Yishan; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie

    2016-07-01

    To develop a measure of parental racial-ethnic socialization that is appropriate for Asian American families. To test the reliability and validity of this new measure, we surveyed 575 Asian American emerging adults (49% female, 79% U.S. born). Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the results show 7 reliable subscales: maintenance of heritage culture, becoming American, awareness of discrimination, avoidance of other groups, minimization of race, promotion of equality, and cultural pluralism. Tests of factorial invariance show that overall, the subscales demonstrate, at minimum, partial metric invariance across gender, age, nativity, educational attainment, parent educational attainment, geographic region of residence, and Asian-heritage region. Thus, the relations among the subscales with other variables can be compared across these different subgroups. The subscales also correlated with ethnic identity, ethnic centrality, perceptions of discrimination, and pluralistic orientation, demonstrating construct validity. In an increasingly complex and diverse social world, our scale will be useful for gaining a better understanding of how Asian American parents socialize their children regarding issues of race, discrimination, culture, and diversity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Development of Two Dimensional Measures of Restricted and Repetitive Behavior in Parents and Children.

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    Evans, David W; Uljarević, Mirko; Lusk, Laina G; Loth, Eva; Frazier, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a heterogeneous set of behaviors common across a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) that extend well into the general population. This study introduces 2 dimensional measurements of RRBs for use in typical and clinical populations from infancy to adulthood. The Childhood Routines Inventory-Revised (CRI-R) and the Adult Routines Inventory (ARI) were created and administered online to a nationally representative cohort of 3,108 parents with 3,032 children (range 12 months to 17 years 11 months). Twenty-six percent of children and 36% of adults had at least 1 NDD or NPD. Principal axis factoring exploratory analysis showed a 2-factor structure for the 2 instruments (motor behaviors/compulsions and rigidity/insistence on sameness). Analyses for convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency (Cronbach α ≥ 0.94), and test-retest reliability (r ≥ 0.87) indicated strong psychometric properties. Item response theory analyses indicated strong reliability across the score range for the 2 instruments. RRB rates varied across development, peaking between the preschool and school years. Children with NDDs or NPDs (particularly those with autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia/bipolar disorder, or obsessive-compulsive disorder/tic disorders) had increased RRBs compared with those with no diagnosis. Parent-child (0.69-0.84) and sibling-sibling (0.76-0.87) intraclass correlations indicated high heritability. Children of parents with an NDD or an NPD exhibited more RRBs compared with children of parents without NDDs or NPDs. The CRI-R and ARI are open-source instruments with excellent psychometric properties and will be useful for developmental, clinical, and family genetic studies and for the identification of prodromal conditions involving RRBs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Buffer or Brake? The Role of Sexuality-Specific Parenting in Adolescents' Sexualized Media Consumption and Sexual Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Geertjan; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura

    2018-03-13

    One main source of sexual socialization lies within family interactions. Especially sexuality-specific parenting may determine adolescents' sexual development-adolescents' sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior, sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes-to a significant extent, but different ideas exist about how this works. In this longitudinal study, we examined two hypotheses on how sexuality-specific parenting-parenting aimed specifically at children's sexual attitudes and behaviors-relates to adolescents' sexual development. A first buffer hypothesis states that parents' instructive media discussions with their children-called instructive mediation-buffers the effect of sexualized media consumption on adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior and, vice versa, the effect of adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior on sexualized media consumption. A second brake hypothesis states that parents, by communicating love-and-respect oriented sexual norms, slow down adolescents' development toward increased sexualized media use, permissive sexual attitudes, and sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior. Using four-wave longitudinal data from 514 Dutch adolescents aged 13-16 years (49.8% female), we found evidence to support a brake effect. More frequent parental communication of love-and-respect oriented sexual norms was associated with less permissive sexual attitudes and, for boys, with less advanced sexual behavior and a less rapid increase in sexual risk behavior. Parents' instructive mediation regarding adolescents' sexualized media consumption was associated with less permissive sexual attitudes at baseline, but only for girls. No systematic evidence emerged for a buffer effect of parents' instructive mediation. In conclusion, although our data seem to suggest that parent-child communication about sex is oftentimes "after the fact", we also find that more directive parental communication that conveys love-and-respect oriented sexual norms

  18. Care neglect, supervisory neglect, and harsh parenting in the development of children's aggression: a replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, John F; DeGarmo, David; Koeppl, Gina; Reid, John B

    2005-05-01

    To understand the effects of neglectful parenting, poor supervision, and punitive parenting in the development of children's aggression, 218 children ages 4 to 8 years who were disadvantaged and their mothers were recruited from two states to develop a sample that was diverse with respect to degree of urbanization and ethnicity. Multimethod and multisource indices of the predictive constructs (Social Disadvantage, Denial of Care Neglect, Supervisory Neglect, and Punitive Discipline) and the criterion construct (Aggression) were used in a test of a theoretical model using structural equation modeling. The results established the role of care neglect, supervisory neglect, and punitive parenting as mediators of the role of social disadvantage in the development of children's aggression, the importance of distinguishing between two subtypes of neglect, and the need to consider the role of discipline in concert with neglect when attempting to understand the parenting in the development of aggression.

  19. Diet, growth, and obesity development throughout childhood in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Louise R.

    2015-01-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children covering diet, growth, and obesity development during childhood are reviewed. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaires and food records. Growth data were collected by routine measurements, and in standardized clinics, body fatness was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and DXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) scans. Diets changed dramatically during the preschool period with an increase in the intake of free (added) sugars (12.3% rising to 16.4% of energy) that remained similar until adolescence. This was due to increased intake of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. Two periods of rapid growth were identified; infancy and mid-childhood (ages 7–11 y) and both were associated with obesity development. Diets with high energy density were associated with increasing fat mass from mid-childhood until adolescence. Genetic and dietary factors showed independent associations with increasing adiposity. At all ages studied, there were dietary inequalities related to maternal educational attainment that may influence inequalities found in obesity development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided valuable insights into how disparities in diet and growth may affect the development of ill health in adulthood. PMID:26395342

  20. [Development and Effects of a Children's Sex Education Program for the Parents of Lower Elementary Grade Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Hyunlye

    2017-04-01

    This study was done to develop a children's sex education program for the parents of lower elementary grade students and to evaluate its effects on sexual knowledge, gender role attitude, parent efficacy for child's sex education, and marital consistency. A quasi-experimental with a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. The participants were 29 couples (58 parents, experimental group=28, control group=30) from G city. The 5-week (5-session) program was developed based on 'A theory of protection: parents as sex educators' and used the case-based small group learning method. Data were collected during July and August 2015. The characteristics of the program developed in the present study were a theoretical-based, client-centered, multi-method. After the intervention, the experimental group showed a significant improvement in sexual knowledge, gender role attitudes, parent efficacy for child's sex education, and marital consistency, compared to the control group. The effect sizes of the program were .64 (knowledge), .65 (gender role attitudes), and .68 (parent efficacy). The results of this study provided implications for the parents as effective sex educator and the role expansion of school health nurses. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  1. Associations between parental psychological well-being and socio-emotional development in 5-year-old preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtala, Mira; Korja, Riikka; Lehtonen, Liisa; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Rautava, Päivi

    2014-03-01

    Preterm children are at risk for developing behavioral and emotional problems, as well as being less socially competent. Premature birth causes chronic distress in the parents. The aim of the paper is to discover whether parental psychological well-being is associated with the social, behavioral, and functional development of very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500g) children at 5years of age. A longitudinal prospective cohort study. A cohort of 201 VLBW infants (≤1500g, development of the child by completing the Five to Fifteen questionnaire. The parents of VLBW children reported significantly more problems in child development compared to the Finnish normative data. Depressive symptoms and weaker sense of coherence in mothers, but not in fathers, were associated with more problems in child development. Parenting stress, for both mothers and fathers, was associated with developmental problems in their child at 5years of age. Maternal depressive symptoms and parenting stress of both parents may be risk factors for the social, behavioral, and functional development of 5-year-old preterm children. On the other hand, stronger maternal sense of coherence may be a protective factor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Parenting and the Development of Effortful Control from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence: A Transactional Developmental Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kerr, David C. R.; Bertrand, Maria; Pears, Katherine C.; Owen, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Poor effortful control is a key temperamental factor underlying behavioral problems. The bidirectional association of child effortful control with both positive parenting and negative discipline was examined from ages approximately 3 to 13–14 years, involving 5 time points, and using data from parents and children in the Oregon Youth Study-Three Generational Study (N = 318 children from 150 families). Based on a dynamic developmental systems approach, it was hypothesized that there would be concurrent associations between parenting and child effortful control and bidirectional effects across time from each aspect of parenting to effortful control and from effortful control to each aspect of parenting. It was also hypothesized that associations would be more robust in early childhood, from ages 3 to 7 years, and would diminish as indicated by significantly weaker effects at the older ages, 11–12 to 13–14 years. Longitudinal feedback or mediated effects were also tested. Findings supported (a) stability in each construct over multiple developmental periods; (b) concurrent associations, which were significantly weaker at the older ages; (c) bidirectional effects, consistent with the interpretation that at younger ages children’s effortful control influenced parenting, whereas at older child ages, parenting influenced effortful control; and (d) a transactional effect, such that maternal parenting in late childhood was a mechanism explaining children’s development of effortful control from midchildhood to early adolescence. PMID:27427809

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Parenting Resilience Elements Questionnaire (PREQ) Measuring Resiliency in Rearing Children with Developmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kota; Kobayashi, Tomoka; Moriyama, Karin; Kaga, Makiko; Hiratani, Michio; Watanabe, Kyota; Yamashita, Yushiro; Inagaki, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    We developed a parenting resilience elements questionnaire (PREQ) measuring the degree to which mothers possess elements that aid in adapting to challenges and difficulties related to children with developmental disorders (DD). A total of 424 parents of children with DD were recruited from five medical institutes. Psychometric properties of PREQ were evaluated using data of 363 mothers of children with DD. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, predicting depressive symptoms and parenting behavior with PREQ subscales, a general health questionnaire, and the total difficulties score of a strength and difficulties questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed three reliable factors: "knowledge of the child's characteristics," "perceived social supports," and "positive perceptions of parenting." Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed that "knowledge of the child's characteristics" was associated with parenting behavior, whereas "perceived social supports" predicted depressive symptoms; "positive perceptions of parenting" influenced both parenting behavior and depressive symptoms. These findings indicated that the PREQ may be used as a scale measuring resiliency in mothers of children with DD and is useful for evaluating their parenting ability in clinical interventions.

  4. Development and Evaluation of a Parenting Resilience Elements Questionnaire (PREQ Measuring Resiliency in Rearing Children with Developmental Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Suzuki

    Full Text Available We developed a parenting resilience elements questionnaire (PREQ measuring the degree to which mothers possess elements that aid in adapting to challenges and difficulties related to children with developmental disorders (DD. A total of 424 parents of children with DD were recruited from five medical institutes. Psychometric properties of PREQ were evaluated using data of 363 mothers of children with DD. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, predicting depressive symptoms and parenting behavior with PREQ subscales, a general health questionnaire, and the total difficulties score of a strength and difficulties questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed three reliable factors: "knowledge of the child's characteristics," "perceived social supports," and "positive perceptions of parenting." Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed that "knowledge of the child's characteristics" was associated with parenting behavior, whereas "perceived social supports" predicted depressive symptoms; "positive perceptions of parenting" influenced both parenting behavior and depressive symptoms. These findings indicated that the PREQ may be used as a scale measuring resiliency in mothers of children with DD and is useful for evaluating their parenting ability in clinical interventions.

  5. Parents' Translations of Child Gesture Facilitate Word Learning in Children with Autism, Down Syndrome and Typical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Nevena; Özçalışkan, Şeyda; Adamson, Lauren B

    2016-01-01

    Typically-developing (TD) children frequently refer to objects uniquely in gesture. Parents translate these gestures into words, facilitating children's acquisition of these words (Goldin-Meadow et al. in Dev Sci 10(6):778-785, 2007). We ask whether this pattern holds for children with autism (AU) and with Down syndrome (DS) who show delayed vocabulary development. We observed 23 children with AU, 23 with DS, and 23 TD children with their parents over a year. Children used gestures to indicate objects before labeling them and parents translated their gestures into words. Importantly, children benefited from this input, acquiring more words for the translated gestures than the not translated ones. Results highlight the role contingent parental input to child gesture plays in language development of children with developmental disorders.

  6. Development, evaluation and validation of a new instrument for measurement quality of life in the parents of children with chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypek Michał

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood chronic disease may affect patients' and their family's functioning. Particularly parents, who play an important role in cooperation between patient and health care professionals, report impaired health - related quality of life (HRQOL. The aim of this study was development, evaluation and validation of a new instrument: Quality of Life in a Child's Chronic Disease Questionnaire (QLCCDQ. The questionnaire is addressed to parents of children with a chronic disease. Methods Study design included semi structured interview and qualitative study, which allowed to identify most troublesome problems. Following the results the questionnaire was developed, which consists of 15 questions and covers domains - emotions, patients -perceived symptoms, roles limitations. An observational study involving parents of asthma and diabetes children was conducted to assess the psychometric characteristics of the measure. Psychometric testing was based on the reliability of defined subscales, construct validity, reproducibility assessment, as well as comparison between stable/unstable disease stages and parents of healthy children. Results Most troublesome concerns for parents of child with chronic disease included emotional distress and feeling depressed due to child's disease, avoiding social interactions due to child's disease or symptoms. 98 parents of children with asthma or insulin - depended diabetes participated in the psychometric testing of QLCCDQ. Internal consistency reliability for the defined subscales ranged between 0.77 and 0.93. Reproducibility based on the weighted kappa coefficients showed expected level of agreement and was almost perfect in case of 8 questions, substantial for 5 questions and moderate for 2 questions. QLCCDQ demonstrated very good construct validity - all subscales showed statistically significant correlations ranging from 0.4 to 0.9. QLCCDQ scores differed significantly by clinical status - parents

  7. Papel dos pais no desenvolvimento de jovens futebolistas Parents role in the development of soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Moraes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o papel dos pais no desenvolvimento de atletas jovens de futebol. Foram voluntários nesse projeto 20 pais e 12 filhos jogadores, entre as idades de 15 e 18 anos, participantes da temporada 2000 do Campeonato Mineiro. Utilizou-se uma abordagem quantitativa e qualitativa, através de formulários, questionários e entrevistas semi-estruturadas de aprofundamento. Constatou-se que os pais tinham pouco envolvimento nos treinamentos e competições dos atletas, não alteraram a rotina familiar em função dos treinamentos dos mesmos. O relativo apoio dos pais não prejudicou o progresso dos filhos devido os pais permitirem os mesmos praticarem o futebol livremente. Outro aspecto importante foi o progresso dos filhos devido à paixão, à intensidade e freqüência de prática, além do apelo financeiro que o futebol profissional evoca no Brasil. Esses resultados indicam a necessidade de precauções quando se considerar paradigmas de primeiro mundo em outras culturas na qual exista restrição contextual.This study investigated the role of parents in the development of soccer players. Twenty parents and 12 soccer players, between 15 and 18 years old participated in the study. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used by administrating questionnaires forms and interviews. It was observed that few changes occurred in the family routines and that parents were minimally involved in their sons' sport activities. This did not appear to be a constraint for their sons' development because of their passion for soccer, the total amount of practice, and a potential lucrative professional career. Researchers should carefully adopt important paradigms from first world countries to another country with contextual differences.

  8. Transgender People (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  9. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  10. Headaches (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  11. Balance Disorders (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  12. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  13. Anemia (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  14. Understanding Puberty (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  15. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

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    Full Text Available [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  16. Tips for Divorcing Parents

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  17. Understanding Dyslexia (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  18. When Parents Argue

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  19. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  20. Chlamydia (For Parents)

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  1. Tourette Syndrome (For Parents)

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  2. Sinusitis (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  3. Diarrhea (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  4. Adenovirus (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  5. Birth Defects (For Parents)

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  6. Chemotherapy (For Parents)

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  7. Blood Culture (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  8. Bronchiolitis (For Parents)

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  9. Amblyopia (For Parents)

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  10. Laryngoscopy (For Parents)

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  11. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

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  12. Scarlet Fever (For Parents)

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  13. Yersiniosis (For Parents)

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  14. Urine Tests (For Parents)

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  15. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

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  16. Ultrasound: Pelvis (For Parents)

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  17. Eczema (For Parents)

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  18. Amebiasis (For Parents)

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  19. Strep Throat (For Parents)

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  20. Down Syndrome (For Parents)

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  1. Syphilis (For Parents)

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    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  2. Broken Bones (For Parents)

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  3. Antecedents of Chinese Parents' Autonomy Support and Psychological Control: The Interplay between Parents' Self-Development Socialization Goals and Adolescents' School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Chan, Hoi-Wing; Lin, Li

    2012-01-01

    Despite ample evidence for the benefits of parental autonomy support and the harms of parental psychological control to Chinese adolescents' well-being, little is known about what foreshadows these parenting behaviors among Chinese parents. The current research addressed this gap in the literature. It tested the hypothesis that parents'…

  4. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the HPV Clinical Trial Survey for Parents (CTSP-HPV) Using Traditional Survey Development Methods and Community Engagement Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jennifer; Wallston, Kenneth A; Wilkins, Consuelo H; Hull, Pamela C; Miller, Stephania T

    2015-12-01

    This study describes the development and psychometric evaluation of HPV Clinical Trial Survey for Parents with Children Aged 9 to 15 (CTSP-HPV) using traditional instrument development methods and community engagement principles. An expert panel and parental input informed survey content and parents recommended study design changes (e.g., flyer wording). A convenience sample of 256 parents completed the final survey measuring parental willingness to consent to HPV clinical trial (CT) participation and other factors hypothesized to influence willingness (e.g., HPV vaccine benefits). Cronbach's a, Spearman correlations, and multiple linear regression were used to estimate internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and predictively validity, respectively. Internal reliability was confirmed for all scales (a ≥ 0.70.). Parental willingness was positively associated (p advantages of adolescent CTs (r range 0.33-0.42), supporting convergent validity. Moderate discriminant construct validity was also demonstrated. Regression results indicate reasonable predictive validity with the six scales accounting for 31% of the variance in parents' willingness. This instrument can inform interventions based on factors that influence parental willingness, which may lead to the eventual increase in trial participation. Further psychometric testing is warranted. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The development of analogical reasoning in deaf children and their parents' communication mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurski, Marcin; Galkowski, Tadeusz

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the results of a study of the development of analogical reasoning in deaf children coming from two different linguistic environments (deaf children of deaf parents--sign language, deaf children of hearing parents--spoken language) and in hearing children, as well as to compare two groups of deaf children to a group of hearing children. In order to estimate the development of children's analogical reasoning, especially the development of their understanding of different logical relations, two age groups were singled out in each population of children: younger (9- and 10-year-olds) and older (12- and 13-year-olds). In this way it is possible to assess the influence of early and consistent sign-language communication on the development of the conceptual system in deaf children and to establish whether early and consistent sign-language communication with deaf children affects their mental development to the same extent as early and consistent spoken-language communication with hearing children. The children were given three series of analogy tasks based on different logical relations: (a) a series of verbal analogy tasks (the relations of opposite, part-whole, and causality); (b) a series of numerical analogy tasks (the relations of class membership, opposite, and part-whole); and (c) a series of figural-geometric analogy tasks (the relations of opposite and part-whole). It was found that early and consistent sign-language communication with deaf children plays an almost equivalent role in the development of verbal, numerical, and spatial reasoning by analogy as early and consistent spoken-language communication with hearing children.

  6. Biological aspects of the development and self-concept in adolescents living in single-parent families.

    OpenAIRE

    Veček, Andrea; Vidović, Vesna; Miličić, Jasna; Špoljar-Vržina, Sanja; Veček, Nenad; Arch-Veček, Branka

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigate whether there are differences between adolescents who grow up in single-parent families and those who grow up in nucleus families. We have decided that there are no differences in the physical development between the adolescents who are growing up in single parent families and those growing up in nucleus families. There is no difference in the self-concept between these two groups, except in the ethical and moral self-image of adolescents living with one parent. A...

  7. Explaining use of food parenting practices: the importance of predisposing factors and parental cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus Wm; van Assema, Patricia; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2017-09-01

    The high energy intake from energy-dense foods among children in developed countries is undesirable. Improving food parenting practices has the potential to lower snack intakes among children. To inform the development of interventions, we aimed to predict food parenting practice patterns around snacking (i.e. 'high covert control and rewarding', 'low covert control and non-rewarding', 'high involvement and supportive' and 'low involvement and indulgent'). A cross-sectional survey was conducted. To predict the patterns of food parenting practices, multinomial logistic regression analyses were run with 888 parents. Predictors included predisposing factors (i.e. parents' and children's demographics and BMI, parents' personality, general parenting, and parenting practices used by their own parents) and parents' cognitions (i.e. perceived behaviour of other parents, subjective norms, attitudes, self-efficacy and outcome expectations). The Netherlands (October-November 2014). Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 years old. After backward elimination, nineteen factors had a statistically significant contribution to the model (Nagelkerke R 2=0·63). Overall, self-efficacy and outcome expectations were among the strongest explanatory factors. Considering the predisposing factors only, the general parenting factor nurturance most strongly predicted the food parenting clusters. Nurturance particularly distinguished highly involved parents from parents employing a pattern of low involvement. Parental cognitions and nurturance are important factors to explain the use of food parenting practices around snacking. The results suggest that intervention developers should attempt to increase self-efficacy and educate parents about what constitute effective and ineffective parenting practices. Promoting nurturance might be a prerequisite to achieve prolonged change.

  8. Dutch children at family risk of dyslexia: precursors, reading development, and parental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F; Regtvoort, Anne; Oort, Frans; van Otterloo, Sandra; van der Leij, Aryan

    2011-02-01

    The study concerns reading development and its precursors in a transparent orthography. Dutch children differing in family risk for dyslexia were followed from kindergarten through fifth grade. In fifth grade, at-risk dyslexic (n = 22), at-risk non-dyslexic (n = 45), and control children (n = 12) were distinguished. In kindergarten, the at-risk non-dyslexics performed better than the at-risk dyslexics, but worse than the controls on letter-knowledge and rapid naming. The groups did not differ on phonological awareness. At-risk dyslexics read less fluently from first grade onwards than the other groups. At-risk non-dyslexics' reading fluency was at an intermediate position between the other groups at the start of reading. By fifth grade they had reached a similar level as the controls on word reading, but still lagged behind on pseudoword reading. Results further showed that the parents of the groups of at-risk children differed in educational level and reading skills. Overall, the groups of at-risk children differed on pre-reading skills as well as on reading development. These differences do not seem to stem from differences in intellectual abilities or literacy environment. Instead, the better reading skills of parents of at-risk non-dyslexics suggest that these children might have a lower genetic liability. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Development of an intervention for foster parents of young foster children with externalizing behavior: theoretical basis and program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanschoonlandt, Femke; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Van Holen, Frank; De Maeyer, Skrällan

    2012-12-01

    Foster parents are often faced with serious externalizing behaviors of their foster child. These behavioral problems may induce family stress and are related to less effective parenting and often increase. Foster children with behavioral problems are also more at risk of placement breakdown. An intervention to support foster parents of young foster children with externalizing behaviors is necessary to improve the effectiveness of foster placements. Based on research on effective parenting interventions and special needs of foster children, a treatment protocol was developed. This paper describes theoretical foundations for the content and form of the intervention and gives an overview of the modular treatment protocol. Preliminary outcomes of this intervention as well as challenges and future developments and research activities are discussed.

  10. An open trial of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychological distress in parents of children after end of treatment for childhood cancer including a cognitive behavioral conceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, Lisa; Cernvall, Martin; Ghaderi, Ata; Ljungman, Gustaf; von Essen, Louise; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2018-01-01

    A subgroup of parents of children who have been treated for childhood cancer report high levels of psychological distress. To date there is no empirically supported psychological treatment targeting cancer-related psychological distress in this population. The aim of the current study was to test the feasibility and preliminarily evaluate the effect of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for parents of children after the end of treatment for childhood cancer. A secondary aim was to present a cognitive behavioral conceptualization of cancer-related distress for these parents. An open trial was conducted where 15 parents of children who had completed successful treatment for cancer three months to five years earlier and who reported psychological distress related to a child's previous cancer disease were provided CBT at a maximum of 15 sessions. Participants were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and three-month follow-up using self-reported psychological distress (including posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, and anxiety) and the diagnostic Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Feasibility outcomes relating to recruitment, data collection, and delivery of the treatment were also examined. Individual case formulations for each participant guided the intervention and these were aggregated and presented in a conceptualization detailing core symptoms and their suggested maintenance mechanisms. A total of 93% of the participants completed the treatment and all of them completed the follow-up assessment. From baseline to post-assessment, parents reported significant improvements in PTSS, depression, and anxiety with medium to large effect sizes (Cohen's d = 0.65-0.92). Results were maintained or improved at a three-month follow-up. At baseline, seven (47%) participants fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and four (29%) fulfilled the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder, compared to

  11. Brief Report: Parent Verbal Responsiveness and Language Development in Toddlers on the Autism Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Haebig, Eileen; McDuffie, Andrea; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal associations between parent verbal responsiveness and language three years later in 34 toddlers with a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Parent-child play samples were coded for child engagement and communication acts and for parent verbal responsiveness. Measures of responsive verbal behaviors were used to predict language gain scores three years later. Parent directives for language that followed into the child’s focus of attention were pre...

  12. Taking charge of epilepsy: the development of a structured psychoeducational group intervention for adolescents with epilepsy and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Kara; Ackerson, Joseph; Bailey, Kirstin; Schmitt, Margaret M; Madan-Swain, Avi; Martin, Roy C

    2004-08-01

    Children and adolescents with epilepsy frequently experience poor psychosocial outcomes due to numerous factors such as perceived stigma, behavior problems, academic difficulties, and depression. Health psychology research has documented the effectiveness of psychoeducational interventions aimed at improving psychosocial outcomes for individuals with a variety of health conditions. With increasing numbers of adolescents living with epilepsy, interest in improving the quality of life for this particular population has grown. There remains, however, a paucity of research concerning psychosocial interventions for adolescents with epilepsy. The present study outlines the development and initial implementation of a 6-week structured psychoeducational group intervention for adolescents with epilepsy and their parents. Preintervention, the QOLIE-AD-48, Childhood Depression Inventory, and Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale were administered. Educational topics included medical aspects of epilepsy, healthy lifestyle behaviors, family and peer relationships, understanding self-image and self-esteem, and stress management techniques. Participants were introduced to a variety of cognitive-behavioral strategies, and were encouraged to share their own experiences with epilepsy. Feedback from adolescent and parent participants indicated that the intervention was relevant to their needs, helped them better understand their epilepsy, and allowed an opportunity for positive peer support. Also, postintervention outcome measurement indicated an overall positive trend for quality of life improvement in the adolescents.

  13. The development of parents-infant relationship in high-risk pregnancies and preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Pisoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of human attachment, developed in 1951 by John Bowlby, has been widely applied across psychological, medical and social disciplines, especially in the context of developmental psychology; more recently it has been studied in the obstetric and neonatal fields. Numerous studies suggest that attachment patterns have an impact on the social, cognitive and emotional development of the off-spring, and are also believed to influence the individual’s psychosocial trajectories across the lifespan. Starting from empirical study of attachment, the psychological analysis of the experience of pregnancy allowed to introduce the concept of prenatal attachment, considered as the earlier internalized representation of the fetus that both parents acquire and elaborate during pregnancy. Recent studies have attempted to investigate how prenatal attachment develops in conditions of hazard, as for example in women hospitalized for a high-risk pregnancy or preterm birth. Literature showed that these clinical conditions may represent risk factors that, along with psychological distress and lack of familiar and social support, may adversely affect the mother-child relationship, with consequences on the psycosocial development of the off-spring. During pregnancy, medical team should assess mothers’ distress and attachment, perform procedures to positively develop attachment, and direct parents with low attachment scores to receive a professional, specific counseling. In the premature birth context, it is important to closely support mother-infant contact and to decrease maternal stress in every possible way during hospitalization and after discharge. Promotion of psychological wellbeing and attachment during pregnancy and after birth may serve as a crucial opportunity of improving maternal health practices, perinatal health and neonatal outcomes. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014

  14. Parents' Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, George C.

    A psychologist discusses efforts at the Boston Center for Blind Children to help parents adjust to the demands of their multiply-handicapped, visually-impaired children. The following programs are found to be helpful: an infant home visiting program (see EC 062 470)in which parents develop their role through participating in an individualized…

  15. Exposure to parental smoking and child growth and development: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seungmi; Decker, Adriana; Kramer, Michael S

    2013-07-10

    Studies on adverse childhood health and development outcomes associated with parental smoking have shown inconsistent results. Using a cohort of Belarusian children, we examined differences in cognition, behaviors, growth, adiposity, and blood pressure at 6.5 years according to prenatal and postnatal exposure to parental smoking. Using cluster-adjusted multivariable regression, effects of exposure to prenatal smoking were examined by comparing (1) children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy with those of mothers who smoked neither during nor after pregnancy and (2) children whose mothers smoked during and after pregnancy with those whose mothers smoked after pregnancy only; effects of postnatal smoking were examined by comparing (1) children whose mothers smoked after pregnancy only with those of mothers who smoked neither during nor after pregnancy and (2) children whose fathers smoked with those whose fathers did not smoke among children of non-smoking mothers after adjusting for a wide range of socioeconomic and family characteristics. After adjusting for confounders, children exposed vs unexposed to prenatal maternal smoking had no differences in mean IQ, teacher-rated behavioral problems, adiposity, or blood pressure. Children exposed to maternal postnatal smoking had slightly increased behavioral problems [0.9, 95% CI: 0.6, 1.2 for total difficulties], higher body mass index [0.2, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.3], greater total skinfold thickness [0.4, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.71], and higher odds of overweight or obesity [1.4, 95% CI; 1.1, 1.7]. Similar magnitudes of association were observed with postnatal paternal smoking. No adverse cognitive, behavioral and developmental outcomes were associated with exposure to maternal prenatal smoking. Observed associations with postnatal smoking of both parents may reflect residual confounding by genetic and family environmental factors.

  16. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

  17. Developing Scales to Measure Parental Mediation of Young Children's Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikken, Peter; Jansz, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    With children using digital media at ever younger ages, media-education becomes a pressing issue for parents. As there is hardly any research on how parents guide the online activities of toddlers and young children an internet-survey was held among 792 Dutch parents of children aged between 2 and 12 years. Factor analysis revealed that for the…

  18. Brief Report: Parent Verbal Responsiveness and Language Development in Toddlers on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; McDuffie, Andrea; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal associations between parent verbal responsiveness and language 3 years later in 34 toddlers with a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. Parent-child play samples were coded for child engagement and communication acts and for parent verbal responsiveness. Measures of responsive verbal behaviors were used to…

  19. Development of a Psychosocial Risk Screener for Siblings of Children With Cancer: Incorporating the Perspectives of Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kristin A; Pariseau, Emily M; Muriel, Anna C; Chu, Andrea; Kazak, Anne E; Alderfer, Melissa A

    2018-04-03

    Although many siblings experience distress after a child's cancer diagnosis, their psychosocial functioning is seldom assessed in clinical oncology settings. One barrier to systematic sibling screening is the lack of a validated, sibling-specific screening instrument. Thus, this study developed sibling-specific screening modules in English and Spanish for the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT), a well-validated screener of family psychosocial risk. A purposive sample of English- and Spanish-speaking parents of children with cancer (N = 29) completed cognitive interviews to provide in-depth feedback on the development of the new PAT sibling modules. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, cleaned, and analyzed using applied thematic analysis. Items were updated iteratively according to participants' feedback. Data collection continued until saturation was reached (i.e., all items were clear and valid). Two sibling modules were developed to assess siblings' psychosocial risk at diagnosis (preexisting risk factors) and several months thereafter (reactions to cancer). Most prior PAT items were retained; however, parents recommended changes to improve screening format (separately assessing each sibling within the family and expanding response options to include "sometimes"), developmental sensitivity (developing or revising items for ages 0-2, 3-4, 5-9, and 10+ years), and content (adding items related to sibling-specific social support, global assessments of sibling risk, emotional/behavioral reactions to cancer, and social ecological factors such as family and school). Psychosocial screening requires sibling-specific screening items that correspond to preexisting risk (at diagnosis) and reactions to cancer (several months after diagnosis). Validated, sibling-specific screeners will facilitate identification of siblings with elevated psychosocial risk.

  20. Development of anti-immigrant attitudes in adolescence: The role of parents, peers, intergroup friendships, and empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklikowska, Marta

    2017-08-01

    Ethnic and racial intergroup attitudes are assumed to develop due to the influence of socialization contexts. However, there is still little longitudinal evidence supporting this claim. We also know little about the relative importance of socialization contexts, the possible interplay between them as well as about the conditions and mechanisms that might underlie socialization effects. This longitudinal study of adolescents (N = 517) examined the effects of parents and peers' anti-immigrant attitudes as well as intergroup friendships on relative changes in adolescents' anti-immigrant prejudice, controlling for the effects of socioeconomic background. It also examined whether the effects of parents or peers would depend on adolescents' intergroup friendships. In addition, it explored whether the effects of parents, peers, and intergroup friendships would be mediated or moderated by adolescents' empathy. Results showed significant effects of parents, peers, intergroup friendships, and socioeconomic background on changes in youth attitudes, highlighting the role of parental prejudice. They also showed adolescents with immigrant friends to be less affected by parents and peers' prejudice than youth without immigrant friends. In addition, results showed the effects of parents, peers, and intergroup friendships to be mediated by adolescents' empathic concern. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the British Psychological Society.

  1. Development and Evaluation of a Parenting Resilience Elements Questionnaire (PREQ) Measuring Resiliency in Rearing Children with Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kota; Kobayashi, Tomoka; Moriyama, Karin; Kaga, Makiko; Hiratani, Michio; Watanabe, Kyota; Yamashita, Yushiro; Inagaki, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    We developed a parenting resilience elements questionnaire (PREQ) measuring the degree to which mothers possess elements that aid in adapting to challenges and difficulties related to children with developmental disorders (DD). A total of 424 parents of children with DD were recruited from five medical institutes. Psychometric properties of PREQ were evaluated using data of 363 mothers of children with DD. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, predicting depressive symptoms and parenting behavior with PREQ subscales, a general health questionnaire, and the total difficulties score of a strength and difficulties questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed three reliable factors: “knowledge of the child’s characteristics,” “perceived social supports,” and “positive perceptions of parenting.” Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed that “knowledge of the child’s characteristics” was associated with parenting behavior, whereas “perceived social supports” predicted depressive symptoms; “positive perceptions of parenting” influenced both parenting behavior and depressive symptoms. These findings indicated that the PREQ may be used as a scale measuring resiliency in mothers of children with DD and is useful for evaluating their parenting ability in clinical interventions. PMID:26633810

  2. Biometrical relationships in developing eggs and neonates of Octopus vulgaris in relation to parental diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Lorenzo; Quintana, Daniel; Lorenzo, Antonio; Almansa, Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    Captive Octopus vulgaris adults were fed three mono-diets based on pilchard, crab and squid and allowed to grow until reproduction under controlled temperature. Spawns from each dietary treatment were isolated, and the embryonic development, egg length, width and wet weight, in addition to neonate dry weight, dorsal mantle length and ventral mantle length were monitored. Pilchard-diet spawns developed faster in terms of thermal time. Initial egg wet weight was higher for squid and crab diets. Irrespective of the parental diet, eggs passed through a swelling process so that egg width and wet weight increased in a nonlinear way, whereas egg length was left nearly unaffected. Egg length and initial wet weight showed a high correlation with neonate dry weight. Egg length, even at advanced incubation, can be used as a good proxy for neonate dry weight, this fact having potential implications for the ecological and aquaculture research on O. vulgaris.

  3. Development of the Intervention Materials for the HomeStyles Obesity Prevention Program for Parents of Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Martin-Biggers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Home environment is key to the development of obesity-preventing behaviors during childhood, yet few resources help preschool parents address factors at home associated with obesity risk. This paper describes creation of materials for an in-home intervention (HomeStyles with this population. An advisory group of stakeholders and target audience members determined salient factors affecting childhood obesity to address in-home and developed program materials. The Social Cognitive Theory, Faith’s Core Behavior Change Strategies to Treat Childhood Obesity, Adult Learning Theory and motivational interviewing techniques guided development of 12 guides targeting strategies parents can use to shape the home environment. Interviews were conducted to determine effectiveness of the guides. Cognitive testing of guide design (n = 251 and content (n = 261 occurred in English and Spanish in New Jersey and Arizona with parents and home visitation staff who would present the guides. Interviews investigated perceptions of content usefulness and parent comprehension. Findings were also examined in light of theoretical underpinnings. Both home visitation staff and parents felt the guides were very readable and useful. Parents appreciated use of motivational interviewing techniques and Adult Learning Theory. Current research is testing these guides through an in-home, randomized control trial.

  4. The role of parent psychopathology in the development of preschool children with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined associations between early parental self-reported psychopathology symptoms and the later behavioral, emotional, and social functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Mothers and fathers of preschoolers with behavior problems (N = 132; 55 girls, 77 boys) completed parent psychopathology questionnaires when children were 3 years old and completed measures of children's externalizing, internalizing, and social problems annually from age 3 to age 6. The sample included 61% European American, 16% Latino (predominantly Puerto Rican), 10% African American, and 13% multiethnic children. Every dimension of mothers' and fathers' psychopathology symptoms when children were 3 years old was associated with their own reports of children's externalizing and internalizing problems 3 years later. Several dimensions of maternal psychopathology symptoms at age 3 were associated with mother-reported social skills 3 years later. However, the relation between many dimensions of psychopathology symptoms and child outcome appears to be accounted for by co-occurring psychopathology symptoms. Only maternal attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Cluster A symptoms, and paternal ADHD and depression/anxiety symptoms emerged as unique predictors of child functioning. These findings suggest that most types of mothers' and fathers' self-reported psychopathology symptoms may play a role in the prognosis of behavioral, social, and emotional outcomes of preschoolers with behavior problems, but that co-occurring symptoms need to be considered.

  5. Development of scales to assess children's perceptions of friend and parental influences on physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockman Rowan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children do not meet physical activity guidelines. Parents and friends are likely to influence children's physical activity but there is a shortage of measures that are able to capture these influences. Methods A new questionnaire with the following three scales was developed: 1 Parental influence on physical activity; 2 Motives for activity with friends scale; and 3 Physical activity and sedentary group normative values. Content for each scale was informed by qualitative work. One hundred and seventy three, 10-11 year old children completed the new questionnaire twice, one week apart. Participants also wore an accelerometer for 5 days and mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, light physical activity and sedentary time per day were obtained. Test-retest reliability of the items was calculated and Principal Component analysis of the scales performed and sub-scales produced. Alphas were calculated for main scales and sub-scales. Correlations were calculated among sub-scales. Correlations between each sub-scale and accelerometer physical activity variables were calculated for all participants and stratified by sex. Results The Parental influence scale yielded four factors which accounted for 67.5% of the variance in the items and had good (α > 0.7 internal consistency. The Motives for physical activity scale yielded four factors that accounted for 66.1% and had good internal consistency. The Physical activity norms scale yielded 4 factors that accounted for 67.4% of the variance, with good internal consistency for the sub-scales and alpha of .642 for the overall scale. Associations between the sub-scales and physical activity differed by sex. Although only 6 of the 11 sub-scales were significantly correlated with physical activity there were a number of associations that were positively correlated >0.15 indicating that these factors may contribute to the explanation of children's physical activity

  6. Video evidence that parenting methods predict which infants develop long night-time sleep periods by three months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St James-Roberts, Ian; Roberts, Marion; Hovish, Kimberly; Owen, Charlie

    2017-05-01

    Aim To examine two hypotheses about the longitudinal relationship between night-time parenting behaviours in the first few postnatal weeks and infant night-time sleep-waking at five weeks, three months and six months of age in normal London home environments. Most western infants develop long night-time sleep periods by four months of age. However, around 20-30% of infants in many countries continue to sleep for short periods and cry out on waking in the night: the most common type of infant sleep behaviour problem. Preventive interventions may help families and improve services. There is evidence that 'limit-setting' parenting, which is common in western cultures, supports the development of settled infant night-time behaviour. However, this evidence has been challenged. The present study measures three components of limit-setting parenting (response delay, feeding interval, settling method), examines their stability, and assesses the predictive relationship between each of them and infant sleep-waking behaviours. Longitudinal observations comparing a General-Community (n=101) group and subgroups with a Bed-Sharing (n=19) group on infra-red video, diary and questionnaire measures of parenting behaviours and infant feeding and sleep-waking at night. Findings Bed-Sharing parenting was highly infant-cued and stable. General-Community parenting involved more limit-setting, but was less stable, than Bed-Sharing parenting. One element of General-Community parenting - consistently introducing a short interval before feeding - was associated with the development of longer infant night-time feed intervals and longer day-time feeds at five weeks, compared with other General-Community and Bed-Sharing infants. Twice as many General-Community infants whose parents introduced these short intervals before feeding in the early weeks slept for long night-time periods at three months of age on both video and parent-report measures, compared with other General-Community and Bed

  7. Healthy Parent Carers programme: development and feasibility of a novel group-based health-promotion intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra J. Borek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parent carers of disabled children report poor physical health and mental wellbeing. They experience high levels of stress and barriers to engagement in health-related behaviours and with ‘standard’ preventive programmes (e.g. weight loss programmes. Interventions promoting strategies to improve health and wellbeing of parent carers are needed, tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. Methods We developed a group-based health promotion intervention for parent carers by following six steps of the established Intervention Mapping approach. Parent carers co-created the intervention programme and were involved in all stages of the development and testing. We conducted a study of the intervention with a group of parent carers to examine the feasibility and acceptability. Standardised questionnaires were used to assess health and wellbeing pre and post-intervention and at 2 month follow up. Participants provided feedback after each session and took part in a focus group after the end of the programme. Results The group-based Healthy Parent Carers programme was developed to improve health and wellbeing through engagement with eight achievable behaviours (CLANGERS – Connect, Learn, be Active, take Notice, Give, Eat well, Relax, Sleep, and by promoting empowerment and resilience. The manualised intervention was delivered by two peer facilitators to a group of seven parent carers. Feedback from participants and facilitators was strongly positive. The study was not powered or designed to test effectiveness but changes in measures of participants’ wellbeing and depression were in a positive direction both at the end of the intervention and 2 months later which suggest that there may be a potential to achieve benefit. Conclusions The Healthy Parent Carers programme appears feasible and acceptable. It was valued by, and was perceived to have benefited participants. The results will underpin future refinement of the

  8. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Early Intervention and the Role of Parents in Language Development of Hearing Loss Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Shekari; Mahbubeh Nakhshab; Vahid Valinejad; Amin Modarres Zadeh; Amirhossein Hosseinpour

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Deaf and hard-of-hearing children are slow in language development, and language deficits are common in hearing-impaired children. Here, all areas of the language, including syntax, morphology, phonology, semantic and pragmatic, are involved, and this leads to a deficiency in reading and academic skills. Evidence shows that through early intervention, we can minimize or eliminate problems of children with hearing loss. Early intervention teaches parents how to communicate with the...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF THE PARENT-CHILD PLAY SCALE FOR USE IN CHILDREN WITH FEEDING DISORDERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatoor, Irene; Hommel, Susanne; Sechi, Cristina; Lucarelli, Loredana

    2018-03-01

    The Parent-Child Play Scale was developed as a scale that complements the Parent-Child Feeding Scale, created by I. Chatoor et al. (1997), to evaluate mother-infant/toddler interactions in two different caregiving contexts of a young child's everyday life, specifically play and feeding. This Play Scale can be used with infants and toddlers ranging in age from 1 month to 3 years and provides reliable global ratings of mother-child interactions during 10 min of videotaped free-play in a laboratory setting. The scale consists of 32 mother and infant/toddler interactive behaviors which are rated by trained observers from videotaped observations. Four subscales are derived: Dyadic Reciprocity, Maternal Unresponsiveness to Infant's/Toddler's Cues, Dyadic Conflict, and Maternal Intrusiveness. Construct validity and interrater and test-retest reliability of the Play Scale have been demonstrated. This Play Scale discriminates between children with and without feeding disorders as well as between children with different subtypes of feeding disorders as defined by the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, Revised (DC:0-3R) (Feeding Disorder of State Regulation, Feeding Disorder of Caregiver-Infant Reciprocity, and Infantile Anorexia). It can be used for research or clinical practice in the diagnosis and treatment of early feeding problems, to assess the pervasiveness of mother-infant/toddler difficulties and to monitor changes following therapy. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. Survey indicated that core outcome set development is increasingly including patients, being conducted internationally and using Delphi surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggane, Alice M; Brading, Lucy; Ravaud, Philippe; Young, Bridget; Williamson, Paula R

    2018-02-17

    There are numerous challenges in including patients in a core outcome set (COS) study, these can vary depending on the patient group. This study describes current efforts to include patients in the development of COS, with the aim of identifying areas for further improvement and study. Using the COMET database, corresponding authors of COS projects registered or published from 1 January 2013 to 2 February 2017 were invited via a personalised email to participate in a short online survey. The survey and emails were constructed to maximise the response rate by following the academic literature on enhancing survey responses. Personalised reminder emails were sent to non-responders. This survey explored the frequency of patient input in COS studies, who was involved, what methods were used and whether or not the COS development was international. One hundred and ninety-two COS developers were sent the survey. Responses were collected from 21 February 2017 until 7 May 2017. One hundred and forty-six unique developers responded, yielding a 76% response rate and data in relation to 195 unique COSs (as some developers had worked on multiple COSs). Of focus here are their responses regarding 162 COSs at the published, completed or ongoing stages of development. Inclusion of patient participants was indicated in 87% (141/162) of COSs in the published completed or ongoing stages and over 94% (65/69) of ongoing COS projects. Nearly half (65/135) of COSs included patient participants from two or more countries and 22% (30/135) included patient participants from five or more countries. The Delphi survey was reported as being used singularly or in combination with other methods in 85% (119/140) of projects. Almost a quarter (16/65) of ongoing studies reported using a combination of qualitative interviews, Delphi survey and consensus meeting. These findings indicated that the Delphi survey is the most popular method of facilitating patient participation, while the combination of

  11. Construct validity and parent-child agreement of the six new or modified disorders included in the Spanish version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia present and Lifetime Version DSM-5 (K-SADS-PL-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Francisco R; Rosetti, Marcos F; Rodríguez-Delgado, Andrés; Villavicencio, Lino R; Palacio, Juan D; Montiel, Cecilia; Mayer, Pablo A; Félix, Fernando J; Larraguibel, Marcela; Viola, Laura; Ortiz, Silvia; Fernández, Sofía; Jaímes, Aurora; Feria, Miriam; Sosa, Liz; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; Ulloa, Rosa E

    2018-06-01

    Changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) incorporate the inclusion or modification of six disorders: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder and Binge Eating Disorder. The objectives of this study were to assess the construct validity and parent-child agreement of these six disorders in the Spanish language Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL-5) in a clinical population of children and adolescents from Latin America. The Spanish version of the K-SADS-PL was modified to integrate changes made to the DSM-5. Clinicians received training in the K-SADS-PL-5 and 90% agreement between raters was obtained. A total of 80 patients were recruited in four different countries in Latin America. All items from each of the six disorders were included in a factor analysis. Parent-child agreement was calculated for every item of the six disorders, including the effect of sex and age. The factor analysis revealed 6 factors separately grouping the items defining each of the new or modified disorders, with Eigenvalues greater than 2. Very good parent-child agreements (r>0.8) were found for the large majority of the items (93%), even when considering the sex or age of the patient. This independent grouping of disorders suggests that the manner in which the disorders were included into the K-SADS-PL-5 reflects robustly the DSM-5 constructs and displayed a significant inter-informant reliability. These findings support the use of K-SADS-PL-5 as a clinical and research tool to evaluate these new or modified diagnoses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Neurobehaviour between birth and 40 weeks' gestation in infants born parental psychological wellbeing: predictors of brain development and child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Alicia J; Thompson, Deanne K; Brown, Nisha C; Treyvaud, Karli; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Lee, Katherine J; Pace, Carmen C; Olsen, Joy; Allinson, Leesa G; Morgan, Angela T; Seal, Marc; Eeles, Abbey; Judd, Fiona; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-04-24

    Infants born long term neurodevelopmental problems compared with term born peers. The predictive value of neurobehavioural examinations at term equivalent age in very preterm infants has been reported for subsequent impairment. Yet there is little knowledge surrounding earlier neurobehavioural development in preterm infants prior to term equivalent age, and how it relates to perinatal factors, cerebral structure, and later developmental outcomes. In addition, maternal psychological wellbeing has been associated with child development. Given the high rate of psychological distress reported by parents of preterm children, it is vital we understand maternal and paternal wellbeing in the early weeks and months after preterm birth and how this influences the parent-child relationship and children's outcomes. Therefore this study aims to examine how 1) early neurobehaviour and 2) parental mental health relate to developmental outcomes for infants born preterm compared with infants born at term. This prospective cohort study will describe the neurobehaviour of 150 infants born at term equivalent age, and explore how early neurobehavioural deficits relate to brain growth or injury determined by magnetic resonance imaging, perinatal factors, parental mental health and later developmental outcomes measured using standardised assessment tools at term, one and two years' corrected age. A control group of 150 healthy term-born infants will also be recruited for comparison of outcomes. To examine the effects of parental mental health on developmental outcomes, both parents of preterm and term-born infants will complete standardised questionnaires related to symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress at regular intervals from the first week of their child's birth until their child's second birthday. The parent-child relationship will be assessed at one and two years' corrected age. Detailing the trajectory of infant neurobehaviour and parental psychological

  13. Early Parenting and the Development of Externalizing Behavior Problems: Longitudinal Mediation through Children’s Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik, Michael J.; Blair, Clancy; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Berry, Daniel; Greenberg, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Path analysis was used to investigate the longitudinal associations among parenting and children’s executive function and externalizing behavior problems from 36 to 90 months of age in the Family Life Project (N = 1,115), a study of child development in the context of rural poverty. While controlling for stability in the constructs, semi-structured observations of parenting prospectively predicted performance on a battery of executive function tasks and primary caregivers’ reports of externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the association between early parenting and later externalizing behavior was longitudinally mediated by executive function, providing support for a process model in which sensitive parenting promotes children’s self-regulation, which in turn reduces children’s externalizing behavior. PMID:26082032

  14. Including patients in core outcome set development: issues to consider based on three workshops with around 100 international delegates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bridget; Bagley, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This commentary article describes three interactive workshops that explored how patients can contribute to decisions about what outcomes are measured in clinical trials across the world. Outcomes like quality of life, side-effects and pain are used in trials to measure whether a treatment is effective. Here, we outline how research groups are increasingly coming together to develop 'core outcomes sets' for particular conditions. Core outcome sets are lists of agreed outcomes. Their use will help in identifying which treatments are effective by enabling people to compare the findings of different clinical trials in the same condition. Currently, it is often very difficult to make these comparisons because different studies often measure different outcomes. Delegates attending the workshops included patients, clinicians and researchers. They discussed ways of making core outcome set development more meaningful and accessible for patients, and ensuring that they have a genuine say in the development process. This article summarises these discussions and concludes by identifying three distinctive challenges in securing patient input to core outcome set development: the process and objectives can seem far removed from the immediate concerns of patients, difficulties can arise in securing patient input on an international scale, and difficulties can also arise in bringing multiple stakeholder groups together to achieve consensus. While patient participation, involvement and engagement in core outcome set development can draw on lessons from other research areas, these distinctive challenges point to the need for distinctive solutions to enable meaningful patient input to core outcome set development. Background This article describes three workshops that explored how patients can contribute to decisions about what outcomes are measured in clinical trials. People need evidence about what treatments are best for particular health conditions. The strongest evidence comes

  15. Development of a Web-Based Quality Dashboard Including a Toolbox to Improve Pain Management in Dutch Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos-Blom, Marie-José; Gude, Wouter T; de Jonge, Evert; Spijkstra, Jan Jaap; van der Veer, Sabine N; Dongelmans, Dave A; de Keizer, Nicolette F

    2017-01-01

    Audit and feedback (A&F) is a common strategy to improve quality of care. Meta-analyses have indicated that A&F may be more effective in realizing desired change when baseline performance is low, it is delivered by a supervisor or colleague, it is provided frequently and in a timely manner, it is delivered in both verbal and written formats, and it includes specific targets and an action plan. However, there is little information to guide operationalization of these factors. Researchers have consequently called for A&F interventions featuring well-described and carefully justified components, with their theoretical rationale made explicit. This paper describes the rationale and development of a quality dashboard including an improvement toolbox for four previous developed pain indicators, guided by Control Theory.

  16. Developing the FARSEEING Taxonomy of Technologies: Classification and description of technology use (including ICT) in falls prevention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Elisabeth; Hawley-Hague, Helen; Vereijken, Beatrix; Clifford, Amanda; Guldemond, Nick; Pfeiffer, Klaus; Hall, Alex; Chesani, Federico; Mellone, Sabato; Bourke, Alan; Todd, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Recent Cochrane reviews on falls and fall prevention have shown that it is possible to prevent falls in older adults living in the community and in care facilities. Technologies aimed at fall detection, assessment, prediction and prevention are emerging, yet there has been no consistency in describing or reporting on interventions using technologies. With the growth of eHealth and data driven interventions, a common language and classification is required. The FARSEEING Taxonomy of Technologies was developed as a tool for those in the field of biomedical informatics to classify and characterise components of studies and interventions. The Taxonomy Development Group (TDG) comprised experts from across Europe. Through face-to-face meetings and contributions via email, five domains were developed, modified and agreed: Approach; Base; Components of outcome measures; Descriptors of technologies; and Evaluation. Each domain included sub-domains and categories with accompanying definitions. The classification system was tested against published papers and further amendments undertaken, including development of an online tool. Six papers were classified by the TDG with levels of consensus recorded. Testing the taxonomy with papers highlighted difficulties in definitions across international healthcare systems, together with differences of TDG members' backgrounds. Definitions were clarified and amended accordingly, but some difficulties remained. The taxonomy and manual were large documents leading to a lengthy classification process. The development of the online application enabled a much simpler classification process, as categories and definitions appeared only when relevant. Overall consensus for the classified papers was 70.66%. Consensus scores increased as modifications were made to the taxonomy. The FARSEEING Taxonomy of Technologies presents a common language, which should now be adopted in the field of biomedical informatics. In developing the taxonomy as an

  17. Parent-of-origin and trans-generational germline influences on behavioral development: the interacting roles of mothers, fathers, and grandparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curley, J P; Mashoodh, R

    2010-05-01

    Mothers and fathers do not contribute equally to the development of their offspring. In addition to the differential investment of mothers versus fathers in the rearing of offspring, there are also a number of germline factors that are transmitted unequally from one parent or the other that contribute significantly to offspring development. This article shall review four major sources of such parent-of-origin effects. Firstly, there is increasing evidence that genes inherited on the sex chromosomes including the nonpseudoautosomal part of the Y chromosome that is only inherited from fathers to sons, contribute to brain development and behavior independently of the organizing effects of sex hormones. Secondly, recent work has demonstrated that mitochondrial DNA that is primarily inherited only from mothers may play a much greater than anticipated role in neurobehavioral development. Thirdly, there exists a class of genes known as imprinted genes that are epigenetically silenced when passed on in a parent-of-origin specific manner and have been shown to regulate brain development and a variety of behaviors. Finally, there is converging evidence from several disciplines that environmental variations experienced by mothers and fathers may lead to plasticity in the development and behavior of offspring and that this phenotypic inheritance can be solely transmitted through the germline. Mechanistically, this may be achieved through altered programming within germ cells of the epigenetic status of particular genes such as retrotransposons and imprinted genes or potentially through altered expression of RNAs within gametes.

  18. Studies and analyses of the management of scientific research and development, including implementation and application at NASA centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    Summary results obtained through the Program of Research on the Management of Research and Development (POMRAD) were presented. The nature of the overall program and the specific projects undertaken were described. Statistical data is also given concerning the papers, publications, people, and major program areas associated with the program. The actual list of papers, names of doctoral and masters theses, and other details of the program are included as appendices.

  19. El Papel de los Padres en el Desarrollo de la Competencia Social (The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  20. Using Intervention Mapping to develop the Parents as Agents of Change (PAC©) intervention for managing pediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Geoff D C; Mushquash, Aislin R; Keaschuk, Rachel A; Ambler, Kathryn A; Newton, Amanda S

    2017-01-13

    Pediatric obesity has become increasingly prevalent over recent decades. In view of the psychosocial and physical health risks, and the high likelihood that children with obesity will grow to become adults with obesity, there is a clear need to develop evidence-based interventions that can be delivered in the health care system to optimize the health and well-being of children with obesity and their families. The aim of this paper is to describe the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of a parent-based weight management intervention designed for parents of 8-12 year olds with obesity. The principles of Intervention Mapping (IM) were used to develop an intervention called Parents as Agents of Change (PAC © ). From 2006 to 2009, an environmental scan plus qualitative (individual interviews with parents and children), quantitative (medical record reviews), and literature review data were collected to gain broad insight into family factors related to pediatric obesity and its management. Theoretical frameworks and empirical evidence guided curriculum development, which was founded primarily on the tenets of family systems theory and cognitive behavioral theory. PAC was developed as a manualized, 16-session, group-based, health care professional-led intervention for parents to address individual, family, and environmental factors related to the management of pediatric obesity. The intervention was refined based on feedback from local and international experts, and has been implemented successfully in a multi-disciplinary weight management centre in a children's hospital. IM provided a practical framework to guide the systematic development of a pediatric weight management intervention for parents of children with obesity. This logical, step-by-step process blends theory and practice and is broadly applicable in the context of obesity management intervention development and evaluation. Following intervention development, the PAC intervention was