WorldWideScience

Sample records for included community involvement

  1. Underrepresented communities: including the Portuguese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research article emanates from a doctoral study which investigated the potential inclusion of the records generated by South African Portuguese community-based organisations into a workable archival collecting initiative of the community. The specific purpose of this article is to report on the current status of ...

  2. Involving the Community

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    How can two-way communication enhance community participation in research and development initiatives and improve the capacity of communities to participate in the ...... Resistance to change and the force of local customs, habits and taboos are other cultural aspects that can often pose significant obstacles.

  3. Community Involvement Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    facing aviation today is the enviromental and social impacts of airports on nearby comnmities. In order to create a climate which will allow the...structure should include provision for periodically engaging appropriate personnel in thinking about the future relationships between human con- siderations...need for broad public evaluation of alternatives, then public meetings, newsletters, workshops, etc. may be more useful techniques. In thinking through

  4. Community Involvement in Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, Stephanie

    1988-01-01

    Lists several key concepts in developing successful interpretive programs for marine protected areas with community involvement. Identifies educational tools that help foster community involvement in conservation and management. Cites three model programs. Sets standards and goals for international success including leadership, education,…

  5. Community Involvement in TB Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Werf (Marloes); S.G. Heumann (Silke); E.M.H. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhile communities at risk have been both drivers and partners in HIV research, their important role in TB research is yet to be fully realized. Involvement of communities in tuberculosis care and prevention is currently on the international agenda. This creates opportunities and

  6. Teacher's Manual for Parent and Community Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Larry E.; And Others

    Providing training for teachers and educators in home-school-community involvement is important for an obvious reason: schools don't operate in a vacuum. To be successful in the primary mission of educating the community's children, educators need to know a great deal about the community and the families from which the children come. The focus of…

  7. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  8. Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in Cross River State, Nigeria: a descriptive study. Hilary Adie, Thomas Igbang, Akaninyene Otu, Ekanem Braide, Okpok Okon, Edet Ikpi, Charles Joseph, Alexander Desousa, Johannes Sommerfeld ...

  9. Community Involvement and Preception towards Malaria Prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Involvement and Preception towards Malaria Prevention and Control Strategies in Rural Areas of Kersa District in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Wondimu Tesgera, Makonnen Aseffa, Bishaw Deboch, Wondwossen Kassahun ...

  10. Evaluation of Community Pharmacists' Involvement in Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Community pharmacists are marginally involved in the primary health care programmes in Benin City and are willing to improve on their performance. Continuing education on primary health care and incorporation of primary health care role of community pharmacists in the curriculum of pharmacy schools ...

  11. Understanding and encouraging volunteerism and community involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukas, Arthur A; Snyder, Mark; Clary, E Gil

    2016-01-01

    Volunteerism and community involvement have been demonstrated to offer benefits both to communities and to volunteers themselves. However, not every method to encourage these behaviors is equally effective in producing committed volunteers. Drawing on relevant theoretical and empirical literatures, we identify features of efforts that are likely to produce intrinsically motivated other-oriented volunteers and those that may produce extrinsically motivated self-oriented volunteers. In particular, we explore ways to socialize young people to help and ways to build a sense of community focused on particular issues. We also examine requirements for community service and other approaches that highlight self-oriented benefits that volunteers may obtain. Finally, we return to a focus on the importance of intrinsic motivation for promoting sustained involvement in volunteers, even as we acknowledge that volunteers who come with extrinsic or self-oriented reasons can still offer much to communities and can be satisfied when their activities match their motivations.

  12. Assessment of the Involvement of the Community Pharmacist in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the involvement of the Community Pharmacists in the practice of pharmaceutical care in Benin City. Method: A structured pharmaceutical care questionnaire was administered to all Community Pharmacies with registered pharmacists in Benin City. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, standard ...

  13. Involving Families and Communities in CSPAP Development Using Asset Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allar, Ishonté; Elliott, Eloise; Jones, Emily; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.; Taliaferro, Andrea; Bulger, Sean M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction to asset mapping as a systematic approach to facilitating increased family and community involvement in comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP). It includes a brief summary of the literature related to the importance of family and community in children's physical activity…

  14. Assessment of community empowerment and women involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to assess the level of community and women involvement and empowerment in the implementation of the second National Fadama Development Project (Fadama II or NFDP II) in Ogun State. A sample of 240 Fadama II beneficiaries (members) was selected using a combination of purposive and ...

  15. Community Involvement in School Management in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Luísa; Craveiro, Daniela; Rufino, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the ways in which the community is involved in Portuguese school management. It is based on an analysis of the external evaluation reports of 298 Portuguese schools for the academic years 2006-07, 2007-08 and 2008-09. The corpus analysed allowed the identification of two main aspects of the participation processes: (1) local…

  16. Community involvement in dam breach exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattanach, J.D.; Macdonald, E.G.; Mulligan, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    In 1986 British Columbia Hydro made a commitment to perform annual dam failure simulations based on the Emergency Preparedness Plans. Over the last 7 years nine such exercises have been completed. Each year the level of complexity of the exercises has increased, and along with it, the number of organizations outside of B.C. Hydro that participate in the exercise events has also increased. There has been a shift in attitudes, both internally and externally, towards these exercises. It is described how British Columbia Hydro was able to involve the communities downstream of its dams and encourage their participation in emergency planning and coordination. B.C. Hydro's process for involving a community in its emergency exercises starts with an invitation to the emergency coordinator in each affected community to attend an exercise planning meeting. Communities have occasionally declined to participate, the most common reasons being insufficiently developed emergency plans, budget prohibiting the cost of the exercise, or for political reasons. 2 refs., 1 tab

  17. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  18. Involving technical professionals in community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, K.A.; Meyer, L.

    1994-01-01

    The Weldon Spring site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) environmental restoration project, has developed a successful community relations program that differs from the traditional approach and has built a general consensus about the DOE's work at the Weldon Spring site. The WSSRAP has a small, dedicated Community Relations Department that is heavily supported by technical professionals who receive intensive training in preparatory and presentation skills, role-playing, and critiquing of performances. This training allows the public to speak directly with the individuals responsible for remediation activities. The media, in turn, has access to technical individuals with good presentation skills, and WSSRAP managers can be confident that interactions are handled professionally. This approach results in a satisfied client. The WSSRAP's community relations program is a high-quality, cost-effective program that could be easily implemented by other facilities

  19. LOCAL COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN TOURISM DEVEOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria TĂTĂRUȘANU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of community participation in tourism development has been brought in front of the sector decision makers and researchers mostly during the last period of time. It could be a source of benefits and it could also create a better relationship between the tourism companies and the community groups. In this paper the author writes a literature review on this subject in order to draw attention on this issue in the Romanian tourism literature and to create an analysis framework for specific cases of tourism development plans.

  20. Ghanaian migrant women's involvement in microlevel community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This system seems to be obligatory and authoritarian in nature. Its approach is elitist and offers migrants an obligatory and conventional way of participating in a 'shared history of development' in their country of origin even though living in another country. Failure to participate in community development projects, migrant's ...

  1. Strategies for Involving Communities in the Funding of Computer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a survey design which investigated the strategies for involving communities in the funding of computer education in secondary schools of Anambra state, Nigeria. Two research questions guided the study. A 30-items researcher developed questionnaire titled “Strategies for Involving Communities in Funding ...

  2. Presidential Perceptions of Trustee Involvement in Community College Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Everrett A.; Miller, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Community college trustees play a variety of roles in governing their colleges, but there is little consistency in interpreting these actions. Defining the specific responsibilities of trustee involvement has increasingly developed into a priority for community college leaders. To what extent trustees should be involved in different…

  3. Involving other communities through challenges and cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Nellist, Clara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has recently setup three projects targeting citizen science or specific communities : The goal of the HiggsML project was to bring particle physicists and data scientists together through a challenge: compete online to obtain the best Higgs to tau tau signal significance on a set of ATLAS fully simulated signal and background. The challenge ran from May to September 2014, drawing considerable attention. In total, there were 1785 teams that participated, making it the most popular challenge at the time on the Kaggle platform. The ATLAS@home project allows volunteers to run simulations of collisions in the ATLAS detector. During the first year the community mostly consisted of software fans, who were attracted by the technical challenge and contributed greatly to the debugging through the message boards on the website. With the start of LHC, the number of people attracted for outreach reasons grew. Higgs Hunters is the first Particle Physics project hosted on the web-based citizen scienc...

  4. Religious Education and Community Involvement among Jewish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Uzi; Sasson, Ayelet

    2009-01-01

    Religious Education is one way to increase and maintain community involvement among teenagers. In many Jewish communities across the United States, participation in religious activities and religious youth movements have decreased. As research in this area is limited, this study sets out to identify the curricula that are more effective in…

  5. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management in rural areas: a case of Rukungiri district, Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwang, Simon; Najjemba, Robinah; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2012-03-29

    Maternal mortality is a major public health problem worldwide especially in low income countries. Most causes of maternal deaths are due to direct obstetric complications. Maternal mortality ratio remains high in Rukungiri district, western Uganda estimated at 475 per 100,000 live births. The objectives were to identify types of community involvement and examine factors influencing the level of community involvement in the management of obstetric emergencies. We conducted a descriptive study during 2nd to 28th February 2009 in rural Rukungiri district, western Uganda. A total of 448 heads of households, randomly selected from 6/11 (54.5%) of sub-counties, 21/42 (50.0%) parishes and 32/212 (15.1%) villages (clusters), were interviewed. Data were analysed using STATA version 10.0. Community pre-emergency support interventions available included community awareness creation (sensitization) while interventions undertaken when emergency had occurred included transportation and referring women to health facility. Community support programmes towards health care (obstetric emergencies) included establishment of community savings and credit schemes, and insurance schemes. The factors associated with community involvement in obstetric emergency management were community members being employed (AOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.02 - 3.54) and rating the quality of maternal health care as good (AOR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.19 - 4.14). Types of community involvement in obstetric emergency management include practices and support programmes. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management is influenced by employment status and perceived quality of health care services. Policies to promote community networks and resource mobilization strategies for health care should be implemented. There is need for promotion of community support initiatives including health insurance schemes and self help associations; further community sensitization by empowered community based resource persons rather

  6. School Violence: The Role of Parental and Community Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesneskie, Eric; Block, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This study utilizes the School Survey on Crime and Safety to identify variables that predict lower levels of violence from four domains: school security, school climate, parental involvement, and community involvement. Negative binomial regression was performed and the findings indicate that statistically significant results come from all four…

  7. Primary Care Trusts involving the community: is community development the way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Philip; Green, Judith; Freake, Debbie; Drinkwater, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Patient and user involvement is central to current government thinking on the NHS. More comprehensive approaches to organised community participation and community development have received less support and examples of effective and genuine participation in key areas such as primary care decision-making are rare. The initiative described in this paper was established in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1995 to promote community participation in decision-making about local health services. It has particular relevance to current concerns about addressing social exclusion and tackling health inequalities since it operates in an area of social disadvantage with a significant black and ethnic minority population (6 percent). This case study is based on an independent evaluation which used multiple research methods, including interviews, questionnaire surveys and direct observation, to assess the project's practice and impact. Describes a community development approach to public participation. An emphasis on inclusive practices has facilitated meaningful involvement of minority groups such as ethnic minority residents and those with disabilities who tend to be marginalised in public debate. Argues that the project has made a significant impact on the ways in which local health services are planned and delivered

  8. Corporate Community Involvement Activities: New Evidence for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Uyan-Atay, Bilge

    2012-01-01

    Recognition that corporations are embedded within societies is playing an increasingly significant role in shaping strategic decision making in modern business organisations. Corporate community involvement (CCI) is becoming an increasingly salient aspect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and encompasses a diverse range of activities from philanthropic giving and employee volunteerism to cause related marketing and sponsorship, and supports a range of community needs from education and...

  9. Martin Luther King, Jr., General Hospital and community involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M M

    1973-07-01

    Community involvement is not just one facet of the new Martin Luther King, Jr., General Hospital's existence. It is the mainstream from which all other activities flow. In addition to meeting the conventional needs of a conventional hospital staff with the core collection of texts and journals, this library goes one step further. It acts as a resource for its community health workers, dietitians, and nurses in their various outreach programs. It serves as a stimulus for the high school or community college student who may be curious about a health career. It also finds time to provide reading material for its patients.

  10. Environmental Management Model for Road Maintenance Operation Involving Community Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyono, A. R. H.; Setyawan, A.; Sobriyah; Setiono, P.

    2017-07-01

    Public expectations of Central Java, which is very high on demand fulfillment, especially road infrastructure as outlined in the number of complaints and community expectations tweeter, Short Mail Massage (SMS), e-mail and public reports from various media, Highways Department of Central Java province requires development model of environmental management in the implementation of a routine way by involving the community in order to fulfill the conditions of a representative, may serve road users safely and comfortably. This study used survey method with SEM analysis and SWOT with Latent Independent Variable (X), namely; Public Participation in the regulation, development, construction and supervision of road (PSM); Public behavior in the utilization of the road (PMJ) Provincial Road Service (PJP); Safety in the Provincial Road (KJP); Integrated Management System (SMT) and latent dependent variable (Y) routine maintenance of the provincial road that is integrated with the environmental management system and involve the participation of the community (MML). The result showed the implementation of routine maintenance of road conditions in Central Java province has yet to implement an environmental management by involving the community; Therefore developed environmental management model with the results of H1: Community Participation (PSM) has positive influence on the Model of Environmental Management (MML); H2: Behavior Society in Jalan Utilization (PMJ) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H3: Provincial Road Service (PJP) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H4: Safety in the Provincial Road (KJP) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H5: Integrated Management System (SMT) has positive influence on the Model of Environmental Management (MML). From the analysis obtained formulation model describing the relationship / influence of the independent variables PSM, PMJ, PJP, KJP, and SMT on the dependent variable

  11. Community (in) Colleges: The Relationship Between Online Network Involvement and Academic Outcomes at a Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Eliza D.; McFarland, Daniel A.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Deil-Amen, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study explores the relationship between online social network involvement and academic outcomes among community college students. Prior theory hypothesizes that socio-academic moments are especially important for the integration of students into community colleges and that integration is related to academic outcomes. Online social…

  12. Associations between successful palliative cancer pathways and community nurse involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern; Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2009-01-01

    between bereaved relatives' evaluation of palliative pathways at home and place of death and CN involvement were analysed. RESULTS: 'A successful palliative pathway at home' was positively associated with home-death and death at a nursing home compared with death at an institution. No significant......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Most terminally ill cancer patients and their relatives wish that the patient dies at home. Community nurses (CNs) are often frontline workers in the patients' homes and CN involvement may be important in attaining successful palliative pathways at home.The aim of the present...... study was to examine associations between bereaved relatives' evaluation of palliative treatment at home and 1) place of death and 2) CN involvement. METHODS: The study is a population-based, cross-sectional combined register and questionnaire study performed in Aarhus County, Denmark. CN questionnaires...

  13. Social Work with Religious Volunteers: Activating and Sustaining Community Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Diana R.; Myers, Dennis M.; Wolfer, Terry A.

    2008-01-01

    Social workers in diverse community practice settings recruit and work with volunteers from religious congregations. This article reports findings from two surveys: 7,405 congregants in 35 Protestant congregations, including 2,570 who were actively volunteering, and a follow-up survey of 946 volunteers. It compares characteristics of congregation…

  14. Community health nurses' perceptions, knowledge, and involvement in abortion services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, I; Swanson, J; Oakley, D

    1994-01-01

    To learn more about the abortion-related experiences and value orientation of nurses, questionnaires were mailed to 1900 randomly selected community health nurses in the US; 844 (45%) responded. Although only 7% worked in settings where abortions are performed, half provide abortion counseling or referral. Their knowledge about the epidemiology of abortion in the US and recent abortion-related legislation was inadequate, and only 28.6% had received training about the clinical aspects of abortion in nursing school. Respondents' attitudes toward induced abortion were generally supportive; 82.0% believed federal funds should be provided for the procedure, 81.6% agreed women in the first trimester of pregnancy should have the right to choose abortion, and 70.3% supported abortion on demand. However, 27.8% indicated that abortion services in their communities were being negatively impacted by anti-abortion groups; only 9.7% felt that pro-choice groups were having a significant impact in their area. 56.0% reported they had been involved in some political activity relating to abortion, largely voting for a pro-abortion rights candidate or writing letters to legislators. 56.4& indicated they would vote against a candidate they otherwise supported if his or her views on abortion were unacceptable. 21.9% and 16.8% of nurses were involved with local or national Planned Parenthood; under 3% were members of anti-abortion groups. In-service training programs on the abortion issue are recommended to enable community health nurses to expand their counseling and political advocacy skills.

  15. Including Fathers in the Picture: A Meta-Analysis of Parental Involvement and Students' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung won; Hill, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Extant research on parental involvement in education has been conducted largely without respect to which parent is involved. The implicit assumption is that family-school relationship frameworks function similarly for fathers and mothers. Although there is a growing body of research examining fathers' involvement in education, this assumption has…

  16. Community Involvement among Behaviourally Bisexual Men in the Midwestern USA: Experiences and Perceptions across Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Reece, Michael; Goncalves, Gabriel; Martinez, Omar; Nix, Ryan; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Murray, Maresa; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Limited research exists regarding community involvement and social support among behaviourally bisexual men. Previous studies suggest that bisexual men experience high levels of social stigma in both heterosexual and homosexual community settings. Research focusing on social support has demonstrated that individuals with limited access to similar individuals experience greater risk for negative health outcomes. Using a community-based research design, participants were recruited using multiple methods in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Researchers conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 75 men who reported having engaged in bisexual behaviour within the past six months. Interviews elucidated the experiences of behaviourally bisexual men in heterosexual and homosexual settings, as well as their perceptions of the existence of a bisexual community or bisexual spaces. All participants perceived a lack of a visible bisexual community and expressed difficulty with being comfortable, or feeling belonging, within a variety of heterosexual and homosexual community spaces. Findings suggest the need for interventions focused on community building among, as well as creating spaces specifically designed for, bisexual men in order to increase perceived social support and decrease isolation and possible negative health outcomes. PMID:22978551

  17. Post-trial sleep sequences including transition sleep are involved in avoidance learning of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandile, P; Vescia, S; Montagnese, P; Piscopo, S; Cotugno, M; Giuditta, A

    2000-07-01

    High resolution computerized EEG analyses, and behavioral observations were used to identify slow wave sleep (SS), paradoxical sleep (PS) and transition sleep (TS) in adult male Wistar rats exposed to a session of two-way active avoidance training. Of the four sleep sequences that could be identified, two included TS (SS-->TS-->W and SS-->TS-->PS), while the other two did not (SS-->W and SS-->PS). Comparison of post-trial sleep variables between fast learning rats (FL, reaching criterion in the training session), slow learning rats (SL, reaching criterion in the retention session the following day), and non learning rats (NL, failing to reach criterion) indicated that the total amounts of SS, TS and PS of the SS-->TS-->PS sequence was markedly higher in FL rats than in SL rats. In addition, in comparison with the corresponding baseline period, the average duration and total amount of SS and TS episodes of the SS-->TS-->PS sequence increased in FL rats, while the number of SS-->TS-->W sequences decreased. On the other hand, the average duration of SS episodes increased in the SS-->TS-->W and SS-->W sequences of SL rats, and in the SS-->W and SS-->TS-->PS sequences of NL rats. Correlative analyses between number of avoidances and post-trial sleep variables demonstrated that avoidances were directly correlated with the duration of SS episodes of the SS-->TS-->PS sequence and with the duration of TS episodes of the SS-->TS-->W sequence, but inversely correlated with the number and amount of SS episodes of the SS-->W sequence and with the duration and amount of SS episodes of the SS-->PS sequence. On the whole, the data supported the view that TS-containing sleep sequences are involved in long-term storage of novel adaptive behavior, while sleep sequences lacking TS are involved in the maintenance of innate behavioral responses.

  18. Community services' involvement in the discharge of older adults from hospital into the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Guerin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community services are playing an increasing role in supporting older adults who are discharged from hospital with ongoing non-acute care needs.  However, there is a paucity of information regarding how community services are involved in the discharge process of older individuals from hospital into the community.  Methods: 29 databases were searched from 1980 to 2012 (inclusive for relevant primary published research, of any study design, as well as relevant unpublished work (e.g. clinical guidelines which investigated community services’ involvement in the discharge of older individuals from hospital into the community. Data analysis and quality appraisal (using McMaster critical appraisal tools was undertaken predominately by the lead author.  Data was synthesised qualitatively. Results: 12 papers were eligible for inclusion (five randomised controlled trials, four before and after studies and three controlled trials, involving a total of 8440 older adults (> 65 years.  These papers reported on a range of interventions.  During data synthesis, descriptors were assigned to four emergent discharge methods: Virtual Interface Model, In-reach Interface Model, Out-reach Interface Model, and Independent Interface Model.   In each model, the findings were mixed in terms of healthcare and patient and carer outcomes.  Conclusions: It is plausible that each model identified in this systematic review has a role to play in successfully discharging different cohorts of older adults from hospital.  Further research is required to identify appropriate population groups for various discharge models, and to select suitable outcomes measures to determine the effectiveness of these models, considering all stakeholders' involved.

  19. A profile of scorpionism, including the species of scorpions involved, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cícero Lucinaldo Soares de Oliveira; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Sampaio, Iracilda; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated scorpionism profile in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Data referring to stinging incidents were obtained from the National Databank of Major Causes of Morbidity. Information on the scorpion species involved was obtained from the Amazonas State health units. Amazonas has a scorpionism rate of 8.14 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Some municipalities (e.g., Apuí) presented higher rates (273 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Most species involved in envenomation belonged to the genus Tityus. Our results reaffirm the notion of scorpionism being a public health hazard and provide data that can guide public policy aimed at scorpionism prevention and treatment.

  20. Including students with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities in school extracurricular and community recreation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Harold L; Miracle, Sally; Sheppard-Jones, Kathy

    2007-02-01

    We conducted an online statewide survey of teachers of students with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities to determine the extent to which their students were included in school extracurricular and community recreation activities. For the 252 teacher respondents who indicated that their primary caseload consisted of students with significant intellectual disabilities, we report the numbers of students participating in school and community activities and the primary type of support students required to participate in each activity. Finally, we identify implications for practitioners who want to increase the participation of students with significant disabilities in school and community activities.

  1. Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR): Towards Equitable Involvement of Community in Psychology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Susan E; Clifasefi, Seema L; Stanton, Joey; Straits, Kee J E; Gil-Kashiwabara, Eleanor; Rodriguez Espinosa, Patricia; Nicasio, Andel V; Andrasik, Michele P; Hawes, Starlyn M; Miller, Kimberly A; Nelson, Lonnie A; Orfaly, Victoria E; Duran, Bonnie M; Wallerstein, Nina

    2018-01-22

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) answers the call for more patient-centered, community-driven research approaches to address growing health disparities. CBPR is a collaborative research approach that equitably involves community members, researchers, and other stakeholders in the research process and recognizes the unique strengths that each bring. The aim of CBPR is to combine knowledge and action to create positive and lasting social change. With its origins in psychology, sociology, and critical pedagogy, CBPR has become a common research approach in the fields of public health, medicine, and nursing. Although it is well aligned with psychology's ethical principles and research aims, it has not been widely implemented in psychology research. The present article introduces CBPR to a general psychology audience while considering the unique aims of and challenges in conducting psychology research. In this article, we define CBPR principles, differentiate it from a more traditional psychology research approach, retrace its historical roots, provide concrete steps for its implementation, discuss its potential benefits, and explore practical and ethical challenges for its integration into psychology research. Finally, we provide a case study of CBPR in psychology to illustrate its key constructs and implementation. In sum, CBPR is a relevant, important, and promising research framework that may guide the implementation of more effective, culturally appropriate, socially just, and sustainable community-based psychology research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Community Involvement in the Development of Secondary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is against this background that the community, that is, other agencies and or group of individuals' aside the government have been given the free hand to make contributions towards education especially at the secondary school level, based on some given guidelines. In the light of this, this research asks if the communities ...

  3. How Walkerton District Secondary School Involves Itself in Community Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elements of Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    More than a dozen community projects designed, drawn, and built by senior technical education students are described. Practical experience for the students, with advice from town engineers and material from industry, and equipment and structures for the community are provided by the projects. The Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT),…

  4. Determinants of Community Involvement: A Review of Literature and New Hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Salisu Aliyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an understanding of what community relations is all about. From the numerous literatures consulted, it observe that relationship between companies, and their various host communities was characterized by conflict destruction and misunderstanding but sometimes positives. Against this background, a new framework on community involvement was proposed as a response to the failing attempts by several recommendations and model on how to improve community relations. Furthermore, this paper’s attempt to unravel what need to be done in creating and enabling environment that will bring about peace, understanding and patronage. This article argues that, community involvement enhances effective participation of host community. However, based on the proposed model, the determinants of community involvement are: trust, control mutuality, commitment and satisfaction. This linkage of determinants to community involvement could only be relevant if the company agreed to work together, based on what this paper hypothesised in line with the assumption of social exchange theory.

  5. Relationship between personality traits, job satisfaction, and job involvement among Taiwanese community health volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, I-Chuan; Lin, Mei-Chih; Chen, Ching-Min

    2007-01-01

    To understand the relationship between job involvement, job satisfaction, and personality traits among health volunteers in one Taiwan community. It is not easy to retain voluntary workers as part of health programs even though they have been trained. Previous research has shown that in order to increase job involvement, volunteers must effectively fulfill their needs to achieve and obtain job satisfaction. Cross-sectional design. Surveys were mailed to 317 health volunteers at community health centers in I-lan County, northern Taiwan; 213 complete responses (67%) were received. The survey instrument included sociodemographic items and scales measuring locus of control, achievement orientation, job involvement, and job satisfaction. Most respondents (94.8%) were female and their average age was 49.6 years. In terms of personality traits, most volunteers showed internal control orientation. Explainable variance for the prediction of job involvement from a combination of participation frequency, on-job training, achievement orientation, and job satisfaction was 33.6%. The results suggest that there is a need to strengthen cooperative relationships among volunteers by initiating well-planned volunteer training programs and growth groups. These should involve the empowerment concept with the aim of enhancing the volunteers' interpersonal relationships and job satisfaction.

  6. Saving the Commons: Community Involvement in the Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For generations, fishing and mangrove cutting have been an integral part of the lives of the communities around Chwaka Bay in Zanzibar. However, overexploitation due to heavy demand, as well as the open access nature of these resources, has led to their dramatic decline, threatening the social and economic wellbeing ...

  7. The community involvement of nursing and medical practitioners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the importance of relationships, the context of poverty, the frustrations of this kind of work, and the respondents' motivations. These are illustrated by numerous verbatim quotes from the respondents. Minor themes were the roles that the respondents play in the community, the difficulty of obtaining funding, and experiences ...

  8. Being Involved in the Country: Productive Ageing in Different Types of Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sandra; Crothers, Natalie; Grant, Jeanette; Young, Sari; Smith, Karly

    2012-01-01

    Productive ageing recognises the contribution of older people to economic, social and cultural growth and helps build a sustainable community. Being involved in community life is good for individuals and good for society. However, we know very little about the participation of and contribution by people aged 50 and over in rural communities. This…

  9. Not Just Cupcakes Anymore: A Study of Community Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Parent involvement can have unforeseen consequences. Article recounts complicated process of choosing a high school biology textbook in Colorado Springs district populated mainly by evangelical Christians. Although controversy arose over creationism's treatment in one text, book discussing evolution as unifying concept of biology was eventually…

  10. Active involved community partnerships: co-creating implementation infrastructure for getting to and sustaining social impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothroyd, Renée I; Flint, Aprille Y; Lapiz, A Mark; Lyons, Sheryl; Jarboe, Karen Lofts; Aldridge, William A

    2017-09-01

    Active involved community partnerships (AICPs) are essential to co-create implementation infrastructure and translate evidence into real-world practice. Across varied forms, AICPs cultivate community and tribal members as agents of change, blending research and organizational knowledge with relationships, context, culture, and local wisdom. Unlike selective engagement, AICPs enable active involvement of partners in the ongoing process of implementation and sustainability. This includes defining the problem, developing solutions, detecting practice changes, aligning organizational supports, and nurturing shared responsibility, accountability, and ownership for implementation. This paper builds on previously established active implementation and scaling functions by outlining key AICP functions to close the research-practice gap. Part of a federal initiative, California Partners for Permanency (CAPP) integrated AICP functions for implementation and system change to reduce disproportionality and disparities in long-term foster care. This paper outlines their experience defining and embedding five AICP functions: (1) relationship-building; (2) addressing system barriers; (3) establishing culturally relevant supports and services; (4) meaningful involvement in implementation; and (5) ongoing communication and feedback for continuous improvement. Planning for social impact requires the integration of AICP with other active implementation and scaling functions. Through concrete examples, authors bring multilevel AICP roles to life and discuss implications for implementation research and practice.

  11. Free and Informed Consent in Research Involving Native American Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquemal, Nathalie

    2001-01-01

    Participant observers conducting research among other cultures must use what is learned without betraying the confidence of those with whom they interact. Two Native American examples illustrate how current protocols are insufficient in cross-cultural situations. Recommendations include negotiating responsibilities before seeking consent,…

  12. Consumer-Involved Participatory Research to Address General Medical Health and Wellness in a Community Mental Health Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Sharat P; Pancake, Laura S; Dandino, Elizabeth S; Wells, Kenneth B

    2015-12-01

    Barriers to sustainably implementing general medical interventions in community mental health (CMH) settings include role uncertainty, consumer engagement, workforce limitations, and sustainable reimbursement. To address these barriers, this project used a community-partnered participatory research framework to create a stakeholder-based general medical and wellness intervention in a large CMH organization, with consumers involved in all decision-making processes. Consumers faced practical barriers to participating in organizational decision making, but their narratives were critical in establishing priorities and ensuring sustainability. Addressing baseline knowledge and readiness of stakeholders and functional challenges to consumer involvement can aid stakeholder-based approaches to implementing general medical interventions in CMH settings.

  13. Community Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health: Moderating Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar

    2008-01-01

    Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…

  14. Community Involvement, Perceived Control, and Attitudes toward Aging among Lesbians and Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    A person-environment approach was used to explore the relationship between community involvement and attitudes toward aging among middle-age and older lesbians and gay men. Specifically, this study investigated the relationships between participation in gay community activities, perceived control, and aging-related concerns among two…

  15. The Impact of Community Service Involvement on Three Measures of Undergraduate Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joseph B.; Milem, Jeff F.

    2002-01-01

    The central purpose of this study is to increase our understanding of how community service involvement affects the development of undergraduate self-concept. The findings from this study suggest that the quality of service involvement is more important than the amount of service performed by students. (Contains 23 references and 2 tables.)…

  16. Community and Religious Involvement as Contexts of Identity Change across Late Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Sam A.; Pratt, Michael W.; Pancer, S. Mark; Olsen, Joseph A.; Lawford, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Latent growth curve modeling was used to describe longitudinal trends in community and religious involvement and Marcia's (1966) four identity statuses (diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, and achievement), as well as to assess relations between involvement and identity change. Cross-lagged regression models explored temporal ordering of relations…

  17. Community Participation in Health Systems Research: A Systematic Review Assessing the State of Research, the Nature of Interventions Involved and the Features of Engagement with Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Asha S; Mehra, Vrinda; Scott, Kerry; Sriram, Veena

    2015-01-01

    Community participation is a major principle of people centered health systems, with considerable research highlighting its intrinsic value and strategic importance. Existing reviews largely focus on the effectiveness of community participation with less attention to how community participation is supported in health systems intervention research. To explore the extent, nature and quality of community participation in health systems intervention research in low- and middle-income countries. We searched for peer-reviewed, English language literature published between January 2000 and May 2012 through four electronic databases. Search terms combined the concepts of community, capability/participation, health systems research and low- and middle-income countries. The initial search yielded 3,092 articles, of which 260 articles with more than nominal community participation were identified and included. We further excluded 104 articles due to lower levels of community participation across the research cycle and poor description of the process of community participation. Out of the remaining 160 articles with rich community participation, we further examined 64 articles focused on service delivery and governance within health systems research. Most articles were led by authors in high income countries and many did not consistently list critical aspects of study quality. Articles were most likely to describe community participation in health promotion interventions (78%, 202/260), even though they were less participatory than other health systems areas. Community involvement in governance and supply chain management was less common (12%, 30/260 and 9%, 24/260 respectively), but more participatory. Articles cut across all health conditions and varied by scale and duration, with those that were implemented at national scale or over more than five years being mainstreamed by government. Most articles detailed improvements in service availability, accessibility and

  18. Community Participation in Health Systems Research: A Systematic Review Assessing the State of Research, the Nature of Interventions Involved and the Features of Engagement with Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha S George

    Full Text Available Community participation is a major principle of people centered health systems, with considerable research highlighting its intrinsic value and strategic importance. Existing reviews largely focus on the effectiveness of community participation with less attention to how community participation is supported in health systems intervention research.To explore the extent, nature and quality of community participation in health systems intervention research in low- and middle-income countries.We searched for peer-reviewed, English language literature published between January 2000 and May 2012 through four electronic databases. Search terms combined the concepts of community, capability/participation, health systems research and low- and middle-income countries. The initial search yielded 3,092 articles, of which 260 articles with more than nominal community participation were identified and included. We further excluded 104 articles due to lower levels of community participation across the research cycle and poor description of the process of community participation. Out of the remaining 160 articles with rich community participation, we further examined 64 articles focused on service delivery and governance within health systems research.Most articles were led by authors in high income countries and many did not consistently list critical aspects of study quality. Articles were most likely to describe community participation in health promotion interventions (78%, 202/260, even though they were less participatory than other health systems areas. Community involvement in governance and supply chain management was less common (12%, 30/260 and 9%, 24/260 respectively, but more participatory. Articles cut across all health conditions and varied by scale and duration, with those that were implemented at national scale or over more than five years being mainstreamed by government. Most articles detailed improvements in service availability

  19. Roles, responsibilities and characteristics of lay community health workers involved in diabetes prevention programmes: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Aim To examine the characteristics of community health workers (CHWs) involved in diabetes prevention programmes (DPPs) and their contributions to expected outcomes. Methods Electronic databases including PubMed-MEDLINE, EBSCOHost, and SCOPUS/EMBASE were searched for studies published between January 2000 and March 2016. All studies that used CHWs to implement DPP in ≥18-year-old participants without diabetes but at high risk for developing the condition, irrespective of the study design, setting or outcomes measured, were included. Results were synthesized narratively. Results Forty papers of 30 studies were identified. Studies were mainly community-based and conducted in minority populations in USA. Sample sizes ranged from 20 participants in a single community to 2369 participants in 46 communities. Although CHWs were generally from the local community, their qualifications, work experience and training received differed across studies. Overall the training was culturally sensitive and/or appropriate, covering topics such as the importance of good nutrition and the benefits of increased physical activity, communication and leadership. CHWs delivered a variety of interventions and also screened or recruited participants. The shared culture and language between CHWs and participants likely contributed to better programme implementation and successful outcomes. Conclusions The complexity of DPPs and the diverse CHW roles preclude attributing specific outcomes to CHW involvement. Nevertheless, documenting potential CHW roles and the relevant training required may optimise CHW contributions and facilitate their involvement in DPPs in the future. PMID:29216263

  20. Roles, responsibilities and characteristics of lay community health workers involved in diabetes prevention programmes: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Hill

    Full Text Available To examine the characteristics of community health workers (CHWs involved in diabetes prevention programmes (DPPs and their contributions to expected outcomes.Electronic databases including PubMed-MEDLINE, EBSCOHost, and SCOPUS/EMBASE were searched for studies published between January 2000 and March 2016. All studies that used CHWs to implement DPP in ≥18-year-old participants without diabetes but at high risk for developing the condition, irrespective of the study design, setting or outcomes measured, were included. Results were synthesized narratively.Forty papers of 30 studies were identified. Studies were mainly community-based and conducted in minority populations in USA. Sample sizes ranged from 20 participants in a single community to 2369 participants in 46 communities. Although CHWs were generally from the local community, their qualifications, work experience and training received differed across studies. Overall the training was culturally sensitive and/or appropriate, covering topics such as the importance of good nutrition and the benefits of increased physical activity, communication and leadership. CHWs delivered a variety of interventions and also screened or recruited participants. The shared culture and language between CHWs and participants likely contributed to better programme implementation and successful outcomes.The complexity of DPPs and the diverse CHW roles preclude attributing specific outcomes to CHW involvement. Nevertheless, documenting potential CHW roles and the relevant training required may optimise CHW contributions and facilitate their involvement in DPPs in the future.

  1. Ideal and actual involvement of community pharmacists in health promotion and prevention: a cross-sectional study in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laliberté Marie-Claude

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased interest is observed in broadening community pharmacists' role in public health. To date, little information has been gathered in Canada on community pharmacists' perceptions of their role in health promotion and prevention; however, such data are essential to the development of public-health programs in community pharmacy. A cross-sectional study was therefore conducted to explore the perceptions of community pharmacists in urban and semi-urban areas regarding their ideal and actual levels of involvement in providing health-promotion and prevention services and the barriers to such involvement. Methods Using a five-step modified Dillman's tailored design method, a questionnaire with 28 multiple-choice or open-ended questions (11 pages plus a cover letter was mailed to a random sample of 1,250 pharmacists out of 1,887 community pharmacists practicing in Montreal (Quebec, Canada and surrounding areas. It included questions on pharmacists' ideal level of involvement in providing health-promotion and preventive services; which services were actually offered in their pharmacy, the employees involved, the frequency, and duration of the services; the barriers to the provision of these services in community pharmacy; their opinion regarding the most appropriate health professionals to provide them; and the characteristics of pharmacists, pharmacies and their clientele. Results In all, 571 out of 1,234 (46.3% eligible community pharmacists completed and returned the questionnaire. Most believed they should be very involved in health promotion and prevention, particularly in smoking cessation (84.3%; screening for hypertension (81.8%, diabetes (76.0% and dyslipidemia (56.9%; and sexual health (61.7% to 89.1%; however, fewer respondents reported actually being very involved in providing such services (5.7% [lifestyle, including smoking cessation], 44.5%, 34.8%, 6.5% and 19.3%, respectively. The main barriers to the

  2. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk Through Stakeholder Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Hartwell

    2007-01-01

    Between 1951 and 1992, 928 nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including 100 atmospheric and 828 underground tests. Initial public reaction to the tests was largely supportive, but by the late 1950s this began to change, largely as a result of fear of the potential for adverse health effects to be caused by exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from the tests. The nuclear power plant accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 served to heighten these fears, as well as foster a general distrust of the federal agencies involved and low public confidence in monitoring results. Modeled after a similar program that involved the public in monitoring activities around the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the NTS since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah, and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Since assuming administration of the program in 2000, DRI has accomplished significant enhancements to the network's data collection and transmission capabilities. A robust datalogging and communications system allows for the near real-time transmission of data to a platform maintained by DRI's Western Regional Climate Center, where the data are uploaded and displayed on a publicly accessible web site (http://cemp.dri.edu/). Additionally, the CEMP can serve as part of an emergency response network in the event of an unplanned radiological release from the NTS, and also provides an excellent platform for testing new environmental sensor technologies

  3. Community empowerment and involvement of female sex workers in targeted sexual and reproductive health interventions in Africa: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) experience high levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) morbidity, violence and discrimination. Successful SRH interventions for FSWs in India and elsewhere have long prioritised community mobilisation and structural interventions, yet little is known about similar approaches in African settings. We systematically reviewed community empowerment processes within FSW SRH projects in Africa, and assessed them using a framework developed by Ashodaya, an Indian sex worker organisation. Methods In November 2012 we searched Medline and Web of Science for studies of FSW health services in Africa, and consulted experts and websites of international organisations. Titles and abstracts were screened to identify studies describing relevant services, using a broad definition of empowerment. Data were extracted on service-delivery models and degree of FSW involvement, and analysed with reference to a four-stage framework developed by Ashodaya. This conceptualises community empowerment as progressing from (1) initial engagement with the sex worker community, to (2) community involvement in targeted activities, to (3) ownership, and finally, (4) sustainability of action beyond the community. Results Of 5413 articles screened, 129 were included, describing 42 projects. Targeted services in FSW ‘hotspots’ were generally isolated and limited in coverage and scope, mostly offering only free condoms and STI treatment. Many services were provided as part of research activities and offered via a clinic with associated community outreach. Empowerment processes were usually limited to peer-education (stage 2 of framework). Community mobilisation as an activity in its own right was rarely documented and while most projects successfully engaged communities, few progressed to involvement, community ownership or sustainability. Only a few interventions had evolved to facilitate collective action through formal democratic structures (stage 3

  4. Community empowerment and involvement of female sex workers in targeted sexual and reproductive health interventions in Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lizzie; Chersich, Matthew F; Steen, Richard; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Dhana, Ashar; Vuylsteke, Bea; Lafort, Yves; Scorgie, Fiona

    2014-06-10

    Female sex workers (FSWs) experience high levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) morbidity, violence and discrimination. Successful SRH interventions for FSWs in India and elsewhere have long prioritised community mobilisation and structural interventions, yet little is known about similar approaches in African settings. We systematically reviewed community empowerment processes within FSW SRH projects in Africa, and assessed them using a framework developed by Ashodaya, an Indian sex worker organisation. In November 2012 we searched Medline and Web of Science for studies of FSW health services in Africa, and consulted experts and websites of international organisations. Titles and abstracts were screened to identify studies describing relevant services, using a broad definition of empowerment. Data were extracted on service-delivery models and degree of FSW involvement, and analysed with reference to a four-stage framework developed by Ashodaya. This conceptualises community empowerment as progressing from (1) initial engagement with the sex worker community, to (2) community involvement in targeted activities, to (3) ownership, and finally, (4) sustainability of action beyond the community. Of 5413 articles screened, 129 were included, describing 42 projects. Targeted services in FSW 'hotspots' were generally isolated and limited in coverage and scope, mostly offering only free condoms and STI treatment. Many services were provided as part of research activities and offered via a clinic with associated community outreach. Empowerment processes were usually limited to peer-education (stage 2 of framework). Community mobilisation as an activity in its own right was rarely documented and while most projects successfully engaged communities, few progressed to involvement, community ownership or sustainability. Only a few interventions had evolved to facilitate collective action through formal democratic structures (stage 3). These reported improved sexual

  5. Microbial communities involved in electricity generation from sulfide oxidation in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Chen, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Feng; Mu, Zhe-Xuan; Wang, Hua-Lin; Zeng, Raymond J; Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Wei, Li; Ma, Fang

    2010-10-15

    Simultaneous electricity generation and sulfide removal can be achieved in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). In electricity harvesting from sulfide oxidation in such an MFC, various microbial communities are involved. It is essential to elucidate the microbial communities and their roles in the sulfide conversion and electricity generation. In this work, an MFC was constructed to enrich a microbial consortium, which could harvest electricity from sulfide oxidation. Electrochemical analysis demonstrated that microbial catalysis was involved in electricity output in the sulfide-fed MFC. The anode-attached and planktonic communities could perform catalysis independently, and synergistic interactions occurred when the two communities worked together. A 16S rRNA clone library analysis was employed to characterize the microbial communities in the MFC. The anode-attached and planktonic communities shared similar richness and diversity, while the LIBSHUFF analysis revealed that the two community structures were significantly different. The exoelectrogenic, sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria were found in the MFC anodic chamber. The discovery of these bacteria was consistent with the community characteristics for electricity generation from sulfide oxidation. The exoelectrogenic bacteria were found both on the anode and in the solution. The sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were present in greater abundance on the anode than in the solution, while the sulfate-reducing bacteria preferably lived in the solution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Contracting communities: Conceptualizing Community Benefits Agreements to improve citizen involvement in urban development projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen-Jansen, Leonie; Veen, van der Menno

    2017-01-01

    Contractual agreements are becoming increasingly important for city governments seeking to manage urban development. Contractual governance involves direct relations between the local state and different public and private actors and citizens. Although abundant literature exists on public–private

  7. Effects of participation in and connectedness to the LGBT community on substance use involvement of sexual minority young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demant, Daniel; Hides, Leanne; White, Katherine M; Kavanagh, David J

    2018-06-01

    Research shows disproportionate levels of substance use among sexual minority young people. A range of reasons for these disparities have been suggested, including connectedness to and participation in the LGBT community. Little is known about how these constructs are related to substance use involvement in sexual minority (sub)groups or how these relationships are affected by other factors. 1266 young sexual minority Australians completed a cross-sectional online survey. Multiple regressions were conducted to assess associations between connectedness to and participation in the LGBT community on substance use involvement, before and after controlling for other factors such as substance use motives, psychological distress, wellbeing, resilience, minority stress, and age. Most participants identified as homosexual (57%, n=726) and male (54%, n=683). In the overall sample, participation in and connectedness the LGBT community were significantly associated with increased substance use involvement before (F(2,1263)=35.930, p≤0.001, R 2 =0.052) and after controlling for other variables (F(8,1095)=33.538, p≤0.001, R 2 =0.191), with meaningfully higher effect sizes for participation than for connectedness. After controlling for other variables, connectedness only remained significant for homosexuals. Effect sizes for participation were higher for females than males, and bisexuals than homosexuals. However, participation in the LGBT Community was not associated with substance use in participants identifying with a non-binary gender identity. In conclusion, substance use involvement was associated with participation in the LGBT community, but connectedness to the LGBT community only had a weak association with substance use involvement in the homosexual subgroup. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 75 FR 71426 - North Community Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2107-000] North Community Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding, of North Community Turbines, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  9. The Importance of Documenting and Including Traditional Wisdom in Community-Based Ecotourism Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Đukić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article accords to the theory of community-based tourism, which represents a concept that respects natural and cultural resources of a particular community and encourages participation of its members in the process of tourist product creation. The article operates in the planning phase and aims to give insights into the process of establishing the groundwork for community-based tourism. The key element is documenting and illustrating everything that could be a part of what is known as “traditional wisdom,” namely, the skills and knowledge of traditional life practices. The methods of case study, content analysis, and observation of the village of Omoljica, Serbia, were used. The positive aspect of this locality is reflected in the existing short-term initiatives of organizations and individuals engaging in preserving traditional practices, but without systematic, long-term planning and management of community-based tourism, these individual efforts to revalue traditional life practices would stay unrecognizable and invisible for visitors and stakeholders. Thus, the main goal of this article is to understand the relation between short-term bottom-up initiatives and long-term top-down strategic planning of specific ecotourism destinations, one that would embrace the traditional ways of rural community life. The contribution of this study, in addition to documenting and illustrating “traditional wisdom” of the specific rural community placed in the protected area which encompasses a particular local social system, will be reflected in the creation of a set of guidelines for sustainable, rural, community-based ecotourism as a soft-driver development of protected areas near big cities of the postsocialist countries.

  10. The community environmental monitoring program: a model for stakeholder involvement in environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwell, William T.; Shafer, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1981, the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has involved stakeholders directly in its daily operation and data collection, as well as in dissemination of information on radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the primary location where the United States (US) conducted nuclear testing until 1992. The CEMP is funded by the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, and is administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. The CEMP provides training workshops for stakeholders involved in the program, and educational outreach to address public concerns about health risk and environmental impacts from past and ongoing NTS activities. The network includes 29 monitoring stations located across an approximately 160,000 km 2 area of Nevada, Utah and California in the southwestern US. The principal radiological instruments are pressurized ion chambers for measuring gamma radiation, and particulate air samplers, primarily for alpha/beta detection. Stations also employ a full suite of meteorological instruments, allowing for improved interpretation of the effects of meteorological events on background radiation levels. Station sensors are wired to state-of-the-art data-loggers that are capable of several weeks of on-site data storage, and that work in tandem with a communications system that integrates DSL and wireless internet, land line and cellular phone, and satellite technologies for data transfer. Data are managed through a platform maintained by the Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC) that DRI operates for the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The WRCC platform allows for near real-time upload and display of current monitoring information in tabular and graphical formats on a public web site. Archival data for each station are also available on-line, providing the ability to perform trending analyses or calculate site

  11. Social justice and the university community: does campus involvement make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliff, Kathleen E; Williams, Shannon M; Ferrari, Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    We examined perceptions on school sense of community and social justice attitudes among undergraduates (N = 427; 308 women, 115 men; M age = 19.72, SD = 1.91), and how year in school and club membership affected these constructs. Results demonstrated that involvement with a greater number of clubs was associated with having a stronger school sense of community and more positive social justice attitudes. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that year in school did not significantly predict social justice attitudes. Results suggested that greater involvement and sense of school belonging might be linked to social justice attitudes.

  12. Community-engaged pedagogy: a strengths-based approach to involving diverse stakeholders in research partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Carolyn Leung; Martinez, Linda Sprague; Chu, Jocelyn; Hacker, Karen; Brugge, Doug; Pirie, Alex; Allukian, Nathan; Rodday, Angie Mae; Leslie, Laurel K

    2012-01-01

    To help build community capacity to partner in translational research partnerships, new approaches to training that incorporate both adult learning models and community-based participatory research (CBPR) are needed. This article describes the educational approach-"community-engaged pedagogy"-used in a capacity-building training program with community partners in Boston. Drawing from adult learning theory and CBPR community-engaged pedagogy embraces co-learning and is rooted in a deep respect for the prior knowledge and experiences that community partners bring to the conversation around CBPR. This approach developed iteratively over the course of the first year of the program. Participating community partners drove the development of this educational approach, as they requested the application of CBPR principles to the educational program. The dimensions of community-engaged pedagogy include (1) a relational approach to partnership building, (2) establishment of a learning community, (3) organic curriculum model, (4) collaborative teaching mechanism with diverse faculty, and (5) applied learning. Using a community-engaged pedagogical approach helps to model respect, reciprocity, and power sharing, core principles of CBPR. Although community partners appreciate this approach, traditionally trained academics may find this method unfamiliar and uncomfortable.

  13. Inpatient service providers' perspectives on service user involvement in Norwegian community mental health centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Marianne; Hausken, Kjell; Knudsen, Knud

    2011-11-01

    For two decades, mental health services in Norway have focused on service user involvement. Despite this, there is little knowledge about how inpatient mental health services have promoted user involvement. To examine service providers' reports of service user involvement at the individual and departmental levels in Norwegian community mental health centres (CMHCs). One hundred and eighty six (186) inpatient service providers in five CMHCs filled out a questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that service provider perceptions and awareness of service user involvement can be measured by three subscales: organizational user involvement; patient collaboration; and assisted patient involvement. Little user involvement was reported at the departmental level. Providers more often reported user involvement at the individual level. Providers in two of the CMHCs reported a somewhat higher degree of departmental-level user involvement. There were no significant differences across gender, age, leader position, profession and job tenure, though evening/night shift workers reported a lesser degree of user involvement. The results suggest that user involvement at the departmental level needs to be addressed in future efforts to promote user involvement in CMHCs.

  14. Persistence of microbial communities including Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a hospital environment: a potential health hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The persistence of microbial communities and how they change in indoor environments is of immense interest to public health. Moreover, hospital acquired infections are significant contributors to morbidity and mortality. Evidence suggests that, in hospital environments agent transfer between surfaces causes healthcare associated infections in humans, and that surfaces are an important transmission route and may act as a reservoir for some of the pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity of microorganisms that persist on noncritical equipment and surfaces in a main hospital in Portugal, and are able to grow in selective media for Pseudomonas, and relate them with the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results During 2 years, a total of 290 environmental samples were analyzed, in 3 different wards. The percentage of equipment in each ward that showed low contamination level varied between 22% and 38%, and more than 50% of the equipment sampled was highly contaminated. P. aeruginosa was repeatedly isolated from sinks (10 times), from the taps’ biofilm (16 times), and from the showers and bedside tables (two times). Two ERIC clones were isolated more than once. The contamination level of the different taps analyzed showed correlation with the contamination level of the hand gels support, soaps and sinks. Ten different bacteria genera were frequently isolated in the selective media for Pseudomonas. Organisms usually associated with nosocomial infections as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Enterococcus feacalis, Serratia nematodiphila were also repeatedly isolated on the same equipment. Conclusions The environment may act as a reservoir for at least some of the pathogens implicated in nosocomial infections. The bacterial contamination level was related to the presence of humidity on the surfaces, and tap water (biofilm) was a point of dispersion of bacterial species, including potentially pathogenic organisms. The materials of the equipment

  15. Community Involvement and Victimization at School: An Analysis through Family, Personal and Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Teresa Isabel; Musitu, Gonzalo; Ramos, Manuel Jesus; Murgui, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    The present study analyzes the impact of adolescents' community involvement on victimization by peers at school through various indicators of family, personal and social adjustment (openness of communication with mother and father, life satisfaction, social self-esteem, and loneliness). Participating in the project were 565 adolescents aged 11 to…

  16. Involving forest communities in identifying and constructing ecosystems services: millennium assessment and place specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley T. Asah; Dale J. Blahna; Clare M. Ryan

    2012-01-01

    The ecosystem services (ES) approach entails integrating people into public forest management and managing to meet their needs and wants. Managers must find ways to understand what these needs are and how they are met. In this study, we used small group discussions, in a case study of the Deschutes National Forest, to involve community members and forest staff in...

  17. Exploring family and community involvement to protect Thai youths from alcohol and illegal drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtongkam, Nualnong; Ward, Paul Russell; Day, Andrew; Winefield, Anthony Harold

    2015-01-01

    Youth substance abuse is widely recognized as a major public health issue in Thailand. This study explores family and community risk and protective factors relevant to alcohol and illegal drug misuse in 1,778 Thai teenagers. Strong family attachment and a family history of antisocial behaviors were strongly associated with nearly all forms of substance abuse, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 5.05 to 8.45. Community disorganization was strongly associated with self-reported substance use, although involvement in prosocial activities acted as a protective factor. The findings suggest that interventions that promote family cohesion and encourage community involvement may have considerable benefits in reducing substance abuse in Thai adolescents.

  18. Community Involvement in Tourism Development: A Case Study of Lenggong Valley World Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khadar Nur Zafirah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the empirical relationship between the economic impact and community involvement in the Lenggong Valley. Recommendations for improvement in development effectiveness through the development of a community centre for economic and social activities, with specific attention given to types of activity and community involvement stimulating the economic development in the Lenggong Valley. Heritage tourism development is a tourism in which arts, culture and heritage form a key attraction for visitors and it can be represented as an area of significant economic benefit to heritage sites. The tourism industry in Hulu Perak became more widespread after Lenggong Valley is recognized as a World Heritage Site. There is shown a positive effect on the development and economic prosperity.

  19. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William T. Hartwell

    2007-01-01

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS

  20. Development of Clinical Pharmacy in Switzerland: Involvement of Community Pharmacists in Care for Older Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersberger, Kurt E; Messerli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    The role of the community pharmacist in primary care has been undergoing change in Switzerland in parallel to international developments: it has become more clinically and patient oriented. Special services of community pharmacists to older patients taking long-term or multiple medications, discharged from hospitals or experiencing cognitive impairment or disability have been developed. These services require more clinical knowledge and skills from community pharmacists and are based on, for example, 'simple or intermediate medication reviews' focused primarily to improve medication adherence and rational drug use by a patient. Reflecting the new role of community pharmacies, this article describes the current services provided by community pharmacies in Switzerland, e.g., 'polymedication check', 'weekly pill organizer', and 'services for chronic patients', as well as new Swiss educational and reimbursement systems supporting development of these services. In the international context, involvement of community pharmacists in patient-oriented care is growing. This review summarizes positive and negative experiences from implementation of community pharmacy services in Switzerland and provides examples for the development of such services in other countries.

  1. Community involvement, planning and coping skills: pilot outcomes of a recreational-therapy intervention for adults with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snethen, Gretchen; McCormick, Bryan P; Van Puymbroeck, Marieke

    2012-01-01

    The Independence through Community Access and Navigation (I-CAN) intervention was developed to increase community participation in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) through identification of interest-based recreation activities and supported participation. Ten individuals consented to participate in a 10-week pilot intervention. Eight individuals participated in the intervention, during which time they worked with a recreational therapist to identify interest-based recreation activities, develop participation goals and coparticipate with the recreational therapist. At the end of the intervention, seven participants were involved in a semistructured interview to understand their perceptions of the intervention, including its outcomes and effectiveness. Therapists' notes and transcripts from the semistructured interviews were used to understand clients' perception of the intervention. Thematic analyses of seven exit interviews suggested the primary perceived outcomes of the intervention included: increased community involvement; development of planning skills; and the development of coping skills. These were facilitated by the therapeutic relationship between the client and therapist. This project provides preliminary support for the I-CAN as a participant-centered method for individuals with SSD to develop skills in the community. Implications for practice and future research are presented.

  2. The multilingual videotape project: community involvement in a unique health education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabots, R B; Dolphin, D

    1992-01-01

    The large number of Southeast Asian, Hispanic, and Portuguese immigrants in Rhode Island face formidable language and cultural barriers in gaining access to the health care that they need. As the funding for refugee-specific programs diminishes, the focus is on programs that encourage self-sufficiency, assist in gaining access to mainstream health care, and involve a collaboration among service agencies and the communities they serve. On behalf of a coalition of health care and community agencies, Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island received a private foundation grant to produce nine multilingual videotapes that would educate immigrants and refugees about health issues specific to them and help them access the health care system. The project was structured to maximize the involvement of the various communities and to "empower" community members in working with mainstream service agencies. Coalition and other community members provided input into topic selection, script content, and presentation methods for the videotapes that would be culturally appropriate. During the 2-year project, nine videotapes were produced with narration in seven languages. Copies of the videotapes were distributed free of charge to coalition members.

  3. Community-School Relations. Current Policies of Parental Involvement and Community Participation. Cases in Brazil and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria Eulina Pessoa de; Jeria, Jorge

    Current educational policy in Latin America has been aiming to include community participation in a wider spectrum as part of decentralization reform. Much of the rhetoric of these policies seems to originate from neo-liberal policies of State modernization carried out under the auspices of international organizations. Based on a critical review…

  4. Fungal Communities Including Plant Pathogens in Near Surface Air Are Similar across Northwestern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Nicolaisen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on the diversity of fungal spores in air is limited, and also the content of airborne spores of fungal plant pathogens is understudied. In the present study, a total of 152 air samples were taken from rooftops at urban settings in Slagelse, DK, Wageningen NL, and Rothamsted, UK together with 41 samples from above oilseed rape fields in Rothamsted. Samples were taken during 10-day periods in spring and autumn, each sample representing 1 day of sampling. The fungal content of samples was analyzed by metabarcoding of the fungal internal transcribed sequence 1 (ITS1 and by qPCR for specific fungi. The metabarcoding results demonstrated that season had significant effects on airborne fungal communities. In contrast, location did not have strong effects on the communities, even though locations were separated by up to 900 km. Also, a number of plant pathogens had strikingly similar patterns of abundance at the three locations. Rooftop samples were more diverse than samples taken above fields, probably reflecting greater mixing of air from a range of microenvironments for the rooftop sites. Pathogens that were known to be present in the crop were also found in air samples taken above the field. This paper is one of the first detailed studies of fungal composition in air with the focus on plant pathogens and shows that it is possible to detect a range of pathogens in rooftop air samplers using metabarcoding.

  5. Inputs to quality: supervision, management, and community involvement in health facilities in Egypt in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krumholz Harlan M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As low- and middle-income countries experience economic development, ensuring quality of health care delivery is a central component of health reform. Nevertheless, health reforms in low- and middle-income countries have focused more on access to services rather than the quality of these services, and reporting on quality has been limited. In the present study, we sought to examine the prevalence and regional variation in key management practices in Egyptian health facilities within three domains: supervision of the facility from the Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP, managerial processes, and patient and community involvement in care. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from 559 facilities surveyed with the Egyptian Service Provision Assessment (ESPA survey in 2004, the most recent such survey in Egypt. We registered on the Measure Demographic and Health Survey (DHS website http://legacy.measuredhs.com/login.cfm to gain access to the survey data. From the ESPA sampled 559 MOHP facilities, we excluded a total of 79 facilities because they did not offer facility-based 24-hour care or have at least one physician working in the facility, resulting in a final sample of 480 facilities. The final sample included 76 general service hospitals, 307 rural health units, and 97 maternal and child health and urban health units (MCH/urban units. We used standard frequency analyses to describe facility characteristics and tested the statistical significance of regional differences using chi-square statistics. Results Nearly all facilities reported having external supervision within the 6 months preceding the interview. In contrast, key facility-level managerial processes, such as having routine and documented management meetings and applying quality assurance approaches, were uncommon. Involvement of communities and patients was also reported in a minority of facilities. Hospitals and health units located in Urban

  6. Self-management improvement program combined with community involvement in Thai hypertensive population: an action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichairattanakull, Jeamjai; Kaewpan, Wonpen; Powattana, Arpaporn; Pichayapinyo, Panan

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a program that utilizes community involvement to improve the self-management strategies among people living with hypertension. Forty-four subjects, aged 35 to 59-year-old, with hypertension in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n = 22) or a control group (n = 20). The experimental group attended a program to improve self-management methods based on social cognitive theory (SCT). The program lasted 12 weeks, consisted of 1 1/2 hours meeting once a week, including group meetings and home visit monitoring. Mann-Whitney U test and Friedman test were employed to analyze the program's effectiveness. After the program, the mean rank of the perceived self-efficacy for the self-management strategies was statistically different between the two groups (p = 0.023). In the experimental group, after the twelve week, the mean rank of perceived self-efficacy and outcome expectancy increased and diastolic blood pressure decreased after the eight week. The program applied social cognitive theory (SCT) to promote self-management techniques, increased the health promoting behavior among hypertensive people.

  7. Predictors of driving outcomes including both crash involvement and driving cessation in a prospective study of Japanese older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuge, Ritsu; Okamura, Kazuko; Kihira, Makoto; Nakano, Yukako; Fujita, Goro

    2017-09-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate predictors of future traffic crash involvement, taking into account bias in the handling of data for former drivers. The second aim was to compare characteristics of former drivers and crash-involved drivers in order to gain an understanding of appropriate driving cessation among older drivers. In all, 154 drivers aged 70 years or older participated in the baseline interview and the follow-up survey conducted two years later. In the baseline interview, participants were asked to respond to a questionnaire, take the Useful Field of View test ® (UFOV), and complete the Mini-Mental State Examination. In the follow-up survey, participants were asked by mail or telephone whether they had stopped driving. Participants reporting that they still drove were invited to participate in a subsequent interview. Based on the information obtained in the follow-up survey, participants were classified as follows: driving cessation group (n=26); crash-involved group (n=18); and crash-free group (n=110). A multinomial logistic regression was then used to analyse the data. Contrary to the results of previous studies, we found older age to be associated with crash involvement but not with driving cessation. The cessation group had more decreased cognitive processing speed than the crash-involved and crash-free groups. Crash history was also predictive of crash involvement. Participants who were subject to license renewal between baseline and follow-up had a greater tendency to continue driving. Results suggested that age and crash history could potentially identify high-risk older drivers. The predictive power of cognitive processing speed is reduced under certain conditions. License-renewal procedures may induce Japanese older adults to continue driving. Future studies should use a large national sample to confirm the results of the present study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Geocraft as a means to support the development of smart cities, getting the people of the place involved - youth included -

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Henk; Fruijtier, Steven; Dias, Eduardo; Hettinga, Sanne; Opmeer, Mark; van Leeuwen, Willemijn S.; Linde, Marianne; Bos, Steven; Vaughan, Rubio; van Kaam, Heidy; van Manen, Niels; Fruijtier, Ceciel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper we present Geocraft, a Geo-ICT framework meant to provide the information needed to support the development of smart cities in an accessible and user-friendly way. We explored whether Geocraft could be an effective way to get the people of the place, especially youth, involved

  9. Portraiture of constructivist parental involvement: A model to develop a community of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Christopher Anthony

    This qualitative research study addressed the problem of the lack of parental involvement in secondary school science. Increasing parental involvement is vital in supporting student academic achievement and social growth. The purpose of this emergent phenomenological study was to identify conditions required to successfully construct a supportive learning environment to form partnerships between students, parents, and educators. The overall research question in this study investigated the conditions necessary to successfully enlist parental participation with students during science inquiry investigations at the secondary school level. One hundred thirteen pairs of parents and students engaged in a 6-week scientific inquiry activity and recorded attitudinal data in dialogue journals, questionnaires, open-ended surveys, and during one-one-one interviews conducted by the researcher between individual parents and students. Comparisons and cross-interpretations of inter-rater, codified, triangulated data were utilized for identifying emergent themes. Data analysis revealed the active involvement of parents in researching with their child during inquiry investigations, engaging in journaling, and assessing student performance fostered partnerships among students, parents, and educators and supported students' social skills development. The resulting model, employing constructivist leadership and enlisting parent involvement, provides conditions and strategies required to develop a community of practice that can help effect social change. The active involvement of parents fostered improved efficacy and a holistic mindset to develop in parents, students, and teachers. Based on these findings, the interactive collaboration of parents in science learning activities can proactively facilitate a community of practice that will assist educators in facilitating social change.

  10. Community participation of persons with disabilities: volunteering, donations and involvement in groups and organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Eniko C; Spencer, Lauren

    2016-08-01

    This study examined similarities and differences between persons with and without disabilities on volunteering, donations and group participation. A sample of 1548 individuals participated and 60% of the sample were persons with disabilities. Data for this research was drawn from a major statewide survey in a Midwestern state in the United States. Community participation was measured through involvement with civic, religious and other community-based groups, volunteering activities and donations. Logistic regression was pursued to test the effect of disability on community participation. Findings support different trends in participation between persons with and without disabilities. Individuals without disabilities are more likely to volunteer, donate money and participate in civic organisations (e.g. clubs) and other groups. Employment and household income have a significant contribution in explaining these differences. This study found significant differences in community participation between persons with disabilities and persons without disabilities. Regression analysis outcomes underscore the importance of employment and income in eliminating disparities in community involvement between persons with and without disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation Policy change in rehabilitation agencies to fund supported volunteering services. Improve the representation of persons with disabilities in volunteering pursuits by making volunteering positions accessible to them (educate persons with disabilities to be more aware of these opportunities, provide reasonable accommodations at work sites, etc.). Educate stakeholders about the benefits of volunteering and being part of civic, and other community based groups in improving the quality of life of persons with disabilities. Identification of barriers for persons with disabilities in these pursuits (physical and attitudinal barriers, lack of resources). Identifying and utilising natural supports in the work site

  11. Experiences of community pharmacists involved in the delivery of a specialist asthma service in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Lynne M; Smith, Lorraine; LeMay, Kate S; Krass, Ines; Saini, Bandana; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Reddel, Helen K; Burton, Deborah L; Stewart, Kay; Armour, Carol L

    2012-06-18

    The role of community pharmacists in disease state management has been mooted for some years. Despite a number of trials of disease state management services, there is scant literature into the engagement of, and with, pharmacists in such trials. This paper reports pharmacists' feedback as providers of a Pharmacy Asthma Management Service (PAMS), a trial coordinated across four academic research centres in Australia in 2009. We also propose recommendations for optimal involvement of pharmacists in academic research. Feedback about the pharmacists' experiences was sought via their participation in either a focus group or telephone interview (for those unable to attend their scheduled focus group) at one of three time points. A semi-structured interview guide focused discussion on the pharmacists' training to provide the asthma service, their interactions with health professionals and patients as per the service protocol, and the future for this type of service. Focus groups were facilitated by two researchers, and the individual interviews were shared between three researchers, with data transcribed verbatim and analysed manually. Of 93 pharmacists who provided the PAMS, 25 were involved in a focus group and seven via telephone interview. All pharmacists approached agreed to provide feedback. In general, the pharmacists engaged with both the service and research components, and embraced their roles as innovators in the trial of a new service. Some experienced challenges in the recruitment of patients into the service and the amount of research-related documentation, and collaborative patient-centred relationships with GPs require further attention. Specific service components, such as the spirometry, were well received by the pharmacists and their patients. Professional rewards included satisfaction from their enhanced practice, and pharmacists largely envisaged a future for the service. The PAMS provided pharmacists an opportunity to become involved in an

  12. Experiences of community pharmacists involved in the delivery of a specialist asthma service in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerton Lynne M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of community pharmacists in disease state management has been mooted for some years. Despite a number of trials of disease state management services, there is scant literature into the engagement of, and with, pharmacists in such trials. This paper reports pharmacists’ feedback as providers of a Pharmacy Asthma Management Service (PAMS, a trial coordinated across four academic research centres in Australia in 2009. We also propose recommendations for optimal involvement of pharmacists in academic research. Methods Feedback about the pharmacists’ experiences was sought via their participation in either a focus group or telephone interview (for those unable to attend their scheduled focus group at one of three time points. A semi-structured interview guide focused discussion on the pharmacists’ training to provide the asthma service, their interactions with health professionals and patients as per the service protocol, and the future for this type of service. Focus groups were facilitated by two researchers, and the individual interviews were shared between three researchers, with data transcribed verbatim and analysed manually. Results Of 93 pharmacists who provided the PAMS, 25 were involved in a focus group and seven via telephone interview. All pharmacists approached agreed to provide feedback. In general, the pharmacists engaged with both the service and research components, and embraced their roles as innovators in the trial of a new service. Some experienced challenges in the recruitment of patients into the service and the amount of research-related documentation, and collaborative patient-centred relationships with GPs require further attention. Specific service components, such as the spirometry, were well received by the pharmacists and their patients. Professional rewards included satisfaction from their enhanced practice, and pharmacists largely envisaged a future for the service. Conclusions The

  13. The Influence of Social Involvement, Neighborhood Aesthetics, and Community Garden Participation on Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soobader, Mah-J.; Turbin, Mark S.; Hale, James W.; Buchenau, Michael; Marshall, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We considered the relationship between an urban adult population's fruit and vegetable consumption and several selected social and psychological processes, beneficial aesthetic experiences, and garden participation. Methods. We conducted a population-based survey representing 436 residents across 58 block groups in Denver, Colorado, from 2006 to 2007. We used multilevel statistical models to evaluate the survey data. Results. Neighborhood aesthetics, social involvement, and community garden participation were significantly associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Community gardeners consumed fruits and vegetables 5.7 times per day, compared with home gardeners (4.6 times per day) and nongardeners (3.9 times per day). Moreover, 56% of community gardeners met national recommendations to consume fruits and vegetables at least 5 times per day, compared with 37% of home gardeners and 25% of nongardeners. Conclusions. Our study results shed light on neighborhood processes that affect food-related behaviors and provides insights about the potential of community gardens to affect these behaviors. The qualities intrinsic to community gardens make them a unique intervention that can narrow the divide between people and the places where food is grown and increase local opportunities to eat better. PMID:21680931

  14. Adolescents’ Sense of Community and Involvement in Playground Activities: Panacea to Ameliorate Social Vices and Delinquencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwagbemiga Paul Agboola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have identified defects in the physical environments in which they interact and play, which has resulted in a decline the expected values initiated in both the social, physical and psychological developments. The role of playground in the development of adolescent’s health, moral and social standard has attracted lower interest in the recent time. The adolescent sense of community relates to a positive experience in the community open space setting such as playground and social well-being with their peers in general. Over time, little efforts have been initiated by the researchers towards these phenomena. This current study fills the gap by examining the adolescents’ sense of community through a quantitative survey via appraisal of the quality of community playground, emotional connection and effects of their participation in playground activities on ameliorating the delinquents’ behavior and social vices. Completed survey questionnaires retrieved from a total number of 69 purposive respondents who are adolescents from three towns and analyzed through relative importance index (RII via Likert scale. Results from the analysis indicated that adolescents’ positive attitudinal changes and reduction in social vices and delinquent’s behavior could be achieved through their involvements in quality and well-equipped playgrounds. Similarly, the significant role of sense of community in enhancing adolescent social participation in playground activities contributes to a major role in increasing their social well-being and togetherness. Thus, the study recommends appropriate future planning, design, and management of neighborhood playgrounds in Nigeria.

  15. Alcohol Involvement and Participation in Residential Learning Communities Among First-Year College Students*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCABE, SEAN ESTEBAN; BQYD, CAROL J.; CRANFORD, JAMES A.; SLAYDEN, JANIE; LANGE, JAMES E.; REED, MARK B.; KETCHIE, JULIE M.; SCOTT, MARCIA S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Residential learning communities (RLCs) on U.S. college campuses are assumed to build connections between formal teaming opportunities and students’ living environment. The objective of this longitudinal study was to examine the association between living in RLCs and alcohol misuse among first-year undergraduate students. Method A Web-based survey was self-administered to a stratified random sample of 923 first-year undergraduate students (52.7% women) attending a large Midwestern research university. The sample included 342 students who lived and participated in RLCs (termed RLC) and 581 students who did not participate in RLCs (termed non-RLC) First-year students were asked about their drinking behaviors before college, during their first semester, and approximately 6 months later during their second semester. Results RLC students reported lower rates of drinking than non-RLC students before college. RLC students reported lower rates of drinking and fewer alcohol-related consequences than non-RLC students during the first and second semesters. Maximum drinks in 1 day increased from precollege to first semester, and this increase was larger among non-RLC students than RLC students. The number of drinks per occasion and alcohol-related consequences increased between first semester and second semester for all students regardless of RLC status. Conclusions Lower rates of alcohol misuse among RLC students predate their entrance into college, and the increase in drinking from precollege to first semester is lower in magnitude among RLC students RLCs’ influence involves selection and socialization processes. These findings have implications for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at incoming first-year undergraduate students. PMID:17690806

  16. Prevention of Dengue Fever: An Exploratory School-Community Intervention Involving Students Empowered as Change Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardene, Wasantha P.; Lohrmann, David K.; YoussefAgha, Ahmed H.; Nilwala, Dayani C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) are epidemic and endemic in tropical and subtropical countries including Sri Lanka. Numerous structural and community interventions have been shown to be effective in interrupting the life cycle of mosquitoes that transmit DF/DHF; however, these interventions are not always implemented…

  17. EFFECTOR OF TRANSCRIPTION2 is involved in xylem differentiation and includes a functional DNA single strand cutting domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Rumen; Tiedemann, Jens; Czihal, Andreas; Schallau, Anna; Diep, Le Hong; Mock, Hans-Peter; Claus, Bernhard; Tewes, Annegret; Bäumlein, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    EFFECTORS OF TRANSCRIPTION2 (ET) are plant-specific regulatory proteins characterized by the presence of two to five C-terminal DNA- and Zn-binding repeats, and a highly conserved cysteine pattern. We describe the structural characterization of the three member Arabidopsis thaliana ET gene family and reveal some allelic sequence polymorphisms. A mutation analysis showed that AtET2 affects the expression of various KNAT genes involved in the maintenance of the undifferentiated state of cambial meristem cells. It also plays a role in the regulation of GA5 (gibberellin 3-beta-dioxygenase) and the cell-cycle-related GASA4. A correlation was established between AtET2 expression and the cellular differentiation state. AtET-GFP fusion proteins shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus, with the AtET2 product prevented from entering the nucleus in non-differentiating cells. Within the nucleus, AtET2 probably acts via a single strand cutting domain. A more general regulatory role for ET factors is proposed, governing cell differentiation in cambial meristems, a crucial process for the development of plant vascular tissues.

  18. The Benefits of Community and Juvenile Justice Involvement in Organizational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukefeld, Carl G.; Cawood, Margaret; Wiley, Tisha; Robertson, Angela A.; Fisher, Jacqueline Horan; Arrigona, Nancy; Donohue, Patricia; Staples-Horne, Michelle; Harris, Philip W.; Dembo, Richard; Roysden, Judy; Marks, Katherine R.

    2017-01-01

    The Juvenile Justice (JJ) system has a number of local behavioral health service community linkages for substance abuse, mental health, and HIV services. However, there have only been a few systemic studies that examine and seek to improve these community behavioral health linkages for justice-involved youth. Implementation research is a way of identifying, testing, and understanding effective strategies for translating evidence-based treatment and prevention approaches into service delivery. This article explores benefits and challenges of participatory research within the context of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)’s Juvenile Justice Translational Research on Interventions for Adolescents in the Legal System (JJ-TRIALS) implementation behavioral health study. The JJ-TRIALS study has involved JJ partners (representatives from state-level JJ agencies) throughout the study development, design, and implementation. Proponents of participatory research argue that such participation strengthens relations between the community and academia; ensures the relevancy of research questions; increases the capacity of data collection; and enhances program recruitment, sustainability, and extension. The extent of the impact that JJ partners have had on the JJ-TRIALS study will be discussed, as well as the benefits local JJ agencies can derive from both short- and long-term participation. Issues associated with the site selection, participation, and implementation of evidence-based practices also will be discussed. PMID:28828202

  19. The Benefits of Community and Juvenile Justice Involvement in Organizational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukefeld, Carl G; Cawood, Margaret; Wiley, Tisha; Robertson, Angela A; Fisher, Jacqueline Horan; Arrigona, Nancy; Donohue, Patricia; Staples-Horne, Michelle; Harris, Philip W; Dembo, Richard; Roysden, Judy; Marks, Katherine R

    2017-01-01

    The Juvenile Justice (JJ) system has a number of local behavioral health service community linkages for substance abuse, mental health, and HIV services. However, there have only been a few systemic studies that examine and seek to improve these community behavioral health linkages for justice-involved youth. Implementation research is a way of identifying, testing, and understanding effective strategies for translating evidence-based treatment and prevention approaches into service delivery. This article explores benefits and challenges of participatory research within the context of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)'s Juvenile Justice Translational Research on Interventions for Adolescents in the Legal System (JJ-TRIALS) implementation behavioral health study. The JJ-TRIALS study has involved JJ partners (representatives from state-level JJ agencies) throughout the study development, design, and implementation. Proponents of participatory research argue that such participation strengthens relations between the community and academia; ensures the relevancy of research questions; increases the capacity of data collection; and enhances program recruitment, sustainability, and extension. The extent of the impact that JJ partners have had on the JJ-TRIALS study will be discussed, as well as the benefits local JJ agencies can derive from both short- and long-term participation. Issues associated with the site selection, participation, and implementation of evidence-based practices also will be discussed.

  20. Consumer and community involvement in health and medical research: evaluation by online survey of Australian training workshops for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Anne; Alpers, Kirsten; Heyworth, Jane; Phuong, Cindy; Hanley, Bec

    2016-01-01

    In Australia, since 2009, the Consumer and Community Involvement Program (formerly the Consumer and Community Participation Program) has developed and run workshops to help people working in health and medical research involve more consumers (patients) and community members (the public) in their research. In 2012, workshop attendees were invited to do an online survey to find out the effect, if any, that attending a workshop had on their awareness of and attitudes to consumer and community involvement. They were also asked about changes in their behaviour when it came to the involvement of consumers and the community in their work. The study found that, for people who answered the survey, more than double the number found consumer and community involvement very relevant after attending a workshop, compared with the number who thought that before attending one. Also, amongst those who answered the survey, 94 % thought that the workshop increased their understanding about involvement. Background There is limited evidence of the benefits of providing training workshops for researchers on how to involve consumers (patients) and the community (public) in health and medical research. Australian training workshops were evaluated to contribute to the evidence base. The key objective was to evaluate the impact of the workshops in increasing awareness of consumer and community involvement; changing attitudes to future implementation of involvement activities and influencing behaviour in the methods of involvement used. A secondary objective was to use a formal evaluation survey to build on the anecdotal feedback received from researchers about changes in awareness, attitudes and behaviours. Methods The study used a cross-sectional, online survey of researchers, students, clinicians, administrators and members of non-government organisations who attended Consumer and Community Involvement Program training workshops between 2009 and 2012 to ascertain changes to awareness

  1. Identification and feasibility of social participation initiatives reducing isolation and involving rural older Canadians in the development of their community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Annie-Pier; Djilas, Dusica; Vinet, Tanya; Aubin, Ariane; Demers, Karine; Levasseur, Mélanie

    2017-11-27

    Although some social participation initiatives exist to counter the isolation of older adults, none were identified and prioritized according to the needs of rural regional county municipalities (RCM), including in Canada. To identify and prioritize social participation initiatives for older Canadians, and to document the feasibility of their implementation in a rural RCM. An action research was used to identify, based on a review of scientific and grey literature, social participation initiatives, enriched and prioritized by the community. Facilitators, challenges, and advice for the implementation of these initiatives were documented through nine group discussions (n = 85). Two social participation initiatives were identified as more relevant to the RCM, combined and adapted as the Benevolent Community to locate and assist isolated older adults. Two other initiatives were prioritized to identify transportation needs and solutions, and create a website on social participation activities available. Most participants perceived these initiatives as feasible, and will address older adults' social participation needs. Two facilitators were a field worker for older adults and the preoccupations of the community toward isolated older adults. The main challenges concerned the difficulty in recruiting volunteers and locating isolated older adults, exacerbated by the RCM's vast territory. Main advice involved suggestions of people for the recruitment of volunteers. Through valuable collaboration with the community, initiatives were identified and prioritized, and challenges were raised, with anticipated success. Further studies are needed to document the implementation and effects of these initiatives on the social participation of older adults in the RCM.

  2. Effects of forest management practices in temperate beech forests on bacterial and fungal communities involved in leaf litter degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purahong, Witoon; Kapturska, Danuta; Pecyna, Marek J; Jariyavidyanont, Katalee; Kaunzner, Jennifer; Juncheed, Kantida; Uengwetwanit, Tanaporn; Rudloff, Renate; Schulz, Elke; Hofrichter, Martin; Schloter, Michael; Krüger, Dirk; Buscot, François

    2015-05-01

    Forest management practices (FMPs) significantly influence important ecological processes and services in Central European forests, such as leaf litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. Changes in leaf litter diversity, and thus, its quality as well as microbial community structure and function induced by different FMPs were hypothesized to be the main drivers causing shifts in decomposition rates and nutrient release in managed forests. In a litterbag experiment lasting 473 days, we aimed to investigate the effects of FMPs (even-aged timber management, selective logging and unmanaged) on bacterial and fungal communities involved in leaf litter degradation over time. Our results showed that microbial communities in leaf litter were strongly influenced by both FMPs and sampling date. The results from nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination revealed distinct patterns of bacterial and fungal successions over time in leaf litter. We demonstrated that FMPs and sampling dates can influence a range of factors, including leaf litter quality, microbial macronutrients, and pH, which significantly correlate with microbial community successions.

  3. Dynamical behaviors of Rb-E2F pathway including negative feedback loops involving miR449.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Liu, Haihong; Hao, Junjun; Liu, Zengrong

    2012-01-01

    MiRNAs, which are a family of small non-coding RNAs, regulate a broad array of physiological and developmental processes. However, their regulatory roles have remained largely mysterious. E2F is a positive regulator of cell cycle progression and also a potent inducer of apoptosis. Positive feedback loops in the regulation of Rb-E2F pathway are predicted and shown experimentally. Recently, it has been discovered that E2F induce a cluster of miRNAs called miR449. In turn, E2F is inhibited by miR449 through regulating different transcripts, thus forming negative feedback loops in the interaction network. Here, based on the integration of experimental evidence and quantitative data, we studied Rb-E2F pathway coupling the positive feedback loops and negative feedback loops mediated by miR449. Therefore, a mathematical model is constructed based in part on the model proposed in Yao-Lee et al. (2008) and nonlinear dynamical behaviors including the stability and bifurcations of the model are discussed. A comparison is given to reveal the implication of the fundamental differences of Rb-E2F pathway between regulation and deregulation of miR449. Coherent with the experiments it predicts that miR449 plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle progression and provides a twofold safety mechanism to avoid excessive E2F-induced proliferation by cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, numerical simulation and bifurcation analysis shows that the mechanisms of the negative regulation of miR449 to three different transcripts are quite distinctive which needs to be verified experimentally. This study may help us to analyze the whole cell cycle process mediated by other miRNAs more easily. A better knowledge of the dynamical behaviors of miRNAs mediated networks is also of interest for bio-engineering and artificial control.

  4. Dynamical behaviors of Rb-E2F pathway including negative feedback loops involving miR449.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    Full Text Available MiRNAs, which are a family of small non-coding RNAs, regulate a broad array of physiological and developmental processes. However, their regulatory roles have remained largely mysterious. E2F is a positive regulator of cell cycle progression and also a potent inducer of apoptosis. Positive feedback loops in the regulation of Rb-E2F pathway are predicted and shown experimentally. Recently, it has been discovered that E2F induce a cluster of miRNAs called miR449. In turn, E2F is inhibited by miR449 through regulating different transcripts, thus forming negative feedback loops in the interaction network. Here, based on the integration of experimental evidence and quantitative data, we studied Rb-E2F pathway coupling the positive feedback loops and negative feedback loops mediated by miR449. Therefore, a mathematical model is constructed based in part on the model proposed in Yao-Lee et al. (2008 and nonlinear dynamical behaviors including the stability and bifurcations of the model are discussed. A comparison is given to reveal the implication of the fundamental differences of Rb-E2F pathway between regulation and deregulation of miR449. Coherent with the experiments it predicts that miR449 plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle progression and provides a twofold safety mechanism to avoid excessive E2F-induced proliferation by cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, numerical simulation and bifurcation analysis shows that the mechanisms of the negative regulation of miR449 to three different transcripts are quite distinctive which needs to be verified experimentally. This study may help us to analyze the whole cell cycle process mediated by other miRNAs more easily. A better knowledge of the dynamical behaviors of miRNAs mediated networks is also of interest for bio-engineering and artificial control.

  5. Patient outcomes following an intervention involving community pharmacists in the management of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Judith; Taylor, Susan; Grabham, Anita; Stanford, Pamela

    2006-12-01

    Documentation and evaluation of patient outcomes in a pilot study into the role of rural community pharmacists in the management of depression. Parallel groups design with a control and intervention group. Thirty-two community pharmacies in rural and remote New South Wales, Australia. One hundred and six patient participants, mean age of 46 years, predominantly female, not currently employed, recruited by participating pharmacists. Intervention pharmacists were given video-conference training on the nature and management of depression by a psychiatrist, psychologist and general practitioner and asked to dispense medication with extra advice and support. Control pharmacists were asked to provide usual care. Adherence by self-report, K10, Drug Attitude Index. The results indicated that adherence to medications was high in both groups (95% versus 96%) and that both groups had improved significantly in wellbeing (a reduction K10 score of 4 (control) versus 4.7 (intervention)). No significant change was found in attitude to drug treatment once baseline scores were controlled for. Because both groups improved in wellbeing it is not possible to claim that the training provided to the intervention pharmacists was responsible for the success. However, the improvements gained in such a short time (two months) suggest that the involvement of pharmacists has had a beneficial rather than negative effect. Further research into the most appropriate ways in which to integrate the skills of pharmacists into a model of mental health care delivery in rural communities is recommended.

  6. Radicalisation of Young Adults in the Balkan States: Counter-Measures, Healthcare Provision, and Community Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Richardson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing the rise of extremism remains a priority for governments worldwide. Motives behind joining an extremist organisation are complex and often unique to the individual, making prevention strategies difficult to design and implement. This article explores several facets of this complex problem, particularly in relation to young adults, including links between extremism, criminality and incarceration, mental health, socioeconomic status and the rise of radicalisation ‘hotspots’ in Muslim majority states in the Western Balkans, where lack of government leadership allows extremist organisations to flourish. Potential counter radicalisation measures are also discussed in various contexts, including healthcare systems, the community, internationally and within the Balkan region.

  7. The conundrum of Hodgkin lymphoma nodes: to be or not to be included in the involved node radiation fields. The EORTC-GELA lymphoma group guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girinsky, Theodore; Specht, Lena; Ghalibafian, Mithra

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop easily applicable guidelines for the determination of initially involved lymph nodes to be included in the radiation fields. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with supra-diaphragmatic Hodgkin lymphoma. All the imaging procedures were carried out with patients in the treatment......: The classic guidelines for determining the involvement of lymph nodes were not easily applicable and did not seem to reflect the exact extent of Hodgkin lymphoma. Three simple steps were used to pinpoint involved lymph nodes. First, FDG-PET scans were meticulously analysed to detect lymph nodes that were...

  8. Improving healthy dietary behaviors, nutrition knowledge, and self-efficacy among underserved school children with parent and community involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kynna; Norris, Keith; Newman Giger, Joyce; Suro, Zulma

    2012-08-01

    University–community partnerships through coordinated school health programs (CSHP) can play a key role in decreasing child obesity. The main objective of this study was to measure over a 1-year period whether a CSHP with parental, school, and home-based components to promote optimal nutrition will reduce BMI percentiles and z-scores and improve dietary behaviors in a sample of low-income, school-aged children. The intervention included, Kids Nutrition and Fitness, a 6-week nutrition, physical activity educational after-school program, and school activities, including creation of an Advisory Committee that made wellness policies. A randomized controlled pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of the intervention that contrasts 251 (n = 251) predominantly Mexican-American 8 to 12 year olds from low-income Los Angeles–based schools. A mixed model of repeated measures analysis assessed changes in BMI percentiles and z-scores, dietary behaviors, food preferences, knowledge, and self-efficacy measured by a reliable/valid questionnaire. These data were collected at baseline and at 4 and 12 months postintervention. Process measures, collected via focus groups with parents, evaluated parent/community involvement. At the 12-month follow-up, children in the intervention group decreased their BMI on average by 2.80 (p = 0.04) and BMI z-scores on average by 0.48 (p = 0.03) and they increased their daily dietary intake of vegetables on average by 1.51 (p = 0.03), fruit on average by 2.00 (P = 0.001), and 100% fruit juice by 1.12 (p = 0.05). An increase of 1.02 (p = 0.03) was seen in self-efficacy of healthy food choices (p = 0.03). Parent (P = 0.04) and community (p = 0.001) involvement significantly increased to 100% participation by the 12-month follow-up. A CSHP using parent and community involvement was effective in reducing the risk of obesity in school-aged Mexican- American children attending low-income schools. The findings need to be examined in a larger, more

  9. Water protection measures and community involvement increase sustainability of uranium mining in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, Miklos

    2015-01-01

    The stage is set for uranium mining in the United Republic of Tanzania, following recent changes to the country’s regulatory framework that brought it in line with IAEA recommendations. Environmental considerations and the involvement of the local community in monitoring the licensing process and future operations will contribute to the sustainability of the project, said Tanzanian officials and IAEA experts. Tanzania, which has identified uranium resources of about 60 000 tonnes, looks to begin mining in 2016 in order to exploit its uranium deposits as part of the country’s plans to increase the contribution of the mining sector from 3.3% of the gross domestic product in 2013 to 10% by the end of the decade. With its gold and diamond reserves nearing depletion, the country is shifting its focus to uranium.

  10. A Case Study of Community Involvement Influence on Policy Decisions: Victories of a Community-Based Participatory Research Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith M. Williams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Buffalo Lupus Project was a community-university partnership that investigated associations between exposure to a local waste site and high rates of lupus and other autoimmune diseases. The partnership’s major accomplishment was successful advocacy for containment and clean-up of the site. As a result of community education, the remediation plan suggested by the community was adopted. Additionally, when a local childhood lead poisoning testing program was canceled, community members signed a letter to legislators urging them to replace the funding, which was restored within one week. This demonstrated how coordinated community-based capacity-building efforts can influence health policy.

  11. Public interface and waste management planning: An approach for integrating community involvement in waste strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiques, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Public involvement and information programs have bridged a communication abyss and allowed waste management policy-makers to understand legitimate public concerns. The perception often held by waste generators that technical concerns had greater validity than institutional issues is being altered as managers realize that information failures can halt a program as abruptly as technical ones. The role and level of involvement of the public in establishing waste management policies has changed dramatically over the past decade. Once the domain only of the generators and regulators, effective waste management strategy development must now make early provisions for public and local government involvement. By allowing public decision makers to participate in the initial planning process and maintain involvement throughout the implementation, many institutional barriers can be avoided. In today's climate, such barriers may represent direct costs, such as litigation, or indirect costs, such as delay, deferral, or duplication of work. Government programs have historically enjoyed a degree of insulation from public involvement factors on the basis of national security, defense, or the greater public good. However, such programs are no longer sacrosanct. Today, the cost of cleaning up past environmental impact can leave little or no money to meet present program objectives. Thus failure to get a public consensus before beginning remedial action can have a major impact on the allocation of scarce resources. Specific approaches to integrating the public into the planning phase of waste management will be addressed, including audience identification, issue analysis and tracking, prioritization of concerns, and information tool development

  12. The Relationship between Faculty Involvement in Governance and Faculty Vitality: The Case of North Carolina Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madray, Van

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects of governance involvement on the vitality of community college faculty members. This study explores the degree to which involvement in the governance of a college through a faculty senate fosters the vitality of elected faculty members. While faculty vitality is a difficult concept to measure directly, faculty…

  13. Women's involvement in community development: the story of Korea's Family Planning Mothers' Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong Soo Kang

    1990-04-01

    Women's participation in Korea's economic and community development programs has increased since the early 1960s. The Family Planning (FP) Mothers' Club was organized by Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK) in rural villages. Early in 1968, PPFK recruited 139 county field officers. They were put into county health centers, one in each county. They helped set up the Mothers' Clubs. Women wanted to have these clubs, but husbands and village elders did not want them to get together and talk about family planning. 12,650 Mothers' Clubs were established in the 1st year; about 2000 clubs were organized annually after that. In 1976, there were 27,292 village-level Mothers' Clubs with 750,000 members. Some 2000 clubs have been disbanded. The purposes of the clubs are to promote practice, to make FP part of everyday life, to foster a cooperative spirit among members, and to push active participation in community development so that productivity is increased and optimal surroundings created. The Mothers' Clubs were classified into: 1) the village and grass roots clubs; 2) their chairpersons, who constituted the Eup and Myon clubs; and 3) the county federation of Mothers' Clubs. Membership is open to all married village women, aged 20 to 45. Each village club has 1 elected chairperson, 1 vice chairperson, and 1 secretary. There was an average of 23 members per club in 1968, but this grew to 30 in 1972. Club programs include social activities, community development, cooperative work, income- generation projects, a Mothers' Bank, and FP. PPFK supports the clubs by financial aid, material aid, technical aid, training, and awards and acknowledgements. Mothers' clubs have promoted FP and served as distribution points for contraceptives. Environments were drastically changed in many villages through the community development work of the Mothers' Clubs. The traditional role of Korean women was early marriage and the production of at least 1 son. The Mothers' Clubs

  14. Are Outness and Community Involvement Risk or Protective Factors for Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among Sexual Minority Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina; London, Bonita

    2017-07-01

    Sexual minority women (SMW) are at increased risk for substance abuse compared to heterosexual women. Two psychosocial factors that have been implicated in SMW's substance abuse are outness and LGBT community involvement, but findings have been mixed as to whether these are risk or protective factors. One possible explanation is that they may have different consequences for subgroups of SMW (lesbians, bisexual women, and queer women). While being open about one's sexual orientation and involved in the community may be protective for lesbians, discrimination against bisexual women may lead these same factors to contribute to substance abuse for bisexual women. It is unclear how these associations will operate for queer women, given limited research on this subpopulation. The current study examined whether sexual identity moderated the associations between outness and community involvement with alcohol and drug abuse. We also examined whether perceived discrimination would help explain why these associations may be different for subgroups of SMW. A sample of 288 self-identified SMW (113 lesbians, 106 bisexual women, and 69 queer women) completed an online survey. Higher outness was associated with higher alcohol and drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Similarly, higher community involvement was associated with higher drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Among bisexual women, the association between community involvement and drug abuse was mediated by perceived discrimination. Further, the association between outness and drug abuse was mediated by both community involvement and perceived discrimination. Findings demonstrate that outness and community involvement function as risk factors for substance abuse for bisexual women, in part due to their associations with discrimination.

  15. Male involvement in maternal healthcare through Community- based Health Planning and Services: the views of the men in rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassoumah Bougangue

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to promote maternal health in Ghana has committed the government to extend maternal healthcare services to the door steps of rural families through the community-based Health Planning and Services. Based on the concerns raised in previous studies that male spouses were indifferent towards maternal healthcare, this study sought the views of men on their involvement in maternal healthcare in their respective communities and at the household levels in the various Community-based Health Planning and Services zones in Awutu-Senya West District in the Central Region of Ghana. Methods A qualitative method was employed. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with married men, community health officers, community health volunteers and community leaders. The participants were selected using purposive, quota and snowball sampling techniques. The study used thematic analysis for analysing the data. Results The study shows varying involvement of men, some were directly involved in feminine gender roles; others used their female relatives and co-wives to perform the women's roles that did not have space for them. They were not necessarily indifferent towards maternal healthcare, rather, they were involved in the spaces provided by the traditional gender division of labour. Amongst other things, the perpetuation and reinforcement of traditional gender norms around pregnancy and childbirth influenced the nature and level of male involvement. Conclusions Sustenance of male involvement especially, husbands and CHVs is required at the household and community levels for positive maternal outcomes. Ghana Health Service, health professionals and policy makers should take traditional gender role expectations into consideration in the planning and implementation of maternal health promotion programmes.

  16. Efficacy of a group-based multimedia HIV prevention intervention for drug-involved women under community supervision: project WORTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237) and 63% (n = 194) had multiple sex partners. Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57-0.90). The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may be scaled up to redress the concentrated epidemics of HIV/STIs among drug-involved women in the criminal justice system. Clinical

  17. Involving Youth in Community Emergency Preparedness: Impacts of a Multistate Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Powell

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Preparedness Guidelines (2007 state, “as uniformed responders account for less than 1% of the total U.S. population, it is clear that citizens must be better prepared, trained, and practiced on how best to take care of themselves and assist others in those first crucial hours during and after a catastrophic incident.” This is increasingly more evident due to recent disasters such as hurricane Katrina. The Alert, Evacuate and Shelter (AES program identified and trained youth/adult teams to use geospatial technology to map shelter locations and evacuation routes. Training began with team building activities to strengthen and build youth/adult preparedness partnerships. Program evaluations revealed a major shift in thinking about the positive potential level of involvement of youth in emergencies. Survey results immediately following trainings revealed statistically significant increases in participant knowledge gain regarding emergency preparedness. Follow-up evaluations indicate the success of this project in meeting community preparedness goals.

  18. Leadership for Family and Community Involvement. The Soul of Educational Leadership Series. Volume 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Paul D.; Blankstein, Alan M.; Cole, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Because schools are the heart and soul of a community, educational leaders have a responsibility to bring the community into the school, as well as to make the school a part of the surrounding community. This volume in the "Soul of Educational Leadership" series goes beyond administrative skills to examine educators' pivotal role of leading family…

  19. Local Community Involvement and Quality of Life in Tourism Destination Development: Case of Coastal Tourism in West Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Fitri Abdillah

    2016-01-01

    The community in the tourism destination is one of the key elements to ensure the sustainability of the tourism destination itself. The objective of this study was to determine if the development of tourism contributes to the involvement and the level of quality of life of the local community in Pangandaran and Palabuhanratu. A total of 279 samples were obtained from two locations. Data were analyzed by using descriptive methods to determine the phase of the development of destinations, the c...

  20. Community involvement: stake holder learning in the UK and in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, J.

    2003-01-01

    Copeland District in west Cumbria in the North-West Region of England, is 'home' to the major UK (Sellafield) reprocessing plants (including THORP). The Sellafield site includes major stores for Intermediate (ILW) and High Level Waste (HLW), while the nearby Drigg national site provides a facility for the managed surface disposal of Low Level Waste (LLW). Together these facilities dominate the local economy, proving some 10 000 jobs and making a key contribution to the local economy. In the 1990's the area was also highlighted as the potential location for a national ILW deep waste repository. This paper offers a reflection from a UK community perspective on the deliberations of the FSC Canadian Workshop. It provides, as background, an initial introductory account of: the development of radioactive waste and liabilities management policy in the UK, the significance of the failure of the Nirex RCF proposals, the success of new dialogue approaches, and the new wide ranging UK radioactive waste management consultation process. It then compares the economic and social issues arising at Sellafield with issues identified in the Canadian programmes and experiences as presented at the Workshop. (author)

  1. Including a Service Learning Educational Research Project in a Biology Course-I: Assessing Community Awareness of Childhood Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted first into yes and no sets…

  2. Including a Service Learning Educational Research Project in a Biology Course-II: Assessing Community Awareness of Legionnaires' Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Amal

    2012-01-01

    For a university service learning educational research project addressing Legionnaires' disease (LD), a Yes/No questionnaire on community awareness of LD was developed and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The 456 questionnaires completed by the participants were sorted into yes and no sets based on responses obtained to…

  3. Effect of continuous oleate addition on microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baserba, Manel Garrido; Angelidaki, Irini; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the microbial diversity in anaerobic reactors, continuously exposed to oleate, added to a manure reactor influent, was investigated. Relative changes in archaeal community were less remarkable in comparison to changes in bacterial community indicating that dominant archaeal ...... a comprehensive picture on oleate degrading microbial communities in high organic strength wastewater. The findings might be utilized for development of strategies for biogas production from lipid-riched wastes....

  4. Accidents involving off-road motor vehicles in a northern community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselback, P; Wilding, H R

    1987-01-01

    The increasing number of accidents associated with off-road motor vehicles used for recreational purposes prompted this prospective study. During 1985 the records of victims of all motor vehicle accidents who were seen at the Hudson Bay Union Hospital, Hudson Bay, Sask., were studied; patients involved in on-road vehicle accidents were included for comparison. Emphasis was placed on age, vehicle type, mechanism of accident, injury severity and the use of safety features. Almost half of the victims of off-road vehicle accidents were under 16 years of age. The poor adherence to government legislation and manufacturer recommendations was evident in the number of people who did not wear helmets or use headlights. PMID:3651929

  5. The Relationship between the Financial Status of Sole Community Independent Pharmacies and Their Broader Involvement with Other Rural Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Andrea; Slifkin, Rebecca; King, Jennifer; Lampman, Michelle; Richardson, Indira; Rutledge, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To document sole community pharmacists' involvement with other local health care organizations, these pharmacies' current financial status, and to determine whether financial position was associated with the provision of pharmacy services to other local health care providers. Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with…

  6. Impact of a District-Wide Diabetes Prevention Programme Involving Health Education for Children and the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeladevi, Sethu; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pujari, Siddharth; Rani, Padmaja Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present results from a district-wide diabetes prevention programme involving health education for school children and the local community. Method: The model of health education that was utilized aimed to secure lifestyle changes and the identification of diabetes risk by school children (aged 9-12 years). The children acted as health…

  7. Involvement in Community Extension Program of Business Administration Students in one Higher Education Institution in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-Anne May A. Rubio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Conducting community service is about relationship on building communities. It is designed for personal and social development. The researchers conduct this investigation to assess the Community Extension program of the College of Business Administration (CBA in one Private Higher Education Institution in the Philippines. The descriptive method of research utilizing the normative survey technique was employed in the study. The results of the study revealed that majority of the respondents are first year level and from Bachelor of Science in Business Administration. It also shows that there are students who are not involve in any organization of the college. This study further shows that community extension program of the college was well implemented. Students were well involved in the said activities. The students can expect benefits that will help them grow to a more productive and efficient students and member of the community. Moreover, there are also some expected problems in joining this kind of activity like funds, location and the logistics. The extension programs may continue to move on and reach out for the sustainable development of the students and community.

  8. Family and Community Involvement in the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Kristin; Richardson, Cheryl; Roberts, Georgi

    2012-01-01

    Engaging families and communities in physical activities for the benefit of children is an extension of the role of a physical education instructor. Although it is possible for a physical educator to generate ideas that encourage families and communities to move, a certified director of physical activity (C-DPA) would be better trained to…

  9. The therapeutic community for addicts : intimacy, perent involvment and treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kooyman (Martien)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractTherapeutic communities for addicts developed since the Sixties without a clear theory on what made them therapeutic. There have also been some doubts on their long term outcome results. Part I of this book describes how therapeutic communities for addicts have roots in the self-help

  10. Including a service learning educational research project in a biology course-I: Assessing community awareness of childhood lead poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted fırst into yes and no sets based on the responses obtained for the fırst question, which gauged the participants' awareness of lead as an indoor pollutant at 71% (n=273)...

  11. University Involvement in Social Planning: Perspectives of Community Institutions and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Amnon

    2010-01-01

    The paper develops a descriptive model of different aspects of involvement by academic staff in social planning; for example, involvement in different stages of planning, level of influencing decision-making processes, and involvement in development and action roles for promoting change. Using a structured questionnaire, research conducted in…

  12. Volunteer stream monitoring: Do the data quality and monitoring experience support increased community involvement in freshwater decision making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Storey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent freshwater policy reforms in New Zealand promote increased community involvement in freshwater decision making and management. Involving community members in scientific monitoring increases both their knowledge and their ability to discuss this knowledge with professionals, potentially increasing their influence in decision-making processes. However, these interactions rarely occur because, in particular, of perceptions that volunteer-collected data are unreliable. We assessed the agreement between volunteer (community group and local government (regional council data at nine stream sites across New Zealand. Over 18 months, community groups and regional council staff monitored, in parallel, a common set of water quality variables, physical habitat, periphyton and benthic macroinvertebrates that are routinely used by regional councils for statutory state of environment reporting. Community groups achieved close agreement (correlations ≥ 0.89, bias < 1% with regional councils for temperature, electrical conductivity, visual water clarity, and Escherichia coli. For dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and pH, correlations were weaker (0.2, 0.53, and 0.4, respectively. Volunteer assessments of physical habitat were as consistent over time as those of councils. For visual assessments of thick periphyton growths (% streambed cover, volunteers achieved a correlation of 0.93 and bias of 0.1% relative to councils. And for a macroinvertebrate biotic index that indicates water and habitat quality, correlation was 0.88, bias was < 5%, and the average difference was 12% of the index score. Volunteers showed increased awareness of local freshwaters, understanding of stream ecosystems, and attentiveness to local and national freshwater issues. Most volunteers had shared their knowledge and interest with others in their community. Most groups had developed relationships with their regional council, and some volunteers became more interested in engaging in

  13. Original article School personnel’s perceptions of their schools’ involvement in culturally and linguistically diverse school-family-community partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Jonak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The achievement gap between White and culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD students is a chronic issue in many U.S. schools that stakeholders endeavor to eliminate through best practices involving curriculum, instruction, and early interventions; however, disparities often persist. In addition to all educational efforts provided by schools and implementation of best practices when students begin to struggle academically or behaviorally in schools, family involvement cannot be disregarded. PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURE School personnel from one Midwestern school district in the United States educating over 8,000 students was surveyed to obtain their perceptions about school-family-community partnerships. A total of 117 informants, including teachers, student support personnel, and administrators, provided their opinions through an online survey measuring responses to questions related to current best practices in their schools with regard to culturally and linguistically diverse students, their families and their communities. RESULTS In a research study focused on school practices relating to parent involvement, it was found that strategies intended to encourage and incorporate parent involvement were implemented in just one-third to one-half of the schools surveyed, indicating the need for increased and concerted effort on the part of school professionals to recognize and address obstacles to a pivotal school-parent-community relationship. CONCLUSIONS Although schools can be credited with endeavoring to provide best practices for their CLD students, in keeping with state and federal mandates and assumedly in keeping with best intentions, there is in fact much work to be done to better facilitate the success of these students. School psychologists can provide the impetus for this effort by formally recommending parent involvement and participation in their assessments of CLD students in particular. This recommendation should

  14. Relational experiences of children involved in bullying incidents in secondary school communities / Bianke van Rooyen

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rooyen, Bianke

    2014-01-01

    School communities are supposed to be safe places for children where they can build healthy and positive relationships; protected places where children not only gain knowledge, but also learn about themselves. However, research indicates an increase in violent behaviour within school communities. The serious nature of violence in South African schools is evident in reports of physical and sexual abuse, gang-related activities and children bringing and using weapons at schools. The violence is...

  15. Local Community Involvement and Quality of Life in Tourism Destination Development: Case of Coastal Tourism in West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Abdillah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The community in the tourism destination is one of the key elements to ensure the sustainability of the tourism destination itself. The objective of this study was to determine if the development of tourism contributes to the involvement and the level of quality of life of the local community in Pangandaran and Palabuhanratu. A total of 279 samples were obtained from two locations. Data were analyzed by using descriptive methods to determine the phase of the development of destinations, the community involvement, and the level of quality of life  The results showed that (1 Pangandaran has a better destination performance than Palabuhanratu, (2 Pangandaran is in the growth phase and Palabuhanratu is in the consolidation phase, (3 Increase in the number of tourist arrivals in destinations within the growth phase is more influential than that in the consolidation phase, and (4 Among the four components of quality of life, the material aspect has the highest value, followed by the spiritual, social and personal aspects. The development of tourism destinations significantly affected the level of community involvement and the level of quality of life.

  16. 45 CFR 2516.410 - What must a community-based entity include in an application for a grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Application... Corporation in the grant application package. (c) Assurances that the applicant will— (1) Keep such records... fiscal audits and program evaluations; (2) Prior to the placement of a participant, consult with the...

  17. Prokaryotic community composition involved production of nitrogen in sediments of Mejillones Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraga, Ruben; Galan, Alexander; Rosello-Mora, Ramon; Araya, Ruben; Valdes, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Conventional denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) contributes to nitrogen loss in oxygen-deficient systems, thereby influencing many aspects of ecosystem function and global biogeochemistry. Mejillones Bay, northern Chile, presents ideal conditions to study nitrogen removal processes, because it is inserted in a coastal upwelling system, its sediments have anoxia and hypoxia conditions and under the influence of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), unknown processes that occur there and what are the microbial communities responsible for their removal. Microbial communities associated with coastal sediments of Mejillones Bay were studied by denaturing gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), by incubation experiments with 15 N isotope tracers were studied nitrogen loss processes operating in these sediments. DGGE analysis showed high bacterial diversity, certain redundant phylotypes and differences in community structure given by the depth; this reflects the microbial community adaptations to environmental conditions. A large fraction (up to 70%) of DAPI-stained cells hybridized with the bacterial probes. Nearly 52-90% of the cell could be further identified to know phyla. Members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster were most abundant in the sediments (13-26%), followed by Proteobacteria. Isotopic tracer experiments for the sediments studied indicated that nitrogen loss processes that predominated were performed by denitrifying communities (43.31-111.20 μMd -1 ) was not possible to detect anammox in the area and not anammox bacteria were detected

  18. Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  19. Romance, recovery & community re-entry for criminal justice involved women: Conceptualizing and measuring intimate relationship factors and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, Lisa C; Hunter, Bronwyn; Salina, Doreen; Jason, Leonard

    Researchers have suggested that interpersonal relationships, particularly romantic relationships, may influence women's attempts at substance abuse recovery and community re-entry after criminal justice system involvement. The present paper evaluates relational and power theories to conceptualize the influence of romantic partner and romantic relationship qualities on pathways in and out of substance abuse and crime. The paper then combines these conceptualizations with a complementary empirical analysis to describe an ongoing research project that longitudinally investigates these relational and power driven factors on women's substance abuse recovery and community re-entry success among former substance abusing, recently criminally involved women. This paper is designed to encourage the integration of theory and empirical analysis by detailing how each of these concepts are operationalized and measured. Future research and clinical implications are also discussed.

  20. A rural community's involvement in the design and usability testing of a computer-based informed consent process for the Personalized Medicine Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnke, Andrea N; Plasek, Joseph M; Hoffman, David G; Partridge, Nathan S; Foth, Wendy S; Waudby, Carol J; Rasmussen, Luke V; McManus, Valerie D; McCarty, Catherine A

    2014-01-01

    Many informed consent studies demonstrate that research subjects poorly retain and understand information in written consent documents. Previous research in multimedia consent is mixed in terms of success for improving participants' understanding, satisfaction, and retention. This failure may be due to a lack of a community-centered design approach to building the interventions. The goal of this study was to gather information from the community to determine the best way to undertake the consent process. Community perceptions regarding different computer-based consenting approaches were evaluated, and a computer-based consent was developed and tested. A second goal was to evaluate whether participants make truly informed decisions to participate in research. Simulations of an informed consent process were videotaped to document the process. Focus groups were conducted to determine community attitudes towards a computer-based informed consent process. Hybrid focus groups were conducted to determine the most acceptable hardware device. Usability testing was conducted on a computer-based consent prototype using a touch-screen kiosk. Based on feedback, a computer-based consent was developed. Representative study participants were able to easily complete the consent, and all were able to correctly answer the comprehension check questions. Community involvement in developing a computer-based consent proved valuable for a population-based genetic study. These findings may translate to other types of informed consents, including those for trials involving treatment of genetic disorders. A computer-based consent may serve to better communicate consistent, clear, accurate, and complete information regarding the risks and benefits of study participation. Additional analysis is necessary to measure the level of comprehension of the check-question answers by larger numbers of participants. The next step will involve contacting participants to measure whether understanding of

  1. SRS Public Involvement in Waste Management Has Resulted in Effective Decisions Supported by the Public Including Disposal Changes and Top-to-Bottom Review Initiative Consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, W. T.; Villasor, H. P.

    2003-01-01

    In the Savannah River Site's (SRS') Solid Waste Management Program, a key to success is the Public Involvement Program. The Solid Waste Division at SRS manages the site's transuranic, low-level, mixed, and hazardous wastes. All decisions associated with management of this waste are of interest to the public and successful program implementation would be impossible without a vigorous public involvement program. The SRS Solid Waste Division (SWD) and its Department of Energy (DOE) customer developed, implemented, and maintain a comprehensive public participation and communications program. It is staffed by public participation and technical specialists to ensure information is presented in a manner that is technically accurate while being tailored for understanding by people without a technical background. The program provides the public with accurate, complete, timely information and early meaningful participation opportunities. It also fulfills the public participation activities required by laws, regulations, DOE Orders, and negotiated agreements. The primary goal of the SWD Public Participation Program is to fulfill the objectives of the SWD and SRS Strategic Plans to ''build trust and communicate openly, honestly, and responsibly with employees, customers, stakeholders, and regulators,'' and to ''work to extend the support of external stakeholders for the pursuit of SRS and DOE Complex business goals.'' This paper focuses on the public participation program goals, the implementation through formal plans and objectives, targeted waste management programs and specific audiences, and specific effects of the program on waste management activities. A discussion of the DOE and contractor teaming along with how plans are carried out is also included

  2. Involving Tutors and Support Staff in the Adult and Community Learning Quality Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenhall, Mark; Ogilvie, Margaret; Ewens, David

    This booklet outlines the new policy context facing adult and community learning (ACL) providers in Great Britain in their pursuit of high-quality learning experiences for their customers. It shows how a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to supporting staff development can be effective in securing quality. TQM components are values,…

  3. Differential Outcomes for American College Students Engaged in Community Service-Learning Involving Youth and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott; Rabinowicz, Samantha; Gillmor, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The Serve Program at Ignatius University is a community service-learning program that combines academic study of philosophy with a yearlong field-based project at one of approximately 50 different sites. Half of these projects entail working with youth, while the other half entail working with adults. This mixed methods analysis found that college…

  4. Strategies for Scaling Up: Promoting Parent Involvement through Family-School-Community Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Momoko; Reynolds, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility, creativity, and collaboration are required to successfully meet the needs of each school when scaling up family engagement programs across a diverse range of communities. Flexibility, creativity, and collaboration are required to successfully meet the needs of each school when scaling up family engagement programs across a diverse…

  5. The Dynamics of an Online Community of Practice Involving Teachers and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Margarida Morais; Loureiro, Maria João; Marques, Luís

    2016-01-01

    In the literature, communities of practice (CoPs) are recognised as having potential to promote teachers' professional development. However, the study of the dynamics of CoPs with teachers and researchers, and their impact on teachers' professional development, is still scarce. Contributing to fill this gap, this paper presents a single case study…

  6. The usual suspects : fingerprinting microbial communities involved in decay of treated southern yellow pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant T. Kirker; Susan V. Diehl; M. Lynn Prewitt

    2010-01-01

    Currrent standards for soil-block testing have long been based on the effectiveness of preservative systems against only a small number of wood decay fungi and even fewer bacteria. Culture-independent molecular methods offer simple, reproducible means to obtain a more holistic view of the microbial communities that colonize wood throughout the decay process. By using a...

  7. Government Influence and Community Involvement on Abstinence-Only Programs in 1999 and 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusrang, Jamie L.; Cheng, Simon

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare federal government influence on abstinence-only programs in 1999 and 2003 to better see how shifts in the federal government's sex education polices impacted other government and community actors. Using data from the Sex Education in America Surveys (SEAS), we find that changes in federal policy, particularly after the…

  8. School and Community Factors Involved in Chilean Students' Perception of School Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Verónica; Torres-Vallejos, Javier; Villalobos-Parada, Boris; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Ascorra, Paula; Bilbao, Marian; Morales, Macarena; Carrasco, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Identifying and understanding predictors of school safety perceptions is important due to its consequences for students. However, it is not clear what school-related factors most contribute to explaining students' perception of school safety, and how they relate to community-related factors such as neighborhood safety. The purpose of this study…

  9. The Resilient Society: On volunteering, civil society and corporate community involvement in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C.P.M. Meijs (Lucas)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractChanges in the Dutch non-profit regime necessitate the direct participation of citizens and businesses in non-profit organisations. Dutch society must re-invent the commitment of citizens, businesses, foundations, universities and various other organisations by increasing both ‘community

  10. ?Facing Our Fears?: Using facilitated film viewings to engage communities in HIV research involving MSM in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kombo, Bernadette; Sariola, Salla; Gichuru, Evanson; Molyneux, Sassy; Sanders, Eduard J.; van der Elst, Elise

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Kenya is a generally homophobic country where homosexuality is criminalised and people who engage in same sex sexuality face stigma and discrimination. In 2013, we developed a 16?min documentary entitled ?Facing Our Fears? that aimed at sharing information on how and why men who have sex with men (MSM) are involved in on-going KEMRI HIV prevention research, and associated community engagement. To consider the film?s usefulness as a communication tool, and its perceived security risks...

  11. Community pharmacists' involvement in smoking cessation: familiarity and implementation of the National smoking cessation guideline in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandström Patrick

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines on smoking cessation (SC emphasize healthcare cooperation and community pharmacists' involvement. This study explored the familiarity and implementation of the National SC Guideline in Finnish community pharmacies, factors relating to Guideline familiarity, implementation and provision of SC services. Methods A nationwide mail survey was sent to a systematic, sample of community pharmacy owners and staff pharmacists (total n = 2291. Response rate was 54% (n = 1190. Factors related to the SC Guideline familiarity were assessed by bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Almost half (47% of the respondents (n = 1190 were familiar with the SC Guideline and familiarity enhanced Guideline implementation. The familiarity was associated with the respondents' perceptions of their personal SC skills and knowledge (OR 3.8; of customers' value of counseling on nicotine replacement therapy (NRT (OR 3.3; and regular use of a pocket card supporting SC counseling (OR 3.0. Pharmacists' workplaces' characteristics, such as size and geographical location were not associated with familiarity. In addition to recommending NRT, the pharmacists familiar with the Guideline used more frequently other Guideline-based SC methods, such as recommended non-pharmacological SC aids, compared to unfamiliar respondents. Conclusions SC Guideline familiarity and implementation is crucial for community pharmacists' involvement in SC actions in addition to selling NRT products. Pharmacists can constitute a potential public health resource in SC easily accessible throughout the country.

  12. Promoting HIV Vaccine Research in African American Communities: Does the Theory of Reasoned Action Explain Potential Outcomes of Involvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Paula M; Archibald, Matthew; Martinez, Nina; del Rio, Carlos; Mulligan, Mark J

    2007-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to challenge the African American community with disproportionate rates of infection, particularly among young women ages 25 to 34 years. Development of a preventive HIV vaccine may bring a substantial turning point in this health crisis. Engagement of the African American community is necessary to improve awareness of the effort and favorably influence attitudes and referent norms. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) may be a useful framework for exploration of community engagement outcomes including future attendance, community mobilization, and study participation. Within the context of HIV vaccine outreach, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in early 2007 with 175 African-American adults (>/= 18 years). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed and the findings support the potential of the model in understanding behavioral intentions toward HIV vaccine research.

  13. The involvement of young people in school- and community-based noncommunicable disease prevention interventions: a scoping review of designs and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Jourdan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since stakeholders’ active engagement is essential for public health strategies to be effective, this review is focused on intervention designs and outcomes of school- and community-based noncommunicable disease (NCD prevention interventions involving children and young people. Methods The review process was based on the principles of scoping reviews. A systematic search was conducted in eight major databases in October 2015. Empirical studies published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were considered. Five selection criteria were applied. Included in the review were (1 empirical studies describing (2 a health intervention focused on diet and/or physical activity, (3 based on children’s and young people’s involvement that included (4 a relationship between school and local community while (5 providing explicit information about the outcomes of the intervention. The search provided 3995 hits, of which 3253 were screened by title and abstract, leading to the full-text screening of 24 papers. Ultimately, 12 papers were included in the review. The included papers were analysed independently by at least two reviewers. Results Few relevant papers were identified because interventions are often either based on children’s involvement or are multi-setting, but rarely both. Children were involved through participation in needs assessments, health committees and advocacy. School-community collaboration ranged from shared activities, to joint interventions with common goals and activities. Most often, collaboration was school-initiated. Most papers provided a limited description of the outcomes. Positive effects were identified at the organisational level (policy, action plans, and healthy environments, in adult stakeholders (empowerment, healthy eating and in children (knowledge, social norms, critical thinking, and health behaviour. Limitations related to the search and analytical methods are discussed. Conclusion

  14. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities.

  15. Community Involvement in Tourism Entrepreneurship: A Case Study in Tioman Island, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Norhafiza Md Sharif; Ku‘Azam Tuan Lonik

    2017-01-01

    The tourism sector is one of the major economic contributors to most countries. Island tourism is one of the important tourism products of a country and is able to catalyse socio-economic development for the local communities. In Malaysia, studies on local entrepreneurship development in Tioman Island has not been given much attention by researchers. To fill this gap, this study aims to provide information on the field of entrepreneurial tourism in Tioman Island. The main objective of this st...

  16. Family and Community Involvement: Reaching Out to Diverse Populations = La participacion de la familia y la comunidad: El acercamiento a las diversas poblaciones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    This handbook, in English and Spanish, is designed for educators who want to develop meaningful parent and community involvement in public education in culturally and linguistically diverse communities. The advice of leaders of Hispanic, African American, Native American, and Asian communities is incorporated into five strategies to help develop…

  17. Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'consulting communities' to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for

  18. Public Involvement and Response Plan (Community Relations Plan), Presidio of San Francisco, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Involvement in the Superfund Program (WH/FS-86- 004) and CERCLA Compliance With Other Environmental Statutes ■ (Federal Register 50 (29): 5928-5932). 5...Army Forces Command ATTN: FCPA (Barry Morris) Fort McPherson, GA 30330-5000 (404) 669-5607 3. Commander U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials

  19. Involvement of community in Family Welfare Programme through orientation training camps (OTCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, N

    1979-01-01

    Though India has had a governmentally subsidized, National Family Planning Program since 1952, gaps still exist in the implementation of family planning education, counseling and distribution efforts. In 1977, emphasis was placed on disseminating greater information about the welfare aspects of the program and its services to the many rural populations which were still relatively untouched by Program efforts. It was during this year that the National Population Policy (NPP) was formulated. Its ultimate objective was to make the Family Planning Program truly a "people's program," with greater networks for outreach and more efficient orientation regarding available services. This service became available through Orientation Training Camps (OTC's) which aimed at developing a group of favorable opinion leaders to interface with local inhabitants who either lacked information or were hesitant to accept family planning services. The OTC's were successful in starting dialogues and group discussion sessions with communities where the family planning program had previously not been readily accepted; utilizing the opinion leaders as motivators in removing misconceptions and prejudices amongst the communities; providing more thorough information services which focus the family planning program as an integral part of family welfare; and enlisting the support of village and local community leaders in promoting Program efforts. The report concludes that OTC's can become even more efficient in their role by considering more careful selection of speakers, the inclusion of satisfied service acceptors as positive testimonial to encourage enthusiasm, and the design of a standard "guide book" for organizing camps which should be made available as reference for camp planners. Literature should also be made available to literate participants, with audio-visual services being distributed only to illiterate populations for greater cost efficiency.

  20. “Facing Our Fears”: Using facilitated film viewings to engage communities in HIV research involving MSM in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kombo, Bernadette; Sariola, Salla; Gichuru, Evanson; Molyneux, Sassy; Sanders, Eduard J.; van der Elst, Elise

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Kenya is a generally homophobic country where homosexuality is criminalised and people who engage in same sex sexuality face stigma and discrimination. In 2013, we developed a 16 min documentary entitled “Facing Our Fears” that aimed at sharing information on how and why men who have sex with men (MSM) are involved in on-going KEMRI HIV prevention research, and associated community engagement. To consider the film’s usefulness as a communication tool, and its perceived security risks in case the film was publicly released, we conducted nine facilitated viewings with 122 individuals representing seven different stakeholder groups. The documentary was seen as a strong visual communication tool with potential to reduce stigma related to homosexuality, and facilitated film viewings were identified as platforms with potential to support open dialogue about HIV research involving MSM. Despite the potential, there were concerns over possible risks to LGBT communities and those working with them following public release. We opted—giving emphasis to the “do no harm” principle—to use the film only in facilitated settings where audience knowledge and attitudes can be carefully considered and discussed. The results highlight the importance of carefully assessing the range of possible impacts when using visuals in community engagement. PMID:28670602

  1. "Facing Our Fears": Using facilitated film viewings to engage communities in HIV research involving MSM in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kombo, Bernadette; Sariola, Salla; Gichuru, Evanson; Molyneux, Sassy; Sanders, Eduard J; van der Elst, Elise

    2017-01-01

    Kenya is a generally homophobic country where homosexuality is criminalised and people who engage in same sex sexuality face stigma and discrimination. In 2013, we developed a 16 min documentary entitled " Facing Our Fears " that aimed at sharing information on how and why men who have sex with men (MSM) are involved in on-going KEMRI HIV prevention research, and associated community engagement. To consider the film's usefulness as a communication tool, and its perceived security risks in case the film was publicly released, we conducted nine facilitated viewings with 122 individuals representing seven different stakeholder groups. The documentary was seen as a strong visual communication tool with potential to reduce stigma related to homosexuality, and facilitated film viewings were identified as platforms with potential to support open dialogue about HIV research involving MSM. Despite the potential, there were concerns over possible risks to LGBT communities and those working with them following public release. We opted-giving emphasis to the "do no harm" principle-to use the film only in facilitated settings where audience knowledge and attitudes can be carefully considered and discussed. The results highlight the importance of carefully assessing the range of possible impacts when using visuals in community engagement.

  2. Public Community Support and Involvement around Vandellos ITER (EISS-Vandellos 2002/2003). Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, R.; Prades, A.; Riba, D.; Doval, E.; Munoz, J.; Garay, A.; Viladrich, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Report summarizes a year and a half research on the social perception and expectations regarding the possible siting of ITER in Vandellos carried out in the framework of the European ITER Site Studies (EISS). The aims were to examine the needs and preferences in terms of public information and communication; to explore the risks and benefits the community links to the Centre; and to analyse the local expectations concerning public participation. A methodological strategy integrating qualitative methodologies [semi-structured interviews to key informants at the local level, and to key research groups in the surrounding area, together with a focus group with local opinion leaders], and quantitative techniques [Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) applied to a sample of 400 participants] was implemented. The local community has lived with complex and high risk facilities for decades, thus local people has a strong familiarity with technological and energy production systems, but no experience with large research installations. In such a context the global opinion towards the possibility of hosting ITER was clearly favourable, and linked to a strong demand in terms of public information and participation. (Author) 19 refs

  3. Public Community Support and Involvement around Vandellos ITER (EISS-Vandellos 2002/2003). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Prades, A.; Riba, D.; Doval, E.; Munoz, J.; Garay, A.; Viladrich, C.

    2006-07-01

    The Report summarizes a year and a half research on the social perception and expectations regarding the possible siting of ITER in Vandellos carried out in the framework of the European ITER Site Studies (EISS). The aims were to examine the needs and preferences in terms of public information and communication; to explore the risks and benefits the community links to the Centre; and to analyse the local expectations concerning public participation. A methodological strategy integrating qualitative methodologies [semi-structured interviews to key informants at the local level, and to key research groups in the surrounding area, together with a focus group with local opinion leaders], and quantitative techniques [Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) applied to a sample of 400 participants] was implemented. The local community has lived with complex and high risk facilities for decades, thus local people has a strong familiarity with technological and energy production systems, but no experience with large research installations. In such a context the global opinion towards the possibility of hosting ITER was clearly favourable, and linked to a strong demand in terms of public information and participation. (Author) 19 refs.

  4. Community Involvement in Tourism Entrepreneurship: A Case Study in Tioman Island, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhafiza Md Sharif

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The tourism sector is one of the major economic contributors to most countries. Island tourism is one of the important tourism products of a country and is able to catalyse socio-economic development for the local communities. In Malaysia, studies on local entrepreneurship development in Tioman Island has not been given much attention by researchers. To fill this gap, this study aims to provide information on the field of entrepreneurial tourism in Tioman Island. The main objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of the island community as a tourism entrepreneur and to analyse the problems and challenges faced by the island's tourism entrepreneurs. The findings show that the majority of entrepreneurs are male, aged between 25 to 44, receive education until secondary school and married. Most of the local tourism entrepreneurs run the food and beverage business and manage their businesses for 11 to 15 years and earn a monthly income of RM2001 to RM4000. The local tourism operators also face a few problems such as capital and finance, marketing, business management and infrastructure. At the same time, the entrepreneurs also expect collaboration from the government to play an important role in advancing the island's tourism industry. At the same time, local tourism entrepreneurs also expect cooperation from the government and other authorities to play a role in developing the island's tourism industry.

  5. Global Dynamic Exposure and the OpenBuildingMap - Communicating Risk and Involving Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorlemmer, Danijel; Beutin, Thomas; Hirata, Naoshi; Hao, Ken; Wyss, Max; Cotton, Fabrice; Prehn, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    Detailed understanding of local risk factors regarding natural catastrophes requires in-depth characterization of the local exposure. Current exposure capture techniques have to find the balance between resolution and coverage. We aim at bridging this gap by employing a crowd-sourced approach to exposure capturing, focusing on risk related to earthquake hazard. OpenStreetMap (OSM), the rich and constantly growing geographical database, is an ideal foundation for this task. More than 3.5 billion geographical nodes, more than 200 million building footprints (growing by 100'000 per day), and a plethora of information about school, hospital, and other critical facilities allows us to exploit this dataset for risk-related computations. We are combining the strengths of crowd-sourced data collection with the knowledge of experts in extracting the most information from these data. Besides relying on the very active OpenStreetMap community and the Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team, which are collecting building information at high pace, we are providing a tailored building capture tool for mobile devices. This tool is facilitating simple and fast building property capturing for OpenStreetMap by any person or interested community. With our OpenBuildingMap system, we are harvesting this dataset by processing every building in near-realtime. We are collecting exposure and vulnerability indicators from explicitly provided data (e.g. hospital locations), implicitly provided data (e.g. building shapes and positions), and semantically derived data, i.e. interpretation applying expert knowledge. The expert knowledge is needed to translate the simple building properties as captured by OpenStreetMap users into vulnerability and exposure indicators and subsequently into building classifications as defined in the Building Taxonomy 2.0 developed by the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) and the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS98). With this approach, we increase the resolution of existing

  6. ANALYSIS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT for ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT TOWARD COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT AND NATURAL CONSERVATION at TM GUNUNG HALIMUN SALAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Gilang Widagdyo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to analyze ecotourism development within Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun Salak (TNGHS area and determine association among its elements which is ecotourism activities, community involvement, and natural conservation. To convey comprehensive and factual result, theoretical considerations appear as basis for this study as well as qualitative and quantitative analysis. Some theories tend to be guidance that will be confront with qualitative data that was obtain from interview with several expertise and community’s representative and compare with questionnaire distribution to determine how significant association occur between those three variables. The statistical analysis explains that ecotourism deliver positive impact toward local community and natural conservationDOI: 10.15408/etk.v11i1.1871

  7. Polypharmacy including falls risk-increasing medications and subsequent falls in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kathryn; Bennett, Kathleen; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2015-01-01

    polypharmacy is an important risk factor for falls, but recent studies suggest only when including medications associated with increasing the risk of falls. a prospective, population-based cohort study. 6,666 adults aged ≥50 years from The Irish Longitudinal study on Ageing. participants reported regular medication use at baseline. Any subsequent falls, any injurious falls and the number of falls were reported 2 years later. The association between polypharmacy (>4 medications) or fall risk-increasing medications and subsequent falls or injurious falls was assessed using modified Poisson regression. The association with the number of falls was assessed using negative binomial regression. during follow-up, 231 falls per 1,000 person-years were reported. Polypharmacy including antidepressants was associated with a greater risk of any fall (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.28, 95% CI 1.06-1.54), of injurious falls (aRR 1.51, 95% CI 1.10-2.07) and a greater number of falls (adjusted incident rate ratio (aIRR) 1.60, 95% CI 1.19-2.15), but antidepressant use without polypharmacy and polypharmacy without antidepressants were not. The use of benzodiazepines was associated with injurious falls when coupled with polypharmacy (aRR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.87), but was associated with a greater number of falls (aIRR 1.32, 95% CI 1.05-1.65), independent of polypharmacy. Other medications assessed, including antihypertensives, diuretics and antipsychotics, were not associated with outcomes. in middle-aged and older adults, polypharmacy, including antidepressant or benzodiazepine use, was associated with injurious falls and a greater number of falls. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Self-reported and actual involvement of community pharmacists in patient counseling: a cross-sectional and simulated patient study in Gondar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surur AS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community pharmacists play a crucial role in reducing medication related health problems and improving the patient’s overall wellbeing. Evidence suggests that community pharmacist led counseling services result in a better clinical and self-reported outcome, including a higher level of satisfaction and quality of life. Objective: This study aims to document self-reported and actual levels of community pharmacists’ involvement in the provision of patient counseling and barriers that limit their involvement in such services. Methods: Simulated patient visits and a cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists were employed in Gondar town, Ethiopia between March 15 and May 15, 2016 to observe actual counseling practices and to assess their reported counseling practices respectively. Four different scenarios were developed for the simulated patient visit. A well designed questionnaire and an assessment form were used for the survey and simulated patient visit. Results: In the cross-sectional survey, 84 pharmacists were approached and 78 agreed to participate (92.8 % response rate. Of the respondents, 96.1% agreed/strongly agreed that patient counseling is important and 69.3% strongly agreed that patient counseling should be a professional duty. The most frequent information provided to patients were dosing schedule of drugs, how to take medication, and drug-food interaction. Majority of community pharmacists either strongly agreed (42.1% or agreed (51.3% that patients are comfortable towards their counseling practice. A total of 48 simulated visits were conducted and a medicine was dispensed in all visits. In all four scenarios, dosage schedule (100%, how to take medication (97.6% and drug-food interaction (69.1% were the most common type of information provided while what to do when dose is missed (100%, contraindication (95.2% and the importance of compliance or adherence (92.9% were the most commonly ignored types of information

  9. Denitrification coupled with methane anoxic oxidation and microbial community involved identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Medici Frayne Cuba

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the biological denitrification associated with anoxic oxidation of methane and the microbial diversity involved were studied. Kinetic tests for nitrate (NO3- and nitrite (NO2- removal and methane uptake were carried out in 100 mL batch reactors incubated in a shaker (40 rpm at 30 ºC. Denitrificant/methanotrophic biomass was taken from a laboratory scale reactor fed with synthetic nitrified substrates (40 mgN L-1 of NO3- and subsequently NO2- and methane as carbon source. Results obtained from nitrate removal followed a first order reaction, presenting a kinetic apparent constant (kNO3 of 0.0577±0.0057d-1. Two notable points of the denitrification rate (0.12gNO3--N g-1 AVS d-1 and 0.07gNO3--N g-1 AVS d-1 were observed in the beginning and on the seventh day of operation. When nitrite was added as an electron acceptor, denitrification rates were improved, presenting an apparent kinetic constant (kNO2 of 0.0722±0.0044d-1, a maximum denitrification rate of 0.6gNO2--N g-1AVS d-1, and minimum denitrification rate of 0.1gNO2--N g-1AVS d-1 at the beginning and end of the test, respectively. Endogenous material supporting denitrification and methane concentration dissolved in the substrate was discarded from the control experiments in the absence of methane and seed, respectively. Methylomonas sp. was identified in the reactors fed with nitrate and nitrite as well as uncultured bacterium.

  10. Local government involvement in long term resource planning for community energy systems. Demand side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    A program was developed to coordinate governmental, research, utility, and business energy savings efforts, and to evaluate future potential actions, based on actual field data obtained during the implementation of Phase I of the State Resource Plan. This has lead to the establishment of a state conservation and energy efficiency fund for the purpose of establishing a DSM Program. By taking a state wide perspective on resource planning, additional savings, including environmental benefits, can be achieved through further conservation and demand management. This effort has already blossomed into a state directive for DSM programs for the natural gas industry.

  11. Local government involvement in long term resource planning for community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    A program was developed to coordinate governmental, research, utility, and business energy savings efforts, and to evaluate future potential actions, based on actual field data obtained during the implementation of Phase I of the State Resource Plan. This has lead to the establishment of a state conservation and energy efficiency fund for the purpose of establishing a DSM Program. By taking a state wide perspective on resource planning, additional savings, including environmental benefits, can be achieved through further conservation and demand management. This effort has already blossomed into a state directive for DSM programs for the natural gas industry.

  12. Research Done in "A Good Way": The Importance of Indigenous Elder Involvement in HIV Community-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Sarah; O'Campo, Patricia; Monchalin, Renée; Thistle, Jesse; Worthington, Catherine; Masching, Renée; Guta, Adrian; Pooyak, Sherri; Whitebird, Wanda; Thomas, Cliff

    2015-06-01

    We examined the role that Indigenous Elders can play in ensuring that community-based research (CBR) is conducted ethically. We present data from a larger qualitative study exploring ethical issues that occur in HIV-related CBR through the experiences of researchers engaged in CBR. Between May 2010 and July 2011, we interviewed 51 academic and community research team leaders of federally funded HIV CBR studies. We used thematic analysis techniques to identify themes. Participating researchers engage Elders in research because Elders are keepers of Indigenous knowledge, dynamic ethical consultants, community protectors, and credible sources of information who are able to counsel and support, mediate conflict, provide local context and history, and conduct ceremonial roles. Potential challenges cited by participants to engaging Elders in research include finding the right "fit," approaching Elders in a culturally appropriate way, and bureaucratic environments that do not honor Indigenous processes. Culturally appropriate Elder engagement in HIV CBR with Indigenous communities is vital for promoting positive relationships and culturally safe research that respects ceremony and Indigenous ways of knowing.

  13. Sequence analysis and identification of the pyrKDbF operon from Lactococcus lactis including a novel gene, pyrK, involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Paal Skytt; Martinussen, Jan; Hammer, Karin

    1996-01-01

    Three genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines have been found to constitute an operon in Lactococcus lactis. Two of the genes are the well-known pyr genes pyrDb and pyrF, encoding dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase, respectively....... The third gene encodes a protein which was shown to be necessary for the activity of the pyrDb-encoded dihydroorotate dehydrogenase; we propose to name the gene pyrK. The pyrK-encoded protein is homologous to a number of proteins which are involved in electron transfer. The lactococcal pyrKDbF operon...... is highly homologous to the corresponding part of the much-larger pyr operon of Bacillus subtilis. orf2, the pyrK homolog in B. subtilis, has also been shown to be necessary for pyrimidine biosynthesis (A.E. Kahler and R.L. Switzer, J. Bacteriol. 178:5013-5016, 1996). Four genes adjacent to the operon, i...

  14. A paternally transmitted complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) involving chromosomes 2, 6, and 18 includes eight breakpoints and five insertional translocations (ITs) through three generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruchy, Nicolas; Barreau, Morgane; Kessler, Ketty; Gourdier, Dominique; Leporrier, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are uncommon and mainly occur de novo. We report here on a familial CCR involving chromosomes 2, 6, and 18. The propositus is a boy first referred because of growth delays, hypotonia, and facial anomalies, suggestive of deletion 18q syndrome. However, a cytogenetic family study disclosed a balanced CCR in three generations, which was detailed by FISH using BAC clones, and consisted of eight breakpoints with five insertional translocations (ITs). The propositus had a cryptic 18q deletion and a 6p duplication. Paternal transmission of this CCR was observed through three generations without meiotic recombination. Our investigation allowed us to provide porosities counseling and management of prenatal diagnosis for propositus cousin who carries this particular CCR.

  15. Changes in knowledge, attitude and involvement of fathers in supporting exclusive breastfeeding: a community-based intervention study in a rural area of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bich, Tran Huu; Cuong, Nguyen Manh

    2017-02-01

    To test the hypotheses of positive changes of fathers' knowledge, attitude and involvement in supporting exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) after receiving breastfeeding education materials and counseling services. A quasi-experimental, pre-test-post-test, non-equivalent control group design was used. At baseline, 251 and 241 pregnant women and their husbands were enrolled into the intervention and control groups, respectively. The 1-year intervention targeting fathers included mass media, game show-style community events, group and individual counseling at health facilities and home visits. Compared to fathers in the control group, fathers in the intervention group had higher BF knowledge scores and higher attitude scores reflecting more positive attitudes toward early initiation of BF and 6 months EBF. Fathers in the intervention group were also more likely to report active involvement in supporting mothers to practice EBF during antenatal and postpartum periods. The community-based education model should be maintained and considered for conducting further test in wider application to mobilize fathers in supporting EBF.

  16. Developing the continuum of dental education: including dental foundation trainers in the delivery of a community-based clinical teaching programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C D; Ash, P J; Chadwick, B L; Herbert, R A; Cowpe, J G

    2012-11-01

    Despite advances in evidence-based dental school educational programmes, the charge is sometimes made that dental students are 'no longer as good as they used to be'. Recent modifications have meant that dental education is now a 'life-long experience', of which dental school is the initial, albeit very important, component. Contemporary dental students will normally enter dental foundation (DF) training on completion of dental school. As such there may be value in including DF trainers in dental school teaching programmes. The aim of this paper is to report the experiences, feedback and opinions of these DF trainers following their first-hand experience of the community-based clinical teaching programme at Cardiff, and assess if their perspectives of contemporary dental student education changed following this. DF trainers were invited to attend the community-based clinical teaching programme at Cardiff on an observer basis. Twenty-four DF trainers attended, following which evaluation questionnaires were completed. Information sought included opinions and attitudes to the teaching programme, the physical environment in which the teaching programme took place, knowledge and attitudes towards community-based clinical teaching and modifications that DF trainers would make to the teaching programme to further improve the knowledge, skills and attributes of dental school graduates for DF training. Responses were received from 20 DF trainers (response rate = 83%). All 20 respondents felt that the teaching provided within the community-based clinical teaching programme was appropriate, with one respondent noting that it was like 'a day in the life of a dental practice', 'where anything could present'. Sixteen respondents were satisfied with the scope and content of the community-based clinical teaching programme, with a small number recommending inclusion of teaching in relation to inlays/onlays (n = 2), simple orthodontics (n = 1) and splinting (n = 1). Eighteen

  17. Cooperation in environmental protection. The economics of green trade, market-based instruments and community involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettgers, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    . The CDM, including its underlying and flanking mechanisms, is one of many possible market-based instruments (MBis) for environmental protection. Next to offset mechanisms like the CDM, some newer forms of MBis are particularly suited to help developing regions find international partners without having to rely on their government and their country's institutions too much. Employing the background of wetland-based projects, the following proposed instruments for international ecosystem protection partnerships are analyzed: (1) product certification for wetland-based goods, (2) an offset mechanism called wetland mitigation trading and (3) ecosystem certification. A static optimization model analyzes the applicability of these three MBis. Taking the example of agriculture and aquaculture, findings suggest a potential to increase welfare for all three instruments. However, product certification suffers from drawbacks owing to strong interdependencies between the ecosystem services. Wetland mitigation trading and ecosystem certification are first-best choices within this model as long as ecosystem services can be quantified properly and transaction costs are not prohibitive. Such MBis are of course not only considered as theoretical policy measures, but also implemented practically. This dissertation analyzes how participants in common-pool resource experiments cooperate in the presence. Results show that the strength of rules in an experiment can determine the relevance of group conformity for decision making: The most important indicator for conformity in the experiment loses relevance in the presence of strong rules. Other forms of guidance like personal relationships and leadership retain relevance, even in strong rules settings. Furthermore, the experiments show that framing similar to real circumstances changes results in the field. This implies the possibility to tailor experiments to their specific use: If they are meant to give concrete information on the

  18. Cooperation in environmental protection. The economics of green trade, market-based instruments and community involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roettgers, Dirk

    2013-12-18

    . The CDM, including its underlying and flanking mechanisms, is one of many possible market-based instruments (MBis) for environmental protection. Next to offset mechanisms like the CDM, some newer forms of MBis are particularly suited to help developing regions find international partners without having to rely on their government and their country's institutions too much. Employing the background of wetland-based projects, the following proposed instruments for international ecosystem protection partnerships are analyzed: (1) product certification for wetland-based goods, (2) an offset mechanism called wetland mitigation trading and (3) ecosystem certification. A static optimization model analyzes the applicability of these three MBis. Taking the example of agriculture and aquaculture, findings suggest a potential to increase welfare for all three instruments. However, product certification suffers from drawbacks owing to strong interdependencies between the ecosystem services. Wetland mitigation trading and ecosystem certification are first-best choices within this model as long as ecosystem services can be quantified properly and transaction costs are not prohibitive. Such MBis are of course not only considered as theoretical policy measures, but also implemented practically. This dissertation analyzes how participants in common-pool resource experiments cooperate in the presence. Results show that the strength of rules in an experiment can determine the relevance of group conformity for decision making: The most important indicator for conformity in the experiment loses relevance in the presence of strong rules. Other forms of guidance like personal relationships and leadership retain relevance, even in strong rules settings. Furthermore, the experiments show that framing similar to real circumstances changes results in the field. This implies the possibility to tailor experiments to their specific use: If they are meant to give concrete information on the

  19. Replicating MISTERS: an epidemiological criminology framework analysis of a program for criminal justice-involved minority males in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Roberto Hugh; Akers, Timothy A; Bowman, Daniel Richard

    2013-01-01

    The Men in STD Training and Empowerment Research Study (MISTERS) program and epidemiological criminology began their development in Atlanta at about the same time. MISTERS focuses on men recently released from jail to reduce both HIV/STD and crime-related risk factors through a brief educational intervention. This article examines ways in which MISTERS and epidemiological criminology have been used to inform one another in the replication of the MISTERS program in Orange County, Florida. Data from 110 MISTERS participants during the first 10 months of operation are analyzed to examine the overlapping occurrence of health and criminal risk behaviors in the men's lives. This provides a test of core hypotheses from the epidemiological criminology framework. This article also examines application of the epidemiological criminology framework to develop interventions to address health and crime risk factors simultaneously in Criminal Justice-Involved populations in the community.

  20. Different land use intensities in grassland ecosystems drive ecology of microbial communities involved in nitrogen turnover in soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Meyer

    Full Text Available Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions, which have been continuously treated for many years as intensely used meadows (IM, intensely used mown pastures (IP and extensively used pastures (EP, respectively. The obtained data were linked to above ground biodiversity pattern as well as water extractable fractions of nitrogen and carbon in soil. Shifts in land use intensity changed plant community composition from systems dominated by s-strategists in extensive managed grasslands to c-strategist dominated communities in intensive managed grasslands. Along the different types of land use intensity, the availability of inorganic nitrogen regulated the abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers. In contrast, the amount of dissolved organic nitrogen determined the abundance of denitrifiers (nirS and nirK. The high abundance of nifH carrying bacteria at intensive managed sites gave evidence that the amounts of substrates as energy source outcompete the high availability of inorganic nitrogen in these sites. Overall, we revealed that abundance and function of microorganisms involved in key processes of inorganic N cycling (nitrification, denitrification and N fixation might be independently regulated by different abiotic and biotic factors in response to land use intensity.

  1. Different land use intensities in grassland ecosystems drive ecology of microbial communities involved in nitrogen turnover in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Annabel; Focks, Andreas; Radl, Viviane; Keil, Daniel; Welzl, Gerhard; Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes) in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions, which have been continuously treated for many years as intensely used meadows (IM), intensely used mown pastures (IP) and extensively used pastures (EP), respectively. The obtained data were linked to above ground biodiversity pattern as well as water extractable fractions of nitrogen and carbon in soil. Shifts in land use intensity changed plant community composition from systems dominated by s-strategists in extensive managed grasslands to c-strategist dominated communities in intensive managed grasslands. Along the different types of land use intensity, the availability of inorganic nitrogen regulated the abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers. In contrast, the amount of dissolved organic nitrogen determined the abundance of denitrifiers (nirS and nirK). The high abundance of nifH carrying bacteria at intensive managed sites gave evidence that the amounts of substrates as energy source outcompete the high availability of inorganic nitrogen in these sites. Overall, we revealed that abundance and function of microorganisms involved in key processes of inorganic N cycling (nitrification, denitrification and N fixation) might be independently regulated by different abiotic and biotic factors in response to land use intensity.

  2. Bacterial community involved in the nitrogen cycle in a down-flow sponge-based trickling filter treating UASB effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Conell, E F A; Almeida, P G S; Martins, K E L; Araújo, J C; Chernicharo, C A L

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition of a down-flow sponge-based trickling filter treating upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent was investigated by pyrosequencing. Bacterial community composition considerably changed along the reactor and over the operational period. The dominant phyla detected were Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes. The abundance of denitrifiers decreased from the top to the bottom and it was consistent with the organic matter concentration gradients. At lower loadings (organic and nitrogen loading rates), the abundance of anammox bacteria was higher than that of the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the upper portion of the reactor, suggesting that aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation occurred. Nitrification occurred in all the compartments, while anammox bacteria prominently appeared even in the presence of high organic carbon to ammonia ratios (around 1.0-2.0 gCOD gN(-1)). The results suggest that denitrifiers, nitrifiers, and anammox bacteria coexisted in the reactor; thus, different metabolic pathways were involved in ammonium removal in the post-UASB reactor sponge-based.

  3. Child abuse victims' involvement in community agency treatment: service correlates, short-term outcomes, and relationship to reabuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, David J; Baumann, Barbara L; Caldwell, Nicola

    2003-11-01

    This study examines the correlates and impacts of child treatment in 68 cases referred to community agency providers after reports of child physical or sexual abuse. Standardized clinical assessments were conducted with child victims and their caregivers at intake and short-term follow-up (FUP-1), supplemented by official record reviews at a long-term follow-up (FUP-2). Child treatment was received by 19% and 50% of the children at FUP-1 and FUP-2, respectively. There were few correlates of initial child treatment involvement (sexual abuse or parent and family services received concurrently). Initial child treatment was not associated with significant gains in child outcomes. Child improvement in abuse-related outcomes was associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and lower adjustment at intake. Initial child treatment was unrelated to reabuse or out-of-home placement by FUP-2. Additional studies are needed to more fully evaluate the process and outcome of referral of child abuse victims to community-based services.

  4. Deciphering the mechanisms involved in Portulaca oleracea (C4) response to drought: metabolic changes including crassulacean acid-like metabolism induction and reversal upon re-watering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Rodrigo Matías; Andreo, Carlos Santiago; Lara, María Valeria

    2014-11-01

    Portulaca oleracea is a C(4) plant; however, under drought it can change its carbon fixation metabolism into a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)-like one. While the C(3) -CAM shift is well known, the C(4) -CAM transition has only been described in Portulaca. Here, a CAM-like metabolism was induced in P. oleracea by drought and then reversed by re-watering. Physiological and biochemical approaches were undertaken to evaluate the drought and recovery responses. In CAM-like plants, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were transitory affected and non-radiative energy dissipation mechanisms were induced. Induction of flavonoids, betalains and antioxidant machinery may be involved in photosynthetic machinery protection. Metabolic analysis highlights a clear metabolic shift, when a CAM-like metabolism is induced and then reversed. Increases in nitrogenous compounds like free amino acids and urea, and of pinitol could contribute to withstand drought. Reciprocal variations in arginase and urease in drought-stressed and in re-watered plants suggest urea synthesis is strictly regulated. Recovery of C(4) metabolism was accounted by CO(2) assimilation pattern and malate levels. Increases in glycerol and in polyamines would be of importance of re-watered plants. Collectively, in P. oleracea multiple strategies, from induction of several metabolites to the transitory development of a CAM-like metabolism, participate to enhance its adaptation to drought. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Arsenic Metabolites, Including N-Acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic Acid, in Chicken Litter from a Roxarsone-Feeding Study Involving 1600 Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zonglin; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Liu, Qingqing; Huang, Rongfu; Hu, Bin; Kachanoski, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Le, X Chris

    2016-07-05

    The poultry industry has used organoarsenicals, such as 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, ROX), to prevent disease and to promote growth. Although previous studies have analyzed arsenic species in chicken litter after composting or after application to agricultural lands, it is not clear what arsenic species were excreted by chickens before biotransformation of arsenic species during composting. We describe here the identification and quantitation of arsenic species in chicken litter repeatedly collected on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 of a Roxarsone-feeding study involving 1600 chickens of two strains. High performance liquid chromatography separation with simultaneous detection by both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry provided complementary information necessary for the identification and quantitation of arsenic species. A new metabolite, N-acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic acid (N-AHAA), was identified, and it accounted for 3-12% of total arsenic. Speciation analyses of litter samples collected from ROX-fed chickens on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 showed the presence of N-AHAA, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-AHPAA), inorganic arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), and ROX. 3-AHPAA accounted for 3-19% of the total arsenic. Inorganic arsenicals (the sum of As(III) and As(V)) comprised 2-6% (mean 3.5%) of total arsenic. Our results on the detection of inorganic arsenicals, methylarsenicals, 3-AHPAA, and N-AHAA in the chicken litter support recent findings that ROX is actually metabolized by the chicken or its gut microbiome. The presence of the toxic metabolites in chicken litter is environmentally relevant as chicken litter is commonly used as fertilizer.

  6. Impact of School-Related, Community-Based, and Parental-Involvement Activities on Achievement of At-Risk Youth in the High School Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Barbara N.; Helton, Carol; Whitley, Marilyn E.

    If teenagers do not find support at school, home, or in the community, then they will find it with peers, gangs, or other means. Subsequently, the importance of extra-curricular involvement for at-risk youth is reported in this paper; to what extent this involvement had potential to influence performance in academics is also examined. Involvement…

  7. Campaign 9 of the K2 Mission: Observational Parameters, Scientific Drivers, and Community Involvement for a Simultaneous Space- and Ground-based Microlensing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Calen B.; Poleski, Radoslaw; Penny, Matthew; Street, Rachel A.; Bennett, David P.; Hogg, David W.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Zhu, W.; Barclay, T.; Barentsen, G.; hide

    2016-01-01

    K2's Campaign 9 (K2C9) will conduct a approximately 3.7 sq. deg survey toward the Galactic bulge from 2016 April 22 through July 2 that will leverage the spatial separation between K2 and the Earth to facilitate measurement of the microlens parallax Pi(sub E) for approximately greater than 170 microlensing events. These will include several that are planetary in nature as well as many short-timescale microlensing events, which are potentially indicative of free-floating planets (FFPs). These satellite parallax measurements will in turn allow for the direct measurement of the masses of and distances to the lensing systems. In this article we provide an overview of the K2C9 space- and ground-based microlensing survey. Specifically, we detail the demographic questions that can be addressed by this program, including the frequency of FFPs and the Galactic distribution of exoplanets, the observational parameters of K2C9, and the array of resources dedicated to concurrent observations. Finally, we outline the avenues through which the larger community can become involved, and generally encourage participation in K2C9, which constitutes an important pathfinding mission and community exercise in anticipation of WFIRST.

  8. High-throughput sequencing reveals microbial communities in drinking water treatment sludge from six geographically distributed plants, including potentially toxic cyanobacteria and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hangzhou; Pei, Haiyan; Jin, Yan; Ma, Chunxia; Wang, Yuting; Sun, Jiongming; Li, Hongmin

    2018-04-10

    The microbial community structures of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) generated for raw water (RW) from different locations and with different source types - including river water, lake water and reservoir water -were investigated using high-throughput sequencing. Because the unit operations in the six DWTPs were similar, community composition in fresh sludge may be determined by microbial community in the corresponding RW. Although Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes were the dominant phyla among the six DWTS samples, no single phylum exhibited similar abundance across all the samples, owing to differences in total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, Al, Fe, and chloride in RW. Three genera of potentially toxic cyanobacteria (Planktothrix, Microcystis and Cylindrospermopsis), and four potential pathogens (Escherichia coli, Bacteroides ovatus, Prevotella copri and Rickettsia) were found in sludge samples. Because proliferation of potentially toxic cyanobacteria and Rickettsia in RW was mainly affected by nutrients, while growth of Escherichia coli, Bacteroides ovatus and Prevotella copri in RW may be influenced by Fe, control of nutrients and Fe in RW is essential to decrease toxic cyanobacteria and pathogens in DWTS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Analysis on funds application of community based organizations involved in HIV/AIDS response and government financial investment in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G; Zhu, Y X; Wang, P; Liu, P; Li, J F; Sha, S; Yang, W Z; Li, H

    2017-03-06

    Objective: To understand the government financial investments to community based organizations (CBO) involved in HIV/AIDS Control and Prevention of China and its influencing factors. Methods: Questionnaire of the situation of CBO involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention were designed, and filled by the staff of Provincial Health Administrative Departments of 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities). The research focused on the fields of CBO involved in HIV/AIDS response in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities), including intervention on HIV/AIDS high risk population (female sex worker (FSW), man who sex with man (MSM), drug user (DU) and case management and care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH)). 29 valid questionnaires were collecting, with Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions not filled. Questionnaire included financial supports from local governments, transfer payment from central government for CBO involved in HIV/AIDS response in 2014, and unit cost for CBO involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention. Multivariate analysis was conducted on the project application and financial investment of community based organizations involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention in 2014. Results: The total amount of CBO to apply for participation in AIDS prevention and control was 64 482 828 Yuan in 2014. The actual total amount of investment was 50 616 367 Yuan, The investment came from the central government funding, the provincial level government funding, the prefecture and county level government funding investment and other sources of funding. 22 of 28 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) received the funds from the central government finance, and median of investment funds 500 000 Yuan. 15 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) gained the funds from the provincial government finance, and median of investment funds 350 000 Yuan. 12 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) got the funds

  10. Partnerships and Opportunity: A Canadian Success Story Community engagement on uranium mining in northern Saskatchewan. Informing and Involving Stakeholders in the Context of the Finnish Decision-making Process. Stakeholder involvement and public debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Sharonne; Vanhatalo, Hanna; Thome-Jassaud, Pierre-Franck

    2017-01-01

    Session 5 featured case studies of stakeholder involvement in decisions related to new nuclear power and fuel cycle facilities. The chair highlighted that more than 30 countries either have nuclear power facilities or are considering developing them, and 15 countries are currently building new reactors. The topic of new nuclear facilities is quite broad, and the session covered three case studies that were quite different. Ms Katz of Natural Resources Canada Limited outlined stakeholder engagement commitments by a number of actors in Canada, including the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. She provided an overview on Cameco's behalf of their experience in engaging the local stakeholders of uranium mining activities. Ms Vanhatalo reviewed Fennovoima's activities related to the site selection and move towards construction of a new nuclear reactor. Mr Thome-Jassaud presented the experience of electricite de France on two proposed reactor projects with France's formalised public debate process. A central theme of the presentations was the importance of establishing and maintaining a good reputation, especially in the local community. Ms Katz relayed a story of Cameco inviting community leaders, near an Australian property that Cameco had acquired to visit a mining community in Saskatchewan. Instead of tightly controlling the interaction, Cameco left the Australian guests to stay with local families for several days to ask questions and hear directly from members of the Canadian community without any interference. This required confidence on the part of the company that it had built a strong and positive relationship with the Canadian host community. Ms Vanhatalo described how the success in siting nuclear power plant Hanhikivi 1 near Pyhaejoki was attributable not only to Fennovoima's commitment to engage the community, but also to the reputation that the company Teollisuuden Voima Oy had built with its Olkiluoto nuclear power plant and the

  11. A Prospective Cohort Study on the Effect of a Balance Training Program, Including Calf Muscle Strengthening, in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Carol A; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare

    2016-01-01

    Falls are the number 1 cause of injury, fractures, and death among the older population. In fact, one-third of adults older than 60 years will experience 1 or more falls annually. Factors including inactivity and decreased mobility are associated with overall declines in strength, balance, and functional mobility in older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a balance training program, including calf muscle strengthening, in community-dwelling older adults and to evaluate how calf muscle strength correlates with risk factors for falls. Community-dwelling older adults from a local senior center were invited to participate in a 5-week (10 sessions), 1-on-1, balance training program, which included calf muscle strengthening. All the participants were evaluated before and after the intervention. The outcome measures were static balance, unilateral heel-rise test, Timed Up and Go test (TUG), the 30-second Chair Stand Test (30-sCST), and the Activity Balance Confidence Scale. Twenty-eight participants (6 males and 22 females) mean (standard deviation) age of 78 years were included in the study and completed the baseline evaluation. Eight participants did not complete the study. Static balance with eyes closed, heel rise, TUG, 30-sCST, and the Activity Balance Confidence Scale improved significantly (P calf muscle strengthening performed twice a week for 5 weeks resulted in significant improvements in calf muscle strength, functional performance and balance, as well as a significant improvement in balance confidence. The results from this study identify the importance unilateral calf muscle strength has to falls risk among older adults.

  12. Audit of Trichomonas vaginalis test requesting by community referrers after a change from culture to molecular testing, including a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissessor, Liselle; Wilson, Janet; McAuliffe, Gary; Upton, Arlo

    2017-06-16

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) prevalence varies among different communities and peoples. The availability of robust molecular platforms for the detection of TV has advanced diagnosis; however, molecular tests are more costly than phenotypic methodologies, and testing all urogenital samples is costly. We recently replaced culture methods with the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid amplification test on specific request and as reflex testing by the laboratory, and have audited this change. Data were collected from August 2015 (microbroth culture and microscopy) and August 2016 (Aptima TV assay) including referrer, testing volumes, results and test cost estimates. In August 2015, 10,299 vaginal swabs, and in August 2016, 2,189 specimens (urogenital swabs and urines), were tested. The positivity rate went from 0.9% to 5.3%, and overall more TV infections were detected in 2016. The number needed to test and cost for one positive TV result respectively was 111 and $902.55 in 2015, and 19 and $368.92 in 2016. Request volumes and positivity rates differed among referrers. The methodology change was associated with higher overall detection of TV, and reductions in the numbers needed to test/cost for one TV diagnosis. Our audit suggests that there is room for improvement with TV test requesting in our community.

  13. Evaluating the microbial community and gene regulation involved in crystallization kinetics of ZnS formation in reduced environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Nicholas; Chaganti, Subba Rao; Weisener, Christopher G.

    2018-01-01

    In anoxic environments, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may precipitate sparingly-soluble, fine-grained sulfides as by-products of dissimilatory sulfate reduction. This bio-mechanism lends importance to acid rock drainage (ARD) remediation efforts for its ability to immobilize harmful metals from contaminant pathways, including Zn. However, SRB often coexist alongside multiple bacterial guilds in these environments, and may be sustained or hindered by the activities and metabolic by-products of their cohorts, driven by the commonly available substrates. Thus, the effectiveness of onset sulfate reduction and resultant metal-sulfide generation in ARD treatment can be enhanced by unravelling the complexities associated with these interactions. This research used material sourced from a passive bioreactor system located at the Stockton Coal Mine, New Zealand to investigate SRB activity and associated community function. RNA sequencing showed spore-forming Desulfitobacterium and Desulfotomaculum as the dominant SRB enriched from the reduced zone of the bioreactor. Metatranscriptomic analysis revealed acetogenic bacteria as syntrophic partners in substrate availability and Pseudomonas as metal-resistant community members. ZnS precipitates were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in short-term batch enrichments as well as long-term raw bioreactor material, with observed differences in mineral arrangement indicative of different nucleation scenarios. Syntrophy, metal response mechanisms, and the capacity for sporulation were observed as key microbial functions in mine waste reclamation settings. Here, Zn and S mass balance calculations coupled with RNA sequence data and microscopy illuminated favourable physicochemical and biological conditions for early metal sulfide precipitation in passive treatment systems for ARD and highlight the advantages of linking both lab and field-scale studies.

  14. Involving Research Stakeholders in Developing Policy on Sharing Public Health Research Data in Kenya: Views on Fair Process for Informed Consent, Access Oversight, and Community Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki

    2015-07-01

    Increased global sharing of public health research data has potential to advance scientific progress but may present challenges to the interests of research stakeholders, particularly in low-to-middle income countries. Policies for data sharing should be responsive to public views, but there is little evidence of the systematic study of these from low-income countries. This qualitative study explored views on fair data-sharing processes among 60 stakeholders in Kenya with varying research experience, using a deliberative approach. Stakeholders' attitudes were informed by perceptions of benefit and concerns for research data sharing, including risks of stigmatization, loss of privacy, and undermining scientific careers and validity, reported in detail elsewhere. In this article, we discuss institutional trust-building processes seen as central to perceptions of fairness in sharing research data in this setting, including forms of community involvement, individual prior awareness and agreement to data sharing, independence and accountability of governance mechanisms, and operating under a national framework. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Improve Public Relations and Community Involvement. Module CG B-3 of Category B--Supporting. Competency-Based Career Guidance Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysbers, Norman C.; And Others

    This module is intended to help guidance personnel in a variety of educational and agency settings increase their skills in planning, implementing, and evaluating community involvement and public relations activities as a part of an overall career guidance program. The module is one of a series of competency-based guidance program training…

  16. The involvement of community leaders in healthcare, the environment and sanitation in áreas of social vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Ester Feche Guimarães de Arruda; Malheiros, Tadeu Fabrício; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-03-01

    The main purpose of this article is to identify access to: social assistance inclusion programs; assistance from health agents; public water supply services; and water saving practices, in areas of irregular occupation in Brazil. A stratified random sampling technique by clusters was adopted with a simple sampling strategy. In the universe of 14,079 households, 68 community leaders were identified, representing 6,800 households on average, in a normalized distribution (mean zero, standard deviation 1), deemed to include situations covering 96% of the cases with a margin of error of + or - 1% of the average. The theoretical approach proposes a reflection and verification through questionnaires on the mechanisms of exclusion. Poverty perpetuates the vicious circle of inequality, risks to health and the environment, and it is necessary that these should be considered in the policies and procedures for urban expansion. As a conclusion, various challenges were identified for serving areas of social-environmental vulnerability - the needs to: improve the low quality of health and water services in subnormal agglomerations; modify the behavior of the population accessing the networks in a clandestine manner; and to put inclusive governance mechanisms in place.

  17. "I Thought People Would Be Mean and Shout." Introducing the Hobbema Community Cadet Corps: A Response to Youth Gang Involvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekul, Jana; Sanderson, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Hobbema, Alberta, Canada is a community comprised of four First Nations. As with many of Canada's Aboriginal communities, Hobbema's population is young. High rates of socio-economic disadvantage, violence, family dysfunction, and substance abuse are linked to colonization, residential school policies, and discrimination. Crime rates, including…

  18. A three-scale analysis of bacterial communities involved in rocks colonization and soil formation in high mountain environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Alfonso; Ciccazzo, Sonia; Borruso, Luigimaria; Zerbe, Stefan; Daffonchio, Daniele; Brusetti, Lorenzo

    2013-10-01

    Alpha and beta diversities of the bacterial communities growing on rock surfaces, proto-soils, riparian sediments, lichen thalli, and water springs biofilms in a glacier foreland were studied. We used three molecular based techniques to allow a deeper investigation at different taxonomic resolutions: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, length heterogeneity-PCR, and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Bacterial communities were mainly composed of Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria with distinct variations among sites. Proteobacteria were more represented in sediments, biofilms, and lichens; Acidobacteria were mostly found in proto-soils; and Cyanobacteria on rocks. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were mainly found in biofilms. UniFrac P values confirmed a significant difference among different matrices. Significant differences (P rocks which shared a more similar community structure, while at deep taxonomic resolution two distinct bacterial communities between lichens and rocks were found.

  19. Community empowerment and involvement of female sex workers in targeted sexual and reproductive health interventions in Africa: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Moore (Laurence); M. Chersich (Matthew); R. Steen (Richard); S. Reza-Paul (Sushena); A. Dhana (Ashar); B. Vuylsteke (Bea); Y. Lafort (Yves); F. Scorgie (Fiona)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Female sex workers (FSWs) experience high levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) morbidity, violence and discrimination. Successful SRH interventions for FSWs in India and elsewhere have long prioritised community mobilisation and structural interventions, yet little

  20. A realist synthesis of randomised control trials involving use of community health workers for delivering child health interventions in low and middle income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Poz Mario

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key constraint to saturating coverage of interventions for reducing the burden of childhood illnesses in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC is the lack of human resources. Community health workers (CHW are potentially important actors in bridging this gap. Evidence exists on effectiveness of CHW in management of some childhood illnesses (IMCI. However, we need to know how and when this comes to be. We examine evidence from randomized control trials (RCT on CHW interventions in IMCI in LMIC from a realist perspective with the aim to see if they can yield insight into the working of the interventions, when examined from a different perspective. Methods The realist approach involves educing the mechanisms through which an intervention produced an outcome in a particular context. 'Mechanisms' are reactions, triggered by the interaction of the intervention and a certain context, which lead to change. These are often only implicit and are actually hypothesized by the reviewer. This review is limited to unravelling these from the RCTs; it is thus a hypothesis generating exercise. Results Interventions to improve CHW performance included 'Skills based training of CHW', 'Supervision and referral support from public health services', 'Positioning of CHW in the community'. When interventions were applied in context of CHW programs embedded in local health services, with beneficiaries who valued services and had unmet needs, the interventions worked if following mechanisms were triggered: anticipation of being valued by the community; perception of improvement in social status; sense of relatedness with beneficiaries and public services; increase in self esteem; sense of self efficacy and enactive mastery of tasks; sense of credibility, legitimacy and assurance that there was a system for back-up support. Studies also showed that if context differed, even with similar interventions, negative mechanisms could be triggered

  1. Community as Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Jim; Chow, Patricia; Schechter, Sandra R.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a project involving teachers, parents, and university researchers in collaborations to support multilingual children's development and use of language. Strategies for fostering an inclusive climate included building on the interests and resources of the local community, involving community members in curriculum development,…

  2. A history of the working group to address Los Alamos community health concerns. A case study of community involvement and risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry Otway; Jon Johnson

    2000-01-01

    In May 1991, at a Department of Energy (DOE) public hearing at Los Alamos, New Mexico, a local artist claimed there had been a recent brain tumor cluster in a small Los Alamos neighborhood. He suggested the cause was radiation from past operations of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Data from the Laboratory's extensive environmental monitoring program gave no reason to believe this charge to be true but also could not prove it false. These allegations, reported in the local and regional media, alarmed the community and revealed an unsuspected lack of trust in the Laboratory. Having no immediate and definitive response, the Laboratory offered to collaborate with the community to address this concern. The Los Alamos community accepted this offer and a joint Community-Laboratory Working Group met for the first time 29 days later. The working group set as its primary goal the search for possible carcinogens in the local environment. Meanwhile, the DOE announced its intention to fund the New Mexico Department of Health to perform a separate and independent epidemiological study of all Los Alamos cancer rates. In early 1994, after commissioning 17 environmental studies and meeting 34 times, the working group decided that the public health concerns had been resolved to the satisfaction of the community and voted to disband. This paper tells the story of the artist and the working group, and how the media covered their story. It summarizes the environmental studies directed by the working group and briefly reviews the main findings of the epidemiology study. An epilogue records the present-day recollections of some of the key players in this environmental drama

  3. A history of the working group to address Los Alamos community health concerns - A case study of community involvement and risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Otway; Jon Johnson

    2000-01-01

    In May 1991, at a Department of Energy (DOE) public hearing at Los Alamos, New Mexico, a local artist claimed there had been a recent brain tumor cluster in a small Los Alamos neighborhood. He suggested the cause was radiation from past operations of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Data from the Laboratory's extensive environmental monitoring program gave no reason to believe this charge to be true but also could not prove it false. These allegations, reported in the local and regional media, alarmed the community and revealed an unsuspected lack of trust in the Laboratory. Having no immediate and definitive response, the Laboratory offered to collaborate with the community to address this concern. The Los Alamos community accepted this offer and a joint Community-Laboratory Working Group met for the first time 29 days later. The working group set as its primary goal the search for possible carcinogens in the local environment. Meanwhile, the DOE announced its intention to fund the New Mexico Department of Health to perform a separate and independent epidemiological study of all Los Alamos cancer rates. In early 1994, after commissioning 17 environmental studies and meeting 34 times, the working group decided that the public health concerns had been resolved to the satisfaction of the community and voted to disband. This paper tells the story of the artist and the working group, and how the media covered their story. It summarizes the environmental studies directed by the working group and briefly reviews the main findings of the epidemiology study. An epilogue records the present-day recollections of some of the key players in this environmental drama.

  4. Conewago Stream Teams - including youth in watershed restoration creates local watershed connections, prompts community service, and increases water literacy in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Fetter; Sanford Smith; Matt Royer

    2016-01-01

    Youth in Pennsylvania’s Dauphin, Lebanon, and Lancaster Counties were invited to be part of a unique opportunity: a chance to learn, hands-on, about the water in their own community and how their daily lives impact that water. This is the mission of the 4-H Stream Teams program, which was piloted within the Conewago Creek Watershed and surrounding communities in 2010-...

  5. The role of community pharmacists in patient counseling and health education: a survey of their knowledge and level of involvement in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Haile, Kaleab Taye; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Tegegn, Henok Getachew; Ayele, Asnakew Achaw

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the knowledge and level of involvement of community pharmacists in the provision of patient counseling and health education services for patients with DM and perceived barriers that limit the delivery of such services. A self-administered questionnaire based-survey was undertaken from January to March, 2017 with 412 pharmacists working in community pharmacies in six cities of Amhara regional state of Ethiopia: Debre Markos, Gondar, Dessie, Bahir Dar, Woldya, and Debre Birhan. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Student's t -test were employed to examine different variables. Community pharmacists were found to have poor knowledge and low level of involvement, with an overall mean score of 11.54 and 2.06, respectively. A significant number of community pharmacists never practiced promoting smoking cessation (45.2%), counseling on good foot care techniques (33.7%), and counseling on the potential impact of over-the-counter and herbal drugs on DM management (34%). On the other hand, describing the right time to administer antidiabetic medications (46%) and counseling on suitable administration, handling, and storage of insulin (33.7%) were done more frequently. The main reported barriers to the delivery of these services were lack of knowledge or clinical skills, lack of access to additional training programs, and lack of personnel or resources. The present study revealed a poor knowledge and low level of involvement in counseling and health education services for patients with DM. Lack of knowledge or clinical skills was the most commonly reported barrier for providing such services. In order to better integrate community pharmacies into future public health programs and optimize the contribution of pharmacists, interventions should focus on overcoming the identified barriers.

  6. "We Told Them That We Are Both Really Involved Parents": Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents' Engagement in School Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Black, Kaitlin A.; Manley, Melissa H.; Frost, Reihonna

    2017-01-01

    The current qualitative study examines how parents' sexual orientation, gender, and other social locations intersect to shape their experiences with and connection to their children's school communities. We applied thematic analysis to interview data from 90 adoptive parents in 45 couples (15 lesbian, 15 gay, 15 heterosexual) in the USA, whose…

  7. Different land use intensities in grassland ecosystems drive ecology of microbial communities involved in nitrogen turnover in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, A.; Focks, A.; Radl, V.; Keil, D.; Welzl, G.; Schoning, I.; Boch, S.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes) in response

  8. An Examination of Dependence Power, Father Involvement, and Judgments about Violence in an At-Risk Community Sample of Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samp, Jennifer A.; Abbott, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Individuals sometimes remain in dysfunctional, and even violent, relationships due to a perceived dependence on a partner. We examined the influence of dependence power judgments (defined by a combined assessment of mother commitment, perceived father commitment, and perceived father alternatives) in a community sample of mothers potentially bound…

  9. Reconciling Mixed Methods Approaches with a Community Narrative Model for Educational Research Involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakich, Eva; Watt, Tony; Hooley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Researching the education of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australian schools is an exceedingly difficult and uncompromising task. Working respectfully with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities must remain top priority with any research project regarding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander viewpoints of…

  10. The Influence of Local Conditions on Social Service Partnerships, Parent Involvement, and Community Engagement in Neighborhood Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Goldring, Ellen; Smrekar, Claire

    2010-01-01

    By using Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software to combine health and crime data with data from 20 schools in one Southeastern district, the study explores whether and how neighborhood conditions affect school-community arrangements. Findings show that the nature of the relationships and the strategies principals and teachers use to…

  11. Campus Community Involvement in an Experimental Food Research Project Increases Students' Motivation and Improves Perceived Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, K.; Bianco-Simeral, S.

    2009-01-01

    Although the effects of pedagogical strategies using collaborative learning on students' perceived learning outcomes have been studied, little has been examined about possible benefits and challenges in collaborating with the campus community in a food science research project conducted by nutrition majors. We examined the effects of involving…

  12. Community development planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The focus of this paper will be methods of local community involvement in the community development planning efforts which will be required at the recommended sites. Community development planning will include capital improvement plans, housing plans, zoning changes, business development plans and other community service and fiscal plans required to meet the projected needs of new residents as a result of the repository construction and operation. This paper will present, (1) the need for community planning, (2) methods of responding to community planning needs, (3) current community planning issues to be addressed. 2 references, 1 figure

  13. [Study on actual situation of community industrial physicians for small and medium-sized enterprises and their involvement in community occupational health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Hayato; Sone, Tomofumi; Takemura, Shinji

    2005-11-01

    The subjects of this study were 405 Japan Medical Association authorized industrial physicians, Community Industrial Physicians (CIPs), who belonged to the Shinjuku, Nakano, and Suginami Words' regional medical associations in the jurisdiction of the Shinjuku Labor Standards Inspection Office. Between November and December, 2003, the CIPs were mailed a questionnaire requesting information about their affiliations and activities, and as indicators of their willingness to participate in Community Occupational Health Services, they were asked about the pros and cons of having their names published as Industrial Physicians, and/or practitioners for Regional Occupational Health Centers, or Regular Health Checks. 152 replies were received, effective response rate of 37.5%, and among these 94 replies were from CIPs who work as part-time industrial physician. Overall, CIPs attend Community Occupational Health Services (COHS) voluntarily, and wish to participate in them more in the future. CIPs who work as part-time industrial physician have knowledge of working safety and hygiene and are providing advice and guidance on working conditions and environments. Also, they are well informed about support services for small and medium-sized enterprises which is thought to be connected with their willingness to participate in COHS. Furthermore, it is important that part-time CIPs activities are appreciated by their respective place of work.

  14. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution (including PM1) and metabolic syndrome: The 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Yi; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Li, Shanshan; Fan, Shujun; Chen, Gongbo; Syberg, Kevin M; Xian, Hong; Wang, Si-Quan; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Yang, Mo; Liu, Kang-Kang; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Hu, Li-Wen; Guo, Yuming; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2018-07-01

    Little evidence exists about the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to determine the association between long-term ambient air pollution and MetS in China. A total of 15,477 adults who participated in the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS) in 2009 were evaluated. MetS was defined based on the recommendation by the Joint Interim Societies. Exposure to air pollutants was assessed using data from monitoring stations and a spatial statistical model (including particles with diameters ≤ 1.0 µm (PM 1 ), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ), and ≤ 10 µm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 )). Two-level logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the associations between air pollutants and MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 30.37%. The adjusted odds ratio of MetS per 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 1 , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 were 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00-1.24), 1.09 (95% CI = 1.00-1.18), 1.13 (95% CI = 1.08-1.19), 1.10 (95% CI = 1.02-1.18), 1.33 (95% CI = 1.12-1.57), and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.01-1.18), respectively. Stratified analyses indicated that the above associations were stronger in participants with the demographic variables of males, < 50 years of age, and higher income, as well as with the behavioral characteristics of smoking, drinking, and consuming sugar-sweetened soft drinks frequently. This study indicates that long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants may increase the risk of MetS, especially among males, the young to middle aged, those of low income, and those with unhealthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in underserved areas: a realist synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vareilles, Ga?lle; Pommier, Jeanine; Marchal, Bruno; Kane, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    Background The recruitment of community health volunteers (CHVs) to support the delivery of health programmes is an established approach in underserved areas and in particular where there are health inequalities due to the scarcity of trained human resources. However, there is a dearth of evidence about what works to improve CHVs? performance. This review aimed to synthesise existing literature to explain why, how and under which circumstances intervention approaches to improve the performanc...

  16. Different land use intensities in grassland ecosystems drive ecology of microbial communities involved in nitrogen turnover in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, A.; Focks, A.; Radl, V.; Keil, D.; Welzl, G.; Schoning, I.; Boch, S.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes) in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions,...

  17. Different Land Use Intensities in Grassland Ecosystems Drive Ecology of Microbial Communities Involved in Nitrogen Turnover in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Annabel; Focks, Andreas; Radl, Viviane; Keil, Daniel; Welzl, Gerhard; Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes) in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions,...

  18. Soil factors involved in the diversity and structure of soil bacterial communities in commercial organic olive orchards in Southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, B B; Montes-Borrego, M; Aranda, S; Soriano, M A; Gómez, J A; Navas-Cortés, J A

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, there is a tendency in olive production systems to reduce tillage or keep a vegetative cover to reduce soil erosion and degradation. However, there is scarce information on the effects of different soil management systems (SMS) in soil bacterial community composition of olive groves. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of soil type and different SMS implemented to control weeds in the structure and diversity of bacterial communities of 58 soils in the two geographic areas that best represent the organic olive production systems in Spain. Bacterial community composition assessed by frequency and intensity of occurrence of terminal restriction profiles (TRFs) derived from terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of amplified 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid were strongly correlated with soil type/field site (Eutric/Calcaric) that differed mainly in soil particle size distribution and soil pH, followed by a strong effect of SMS, in that order. Canonical discriminant (CD) analysis of TRFs properly classified all of the olive orchard soils as belonging to their respective soil type or SMS. Furthermore, only a small set of TRFs were enough to clearly and significantly differentiate soil samples according to soil type or SMS. Those specific TRFs could be used as bioindicators to assess the effect of changes in SMS aimed to enhance soil quality in olive production systems. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Do biofilm communities respond to the chemical signatures of fracking? A test involving streams in North-central Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wilson H; Douglas, Marlis R; Lewis, Jeffrey A; Stuecker, Tara N; Carbonero, Franck G; Austin, Bradley J; Evans-White, Michelle A; Entrekin, Sally A; Douglas, Michael E

    2017-02-03

    Unconventional natural gas (UNG) extraction (fracking) is ongoing in 29 North American shale basins (20 states), with ~6000 wells found within the Fayetteville shale (north-central Arkansas). If the chemical signature of fracking is detectable in streams, it can be employed to bookmark potential impacts. We evaluated benthic biofilm community composition as a proxy for stream chemistry so as to segregate anthropogenic signatures in eight Arkansas River catchments. In doing so, we tested the hypothesis that fracking characteristics in study streams are statistically distinguishable from those produced by agriculture or urbanization. Four tributary catchments had UNG-wells significantly more dense and near to our sampling sites and were grouped as 'potentially-impacted catchment zones' (PICZ). Four others were characterized by significantly larger forested area with greater slope and elevation but reduced pasture, and were classified as 'minimally-impacted' (MICZ). Overall, 46 bacterial phyla/141 classes were identified, with 24 phyla (52%) and 54 classes (38%) across all samples. PICZ-sites were ecologically more variable than MICZ-sites, with significantly greater nutrient levels (total nitrogen, total phosphorous), and elevated Cyanobacteria as bioindicators that tracked these conditions. PICZ-sites also exhibited elevated conductance (a correlate of increased ion concentration) and depressed salt-intolerant Spartobacteria, suggesting the presence of brine as a fracking effect. Biofilm communities at PICZ-sites were significantly less variable than those at MICZ-sites. Study streams differed by Group according to morphology, land use, and water chemistry but not in biofilm community structure. Those at PICZ-sites covaried according to anthropogenic impact, and were qualitatively similar to communities found at sites disturbed by fracking. The hypothesis that fracking signatures in study streams are distinguishable from those produced by other anthropogenic effects

  20. Coproduction without Experts: A Study of People Involved in Community Health and Well-Being Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, Alison; Slade, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Coproduction (equal professional-public involvement in service delivery) has been widely promoted as a means of revolutionising health and social care. Service providers/professionals are tasked with working more in partnership with service users/clients, recognising their experiences and knowledge as critical to the success of the interaction.…

  1. Public Community Support and Involvement around Vandellos ITER Site (EISS-Vandellos 2002/2003). Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, R.; Prades, A.; Riba, D.; Doval, E.; Munoz, J.; Garay, A.; Viladrich, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Report summarizes a year and a half research on the social perception and expectations regarding the possible sitting of ITER in Vandellos carried out in the framework of the European ITER Site Studies (EISS). The aims were to examine the needs and preferences in terms of public information and communication; to explore the risks and benefits the community links to the Centre; and to analyse the local expectations concerning public participation. A methodological strategy integrating qualitative methodologies [semi structured interviews to key informants at the local level, and to key research groups in the surrounding area, together with a focus group with local opinion leaders], and quantitative techniques [Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) applied to a sample of 400 participants] was implemented. The local community has lived with complex and high risk facilities for decades, thus local people has a strong familiarity with technological and energy production systems, but no experience with large research installations. In such a context the global opinion towards the possibility of hosting ITER was clearly favourable, and linked to a strong demand in terms of public information and participation. (Author) 45 refs

  2. Microbial Biotreatment of Actual Textile Wastewater in a Continuous Sequential Rice Husk Biofilter and the Microbial Community Involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Markus V.; Pinhassi, Jarone; Welander, Ulrika

    2017-01-01

    Textile dying processes often pollute wastewater with recalcitrant azo and anthraquinone dyes. Yet, there is little development of effective and affordable degradation systems for textile wastewater applicable in countries where water technologies remain poor. We determined biodegradation of actual textile wastewater in biofilters containing rice husks by spectrophotometry and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The indigenous microflora from the rice husks consistently performed >90% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of 67 h. Analysis of microbial community composition of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene fragments in the biofilters revealed a bacterial consortium known to carry azoreductase genes, such as Dysgonomonas, and Pseudomonas and the presence of fungal phylotypes such as Gibberella and Fusarium. Our findings emphasize that rice husk biofilters support a microbial community of both bacteria and fungi with key features for biodegradation of actual textile wastewater. These results suggest that microbial processes can substantially contribute to efficient and reliable degradation of actual textile wastewater. Thus, development of biodegradation systems holds promise for application of affordable wastewater treatment in polluted environments. PMID:28114377

  3. Microbial Biotreatment of Actual Textile Wastewater in a Continuous Sequential Rice Husk Biofilter and the Microbial Community Involved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörgen Forss

    Full Text Available Textile dying processes often pollute wastewater with recalcitrant azo and anthraquinone dyes. Yet, there is little development of effective and affordable degradation systems for textile wastewater applicable in countries where water technologies remain poor. We determined biodegradation of actual textile wastewater in biofilters containing rice husks by spectrophotometry and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The indigenous microflora from the rice husks consistently performed >90% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of 67 h. Analysis of microbial community composition of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene fragments in the biofilters revealed a bacterial consortium known to carry azoreductase genes, such as Dysgonomonas, and Pseudomonas and the presence of fungal phylotypes such as Gibberella and Fusarium. Our findings emphasize that rice husk biofilters support a microbial community of both bacteria and fungi with key features for biodegradation of actual textile wastewater. These results suggest that microbial processes can substantially contribute to efficient and reliable degradation of actual textile wastewater. Thus, development of biodegradation systems holds promise for application of affordable wastewater treatment in polluted environments.

  4. Public Community Support and Involvement around Vandellos ITER Site (EISS-Vandellos 2002/2003). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Prades, A.; Riba, D.; Doval, E.; Munoz, J.; Garay, A.; Viladrich, C.

    2006-07-01

    The Report summarizes a year and a half research on the social perception and expectations regarding the possible sitting of ITER in Vandellos carried out in the framework of the European ITER Site Studies (EISS). The aims were to examine the needs and preferences in terms of public information and communication; to explore the risks and benefits the community links to the Centre; and to analyse the local expectations concerning public participation. A methodological strategy integrating qualitative methodologies [semi structured interviews to key informants at the local level, and to key research groups in the surrounding area, together with a focus group with local opinion leaders], and quantitative techniques [Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) applied to a sample of 400 participants] was implemented. The local community has lived with complex and high risk facilities for decades, thus local people has a strong familiarity with technological and energy production systems, but no experience with large research installations. In such a context the global opinion towards the possibility of hosting ITER was clearly favourable, and linked to a strong demand in terms of public information and participation. (Author) 45 refs.

  5. From individuals to populations to communities: a dynamic energy budget model of marine ecosystem size-spectrum including life history diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, Olivier; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe

    2013-05-07

    Individual metabolism, predator-prey relationships, and the role of biodiversity are major factors underlying the dynamics of food webs and their response to environmental variability. Despite their crucial, complementary and interacting influences, they are usually not considered simultaneously in current marine ecosystem models. In an attempt to fill this gap and determine if these factors and their interaction are sufficient to allow realistic community structure and dynamics to emerge, we formulate a mathematical model of the size-structured dynamics of marine communities which integrates mechanistically individual, population and community levels. The model represents the transfer of energy generated in both time and size by an infinite number of interacting fish species spanning from very small to very large species. It is based on standard individual level assumptions of the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB) as well as important ecological processes such as opportunistic size-based predation and competition for food. Resting on the inter-specific body-size scaling relationships of the DEB theory, the diversity of life-history traits (i.e. biodiversity) is explicitly integrated. The stationary solutions of the model as well as the transient solutions arising when environmental signals (e.g. variability of primary production and temperature) propagate through the ecosystem are studied using numerical simulations. It is shown that in the absence of density-dependent feedback processes, the model exhibits unstable oscillations. Density-dependent schooling probability and schooling-dependent predatory and disease mortalities are proposed to be important stabilizing factors allowing stationary solutions to be reached. At the community level, the shape and slope of the obtained quasi-linear stationary spectrum matches well with empirical studies. When oscillations of primary production are simulated, the model predicts that the variability propagates along the

  6. Community-Based Programming: An Opportunity and Imperative for the Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Edgar J.

    1992-01-01

    Defines community-based programing as a cooperative process in which the community college serves as leader and catalyst in effecting collaboration among community members, leaders, and groups. Recommends 15 tasks for community college leaders involved in community-based programing, including environmental scanning and coalition building. (DMM)

  7. A qualitative study into the perceived barriers of accessing healthcare among a vulnerable population involved with a community centre in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Siân; Daniels, Katy; Fioratou, Evridiki

    2018-04-03

    Minority vulnerable communities, such as the European Roma, often face numerous barriers to accessing healthcare services, resulting in negative health outcomes. Both these barriers and outcomes have been reported extensively in the literature. However, reports on barriers faced by European non-Roma native communities are limited. The "Health Care Access Barriers" (HCAB) model identifies pertinent financial, structural and cognitive barriers that can be measured and potentially modified. The present study thus aims to explore the barriers to accessing healthcare for a vulnerable population of mixed ethnicity from a charity community centre in Romania, as perceived by the centre's family users and staff members, and assess whether these reflect the barriers identified from the HCAB model. Eleven community members whose children attend the centre and seven staff members working at the centre participated in face-to-face semi-structured interviews, exploring personal experiences and views on accessing healthcare. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using an initial deductive and secondary inductive approach to identify HCAB themes and other emerging themes and subthemes. Identified themes from both groups aligned with HCAB's themes of financial, structural and cognitive barriers and emergent subthemes important to the specific population were identified. Specifically, financial barriers related mostly to health insurance and bribery issues, structural barriers related mostly to service availability and accessibility, and cognitive barriers related mostly to healthcare professionals' attitudes and discrimination and the vulnerable population's lack of education and health literacy. A unique theme of psychological barriers emerged from both groups with associated subthemes of mistrust, hopelessness, fear and anxiety of this vulnerable population. The current study highlights healthcare access barriers to a vulnerable non-Roma native population involved with a

  8. Human papillomavirus 13 in a Mexican Mayan community with multifocal epithelial hyperplasia: could saliva be involved in household transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Villanueva, Maria Eugenia; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Cerón-Espinosa, Jose D; González-Losa, Maria del Refugio

    2011-01-01

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia (MEH) is a disease of the oral mucosa. Human papillomaviruses 13 and 32 have been detected in these lesions. We describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients with MEH in a rural community in the Mayan area of Mexico with 53 cases and 54 controls. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected through a direct interview. Oral cell samples were collected with a cytobrush. Subjects collected their own saliva sample in a sterile bottle. All samples were tested for HPV 13 and 32 by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. Of the 53 patients and 54 healthy subjects, 56% were jugal mucosa, and tongue, 96% had multiple lesions. From 53 patients, fifty samples of oral cells and 31 samples of saliva were analyzed. HPV 13 was detected in 100% oral cell and 100% saliva samples studied. 16 healthy subjects were HVP 13 positive. A highly significant association of HPV 13 infection and MEH was found, as determined by chi square test (p = 0.00) Household transmission of HPV 13 may happen through saliva and the shared use of contaminated objects.

  9. Guideline-recommended therapy, including beta-blocker utilization, in patients with chronic heart failure: results from a Canadian community hospital heart function clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heffernan M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Heffernan Division of Cardiology, Oakville Trafalgar Memorial Hospital, Oakville, ON, Canada Abstract: A comprehensive analysis of beta-blocker utilization and other guideline-recommended therapies for the treatment of chronic heart failure in a Canadian community hospital heart function clinic has not been undertaken and was, therefore, the focus of this study. The proportion of patients who would be potential candidates for ivabridine and sacubitril–valsartan therapy as a result of fulfilling the criteria for enrollment in either the Systolic Heart failure treatment with the If inhibitor ivabradine Trial (SHIFT study (left-ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] >35%, sinus rhythm, New York Heart Association II–IV or the Prospective Comparison of angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI to determine impact on global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF study (LVEF <40%, New York Heart Association II–IV, glomerular filtration rate >30 mL/min, was also assessed. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was carried out in all 371 patients treated in this community heart function clinic for at least a 12-month period. The patients were elderly (mean age 74±13.3 years and predominately male (61.5% with symptomatic (82.5% moderate left-ventricular dysfunction (LVEF 45.4%±15.6%. A substantial proportion of the patients also had a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (52.8%. The total use of beta blockers exceeded 87%, while 100% of patients without a documented contraindication or intolerance to a beta blocker received therapy. Adherence to other guideline-recommended pharmacotherapies specifically for heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection was high: 86.1% of the eligible patients were treated with an ACEI/angiotensin receptor blocker and 61.9% received a mineralcorticoid receptor antagonist. We determined that 13.7% of the complement of this heart

  10. The Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET): Descriptions, limitations, and the involvement of the space nuclear power community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    Project and test planning for the Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) Project began in August 1990. Since the formalization of the contract agreement two years ago, the TOPAZ-II testing hardware was delivered in May 1992. In the months since the delivery of the test hardware, Russians and Americans working side-by-side installed the equipment and are preparing to begin testing in early 1993. The procurement of the Russian TOPAZ-II unfueled thermionic space nuclear power system (SNP) provides a unique opportunity to understand a complete thermionic system and enhances the possibility for further study of this type of power conversion for space applications. This paper will describe the program and test article, facility and test article limitations, and how the government and industry are encouraged to be involved in the program

  11. Community-Involved Learning to Expand Possibilities for Vulnerable Children: A Critical Communicative, Sen's Capability, and Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hi

    2014-01-01

    This research, based on a case study of vulnerable children in Korea, used a mixed methods transformative approach to explore strategies to support and help disadvantaged children. The methodological approach includes three phases: a mixed methods contextual analysis, a qualitative dominant analysis based on Sen's capability approach and critical…

  12. Parental Involvement in Norwegian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jan Merok

    2012-01-01

    This article examines findings on key challenges of school-parent relations in Norway. The review is based on recent large-scale studies on several issues, including formalized school-parent cooperation, parental involvement in the pedagogical discourse, and teacher perspectives on the parents' role in the school community. Findings suggest a…

  13. The composition, localization and function of low-temperature-adapted microbial communities involved in methanogenic degradations of cellulose and chitin from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Y; Yan, Z; Jia, L; Zhang, S; Gao, L; Wei, X; Mei, Z; Liu, X

    2016-07-01

    To reveal the microbial communities from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau wetland soils that have the potential to be used in the utilization of cellulosic and chitinous biomass at low temperatures (≤25°C). Soil samples collected from six wetlands on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were supplemented with or without cellulose and chitin flakes, and anaerobically incubated at 25 and 15°C; high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to access the composition and localization (in the slurry and on the surface) of enriched microbial communities; a hypothetical model was constructed to demonstrate the functional roles of involved microbes mainly at genus level. Overall, microbial communities from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau wetlands showed significant potential to convert both cellulose and chitin to methane at low temperatures; Clostridium III, Clostridium XIVa, Paludibacter, Parcubacteria, Saccharofermentans, Pelotomaculum, Methanosaeta, Methanobrevibacter, Methanoregula, Methanospirillum and Methanosarcina participated in methanogenic degradation of both cellulose and chitin through the roles of hydrolytic, saccharolytic and secondary fermenters and methanogens respectively. Acetotrophic methanogens were mainly enriched in the slurries, while hydrogenotrophic methanogens could be both in the slurries and on the surface. The composition and localization of microbial communities that could effectively convert cellulose and chitin to methane at low temperatures have been revealed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods, and reviewing the literatures on the microbial pure culture helped to elucidate functional roles of significantly enriched microbes. This study will contribute to the understanding of carbon and nitrogen cycling of cellulose and chitin in cold-area wetlands and provide fundamental information to obtain microbial resources for the utilization of biomass wastes at low temperatures. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Microorganisms involved in MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K. [Danish Technological Institute (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a widespread problem that is difficult to detect and assess because of its complex mechanism. This paper presents the involvement of microorganisms in MIC. Some of the mechanisms that cause MIC include hydrogen consumption, production of acids, anode-cathode formation and electron shuttling. A classic bio-corrosive microorganism in the oil and gas industry is sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). Methanogens also increase corrosion rates in metals. Some of the phylogenetic orders detected while studying SRP and methanogens are archaeoglobales, clostridiales, methanosarcinales and methanothermococcus. There were some implications, such as growth of SRP not being correlated with growth of methanogens; methanogens were included in MIC risk assessment. A few examples are used to display how microorganisms are involved in topside corrosion and microbial community in producing wells. From the study, it can be concluded that, MIC risk assessment includes system data and empirical knowledge of the distribution and number of microorganisms in the system.

  15. The Role of Counseling in an Associate Degree in Labor Studies Program: Counseling in a Work Oriented Setting (The Importance of Including Counseling Courses within the Curriculum of the Associate Degree in Labor Studies Program at the Community College Level).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Bruce

    This research had a two-fold purpose: (1) to assess the need for a labor studies program at the community college level; and (2) to consider the advisability of including within such a curriculum a cross-section of adult/family/worker-oriented counseling and guidance courses. The study employed a questionnaire completed by union delegates, which…

  16. Reorganization of the Peralta Community College District: A Study of Reorganization of the Territory Presently Included in the Plumas County Portion of the District. Assembly Concurrent Resolution No. 54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Weston M.

    In compliance with legislative mandate, this two-part report provides a comprehensive feasibility assessment of the reorganization of territory presently included in the Plumas County portion of the Peralta Community College District (PCCD). Part I begins with an overview of the study and its background, and then discusses barriers to and…

  17. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin resistant strains, isolated from bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of South-West Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, Benon B; Baldan, Rossella; Trovato, Alberto; Cirillo, Daniela M

    2017-06-13

    Staphylococcus aureus strains are now regarded as zoonotic agents. In pastoral settings where human-animal interaction is intimate, multi-drug resistant microorganisms have become an emerging zoonotic issue of public health concern. The study of S. aureus prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and clonal lineages in humans, animals and food in African settings has great relevance, taking into consideration the high diversity of ethnicities, cultures and food habits that determine the lifestyle of the people. Little is known about milk carriage of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) and their virulence factors in Uganda. Here, we present the prevalence of MRSA in bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of south-west Uganda. We also present PFGE profiles, spa-types, as well as frequency of enterotoxins genes. S. aureus was identified by the coagulase test, susceptibility testing by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and E-test methods and MRSA by detection of the mecA gene and SCCmec types. The presence of Panton - Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) genes and staphylococcal enterotoxins was determined by PCR, while genotyping was by PFGE and spa typing. S. aureus were isolated from 30/148 (20.3%) milk and 11/91(12%) sour milk samples. mecA gene carriage, hence MRSA, was detected in 23/41 (56.1%) of the isolates, with 21 of the 23 (91.3%) being SCCmec type V; while up to 30/41 (73.2%) of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Only five isolates carried the PVL virulence gene, while PFGE typing revealed ten clusters (ranging from two seven isolates each) that comprised 83% of the sample, and only eight isolates with unique pulsotypes. The largest PFGE profile (E) consisted of seven isolates while t7753, t1398, and t2112 were the most common spa-types. Thirty seven of the 41 strains (90.2%) showed at least one of the eight enterotoxin genes tested, with sem 29 (70.7%), sei 25 (61%) and seg 21 (51.2%) being the most frequently observed genes. This

  18. Voluntary approaches to solid waste management in small towns: a case study of community involvement in household hazardous waste recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massawe, Ephraim; Legleu, Tye; Vasut, Laura; Brandon, Kelly; Shelden, Greg

    2014-06-01

    An enormous amount of household hazardous waste (HHW) is generated as part of municipal solid waste. This scenario presents problems during disposal, including endangering human health and the environment if improperly disposed. This article examines current HHW recycling efforts in Hammond, Louisiana, with the following objectives: (a) analyze factors and attitudes that motivate residents to participate in the program; (b) quantify various types of HHW; and (c) analyze the e-waste stream in the HHW. Residents and city officials who were surveyed and interviewed cited that commitment shown by local authorities and passion to protect the environment and human health were part of their active participation in the program. An awareness program has played a key role in the success of the program. A legislation specific to e-waste is encouraged. While knowledge and information on laws and permit application processes and the promotion of greener products are encouraged, provision of storage or collection facilities and communal transportation will further motivate more residents to participate in the recycling program.

  19. On truth-telling and storytelling: Truth-seeking during research involving communities with an oral culture and a history of violent conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Vethuizen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to propose some principles and practices for truth-seeking during research into violent conflict. To achieve this aim, an argument is deployed by analysing the theoretical concepts “truth”, “myth” and “oral culture” as sources of knowledge. This conceptual analysis precedes a discussion on community-based participatory research (CBPR as a research methodology to access the knowledge of lived experiences embedded in the oral culture of the San community of Platfontein, near Kimberley, South Africa. It was found that CBPR contains good practices to use in research to judge the probable truth about disputes. The CBPR process is ideal for determining the accuracy of data in the context of a specific culture, considering the norms, spiritual influences and personal considerations of knowledge-holders that accompany a unique cosmology. A variety and equity of worldviews and perspectives of what happened during violent conflict successfully challenges hegemonic power relationships, paradigms and narratives, ultimately leading to informed judgements of what is probably true about a conflict. CBPR with the San of Platfontein revealed principles that can be used as guidelines for researching disputes where oral culture is involved.

  20. Faecal virome of healthy chickens reveals a large diversity of the eukaryote viral community, including novel circular ssDNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Diane A; Cibulski, Samuel P; Finkler, Fabrine; Teixeira, Thais F; Varela, Ana Paula M; Cerva, Cristine; Loiko, Márcia R; Scheffer, Camila M; Dos Santos, Helton F; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Roehe, Paulo M

    2017-04-01

    This study is focused on the identification of the faecal virome of healthy chickens raised in high-density, export-driven poultry farms in Brazil. Following high-throughput sequencing, a total of 7743 de novo-assembled contigs were constructed and compared with known nucleotide/amino acid sequences from the GenBank database. Analyses with blastx revealed that 279 contigs (4 %) were related to sequences of eukaryotic viruses. Viral genome sequences (total or partial) indicative of members of recognized viral families, including Adenoviridae, Caliciviridae, Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae and Reoviridae, were identified, some of those representing novel genotypes. In addition, a range of circular replication-associated protein encoding DNA viruses were also identified. The characterization of the faecal virome of healthy chickens described here not only provides a description of the viruses encountered in such niche but should also represent a baseline for future studies comparing viral populations in healthy and diseased chicken flocks. Moreover, it may also be relevant for human health, since chickens represent a significant proportion of the animal protein consumed worldwide.

  1. Families in Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) Teams in Norway: A Cross-Sectional Study on Relatives' Experiences of Involvement and Alienation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimand, B M; Israel, P; Ewertzon, M

    2017-11-10

    International research shows that relatives of people with mental illness are rarely involved by mental health services. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) has been recently implemented in Norway. The experience of relatives of ACT users is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to explore relatives' experience with ACT-teams in Norway. Data were collected using the family involvement and alienation questionnaire, consisting of experiences of approach, and alienation from the provision of professional care. 38 Relatives participated in this study. A majority experienced a positive approach (openness, confirmation, and cooperation) from the ACT teams, which also was considered better compared to previous services. They considered openness and cooperation as essential aspects from the professionals. Almost half did not feel alienated (powerlessness and social isolation). Higher level of being approached positively was significantly associated with lower level of feeling alienated. The knowledge of what constituted relatives' positive experiences with the ACT teams should be transferred into practice regarding how to form a positive alliance with relatives.

  2. Feasibility study on the formation of a databank of the arrangements within the European Community for transport accidents involving radioactive materials. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugues, J.S.; Shaw, K.B.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive materials are transported throughout the European Communities (EC) by road, rail, sea and air. In case of severe accident, which could lead to the release of radioactivity into the environment, it is essential that there are pre-arranged measures which can be put into effect to minimise radiation doses to persons in the vicinity and to enable the situation to be returned to a safe condition. An essential part of emergency arrangements is the setting up of an administrative structure to establish the responsibilities of the organisations involved and this study outlines the arrangements that have been set up in each EC country. The databank should be particularly useful following an accident close to a national border or in the event of an accident in one country which involves a shipment from another. The setting up of a databank might also assist in the development of the emergency arrangements in some countries. In conclusion: - the formation of a databank of emergency arrangements is feasible. - The databank could be operated more efficiently if it were held centrally on a computed-based system and made accessible through the telephone network. - The usefulness of the databank would be enhanced by the inclusion of information on non-radiological hazards

  3. Community Involvement as an Effective Institutional Control at the Weldon Spring Site, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyo, Y.E.; Pauling, T.

    2006-01-01

    been steadily increasing. In 2005, approximately 15,400 visitors were associated with Interpretive Center operations and outreach activities. Science-oriented educational programs that directly relate to past remediation activities and present long-term surveillance and maintenance issues have been developed and are presented to St. Louis area school groups and other community-based organizations. Other innovative programs have been developed to address daily maintenance issues at the site and to promote beneficial community re-use of the property. Approximately 30,000 square feet of the former Administration Building has been transferred through a use-permit to Lindenwood University, a local institution with a total enrollment of about 12,000 students. Lindenwood is establishing a satellite college campus in the building in exchange for providing basic maintenance and payment of utilities for both the Administration Building and Interpretive Center. A volunteer program developed to address maintenance of the native plant gardens that surround the Interpretive Center has a current enrollment of approximately 25 volunteers. Another volunteer group of prairie ecosystem experts has been meeting regularly for the last 3 years to assist the site in long-term management of the established prairie surrounding the disposal cell. Public support of these community involvement activities at the site is strong. DOE has worked closely with the Weldon Spring Citizens Commission in developing the concepts for this approach and the Commission has helped promote these activities within the community. It is expected that continued public education in this manner will only serve to strengthen the institutional control commitments at the Weldon Spring Site. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of a co-delivered training package for community mental health professionals on service user- and carer-involved care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, A C; Walker, L; Meade, O; Fraser, C; Cree, L; Bee, P; Lovell, K; Callaghan, P

    2017-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: There is consistent evidence that service users and carers feel marginalized in the process of mental health care planning. Mental health professionals have identified ongoing training needs in relation to involving service users and carers in care planning. There is limited research on the acceptability of training packages for mental health professionals which involve service users and carers as co-facilitators. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: A co-produced and co-delivered training package on service user- and carer-involved care planning was acceptable to mental health professionals. Aspects of the training that were particularly valued were the co-production model, small group discussion and the opportunity for reflective practice. The organizational context of care planning may need more consideration in future training models. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Mental health nurses using co-production models of delivering training to other mental health professionals can be confident that such initiatives will be warmly welcomed, acceptable and engaging. On the basis of the results reported here, we encourage mental health nurses to use co-production approaches more often. Further research will show how clinically effective this training is in improving outcomes for service users and carers. Background There is limited evidence for the acceptability of training for mental health professionals on service user- and carer-involved care planning. Aim To investigate the acceptability of a co-delivered, two-day training intervention on service user- and carer-involved care planning. Methods Community mental health professionals were invited to complete the Training Acceptability Rating Scale post-training. Responses to the quantitative items were summarized using descriptive statistics (Miles, ), and qualitative responses were coded using content analysis (Weber, ). Results Of 350 trainees, 310 completed the

  5. The effects of body image perceptions and sociocommunicative orientations on self-esteem, depression, and identification and involvement in the gay community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrench, Jason S; Knapp, Jennifer L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how nonverbally communicated messages based on weight and physical appearance related to antifat attitudes, image fixation, and discrimination based on physical appearance and weight on bisexual, gay, and lesbian people. Using an Internet-based sample of 233 participants (88% Anglo/Saxon or Caucasian), the results indicated Richmond and Valencic's (2000) conceptualization of image fixation negatively related to an individual's self-esteem and positively related to reported levels of depression. Results also indicated people with highly assertive and responsive communicative behaviors were less likely to hold antifat attitudes and less likely to dislike fat people. Differences between gay/bisexual males and lesbian/bisexual females were also analyzed, and gay/bisexual males had significantly higher levels of image fixation, antifat attitudes, dislike of fat people, weight locus of control, perceptions of self physical/weight discrimination, and depression than lesbian/bisexual females. The results also indicated lesbian/bisexual females had significantly higher levels of self-esteem and interaction and involvement within the bisexual and gay and lesbian community than gay/bisexual men.

  6. A Closer Look at Evolution: Variants (SNPs) of Genes Involved in Skin Pigmentation, Including EXOC2, TYR, TYRP1, and DCT, Are Associated With 25(OH)D Serum Concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saternus, R.; Pilz, S.; Graber, S.; Kleber, M.; Marz, W.; Vogt, T.; Reichrath, J.

    2015-01-01

    VitaminDdeficiency iscommonin the Caucasian populationandis associated with increased incidence and unfavorable outcome of many diseases, including various types of cancer, infectious, cardiovascular, andautoimmunediseases. Individual factors that predispose for a person's vitaminDstatus, such as

  7. Information for Teachers (Including Classroom Activities), Skylab Student Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This program is intended to directly involve the educational community in space experiments, many of which can be related to existing curricula. Included in this first packet are: 1) a brief description of the Skylab Program and the National Science Teachers Association-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NSTA-NASA) Skylab Student…

  8. Effectiveness of citizen involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, L. [Prince William Sound Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reviewed the rise of citizen involvement in industry that affects their community. Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in 1989, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 provided funding by industry for a citizens group to provide oversite of the Alyeska Pipeline Service Agency terminal and associated tankers. That role is currently filled by the Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council, a volunteer organization that represents communities that were affected by the EVOS. The history of the Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council was discussed along with its structure, funding and overview of projects and research into safer transportation of oil, better oil spill response capabilities and improved environmental protection practices. Some of the successes involving citizen input include the requirement that all tankers going into Prince William Sound be double hull by 2015; a world-class system of tugs escorting tankers in Prince William Sound; installation of an ice-detection radar on a small island near the site of the EVOS; a guidebook for communities affected by man-made disasters; identification of nearshore locations that should be the first to be protected in the case of another spill; and, the installation of a system to capture crude oil vapors when tankers take on cargo. Other projects underway include the study of invasive species that can be transported in the ballast water of tankers, efficacy of dispersants, soil contamination at the tanker loading site, emissions of hazardous air pollutants from ballast water treatment processes, and continual review of emergency response plans. In the 17 years since the formation of the Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council, it has been shown that communication and transparency are the keys to solving complacency, which is believed to have been a contributing factor to the EVOS. 3 refs.

  9. Microarray analysis of PDGFR alpha+ populations in ES cell differentiation culture identifies genes involved in differentiation of mesoderm and mesenchyme including ARID3b that is essential for development of embryonic mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Atsushi; Era, Takumi; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Martin Jakt, Lars; Kuroda, Yoshikazu; Nishikawa, Shin-Ichi

    2006-05-01

    An inherent difficulty in using DNA microarray technology on the early mouse embryo is its relatively small size. In this study, we investigated whether use of ES cell differentiation culture, which has no theoretical limit in the number of cells that can be generated, can improve this situation. Seven distinct ES-cell-derived populations were analyzed by DNA microarray and examined for genes whose distribution patterns are similar to those of PDGFRalpha, a gene implicated in differentiation of mesoderm/mesenchymal lineages. Using software developed in our laboratory, we formed a group of 30 genes which showed the highest similarity to PDGFRalpha, 18 of these genes were shown to be involved in development of either mesodermal, mesenchymal or neural crest cells. This list also contains several genes whose role in embryogenesis has not yet been fully identified. One such molecule is mARID3b. The mARID3b expression is found in the paraxial mesoderm and cranial mesenchyme. mARID3b-null mouse showed early embryonic lethality, and most phenotypes of this mutant appear to develop from a failure to generate a sufficient number of cranial mesenchymal cells. These results demonstrate the potential use of ES cell differentiation culture in identifying novel genes playing an indispensable role in embryogenesis.

  10. Protein-Trap Insertional Mutagenesis Uncovers New Genes Involved in Zebrafish Skin Development, Including a Neuregulin 2a-Based ErbB Signaling Pathway Required during Median Fin Fold Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E Westcot

    Full Text Available Skin disorders are widespread, but available treatments are limited. A more comprehensive understanding of skin development mechanisms will drive identification of new treatment targets and modalities. Here we report the Zebrafish Integument Project (ZIP, an expression-driven platform for identifying new skin genes and phenotypes in the vertebrate model Danio rerio (zebrafish. In vivo selection for skin-specific expression of gene-break transposon (GBT mutant lines identified eleven new, revertible GBT alleles of genes involved in skin development. Eight genes--fras1, grip1, hmcn1, msxc, col4a4, ahnak, capn12, and nrg2a--had been described in an integumentary context to varying degrees, while arhgef25b, fkbp10b, and megf6a emerged as novel skin genes. Embryos homozygous for a GBT insertion within neuregulin 2a (nrg2a revealed a novel requirement for a Neuregulin 2a (Nrg2a-ErbB2/3-AKT signaling pathway governing the apicobasal organization of a subset of epidermal cells during median fin fold (MFF morphogenesis. In nrg2a mutant larvae, the basal keratinocytes within the apical MFF, known as ridge cells, displayed reduced pAKT levels as well as reduced apical domains and exaggerated basolateral domains. Those defects compromised proper ridge cell elongation into a flattened epithelial morphology, resulting in thickened MFF edges. Pharmacological inhibition verified that Nrg2a signals through the ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase network. Moreover, knockdown of the epithelial polarity regulator and tumor suppressor lgl2 ameliorated the nrg2a mutant phenotype. Identifying Lgl2 as an antagonist of Nrg2a-ErbB signaling revealed a significantly earlier role for Lgl2 during epidermal morphogenesis than has been described to date. Furthermore, our findings demonstrated that successive, coordinated ridge cell shape changes drive apical MFF development, making MFF ridge cells a valuable model for investigating how the coordinated regulation of cell polarity

  11. Protein-Trap Insertional Mutagenesis Uncovers New Genes Involved in Zebrafish Skin Development, Including a Neuregulin 2a-Based ErbB Signaling Pathway Required during Median Fin Fold Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcot, Stephanie E; Hatzold, Julia; Urban, Mark D; Richetti, Stefânia K; Skuster, Kimberly J; Harm, Rhianna M; Lopez Cervera, Roberto; Umemoto, Noriko; McNulty, Melissa S; Clark, Karl J; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Ekker, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Skin disorders are widespread, but available treatments are limited. A more comprehensive understanding of skin development mechanisms will drive identification of new treatment targets and modalities. Here we report the Zebrafish Integument Project (ZIP), an expression-driven platform for identifying new skin genes and phenotypes in the vertebrate model Danio rerio (zebrafish). In vivo selection for skin-specific expression of gene-break transposon (GBT) mutant lines identified eleven new, revertible GBT alleles of genes involved in skin development. Eight genes--fras1, grip1, hmcn1, msxc, col4a4, ahnak, capn12, and nrg2a--had been described in an integumentary context to varying degrees, while arhgef25b, fkbp10b, and megf6a emerged as novel skin genes. Embryos homozygous for a GBT insertion within neuregulin 2a (nrg2a) revealed a novel requirement for a Neuregulin 2a (Nrg2a)-ErbB2/3-AKT signaling pathway governing the apicobasal organization of a subset of epidermal cells during median fin fold (MFF) morphogenesis. In nrg2a mutant larvae, the basal keratinocytes within the apical MFF, known as ridge cells, displayed reduced pAKT levels as well as reduced apical domains and exaggerated basolateral domains. Those defects compromised proper ridge cell elongation into a flattened epithelial morphology, resulting in thickened MFF edges. Pharmacological inhibition verified that Nrg2a signals through the ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase network. Moreover, knockdown of the epithelial polarity regulator and tumor suppressor lgl2 ameliorated the nrg2a mutant phenotype. Identifying Lgl2 as an antagonist of Nrg2a-ErbB signaling revealed a significantly earlier role for Lgl2 during epidermal morphogenesis than has been described to date. Furthermore, our findings demonstrated that successive, coordinated ridge cell shape changes drive apical MFF development, making MFF ridge cells a valuable model for investigating how the coordinated regulation of cell polarity and cell shape

  12. Factors involved in social mobilization and empowerment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many community mobilizers in Uganda do not recognize that psychological empowerment is central in social mobilization, and that social mobilization involves an interplay among several social psychological variables including; social capital, psychological sense of community and group member satisfaction to produce ...

  13. US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Environmental Management Public Involvement Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This document was prepared in accordance with CERCLA requirements for writing community relations plans. It includes information on how the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office prepares and executes Environmental Management Community relations activities. It is divided into three sections: the public involvement plan, public involvement in Oak Ridge, and public involvement in 1995. Four appendices are also included: environmental management in Oak Ridge; community and regional overview; key laws, agreements, and policy; and principal contacts

  14. Comparative analysis of yellow microbial communities growing on the walls of geographically distinct caves indicates a common core of microorganisms involved in their formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porca, Estefania; Jurado, Valme; Žgur-Bertok, Darja; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Pašić, Lejla

    2012-07-01

    Morphologically similar microbial communities that often form on the walls of geographically distinct limestone caves have not yet been comparatively studied. Here, we analysed phylotype distribution in yellow microbial community samples obtained from the walls of distinct caves located in Spain, Czech Republic and Slovenia. To infer the level of similarity in microbial community membership, we analysed inserts of 474 16S rRNA gene clones and compared those using statistical tools. The results show that the microbial communities under investigation are composed solely of Bacteria. The obtained phylotypes formed three distinct groups of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). About 60% of obtained sequences formed three core OTUs common to all three sampling sites. These were affiliated with actinobacterial Pseudonocardinae (30-50% of sequences in individual sampling site libraries), but also with gammaproteobacterial Chromatiales (6-25%) and Xanthomonadales (0.5-2.0%). Another 7% of sequences were common to two sampling sites and formed eight OTUs, while the remaining 35% were site specific and corresponded mostly to OTUs containing single sequences. The same pattern was observed when these data were compared with sequence data available from similar studies. This comparison showed that distinct limestone caves support microbial communities composed mostly of phylotypes common to all sampling sites. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of integrated care including therapeutic assertive community treatment in severe schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar I disorders: Four-year follow-up of the ACCESS II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöttle, Daniel; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Ruppelt, Friederike; Bussopulos, Alexandra; Frieling, Marietta; Nika, Evangelia; Nawara, Luise Antonia; Golks, Dietmar; Kerstan, Andrea; Lange, Matthias; Schödlbauer, Michael; Daubmann, Anne; Wegscheider, Karl; Rohenkohl, Anja; Sarikaya, Gizem; Sengutta, Mary; Luedecke, Daniel; Wittmann, Linus; Ohm, Gunda; Meigel-Schleiff, Christina; Gallinat, Jürgen; Wiedemann, Klaus; Bock, Thomas; Karow, Anne; Lambert, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The ACCESS-model offers integrated care including assertive community treatment to patients with psychotic disorders. ACCESS proved more effective compared to standard care (ACCESS-I study) and was successfully implemented into clinical routine (ACCESS-II study). In this article, we report the 4-year outcomes of the ACCESS-II study. Between May 2007 and December 2013, 115 patients received continuous ACCESS-care. We hypothesized that the low 2-year disengagement and hospitalization rates and significant improvements in psychopathology, functioning, and quality of life could be sustained over 4 years. Over 4 years, only 10 patients disengaged from ACCESS. Another 23 left for practical reasons and were successfully transferred to other services. Hospitalization rates remained low (13.0% in year 3; 9.1% in year 4). Involuntary admissions decreased from 35% in the 2 years prior to ACCESS to 8% over 4 years in ACCESS. Outpatient contacts remained stably high at 2.0-2.4 per week. We detected significant improvements in psychopathology (effect size d = 0.79), illness severity (d = 1.29), level of functioning (d = 0.77), quality of life (d = 0.47) and stably high client satisfaction (d = 0.02) over 4 years. Most positive effects were observed within the first 2 years with the exception of illness severity, which further improved from year 2 to 4. Within continuous intensive 4-year ACCESS-care, sustained improvements in psychopathology, functioning, quality of life, low service disengagement and re-hospitalization rates, as well as low rates of involuntary treatment, were observed in contrast to other studies, which reported a decline in these parameters once a specific treatment model was stopped. Yet, stronger evidence to prove these results is required. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01888627.

  16. Cellulase and xylanase production at pilot scale by solid-state fermentation from coffee husk using specialized consortia: The consistency of the process and the microbial communities involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Alejandra; Mejías, Laura; Gea, Teresa; Sánchez, Antoni

    2017-11-01

    Solid state fermentation is a promising technology however rising concerns related to scale up and reproducibility in a productive process. Coffee husk and a specialized inoculum were used in a 4.5L and then in 50L reactors to assess the reproducibility of a cellulase and hemicellulase production system. Fermentations were consistent in terms of cellulase production and microbial communities. The higher temperatures achieved when operating at 50L generated a shift on the microbial communities and a reduction of nearly 50% on cellulase production at pilot scale. In spite, an overall enzymatic production of 3.1±0.5FPUg -1 DM and 48±4Ug -1 DM for FPase and Xyl activities was obtained, respectively, with low deviation coefficients of 16 and 19% for FPase and Xyl production. Gaseous emissions assessment revealed an emission factor of 2.6·10 -3 kg volatile organic compounds per Mg of coffee husk and negligible NH 3 , CH 4 and N 2 O emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Somatosensory Psychophysical Losses in Inhabitants of Riverside Communities of the Tapajós River Basin, Amazon, Brazil: Exposure to Methylmercury Is Possibly Involved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Dirce Torres Khoury

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the somatosensory system of methylmercury-exposed inhabitants living in the communities of the Tapajós river basin by using psychophysical tests and to compare with measurements performed in inhabitants of the Tocantins river basin. We studied 108 subjects from Barreiras and São Luiz do Tapajós, two communities of the Tapajós river basin, State of Pará, Amazon, Brazil, aged 13-53 years old. Mercury analysis was performed in head hair samples weighting 0.1-0.2 g by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Three somatosensory psychophysical tests were performed: tactile sensation threshold, vibration sensation duration, and two-point discrimination. Semmes-Weinstein 20 monofilaments with different diameters were used to test the tactile sensation in the lower lip, right and left breasts, right and left index fingers, and right and left hallux. The threshold was the thinner monofilament perceived by the subject. Vibration sensation was investigated using a 128 Hz diapason applied to the sternum, right and left radial sides of the wrist, and right and left outer malleoli. Two trials were performed at each place. A stopwatch recorded the vibration sensation duration. The two-point discrimination test was performed using a two-point discriminator. Head hair mercury concentration was significantly higher in mercury-exposed inhabitants of Tapajós than in non-exposed inhabitants of Tocantins (p < 0.01. When all subjects were divided in two groups independently of age-mercury-exposed and non-exposed-the following results were found: tactile sensation thresholds in mercury-exposed subjects were higher than in non-exposed subjects at all body parts, except at the left chest; vibration sensation durations were shorter in mercury-exposed than in non-exposed subjects, at all locations except in the upper sternum; two-point discrimination thresholds were higher in mercury-exposed than in non-exposed subjects at all

  18. Somatosensory Psychophysical Losses in Inhabitants of Riverside Communities of the Tapajós River Basin, Amazon, Brazil: Exposure to Methylmercury Is Possibly Involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Eliana Dirce Torres; Souza, Givago da Silva; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Araújo, Amélia Ayako Kamogari; de Oliveira, Cláudia Simone Baltazar; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Pinheiro, Maria da Conceição Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the somatosensory system of methylmercury-exposed inhabitants living in the communities of the Tapajós river basin by using psychophysical tests and to compare with measurements performed in inhabitants of the Tocantins river basin. We studied 108 subjects from Barreiras and São Luiz do Tapajós, two communities of the Tapajós river basin, State of Pará, Amazon, Brazil, aged 13-53 years old. Mercury analysis was performed in head hair samples weighting 0.1-0.2 g by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Three somatosensory psychophysical tests were performed: tactile sensation threshold, vibration sensation duration, and two-point discrimination. Semmes-Weinstein 20 monofilaments with different diameters were used to test the tactile sensation in the lower lip, right and left breasts, right and left index fingers, and right and left hallux. The threshold was the thinner monofilament perceived by the subject. Vibration sensation was investigated using a 128 Hz diapason applied to the sternum, right and left radial sides of the wrist, and right and left outer malleoli. Two trials were performed at each place. A stopwatch recorded the vibration sensation duration. The two-point discrimination test was performed using a two-point discriminator. Head hair mercury concentration was significantly higher in mercury-exposed inhabitants of Tapajós than in non-exposed inhabitants of Tocantins (p river basin is a possible but not a definitely proven cause for psychophysical somatosensory losses observed in their population. Additionally, the relatively simple psychophysical measures used in this work should be followed by more rigorous measures of the same population.

  19. Mother-child and father-child interaction with their 24-month-old children during feeding, considering paternal involvement and the child's temperament in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to study mother-child and father-child interactions with 24-month-old children during feeding, considering the possible influence of time spent by the parent with the child, the infantile temperament, and the parental psychological profile. The families were recruited from 12 preschools in Italy (N = 77 families). Through an observation of the feeding [Scala di Valutazione dell'Interazione Alimentare (SVIA - Feeding Scale; I. Chatoor et al., ; L. Lucarelli et al., )], self-reporting [Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R; L.R. Derogatis, ), and report-form questionnaires [Italian Questionnaires on Temperament (QUIT; G. Axia, )], and information provided by the parents about the amount of time spent with their children, results showed that the overall quality of father-child interactions during feeding is lower than that of mother-child interactions. Fathers showed higher psychological symptoms than did mothers. No associations were found between the fathers' psychopathological risk and the quality of interactions with their children during feeding. Mothers' psychopathological risks predicted less contingent exchanges interactions with their children during feeding. Children's temperaments significantly influence mother-child interactions, but no association exists between maternal involvement and the quality of interactions with their children. Paternal involvement predicts a better quality of father-infant interactions when associated with a child's higher scores on Social Orientation. The quality of parents' interactions with their children during feeding are impacted by different issues originating from the parent's psychological profile, the degree of involvement, and from the child's temperament. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  20. Is the Incredible Years programme effective for children with neuro-developmental disorders and for families with Social Services involvement in the "real world" of community CAMHS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleve, Liv; Crimlisk, Sue; Shoebridge, Philip; Greenwood, Rosemary; Baker, Bethan; Mead, Ben

    2011-04-01

    Over the past few years parenting has become the focus for political attention in an attempt to tackle high levels of disruptive and anti-social behaviour. The Incredible Years (IY) programme (Webster-Stratton, 1999) is one of the parenting training packages that has been identified as a treatment of choice. There are, however, few studies available to demonstrate the clinical relevance in real world Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) and even less knowledge about how children affected by a neuro-developmental disorder and families involved with Social Services can benefit. The BASIC IY videotape parent training programme was used for consecutive groups of parents across two neighbouring CAMH services (n = 128). Data were collected before and after intervention using the Eyberg Behaviour Checklist (Eyberg & Ross, 1978) and a number of Visual Analogue Scales. The effectiveness of the group was compared to that of other studies and the outcomes for two sub-groups--children with a neuro-developmental disorder and families with Social Services involvement--were evaluated. Statistically significantly post-intervention scores were found for all groups showing moderate to large effect sizes. The results are comparable to other effectiveness studies (e.g., Gardner, Barton, & Klimes, 2006; Scott, 2005). They also show that the IY is equally effective for children diagnosed with a neuro-developmental disorder and for families with multiple and complex needs.

  1. Assessing community resilience: A CART survey application in an impoverished urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Zhao, Yan D; Van Horn, Richard L; McCarter, Grady S Mack; Leonard, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an application of the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) Assessment Survey which has been recognized as an important community tool to assist communities in their resilience-building efforts. Developed to assist communities in assessing their resilience to disasters and other adversities, the CART survey can be used to obtain baseline information about a community, to identify relative community strengths and challenges, and to re-examine a community after a disaster or post intervention. This article, which describes an application of the survey in a community of 5 poverty neighborhoods, illustrates the use of the instrument, explicates aspects of community resilience, and provides possible explanations for the results. The paper also demonstrates how a community agency that serves many of the functions of a broker organization can enhance community resilience. Survey results suggest various dimensions of community resilience (as represented by core CART community resilience items and CART domains) and potential predictors. Correlates included homeownership, engagement with local entities/activities, prior experience with a personal emergency or crisis while living in the neighborhood, and involvement with a community organization that focuses on building safe and caring communities through personal relationships. In addition to influencing residents' perceptions of their community, it is likely that the community organization, which served as a sponsor for this application, contributes directly to community resilience through programs and initiatives that enhance social capital and resource acquisition and mobilization.

  2. Environmental protection by cost minimization: Least Cost Planning for traffic. Includes a guide for the application in local communities; Umweltentlastung durch Kostenminimierung: Least Cost Planning im Verkehr. Mit Leitfaden fuer die Anwendung in Kommunen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracher, T.; Diegmann, V.; Eckart, C.F.; Liwicki, M.; Lobenberg, G.; Wetzel, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Informatik, Verkehrs- und Umweltplanung mbH (IVU), Berlin (Germany); Bergmann, M.; Uricher, A.; Lueers, A. [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Becker, U.; Karl, G.; Karl, B.; Voellings, A. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verkehrsoekologie

    1999-08-01

    An intermodal approach for the evaluation of transportation services on the municipal level was developed. Both non-motorised and motorised transportation were included. The approach aims at helping communities to provide an economically and ecologically viable transport policy. Least Cost Transportation Planning (LCTP) was developed to transfer the successful concept of Least Cost Planning from the energy sector to transportation. The conclusion from an analysis of LCTP literature and present evaluation methods was that an improved approach should be intermodal and integrate users, public bodies and transport companies as well as all planning sectors. An approach was developed firstly to identify and clarify transportation expenditures and incomes of a city within a year, and secondly for the evaluation of planning alternatives. This was illustrated for the access system of an industrial area with adjacent railway services in the town of Freiburg. Three alternatives were compared: the extension of a tramway line, the upgrading of the present bus system, and the development of a service and bicycle provision concept for rail stations and companies. Besides income and expenditure for each alternative, the effects on transport demand, the impact on air pollution and noise and on space consumption were presented. As a result, the bicycle concept is in most items better than its alternatives. The final report has three volumes and there is an extra guideline for implementing the method within municipalities. It includes a set of excel sheet tables for an easy application (all in German). (orig.) [German] Fuer die Verkehrsplanung wurde ein verkehrstraegeruebergreifendes Bewertungsverfahren fuer Kommunen entwickelt, das motorisierte und nicht motorisierte Verkehrstraeger einbezieht. Das Verfahren soll Gemeinden unterstuetzen, eine oekonomische und oekologisch vertraegliche Verkehrspolitik zu verfolgen. Least Cost Transportation Planning (LCTP) zielt darauf ab, das fuer

  3. Effect of the Mycorrhizosphere on the Genotypic and Metabolic Diversity of the Bacterial Communities Involved in Mineral Weathering in a Forest Soil▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroz, S.; Calvaruso, C.; Turpault, M. P.; Pierrat, J. C.; Mustin, C.; Frey-Klett, P.

    2007-01-01

    To date, several bacterial species have been described as mineral-weathering agents which improve plant nutrition and growth. However, the possible relationships between mineral-weathering potential, taxonomic identity, and metabolic ability have not been investigated thus far. In this study, we characterized a collection of 61 bacterial strains isolated from Scleroderma citrinum mycorrhizae, the mycorrhizosphere, and the adjacent bulk soil in an oak forest. The ability of bacteria to weather biotite was assessed with a new microplate bioassay that measures the pH and the quantity of iron released from this mineral. We showed that weathering bacteria occurred more frequently in the vicinity of S. citrinum than in the bulk soil. Moreover, the weathering efficacy of the mycorrhizosphere bacterial isolates was significantly greater than that of the bulk soil isolates. All the bacterial isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as members of the genera Burkholderia, Collimonas, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas, and their carbon metabolism was characterized by the BIOLOG method. The most efficient isolates belonged to the genera Burkholderia and Collimonas. Multivariate analysis resulted in identification of three metabolic groups, one of which contained mainly bacterial isolates associated with S. citrinum and exhibiting high mineral-weathering potential. Therefore, our results support the hypothesis that by its carbon metabolism this fungus selects in the bulk soil reservoir a bacterial community with high weathering potential, and they also address the question of functional complementation between mycorrhizal fungi and bacteria in the ectomycorrhizal complex for the promotion of tree nutrition. PMID:17351101

  4. Community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, C.

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of the oil and gas companies with the Northern communities regarding drilling activities was an important aspect of oil and gas operations conducted in the Beaufort Sea. During the 1960s the industry and aboriginal people basically ignored each other. Later, the industry put more emphasis on community consultation until finally two-way communication was established. Respect for the land and the environment were very important to aboriginal people who depended on the land and its resources for their traditional way of life. Community relations policies by the various companies involved in the area, and the impact they have had on their respective communities were recounted. Not all efforts were successful, however, the companies and the communities learned from their experiences, and by the time operations ceased, the communities seemed to be more appreciative of the ways they were being treated by the oil companies. 22 figs

  5. Community Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...... of living in the area. The paper discusses potentials and pitfalls of designing community-driven science gaming environments and how results from previous studies can form the project Community Drive....

  6. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  7. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  8. Community Psychology and Community Mental Health: A Call for Reengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Brown, Molly; Sylvestre, John

    2018-03-01

    Community psychology is rooted in community mental health research and practice and has made important contributions to this field. Yet, in the decades since its inception, community psychology has reduced its focus on promoting mental health, well-being, and liberation of individuals with serious mental illnesses. This special issue endeavors to highlight current efforts in community mental health from our field and related disciplines and point to future directions for reengagement in this area. The issue includes 12 articles authored by diverse stakeholder groups. Following a review of the state of community mental health scholarship in the field's two primary journals since 1973, the remaining articles center on four thematic areas: (a) the community experience of individuals with serious mental illness; (b) the utility of a participatory and cross-cultural lens in our engagement with community mental health; (c) Housing First implementation, evaluation, and dissemination; and (d) emerging or under-examined topics. In reflection, we conclude with a series of challenges for community psychologists involved in future, transformative, movements in community mental health. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  9. Social disadvantage, mental illness and predictors of legal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, C T; Aubry, T D; Arboleda-Florez, J; Wasylenki, D; Goering, P N

    2006-01-01

    The following study evaluates the complex association between legal involvement and mental illness. It describes a population of consumers of community mental health programs, comparing those with legal involvement to those without legal involvement, on a number of demographic, clinical and social indicators. It is a secondary analysis of data collected in studies making up the Community Mental Health Evaluation Initiative (CMHEI) in the province of Ontario, Canada. Legal involvement was a significant issue among community mental health program consumers; about one in five consumers had at least some contact with the legal system in the preceding nine months. Legally involved consumers were more likely to be in receipt of social assistance and be unstably housed than those legally uninvolved. However, there were no significant differences between legally involved and uninvolved consumers with respect to severity of symptomatology, current medication use or number of hospitalization days in the past 9 months. A predictive model compared the differential impact of clinical and social determinants upon legal involvement. Analyses failed to uncover a significant relationship between severity of psychiatric symptomatology and legal involvement. Significant predictors of legal involvement included gender, race, drug use as well as housing instability, and receipt of social assistance. Legal involvement was attributable to factors other than the severity of mental illness; these results challenge assumptions that the most symptomatically severe consumers are most at risk of legal involvement. Accordingly, the rate of legal involvement in a sample of community mental health program users must be considered in a broad context, with particular emphasis on social disadvantage.

  10. Ambiguous involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannesboe, Karen Ida

    2016-01-01

    This edited collection shows that good parenthood is neither fixed nor stable. The contributors show how parenthood is equally done by men, women and children, in and through practices involving different normative guidelines. The book explores how normative layers of parenthood are constituted...... by notions such as good childhood, family ideals, national public health and educational strategies. The authors illustrate how different versions of parenthood coexist and how complex sets of actions are demanded to fulfil today’s expectations of parenthood in Western societies. This interdisciplinary book...

  11. Development of mathematical models to elaborate strategies, select alternatives and development of plans for adaptation of communities to climate change in different geographical areas including costs to implement it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    There is evidence that the climate changes and that now, the change is influenced and accelerated by the CO2 augmentation in atmosphere due to combustion by humans. Such "Climate change" is on the policy agenda at the global level, with the aim of understanding and reducing its causes and to mitigate its consequences. In most countries and international organisms UNO (e.g. Rio de Janeiro 1992), OECD, EC, etc … the efforts and debates have been directed to know the possible causes, to predict the future evolution of some variable conditioners, and trying to make studies to fight against the effects or to delay the negative evolution of such. The Protocol of Kyoto 1997 set international efforts about CO2 emissions, but it was partial and not followed e.g. by USA and China …, and in Durban 2011 the ineffectiveness of humanity on such global real challenges was set as evident. Among all that, the elaboration of a global model was not boarded that can help to choose the best alternative between the feasible ones, to elaborate the strategies and to evaluate the costs, and the authors propose to enter in that frame for study. As in all natural, technological and social changes, the best-prepared countries will have the best bear and the more rapid recover. In all the geographic areas the alternative will not be the same one, but the model must help us to make the appropriated decision. It is essential to know those areas that are more sensitive to the negative effects of climate change, the parameters to take into account for its evaluation, and comprehensive plans to deal with it. The objective of this paper is to elaborate a mathematical model support of decisions, which will allow to develop and to evaluate alternatives of adaptation to the climatic change of different communities in Europe and Latin-America, mainly in especially vulnerable areas to the climatic change, considering in them all the intervening factors. The models will consider criteria of physical

  12. Community centrality and social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have.

  13. O agente comunitário de saúde: formação, inserção e práticas Community health agents: training, involvement, and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Pereira Lelo Nascimento

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo é identificar as contribuições que o curso de formação de agente comunitário de saúde oferecido pela Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil nos anos de 2001 a 2003, para a avaliação que esses fazem da sua inserção no território, bem como apontar o impacto que teve na sua prática profissional. Trata-se de uma pesquisa de natureza qualitativa em saúde, sendo utilizada a técnica de grupo focal, e para a análise dos dados empíricos utilizamos a análise de conteúdo temática. A formação do agente comunitário de saúde tinha por objetivo inserir um profissional capaz de refletir e intervir sobre sua realidade. O Programa Saúde da Família - Paidéia incluiu o agente comunitário de saúde no sistema de saúde, para reordenar as ações trabalhadas nas unidades básicas de saúde e consolidar o modelo de saúde implantado. Constatamos que a formação possibilitou que o agente comunitário de saúde assumisse o papel de sujeito educativo produzindo um conhecimento emancipatório, estimulando a reflexão e a capacidade de análise crítica, incluindo a prática diária como um dos determinantes de seu aprendizado, na busca de solucionar problemas na comunidade.The aim of this study was to identify contributions by the training course for community health agents provided by the Municipal Health Secretariat in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 2001 to 2003, to evaluate their assessment concerning its role in the community, and to identify its impact on their professional practice. This was a qualitative health study using the focus group technique, and the empirical data were analyzed with thematic content analysis. Training of community health agents aimed to include a professional capable of reflecting on and intervening in the local reality. The Family Health Program - Paidéia included community health agents in the health system to help reorganize the activities in the

  14. Involving lay People in Research and Professional Development Through Gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    a systematic mapping review methodology, the focus was to map and examine research in these types of games or game environments, and to identify potentials and gaps in the field to inform future research. 89 studies were identified through iterative searching and identification processes applying keywords......Due to the increasing significance of games where lay people are involved in generating knowledge for research or development, the current paper presents a mapping review of status and trends in research of games designed for citizen science, crowdsourcing or community driven research. Using...... including crowd sourcing, community based, community driven, citizen science and game or gaming. Of the 89 studies, 32 were identified as eligible for inclusion. The selection criteria included studies that involved digital game formats, lay people without professional knowledge of the processes in which...

  15. Benefits of community-based education to the community in South African health science facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Diab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community-based education (CBE is utilised by health science facultiesworldwide to provide a relevant primary care experience for students and a service tounderserved communities and, hopefully, to affect student career choices. The benefits totraining institutions and students are well documented, but it may well be that communities,too, will be able to benefit from a more balanced partnership, where they are consulted in theplanning of such training programmes.Method: An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken by three South African universitiesin the provinces of Limpopo, KwaZulu-Natal and the Western Cape. Focus group interviewswere conducted in their local languages with groups of community leaders, patients andsupervisors at community sites involved in CBE training. A thematic analysis of their viewswas undertaken with the aid of NVivo (version 9. Ethics approval was obtained from therespective universities and health care training sites.Results: Benefits to the community could be categorised into short-term and long-term benefits.Short-term benefits included improved service delivery, reduction in hospital referrals, homevisits and community orientated primary health care, improved communication with patientsand enhanced professionalism of the health care practitioner. Long-term benefits includedimproved teaching through a relationship with an academic institution and student familiaritywith the health care system. Students also became involved in community upliftment projects,thereby acting as agents of change in these communities.Conclusion: Communities can certainly benefit from well-planned CBE programmes involvinga training site ‑ community site partnership. 

  16. School-Community Partnership Models: Implications for Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Linda; Stefanski, Amanda; Jacobson, Reuben

    2018-01-01

    School-community partnerships have shown promise as an educational reform effort. In these partnerships, schools expand their traditional educational mission to include health and social services for children and families and to involve the broader community. Such partnerships have been found to enhance student learning, strengthen schools and…

  17. Training community health students to develop community-requested social marketing campaigns: an innovative partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Billie J; Hawk, Carol Wetherill

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a sustained partnership between a university community health program and local and regional community health agencies. As a key component of the Health Communication and Social Marketing course, the partnership involves undergraduate community health students working for and with community agencies and community members to design social marketing campaigns based on community-identified health needs. The goals of the course are to (1) provide students with the opportunity to work within the community to apply their skills in program planning, evaluation, and communication and (2) provide community agencies with a tailored campaign that can be implemented in their communities. Throughout the 10-week quarter, teams of students follow the principles of community participation in planning a social marketing campaign. These include (1) audience segmentation and formative assessment with the intended audience to determine campaign content and strategies and (2) pretesting and revisions of campaign messages and materials based on community feedback. This partnership contributes to the promotion of health in the local community and it builds the skills and competencies of future health educators. It demonstrates a successful and sustainable combination of community-based participatory research and experiential learning. From 2005 to 2011, 35 campaigns have been developed, many which have been implemented.

  18. Community-based Ecotourism in Tenganan Dauh Tukad: An Indigenous Conservation Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Sardiana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Community-based ecotourism involves conservation, business, and community development. It is a subset of nature-based tourism that are owned and managed by the community and used to improve the well-being of its community members. Research conducted in Indigenous Tenganan Dauh Tukad Village, Bali. This paper examines the linkage of community participation in ecotourism with the conservation practices and perspectives. This study revealed that there is a positive linkage between community participation to their practices and perspective of conservation. This includes conservation of biodiversity environment and cultural heritage of the local community.

  19. The Art of Community Building the New Age of Participation

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, Jono

    2009-01-01

    Online communities offer a wide range of opportunities today, whether you're supporting a cause, marketing a product or service, or developing open source software. The Art of Community will help you develop the broad range of talents you need to recruit members to your community, motivate and manage them, and help them become active participants. Author Jono Bacon offers a collection of experiences and observations from his decade-long involvement in building and managing communities, including his current position as manager for Ubuntu, arguably the largest community in open source softwa

  20. Moral communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2006-11-01

    This article explores the twin issues of whether organizations can act as ethical agents and what it means to exert moral influence over others. A discursive perspective is advanced that characterizes ethics as the action of communities based on promises. The received view of ethics as either the universal principles or individual responsibility is criticized as inadequate. Moral influence within community is considered under the various headings of democracy, office, brotherhood, agency, witness, and promise making. Moral influence among communities can include the damaging methods of "the superior position," coercion and misrepresentation, and appeal to third parties and the sound methods of rhetoric and promise making.

  1. Developing Learning Communities: Using Communities of Practice within Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawthom, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The idea that communities need to be inclusive is almost axiomatic. The process, whereby, community members engage in inclusive practices is far less understood. Similarly, UK universities are being encouraged to include the wider community and extent campus boundaries. Here, I suggest a particular theoretical lens which sheds light on engagement…

  2. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  3. The Willow Hill Community Health Assessment: Assessing the Needs of Children in a Former Slave Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Moya L; Jackson, Gayle; Jackson, Alvin; Hardy, DeShannon; Gupta, Akrati

    2015-10-01

    The overall purpose of this community needs assessment was to explore the perceptions of health and educational needs among youth residing in a rural Georgia community, document existing assets that could be utilized to meet those needs, and to identify socioeconomic barriers and facilitators in health education. A sequential mixed method design was used. Intercept surveys were conducted followed by individual, key informant interviews and a focus group. Survey data was entered into an Excel spreadsheet and SPSS for analysis and descriptive statistics including means and frequencies were calculated. For qualitative interviews, full transcripts were created from audio-recordings and uploaded into NVivo for content analysis. Several health issues were highlighted by the Willow Hill/Portal Georgia community members, including teachers, parents, youth and Willow Hill Heritage and Renaissance Center board members. Some of the health issues identified by youth in the community were low levels of physical activity, obesity, diabetes, lack of healthy food choices, and access to health care services. Including the issues identified by youth, the parents, teachers and board members identified additional health issues in the community such as asthma, hygiene and lack of dental and eye care facilities. Overall, there is a need for better infrastructure and awareness among community members. Utilizing identified assets, including active community leaders, involved faith-based organizations, commitment of community members, presence of land resources, and commitment to physical activity and sports, could modify the current community landscape.

  4. Partnering with those we serve: using experiential learning activities to support community nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Kathleen; Stewart, Julie G

    2012-01-01

    The concept of community is multidimensional and may include geographical boundaries and/or the shared interests of its members. Community nursing practice involves nurses, patients, and families who collaborate to address health issues and to promote positive health initiatives. Informed by community health theorists, experiential learning activities provide the structure to promote partnering in community nursing practice to achieve outcomes that benefit those who serve and those who are served.

  5. Illuminating the Signals Job Seekers Receive from an Employer's Community Involvement and Environmental Sustainability Practices: Insights into Why Most Job Seekers Are Attracted, Others Are Indifferent, and a Few Are Repelled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David A.; Willness, Chelsea R.; Heller, Kristin W.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that job seekers tend to be attracted to employers known for their corporate social responsibility (CSR), but relatively little is known about the underlying psychological processes. Moreover, the literature is silent about whether and why some job seekers are unaffected, or even repelled by, an employer's CSR. We conducted a substantive replication of recent empirical support for three signal-based mechanisms by adapting the experimental manipulation used in a prior study while employing an alternative approach to analyzing a distinctly different type of data. We also extended prior work by examining other possible explanatory mechanisms and exploring potentially negative reactions to CSR. Using signaling theory as an overarching framework, we assessed research questions and tested hypotheses grounded in theories of employee recruitment and the psychology of CSR, specifying how an employer's CSR practices send signals from which job seekers draw inferences about unknown working conditions, thereby affecting their attraction to the employer. Study participants (N = 108) reviewed the webpages of two hiring companies and responded to open-ended questions about each employer. We content-analyzed written responses pertaining to one employer's webpages in which we embedded an experimental manipulation of information about the employer's community involvement or its environmentally sustainable practices. The results supported hypotheses that corroborate prior evidence for the “perceived value fit” and “expected employee treatment” mechanisms, and provided some, but relatively limited, support for the “anticipated pride” mechanism. Assessment of research questions highlighted previously undiscovered signal-based mechanisms that might help explain job seekers' attraction to CSR (e.g., inferences about the employer's positive work environment and financial standing, and the nature of its employees). Results also showed that a few people were less

  6. Illuminating the Signals Job Seekers Receive from an Employer's Community Involvement and Environmental Sustainability Practices: Insights into Why Most Job Seekers Are Attracted, Others Are Indifferent, and a Few Are Repelled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David A; Willness, Chelsea R; Heller, Kristin W

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that job seekers tend to be attracted to employers known for their corporate social responsibility (CSR), but relatively little is known about the underlying psychological processes. Moreover, the literature is silent about whether and why some job seekers are unaffected, or even repelled by, an employer's CSR. We conducted a substantive replication of recent empirical support for three signal-based mechanisms by adapting the experimental manipulation used in a prior study while employing an alternative approach to analyzing a distinctly different type of data. We also extended prior work by examining other possible explanatory mechanisms and exploring potentially negative reactions to CSR. Using signaling theory as an overarching framework, we assessed research questions and tested hypotheses grounded in theories of employee recruitment and the psychology of CSR, specifying how an employer's CSR practices send signals from which job seekers draw inferences about unknown working conditions, thereby affecting their attraction to the employer. Study participants (N = 108) reviewed the webpages of two hiring companies and responded to open-ended questions about each employer. We content-analyzed written responses pertaining to one employer's webpages in which we embedded an experimental manipulation of information about the employer's community involvement or its environmentally sustainable practices. The results supported hypotheses that corroborate prior evidence for the "perceived value fit" and "expected employee treatment" mechanisms, and provided some, but relatively limited, support for the "anticipated pride" mechanism. Assessment of research questions highlighted previously undiscovered signal-based mechanisms that might help explain job seekers' attraction to CSR (e.g., inferences about the employer's positive work environment and financial standing, and the nature of its employees). Results also showed that a few people were less attracted

  7. Illuminating the signals job seekers receive from an employer’s community involvement and environmental sustainability practices: Insights into why most job seekers are attracted, others are indifferent, and a few are repelled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Jones

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that job seekers tend to be attracted to employers known for their corporate social responsibility (CSR, but relatively little is known about the underlying psychological processes. Moreover, the literature is silent about whether and why some job seekers are unaffected, or even repelled by, an employer’s CSR. We conducted a substantive replication of recent empirical support for three signal-based mechanisms by adapting the experimental manipulation used in a prior study while employing an alternative approach to analyzing a distinctly different type of data. We also extended prior work by examining other possible explanatory mechanisms and exploring potentially negative reactions to CSR. Using signaling theory as an overarching framework, we assessed research questions and tested hypotheses grounded in theories of employee recruitment and the psychology of CSR, specifying how an employer’s CSR practices send signals from which job seekers draw inferences about unknown working conditions, thereby affecting their attraction to the employer. Study participants (N = 108 reviewed the webpages of two hiring companies and responded to open-ended questions about each employer. We content-analyzed written responses pertaining to one employer’s webpages in which we embedded an experimental manipulation of information about the employer’s community involvement or its environmentally sustainable practices. The results supported hypotheses that corroborate prior evidence for the ‘perceived value fit’ and ‘expected employee treatment’ mechanisms, and provided some but relatively limited support for the ‘anticipated pride’ mechanism. Assessment of research questions highlighted previously undiscovered signal-based mechanisms that might help explain job seekers’ attraction to CSR (e.g., inferences about the employer’s positive work environment and financial standing, and the nature of its employees. Results also showed

  8. When participants get involved: reconsidering patient and public involvement in clinical trials at the MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Claire L; Cragg, William J; Cromarty, Ben; Hanley, Bec; South, Annabelle; Stephens, Richard; Sturgeon, Kate; Gafos, Mitzy

    2018-02-07

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) in clinical trials aims to ensure that research is carried out collaboratively with patients and/or members of the public. However, current guidance on involving clinical trial participants in PPI activities is not consistent. We reviewed the concept of participant involvement, based on our experience. Two workshops were held at the MRCCTU at UCL with the aim of defining participant involvement, considering its rationale; benefits and challenges; and identifying appropriate models for participant involvement in clinical trials. We considered how participant involvement might complement the involvement of other public contributors. Both workshops were attended by two patient representatives and seven staff members with experience of PPI in trials. Two of the staff members had also been involved in studies that had actively involved participants. They shared details of that work to inform discussions. We defined trial participants as individuals taking part in the study in question, including those who had already completed their trial treatment and/or follow-up. Because of their direct experience, involving participants may offer advantages over other public contributors; for example, in studies of new interventions or procedures, and where it is hard to identify or reach patient or community groups that include or speak for the study population. Participant involvement is possible at all stages of a trial; however, because there are no participants to involve during the design stage of a trial, prior to enrolment, participant involvement should complement and not replace involvement of PPI stakeholders. A range of models, including those with managerial, oversight or responsive roles are appropriate for involving participants; however, involvement in data safety and monitoring committees may not be appropriate where there is a potential risk of unblinding. Involvement of participants can improve the trial experience for other

  9. Is community-based participatory research (CBPR useful? A systematic review on papers in a decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Salimi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Some evidences were found for potentially effective strategies to increase the participant′s levels of CBPR activities. Interventions that included community involvement have the potential to make important differences to levels of activities and should be promoted.

  10. Who and What Does Involvement Involve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Petersen, A.; Huniche, L.

    2015-01-01

    , and on what grounds, involvement of relatives is perceived in Danish psychiatry. Paradoxically, the current understanding of involvement of relatives fails to take into consideration the perspectives of the relatives per se and families that were being studied. By analyzing involvement from a discourse...... the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family....

  11. Statistical Design Features of the Healthy Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Warren J; Sroka, Christopher J; Frongillo, Edward A; Arteaga, S Sonia; Loria, Catherine M; Leifer, Eric S; Wu, Colin O; Patrick, Heather; Fishbein, Howard A; John, Lisa V

    2015-10-01

    The Healthy Communities Study is designed to assess relationships between characteristics of community programs and policies targeting childhood obesity and children's BMI, diet, and physical activity. The study involved a complex data collection protocol implemented over a 2-year period (2013-2015) across a diverse sample of 130 communities, defined as public high school catchment areas. The protocol involved baseline assessment within each community that included in-person or telephone interviews regarding community programs and policies and in-home collection of BMI, nutritional, and physical activity outcomes from a sample of up to 81 children enrolled in kindergarten through eighth grade in public schools. The protocol also involved medical record reviews to establish a longitudinal trajectory of BMI for an estimated 70% of participating children. Staged sampling was used to collect less detailed measures of physical activity and nutrition across the entire sample of children, with a subset assessed using more costly, burdensome, and detailed measures. Data from the Healthy Community Study will be analyzed using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models that account for the complex design and correct for measurement error and bias using a likelihood-based Markov-chain Monte Carlo methodology. This methods paper provides insights into the complex design features of the Healthy Communities Study and may serve as an example for future large-scale studies that assess the relationship between community-based programs and policies and health outcomes of community residents. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Report to the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braungart, S.; Ripley, M.

    2001-10-01

    In this document, Petro-Canada reports to the stakeholders on non-financial issues that have an impact on the communities in which the company operates. It is the first such annual report. The document touches environmental performance measures, the company's commitment and involvement in the various communities where it has a presence, health and safety, high-performance work environment for the employees, as well as business principles that guide the making of decisions. Some basic information concerning Petro-Canada is presented, followed by an overview of the corporate responsibility. The next section of the report is concerned with the environment. It is further divided into categories such as energy, air quality, water quality, regulatory compliance, environmental investments, waste management, and product quality. The section devoted to employee well-being addresses the work environment, and health and safety. The values and ethical decision-making are discussed in the next section, including the code of business conduct, corporate values, criteria for ethical decision-making, relationship with suppliers and business associates, community investment. The major growth areas, like Newfoundland, Northern Alberta, the Mackenzie Delta all benefit from a special sub-section that brushes on the major accomplishments. The report concludes by a statement concerning the contribution made by Petro-Canada to the Canadian economy. figs

  13. Community Radiation Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, R.P. Jr.; Cooper, E.N.; McArthur, R.D.

    1990-05-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program began its ninth year in the summer of 1989, continuing as an essential portion of the Environmental Protection Agency's long-standing off-site monitoring effort. It is a cooperative venture between the Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the University of Utah (U of U), and the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the University of Nevada System. The objectives of the program include enhancing and augmenting the collection of environmental radiation data at selected sites around the Nevada Test Site (NTS), increasing public awareness of that effort, and involving, in as many ways as possible, the residents of the off-site area in these and other areas related to testing nuclear weapons. This understanding and improved communication is fostered by hiring residents of the communities where the monitoring stations are located as program representatives, presenting public education forums in those and other communities, disseminating information on radiation monitoring and related subjects, and developing and maintaining contacts with local citizens and elected officials in the off-site areas. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Chinese Involvement in Nigeria's Infrastructural Development for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chinese Involvement in Nigeria's Infrastructural Development for Poverty Reduction: The Case of Idundu Bridge, Cross River State. ... This study aimed to determine the socio-economic impact of Chinese involvement in village road construction at the community level in Nigeria. We specifically examined the impact of the ...

  15. Pioneering partnerships: Resident involvement from multiple perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baur, V.E.; Abma, T.A.; Boelsma, F.; Woelders, S.

    2013-01-01

    Resident involvement in residential care homes is a challenge due to shortcomings of consumerist and formal approaches such as resident councils. The PARTNER approach aims to involve residents through collective action to improve their community life and wellbeing. The purpose of this article is to

  16. Desertification treaty includes key role for scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    When Lois Barber, executive director of the non-profit group EarthAction, began efforts to press for U.S. Senate ratification of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification several years ago, the treaty's purpose tripped up some people, she said. They wondered whether it might be a treaty related to military personnel who had abandoned their service, de-certification of something or other, or even an overabundance of after-dinner treats. While the issue may not yet rate highly on the U.S. radar screen, U.S. Senate ratification of the Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD) on November 17, 2000 and entry into force of the treaty in the United States on February 2, 2001, could bring additional focus on desertification from the scientific community and policy-makers, according to a number of experts involved with the issue. The treaty now has been ratified by 174 countries.

  17. Understanding community-based processes for research ethics review: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Nancy; Brazauskas, Ruta; Drew, Elaine; Wong, Kristine A; Moy, Lisa; Baden, Andrea Corage; Cyr, Kirsten; Ulevicus, Jocelyn; Seifer, Sarena D

    2011-12-01

    Institutional review boards (IRBs), designed to protect individual study participants, do not routinely assess community consent, risks, and benefits. Community groups are establishing ethics review processes to determine whether and how research is conducted in their communities. To strengthen the ethics review of community-engaged research, we sought to identify and describe these processes. In 2008 we conducted an online survey of US-based community groups and community-institutional partnerships involved in human-participants research. We identified 109 respondents who met participation criteria and had ethics review processes in place. The respondents' processes mainly functioned through community-institutional partnerships, community-based organizations, community health centers, and tribal organizations. These processes had been created primarily to ensure that the involved communities were engaged in and directly benefited from research and were protected from research harms. The primary process benefits included giving communities a voice in determining which studies were conducted and ensuring that studies were relevant and feasible, and that they built community capacity. The primary process challenges were the time and resources needed to support the process. Community-based processes for ethics review consider community-level ethical issues that institution-based IRBs often do not.

  18. Between Community Law and Common Law: The Rise of the Caribbean Court of Justice at the Intersection of Regional Integration and Post-Colonial Legacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserta, Salvatore; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the rise of the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) post-colonial legacies. Topics discussed include Caribbean Community (CARICOM) which accepted the Court's jurisdiction to interpret and apply the Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas (RTC); empowerment of CCJ for hearing cases invol...... involving Caribbean Community law (Community law); and CCJ's unique double jurisdiction.....

  19. Community case management of malaria: exploring support, capacity and motivation of community medicine distributors in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banek, Kristin; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Maiteki-Sebuguzi, Catherine; DiLiberto, Deborah; Taaka, Lilian; Chandler, Clare I R; Staedke, Sarah G

    2015-05-01

    In Uganda, community services for febrile children are expanding from presumptive treatment of fever with anti-malarials through the home-based management of fever (HBMF) programme, to include treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia through Integrated Community Case Management (ICCM). To understand the level of support available, and the capacity and motivation of community health workers to deliver these expanded services, we interviewed community medicine distributors (CMDs), who had been involved in the HBMF programme in Tororo district, shortly before ICCM was adopted. Between October 2009 and April 2010, 100 CMDs were recruited to participate by convenience sampling. The survey included questionnaires to gather information about the CMDs' work experience and to assess knowledge of fever case management, and in-depth interviews to discuss experiences as CMDs including motivation, supervision and relationships with the community. All questionnaires and knowledge assessments were analysed. Summary contact sheets were made for each of the 100 interviews and 35 were chosen for full transcription and analysis. CMDs faced multiple challenges including high patient load, limited knowledge and supervision, lack of compensation, limited drugs and supplies, and unrealistic expectations of community members. CMDs described being motivated to volunteer for altruistic reasons; however, the main benefits of their work appeared related to 'becoming someone important', with the potential for social mobility for self and family, including building relationships with health workers. At the time of the survey, over half of CMDs felt demotivated due to limited support from communities and the health system. Community health worker programmes rely on the support of communities and health systems to operate sustainably. When this support falls short, motivation of volunteers can wane. If community interventions, in increasingly complex forms, are to become the solution to

  20. Characterizing the Use of Research-Community Partnerships in Studies of Evidence-Based Interventions in Children's Community Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Stahmer, Aubyn; Stadnick, Nicole; Chlebowski, Colby; Herschell, Amy; Garland, Ann F

    2016-01-01

    This study characterized the use of research community partnerships (RCPs) to tailor evidence-based intervention, training, and implementation models for delivery across different childhood problems and service contexts using a survey completed by project principal investigators and community partners. To build on previous RCP research and to explicate the tacit knowledge gained through collaborative efforts, the following were examined: (1) characteristics of studies using RCP models; (2) RCP functioning, processes, and products; (3) processes of tailoring evidence-based practices for community implementation; and (4) perceptions of the benefits and challenges of collaborating with community providers and consumers. Results indicated that researchers were solely or jointly involved in the formation of almost all of the RCPs; interpersonal and operational processes were perceived as primary challenges; community partners' roles included greater involvement in implementation and participant recruitment than more traditional research activities; and the partnership process was perceived to increase the relevance and "fit" of interventions and research.

  1. Community Assessment: A Current Essential Need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Lotfi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Health; as a basic right of the people and essential demand; should be considered as a joint responsibility of the government and people of a community. As much as the people of a community aware and involved in the individual health promotion and problem solving of their community in all dimensions, the probability of reaching to favorable health measurements is also increased. Community assessment is considered as a foundation for health improving and promoting the community members. The main objectives of community assessment are; to identify factors that affect the health of a population and determine the availability of resources within the community to adequately address these factors. In this Vera, community leaders, public health agencies, businesses, hospitals, private practitioners, and academic centers have each one a defined role. These groups can begin to answer key questions such as (a “What are the strengths in our community?” (b “What health concerns do community members have?” and (c “What resources are available and what do we need in the community to address these concerns? An important use of a community health assessment is to create Community Health Action to develop effective community health strategies. The health reform plan of Islamic Republic of Iran, started at the earlier months of the current year (2014, with establishing of the family physician program begun firstly at the level of rural regions, then will developed to cities with population 20000 to 500000 also borderlines of metropolitans cities and finally in the future, covering all urban eras of cities in the country aimed to executive the referral system with all its attributes. Being a full time physician along with a comprehensive teamwork including different prestigious health workers prepare a gold opportunity for implementation of community assessment in these regions. Although, some efforts have been accomplished in some parts of country by

  2. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Eyes Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in ... some form of eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of ...

  3. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  4. Including Students with Severe Disabilities in General Education Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Lech; Alper, Sandra

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents five systematic phases for bringing about successful regular education inclusion of students with severe disabilities. Phases include develop networks within the community, assess school and community resources, review strategies for integration, install strategies that lead to integration, and develop a system of feedback and…

  5. Public health impact of community-based nutrition and lifestyle interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Kok, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Community-based interventions have increasingly received attention since researchers and public health professionals have come to acknowledge the importance of an environment that makes the healthy choice the easy choice. All stakeholders including the target community are involved to achieve

  6. Factors Limiting Formation of Community Forestry Enterprises in the Southern Mixteca Region of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aguilar, José Antonio; Cortina-Villar, Héctor Sergio; García-Barrios, Luis Enrique; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel Ángel

    2017-03-01

    Many studies have considered community-based forestry enterprises to be the best option for development of rural Mexican communities with forests. While some of Mexico's rural communities with forests receive significant economic and social benefits from having a community forestry enterprise, the majority have not formed such enterprises. The purpose of this article is to identify and describe factors limiting the formation of community forestry enterprise in rural communities with temperate forests in the Southern Mixteca region of Oaxaca, Mexico. The study involved fieldwork, surveys applied to Community Board members, and maps developed from satellite images in order to calculate the forested surface area. It was found that the majority of Southern Mixteca communities lack the natural and social conditions necessary for developing community forestry enterprise; in this region, commercial forestry is limited due to insufficient precipitation, scarcity of land or timber species, community members' wariness of commercial timber extraction projects, ineffective local governance, lack of capital, and certain cultural beliefs. Only three of the 25 communities surveyed have a community forestry enterprise; however, several communities have developed other ways of profiting from their forests, including pine resin extraction, payment for environmental services (PES), sale of spring water, and ecotourism. We conclude that community forestry enterprise are not the only option for rural communities to generate income from their forests; in recent years a variety of forest-related economic opportunities have arisen which are less demanding of communities' physical and social resources.

  7. Common and Critical Components Among Community Health Assessment and Community Health Improvement Planning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennel, Cara L; Burdine, James N; Prochaska, John D; McLeroy, Kenneth R

    Community health assessment and community health improvement planning are continuous, systematic processes for assessing and addressing health needs in a community. Since there are different models to guide assessment and planning, as well as a variety of organizations and agencies that carry out these activities, there may be confusion in choosing among approaches. By examining the various components of the different assessment and planning models, we are able to identify areas for coordination, ways to maximize collaboration, and strategies to further improve community health. We identified 11 common assessment and planning components across 18 models and requirements, with a particular focus on health department, health system, and hospital models and requirements. These common components included preplanning; developing partnerships; developing vision and scope; collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data; identifying community assets; identifying priorities; developing and implementing an intervention plan; developing and implementing an evaluation plan; communicating and receiving feedback on the assessment findings and/or the plan; planning for sustainability; and celebrating success. Within several of these components, we discuss characteristics that are critical to improving community health. Practice implications include better understanding of different models and requirements by health departments, hospitals, and others involved in assessment and planning to improve cross-sector collaboration, collective impact, and community health. In addition, federal and state policy and accreditation requirements may be revised or implemented to better facilitate assessment and planning collaboration between health departments, hospitals, and others for the purpose of improving community health.

  8. Enabling Stakeholder Involvement in Coastal Disaster Resilience Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, Thomas P; Holzer, Thomas H; Sarkani, Shahryar

    2017-06-01

    Coastal hazards including storm surge, sea-level rise, and cyclone winds continue to have devastating effects on infrastructure systems and communities despite costly investments in risk management. Risk management has generally not been sufficiently focused on coastal resilience, with community stakeholders involved in the process of making their coastline, as a system, more resilient to coastal storms. Thus, without stakeholder earlier involvement in coastal resilience planning for their community, they are frustrated after disasters occur. The U.S. National Academies has defined resilience as "the ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from, and more successfully adapt to adverse events"(National Research Council). This article introduces a methodology for enabling stakeholder-involved resilience discussions across physical, information, cognitive, and social domains. The methodology addresses the stages of resilience-prepare, absorb, recover, and adapt-and integrates performance assessment with scenario analysis to characterize disruptions of risk-management priorities. The methodology is illustrated through a case study at Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Enhancing Community Service Learning Via Practical Learning Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Ronen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of learning communities focused on analyzing social issues and educational repercussions in the field are presented in this study. The research examines the contribution of a learning community to enhancing student teachers' responsibility and their social involvement. The assumption was that participating in learning community would further implement student teachers' community social involvement while enhancing responsibility in their field of action. A questionnaire aimed to present the student teachers' attitudes involving all aspects of studying in the learning community and their social activity in the community was conducted. The findings pinpointed that there were positive contributions of the learning communities from a personal aspect such as developing self-learning, and learning about “me”, as well as broaden their teaching skills, through methodology for teacher training, and developing reflective thought. These insights can also be implemented in various educational frameworks and during service learning as part of teacher training.

  10. Public interest group involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, P.

    1986-01-01

    Including public interest groups in the siting process for nuclear waste disposal facilities is of great importance. Controversial sitings often result in litigation, but involving public interest groups early in the process will lessen the change of this. They act as surrogates for the general public and should be considered as members of the team. It is important to remember though, that all public interest groups are different. In choosing public panels such as public advisory committees, members should not be chosen on the basis of some quota. Opposition groups should not be excluded. Also, it is important to put the right person in charge of the committee. The goal of public involvement is to identify the conflicts. This must be done during the decision process, because conflicts must be known before they can be eliminated. Regarding litigation, it is important to ease through and around legal battles. If the siting process has integrity and a good faith effort has been shown, the court should uphold the effort. In addition, it is important to be negotiable and to eliminate shortcuts

  11. Who wants to be involved in health care decisions? Comparing preferences for individual and collective involvement in England and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mio Fredriksson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient and public involvement (PPI is framed as positive for individuals, the health system, public health, as well as for communities and society as a whole. We investigated whether preferences for PPI differed between two countries with Beveridge type health systems–Sweden and England. We measured willingness to be involved in individual treatment decisions and in decisions about the organization and provision of local health and social care services. Methods This was a comparative cross-sectional study of the general population’s preferences. Together, the two samples included 3125 respondents; 1625 in England and 1500 in Sweden. Country differences were analysed in a multinomial regression model controlling for gender, age and educational attainment. Results Overall, 68% of respondents wanted a passive patient role and 44% wanted to be involved in local decisions about organization and provision of services. In comparison with in Sweden, they were in England less likely to want a health professional such as a GP or consultant to make decisions about their treatment and also more likely to want to make their own decisions. They were also less likely to want to be involved in local service development decisions. An increased likelihood of wanting to be involved in organizational decision-making was associated with individuals wanting to make their own treatment decisions. Women were less likely to want health professionals to make decisions and more likely to want to be involved in organizational decisions. Conclusions An effective health system that ensures public health must integrate an effective approach to PPI both in individual treatment decisions and shaping local health and social care priorities. To be effective, involvement activities must take in to account the variation in the desire for involvement and the implications that this has for equity. More work is needed to understand the relationship between the

  12. Who wants to be involved in health care decisions? Comparing preferences for individual and collective involvement in England and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Mio; Eriksson, Max; Tritter, Jonathan

    2017-07-14

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) is framed as positive for individuals, the health system, public health, as well as for communities and society as a whole. We investigated whether preferences for PPI differed between two countries with Beveridge type health systems-Sweden and England. We measured willingness to be involved in individual treatment decisions and in decisions about the organization and provision of local health and social care services. This was a comparative cross-sectional study of the general population's preferences. Together, the two samples included 3125 respondents; 1625 in England and 1500 in Sweden. Country differences were analysed in a multinomial regression model controlling for gender, age and educational attainment. Overall, 68% of respondents wanted a passive patient role and 44% wanted to be involved in local decisions about organization and provision of services. In comparison with in Sweden, they were in England less likely to want a health professional such as a GP or consultant to make decisions about their treatment and also more likely to want to make their own decisions. They were also less likely to want to be involved in local service development decisions. An increased likelihood of wanting to be involved in organizational decision-making was associated with individuals wanting to make their own treatment decisions. Women were less likely to want health professionals to make decisions and more likely to want to be involved in organizational decisions. An effective health system that ensures public health must integrate an effective approach to PPI both in individual treatment decisions and shaping local health and social care priorities. To be effective, involvement activities must take in to account the variation in the desire for involvement and the implications that this has for equity. More work is needed to understand the relationship between the desire to be involved and actually being involved, but both appear

  13. [Father involvement in childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalón, H; Toro, R; Riesco, I; Pinto, M; Silva, C

    2014-10-01

    Recent initiatives have promoted the participation of fathers in the early care of their children. To assess the results of a program to encourage parental involvement in childbirth. Parents of healthy term newborns were randomly allocated to participate either in the birth experience or control. The protocol included: to dry the skin, umbilical cord cutting off, weight, height, and finally give him/her to the mother for the skin-to-skin contact. Heart rate (HR), respiratory (RR) and temperature were evaluated one hour later. In the first outpatient clinic assessment, mothers completed a questionnaire. 127 fathers participated either in the birth experience or control. 62 followed the protocol and 65 the control. Both newborn groups were comparable. Also were fathers in age, education and rurality; mothers in primiparity. Significant differences: night care (37/62, 10/65 59.6% vs 15.4%, pfathers at birth, even belonging to a discouraging socio cultural environment.

  14. Involvement Without Participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a case study of a knowledge-intensive company that launched a 2-year project to improve their psychosocial working environment. All parties agreed on the project, and the methods used aimed to promote the involvement of the employees. Surprisingly, the psychosocial working...... and participation. In order to develop a more sustainable and viable psychosocial working environment, a broader and more democratic notion of organisational learning and managing is proposed....... environment did not improve; on the contrary, it deteriorated. The article highlights cultural and structural obstacles to the process, including an inadequate understanding of organisational learning and a narrow focus on market and competition. The endeavours did not consistently increase delegation...

  15. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  16. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  17. The growth of community education in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Keith

    1980-09-01

    There is considerable confusion over the terms `community' and `community education'. This paper explores these concepts, traces the growth of different models of community education in the United Kingdom, and highlights some of the issues, weaknesses and problems arising from its development. Two separate movements, evolutionary and revolutionary, are identified — school-based and community-based respectively — though in recent years the difference in practice has become blurred. Trends discernible in the development of community education include its increasing application to urban and high-density residential areas and the accompanying growth in the size of the institutions — and in the range of facilities offered. There is also the tendency to label a school/college `community' simply because it provides extra facilities although there is no modification of management structures or of the curriculum. Unresolved as yet is the change in the relationship between school and community effected by community education, one element of which is the reaction on pupils and staff of sharing institutional facilities with the community. Additionally, the larger an institution grows and the more complex the administrative structure it requires, so also the more impersonal does it become and the less able to express or create a real sense of community. What is needed if community education is to fulfil its purpose is community participation in management and decision-making — with adequate structures to facilitate this `lay' involvement, community control over part at least of the funds, appropriate training of teachers and community workers for their wider roles, and above all, consideration and articulation of the particular needs of each individual community.

  18. Organizing Patient Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm Johansen, Mette

    Patient involvement has become a part of the political agenda in Danish healthcare. Patients are to be involved not only in questions and decisions relating to their own treatment and care – to involve patients in quality improvement has also become a political expectation of quality work in Danish...... hospitals. During the last 25 years, patient involvement and quality improvement have become connected in Danish healthcare policy. However, the ideal of involving patients in quality improvement is described in very general terms and with only few specific expectations of how it is to be carried out...... in practice, as I show in the thesis. In the patient involvement literature, the difficulties of getting patient involvement in quality improvement to have in an impact on the planning and development of healthcare services is, for example, ascribed to conceptual vagueness of patient involvement, differences...

  19. Community responses to CBG experiences in BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, M. [British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Coalbed gas (CBG) is expected to play a prominent role in British Columbia in the future, and the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is looking to generate $20 billion of cumulative investment in the oil and gas sector by 2008 through the identification, stimulation, and facilitation of development opportunities for under-developed and unconventional resources. A brief overview of CBG potential in the province was provided. The common concerns that have been expressed by diverse communities throughout the province include jobs, economic growth opportunities, and environmental impact. These communities are composed of landowners, business people, other resource owners, municipal and regional governments, general public, environmental interest groups, and First Nations. The government's approach to communities involves consultation with First Nations, which are key to resource development and have very diverse interests and approaches. The approach includes real communication, real information, and real issues. Good community relations should lead to reduced uncertainty for development, better resource development through the identification of issues, and increased confidence in government, regulators and industry by communities. The roles of the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines and the Oil and Gas Commission were described, as they relate to community relations in the province. Lessons learned on topics such as water, land disturbance, and baseline studies while working with First Nations were reviewed, . figs.

  20. Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

    2010-05-01

    Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

  1. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  2. Nonseparable exchange-correlation functional for molecules, including homogeneous catalysis involving transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haoyu S; Zhang, Wenjing; Verma, Pragya; He, Xiao; Truhlar, Donald G

    2015-05-14

    The goal of this work is to develop a gradient approximation to the exchange-correlation functional of Kohn-Sham density functional theory for treating molecular problems with a special emphasis on the prediction of quantities important for homogeneous catalysis and other molecular energetics. Our training and validation of exchange-correlation functionals is organized in terms of databases and subdatabases. The key properties required for homogeneous catalysis are main group bond energies (database MGBE137), transition metal bond energies (database TMBE32), reaction barrier heights (database BH76), and molecular structures (database MS10). We also consider 26 other databases, most of which are subdatabases of a newly extended broad database called Database 2015, which is presented in the present article and in its ESI. Based on the mathematical form of a nonseparable gradient approximation (NGA), as first employed in the N12 functional, we design a new functional by using Database 2015 and by adding smoothness constraints to the optimization of the functional. The resulting functional is called the gradient approximation for molecules, or GAM. The GAM functional gives better results for MGBE137, TMBE32, and BH76 than any available generalized gradient approximation (GGA) or than N12. The GAM functional also gives reasonable results for MS10 with an MUE of 0.018 Å. The GAM functional provides good results both within the training sets and outside the training sets. The convergence tests and the smooth curves of exchange-correlation enhancement factor as a function of the reduced density gradient show that the GAM functional is a smooth functional that should not lead to extra expense or instability in optimizations. NGAs, like GGAs, have the advantage over meta-GGAs and hybrid GGAs of respectively smaller grid-size requirements for integrations and lower costs for extended systems. These computational advantages combined with the relatively high accuracy for all the key properties needed for molecular catalysis make the GAM functional very promising for future applications.

  3. 45 CFR 400.208 - Claims involving family units which include both refugees and nonrefugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... refugees and nonrefugees. 400.208 Section 400.208 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Federal Funding Federal Funding for Expenditures for Determining...

  4. IBF: An Integrated Business Framework for Virtual Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Ferri; Alessia D’Andrea; Patrizia Grifoni

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides an integrated business framework for Business-to-Business, Business-to-Consumer and Consumer-to-Consumer Virtual Communities. The framework involves internal and external factors. Internal factors that include: market analysis; products/services promotion; development of trust; social influence and Knowledge sharing, differ from the different orientations of the framework, while the external factors involve competitors and technological aspects that, while differing from th...

  5. [Being personal: the development of community psychiatric mental health nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Shu-Jen; Lee, Shu-Hong

    2009-08-01

    Community psychiatric mental health nursing care emphasizes humanistic values and focuses on serving patient and family needs. In Taiwan, such care is delivered largely as part of patient discharge care plans and hospital / community based service models. Issues involved underscore the importance of operating an effective and integrated transfer system, the role and function of nurses and training in relevant competencies (Shiau, Huang & Lin, 2005). This article again emphasizes the importance of 'being personal' in the development of community psychiatric mental health nursing in Taiwan. Critical issues to consider include humanization, empowerment, nursing competencies, regulations, relating on a personal level, and facilitating empowerment and enlightenment on the healing process.

  6. An Accounting System for Solid Waste Management in Small Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zausner, Eric R.

    This pamphlet provides a guide to the type and quantity of information to be collected for effective solid waste management in small communities. It is directed at municipal or private personnel involved in the operation and ownership of management facilities. Sample activity reports are included for reference. (CS)

  7. Sustaining Members, Volunteers, and Leaders in Community Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Ken, III

    2013-01-01

    Community organizations must be self-sustaining in order to remain active, viable, and strong. The three primary steps involved in sustaining members, volunteers, and leaders include evaluate, recognize, and either retain, redirect, or disengage. A volunteer performance evaluation will determine whether individual and organizational goals are…

  8. Library Automation at a Multi-Campus Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Deirdre A.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the planning and implementation of a library automation system which encompasses four campus locations of a community college, and includes automation of technical processes and full access to holdings and circulation records of all the libraries involved. Software and hardware considerations are discussed, and guidelines to automation…

  9. Student Motivation in Science Subjects in Tanzania, Including Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkimbili, Selina Thomas; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    Fostering and maintaining students' interest in science is an important aspect of improving science learning. The focus of this paper is to listen to and reflect on students' voices regarding the sources of motivation for science subjects among students in community secondary schools with contextual challenges in Tanzania. We conducted a group-interview study of 46 Form 3 and Form 4 Tanzanian secondary school students. The study findings reveal that the major contextual challenges to student motivation for science in the studied schools are limited resources and students' insufficient competence in the language of instruction. Our results also reveal ways to enhance student motivation for science in schools with contextual challenges; these techniques include the use of questioning techniques and discourse, students' investigations and practical work using locally available materials, study tours, more integration of classroom science into students' daily lives and the use of real-life examples in science teaching. Also we noted that students' contemporary life, culture and familiar language can be utilised as a useful resource in facilitating meaningful learning in science in the school. Students suggested that, to make science interesting to a majority of students in a Tanzanian context, science education needs to be inclusive of students' experiences, culture and contemporary daily lives. Also, science teaching and learning in the classroom need to involve learners' voices.

  10. Opening the Black Box: Conceptualizing Community Engagement From 109 Community-Academic Partnership Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed M; Maurana, Cheryl; Nelson, David; Meister, Tim; Young, Sharon Neu; Lucey, Paula

    2016-01-01

    This research effort includes a large scale study of 109 community-academic partnership projects funded by the Healthier Wisconsin Partnership Program (HWPP), a component of the Advancing a Healthier Wisconsin endowment at the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The study provides an analysis unlike other studies, which have been smaller, and/or more narrowly focused in the type of community-academic partnership projects analyzed. To extract themes and insights for the benefit of future community-academic partnerships and the field of community-engaged research (CEnR). Content analysis of the final reports submitted by 109 community-academic partnership projects awards within the time frame of March 2005 to August 2011. Thirteen themes emerged from the report analysis: community involvement, health accomplishments, capacity building, sustainability, collaboration, communication, best practices, administration, relationship building, clarity, adjustment of plan, strategic planning, and time. Data supported previous studies in the importance of some themes, and provided insights regarding how these themes are impactful. The case analysis revealed new insights into the characteristics of these themes, which the authors then grouped into three categories: foundational attributes of successful community-academic partnership, potential challenges of community-academic partnerships, and outcomes of community-academic partnerships. The insights gained from these reports further supports previous research extolling the benefits of community-academic partnerships and provides valuable direction for future partners, funders and evaluators in how to deal with challenges and what they can anticipate and plan for in developing and managing community-academic partnership projects.

  11. Communication and Stakeholder Involvement in Environmental Remediation Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The way in which members of the public perceive a contamination situation and an approach to the remediation of contaminated land will influence the decision making process in a variety of ways. Through communication between experts, decision makers and members of stakeholder communities, participatory processes and negotiation between different interest groups can sometimes be used effectively as mechanisms for improving the overall decision making process. The intention is to ensure a technically sound and socially acceptable decision that meets norms of adequacy or satisfactory performance in relation to a whole range of different concerns. Good communication strategies will encourage cooperation and understanding between different interested parties in remediation projects. Involvement of affected or interested persons can prevent fear driven reactions, which potentially damage public response and create undue expectations or unnecessary anxiety. For all environmental remediation (ER) cases, there is a risk that the process will fail if it does not respect social, environmental, political and economic dimensions. This requires open, clear and mutually agreed lines of communication among stakeholders within a well defined legal framework. A general recommendation is to involve them from a very early point in the process. This publication presents ER in plain language in such a way that implementers and regulators can communicate the motives and objectives of remediation projects to a variety of stakeholder communities in order to improve mutual understanding and facilitate dialogue between interested parties. ER is considered from two perspectives: technical and non-technical. A section that gives general ideas on the strategies to deal with stakeholder involvement and which discusses different aspects of the communication approaches in ER is then included. It is recognized that social, cultural and political situations are very diverse in different countries in

  12. Inclusive Briefing and User Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    Briefing is not just about specifying needs as requirements but also about evaluating how well design proposals fulfil needs and aspirations. Furthermore, briefing is not only about building design. Briefing starts at the preproject stage to create a basis for the project decision and can include...... by top management. The article describes the briefing processes and the methods for user involvement, identifies problem areas and points out possible improvements. The author was actively involved in the project as deputy project director, with responsibility for the briefing process, and is now...... includes a literature study on briefing and user involvement in building projects, and presents a case study of a major building project of a new headquarters and media centre for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation in Copenhagen. The building project was actively used as part of a corporate change process...

  13. Community based research in poor urban Lilongwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights the processes of conducting community-based participatory research within an operational research project in Lilongwe under the title of Extending Services to Communities (ESC). The project involves developing partnerships with community leaders, storekeepers and community members to enhance ...

  14. Evaluation of the Community School Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    This paper explores the concept of the community school. A community school emphasizes wholehearted involvement by all living in the designated community area. The Porter Rural School, Missouri, established by Marie Turner Harvey with the help of Evelyn Dewey and her father John Dewey, was an outstanding example of the community school concept…

  15. National Community Solar Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupert, Bart [Clean Energy Collective, Louisville, CO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was created to provide a National Community Solar Platform (NCSP) portal known as Community Solar Hub, that is available to any entity or individual who wants to develop community solar. This has been done by providing a comprehensive portal to make CEC’s solutions, and other proven community solar solutions, externally available for everyone to access – making the process easy through proven platforms to protect subscribers, developers and utilities. The successful completion of this project provides these tools via a web platform and integration APIs, a wide spectrum of community solar projects included in the platform, multiple groups of customers (utilities, EPCs, and advocates) using the platform to develop community solar, and open access to anyone interested in community solar. CEC’s Incubator project includes web-based informational resources, integrated systems for project information and billing systems, and engagement with customers and users by community solar experts. The combined effort externalizes much of Clean Energy Collective’s industry-leading expertise, allowing third parties to develop community solar without duplicating expensive start-up efforts. The availability of this platform creates community solar projects that are cheaper to build and cheaper to participate in, furthering the goals of DOE’s SunShot Initiative. Final SF 425 Final SF 428 Final DOE F 2050.11 Final Report Narrative

  16. Relating Anaerobic Digestion Microbial Community and Process Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkiteshwaran, Kaushik; Bocher, Benjamin; Maki, James; Zitomer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) involves a consortium of microorganisms that convert substrates into biogas containing methane for renewable energy. The technology has suffered from the perception of being periodically unstable due to limited understanding of the relationship between microbial community structure and function. The emphasis of this review is to describe microbial communities in digesters and quantitative and qualitative relationships between community structure and digester function. Progress has been made in the past few decades to identify key microorganisms influencing AD. Yet, more work is required to realize robust, quantitative relationships between microbial community structure and functions such as methane production rate and resilience after perturbations. Other promising areas of research for improved AD may include methods to increase/control (1) hydrolysis rate, (2) direct interspecies electron transfer to methanogens, (3) community structure–function relationships of methanogens, (4) methanogenesis via acetate oxidation, and (5) bioaugmentation to study community–activity relationships or improve engineered bioprocesses. PMID:27127410

  17. Commericial Involvement in Intramurals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Gerry

    Sport in general has long had ties with commercial interests, the most popular and widespread involving publicity. Intramural sports programs, however, have not cultivated many commercial involvements in publicity. The approach in intramural sports advertising is simple. A commercial interest pays for space or time in a given communication media…

  18. Conversational Involvement and Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the relationship of conversational involvement and loneliness among college students. Found that lonely participants in this study had lower rates of talkativeness, interruptions, and attention than the nonlonely; they were also perceived as less involved and less interpersonally attractive. (PD)

  19. Measurement and visualization of face-to-face interaction among community-dwelling older adults using wearable sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Kouhei; Yaguchi, Takaharu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tani, Hideaki; Tozuka, Keisuke; Kondo, Narihiko; Okada, Shuichi

    2017-10-01

    A number of interventions have been undertaken to develop and promote social networks among community-dwelling older adults. However, it has been difficult to examine the effects of these interventions, because of problems in assessing interactions. The present study was designed to quantitatively measure and visualize face-to-face interactions among elderly participants in an exercise program. We also examined relationships among interactional variables, personality and interest in community involvement, including interactions with the local community. Older adults living in the same community were recruited to participate in an exercise program that consisted of four sessions. We collected data on face-to-face interactions of the participants by using a wearable sensor technology device. Network analysis identified the communication networks of participants in the exercise program, as well as changes in these networks. Additionally, there were significant correlations between the number of people involved in face-to-face interactions and changes in both interest in community involvement and interactions with local community residents, as well as personality traits, including agreeableness. Social networks in the community are essential for solving problems caused by the aging society. We showed the possible applications of face-to-face interactional data for identifying core participants having many interactions, and isolated participants having only a few interactions within the community. Such data would be useful for carrying out efficient interventions for increasing participants' involvement with their community. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1752-1758. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Community integration after deployment to Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Andersen, Søren B.

    2015-01-01

    such as interpersonal functioning, productivity, community involvement, and self-care. Mean level of reintegration difficulties differed significantly across six PTSD symptom trajectories (range 6.35-36.00); with more symptomatic trajectories experiencing greater community reintegration difficulties. CONCLUSIONS...

  1. Lessons From a Pilot Community-Driven Approach for Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgendorf, Amy; Stedman, John; Inzeo, Paula Tran; McCall, Ann; Burrows, Judy; Krueger, Scott; Christens, Brian; Pollard, Ethen; Meinen, Amy; Korth, Amy; Wolf, Lesley; Adams, Alexandra

    2016-11-01

    The Wisconsin Obesity Prevention Initiative has piloted a novel approach for community action for obesity prevention that incorporates both coalition and community organizing efforts in 2 counties. This article describes lessons learned to date from this experience. A description of the progress made in these communities and the support provided by Initiative staff and other partners are drawn from process evaluation of the pilot from November 2014 through December 2015, as well as the reflections of community partners. In Marathon County, building towards coalition action required thoughtful re-engagement and restructuring of an existing obesity-focused coalition. Community organizing surfaced local concerns related to the root causes of obesity, including poverty and transit. In Menominee County, coalition and community organizing efforts both have drawn attention to cultural assets for health promotion, such as traditional food practices, as well as the links between cultural loss and obesity. Building coalition action and community organizing varies across community contexts and requires addressing various steps and challenges. Both approaches require critical local examination of existing community action and stakeholders, attention to relationship building, and support from outside partners. In coalition action, backbone staff provide important infrastructure, including member recruitment and facilitating group processes towards collaboration. Community organizing involves broad resident engagement to identify shared interests and concerns and build new leadership. A community-driven systems change model offers potential to increase community action for obesity prevention.

  2. Successes, challenges and lessons learned: Community-engaged research with South Carolina's Gullah population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida J. Spruill

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Engaging communities is highly recommended in the conduct of health research among vulnerable populations. The strength of community-engaged research is well documented and is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities and improving health equity. In this article, five interdisciplinary teams from the Medical University of South Carolina present their involvement with community-engaged research with a unique population of Gullah African Americans residing in rural South Carolina. Their work has been integrated with the nine established principles of community-engaged research: establishing clear goals, becoming knowledgeable about the community, establishing relationships, developing community self-determination, partnering with the community, maintaining respect, mobilising community assets, releasing control, and maintaining community collaboration. In partnership with a Citizen Advisory Committee, developed at the inception of the first community-engaged research project, the academic researchers have been able to build on relationships and trust with this population to sustain partnerships and to meet major research objectives over a 20-year period. Challenges observed include structural inequality, organisational and cultural issues, and lack of resources for building sustainable research infrastructure. Lessons learned during this process include the necessity for clearly articulated and shared goals, knowledge about the community culture, and embedding the cultural context within research approaches. Keywords: Engaged health research, vulnerable populations, longterm collaboration, South Carolina 'Gullah' communities

  3. Neighborhoods on the move: a community-based participatory research approach to promoting physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminski, Richard R; Petosa, Rick L; Jones, Larry; Hall, Lisa; Poston, Carlos W

    2009-01-01

    There is a scientific and practical need for high-quality effectiveness studies of physical activity interventions in "real-world" settings. To use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to develop, implement, operate, and evaluate an intervention for promoting physical activity called Neighborhoods on the Move. Two communities with similar physical and social characteristics participated in this study. One community was involved in Neighborhoods on the Move; the other (comparison community) participated only in the assessments. Academic personnel and residents/organizations in the Neighborhoods on the Move community worked together to create a community environment that was more conducive for physical activity. Pre- and posttest data on new initiatives promoting physical activity, existing physical activity initiatives, and business policies supporting physical activity were collected simultaneously in both communities. The success of the CBPR approach was evidenced by several developments, including substantial resident involvement and the formation of a leadership committee, marketing campaign, and numerous community partnerships. The number of businesses with policies promoting physical activity and breadth of existing physical activity initiatives (participants, activities, hours) increased substantially more in the Neighborhoods on the Move community than in the comparison community. A total of sixty new initiatives promoting physical activity were implemented in the Neighborhoods on the Move community during the intervention. The CBPR approach is an effective strategy for inducing environmental changes that promote physical activity. Additional research is needed to assess the portability and sustainability of Neighborhoods on the Move.

  4. Greek Mothers’ Narratives of the Construct of Parental Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philia Issari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides a brief overview of the ‘narrative turn’ in counselling and adopts a narrative perspective and analysis to explore Greek mothers’ experiences, and meaning making of involvement in their children’s learning. Data were collected via ten narrative interviews (life-history/biographical narrative. Participants portrayed a variety of conceptions and practices regarding children’s learning and parental participation. Mothers’ stories depicted parental engagement as a complex, multifaceted, flexible and multivoiced construct which can take various forms and is open to change. The findings can inform and enrich counselling practice and prevention efforts including parenting training programmes, family community programmes and home-school link initiatives. Of particular interest for counsellors and therapists are stories of functional and dysfunctional parental involvement practices, school expectations and cultural scripts, the working mother, identity and the process of change.

  5. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  6. Walk together children with no wasted steps: community-academic partnering for equal power in NIH proposal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen Jaynes; Cooks, John Mark; May, Marlynn; Peranteau, Jane; Reifsnider, Elizabeth; Hargraves, Martha A

    2010-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches equitably involve community members and researchers throughout the research process. A developing literature examines problems in CBPR partnerships, but less is written about community groups using CBPR to access university resources to address community-prioritized health concerns. We sought to examine issues in two stages of a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded CBPR partnership: (1) joint proposal preparation, and (2) grant administration. We used a case study approach to analyze data (partner dialogs, meeting notes, interviews, and press coverage) from a longstanding community-academic partnership. The partnership received NIH Partners in Research Program funding. During joint proposal preparation, issues included (1) learning to practice operating principles, such as "talking in ways that all people can understand," (2) streamlining proposal design to facilitate communication with community members, and (3) addressing inequities inherent in community-academic budget sharing. During the administration phase, issues included (1) community partner struggles with administrative requirements, (2) inequities in indirect cost (IDC) allocations, and (3) the impact of a natural disaster. Separately funded CBPR grants can contribute to community partner development, but make substantive demands on small, grassroots community organizations. Funders should consider taking more responsibility in developing community resources and infrastructure to ensure that grassroots community groups have the power to be equal partners. More accurate accounting of costs and benefits of CBPR to vulnerable communities should be in place to ensure communities receive adequate return on the time they invest in partnering with universities.

  7. Teacher Training in Family Involvement: An Interpersonal Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mick; Wallinga, Charlotte

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ways to develop family-school-community involvement, based on an early childhood teacher training course in family involvement. Discusses strategies for using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs to facilitate family involvement interactions, and using student teachers' experiences for structuring reflective thought about family involvement…

  8. Exploring community participation in project design: application of the community conversation approach to improve maternal and newborn health in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Masoso, Chisala; Mwanza, Bisalom; Chirwa, Cindy; Mwaba, Lasidah; Siwale, Zumbe; Lamisa, Barbara; Musatwe, Dennis; Chilengi, Roma

    2017-03-23

    The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has adopted an approach entitled Community Conversation (CC) to improve community engagement in addressing health challenges. CCs are based on Paulo Freire's transformative communication approach, in which communities pose problems and critically examine their everyday life experiences through discussion. We adopted this approach to engage communities in maternal and newborn health discussions in three rural districts of Zambia, with the aim of developing community-generated interventions. Sixty (60) CCs were held in three target districts, covering a total of 20 health facilities. Communities were purposively selected in each district to capture a range of rural and peri-urban areas at varying distances from health facilities. Conversations were held four times in each community between May and September 2014. All conversations were digitally recorded and later transcribed. NVivo version 10 was used for data analysis. The major barriers to accessing maternal health services included geography, limited infrastructure, lack of knowledge, shortage of human resources and essential commodities, and insufficient involvement of male partners. From the demand side, a lack of information and misconceptions, and, from the supply side, inadequately trained health workers with poor attitudes, negatively affected access to maternal health services in target districts either directly or indirectly. At least 17 of 20 communities suggested solutions to these challenges, including targeted community sensitisation on the importance of safe motherhood, family planning and prevention of teenage pregnancy. Community members and key stakeholders committed time and resources to address these challenges with minimal external support. We successfully applied the CC approach to explore maternal health challenges in three rural districts of Zambia. CCs functioned as an advocacy platform to facilitate direct engagement with key decision makers

  9. Doctors' involvement in torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesper, Sonntag

    2008-01-01

    Doctors from both non-democratic and democratic countries are involved in torture. The majority of doctors involved in torture are doctors at risk. Doctors at risk might compromise their ethical duty towards patients for the following possible reasons: individual factors (such as career, economic or ideological reasons), threats, orders from a higher ranking officer, political initiatives, working in atrocity-producing situations or dual loyalty. In dual loyalty conflicts, factors that might compromise doctors' ethical obligations towards detainees/patients are: ideological totalitarianism, moral disengagement, victim blame, patriotism, individual factors or threats. Another important reason why doctors are involved in torture is that not all doctors are trained in addressing human rights issues of detainees. Torture survivors report that they have experienced doctors' involvement in torture and doctors themselves report that they have been involved in torture. Testimonies from both torture survivors and doctors demonstrate that the most common way doctors are involved is in the diagnosis/medical examination of torture survivors/prisoners. And it is common before, during and after torture. Both torture survivors and doctors state that doctors are involved during torture by treatment and direct participation. Doctors also falsify journals, certificates and reports. When doctors are involved in torture it has devastating consequences for both torture survivors and doctors. The consequences for the survivors can be mistrust of doctors, avoidance of seeking doctors' help and nightmares involving doctors. Mistrust and avoidance of doctors could be especially fatal to the survivor, as it could mean a survivor who is ill may not seek medical attention. When the unambiguous role of the doctor as the protector and helper of people is questioned, it affects the medical profession all over the world.

  10. SUSTAINABLE URBAN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AGENDA 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Md Zan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The much-talked about issues such as the rising of heavy crime cases, problems in solid waste management, air and water pollution as well as traffic congestion detering the quality of life among urban community members. Urgent and proactive measure is highly desireable in order to preserve and maintain the integral parts of urban’s higher quality of life. All parties should take part in ongoing efforts to achieve sustainable development through various means. Local Agenda 21 (LA21 serves as one of the efforts in achieveing the ultimate goal of sustainable development through better collaboration and cooperation among stakeholders including local government, non-governmental organisations and the community at large. The core principle of the LA21 program lies in the spirit of cooperation among community members, local authorities and the private sectors. This could be achieved through various activities including from the beginning such as through a comprehensive planning for the local area to achieve the sustainable development. Community members should be involved in brainstorming of the ideas and expressing their views so that authorities would be able to identify the real and arising issues in the community. Through this way a sustainable town and municipal planning could be developed and initiated. This paper discusses the importance of urbancommunity participation in achieving sustainable development as practicedthrough LA21 in Seberang Perai Municipal Council, Penang.

  11. Improving Hawaiian and Filipino involvement in clinical research opportunities: qualitative findings from Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollin, Lisa X; Harrigan, Rosanne C; Calderón, José L; Perez, John; Easa, David

    2005-01-01

    Investigate the barriers to participation in medical research that involves Asian and Pacific Islander (API) populations in Hawai'i. Fifty people (27 Filipinos, 23 Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders) in five different communities on Oahu. Nine focus groups with an ethnically matched moderator were held to explore people's feelings, problems, and recommendations regarding medical research. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed with the constant comparison method. Only 12% of study participants said that they absolutely would not participate in a clinical study. Most agreed that research is vital. Filipino participants were more optimistic about the safety and value of joining in medical research. Hawaiian groups were more hesitant and fearful. Reasons for nonparticipation included negative feelings about the purpose and intent of clinical trials and language and cultural barriers. Suggestions on how to encourage API populations to participate in research investigations included improving peoples' understanding of the benefits to family and community. Hawaiian and Filipino groups differed only slightly in their assessments of the type of research needed in their communities. Recruitment campaigns must improve people's awareness of the process of informed consent, research safeguards, and benefits to family and community. Attention should focus on K-12 health education to use members of the younger generations to access and educate elders, involving persons with medical research experience as a recruitment resource, returning results to study participants, and increasing the number of healthcare professionals and researchers that are culturally and linguistically matched to the community.

  12. IDEA and Family Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Öztürk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA gives many rights to parents with special needs in terms of involvement and participation. Given the importance of family involvement in the special education process, and federal legislation that increasingly mandated and supported such involvement over time, considerable research has focused on the multiple ways that relationships between schools and families in the special education decision making process have played out. Educational professionals should create a positive climate for CLD families so that they feel more comfortable and therefore are able to participate more authentically and meaningfully.

  13. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  14. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  15. Pulmonary disorders, including vocal cord dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Paul A; Grammer, Leslie C

    2010-02-01

    The lung is a very complex immunologic organ and responds in a variety of ways to inhaled antigens, organic or inorganic materials, infectious or saprophytic agents, fumes, and irritants. There might be airways obstruction, restriction, neither, or both accompanied by inflammatory destruction of the pulmonary interstitium, alveoli, or bronchioles. This review focuses on diseases organized by their predominant immunologic responses, either innate or acquired. Pulmonary innate immune conditions include transfusion-related acute lung injury, World Trade Center cough, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Adaptive immunity responses involve the systemic and mucosal immune systems, activated lymphocytes, cytokines, and antibodies that produce CD4(+) T(H)1 phenotypes, such as for tuberculosis or acute forms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and CD4(+) T(H)2 phenotypes, such as for asthma, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Community directed approach beyond ivermectin in Tanzania: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of CDI across these health interventions involved addressing six major processes, namely, stakeholder processes, health system dynamics, engaging communities, empowering communities, engaging CDI implementers and broader system effects. Community and health systems changes were triggered, ...

  17. Strategy Innovation with Employee Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate how employees can be involved in strategy innovation processes and how new strategy practices (new tools and procedures) are used to change strategy praxis in order to sustain value creation. In the strategizing actions, we found that even...... if the managers still dominate, some processes of direct involvement of employees occur, in particular when employees are asked to supplement overall strategic goals and when they directly shape several sub-strategies. Strategy practices found include strategy planning, an open space workshop and organised...... strategy projects. Especially the latter two are important in facilitating the employee involvement. The case, however, also exhibits enterprise-situated praxises related to unplanned events, like the mitigation of taboos....

  18. Involving Employees in Strategy innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Strategy as a practice and continuous innovation approaches are combined to conceptualise dilemmas of short versus long term and to analyse a case of employee participation as a particular example of strategy innovation. The case is a medium size textile company developing its strategy involving...... some of its employees. Even if managers still dominate, some processes of direct involvement of employees occur. The employees are in particular active in supplementing overall strategic goals and directly shaping one sub strategy, that of ‘process’. Strategy practices include planning, Porterian...... and Balanced Score Card consultancy, an ‘open space’ workshop and organized strategy projects. Especially the latter two are important in facilitating the employee involvement. The case however also exhibit enterprise situated praxis’s like mitigation of taboos....

  19. The Imperial County Community Air Monitoring Network: A Model for Community-based Environmental Monitoring for Public Health Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Luis; Bejarano, Ester; Lugo, Humberto; Murillo, Eduardo; Seto, Edmund; Wong, Michelle; King, Galatea; Wilkie, Alexa; Meltzer, Dan; Carvlin, Graeme; Jerrett, Michael; Northcross, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Summary: The Imperial County Community Air Monitoring Network (the Network) is a collaborative group of community, academic, nongovernmental, and government partners designed to fill the need for more detailed data on particulate matter in an area that often exceeds air quality standards. The Network employs a community-based environmental monitoring process in which the community and researchers have specific, well-defined roles as part of an equitable partnership that also includes shared decision-making to determine study direction, plan research protocols, and conduct project activities. The Network is currently producing real-time particulate matter data from 40 low-cost sensors throughout Imperial County, one of the largest community-based air networks in the United States. Establishment of a community-led air network involves engaging community members to be citizen-scientists in the monitoring, siting, and data collection process. Attention to technical issues regarding instrument calibration and validation and electronic transfer and storage of data is also essential. Finally, continued community health improvements will be predicated on facilitating community ownership and sustainability of the network after research funds have been expended. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1772 PMID:28886604

  20. The Imperial County Community Air Monitoring Network: A Model for Community-based Environmental Monitoring for Public Health Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Paul B; Olmedo, Luis; Bejarano, Ester; Lugo, Humberto; Murillo, Eduardo; Seto, Edmund; Wong, Michelle; King, Galatea; Wilkie, Alexa; Meltzer, Dan; Carvlin, Graeme; Jerrett, Michael; Northcross, Amanda

    2017-07-31

    The Imperial County Community Air Monitoring Network (the Network) is a collaborative group of community, academic, nongovernmental, and government partners designed to fill the need for more detailed data on particulate matter in an area that often exceeds air quality standards. The Network employs a community-based environmental monitoring process in which the community and researchers have specific, well-defined roles as part of an equitable partnership that also includes shared decision-making to determine study direction, plan research protocols, and conduct project activities. The Network is currently producing real-time particulate matter data from 40 low-cost sensors throughout Imperial County, one of the largest community-based air networks in the United States. Establishment of a community-led air network involves engaging community members to be citizen-scientists in the monitoring, siting, and data collection process. Attention to technical issues regarding instrument calibration and validation and electronic transfer and storage of data is also essential. Finally, continued community health improvements will be predicated on facilitating community ownership and sustainability of the network after research funds have been expended. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1772

  1. Community families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Groth; Lou, Stina; Aagaard, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Social interventions targeted at people with severe mental illness (SMI) often include volunteers. Volunteers' perspectives are important for these interventions to work. The present paper investigates the experiences of volunteer families who befriend a person with SMI. Material......: Qualitative interviews with members of volunteer families. Discussion: The families were motivated by helping a vulnerable person and to engaging in a rewarding relationship. However, the families often doubted their personal judgment and relied on mental health workers to act as safety net. Conclusion......: The volunteer involvement is meaningful but also challenging. The families value professional support....

  2. Effective recruitment strategies and community-based participatory research: Community Networks Program Centers’ recruitment in cancer prevention studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, K. Allen; Friedman, Daniela B.; Adams, Swann Arp; Gwede, Clement K.; Cupertino, Paula; Engelman, Kimberly K.; Meade, Cathy D.; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches that involve community and academic partners in activities ranging from protocol design through dissemination of study findings can increase recruitment of medically underserved and underrepresented racial/ethnic minority populations into biomedical research. Settings/Methods Five cancer screening and prevention trials in three NCI-funded Community Networks Program Centers (CNPCs); in Florida, Kansas and South Carolina, were conducted across diverse populations. Data were collected on total time period of recruitment, ratios of participants enrolled over potential participants approached, selected CBPR strategies, capacity-building development, and systematic procedures for community stakeholder involvement. Findings Community-engaged approaches employed included establishing co-learning opportunities, participatory procedures for community-academic involvement, and community and clinical capacity building. A relatively large proportion of individuals identified for recruitment were actually approached (between 50% and 100%). The proportion of subjects who were eligible among all those approached ranged from 25% to over 70% (in the community setting). Recruitment rates were very high (78%–100% of eligible individuals approached) and the proportion who refused or who were not interested among those approached was very low (5%–11%). Conclusions Recruitment strategies used by the CNPCs were associated with low refusal and high enrollment ratios of potential subjects. Adherence to CBPR principles in the spectrum of research activities; from strategic planning to project implementation has significant potential to increase involvement in biomedical research and improve our ability to make appropriate recommendations for cancer prevention and control programming in underrepresented diverse populations. Impact CBPR strategies should be more widely implemented to enhance study recruitment. PMID

  3. Police Community Outreach

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Community outreach activities attended by Pittsburgh Police Officers, starting from January 1 2016. Includes Zone, Event Name, Location, Date and Time.

  4. Pneumonia - children - community acquired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children ... Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Ways your child can get CAP include: Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread ...

  5. Enhancing Community Service Learning via Practical Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Ilana; Shemer-Elkiyam, Tal

    2015-01-01

    The advantages of learning communities focused on analyzing social issues and educational repercussions in the field are presented in this study. The research examines the contribution of a learning community to enhancing student teachers' responsibility and their social involvement. The assumption was that participating in learning community…

  6. Partners of the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Oklahoma has a long tradition of partnering with the community and its career-tech system is viewed as the economic development arm of the Oklahoma Public School system. A partnership between the Tri County Technology Center and University of Oklahoma, for example, involves dental hygiene students in providing oral health care for poor rural…

  7. Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Alison

    2017-01-01

    There are many professional development programmes on offer for primary science. The best of these involve teachers in developing practice over time, alongside engaging with theory. In this article, the author considers how working as part of a professional learning community can support a collaborative and evidence informed approach to improving…

  8. Building Global Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Thomas; Buchem, Ilona; Camacho, Mar; Cronin, Catherine; Gordon, Averill; Keegan, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC) for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning…

  9. [Reinvesting in Black Communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, James

    Some of the issues involved in promoting home ownership among blacks and investment in inner city communities are discussed in this paper. The experiences of the Bedford Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation in revitalizing Bedford Stuyvesant are described. Economic barriers to prospective home ownership are identified and strategies and programs…

  10. Community, Labour and Raymond Williams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, John

    1993-01-01

    Raymond Williams, a British adult educator, believed that community must be at the heart of education and that education must involve the primary organizations of the working class, such as trade unions, to be effective. (SK)

  11. Joint Community Health Needs Assessments as a Path for Coordinating Community-Wide Health Improvement Efforts Between Hospitals and Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Erik L; Singh, Simone Rauscher

    2018-05-01

    To examine the association between hospital-local health department (LHD) collaboration around community health needs assessments (CHNAs) and hospital investment in community health. We combined 2015 National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) Forces of Change, 2013 NACCHO Profile, and 2014-2015 Area Health Resource File data to identify a sample of LHDs (n = 439) across the United States. We included data on hospitals' community benefit from their 2014 tax filings (Internal Revenue Service Form 990, Schedule H). We used bivariate and multivariate regression analyses to examine LHDs' involvement in hospitals' CHNAs and implementation strategies and the relationship with hospital investment in community health. The LHDs that collaborated with hospitals around CHNAs were significantly more likely to be involved in joint implementation planning activities than were those that did not. Importantly, LHD involvement in hospitals' implementation strategies was associated with greater hospital investment in community health improvement initiatives. Joint CHNAs may improve coordination of community-wide health improvement efforts between hospitals and LHDs and encourage hospital investment in community health improvement activities. Public Health Implications. Policies that strengthen LHD-hospital collaboration around the CHNA may enhance hospital investments in community health.

  12. Citizen Involvement in Disaster Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez, Michael M

    2005-01-01

    .... The federal government is assisting local communities with volunteer recruitment by nationally sponsoring Neighborhood Watch, Volunteers in Police Service, Medical Reserve Corps, Community Emergency...

  13. Opening up closed policy communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Werkman, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural policy networks have served as classic cases of closed policy communities, facing pressure to open up. However attempts to involve new stakeholders slowly move forward. This paper addresses the question why it is so difficult to open up agricultural communities and what might help to

  14. Healthy School Communities in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; Yessis, Jennifer; Manske, Steve; Gleddie, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Background and context: Healthy school communities aim to optimise student health and educational achievement. Various models, terms and resources have been used to describe healthy school communities. Policy makers and practitioners have reported confusion around many of the key concepts involved because of the varying models and terms.…

  15. Leadership in Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Kate; Cherrington, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Professional learning communities in the early childhood education sector have been under-researched. The focus on collaborative learning, collective enquiry and shared leadership of such communities makes them worthy of study in order to establish their relevance to the sector. One of the foci of this research involving case studies of different…

  16. Community pharmacy practice in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nousheen Aslam

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: This study concludes that the current status of community pharmacy practice is below par. There is a need to involve more pharmacists at community level and develop awareness programs to counter patients′ routine drug issues and reducing the burden of disease from society.

  17. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Koedel, Uwe; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Wijdicks, Eelco

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space that can also involve the brain cortex and parenchyma. It can be acquired spontaneously in the community - community-acquired bacterial meningitis - or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma

  18. Pediatric obesity community programs: barriers & facilitators toward sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po'e, Eli K; Gesell, Sabina B; Lynne Caples, T; Escarfuller, Juan; Barkin, Shari L

    2010-08-01

    Our current generation of young people could become the first generation to live shorter lives than their parents. Families need resources in their community to address this issue. Identifying barriers and facilitators of community organizations to offer obesity-related services is a first step in understanding sustainable community programs. The objective of this study is to identify common barriers and facilitators in community organizational programs designed to prevent or reduce pediatric obesity. We conducted an exploratory qualitative research study based on grounded theory. Thirty-six community organizations were identified based on self-descriptions of goals involving pediatric obesity. Semi-structured, systematic, face-to-face interviews among program directors (n = 24) were recorded, transcribed, and coded for recurrent themes. Relevant themes were abstracted from interviews by a standardized iterative process by two independent reviewers between December 2007 and November 2008. Theme discordance was reconciled by a third reviewer. Seventy percent of organizations indicated that obesity prevention/treatment was their explicit goal with remaining groups indicating healthy lifestyles as a more general goal. Facilitators to provision of these programs included: programmatic enhancements such as improved curriculums (73%), community involvement such as volunteers (62.5%), and partnerships with other programs (54.2%). Barriers that threatened sustainability included lack of consistent funding (43.8%), lack of consistent participation from the target population (41.7%) and lack of support staff (20.8%). New approaches in fostering partnerships between organizations need to be developed. Building coalitions and engaging community members in developing community based programs may be a helpful strategy to strengthen community-based programs to address the pediatric obesity epidemic.

  19. With Their Help: How community members construct a congruent Third Space in an urban kindergarten classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie F.

    2013-03-01

    Through the use of narrative enquiry, this paper tells the story of how a kindergarten teacher in an all-girls' school incorporates family and community members' involvement to the construction of the congruent Third Space present in the classroom, and the ways the girls respond to this involvement, thereby providing a successful model for other schools in marginalized communities. In this study, the author sought to understand how this teacher and the community members' in this classroom create a congruent Third Space. This research enquiry includes the systematic use of the methodology portraiture with analysis of critical events. The portraits are titled: Mutual Desire for the Girls to Succeed and Community Members' Involvement. This paper moves Third Space theory towards praxis through concrete examples in an urban, kindergarten classroom.

  20. [Pulmonary involvements of sarcoidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmichi, M; Hiraga, Y; Hirasawa, M

    1990-01-01

    We reported about intrathoracic changes and prognosis of 686 patients with sarcoidosis diagnosed in our hospital between 1963 and 1988. We evaluated CT findings in 135 patients with sarcoidosis and found pulmonary involvements in 81. We analyzed CT findings according to the classification by Tuengerthal which classified radiographic findings combining ILO classification of pneumoconiosis and characteristic findings of bronchovascular sheath with sarcoidosis. The CT findings were as follows: small opacities (44 out of 81 cases, 54.3%), large opacities (37 cases, 46.7%). Additional findings were as follows: peribronchial marking (42 cases, 51.9%), contraction (17 cases, 21.0%), pleural involvement (9 cases, 11.1%), bulla (5 cases, 6.2%). The characteristic CT findings of serious sarcoidosis were extasis of bronchus, thickening of the bronchial wall, unclearness of vascular shadow, atelectasis and thickening of pleura. Concerning the prognosis of pulmonary involvement, according to age, patients younger than 30 years old at initial diagnosis were better than those of 30 years and over in terms of disappearance of pulmonary involvements. According to stage, patients of stage I and stage II were better than those of stage III. Among the patients we were able to observe chest X-ray findings during five years according to the character of shadow, ill-defined shadow of small opacities and rounded shadows of large opacities had a higher disappearance rate of pulmonary involvements than irregular shadows of large opacities, atelectasis and contraction.

  1. Community Development through Community Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jim

    1982-01-01

    Cites ERIC documents describing the community education and development programs of two-year colleges. Documents cover building a neighborhood coalition, an approach to marketing vocational programs, community education and development, and educational alternatives. (DMM)

  2. Quality-of-life outcomes among Alzheimer's disease family caregivers following community-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartfay, Emma; Bartfay, Wally J

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine how community-based interventions such as adult day programs and caregiver support groups affected the quality of life (QOL) of caregivers of Alzheimer's disease clients. The authors hypothesized that using community-based interventions would increase the QOL of caregivers of Alzheimer's disease clients. They conducted a pilot study employing a cross-sectional comparative design involving 62 caregivers in the Durham region, Ontario, Canada. Individuals were recruited at five adult day programs and at six caregiver support groups, involving primary data collection consisting of a self-report questionnaire and a 13-item QOL scale. The authors' findings show that caregivers of Alzheimer's disease clients who used community-based interventions enjoyed similar levels of QOL as caregivers of non-Alzheimer's disease clients. These findings suggest that community-based interventions may be beneficial and should target the multiple needs of caregivers, including their knowledge of community resources and coping strategies.

  3. An Innovative Approach for Community Engagement: Using an Audience Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenna L.; McGinnis, Kara E.; Walsh, Margaret L.; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Green, B. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Community-based participatory research methods allow for community engagement in the effort to reduce cancer health disparities. Community engagement involves health professionals becoming a part of the community in order to build trust, learn from the community and empower them to reduce disparities through their own initiatives and ideas. Audience Response Systems (ARS) are an innovative and engaging way to involve the community and obtain data for research purposes using keypads to report results via power point. The use of ARS within communities is very limited and serves to widen the disparity gap by not delivering new advances in medical knowledge and technology among all population groups. ARS was implemented at a community town hall event sponsored by a National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Exploratory Center of Excellence, the Center for Equal Health. Participants appreciated being able to see how everyone else answered and felt included in the research process. ARS is beneficial because the community can answer truthfully and provides instant research results. Additionally, researchers can collect large amounts of data quickly, in a non-threatening way while tracking individual responses anonymously. Audience Response Systems proved to be an effective tool for successfully accomplishing community-based participatory research. PMID:23302776

  4. Cardiovascular involvement in myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on cardiovascular involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Studies from the past 18 months are identified and reviewed. Finally, the clinical impact of these findings is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological...... on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging suggests that CMR should be considered as a potentially viable diagnostic tool to evaluate the possibility of silent myocardial inflammation in IIM with normal routine noninvasive evaluation. SUMMARY: Updated literature on cardiovascular involvement in IIM has...... identified an increased risk for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in these rare inflammatory muscle diseases....

  5. Partnership and community capacity characteristics in 49 sites implementing healthy eating and active living interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemner, Allison L; Donaldson, Kate N; Swank, Melissa F; Brennan, Laura K

    2015-01-01

    One component of the Evaluation of Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, was to assess partnership and community capacity characteristics of 49 cross-sector, multidisciplinary community demonstration projects to increase healthy eating and active living as well as to prevent and reduce childhood obesity. From December 2012 to December 2013, an 82-item partnership and community capacity survey instrument assessed perspectives of community partnership members and community representatives from 48 of the 49 communities on the structure and function of their partnerships and the capacity of the community to create change. Through factor analysis and descriptive statistics, the evaluators described common characteristics of the partnerships, their leadership, and their relationships to the broader communities. A total of 603 individuals responded from 48 of the 49 partnerships. Evaluators identified 15 components, or factors that were broken into a themes, including leadership, partnership structure, relationship with partners, partnership capacity, political influence of partnership, and perceptions of partnership's involvement with the community and community members. Survey respondents perceived the Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities partnerships to have the capacity to ensure the partnerships' effectiveness in forming and growing their structures and functions, collaborating to implement policy and environmental change, and planning for sustainability.

  6. Involving urban communities in controlling dengue fever in Latin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    carried out in five cities: Acapulco, Mexico; Fortaleza, Brazil;. Girardot, Colombia; Machala, Ecuador; and Salto, Uruguay. In each of these cities, standard vector control consists mainly ... and compared seasonal data on the presence of Aedes aegypti pupae in water containers, using cluster randomized controlled trials.

  7. Involving the Community: A Guide to Participatory Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... ... interactive guide to manage evaluations. IDRC's support of BetterEvaluation, an international collaboration to improve evaluation practice and theory, has resulted in an online guide for an often overlooked group of people who greatly... View moreIDRC and BetterEvaluation launch an interactive guide to ...

  8. 44 perceptions and involvement of neighbouring communities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment in which it is embedded. Instead of being a bastion of nature conservation, it should become a bridgehead for better land use and instead of being a black hole for scarce natural resources; it should become an engine for rural development and poverty alleviation. Oseomeobo (1992) reported that the right of the ...

  9. Involving urban communities in controlling dengue fever in Latin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... Dengue is a worldwide public health concern. Traditionally found in the tropics and sub-tropics, its range is spreading, with recent outbreaks in France, Croatia, and Florida. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), nearly half of the world's population is now at risk. In severe cases, this flu-like ...

  10. Affecting Community Change: Involving "Pro Bono" Professionals as Extension Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Diane T.; Culp, Ken, III

    2013-01-01

    "Pro bono" volunteers provide an effective means for Extension professionals to expand limited financial and human resources. Volunteers recruited from business settings can provide skills, abilities, expertise, leadership, and resources to Extension programs. Allowing professional volunteers to meet their desired leadership goals while…

  11. Strategies for Involving Communities in the Funding of Computer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    the Nigerian education sector has suffered unprecedented setbacks in resource allocation especially in funding. Resources ... the production of educational services which is both labour and capital intensive. Finance has remained a major .... big burden on the lean finances of the state government. In order to alleviate the ...

  12. Parental Involvement in English Homework Tasks: Bridging the Gap between School and Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Patricia Ávila Daza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the concept of parental involvement in English homework tasks as a way to include parents in the educational community. This descriptive study was carried out in a female public school with 10 students from third and fourth grades and their parents. In order to obtain the information, different instruments were used: artifacts, interviews, questionnaires and observations. After analyzing the data, it was stated that parental involvement was seen as a means to bridge the gap between the school and home. The findings also showed the possibility of learning from each other and the importance of homework tasks as interactional and learning spaces among parents and children.

  13. Public and patient involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Public and patient involvement in the NHS is one of the new Department of Health mantras, and one source of useful information you can pass on to service users is the Consumers in NHS Research website at www.conres.co.uk/dat.htm.

  14. Job Involvement of Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Robert

    This study investigated the relationship between job involvement and three sets of variables: nine personal (age, sex, marital status, education, overall experience, nonteaching experience, present school experience, income, and locus of control), three structural (size of school, location of school, and hierarchical position), and eight job…

  15. Who Involves Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Clifford

    1979-01-01

    The author reviews the development of a parents' group at the Bradford Grange School (Manchester, United Kingdom) for ESN (educationally subnormal) children. Problems with the initial parents' group are pointed out, successful approaches are considered, and the importance of parent involvement is stressed. (SBH)

  16. Involving Divorced Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarriff, Harold M.; Levine, Valerie

    1993-01-01

    In divorced families, the noncustodial parent is usually as important to the child as the residential parent. Schools should avoid actions that cause parental conflict, place one parent in a sole decision-making role, or deny a parent's access to information or involvement. School responsibilities governing routine correspondence, cyclical and…

  17. PATTERNS AND FACTORS INVOLVED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1*' of July 1996 and 30'h of June 2000 a total of 3583 patients were registered at the accident and emergency unit of Nnamdi. Azikiwe ... The case files of these were reviewed with a view to ascertaining the causes and factors involved in the deaths of these patients. The .... H.I.V/AIDS related complications 23 6.8.

  18. Parasite communities: patterns and processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esch, Gerald W; Bush, Albert O; Aho, John M

    1990-01-01

    .... Taking examples from many hosts including molluscs, marine and freshwater fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, this book shows how parasitic communities are influenced by a multitude...

  19. Building a community-based culture of evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Rich; Ochocka, Joanna; Turner, Leanne; Cook, Tabitha; Franklin, Michelle; Deichert, Debbie

    2017-12-01

    In this article we argue for a community-based approach as a means of promoting a culture of evaluation. We do this by linking two bodies of knowledge - the 70-year theoretical tradition of community-based research and the trans-discipline of program evaluation - that are seldom intersected within the evaluation capacity building literature. We use the three hallmarks of a community-based research approach (community-determined; equitable participation; action and change) as a conceptual lens to reflect on a case example of an evaluation capacity building program led by the Ontario Brian Institute. This program involved two community-based groups (Epilepsy Southwestern Ontarioand the South West Alzheimer Society Alliance) who were supported by evaluators from the Centre for Community Based Research to conduct their own internal evaluation. The article provides an overview of a community-based research approach and its link to evaluation. It then describes the featured evaluation capacity building initiative, including reflections by the participating organizations themselves. We end by discussing lessons learned and their implications for future evaluation capacity building. Our main argument is that organizations that strive towards a community-based approach to evaluation are well placed to build and sustain a culture of evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Putaminal involvement in Rasmussen encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, Bhagavatheeswaran; Ashalatha, Radhakrishnan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India); Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Bejoy [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    2006-08-15

    Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare devastating disease of childhood causing progressive neurological deficits and intractable seizures, typically affecting one hemisphere. Characteristic MRI features include progressive unihemispheric focal cortical atrophy and grey- or white-matter high-signal changes and basal ganglion involvement, particularly of the caudate nucleus. To analyse the pattern of involvement of different brain structures in a series of patients with RE and to attempt clinical correlation. We reviewed the medical records and neuroimaging data of 12 patients diagnosed with RE satisfying the European Consensus Statement diagnostic criteria. The disease manifested as seizures in all patients and was refractory; epilepsia partialis continua was a notable feature (nine patients). Hemiparesis of varying grades was noted in all but one patient; none had extrapyramidal signs. Neuroimaging showed cortical involvement in the insular/periinsular regions in 11 patients. Caudate atrophy was noted in ten patients. Putaminal atrophy was seen in nine patients, six of whom had additional hyperintense signal changes. Our study highlights frequent putaminal atrophy and signal changes in RE, which suggests a more extensive basal ganglion involvement than emphasized previously. Recognition of putaminal changes may be a useful additional tool in the radiological diagnosis of RE. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of the integrated community based home care model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LR Uys

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1999-2000 the Integrated Community-Based Home Care model for the care of people with AIDS in communities were implemented in seven sites across the country. The post-implementation evaluation showed that most respondents felt that the model could be replicated if a functioning and informed network including all partners, and a strong management team were in place. The effects of the project were mainly positive for all stakeholders (hospice, clinic, hospital, PWA and their carers, professionals and other community members. Hospitals and community- based services became more aware of and involved in the needs of PWA and felt that the model enabled them to address these needs. PWA and their carers felt supported and respected.

  2. Evaluation of a Lay Health Adviser Training for a Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Vanessa M.; Christopher, Suzanne; Streitz, Jana L.; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2005-01-01

    Community-based participatory research directly involves community members and community-based service providers as partners in the research process. It is especially important in Native American communities, where egregious research practices have led some communities and individuals to be wary of researchers. Messengers for Health uses a lay…

  3. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  4. Claiming Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    As its point of departure this working paper takes the multitude of different uses and meanings of the concept of community in local politics in Cape Town. Instead of attempting to define it in substantive terms, the paper takes a social constructivist approach to the study of community and explo......As its point of departure this working paper takes the multitude of different uses and meanings of the concept of community in local politics in Cape Town. Instead of attempting to define it in substantive terms, the paper takes a social constructivist approach to the study of community...

  5. Biclique communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Hansen-Schwartz, Martin; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    We present a method for detecting communities in bipartite networks. Based on an extension of the k-clique community detection algorithm, we demonstrate how modular structure in bipartite networks presents itself as overlapping bicliques. If bipartite information is available, the biclique...... community detection algorithm retains all of the advantages of the k-clique algorithm, but avoids discarding important structural information when performing a one-mode projection of the network. Further, the biclique community detection algorithm provides a level of flexibility by incorporating independent...... clique thresholds for each of the nonoverlapping node sets in the bipartite network...

  6. Involvement through photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, J

    2016-12-01

    As a photographer living in Tokyo, I have been visiting Suetsugi village regularly to take photographs and show the printed photographs to the residents. What is the role of photography? What does it mean to be involved in the life of Suetsugi through photography? This article discusses some of the answers to these questions 5 years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

  7. Community 21: Digital toolbox for sustainable communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Gant

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article will describe the 'Toolbox for the 21st Century Village' action research project and outline the critical research contexts that underpin its development as an online informatics and social engagement tool aimed at facilitating understanding, sharing and planning of integrated sustainability by individual communities. This will include exposing the context of ‘mis-communication’ of sustainability issues in society by visual culture, the media and politics. The article argues that this has served to alienate, demoralise and disenfranchise many individuals and communities. Being rural does not necessarily mean being ‘green’ and the article will describe the ‘green dichotomy’ and how rural behaviours are disproportionately dependent on natural resources and as a consequence are ‘less sustainable’, despite relative autonomy and community potential to make significant gains. The article will also unpack and explore how the loaded term sustainability only serves to divide and detract as a polemic and absolute term; whereas self-sufficiency is a demonstrable concern of vulnerable rural communities; a by-product of which can be genuine and valued, measurable and meaningful sustainable development. The above provides a contextual backdrop and rationale for the formation of a project that enables communities to frame their own concerns and envision themselves and their problems and responses as part of a larger system. The project is developed around an experimental online content management system (CMS platform that will facilitate sustainable development through envisioning, action planning and networking – connecting the ‘knots in the net’ of an active patchwork of ‘multi-local communities’. The platform design will provide methodology, process and capacity to enable reconciliation between the manifold concerns of social, economic and environmental sustainability whilst providing community facilitators with new

  8. Community health clinical education in Canada: part 1--"state of the art".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benita E; Gregory, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a survey of community health clinical education in twenty-four Canadian pre-licensure baccalaureate nursing programs. A qualitative research design was used, involving a content analysis of Canadian course syllabi and supporting documents for community health courses. This study afforded a cross-sectional understanding of the "state of the art" of community health clinical education in Canadian schools of nursing. Clinical course conceptual approaches, course objectives, types of clinical sites, format and number of clinical hours, and methods of student evaluation are identified. The findings suggest the need for a national dialogue or consensus building exercise regarding curriculum content for community health nursing. Informing this dialogue are several strengths including the current focus on community health (as opposed to community-based) nursing education, and a solid socio-environmental perspective informing clinical learning and practice. The national data set generated by this study may have relevance to nursing programs globally.

  9. Competing Preferent Community Prospecting Rights: A Nonchalant Custodian?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nic Olivier

    2017-01-01

    farm Nooitverwacht (hereafter the Nooitverwacht appeal and the second appeal involved preferent community prospecting rights on the farm Eerstegeluk (hereafter the Eerstegeluk appeal. The focus of the discussion is on the Nooitverwacht appeal, and references (where appropriate will be made to the Eerstegeluk appeal. A number of related issues are also discussed – these include the distinction between prospecting rights and preferent community prospecting rights; the meaning of "... land which is registered or to be registered in the name of the community concerned" (with reference to restitution land, redistribution land, and community land acquired from own resources; and the changing legal landscape relating to community decision-making and consultation.

  10. Environmental health, public safety, and social impacts associated with transportation accidents involving hazardous substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-31

    Accidents involving chemicals or radioactive materials represent a significant threat to the environment, public : health and safety, and community well-being. In an increasingly complex and interconnected world, no community : is immune from the thr...

  11. The Involved Ostrich

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Geiger, Susi

    2008-01-01

    and technical items. This research also revealed that men partook in highly masculinized forms of “nesting,” and in general shunned pregnancy book reading; although some did engage in “research” activities such as searching the internet for product safety information. We conclude from this study...... that the transition into parenthood can be difficult for men due to their lack of a physical connection to the pregnancy, a perception that the baby industry is not designed for them, the continuance of male stereotypes in the media, and also the time available to men to become involved in consumption activities...

  12. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  13. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2007, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2007 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  14. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2008, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  15. Patient involvement in research priorities (PIRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Karin; Jarden, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patient involvement in healthcare has expanded from the clinical practice setting to include collaboration during the research process. There has been a growing international interest in patient and public involvement in setting research priorities to reduce the risk of discrepancy ...

  16. Concepts involved in the training and work processes of community healthcare agents: a bibliographical review Concepções que integram a formação e o processo de trabalho dos agentes comunitários de saúde: uma revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Joana Bornstein

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the outcome of a bibliographical review that aims at systemizing references in the literature to concepts involved in the training and work processes of community health agents under the Community Health Agent Program (PACS and the Family Health Program. Published in scientific journals, manuals and official documents through to October 2004, 504 articles were consulted, of which 49 were selected and examined in full. The findings were systematically arranged under four themes, reviewing controversial aspects raised by authors, outstanding among which are: the 'discourse of change' statements in official documents, defining the Family Health Program as a reorientation strategy for the Primary Healthcare Model; the scope and ambiguity of understandings of the role of mediator and definitions of the duties and responsibilities of Community Healthcare Agents, as well as the gaps in their training.O presente artigo é resultado de uma revisão bibliográfica que tem como objetivo sistematizar as referências da literatura relacionadas às concepções que integram a formação e o processo de trabalho dos agentes comunitários de saúde, no âmbito do Programa de Agentes Comunitários de Saúde (PACS e do Programa Saúde da Família (PSF. Foram consultados 504 artigos de periódicos científicos, manuais e documentos oficiais publicados até outubro de 2004, dos quais 49 foram selecionados e consultados integralmente. Os resultados encontrados foram sistematizados em quatro eixos temáticos, tendo sido abordadas as polêmicas levantadas pelos autores, das quais se destacam: o "discurso mudancista" presente nos documentos oficiais, que definem o PSF como estratégia de reorientação de modelo de atenção básica; a amplitude e ambigüidade presentes no entendimento do papel de mediador e na definição das atribuições do agente comunitário de saúde e as lacunas existentes na sua formação.

  17. How community action, science and common sense can work together to develop an alternative way to combat desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethune, Shirley; Schachtschneider, Klaudia

    2004-12-01

    The Spitzkoppe Community Campsite in western Namibia lies in an area with very limited water resources. Water scarcity places a constraint on community income generation and development opportunities. The existing water resources are overexploited and to ensure future water security, the community must take sustainable water management into consideration in their daily lives and business ventures, including tourism. This has been successfully achieved at the Spitzkoppe Community Campsite through a combination of high community motivation, organisation and action, the involvement of researchers and trainers in water resource management and support from developers. The most appropriate water management solutions were found through ongoing practical testing of different strategies and technologies over two years. This paper presents a case study of a community-based tourist camp at Spitzkoppe and traces the community's progress towards developing an alternative way to combat desertification and a potentially lucrative tourist business.

  18. Whole Community Resilience: Engaging Multiple Sectors with the Coastal Community Resilience Index and the Climate and Resilience Community of Practice in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempier, T.

    2017-12-01

    Communicating risk due to flooding, sea level rise, storm surge, and other natural hazards is a complex task when attempting to build resilience in coastal communities. There are a number of challenges related to preparing for, responding to, and recovering from coastal storms. Successful resilience planning must include a wide range of sectors including, but not limited to local government, business, non-profit, religious, academia, and healthcare. Years of experience working with communities in the Gulf of Mexico has helped create a process that is both inclusive and effective at bringing the right people to the table and gaining momentum towards resilience efforts. The Coastal Community Resilience Index (CRI), a self-assessment for community leaders, has been implemented in 54 Gulf communities with funding that provides small grant awards to help communities take action to address gaps and vulnerabilities identified in the assessment process. To maintain momentum with resilience actions, the Gulf Climate and Resilience Community of Practice (CoP) encourages local municipality participants to share lessons learned and best practices from their implementation projects in an annual symposium. Recently, both graduate and undergraduate students have been exposed to the CRI and CoP as avenues to work through solutions to complex problems at the local level. In addition, a new generation of high school students has been introduced to the CRI. Their engagement in the process is building a more informed citizenry that will take on the leadership and decision-making roles in the future. Investing in multiple age groups and sectors through the CRI and CoP is building capacity for whole community resilience in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will focus on methods that have been successful in the Gulf of Mexico for creating effective change in local municipalities towards resilience actions. Discussion will include decision support tools for engaging local

  19. Power to the people: To what extent has public involvement in applied health research achieved this?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gill

    2016-01-01

    Public involvement is required for applied health research funded in the UK. One of the largest funders, the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR), makes it clear that it values the knowledge of patients and the public. As a result, there are now many resources to make sure that the public voice is included in decision-making about research. However, there is concern that the public voice still has limited impact on research decision-making. This article asks to what extent has power shifted from the scientific research community to the public? It looks at how much power and impact patients and members of the public have about research by asking: How do the public contribute to deciding which research areas and which research projects should be funded? How do they influence how the research is carried out? The article argues that there is evidence that the public voice is present in research decision-making. However, there is less evidence of a change in the power dynamic between the scientific research community and the public. The public involved in research are not always equal partners. The scientific research community still has the loudest voice and patients and the public do not always feel sufficiently empowered to challenge it. Public involvement in applied health research is a pre-requisite for funding from many funding bodies. In particular the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) in the UK, clearly states that it values lay knowledge and there is an expectation that members of the public will participate as research partners in research. As a result a large public involvement infrastructure has emerged to facilitate this. However, there is concern that despite the flurry of activity in promoting public involvement, lay knowledge is marginalised and has limited impact on research decision-making. This article asks to what extent has power shifted from the scientific research community to the public? It discusses the meaning of power and

  20. Decommissioning: guiding principles and best practices for involving local stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A wide range of nuclear facilities covering the entire nuclear fuel cycle have been constructed and operated for many years worldwide. For communities where the facilities are located, concerns about safety and environmental contamination are paramount. Working together with elected officials, local community leaders and the public at large during the earliest planning stages will help alleviate concerns about facility operation and ultimate disposition, and will result in better decisions about facility design, location, construction, operation and, ultimately, decommissioning. Such comprehensive community involvement has been the exception rather than the norm. Now that older facilities are being considered for decommissioning, efforts to involve local stakeholders and alleviate their concerns face major challenges. This is particularly true where some residual radioactive contamination will remain onsite and future use of the site may need to be restricted. Plans for stakeholder involvement at the decommissioning stage should be carefully designed and provide for honest, authentic and meaningful involvement of all stakeholders affected by decommissioning decisions. A set of principles and best practices is proposed to help guide the design and implementation of effective community involvement programs. The principles and best practices are drawn from the experiences of public involvement practitioners in a variety of environmental contamination applications. Successful community involvement is the result of a carefully crafted set of coordinated activities conducted over the long term. Ideally, facility decommissioning is simply the end stage of the involvement process, or the beginning of a site stewardship process in those cases where decommissioning does not produce an uncontaminated site. In either case, decommissioning will not be a new, unexpected event, and stakeholders could be involved just as they have been over the life of the facility. In

  1. Developing a comprehensive framework of community integration for people with acquired brain injury: a conceptual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nusratnaaz M; Kersten, Paula; Siegert, Richard J; Theadom, Alice

    2018-03-06

    Despite increasing emphasis on the importance of community integration as an outcome for acquired brain injury (ABI), there is still no consensus on the definition of community integration. The aim of this study was to complete a concept analysis of community integration in people with ABI. The method of concept clarification was used to guide concept analysis of community integration based on a literature review. Articles were included if they explored community integration in people with ABI. Data extraction was performed by the initial coding of (1) the definition of community integration used in the articles, (2) attributes of community integration recognized in the articles' findings, and (3) the process of community integration. This information was synthesized to develop a model of community integration. Thirty-three articles were identified that met the inclusion criteria. The construct of community integration was found to be a non-linear process reflecting recovery over time, sequential goals, and transitions. Community integration was found to encompass six components including: independence, sense of belonging, adjustment, having a place to live, involved in a meaningful occupational activity, and being socially connected into the community. Antecedents to community integration included individual, injury-related, environmental, and societal factors. The findings of this concept analysis suggest that the concept of community integration is more diverse than previously recognized. New measures and rehabilitation plans capturing all attributes of community integration are needed in clinical practice. Implications for rehabilitation Understanding of perceptions and lived experiences of people with acquired brain injury through this analysis provides basis to ensure rehabilitation meets patients' needs. This model highlights the need for clinicians to be aware and assess the role of antecedents as well as the attributes of community integration itself to

  2. Photovoltaic pilot projects in the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble, F. C.; Grassi, G.; Schnell, W.

    The paper presents proposals received for the construction of photovoltaic pilot plants as part of the Commission of the European Communities' second 4-year solar energy R and D program. The proposed plants range from 30 to 300 kWp and cover a variety of applications including rural electrification, water pumping, desalination, dairy farming, factories, hospitals, schools and vacation centers. Fifteen projects will be accepted with a total generating capacity of 1 MWp, with preference given to those projects involving the development of new techniques, components and systems.

  3. Exploring Extension Involvement in Farm to School Program Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here examined Extension professionals' involvement in farm-to-school program activities. Results of an online survey distributed to eight state Extension systems indicate that on average, Extension professionals are involved with one farm to school program activity, with most supporting school or community garden programs.…

  4. Stake holder involvement in Posiva's environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vira, J.

    2002-01-01

    The application for the Decision in Principle must include the report from a completed environmental impact assessment (EIA). In general, the purpose of the EIA legislation is to bring more transparency and interaction among potential stakeholders into the planning of projects that may have a significant impact on their physical or social environment. In addition, the EIA should look at different alternatives of the project implementation and also consider the impact of not implementing the project at all, i.e., the so-called zero-alternative. For Posiva the EIA was an important consultation process for determining the basis for the continuation of the disposal project. Because of the strong vetoes that the Finnish legislation gives to several stakeholders Posiva's EIA work was focused on subjects that the public found of greatest concern. In this respect important stakeholder groups included the local people of the investigation communities and their representatives in the municipality councils, the regulators, the public administrators dealing with environmental and energy policy issues, the scientific community involved in related research as well as the whole population and their political representatives at the national level. (authors)

  5. Importance of including cultural practices in ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehi, Priscilla M; Lord, Janice M

    2017-10-01

    Ecosystems worldwide have a long history of use and management by indigenous cultures. However, environmental degradation can reduce the availability of culturally important resources. Ecological restoration aims to repair damage to ecosystems caused by human activity, but it is unclear how often restoration projects incorporate the return of harvesting or traditional life patterns for indigenous communities. We examined the incorporation of cultural use of natural resources into ecological restoration in the context of a culturally important but protected New Zealand bird; among award-winning restoration projects in Australasia and worldwide; and in the peer-reviewed restoration ecology literature. Among New Zealand's culturally important bird species, differences in threat status and availability for hunting were large. These differences indicate the values of a colonizing culture can inhibit harvesting by indigenous people. In Australasia among award-winning ecological restoration projects, <17% involved human use of restored areas beyond aesthetic or recreational use, despite many projects encouraging community participation. Globally, restoration goals differed among regions. For example, in North America, projects were primarily conservation oriented, whereas in Asia and Africa projects frequently focused on restoring cultural harvesting. From 1995 to 2014, the restoration ecology literature contained few references to cultural values or use. We argue that restoration practitioners are missing a vital component for reassembling functional ecosystems. Inclusion of sustainably harvestable areas within restored landscapes may allow for the continuation of traditional practices that shaped ecosystems for millennia, and also aid project success by ensuring community support. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Community occupational therapists' clinical reasoning: identifying tacit knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Annie; Levasseur, Mélanie; Bédard, Denis; Desrosiers, Johanne

    2010-12-01

      Occupational therapy interventions in the community, a fast expanding practice setting, are central to an important social priority, the ability to live at home. These interventions generally involve only a small number of home visits, which aim at maximising the safety and autonomy of community-dwelling clients. Knowing how community occupational therapists determine their interventions, i.e. their clinical reasoning, can improve intervention efficacy. However, occupational therapists are often uninformed about and neglect the importance of clinical reasoning, which could underoptimise their interventions.   To synthesise current knowledge about community occupational therapists' clinical reasoning.   A scoping study of the literature on community occupational therapists' clinical reasoning was undertaken.   Fifteen textbooks and 25 articles, including six focussing on community occupational therapists' clinical reasoning, were reviewed. Community occupational therapists' clinical reasoning is influenced by internal and external factors. Internal factors include past experiences, expertise and perceived complexity of a problem. One of the external factors, practice context (e.g. organisational or cultural imperatives, physical location of intervention), particularly shapes community occupational therapists' clinical reasoning, which is interactive, complex and multidimensional. However, the exact influence of many factors (personal context, organisational and legal aspects of health care, lack of resources and increased number of referrals) remains unclear.   Further studies are needed to understand better the influence of internal and external factors. The extent to which these factors mould the way community occupational therapists think and act could have a direct influence on the services they provide to their clients. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2010 Australian Association of Occupational Therapists.

  7. Lessons learned from community-based approaches to sodium reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heather; Strazza, Karen; Losby, Jan L; Lane, Rashon; Mugavero, Kristy; Anater, Andrea S; Frost, Corey; Margolis, Marjorie; Hersey, James

    2015-01-01

    This article describes lessons from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiative encompassing sodium reduction interventions in six communities. A multiple case study design was used. This evaluation examined data from programs implemented in six communities located in New York (Broome County, Schenectady County, and New York City); California (Los Angeles County and Shasta County); and Kansas (Shawnee County). Participants (n = 80) included program staff, program directors, state-level staff, and partners. Measures for this evaluation included challenges, facilitators, and lessons learned from implementing sodium reduction strategies. The project team conducted a document review of program materials and semistructured interviews 12 to 14 months after implementation. The team coded and analyzed data deductively and inductively. Five lessons for implementing community-based sodium reduction approaches emerged: (1) build relationships with partners to understand their concerns, (2) involve individuals knowledgeable about specific venues early, (3) incorporate sodium reduction efforts and messaging into broader nutrition efforts, (4) design the program to reduce sodium gradually to take into account consumer preferences and taste transitions, and (5) identify ways to address the cost of lower-sodium products. The experiences of the six communities may assist practitioners in planning community-based sodium reduction interventions. Addressing sodium reduction using a community-based approach can foster meaningful change in dietary sodium consumption.

  8. Natural Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the locations of known tracts of high quality natural communities in Kansas, generalized to the PLSS section. It is not a compehensive dataset of...

  9. COMMUNITY OPHTHALMOLOGY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-04

    [2] However, in Nigeria PHC is .... why patients with cataract refuse free surgery: the influence of rumours in Kenya. Trop Med Int Health .... Low vision in persons aged 50 and above in the onchocercal endemic communities of ...

  10. Communities ready for takeoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkhoff, Sanne A M; Hoard, Season A; Gaffney, Michael J; Smith, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    Although much of the social science literature supports the importance of community assets for success in many policy areas, these assets are often overlooked when selecting communities for new infrastructure facilities. Extensive collaboration is crucial for the success of environmental and economic projects, yet it often is not adequately addressed when making siting decisions for new projects. This article develops a social asset framework that includes social, creative, and human capital to inform site-selection decisions. This framework is applied to the Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance project to assess community suitability for biofuel-related developments. This framework is the first to take all necessary community assets into account, providing insight into successful site selection beyond current models. The framework not only serves as a model for future biorefinery projects but also guides tasks that depend on informed location selection for success.

  11. Influence of Involvement in Sports on Students' Involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... involvement in outdoor sports activities and their involvement in academic activities. However, there was a significant negative relationship between students' involvement in indoor sports activities and their involvement in academic activities. Keywords: Extra-curricular activities; Sports management; Ndejje University ...

  12. Eddy Resolving Global Ocean Prediction including Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    oceanographic and acoustic soliton simulations in the Yellow Sea: a search for soliton -induced resonances. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation...Assimilation), and in forecast mode. Also to incorporate advances in dynamics and physics from the science community into the HYCOM established and maintained...validate the model in different regions and different regimes. Demonstrated advancements in HYCOM numerics and physics from all sources will be

  13. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    OpenAIRE

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered ‘improved sanitation’ or, in the current terminology, ‘basic sanitation’ by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapte...

  14. Storms over the Urban Forest: Planning, Responding, and Regreening-- A community Guide to Natural Disaster Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa L. Burban; John W. Andresen

    1994-01-01

    Natural disasters which can occur in the United States include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, and related high-velocity winds, as well as ice storms. Preparing for these natural disasters, which strike urban forests in large cities and small communities, should involve the cooperative effort of a wide array of municipal agencies, private arboricultural companies,...

  15. The Public Library on the Electronic Frontier: Starting a Community Online Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Carol J.

    1995-01-01

    Details the Rockford (Illinois) Public Library's activities involved with developing a community online information system and the not-for-profit organization established to run the system. Includes mission statement; guiding principles, policy statements; standing committees and goals for first year of operation; funding; adding users and…

  16. Now Is the Moment: The State, Public Education, & Communities of Resistance in Oaxaca & Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hones, Donald

    2012-01-01

    This study draws from narrative research, wherein stories of individuals, groups, and communities are central to the interpretation. Through a process of interpretive interactionism, the author examined the groups and institutions involved in the ongoing conflict between the state and public education in Oaxaca, and then included comparisons and…

  17. Craniocerebral involvement in lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge D. Correale

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine-hundred-eighty-nine patients with lymphoma were studied. Fifty-three cases (5.3% had lymphomatous craniocerebral infiltration. The principal factors of risk for this complication were: advanced stage of the lymphoma (III or IV, diffuse histiocytic, diffuse poorly differentiated lymphocytic, or mixed cellularity lymphoma histological type, bone marrow involvement, and previous systemic chemotherapy. Thirty-two per cent of the cases of meningeal lymphomatous infiltration were asymptomatic and represented autopsy findings. CT-scan was an useful test to detect brain focal parenchymatous infiltration, as opposed to meningeal infiltration. Mean survival time in patients with lymphomatous meningeal infiltration was 4.3 months, following the combined use of systemic chemotherapy, radiation therapy and intrathecal methotrexate. Two cases had primary cerebral lymphoma, although without associated immunodeficiency Twenty patients (2% had intracranial hemorrhage, in clear relationship with platelet alterations. Fifteen patients (1.5% had CNS infection, caused by common bacteriae or opportunistic agents. In 7 cases, the diagnosis was made at autopsy. Thirty-six autopsies were performed. In 8 cases (22%, pathologic findings such as, demyelination, microcalcificat ons, coagulative necrosis, or gliosis, suggested complications from treatment.

  18. Chemical Safety: Emergency Response Community Views on the Adequacy of Federally Required Chemical Information

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... To help protect communities from incidents involving hazardous chemicals, local emergency responders need information such as the types of chemicals used or stored at facilities in their communities...

  19. Reflection on an interprofessional community-based participatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. A collaborative interprofessional research project that involved community members was beneficial to community development. Objective. To draw upon the experiences of academics relating to their involvement in an interprofessional community-based participatory research (CBPR) project. Methods. A Delphi ...

  20. Charting a Planning Course: The Facilitator's Role in Community Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Leslie Peralta

    Aimed at community planning groups, this guide has been developed to help clarify the role and responsibilities of a facilitator involved with community planning. The booklet maintains that a facilitator's purpose is to help a group reach its own goals and to encourage those involved in community planning to contribute positively. It explains how…

  1. Psycho-social processes in dealing with legal innovation in the community: insights from biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Paula; Mouro, Carla

    2011-06-01

    Mitigation measures for tackling the consequences of a changing climate will involve efforts of various types including the conservation of affected ecosystems. For this, communities throughout the world will be called on to change habits of land and water use. Many of these changes will emerge from the multilevel governance tools now commonly used for environmental protection. In this article, some tenets of a social psychology of legal innovation are proposed for approaching the psycho-social processes involved in how individuals, groups and communities respond to multilevel governance. Next, how this approach can improve our understanding of community-based conservation driven by legal innovation is highlighted. For this, the macro and micro level processes involved in the implementation of the European Natura 2000 Network of Protected Sites are examined. Finally, some insights gained from this example of multilevel governance through legal innovation will be enumerated as a contribution for future policy making aimed at dealing with climate change consequences.

  2. Gay men and ambivalence about 'gay community': from gay community attachment to personal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Martin

    2011-09-01

    The concept of 'gay community', and gay men's attachment to and involvement in gay community activities, has held both a symbolic and practical role in understanding and guiding responses to HIV in developed world contexts. In the West, the HIV epidemic has disproportionately affected gay men. Being involved in and connected to gay community activities (what, in Australia, is described as 'gay community attachment') predicted the adoption of safe sex practices. However, the meaning of gay community is changing. This presents a challenge to those working in HIV prevention. With reference to previous research, the meaning of gay community is analysed in qualitative interviews conducted with Australian gay men. The interview data indicate that gay men are often ambivalent about gay communities, suggesting a need for subtlety in the ways we think about and address gay men in HIV education and health promotion. The concept of 'personal communities' may better reflect the ways in which gay men engage with each other and their social networks. Recognising and responding to the changing nature of gay life will ensure that the flexibility and pragmatism of HIV programmes aimed at gay men are maintained.

  3. Community Participation Of Coastal Area On Management Of National Park, Karimunjawa Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Bambang A.; Aditomo, Aryo B.; Prihantoko, Kukuh E.

    2018-02-01

    Karimunjawa island located in Jepara Regacy, Central Java has potential marine and fishing resources. Since 1998, this area has been selected as conservation for its natural resources. National park of Karimunjawa is managed by Balai Taman Nasional Karimunjawa (Karimunjawa National Park Beuroue). Some activities involved community have been done in order to get effective management. Community participation is an important component for success in coastal area management. The level of community/people awareness anual on natural resource conservation can increate sustainable resource. However, it is necesssary to provide tools in resource utilization for the community, so that their economic life can be secured. This study observe the level of community participation in the effort of Karimunjawa National Park management. Descriptive method and purposive random sampling were used to carry out the study parameters observed in this study include community participation related to level of knowladge and obedience on the rule of area zonation, an its impact to community. The result show that community knowledge was quite high (40%) with obedience (56%) on the rule of area zonation. Impact area zonation rule was less significant to community. The level of community participation to Karimunjawa National Park management was performed will low to medium level.

  4. 'Setting the guinea pigs free': towards a new model of community-led social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A J; Henry, L

    2009-09-01

    To offer the opportunity to discuss the positive contribution of co-production approaches in the field of social marketing. Recognizing the ever-evolving theoretical base for social marketing, this article offers a brief commentary on the positive contribution of co-production approaches in this field. The authors outline their own move towards conceptualizing a community-led social marketing approach and describe some key features. This developing framework has been influenced by, and tested through, the Early Presentation of Cancer Symptoms Programme, a community-led social marketing approach to tackle health inequalities across priority neighbourhoods in North East Lincolnshire, UK. A blend of social marketing, community involvement and rapid improvement science methodologies are drawn upon. The approach involves not just a strong focus on involving communities in insight and consultation, but also adopts methods where they are in charge of the process of generating solutions. A series of monthly and pre/post measures have demonstrated improvements in awareness of symptoms, reported willingness to act and increases in presentation measured through service referrals. Key features of the approach involve shared ownership and a shift away from service-instigated change by enabling communities 'to do' through developing skills and confidence and the conditions to 'try out'. The approach highlights the contribution that co-production approaches have to offer social marketing activity. In order to maximize potential, it is important to consider ways of engaging communities effectively. Successful approaches include translating social marketing methodology into easy-to-use frameworks, involving communities in gathering and interpreting local data, and supporting communities to act as change agents by planning and carrying out activity. The range of impacts across organisational, health and social capital measures demonstrates that multiple and longer

  5. Community Based Educational Model on Water Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiajeng, L.; Parwita, I. G. L.; Wiraga, I. W.; Mudhina, M.

    2018-01-01

    The previous research showed that there were indicators of water crisis in the northern and eastern part of Denpasar city and most of coastal area experienced on seawater intrusion. The recommended water conservation programs were rainwater harvesting and educate the community to develop a water saving and environmentally conscious culture. This research was conducted to built the community based educational model on water conservation program through ergonomics SHIP approach which placed the human aspect as the first consideration, besides the economic and technically aspects. The stakeholders involved in the program started from the problem analyses to the implementation and the maintenance as well. The model was built through three main steps, included determination of accepted design; building the recharge wells by involving local communities; guidance and assistance in developing a water saving and environmentally conscious culture for early childhood, elementary and junior high school students, community and industry. The program was implemented based on the “TRIHITA KARANA” concept, which means the relationship between human to God, human-to-human, and human to environment. Through the development of the model, it is expected to grow a sense of belonging and awareness from the community to maintain the sustainability of the program.

  6. Involving men on the Thai-Burma border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Alvarado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmes to address gender-based violence (GBV must address and include all members of the community, including men. Implementing these initiatives, however, is an enormous challenge.

  7. Service user involvement in mental health care: an evolutionary concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Samantha L; Chambers, Mary; Giles, Melanie

    2016-04-01

    The concept of service user involvement is an evolving concept in the mental health-care literature. This study sought to explore and analyse the concept of service user involvement as used in within the field of mental health care. An evolutionary concept analysis was conducted using a literature-based sample extracted from an electronic database search. One hundred and thirty-four papers met the inclusion criteria and were analysed to discover key attributes, antecedents and consequences of service user involvement and to produce a definition of the concept. Five key attributes of service user involvement within the context of mental health care were identified: a person-centred approach, informed decision making, advocacy, obtaining service user views and feedback and working in partnership. Clarity of the attributes and definition of the concept of service user involvement aims to promote understanding of the concept among key stakeholders including mental health professionals, service users and community and voluntary organizations. The findings of the research have utility in the areas of theory and policy development, research on service user involvement in mental health care and service user involvement in mental health practice. Directions for further research regarding the concept are identified. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Stakeholder involvement in the decommissioning of Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrisson, Norman; LOVE, June; Murray, Marc

    2006-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) was established in the 1950's to pioneer the development of nuclear energy within the UK. Today its primary mission is to decommission UK's former nuclear research sites and restore its environment in a way that is safe and secure, environmentally friendly, value for money and publicly Acceptable. UKAEA Dounreay celebrated its 50 birthday in 2005, having pioneered the development of fast reactor technology since 1955. Today the site is now leading the way in decommissioning. The Dounreay nuclear site licence covers an area of approximately 140 acres and includes 3 reactors: the Dounreay Material Test Reactor (DMTR), the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR), and the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). In addition there are 180 facilities on site which have supported the fast reactor programme, including a fuel reprocessing capability, laboratories and administration buildings. The reactors are now all in advanced stages of decommissioning. In October 2000 the Dounreay Site Restoration Plan (DSRP) was published to provide a framework for the site's restoration. The plan's objective was to reduce the site's hazards progressively by decontaminating and dismantling the plant, equipment and facilities, remediating contaminated ground and treating and packaging waste so it is suitable for long term storage or disposal. Whilst hailed as the most detailed plan integrating some 1500 activities and spanning 60 years it was criticised for having no stakeholder involvement. In response to this criticism, UKAEA developed a process for public participation over the following 2 years and launched its stakeholder engagement programme in October 2002. In order to provide a larger platform for the engagement process an advertisement was placed in the Scottish media inviting people to register as stakeholders in the Dounreay Site Restoration Plan. The stakeholder list now total over 1000. In October 2002 UKAEA launched their commitment to public

  9. Construction contractors involvement in disaster management planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Stringfellow

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Disasters, both natural and man-made, cause major damage and loss of life. Because of this, governments around the world are looking at building resilience to ensure communities can recover quickly and have minimal impact from a disaster. Part of building resilience is to plan for disaster management and recovery. Literature reveals that construction contractors can play a critical role within this process as they have control of resource supply chains and key knowledge and skills they are well suited to assist in disaster planning. However, as literature also reveals there is currently little involvement of construction contractors in the disaster planning process. This gap between what should be done and what is currently done is investigated. Representatives from industry bodies are interviewed to determine their understanding of the industry’s involvement in disaster planning and what capacity the industry might have to be involved. The interviewee’s responses agree with current literature that there is currently little or no involvement with disaster planning however there is interest in being involved with disaster management planning if there was a forum for this to occur. Based on the responses the researcher has proposed a model to engage construction contractors within state government disaster management planning.

  10. Patients' involvement in improvement initiatives: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van, Claire; McInerney, Patricia; Cooke, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Over the last 20 years, quality improvement in health has become an important strategy in health services in many countries. With the emphasis on quality health care, there has been a shift in social paradigms towards including service users in their own health on different levels. There is growing evidence in literature on the positive impact on health outcomes where patients are active participants in their personal care. There is however less information available on the broader influence of users on improvement in systems. The objective of this review was to identify the barriers and enablers to patients being involved in quality improvement efforts directed towards their own health care. This review considered studies that included adults and children of any age experiencing any health problem.The review considered studies that explored patient or user participation in quality improvement and the factors enabling and hindering this processThe qualitative component of this review considered studies that focused on qualitative data, including, but not limited to, designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research. Other texts such as opinion papers and reports were also considered. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies. A three-step search strategy was utilized in this review. The searches using all identified keywords and index terms included the databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Medline, Scopus, EBSCOhost and CINAHL.Qualitative, text and opinion papers were considered for inclusion in this review.Closely related concepts like community involvement, family involvement, patients' involvement in their own care (for example, in the case of shared decision making), and patient centeredness in the context of a consultation were excluded. Qualitative and textual papers selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for authenticity prior to inclusion in the review using

  11. Community Detection for Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2014-05-04

    Many real world networks have inherent community structures, including social networks, transportation networks, biological networks, etc. For large scale networks with millions or billions of nodes in real-world applications, accelerating current community detection algorithms is in demand, and we present two approaches to tackle this issue -A K-core based framework that can accelerate existing community detection algorithms significantly; -A parallel inference algorithm via stochastic block models that can distribute the workload.

  12. Measuring Purchase‐decision involvement ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, increasing competition is forcing businesses to pay more attention on customer satisfaction providing strong customer services. Increased competition has also increased marketing activities. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors influencing purchase decision involvement in food industry in city of Tehran, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among 270 experts in food industry and, using principle component (PCA analysis, extracts important group of factors. The questionnaire consists of 27 questions, which is reduced to 23 questions because of sensitivity of the PCA to Skewness of data. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.81, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The results indicate that there were four factors including individual differences, product validation, triggers and dependent behavior influencing purchasing decisions.

  13. Nursing care community health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Acosta-Salazar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Process Nursing Care (PAE is a systematic tool that facilitates the scientificity of care in community practice nurse, the application of scientific method in community practice, allows nursing to provide care in logical, systematic and comprehensive reassessing interventions to achieve the proposed results. It began with the valuation of Marjory Gordon Functional Patterns and then at the stage of diagnosis and planning North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA, Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC and Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC is interrelate. It is a descriptive and prospective study. Diagnosis was made by applying the instruments measuring scale of the socio-demographic characteristics, symptom questionnaire for early detection of mental disorders in the community and appreciation for functional patterns. The PAE includes more frequent diagnoses, criteria outcomes, indicators, interventions and activities to manage community issues. alteration was evidenced in patterns: Adaptation and Stress Tolerance, Self-perception-Self-concept-, Role-Relationships, sleep and rest and Perception and Health Management. A standardized NANDA-NIC-NOC can provide inter care holistic care from the perspective of community mental health with a degree of scientific nature that frames the professional work projecting the individual, family and community care.

  14. Behavioral Consultation to Community Self-Help Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.

    A high priority area for behavioral community psychologists involves working to strengthen informal support systems within communities. A collaborative effort between a community group and academic based psychologists focusses on a community problem--dog litter in an urban area. An original demonstration project was used to influence the political…

  15. Democracy requires involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folger, Peter

    Three hundred scientists and engineers from around the United States converged on Washington, D.C., on April 5 to personally urge Congress to increase federal support for scientific research. The 5th annual Science, Engineering, and Technology Congressional Visits Day drew 33 Earth and space scientists, including a contingent of AGU members, to Capitol Hill for a series of face-to-face meetings with senators, representatives, and legislative staff. These visitors advocated two common themes to the lawmakers: 1) supporting a balanced federal investment in science, engineering, and technology is fundamental to the nation s continued prosperity, and 2) science, engineering, and technology partnerships between government, universities, and industries means progress, economic growth, and jobs.

  16. Promoting policy and environmental change using photovoice in the Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Leila; Schwartz, Pamela; Cheadle, Allen; Borton, J Elaine; Wright, Merrick; Chase, Charlie; Lindley, Corina

    2010-05-01

    Creative ways must be found to engage both community residents and political leaders around policy and environmental solutions to public health issues. Photovoice is a community-based, participatory approach to documentary photography that provides people with training on photography, ethics, critical discussion, and policy advocacy. Photovoice projects have been implemented across the nation as part of Kaiser Permanente's Community Health Initiative-a community-based obesity prevention effort. This article focuses on the first Photovoice project implemented in three communities in Colorado. Photovoice themes related to healthy eating and active living include a lack of access to healthy food choices in stores and schools, unsafe street crossings and sidewalks, and the need to redevelop certain areas to encourage safe recreation. The involvement of policy leaders in the project combined with several dissemination activities has contributed to healthier food offerings in schools and neighborhoods and city planning efforts that emphasize walkability and access to healthy food, and park revitalization.

  17. Approaches to dog health education programs in Australian rural and remote Indigenous communities: four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, S E; Dixon, R M; Dixon, R J; Toribio, J-A

    2013-09-01

    Dog health in rural and remote Australian Indigenous communities is below urban averages in numerous respects. Many Indigenous communities have called for knowledge sharing in this area. However, dog health education programs are in their infancy, and lack data on effective practices. Without this core knowledge, health promotion efforts cannot progress effectively. This paper discusses a strategy that draws from successful approaches in human health and indigenous education, such as dadirri, and culturally respectful community engagement and development. Negotiating an appropriate education program is explored in its practical application through four case studies. Though each case was unique, the comparison of the four illustrated the importance of listening (community consultation), developing and maintaining relationships, community involvement and employment. The most successful case studies were those that could fully implement all four areas. Outcomes included improved local dog health capacity, local employment and engagement with the program and significantly improved dog health.

  18. Relating Anaerobic Digestion Microbial Community and Process Function : Supplementary Issue: Water Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Venkiteshwaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion (AD involves a consortium of microorganisms that convert substrates into biogas containing methane for renewable energy. The technology has suffered from the perception of being periodically unstable due to limited understanding of the relationship between microbial community structure and function. The emphasis of this review is to describe microbial communities in digesters and quantitative and qualitative relationships between community structure and digester function. Progress has been made in the past few decades to identify key microorganisms influencing AD. Yet, more work is required to realize robust, quantitative relationships between microbial community structure and functions such as methane production rate and resilience after perturbations. Other promising areas of research for improved AD may include methods to increase/control (1 hydrolysis rate, (2 direct interspecies electron transfer to methanogens, (3 community structure–function relationships of methanogens, (4 methanogenesis via acetate oxidation, and (5 bioaugmentation to study community–activity relationships or improve engineered bioprocesses.

  19. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  20. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  1. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  2. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  3. Mobilizing community energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomberg, Elizabeth; McEwen, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    What explains the galvanising of communities to participate actively in energy projects? How do groups mobilize to overcome the often formidable barriers highlighted in the existing literature? Drawing on original qualitative research of 100 community energy groups in Scotland, including six in-depth case studies, we explain how effective mobilization occurs and the political dynamics surrounding such mobilization. To capture these dynamics, we adapt theories offered by literature on social movements, with a particular focus on resource mobilization theories. Applying our adapted framework, we identify two particular sets of resources shaping community energy mobilization: (i) structural resources, which refer to the broad political context structuring and constraining opportunities for community energy mobilization; and (ii) symbolic resources—less tangible resources used to galvanise participants. We investigate to what extent our case study groups were able to draw upon and exploit these resources. We find that structural resources can either facilitate or hinder mobilization; what matters is how state resources are exploited and constraints mitigated. The use of symbolic resources was highly effective in aiding mobilization. Each of the groups examined – despite their considerable variation – effectively exploited symbolic resources such as shared identity or desire for strong, self reliant communities. - Highlights: ► Explains how/why community energy groups mobilize and the political dynamics surrounding it. ► Draws on original qualitative research of 100 community energy groups in Scotland. ► Identifies two particular sets of resources (structural and symbolic) and their importance. ► Explains how these resources shape community energy mobilization in Scotland. ► Provides an original application of resource mobilization theory to the field of energy studies.

  4. Asian Americans in Community Colleges: UCLA Community College Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Amy

    2007-01-01

    The references presented in this bibliography provide an overview of recent scholarship on Asian Americans in community colleges. Included in this bibliography are educational reports, case studies, literature reviews, and analyses that reflect upon the experience of Asian Americans in community colleges. The references also address the barriers…

  5. Diversity, Community, and Pluralism in Jewish Community Day High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Students in "community" (nondenominational) Jewish high schools represent a diversity of denominational affiliations, including those who affiliate with more than one denomination and those that affiliate with none. These schools strive to create communities in which students with varying Jewish beliefs and practices are, at the very…

  6. Families and Communities (Bookalogues).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Miriam; Nash, Marcia F.

    1993-01-01

    Presents brief reviews of 26 picture books, chapter books, and informational books that deal with families and/or communities. Notes that the picture books and chapter books cover a wide variety of genres including poetry, realistic fiction, and fantasy and that the informational books have a variety of formats, with the "photo essay" dominating.…

  7. A community perspective on the role of fathers during pregnancy: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alio, Amina P; Lewis, Cindi A; Scarborough, Kenneth; Harris, Kenn; Fiscella, Kevin

    2013-03-07

    Defining male involvement during pregnancy is essential for the development of future research and appropriate interventions to optimize services aiming to improve birth outcomes. To define male involvement during pregnancy and obtain community-based recommendations for interventions to improve male involvement during pregnancy. We conducted focus groups with mothers and fathers from the National Healthy Start Association program in order to obtain detailed descriptions of male involvement activities, benefits, barriers, and proposed solutions for increasing male involvement during pregnancy. The majority of participants were African American parents. The involved "male" was identified as either the biological father, or, the current male partner of the pregnant woman. Both men and women described the ideal, involved father or male partner as present, accessible, available, understanding, willing to learn about the pregnancy process and eager to provide emotional, physical and financial support to the woman carrying the child. Women emphasized a sense of "togetherness" during the pregnancy. Suggestions included creating male-targeted prenatal programs, enhancing current interventions targeting females, and increasing healthcare providers' awareness of the importance of men's involvement during pregnancy. Individual, family, community, societal and policy factors play a role in barring or diminishing the involvement of fathers during pregnancy. Future research and interventions should target these factors and their interaction in order to increase fathers' involvement and thereby improve pregnancy outcomes.

  8. MMI: Increasing Community Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, N. R.; Stocks, K.; Neiswender, C.; Maffei, A.; Bermudez, L.

    2007-12-01

    Building community requires a collaborative environment and guidance to help move members towards a common goal. An effective environment for community collaboration is a workspace that fosters participation and cooperation; effective guidance furthers common understanding and promotes best practices. The Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) project has developed a community web site to provide a collaborative environment for scientists, technologists, and data managers from around the world to learn about metadata and exchange ideas. Workshops, demonstration projects, and presentations also provide community-building opportunities for MMI. MMI has developed comprehensive online guides to help users understand and work with metadata standards, ontologies, and other controlled vocabularies. Documents such as "The Importance of Metadata Standards", "Usage vs. Discovery Vocabularies" and "Developing Controlled Vocabularies" guide scientists and data managers through a variety of metadata-related concepts. Members from eight organizations involved in marine science and informatics collaborated on this effort. The MMI web site has moved from Plone to Drupal, two content management systems which provide different opportunities for community-based work. Drupal's "organic groups" feature will be used to provide workspace for future teams tasked with content development, outreach, and other MMI mission-critical work. The new site is designed to enable members to easily create working areas, to build communities dedicated to developing consensus on metadata and other interoperability issues. Controlled-vocabulary-driven menus, integrated mailing-lists, member-based content creation and review tools are facets of the new web site architecture. This move provided the challenge of developing a hierarchical vocabulary to describe the resources presented on the site; consistent and logical tagging of web pages is the basis of Drupal site navigation. The new MMI web site

  9. Charge exchange processes involving iron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A review and evaluation is given of the experimental data which are available for charge exchange processes involving iron ions and neutral H, H 2 and He. Appropriate scaling laws are presented, and their accuracy estimated for these systems. A bibliography is given of available data sources, as well as of useful data compilations and review articles. A procedure is recommended for providing single approximate formulae to the fusion community to describe total cross sections for electron capture by partially-stripped Fe/sup q+/ ions in collisions with H, H 2 and He, based on the scaling relationships suggested by Janev and Hvelplund

  10. Oral Dysbiotic Communities and Their Implications in Systemic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Sudhakara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The human body supports the growth of a wide array of microbial communities in various niches such as the oral cavity, gastro-intestinal and urogenital tracts, and on the surface of the skin. These host associated microbial communities include yet-un-cultivable bacteria and are influenced by various factors. Together, these communities of bacteria are referred to as the human microbiome. Human oral microbiome consists of both symbionts and pathobionts. Deviation from symbiosis among the bacterial community leads to “dysbiosis”, a state of community disturbance. Dysbiosis occurs due to many confounding factors that predispose a shift in the composition and relative abundance of microbial communities. Dysbiotic communities have been a major cause for many microbiome related systemic infections. Such dysbiosis is directed by certain important pathogens called the “keystone pathogens”, which can modulate community microbiome variations. One such persistent infection is oral infection, mainly periodontitis, where a wide array of causal organisms have been implied to systemic infections such as cardio vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer’s disease. The keystone pathogens co-occur with many yet-cultivable bacteria and their interactions lead to dysbiosis. This has been the focus of recent research. While immune evasion is one of the major modes that leads to dysbiosis, new processes and new virulence factors of bacteria have been shown to be involved in this important process that determines a disease or health state. This review focuses on such dysbiotic communities, their interactions, and their virulence factors that predispose the host to other systemic implications.

  11. Athena Community Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Núnez, S.; Barcons, X.; Barret, D.; Bozzo, E.; Carrera, F. J.; Ceballos, M. T.; Gómez, S.; Monterde, M. P.; Rau, A.

    2017-03-01

    The Athena Community Office (ACO) has been established by ESA's Athena Science Study Team (ASST) in order to obtain support in performing its tasks assigned by ESA, and most specially in the ASST role as "focal point for the interests of the broad scientific community". The ACO is led by the Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), and its activities are funded by CSIC and UC. Further ACO contributors are the University of Geneva, MPE and IRAP. In this poster, we present ACO to the Spanish Astronomical Community, informing about its main responsibilities, which are: assist the ASST in organising and collecting support from the Athena Working Groups and Topical Panels; organise and maintain the documentation generated by the Athena Working Groups and Topical Panels; manage the Working Group and Topical Panel membership lists; assist the ASST in promoting Athena science capabilities in the research world, through conferences and workshops; keep a record of all papers and presentations related to Athena; support the production of ASST documents; produce and distribute regularly an Athena Newsletter, informing the community about all mission and science developments; create and maintain the Athena Community web portal; maintain an active communication activity; promote, organise and support Athena science-related public outreach, in coordination with ESA and other agencies involved when appropriate; and, design, produce materials and provide pointers to available materials produced by other parties. In summary, ACO is meant to become a focal point to facilitate the scientific exchange between the Athena activities and the scientific community at large, and to disseminate the Athena science objectives to the general public.

  12. Parasitic Pneumonia and Lung Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attapon Cheepsattayakorn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infestations demonstrated a decline in the past decade as a result of better hygiene practices and improved socioeconomic conditions. Nevertheless, global immigration, increased numbers of the immunocompromised people, international traveling, global warming, and rapid urbanization of the cities have increased the susceptibility of the world population to parasitic diseases. A number of new human parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi, in addition to many potential parasites, have urged the interest of scientific community. A broad spectrum of protozoal parasites frequently affects the respiratory system, particularly the lungs. The diagnosis of parasitic diseases of airway is challenging due to their wide varieties of clinical and roentgenographic presentations. So detailed interrogations of travel history to endemic areas are critical for clinicians or pulmonologists to manage this entity. The migrating adult worms can cause mechanical airway obstruction, while the larvae can cause airway inflammation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of both protozoal and helminthic infestations that affect the airway system, particularly the lungs, including clinical and roentgenographic presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapeutic approaches.

  13. A Community Profile of Pittsburgh Neighborhoods, 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — These data include four historical datasets that were transcribed from the Community Profiles of Pittsburgh reports, which were published in 1974. The Community...

  14. Where is the F in MCH? Father involvement in African American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Michael C; Jones, Loretta; Bond, Melton J; Wright, Kynna; Pumpuang, Maiteeny; Maidenberg, Molly; Jones, Drew; Garfield, Craig; Rowley, Diane L

    2010-01-01

    To: 1) review the historical contexts and current profiles of father involvement in African American families; 2) identify barriers to, and supports of, involvement; 3) evaluate the effectiveness of father involvement programs; and 4) recommend directions for future research, programs, and public policies. Review of observational and interventional studies on father involvement. Several historical developments (slavery, declining employment for Black men and increasing workforce participation for Black women, and welfare policies that favored single mothers) led to father absence from African American families. Today, more than two thirds of Black infants are born to unmarried mothers. Even if unmarried fathers are actively involved initially, their involvement over time declines. We identified multiple barriers to, and supports of, father involvement at multiple levels. These levels include intrapersonal (eg, human capital, attitudes and beliefs about parenting), interpersonal (eg, the father's relationships with the mother and maternal grandmother), neighborhoods and communities (eg, high unemployment and incarceration rates), cultural or societal (eg, popular cultural perceptions of Black fathers as expendable and irresponsible, racial stratification and institutionalized racism), policy (eg, Earned Income Tax Credit, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, child support enforcement), and life-course factors (eg, father involvement by the father's father). We found strong evidence of success for several intervention programs (eg, Reducing the Risk, Teen Outreach Program, and Children's Aid Society - Carrera Program) designed to prevent formation of father-absent families, but less is known about the effectiveness of programs to encourage greater father involvement because of a lack of rigorous research design and evaluation for most programs. A multi-level, life-course approach is needed to strengthen the capacity of African American men to promote greater

  15. Toxic and hazardous chemicals, Title III and communities: An outreach manual for community groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, C.; Arkin, E.B.; McCallum, D.

    1989-09-01

    The manual was prepared for State and local government officials, local emergency planning committee (LEPCs), and other community groups that want to make Title III work. It is intended as a practical guide for those who have little or no previous experience in the field of communication, whose time must be snatched from home and office, and whose resources are limited. The manual has three major sections: Part I discusses planning, which is vital to the success of a communication program; Part II suggests ways to get and keep people involved, especially important because Title III affects so many different sectors of the community; Part III, a how-to-do-it section, talks about specific tasks, such as giving a speech or writing a press release. Appendices include a detailed explanation of the law, a glossary, a list of recent studies related to Title III communications, a list of educational materials, and a list of State contacts

  16. Service user involvement in mental health system strengthening in a rural African setting: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayneh, Sisay; Lempp, Heidi; Alem, Atalay; Alemayehu, Daniel; Eshetu, Tigist; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Thornicroft, Graham; Hanlon, Charlotte

    2017-05-18

    It is essential to involve service users in efforts to expand access to mental health care in integrated primary care settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there is little evidence from LMICs to guide this process. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to, and facilitators of, service user/caregiver involvement in rural Ethiopia to inform the development of a scalable approach. Thirty nine semi-structured interviews were carried out with purposively selected mental health service users (n = 13), caregivers (n = 10), heads of primary care facilities (n = 8) and policy makers/planners/service developers (n = 8). The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed in Amharic, and translated into English. Thematic analysis was applied. All groups of participants supported service user and caregiver involvement in mental health system strengthening. Potential benefits were identified as (i) improved appropriateness and quality of services, and (ii) greater protection against mistreatment and promotion of respect for service users. However, hardly any respondents had prior experience of service user involvement. Stigma was considered to be a pervasive barrier, operating within the health system, the local community and individuals. Competing priorities of service users included the need to obtain adequate individual care and to work for survival. Low recognition of the potential contribution of service users seemed linked to limited empowerment and mobilization of service users. Potential health system facilitators included a culture of community oversight of primary care services. All groups of respondents identified a need for awareness-raising and training to equip service users, caregivers, service providers and local community for involvement. Empowerment at the level of individual service users (information about mental health conditions, care and rights) and the group level (for advocacy and representation) were considered

  17. Walkable Communities

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and discusses the benefits of walkable communities, as they relate to health, the environment, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  18. COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT. International Day of the. Older Person 2009. Yaseen Ally, Deanne Goldberg and Royal Lekoba. UNISA Institute for Social and Health Sciences. Mohamed Seedat. UNISA Institute for Social and Health Sciences and. MRC–UNISA Crime, Violence and Injury Lead Programme. Shahnaaz Suffla.

  19. Interfirm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Strong and trust-based ties are usually related to homogeneous and complex knowledge, while weak ties are associated with heterogeneous and simple knowledge. Interfirm communities have been shown to depend on trust-based ties, while also relying on getting access to heterogeneous knowledge. These...

  20. Mine Lifecycle Planning and Enduring Value for Remote communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Robertson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mine lifecycle planning is critical to developing enduring value from mining for remote communities. The history of mining is replete with examples of communities being unsustainable post mine closure. The concept of enduring value involves ensuring that a sustainable community will remain following the closure of an associated mine. Since 2003, awareness has increased amongst the International and Australian peak mining bodies for the need to plan for enduring community value. This increased awareness has developed alongside the requirement for mining companies to operate in a socially responsible manner by maintaining a social license to operate. This paper thematically reviews the literature relevant to mine life cycle planning, enduring value, the socio-economic impacts of mining, and mine closure. Conditions required for a community to gain enduring value from mining include: ‘normalisation’ rather than being a ‘closed’ town; the existence of government support and funding; and realised economic diversification opportunities. It is imperative that these conditions are given due consideration 1 in the initial stages of mine and town planning and 2 throughout the life of the mine through ongoing monitoring and community engagement. However, we acknowledge the shortcomings in assuming planning is a panacea and suggest areas for further testing.

  1. Public involvement in environmental surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, R.W. Jr.; Patton, G.W.; Woodruff, R.K.; Poston, T.M.

    1994-08-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site began during the mid-1940s following the construction and start-up of the nation's first plutonium production reactor. Over the past approximately 45 years, surveillance operations on and off the Site have continued, with virtually all sampling being conducted by Hanford Site workers. Recently, the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office directed that public involvement in Hanford environmental surveillance operations be initiated. Accordingly, three special radiological air monitoring stations were constructed offsite, near hanford's perimeter. Each station is managed and operated by two local school teaches. These three stations are the beginning of a community-operated environmental surveillance program that will ultimately involve the public in most surveillance operations around the Site. The program was designed to stimulate interest in Hanford environmental surveillance operations, and to help the public better understand surveillance results. The program has also been used to enhance educational opportunities at local schools

  2. Learning Disabilities: Current Policy and Directions for Community Involvement among the Arab Community in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabareen-Taha, Samaher; Taha, Haitham

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to identify and review the basic characteristics of learning disability which are specifically mentioned in the literature. In addition, the article intends to conduct a brief analysis on learning disability policy in Israel and the differentiation problems at the level of awareness among the Arab society in Israel. Despite the…

  3. Online Education in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejda, Brent

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores the tremendous growth in the use of the Internet to deliver distance education at community colleges. The author examines various definitions of online education, including the types of courses, programs, and degrees available and the types of community colleges that offer greater amounts of online programming. Considerations…

  4. Community health needs assessment: a nurses' global health project in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S; Lee, H; Yoon, S; Kim, Y; Levin, P F; Kim, E

    2018-03-24

    Global health has been directed to providing solutions to various health issues cross-nations, and nurses have received wide recognition as a key health workforce to reduce health disparities globally. Nurses involved in global health research are required to implement evidence-based global nursing practices based on the assessments of local health needs. To assess health needs and to suggest future interventions in rural communities of Vietnam. A multifaceted rapid participatory appraisal with information pyramid was used applying mixed methods from six sources: existing record review, surveys of community residents, surveys of healthcare providers, focus group discussions with community leaders, informal discussions with governmental health administrators and observations of community health station (CHS) facilities. The majority used the CHSs as primary health facilities with high satisfaction for services currently provided. However, there were needs for the stations to provide more comprehensive services including chronic diseases, and for healthcare providers to improve their competences. Community leaders showed high interest in health information for chronic diseases and strong commitment to involvement in the activities for health of their communities. The findings suggest future interventions in the areas of the enhancement of CHS' functions, human resources and the self-care capacity of community residents. The rapid participatory appraisal approach emphasizing community participation and partnership was a useful tool to compile accurate information about the current needs of the community on health, the preparedness of healthcare services to meet community's demands and about community capacity. This process is fundamental to nurses, who initiate global health projects in resource-limited international countries, to generate evidences regarding practice, research and policy for taking responsibilities in promoting the sustainable development goals.

  5. Including the public in pandemic planning: a deliberative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braunack-Mayer Annette J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Against a background of pandemic threat posed by SARS and avian H5N1 influenza, this study used deliberative forums to elucidate informed community perspectives on aspects of pandemic planning. Methods Two deliberative forums were carried out with members of the South Australian community. The forums were supported by a qualitative study with adults and youths, systematic reviews of the literature and the involvement of an extended group of academic experts and policy makers. The forum discussions were recorded with simultaneous transcription and analysed thematically. Results Participants allocated scarce resources of antiviral drugs and pandemic vaccine based on a desire to preserve society function in a time of crisis. Participants were divided on the acceptability of social distancing and quarantine measures. However, should such measures be adopted, they thought that reasonable financial, household and psychological support was essential. In addition, provided such support was present, the participants, in general, were willing to impose strict sanctions on those who violated quarantine and social distancing measures. Conclusions The recommendations from the forums suggest that the implementation of pandemic plans in a severe pandemic will be challenging, but not impossible. Implementation may be more successful if the public is engaged in pandemic planning before a pandemic, effective communication of key points is practiced before and during a pandemic and if judicious use is made of supportive measures to assist those in quarantine or affected by social isolation measures.

  6. Bounded Community: Designing and facilitating learning communities in formal courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent G. Wilson

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning communities can emerge spontaneously when people find common learning goals and pursue projects and tasks together in pursuit of those goals. Bounded learning communities (BLCs are groups that form within a structured teaching or training setting, typically a course. Unlike spontaneous communities, BLCs develop in direct response to guidance provided by an instructor, supported by a cumulative resource base. This article presents strategies that help learning communities develop within bounded frameworks, particularly online environments. Seven distinguishing features of learning communities are presented. When developing supports for BLCs, teachers should consider their developmental arc, from initial acquaintance and trust-building, through project work and skill development, and concluding with wind-down and dissolution of the community. Teachers contribute to BLCs by establishing a sense of teaching presence, including an atmosphere of trust and reciprocal concern. The article concludes with a discussion of assessment issues and the need for continuing research.

  7. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  8. Examining Enabling Conditions for Community-Based Fisheries Comanagement: Comparing Efforts in Hawai'i and American Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle S. Levine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Much attention in global fisheries management has been directed toward increasing the involvement of local communities in managing marine resources. Although community-based fisheries comanagement has the potential to address resource conservation and societal needs, the success of these programs is by no means guaranteed, and many comanagement regimes have struggled. Although promising in theory, comanagement programs meet a variety of political, social, economic, ecological, and logistical challenges upon implementation. We have provided an analysis of two community-based fisheries comanagement initiatives: Hawai'i's Community-Based Subsistence Fishing Area (CBSFA legislation and American Samoa's Community-Based Fisheries Management Program (CFMP. Although Hawai'i's initiative has struggled with only two CBSFAs designated, neither of which has an approved management plan, American Samoa's program has successfully established a functioning network of 12 villages. We have explored the factors contributing to the divergent outcomes of these initiatives, including cultural and ethnic diversity, the intactness of traditional tenure systems and community organizing structures, local leadership, and government support. Differences in program design, including processes for program implementation and community involvement, supportive government institutions, adequate enforcement, and adaptive capacity, have also played important roles in the implementation of comanagement regimes on the two island groups. The different outcomes manifested in these case studies provide insight regarding the conditions necessary to enable successful community-based comanagement, particularly within U.S.-affiliated jurisdictions.

  9. Wisdom and influence of elders: possibilities for health promotion and decreasing tobacco exposure in First Nations communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varcoe, Colleen; Bottorff, Joan L; Carey, Joanne; Sullivan, Debbie; Williams, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    This community-based project examined the interpersonal and system influences on smoking practices and exposure to cigarette smoke that place young pregnant and parenting First Nations women and their children at risk. The aim was to work with the community using this information to develop meaningful strategies to support tobacco reduction and reduce exposure to second-hand smoke. Ethnographic methods informed by decolonizing approaches were used to study smoking practices and exposure within the context of six First Nations rural reserve villages in the Gitxsan territory in North-Western British Columbia. Data were collected through individual interviews with key community members, individual and group interviews with women, men, youth and older people, including Elders, and participant observation. Older people, including grandparents and Elders expressed great interest in being more involved in their communities, particularly with youth. Other community members, especially mothers, saw such older people as important in diminishing the tobacco exposure problem, with ideas for their involvement ranging from role modeling non-smoking or respectful smoking to teaching cultural traditions. Elders in First Nations communities represent a culturally-relevant resource for health that is currently underused. Communities might draw upon their wisdom and influence to decrease tobacco exposure and promote community health in other ways. This offers a concrete, practical strategy in response to widespread calls for supporting the culture of Aboriginal people as part of health promotion.

  10. Including Organizational Cultural Parameters in Work Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handley, Holly A; Heacox, Nancy J

    2004-01-01

    .... In order to represent the organizational impact on the work process, five organizational cultural parameters were identified and included in an algorithm for modeling and simulation of cultural...

  11. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Global Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis ... Haemophilus influenzae , including H. influenzae type b or Hib, can cause many different kinds of infections . Symptoms depend on ...

  12. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered 'improved sanitation' or, in the current terminology, 'basic sanitation' by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapted and adopted throughout urban slums in developing countries, with a caretaker employed to keep the facilities clean. Such shared sanitation should be classified as 'basic', sometimes as 'safely-managed', sanitation, so contributing to the achievement of the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Driving Leadership Style in Leading to Enhance Participation and Involvement in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2011-01-01

    "Driving leadership style" enhances local participation and involvement in school in reducing a gap between the school and the local community. As gap filler, leadership role was therefore instigated to drive the local community to participate and involve in the School. The purpose of this exploration was to analyze the driving…

  14. "In our community, a friend is a psychologist": An ethnographic study of informal care in two Bhutanese refugee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Liana; Sapkota, Ram P

    2017-06-01

    The recent rise in suicide among Bhutanese refugees has been linked to the erosion of social networks and community supports in the ongoing resettlement process. This paper presents ethnographic findings on the role of informal care practiced by relatives, friends, and neighbors in the prevention and alleviation of mental distress in two Bhutanese refugee communities: the refugee camps of eastern Nepal and the resettled community of Burlington, Vermont, US. Data gathered through interviews ( n = 40, camp community; n = 22, resettled community), focus groups (four, camp community), and participant observation (both sites) suggest that family members, friends, and neighbors were intimately involved in the recognition and management of individual distress, often responding proactively to perceived vulnerability rather than reactively to help-seeking. They engaged practices of care that attended to the root causes of distress, including pragmatic, social, and spiritual interventions, alongside those which targeted feelings in the "heart-mind" and behavior. In line with other studies, we found that the possibilities for care in this domain had been substantially constrained by resettlement. Initiatives that create opportunities for strengthening or extending social networks or provide direct support in meeting perceived needs may represent fruitful starting points for suicide prevention and mental health promotion in this population. We close by offering some reflections on how to better understand and account for informal care systems in the growing area of research concerned with identifying and addressing disparities in mental health resources across diverse contexts.

  15. Identifying hidden sexual bridging communities in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Yoosik; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Williams, Chyvette T; Ouellet, Lawrence J

    2009-07-01

    Bridge populations can play a central role in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by providing transmission links between higher and lower prevalence populations. While social network methods are well suited to the study of bridge populations, analyses tend to focus on dyads (i.e., risk between drug and/or sex partners) and ignore bridges between distinct subpopulations. This study takes initial steps toward moving the analysis of sexual network linkages beyond individual and risk group levels to a community level in which Chicago's 77 community areas are examined as subpopulations for the purpose of identifying potential bridging communities. Of particular interest are "hidden" bridging communities; that is, areas with above-average levels of sexual ties with other areas but whose below-average AIDS prevalence may hide their potential importance for HIV prevention. Data for this analysis came from the first wave of recruiting at the Chicago Sexual Acquisition and Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Program site. Between August 2005 through October 2006, respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit users of heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine, men who have sex with men regardless of drug use, the sex partners of these two groups, and sex partners of the sex partners. In this cross-sectional study of the sexual transmission of HIV, participants completed a network-focused computer-assisted self-administered interview, which included questions about the geographic locations of sexual contacts with up to six recent partners. Bridging scores for each area were determined using a matrix representing Chicago's 77 community areas and were assessed using two measures: non-redundant ties and flow betweenness. Bridging measures and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case prevalence rates were plotted for each community area on charts representing four conditions: below-average bridging and AIDS prevalence, below-average bridging and above

  16. Early Course in Obstetrics Increases Likelihood of Practice Including Obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Westra, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Family Medicine and Community Health Duluth has offered the Obstetrical Longitudinal Course (OBLC) as an elective for first-year medical students since 1999. The objective of the OBLC Impact Survey was to assess the effectiveness of the course over the past 15 years. A Qualtrics survey was emailed to participants enrolled in the course from 1999-2014. Data was compiled for the respondent group as a whole as well as four cohorts based on current level of training/practice. Cross-tabulations with Fisher's exact test were applied and odds ratios calculated for factors affecting likelihood of eventual practice including obstetrics. Participation in the OBLC was successful in increasing exposure, awareness, and comfort in caring for obstetrical patients and feeling more prepared for the OB-GYN Clerkship. A total of 50.5% of course participants felt the OBLC influenced their choice of specialty. For participants who are currently physicians, 51% are practicing family medicine with obstetrics or OB-GYN. Of the cohort of family physicians, 65.2% made the decision whether to include obstetrics in practice during medical school. Odds ratios show the likelihood of practicing obstetrics is higher when participants have completed the OBLC and also are practicing in a rural community. Early exposure to obstetrics, as provided by the OBLC, appears to increase the likelihood of including obstetrics in practice, especially if eventual practice is in a rural community. This course may be a tool to help create a pipeline for future rural family physicians providing obstetrical care.

  17. Youth Maltreatment and Gang Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kevin M.; Braaten-Antrim, Rhonda

    1998-01-01

    Examines whether physical and sexual maltreatment raises the risk of gang involvement among secondary school students. Findings show that maltreatment increases the probability of gang involvement, independent of demographic factors. When youth are physically and sexually abused their odds of gang involvement are four times higher than those who…

  18. A community-based systems learning approach to understanding youth violence in Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgewater, Khary; Peterson, Steve; McDevitt, John; Hemenway, David; Bass, Jeffrey; Bothwell, Paul; Everdell, Ros

    2011-01-01

    Youth violence in general and gang violence in particular continues to be a pernicious problem facing the majority of large U.S. cities. Attempts to reduce youth violence are hindered by the absence of a shared framework that crosses multiple disciplines. The goal of the Youth Violence Systems Project (YVSP) is to help communities strategize for and achieve sustained reductions in youth violence in Boston. A distinction of YVSP is the engagement of community residents in a group model building process to develop a conceptual framework and create a system dynamics computer model of youth violence in Boston. Community residents including youth participated in the design, execution, and evaluation of the project. We also partnered with community agencies to gain insight from individuals with a history of gang involvement or violent offense. The computer model highlights the dynamics of movement into and out of gangs, and the relationships that influence violent interactions among individuals and gangs. The model serves as a simulation-based laboratory for examining initiatives aimed at reducing youth violence within a community. It considers the positive feedback between traumatic stress and violence; as violence levels rise in the community, this increases individual traumatic stress, which further increases violent responses by community members. The project's community-based approach coupled with its system dynamics methodology produced a new understanding of youth violence in Boston. This understanding undergirds the model's logic, making it more useful to community residents and more accurate in describing the behavior of youth in high-violence neighborhoods.

  19. The Mini Report: a Practical Tool to Address Lung Cancer Disparities in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Luckey, Georgia S; Zahnd, Whitney E; Garner, Kyle; Heitkamp, Ruth; Jenkins, Wiley D; Boehler, Michael D; Steward, David E

    2017-06-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective way to address cancer disparities in medically underserved populations. Our research demonstrates how CBPR principles were used to develop lung cancer and risk factor mini reports for a network of community coalitions in the Illinois Delta Region, a predominately rural region with high lung cancer disparities in southern Illinois. An academic-community partnership, including a community-based medical school, state public health department, and a healthcare system, used CBPR principles to translate epidemiological, behavioral, and demographic data into understandable, comprehensive, yet concise mini reports for each coalition. A cyclical and iterative process was used to draft, revise, and optimize these mini reports to raise awareness about lung cancer disparities in the community and to provide information to help guide the development of interventions that address these disparities. The use of CBPR principles was a successful way to create mini reports about local lung cancer disparities and risk factors that were usable in individual communities. Local coalitions used the mini reports to educate community members at local meetings, to guide strategic planning, and to disseminate information through their respective websites. Additionally, the process of creating these reports built trust among academic-community partners and provided additional avenues of engagement, such as the involvement of an academic partner in the strategic planning process of a local coalition. Using CBPR processes is an effective way to translate epidemiological data into a community-friendly format to address cancer disparities.

  20. The narrative psychology of community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael; Ziegler, Friederike

    2015-03-01

    Community health psychology is an approach which promotes community mobilisation as a means of enhancing community capacity and well-being and challenging health inequalities. Much of the research on this approach has been at the more strategic and policy level with less reference to the everyday experiences of community workers who are actively involved in promoting various forms of community change. This article considers the narrative accounts of a sample of 12 community workers who were interviewed about their lives. Their accounts were analysed in terms of narrative content. This revealed the tensions in their everyday practice as they attempted to overcome community divisions and management demands for evidence. Common to all accounts was a commitment to social justice. These findings are discussed with reference to opportunities and challenges in the practice of community work. © The Author(s) 2015.