WorldWideScience

Sample records for include health conditions

  1. Working Conditions, Lifestyles and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cottini, Elena; Ghinetti, Paolo

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether employee health is affected by the environment in which the individual works - in terms of both physical and psychosocial working conditions - and by his or her lifestyle. Health measures are computed from Danish data, and refer to both self assessed...

  2. Health professionals for global health: include dental personnel upfront!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preet, Raman

    2013-07-16

    The Global Health Beyond 2015 was organized in Stockholm in April 2013, which was announced as public engagement and where the dialogue focused on three main themes: social determinants of health, climate change and the non-communicable diseases. This event provided opportunity for both students and health professionals to interact and brainstorm ideas to be formalized into Stockholm Declaration on Global Health. Amongst the active participation of various health professionals, one that was found significantly missing was that of oral health. Keeping this as background in this debate, a case for inclusion of oral health professions is presented by organizing the argument in four areas: education, evidence base, political will and context and what each one offers at a time when Scandinavia is repositioning itself in global health.

  3. A framework for including family health spillovers in economic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Al-Janabi (Hareth); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); J. Coast (Joanna)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHealth care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these health spillovers? should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health

  4. Advocacy for women's health should include lesbian health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; Dibble, Suzanne L; Hagan, H Jennifer J; Davids, Rachel

    2004-03-01

    Although research confirms that homosexuality is a normal expression of human sexuality, established scientific studies are often not reflected in laws and judicial opinions for lesbians with regard to employment, taxation, pensions, disability, healthcare, immigration, military service, marriage, custody, and adoption. The expression of homosexual attraction or behavior is sometimes met by disdain or violence. Psychological and epidemiological research confirms that the public discriminatory attitudes and second-class legal status cause physical, emotional, and financial harm to lesbians, their families, and their children. Some lesbians experience discrimination in healthcare and avoid routine primary healthcare. To decrease the harm, and improve the health of lesbians, medical institutions can include sexual orientation and gender identity in their nondiscrimination policies and offer domestic partner coverage in employment benefits. Our specialty societies should review current laws and judicial opinions and advocate for change. Further, specialty societies can effect change by issuing policy statements about issues of orientation and by writing orientation/identity curricula for public schools, colleges, and postcollegiate education to improve their accuracy, reduce sexually transmitted diseases, delay sexual activity, and reduce morbidity from homophobic violence.

  5. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients’ family networks. It has been suggested that these “health spillovers” should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the “health care perspective”). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. PMID:26377370

  6. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Radiation and nuclear safety included in the environmental health programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.

    1996-01-01

    Finland is currently preparing a national environmental health programme, the objective of which is to chart the main environmental health problems in Finland, to identify means for securing a healthy environment, and to draw up a practical action programme for preventing and rectifying problems pertaining to environmental health. Radiation and nuclear safety form an essential part of preventive health care. The action programme is based on decisions and programmes approved at the WHO Conference on the Environment and Health, held in Helsinki in June 1994. In addition to the state of the Finnish environment and the health of the Finnish population, the programme addresses the relevant international issues, in particular in areas adjacent to Finland. The Committee on Environmental Health is expected to complete its work by the end of the year. A wide range of representatives from various branches of administration have contributed to the preparation of the programme. Besides physical, biological and chemical factors, the environmental factors affecting health also include the physical environment and the psychological, social and aesthetic features of the environment. Similarly, environmental factors that have an impact on the health of present or future generations, on the essential preconditions of life and on the quality of life are investigated. The serious risk to nature caused by human actions is also considered as a potential risk to human health. (orig.)

  8. 78 FR 68907 - Agency Information Collection (Foot (Including Flatfeet (pes planus)) Conditions Disability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... planus)) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review: New data collection. Abstract... (Including Flatfeet (pes planus)) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY...)) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  9. Universal health coverage in 'One ASEAN': are migrants included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S

    2015-01-01

    As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC beyond the basis of

  10. Health inequity in children and youth with chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jay G; Bloom, Sheila; Foley, Susan; Palfrey, Judith S

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decades, there have been great advances in health care delivered to children with chronic conditions, but not all children have benefitted equally from them. To describe health inequities experienced by children with chronic health conditions. We performed a literature review of English-language studies identified from the Medline, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Cancer Institute, and Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Web sites that were published between January 1985 and May 2009, included children aged 0 to 18 years, and contained the key words "incidence," "prevalence," "survival," "mortality," or "disparity" in the title or abstract for the following health conditions: acute leukemia, asthma, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy, cystic fibrosis, diabetes mellitus, Down syndrome, HIV/AIDS, major congenital heart defects, major depressive disorder, sickle cell anemia, spina bifida, and traumatic brain injury. Black children had higher rates of cerebral palsy and HIV/AIDS, were less likely to be diagnosed with ADHD, had more emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and had higher mortality rates associated with asthma; and survived less often with Down syndrome, type 1 diabetes, and traumatic brain injury when compared with white children. Hispanic children had higher rates of spina bifida from Mexico-born mothers, had higher rates of HIV/AIDS and depression, were less likely to be diagnosed with ADHD, had poorer glycemic control with type 1 diabetes, and survived less often with acute leukemia compared with white children. Serious racial and ethnic health and health care inequities persist for children with chronic health conditions.

  11. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  12. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  13. Micronutrient Deficiency Conditions: Global Health Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulchinsky Theodore H

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiency conditions are widespread among 2 billion people in developing and in developed countries. These are silent epidemics of vitamin and mineral deficiencies affecting people of all genders and ages, as well as certain risk groups. They not only cause specific diseases, but they act as exacerbating factors in infectious and chronic diseases, greatly impacting morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. Deficiencies in some groups of people at special risk require supplementation, but the most effective way to meet community health needs safely is by population based approaches involving food fortification. These complementary methods, along with food security, education, and monitoring, are challenges for public health and for clinical medicine. Micronutrient deficiency conditions relate to many chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis osteomalacia, thyroid deficiency colorectal cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Fortification has a nearly century long record of success and safety, proven effective for prevention of specific diseases, including birth defects. They increase the severity of infectious diseases, such as measles, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. Understanding the pathophysiology and epidemiology of micronutrient deficiencies, and implementing successful methods of prevention, both play a key part in the New Public Health as discussed in this section, citing the examples of folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin D.

  14. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael Lee; Hsu, John

    2016-01-01

    for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates...

  15. Strategies to include sexual orientation and gender identity in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-04

    May 4, 2015 ... Social justice and equity are important principles in African health sciences education, leading to awareness of the social and economic determinants of health among our graduates. However, more forces of exclusion exist than our current curricula recognise. In this article, I review the health.

  16. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Strategies to include sexual orientation and gender identity in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Sexual orientation and gender identity are not taught in African health professions curricula. In order to improve the quality of care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) patients, health professionals need to shift their attitudes towards sexual orientation and gender identity, and learn ...

  18. Oral Health Status and Fertility Treatment Including IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Sunali Sundeep; Dhaimade, Prita A; Malhotra, Shalini

    2017-12-01

    Oral health is extremely important for the general wellbeing of the individual. From a number of research articles, it is established that there is a definitive connection between periodontal health and many systemic diseases, like type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and even preterm labor and low birth weight of babies. The significant rate of failure in the treatment of infertility and IVF (in vitro fertilization) even with multiple advancements in the last decade has made scientist take interest in newer parameters of health, an important one among them being periodontal health. From the limited number of studies available on the relationship between periodontitis and reproductive health, it can be inferred that periodontitis can act as a focus of infection leading to bacteremia which can lead to complications in conceiving naturally or through IVF in women. A limited number of studies have also reported an association between male factor infertility (MFI) and dental health status of men. Although more research is needed to understand and explore this connection, this article reviews the current literature available linking poor oral health to infertility and poor outcomes of IVF.

  19. 'Including health in systems responsible for urban planning': a realist policy analysis research programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patrick; Friel, Sharon; Wilson, Andrew

    2015-07-23

    Realist methods are increasingly being used to investigate complex public health problems. Despite the extensive evidence base clarifying the built environment as a determinant of health, there is limited knowledge about how and why land-use planning systems take on health concerns. Further, the body of research related to the wider determinants of health suffers from not using political science knowledge to understand how to influence health policy development and systems. This 4-year funded programme of research investigates how the land-use planning system in New South Wales, Australia, incorporates health and health equity at multiple levels. The programme uses multiple qualitative methods to develop up to 15 case studies of different activities of the New South Wales land-use planning system. Comparison cases from other jurisdictions will be included where possible and useful. Data collection includes publicly available documentation and purposively sampled stakeholder interviews and focus groups of up to 100 participants across the cases. The units of analysis in each case are institutional structures (rules and mandates constraining and enabling actors), actors (the stakeholders, organisations and networks involved, including health-focused agencies), and ideas (policy content, information, and framing). Data analysis will focus on and develop propositions concerning the mechanisms and conditions within and across each case leading to inclusion or non-inclusion of health. Data will be refined using additional political science and sociological theory. Qualitative comparative analysis will compare cases to develop policy-relevant propositions about the necessary and sufficient conditions needed to include health issues. Ethics has been approved by Sydney University Human Research Ethics Committee (2014/802 and 2015/178). Given the nature of this research we will incorporate stakeholders, often as collaborators, throughout. We outline our research translation

  20. Health insurance in Singapore: who's not included and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, V D; Lim, J F Y

    2010-05-01

    Health insurance and the consequent risk pooling are believed to be essential components of a sustainable healthcare financing system. We sought to determine the profile of Singaporeans who had not procured health insurance over and above MediShield, the national government-spearheaded health insurance program and the factors associated with insurance procurement. A total of 1,783 respondents were interviewed via telephone and asked to rank their agreement with statements pertaining to healthcare cost, quality and financing on a fivepoint Likert scale. Respondents were representative of the general population in terms of ethnicity and housing type, but lower income households were over-represented. Respondents also had a higher education level compared to the general population. Data on 1,510 respondents, with full information on household (HH) income, education and insurance status, was analysed. HH income below S$1,500 per month (odds ratio [OR] is 5.66, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] is 3.9-8.3, p is less than 0.0001) and a secondary education and below (OR is 2.05, 95 percent CI is 1.5-2.8, p is less than 0.0001) were associated with not procuring insurance over and above MediShield coverage. Respondents with insurance were less likely to agree that healthcare was affordable and that the "3M" framework was sufficient to meet healthcare needs. Singaporeans with a lower HH income and a lower education level were less likely to possess health insurance. This may be related to a stronger belief that healthcare is affordable even without insurance. Educational efforts to encourage the more widespread use of health insurance should be targeted toward lower income groups with less formal education and should be complemented by other interventions to address other aspects of insurance procurement considerations.

  1. [Ascertaining a Venezuelan oil town's health conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijares-Seminario, Rodrigo; Hernández, Leicy

    2013-01-01

    Objective Analysing health conditions in the town of Carirubana in Falcón State, Venezuela, as a prior study to the construction of a gas conditioning plant there. Methods This study formed part of a field research project which involved consulting primary and secondary sources. The former consisted of evaluating public and private health-centres and those in the Barrio Adentro system; the aforementioned health centres' medical staff were interviewed to determine current health-disease status and the factors determining health for the town being studied. Likewise, both situations (health-disease and factors determining health) were evaluated and analysed in the secondary sources at national, state and municipal level. Results Deficits were observed at national level regarding public health infrastructure; there were 1.3 beds per thousand inhabitants, this being less than half that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) (i.e. three to four beds per thousand inhabitants). State and municipal cancer mortality rates were relatively stable over a four-year period (2001-2004). Conclusions The mortality rate in Carirubana was characteristic of a low-income area. The poverty and pollution directly produced by the oil refining plants were the key determinants for this town's morbidity and mortality rates.

  2. Conducting Accessible Research: Including People With Disabilities in Public Health, Epidemiological, and Outcomes Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Dianne; Magasi, Susan; Novak, Catherine; Harniss, Mark

    2016-12-01

    People with disabilities are largely absent from mainstream health research. Exclusion of people with disabilities may be explicit, attributable to poorly justified exclusion criteria, or implicit, attributable to inaccessible study documents, interventions, or research measures. Meanwhile, people with disabilities experience poorer health, greater incidence of chronic conditions, and higher health care expenditure than people without disabilities. We outline our approach to "accessible research design"-research accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. We describe a model that includes 3 tiers: universal design, accommodations, and modifications. Through our work on several large-scale research studies, we provide pragmatic examples of accessible research design. Making efforts to include people with disabilities in public health, epidemiological, and outcomes studies will enhance the interpretability of findings for a significant patient population.

  3. Which Pediatricians Comanage Mental Health Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cori; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Stein, Ruth E K; Garner, Andrew S; Kerker, Bonnie D; Szilagyi, Moira; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2017-07-01

    Given the prevalence of mental health (MH) conditions (MHC) in children, pediatricians should initiate treatment alone or in collaboration with a specialist for children with MHC. However, the majority of pediatricians do not manage or comanage common MHC even with an on-site MH provider. We examined which physician, practice, and training characteristics are associated with pediatricians' comanaging at least half of their patients with MHC. We analyzed responses of general pediatricians (n = 305) from the American Academy of Pediatrics 2013 Periodic Survey. Practice characteristics include presence of an on-site MH provider and perceived access to services. Independent variables included sociodemographics, training experiences, and interest in further training. The outcome was comanagement of ≥50% of patients with MHC. Weighted univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses were performed. Of the pediatricians who reported comanaging ≥50% of their patients with MHC, logistic regression analysis showed that pediatricians who completed ≥4 weeks of developmental behavioral pediatrics training had 1.8 increased odds (95% confidence interval 1.06, 3.08, P = .03) of comanagement, those very interested in further education in managing/treating MHC had 2.75 increased odds (95% confidence interval 1.63, 3.08, P pediatricians could increase the comanagement of children with MHC. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Including health insurance in poverty measurement: The impact of Massachusetts health reform on poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Sanders D; Remler, Dahlia K

    2016-12-01

    We develop and implement what we believe is the first conceptually valid health-inclusive poverty measure (HIPM) - a measure that includes health care or insurance in the poverty needs threshold and health insurance benefits in family resources - and we discuss its limitations. Building on the Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, we construct a pilot HIPM for the under-65 population under ACA-like health reform in Massachusetts. This pilot demonstrates the practicality, face validity and value of a HIPM. Results suggest that public health insurance benefits and premium subsidies accounted for a substantial, one-third reduction in the health inclusive poverty rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chronic Health Conditions Managed by School Nurses. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgitan, Judith; Bushmiaer, Margo; DeSisto, Marie C.; Duff, Carolyn; Lambert, C. Patrice; Murphy, M. Kathleen; Roland, Sharon; Selser, Kendra; Wyckoff, Leah; White, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that students with chronic health conditions have access to a full-time registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse). School districts should include school nurse positions in their full-time instructional support personnel to provide health services…

  6. Nutrition in children with long-term health conditions | Westwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-term health conditions (LTHCs) in children may affect nutrition and growth by means of multiple mechanisms. Both undernutrition and overweight/obesity are risk factors. Direct effects of the condition that may cause undernutrition include increased resting energy expenditure, excess losses through malabsorption, ...

  7. Integrating structural health and condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Allan; Thöns, Sebastian; McMillan, David

    2015-01-01

    There is a large financial incentive to minimise operations and maintenance (O&M) costs for offshore wind power by optimising the maintenance plan. The integration of condition monitoring (CM) and structural health monitoring (SHM) may help realise this. There is limited work on the integration...

  8. The value of including spirometry in health checks - a randomized controlled study in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Ottesen, Anders Løkke; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise

    Background Lung diseases are among the most frequent and most serious ailments in Denmark. Preventive health checks including spirometry can be used to detect lung diseases earlier. Over time the attendance at preventive health checks has decreased and at present the response rate is approximately...... 50%. Little is known about initiatives that can influence the attendance rate. Objectives To examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation material will influence the attendance in preventive health checks. Materiel/Methods Design: A randomized controlled study on information...... on spirometry embedded in “Check your health Prevention Program, CHPP” from 2015-16. CHPP is a house-hold cluster randomized controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30-49 year olds in a Danish municipality during the years 2012 through to 2017 (n= 26,216), carried out in collaboration between...

  9. Changing living conditions, life style and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Kvernmo, Siv; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    . The aim of the paper is to illustrate the influence of environmental change on living conditions and life style and some of the mechanisms through which such changes affect physical and mental health. The interrelationship between environmental and societal change is illustrated by an example from a small......Human health is the result of the interaction of genetic, nutritional, socio-cultural, economic, physical infrastructure and ecosystem factors. All of the individual, social, cultural and socioeconomic factors are influenced by the environment they are embedded in and by changes in this environment...... community in Greenland, where changing environmental conditions have influenced fishing and employment opportunities to the extent that the size of the population has changed dramatically. The link between social change and health is shown with reference to studies on education, housing and occupation...

  10. Oral Health Condition of Children Living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Spillere Rovaris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AIDS progression is faster in children than adults. Little is known about the oral health status of children living with HIV. Aim: To carry out a literature review about the oral health conditions of children living with HIV in order to observe if this specific population presents different oral health conditions compared to children without HIV infection. Methods: A documental study of literature review was carried out. Studies were searched at PubMed using “oral health”, “children”, “HIV” and “AIDS” as keywords. Papers published between 2001 and 2011 were included. After applying the exclusion criteria and complete reading of the selected studies, other articles were selected from the references lists of the first ones. Results: Firstly, 24 studies were identified. Among them, 65.5% were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. From the five selected articles, another five from the references of these were included. Only one article compared the oral health conditions of children living with HIV with controls without HIV infection. Conclusions: Only 10 papers contained information on the oral health conditions of children living with HIV, and just one compared the results with controls. The few studies found were insufficient to establish the oral health condition profile of children living with HIV. This lack of information could represent the lack of interest of researchers and health authorities in more integrative care and can result in neglect with this specific population of children.

  11. Forest health conditions in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkacz, Borys; Moody, Ben; Castillo, Jaime Villa; Fenn, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Some of the greatest forest health impacts in North America are caused by invasive forest insects and pathogens (e.g., emerald ash borer and sudden oak death in the US), by severe outbreaks of native pests (e.g., mountain pine beetle in Canada), and fires exacerbated by changing climate. Ozone and N and S pollutants continue to impact the health of forests in several regions of North America. Long-term monitoring of forest health indicators has facilitated the assessment of forest health and sustainability in North America. By linking a nationwide network of forest health plots with the more extensive forest inventory, forest health experts in the US have evaluated current trends for major forest health indicators and developed assessments of future risks. Canada and Mexico currently lack nationwide networks of forest health plots. Development and expansion of these networks is critical to effective assessment of future forest health impacts. - The forests of North America continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fragmentation, fires, native and invasive pests, and air pollution

  12. Changing living conditions, life style and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Kvernmo, Siv; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    as well as life style changes. The paper further illustrates the relationship between the rapid socio-cultural and economic change and the health of the population. Psychosocial stress is reflected in problems such as alcohol abuse, violence and suicide, and these factors have been shown in studies....... The aim of the paper is to illustrate the influence of environmental change on living conditions and life style and some of the mechanisms through which such changes affect physical and mental health. The interrelationship between environmental and societal change is illustrated by an example from a small...

  13. Macroeconomic conditions and population health in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristín Helga Birgisdóttir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Results from recent research on the impact of economic cycles and population health have been mixed, with results appearing to be context-sensitive. Objective: We examine the long-term relationship between economic conditions and population health in Iceland, which has experienced some economically turbulent times in the last years and decades. Methods: We use aggregate annual data for 1981‒2014. We use three aggregate indicators of economic activity to proxy the economic cycle: unemployment rate, real GDP per capita, and real GDP. Life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, and total mortality as well as four cause-specific mortality rates were used as outcome measures. Results: Our results do not suggest a statistically significant relationship between economic conditions and total mortality, infant mortality, or life expectancy. Different responses between causes of death are found, and in some instances between genders, although statistical significance is low. We do, however, find a consistent and statistically significant relationship for females aged 45‒64, where economic downturns are associated with lower all-cause mortality. Conclusions: For the time period studied we do not find a significant relationship between economic cycles and population health, where health is proxied by mortality rates, life expectancy at birth, and infant mortality. Further studies using less extreme health outcomes, such as morbidity rates, are warranted. Contribution: This type of study has not been performed using Icelandic data before and provides a comparison to research from other countries where the relationship has been explored more. Additionally, one of the contributions of this paper is to use a variety of economic indicators as proxies for economic cycles in a study examining their relationship with population health.

  14. A new wall function boundary condition including heat release effect for supersonic combustion flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhen-Xun; Jiang, Chong-Wen; Lee, Chun-Hian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new wall function including heat release effect is theoretically derived. • The new wall function is a unified form holding for flows with/without combustion. • The new wall function shows good results for a supersonic combustion case. - Abstract: A new wall function boundary condition considering combustion heat release effect (denoted as CWFBC) is proposed, for efficient predictions of skin friction and heat transfer in supersonic combustion flows. Based on a standard flow model including boundary-layer combustion, the Shvab–Zeldovich coupling parameters are introduced to derive a new velocity law-of-the-wall including the influence of combustion. For the temperature law-of-the-wall, it is proposed to use the enthalpy–velocity relation, instead of the Crocco–Busemann equation, to eliminate explicit influence of chemical reactions. The obtained velocity and temperature law-of-the-walls constitute the CWFBC, which is a unified form simultaneously holding for single-species, multi-species mixing and multi-species reactive flows. The subsequent numerical simulations using this CWFBC on an experimental case indicate that the CWFBC could accurately reflect the influences on the skin friction and heat transfer by the chemical reactions and heat release, and show large improvements compared to previous WFBC. Moreover, the CWFBC can give accurate skin friction and heat flux for a coarse mesh with y + up to 200 for the experimental case, except for slightly larger discrepancy of the wall heat flux around ignition position.

  15. Health hazards related to ergonomic work conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbom, A; Broberg, E

    1988-01-01

    Health hazards related to unsuitable ergonomic work conditions among female employees in Sweden are reviewed. The statistics on reported occupational strain injuries form an important source of information on prevention. The report rate is higher among men than among women, but in some high risk occupations the figures are similar. Reported cases concerning neck, arm and shoulder disorders constitute a larger proportion among women. This finding probably reflects differences in work load characteristics, women more often performing repetitive monotonous work tasks in the manufacturing industry. Serious ergonomic problems exist for women in the service sector although the statistical evidence for increased morbidity is not yet available.

  16. Disability mediates the impact of common conditions on perceived health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Alonso

    Full Text Available We examined the extent to which disability mediates the observed associations of common mental and physical conditions with perceived health.WHO World Mental Health (WMH Surveys carried out in 22 countries worldwide (n = 51,344 respondents, 72.0% response rate. We assessed nine common mental conditions with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, and ten chronic physical with a checklist. A visual analog scale (VAS score (0, worst to 100, best measured perceived health in the previous 30 days. Disability was assessed using a modified WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS, including: cognition, mobility, self-care, getting along, role functioning (life activities, family burden, stigma, and discrimination. Path analysis was used to estimate total effects of conditions on perceived health VAS and their separate direct and indirect (through the WHODAS dimensions effects. Twelve-month prevalence was 14.4% for any mental and 51.4% for any physical condition. 31.7% of respondents reported difficulties in role functioning, 11.4% in mobility, 8.3% in stigma, 8.1% in family burden and 6.9% in cognition. Other difficulties were much less common. Mean VAS score was 81.0 (SD = 0.1. Decrements in VAS scores were highest for neurological conditions (9.8, depression (8.2 and bipolar disorder (8.1. Across conditions, 36.8% (IQR: 31.2-51.5% of the total decrement in perceived health associated with the condition were mediated by WHODAS disabilities (significant for 17 of 19 conditions. Role functioning was the dominant mediator for both mental and physical conditions. Stigma and family burden were also important mediators for mental conditions, and mobility for physical conditions.More than a third of the decrement in perceived health associated with common conditions is mediated by disability. Although the decrement is similar for physical and mental conditions, the pattern of mediation is different. Research is needed on the

  17. Disability Mediates the Impact of Common Conditions on Perceived Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jordi; Vilagut, Gemma; Adroher, Núria D.; Chatterji, Somnath; He, Yanling; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; Iwata, Noboru; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lépine, Jean Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; O'Neill, Siobhan; Hormel, J.; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Ismet Taib, Nezar; Xavier, Miguel; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the extent to which disability mediates the observed associations of common mental and physical conditions with perceived health. Methods and Findings WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys carried out in 22 countries worldwide (n = 51,344 respondents, 72.0% response rate). We assessed nine common mental conditions with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), and ten chronic physical with a checklist. A visual analog scale (VAS) score (0, worst to 100, best) measured perceived health in the previous 30 days. Disability was assessed using a modified WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS), including: cognition, mobility, self-care, getting along, role functioning (life activities), family burden, stigma, and discrimination. Path analysis was used to estimate total effects of conditions on perceived health VAS and their separate direct and indirect (through the WHODAS dimensions) effects. Twelve-month prevalence was 14.4% for any mental and 51.4% for any physical condition. 31.7% of respondents reported difficulties in role functioning, 11.4% in mobility, 8.3% in stigma, 8.1% in family burden and 6.9% in cognition. Other difficulties were much less common. Mean VAS score was 81.0 (SD = 0.1). Decrements in VAS scores were highest for neurological conditions (9.8), depression (8.2) and bipolar disorder (8.1). Across conditions, 36.8% (IQR: 31.2–51.5%) of the total decrement in perceived health associated with the condition were mediated by WHODAS disabilities (significant for 17 of 19 conditions). Role functioning was the dominant mediator for both mental and physical conditions. Stigma and family burden were also important mediators for mental conditions, and mobility for physical conditions. Conclusions More than a third of the decrement in perceived health associated with common conditions is mediated by disability. Although the decrement is similar for physical and mental conditions, the pattern of mediation

  18. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Nakamura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR, germinated brown rice (GBR and partially-milled rice (PMR contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR. Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled, and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society.

  19. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Okadome, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR), germinated brown rice (GBR) and partially-milled rice (PMR) contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR). Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR) seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled), and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society. PMID:21776212

  20. Health conditions of inmates in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Voller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that prison is characterized by a higher prevalence of chronic diseases than unconfined settings. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and health of inmates, focusing on internal diseases. Methods We designed a specific clinical record using the Python programming language. We considered all of the diagnoses according to the ICD-9-CM. Results Of a total of 17,086 inmates, 15,751 were enrolled in our study (M = 14,835; F = 869, corresponding to 92.2% of the entire inmate population (mean age of 39.6 years. The project involved a total of 57 detention facilities in six Italian regions (for a total of 28% of all detainees in Italy, as counted in a census taken on February 3, 2014. From the entire study sample, 32.5% of prisoners did not present any disorders, while 67.5% suffered from at least one disease. The most frequent pathologies were psychiatric (41.3%, digestive (14.5%, infectious (11.5%, cardiovascular (11.4%, endocrine, metabolic, and immune (8.6%, and respiratory (5.4%. Conclusion The findings showed that a large number of detainees were affected by several chronic conditions such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, with an unusually high prevalence for such a young population. Therefore, a series of preventive measures is recommended to strengthen the entire care process and improve the health and living conditions of prisoners.

  1. Health conditions of young and old elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelle Barbosa Reis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the elderly about the socio-demographic profile and health conditions in the age groups from 60 to 75 years old (“young” elderly and above 76 years (“old” elderly. Methods: this is a cross-sectional study and home based. The data were collected applying a questionnaire based on the model developed by the Older Americans Resources and Services. Results: 118 elderly participated in the study, being 68.6% “young”, 58% illiterate, 85.2% with income less than two minimum wages and 70.4% with non-white skin. The “old” elderly had a higher proportion of loss of the companion (p=0.002, non-communicable chronic diseases (p=0.023 and dependence to perform activities of daily living (p=0.036. Both age groups had low physical activity, excessive consumption of medicaments and chewing problems. Conclusion: the model of health facing the elderly, should not be restricted to treatment of diseases but cover their functional capacity.

  2. The Genus Aloe: Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Uses Including Treatments for Gastrointestinal Conditions and Chronic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, I E

    2015-01-01

    Plants of the genus Aloe have perhaps the longest recorded history of medicinal usage and are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Aloe vera, Aloe ferox, Aloe arborescens and Aloe perryi are the best known and most widely used, but many other species are also used for their therapeutic properties. The Aloes have been used since ancient times, particularly for the treatment of microbial infections, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory conditions. In addition to their myriad uses in traditional therapeutics, the Aloes have also been used as components of cosmetic formulations, and in the food and beverage industries. Despite their wide acceptance, studies from different laboratories often report wide variations in the therapeutic bioactivities from within the same Aloe species, even when the same extraction procedures are used. Furthermore, leaves from individual Aloe plants within the same species may have widely varying levels of the bioactive phytochemicals. Phytochemical analyses have shown that many Aloe species contain various carbohydrate polymers (notably glucomannans) and a range of other low molecular weight phenolic compounds including alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, benzene and furan derivatives, chromones, coumarins, flavonoids, phytosterols, pyrans and pyrones. There has been a wealth of information published about the phytochemistry and therapeutic potential of the Aloes (especially Aloe vera). Much of this has been contradictory. Intra- and interspecies differences in the redox state of the individual Aloe components and in the ratios of these components may occur between individual plants. These factors may all affect the physiological properties of Aloe extracts. Due to the structure and chemical nature of many of the Aloe phytochemicals, it is likely that many of the reported medicinal properties are due to antioxidant or prooxidant effects. The antioxidant/prooxidant activities of many Aloe

  3. Evaluation of the Environmental Health Conditions of Qom Hotels & Inns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Farzinnia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesTourism is one of the three major global industries with 4 percent annual economic growth. Qom with roughly 17 million tourists in 2005 was the second religious tourism center in Iran. This study was designed to determine the environmental health criteria of Qom hotels and inns in 2007.MethodsThis descriptive - cross sectional study was carried out based on a standard check list of substance of edible, drinkable, cosmetic and hygienic products law from ministry of health and medical sciences. The checklist included 73 questions which were completed by face to face interviews and sanitary inspections. After analyzing the results of each residential center, the questionnaires were classified into three categories: hygienic (over 80 score, sanitary (40-79 and unacceptable centers (less than 40. The data were presented and analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistical methods such as X 2 and Fisher exact test.ResultsThe percentages of hygienic, sanitary and unacceptable conditions of hotels and inns were 35.5, 54.8 and 9.7, respectively. There was a direct relationship between academic degree of residential managers and the validity of employees health card (P=0.042 ConclusionBased on this the research, the environmental status of Qom hotels and inns was in relatively desirable conditions. Residential places with unacceptable condition were almost located in the old region of the city (e.g. around the Holly Shrine. Due to the structural failures, architectural problems and tremendous cost for repairs, it’s better that their activities be stopped and banned by government. With regard to the high percentage of hotels with sanitary conditions, at least improvements in health conditions accompanied by training and supervision are recommended. Keywords: Environmental Health; Environment and Public Health; Hotel; Inn; Qom, Iran.

  4. Analysis of health condition of workers RHMK Trepca - Zvecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galjak Milivoje

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Working conditions in RMHK Trepca directly conditioned by exposure to a wide variety of harmful causes of the diseases, both physical, and chemical hazards and occupational exposure to heavy metals. The aim is to analyze the health status of workers metarluškog-Mining-Chemical Combine Trepca - Zvečan (RMHK Trepca. The research was conducted at the Health Zvecan in Zvecan using the results of the periodic inspection of employees RMHK Trepca. The study included 738 employees in 2014 and 628 employees in 2015. Department of Occupational Health of the Health Zvečan organized and done these examinations in accordance with the rules on conducting preliminary and periodic medical examinations of employees at the workplace with increased risk to health, and as an additional source of data used is referred to a periodic review of employee (form no. 2 containing information on sex, age, occupation, place of work, qualification, education level, the drive, the total working age, the expository seniority, the requirements in the workplace, working conditions and workers' exposure to harmful agents or elements of job description city of the Act on risk assessment specific workplace. Diseases of the heart and blood vessels after the hearing damage to the second place in both 2014 (28.86% and in 2015 (18.47%. Followed by diseases of the urinary tract, respiratory organs. Able to work at the workplace with increased risk to the health worker was 92.67% in 2014 and 83.44% of workers in 2015. Preventive measures should be directed towards reducing occupational hazards and adverse working conditions and to insist on the strict implementation of safety measures. Periodic medical examinations to the full extent and quality prescribed in the rules are of great importance for the prevention of occupational morbidity, trauma and disability.

  5. Does Working Memory Training Transfer? A Meta-Analysis Including Training Conditions as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaighofer, Matthias; Fischer, Frank; Bühner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was undertaken to reexamine near- and far-transfer effects following working-memory training and to consider potential moderators more systematically. Forty-seven studies with 65 group comparisons were included in the meta-analysis. Results showed near-transfer effects to short-term and working-memory skills that were sustained at…

  6. A Lumped Thermal Model Including Thermal Coupling and Thermal Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Detailed thermal dynamics of high power IGBT modules are important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behavior in the IGBTs: The typically used...... thermal model based on one-dimensional RC lumps have limits to provide temperature distributions inside the device, moreover some variable factors in the real-field applications like the cooling and heating conditions of the converter cannot be adapted. On the other hand, the more advanced three......-dimensional thermal models based on Finite Element Method (FEM) need massive computations, which make the long-term thermal dynamics difficult to calculate. In this paper, a new lumped three-dimensional thermal model is proposed, which can be easily characterized from FEM simulations and can acquire the critical...

  7. A Boundary Condition Relaxation Algorithm for Strongly Coupled, Ablating Flows Including Shape Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Johnston, Christopher O.

    2011-01-01

    Implementations of a model for equilibrium, steady-state ablation boundary conditions are tested for the purpose of providing strong coupling with a hypersonic flow solver. The objective is to remove correction factors or film cooling approximations that are usually applied in coupled implementations of the flow solver and the ablation response. Three test cases are considered - the IRV-2, the Galileo probe, and a notional slender, blunted cone launched at 10 km/s from the Earth's surface. A successive substitution is employed and the order of succession is varied as a function of surface temperature to obtain converged solutions. The implementation is tested on a specified trajectory for the IRV-2 to compute shape change under the approximation of steady-state ablation. Issues associated with stability of the shape change algorithm caused by explicit time step limits are also discussed.

  8. Specificity of psychomotor reactions in the conditions of support deprivation including effects of countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichiporuk, Igor; Ivanov, Oleg

    Activity of the cosmonaut demands high level of psychomotor reactions (PMR) which can vary during space flight under the influences of psychophysiological state’s variability and unusual inhabitancy that causes the necessity of PMR estimation’s inclusion into quality monitoring of capacity for work (CW). A main objective of research was a study of features of visual-motor reactions (VMR) and elements of CW of the person within simulation of microgravity effects via 7-day dry immersion (DI) in healthy male-volunteers 20-35 years old. The experimental data were received which testified to peculiarities of VMR and recognition of simple figures of main colors of a visible spectrum (red, green, blue, the RGB-standard) in the conditions of the DI characterized by support deprivation and decreased proprioceptive afferentation - in a control series and in a series with use of mioelectrostimulation as a countermeasure.

  9. Which health conditions impact on productivity in working Australians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Scuffham, Paul A; Hilton, Michael F; Ware, Robert S; Vecchio, Nerina; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2011-03-01

    To identify health conditions associated with productivity loss in working Australians, adjusting for comorbidity, demographics, and work-related characteristics. The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit study cross-sectional screening data set was used to identify health-related productivity losses in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. Data collected with the World Health Organisation Health and Productivity Questionnaire were analyzed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism, respectively. Health conditions impacted on both presenteeism and absenteeism. Drug and alcohol problems and psychological distress had a greater impact on absenteeism and presenteeism than other investigated health conditions. Demographic characteristics, health status (comorbidity), and work-related characteristics all impacted significantly on both absenteeism and presenteeism. Mental health conditions contributed more strongly to productivity loss than other investigated health conditions.

  10. Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Emily; Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Lane, Anna; Baum, Fran

    2018-05-10

    Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs) is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW) projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA). We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health only at the EIA stage may be a significant

  11. Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Riley

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. Methods We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. Results We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA. We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Conclusion Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health

  12. What Health Issues or Conditions Are Specific to Women Only?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women, women with disabilities and their unique challenges, osteoporosis and bone health, and menopause « Condition Information How do conditions affect women differently? » Related A-Z Topics Menstruation and Menstrual Problems Infertility ...

  13. Health aspects of disaster preparedness and response--panel session 2: seismic risks including tsunamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This Panel Session consisted of five country reports (India, Indonesia, Maldives, Thailand, and Nepal) and the common issues identified during the Panel discussions relative to seismic events in the Southeast Asia Region. Important issues identified included the needs for: (1) a legal framework upon which to base preparedness and response; (2) coordination between the many organizations involved; (3) early warning systems within and between countries; (4) command and control; (5) access to resources including logistics; (6) strengthening the health infrastructure; (7) professionalizing the field of disaster medicine and management; (8) management of communications and information; (9) management of dead bodies; and (10) mental health of the survivors and health workers.

  14. Evaluation of Forest Health Conditions using Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Heutte, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    US Forest Service Alaska Region Forest Health Protection (FHP) and University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) are evaluating capability of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to monitor forest health conditions in Alaska's Interior Region. In July 2016, the team deployed UAS at locations in the Tanana Valley near Fairbanks in order to familiarize FHP staff with capabilities of UAS for evaluating insect and disease damage. While many potential uses of UAS to evaluate and monitor forest health can be envisioned, this project focused on use of a small UAS for rapid assessment of insect and disease damage. Traditional ground-based methods are limited by distance from ground to canopy and inaccessibility of forest stands due to terrain conditions. Observation from fixed-wing aircraft provide a broad overview of conditions but are limited by minimum safe flying altitude (500' AGL) and aircraft speed ( 100 mph). UAS may provide a crucial bridge to fill in gaps between ground and airborne methods, and offer significant cost savings and greater flexibility over helicopter-based observations. Previous uses of UAS for forest health monitoring are limited - this project focuses on optimizing choice of vehicle, sensors, resolution and area scanned from different altitudes, and use of visual spectrum vs NIR image collection. The vehicle selected was the ACUASI Ptarmigan, a small hexacopter (based on DJI S800 airframe and 3DR autopilot) capable of carrying a 1.5 kg payload for 15 min for close-range environmental monitoring missions. Sites were chosen for conditions favorable to UAS operation and presence of forest insect and disease agents including spruce broom rust, aspen leaf miner, birch leaf roller, and willow leafblotch miner. A total of 29 flights were conducted with 9000+ images collected. Mission variables included camera height, UAS speed, and medium- (Sony NEX-7) vs low-resolution (GoPro Hero) cameras. Invaluable

  15. Bad Jobs, Bad Health? How Work and Working Conditions Contribute to Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgard, Sarah A; Lin, Katherine Y

    2013-08-01

    In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. We also provide a discussion of the ways differential exposure to these aspects of work contributes to social disparities in health within and across generations. Analytic complexities in assessing the link between work and health for individuals, such as health selection, are also discussed. We then touch on several contextual level associations between work and the health of populations, discussing the importance of the occupational structure in a given society, the policy environment that prevails there, and the oscillations of the macroeconomy for generating societal disparities in health. We close with a discussion of four areas and associated recommendations that draw on this corpus of knowledge but would push the research on work, health and inequality toward even greater scholarly and policy relevance.

  16. Chronic health conditions and work ability in the ageing workforce: the impact of work conditions, psychosocial factors and perceived health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, Wendy; van der Klink, Jac J L; de Boer, Michiel R; Groothoff, Johan W; Brouwer, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of work conditions, psychosocial factors and perceived health on the association between the presence of a chronic health condition and (single-item) work ability among workers aged 45 years and older. In addition, we aimed to examine variables associated with work ability for workers with and without a chronic health condition separately. The data of this cross-sectional study were obtained from 5,247 workers aged 45 years and older in five different work sectors. Work ability was assessed with the first item of the Work Ability Index. The presence of a chronic health condition was assessed by self-report. Independent variables in the multivariable linear regression analysis were work conditions, psychosocial factors and perceived health status. The presence of a chronic health condition was negatively associated with work ability (B = -0.848). The strength of this association slightly attenuated after subsequently adding individual characteristics (B = -0.824), work conditions (B = -0.805) and more so after adding psychosocial factors (B = -0.704) and especially perceived health variables (B = -0.049) to the model. Variables associated with work ability for workers with and without a chronic health condition were similar. Perceived health and psychosocial factors, rather than work conditions, explained the association between the presence of a chronic health condition and work ability. Substantial differences in variables associated with work ability for workers with and without a chronic health condition were not found. Based on the lower mean scores for workers with a chronic health condition and work ability as well for predictors, these workers might have the most benefit by a policy focussing on enhancing these associated variables.

  17. Including information about co-morbidity in estimates of disease burden: results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, J; Vilagut, G; Chatterji, S; Heeringa, S; Schoenbaum, M; Bedirhan Üstün, T; Rojas-Farreras, S; Angermeyer, M; Bromet, E; Bruffaerts, R; de Girolamo, G; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Karam, A N; Kovess, V; Levinson, D; Liu, Z; Medina-Mora, M E; Ormel, J; Posada-Villa, J; Uda, H; Kessler, R C

    2011-04-01

    The methodology commonly used to estimate disease burden, featuring ratings of severity of individual conditions, has been criticized for ignoring co-morbidity. A methodology that addresses this problem is proposed and illustrated here with data from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Although the analysis is based on self-reports about one's own conditions in a community survey, the logic applies equally well to analysis of hypothetical vignettes describing co-morbid condition profiles. Face-to-face interviews in 13 countries (six developing, nine developed; n=31 067; response rate=69.6%) assessed 10 classes of chronic physical and nine of mental conditions. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess overall perceived health. Multiple regression analysis with interactions for co-morbidity was used to estimate associations of conditions with VAS. Simulation was used to estimate condition-specific effects. The best-fitting model included condition main effects and interactions of types by numbers of conditions. Neurological conditions, insomnia and major depression were rated most severe. Adjustment for co-morbidity reduced condition-specific estimates with substantial between-condition variation (0.24-0.70 ratios of condition-specific estimates with and without adjustment for co-morbidity). The societal-level burden rankings were quite different from the individual-level rankings, with the highest societal-level rankings associated with conditions having high prevalence rather than high individual-level severity. Plausible estimates of disorder-specific effects on VAS can be obtained using methods that adjust for co-morbidity. These adjustments substantially influence condition-specific ratings.

  18. 29 CFR 825.113 - Serious health condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., sufficient to constitute a regimen of continuing treatment for purposes of FMLA leave. (d) Conditions for... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.113 Serious health condition. (a) For purposes of FMLA, “serious health condition” entitling an employee to FMLA leave means an...

  19. Duloxetine treatment adherence across mental health and chronic pain conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Able SL

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stephen L Able,1 Zhanglin Cui,2, Wei Shen2 1Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Global Statistical Sciences, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Purpose: This study applied a uniform methodology for measuring and comparing duloxetine adherence in the treatment of multiple chronic medical conditions. Materials and methods: Study patients 18–64 years of age initiating duloxetine therapy during 2008 were identified from a large managed care database. The study was restricted to patients with continuous health plan eligibility for 12 months pre- and post-duloxetine initiation. Study patients had ≥1 medical claim with an inpatient or outpatient diagnosis of one (and only one of the following conditions: major depressive disorder (MDD; generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; fibromyalgia, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain; or chronic musculoskeletal pain, as established in studies in patients with osteoarthritis and chronic lower back pain (CLBP. Patients initiating duloxetine who had two or more of the six studied conditions were not included in this study, thereby avoiding the need to differentiate between primary and secondary diagnoses from the claims records. Adherence rate was defined as the percentage of patients with a 365-day medication possession ratio ≥0.8. Results: A total of 20,490 patients initiated duloxetine treatment during 2008 with a diagnosis of one of the studied conditions during the study period. The adherence rate in our sample was 34.6% and was highest among patients with MDD (37.3% and lowest for patients with CLBP (29.9%. In general, adherence among patients with MDD and GAD was greater than among those with a chronic pain condition. Conclusion: Adherence among newly initiated duloxetine patients varied modestly across the medical conditions for which it was used. After adjusting for potential confounders, differences between the mental conditions (MDD and GAD and the chronic

  20. Health (care) and human rights: a fundamental conditions approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Many international declarations state that human beings have a human right to health care. However, is there a human right to health care? What grounds this right, and who has the corresponding duties to promote this right? Elsewhere, I have argued that human beings have human rights to the fundamental conditions for pursuing a good life. Drawing on this fundamental conditions approach of human rights, I offer a novel way of grounding a human right to health care.

  1. Perceptions of working conditions amongst health workers in state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... Background:The health care sector depends to a large extent on human labor. Poor worker motivation can greatly affect health outcomes and patient safety. There is little information on the health workers' perceptions of working conditions in resource-poor settings. Method:Three state-owned facilities in ...

  2. Does Including Public Health Students on Interprofessional Teams Increase Attainment of Interprofessional Practice Competencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Pamela Ann; Ronnebaum, Julie A; Stumbo, Teri A; Smith, Kari Nies; Reimer, Rachel A

    2017-04-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) creates dynamic experiential learning that can address social determinants of health that influence health outcomes. To examine the effects of including public health students on IPE teams on the interprofessional practice domain constructs (values/ethics, roles/responsibilities, interprofessional communication, and teams and teamwork). This single-case, mixed-methods study was performed using a grounded theory approach. Students from 8 graduate health sciences programs participated in an asynchronous, 6-week, online IPE learning activity. Three of the 4 interprofessional practice domain constructs were examined as outcome variables: participants' biomedical vs biopsychosocial patient approach (values/ethics); reported change in attitudes, beliefs, or values about other health professions (roles/responsibilities); and anticipated changes in future professional behaviors/interactions/approaches (teams and teamwork). Predictor variables were having an MPH participant on the IPE team, participants' enrollment in a clinical or nonclinical program, and student perception of the online format (interprofessional communication). Three hundred nineteen students were included, 261 from clinical and 58 from nonclinical programs. A significant association was found between having an MPH participant on the IPE teams and participants' awareness of the influence of social determinants of health (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.13-3.66; Pimportance of social determinants of health in the care plan (OR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.38-9.84; P<.01). Participants were significantly less likely to report future behavior change if they were in clinical programs (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23-0.86; P<.05) or if they disliked the online format (OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.14-0.42; P<.01). The model fit the data well (χ23=30.80; P<.001). Inclusion of MPH students on IPE teams has the potential to increase clinical participants' awareness of the influence of social determinants of health and

  3. Shared decision making interventions for people with mental health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Edward; Best, Catherine; Hagen, Suzanne

    2010-01-20

    One person in every four will suffer from a diagnosable mental health condition during their life course. Such conditions can have a devastating impact on the lives of the individual, their family and society. Increasingly partnership models of mental health care have been advocated and enshrined in international healthcare policy. Shared decision making is one such partnership approach. Shared decision making is a form of patient-provider communication where both parties are acknowledged to bring expertise to the process and work in partnership to make a decision. This is advocated on the basis that patients have a right to self-determination and also in the expectation that it will increase treatment adherence. To assess the effects of provider-, consumer- or carer-directed shared decision making interventions for people of all ages with mental health conditions, on a range of outcomes including: patient satisfaction, clinical outcomes, and health service outcomes. We searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to November 2008), EMBASE (1980 to November 2008), PsycINFO (1967 to November 2008), CINAHL (1982 to November 2008), British Nursing Index and Archive (1985 to November 2008) and SIGLE (1890 to September 2005 (database end date)). We also searched online trial registers and the bibliographies of relevant papers, and contacted authors of included studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised controlled trials (q-RCTs), controlled before-and-after studies (CBAs); and interrupted time series (ITS) studies of interventions to increase shared decision making in people with mental health conditions (by DSM or ICD-10 criteria). Data on recruitment methods, eligibility criteria, sample characteristics, interventions, outcome measures, participant flow and outcome data from each study were extracted by one author and checked by another. Data are presented in a narrative

  4. The effect of chronic conditions on stated preferences for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, A Simon; Tawk, Rima; Shaw, James W

    2013-08-01

    While patients tend to value their own health state systematically higher than others would rate it, it is less clear whether stated preferences for hypothetical health states differ between persons with and without specific medical conditions. The aim of this study was to determine if specific conditions affect the valuation of health using a generic measure. Using data from the US Valuation of EQ-5D Health States (n = 3,773), we focused on six conditions of interest (COI), e.g., arthritis, diabetes, depression, heart failure, cancer, and hay fever, and time trade-off values for 12 of 243 EQ-5D health states. For each COI, regression models compared differences in pooled health state preferences among four groups: COI, COI plus one or more additional conditions, no COI but other conditions, or no chronic conditions. No differences in health state preferences were found among the four groups for any of the COIs except for patients with cancer and additional conditions, whose mean scores were 0.07 lower compared to no chronic conditions (P < 0.01). The strongest predictors of health state preferences were race/ethnicity, age, and marital status. Most self-reported chronic conditions had a trivial impact on preferences for hypothetical health states, which suggests that utility algorithms for generic preference-based measures will be similar when estimated from preferences of the general population or patients with chronic illness, conceivably because both types of respondents have not experienced many health states in the classifier system.

  5. Comparison of Two Prostate Cancer Risk Calculators that Include the Prostate Health Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); M.M. Vedder (Moniek); D. Nieboer (Daan); A. Houlgatte (Alain); S. Vincendeau (Sébastien); M. Lazzeri (Massimo); G. Guazzoni (Giorgio); C. Stephan (Carsten); A. Semjonow (Axel); A. Haese (Alexander); M. Graefen (Markus); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Risk prediction models for prostate cancer (PCa) have become important tools in reducing unnecessary prostate biopsies. The Prostate Health Index (PHI) may increase the predictive accuracy of such models. Objectives: To compare two PCa risk calculators (RCs) that include PHI.

  6. Improving spatial microsimulation estimates of health outcomes by including geographic indicators of health behaviour: The example of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Francis; Young, Martin; Doran, Bruce

    2017-07-01

    Gambling is an important public health issue, with recent estimates ranking it as the third largest contributor of disability adjusted life years lost to ill-health. However, no studies to date have estimated the spatial distribution of gambling-related harm in small areas on the basis of surveys of problem gambling. This study extends spatial microsimulation approaches to include a spatially-referenced measure of health behaviour as a constraint variable in order to better estimate the spatial distribution of problem gambling. Specifically, this study allocates georeferenced electronic gaming machine expenditure data to small residential areas using a Huff model. This study demonstrates how the incorporation of auxiliary spatial data on health behaviours such as gambling expenditure can improve spatial microsimulation estimates of health outcomes like problem gambling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Implementation considerations when expanding health worker roles to include safe abortion care: a five-country case study synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Glenton

    2017-09-01

    some of these issues in the study countries included values clarification workshops, health worker rotation, access to emotional support for health workers, the incorporation of abortion care services into pre-service curricula, and in-service training strategies. Conclusions To increase the likelihood of success for role expansion strategies in the area of safe abortion, programme planners must consider how to ensure motivation, support and reasonable working conditions for affected health workers.

  8. Implementation considerations when expanding health worker roles to include safe abortion care: a five-country case study synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenton, Claire; Sorhaindo, Annik M; Ganatra, Bela; Lewin, Simon

    2017-09-21

    Allowing a broader range of trained health workers to deliver services can be an important way of improving access to safe abortion care. However, the expansion of health worker roles may be challenging to implement. This study aimed to explore factors influencing the implementation of role expansion strategies for non-physician providers to include the delivery of abortion care. We conducted a multi-country case study synthesis in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal, South Africa and Uruguay, where the roles of non-physician providers have been formally expanded to include the provision of abortion care. We searched for documentation from each country related to non-physician providers, abortion care services and role expansion through general internet searches, Google Scholar and PubMed, and gathered feedback from 12 key informants. We carried out a thematic analysis of the data, drawing on categories from the SURE Framework of factors affecting the implementation of policy options. Several factors appeared to affect the successful implementation of including non-physician providers to provide abortion care services. These included health workers' knowledge about abortion legislation and services; and health workers' willingness to provide abortion care. Health workers' willingness appeared to be influenced by their personal views about abortion, the method of abortion and stage of pregnancy and their perceptions of their professional roles. While managers' and co-workers' attitudes towards the use of non-physician providers varied, the synthesis suggests that female clients focused less on the type of health worker and more on factors such as trust, privacy, cost, and closeness to home. Health systems factors also played a role, including workloads and incentives, training, supervision and support, supplies, referral systems, and monitoring and evaluation. Strategies used, with varying success, to address some of these issues in the study countries included values

  9. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The need to include obstetric nurses in prenatal care visits in the public health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aparecida Lagrosa Garcia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate, with a qualitative approach, the role of Obstetric Nurses at the primary level of care given to women’s health as a vital component of the multidisciplinary team, which today is fundamental for providing care, prevention as well as health education and promotion, especially in programs whose activities are geared towards primary care of pregnant, parturient, and puerpera women. Methods: Brazilian laws and the determinations of Nursing Councils in reference to the activities of the obstetric nurse were researched, including the nurse’s responsibilities and limits. The bibliographic search was conducted in health-related journals, lay publications, and the Internet. Results: The conflicts between professional physicians and nurses were discussed. Conclusions: It was concluded that the activities of the nurse, conducting low-risk prenatal clinical visits in the basic healthcare network, has legal and ethical support and provides true benefit to the clients.

  11. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... States abuse alcohol, putting their health, safety, and general well-being at risk. While men are more ...

  12. Women waste pickers: living conditions, work, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Alexa Pupiara Flores; Beck, Carmem Lúcia Colomé; Fernandes, Marcelo Nunes da Silva; Freitas, Natiellen Quatrin; Prestes, Francine Cassol; Tonel, Juliana Zancan

    2016-09-29

    To know the elements of work, health, and living conditions of women who pick recyclable waste and are members of a waste cooperative in a town of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study with seven subjects. Data were collected through participative observation, semi structured interview, and a focus group from July to August of 2013. The data were subjected to content analysis. The following thematic categories emerged: Women's work, informality and precariousness; Experiences of job satisfaction; and Working conditions and health: experiences with accidents, illness and health services. It was concluded that the women who collect recyclable material are exposed to precarious work conditions and potential health risks, such as work overload, accidents, illness, and social insecurity, and that nurses are responsible for promoting actions that ensure the health and inclusion of these workers.

  13. Global Health Education for Medical Students: When Learning Objectives Include Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Alison M; Oddo, Anthony R; Dennis, David J; Siska, Robert C; VanderWal, Echo; VanderWal, Harry; Dlamini, Nompumelelo; Markert, Ronald J; McCarthy, Mary C

    2017-10-05

    The Luke Commission, a provider of comprehensive mobile health outreach in rural Swaziland, focuses on human immunodeficiency virus testing and prevention, including the performance of over 100 circumcisions weekly. Educational objectives for medical student global health electives are essential. Learning research methodology while engaging in clinical activities reinforces curriculum goals. Medical care databases can produce clinically significant findings affecting international health policy. Engaging in academic research exponentially increased the educational value of student experiences during an international medical elective. Staff of the Luke Commission, a nongovernmental organization, collected and deidentified information from 1500 Swazi male patients undergoing circumcision from January through June of 2014. Medical students designed studies and analyzed these data to produce research projects on adverse event rates, pain perception, and penile malformations. Institutional review board approval was obtained from the home institution and accompanying senior surgical faculty provided mentorship. First-year medical students enrolled in an international medical elective to explore resource availability, cultural awareness, health care provision, and developing world endemic diseases. While in country, students learned research methodology, collected data, and engaged in research projects. Following the trip, students presented posters at over 10 regional and national meetings. All 4 articles are accepted or under consideration for publication by major journals. During international medical electives the combination of clinical experiences and access to databases from health aid organizations provides the foundation for productive medical student research. All participants benefit from the relationships formed by aid organizations, medical students, and patient populations. Global health research has many complexities, but through careful planning and

  14. Phenazepam abuse in the UK: an emerging problem causing serious adverse health problems, including death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkery, John Martin; Schifano, Fabrizio; Ghodse, Abdol Hamid

    2012-05-01

    Phenazepam (fenazepam; 7-bromo-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one; PNZ, 'Bonsai') is a benzodiazepine developed in the former Soviet Union during the 1970s to treat neurological disorders, epilepsy, and alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Its recreational use appears to have increased over recent years. Because of the lack of accessible data on this substance, it is important that information is made available to health professionals. A literature search was conducted in relevant databases (Medline, Toxbase, PsychInfo, etc.), grey literature (using Google Scholar) and Internet sites to identify key data on phenazepam, including epidemiology such as availability, price, supply sources, confiscations, and health-related problems. Information from these sources indicates the potential for serious adverse health consequences for this drug when taken recreationally and that its use is spreading in the USA and Europe. Although first use was reported in the UK in October 2009, major concerns in the UK arose in summer 2010 when individuals across Britain were admitted to hospital following overdose. Nine UK fatalities were reported in which phenazepam was detected in post mortem toxicology but not implicated in death. The first UK death directly involving phenazepam was notified in July and the second in November 2011. This paper summarises the key information about phenazepam abuse and health problems of which health professionals, especially those in Emergency Departments, should be aware and presents new information in respect of fatalities caused by the drug. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Experiences of including costs of added life years in health economic evaluations in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pirhonen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is of importance to include the appropriate costs and outcomes when evaluating a health intervention. Sweden is the only country where the national guidelines of decisions on reimbursement explicitly state that costs of added life years should be accounted for when presenting health economic evaluations. The aim of this article is to, from a theoretical and empirical point of view, critically analyze the Swedish recommendations used by the Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV, when it comes to the use of costs of added life years in economic evaluations of health care. The aim is furthermore to analyze the numbers used in Sweden and discuss their impact on the incremental cost‑effectiveness ratios of assessed technologies. If following a societal perspective, based on welfare economics, there is strong support for the inclusion of costs of added life years in health economic evaluations. These costs have a large impact on the results. However this fact may be in conflict with ethical concerns of allocation of health care resources, such as favoring the younger part of the population over the older. It is important that the estimates of production and consumption reflect the true societal values, which is not the case with the values used in Sweden.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v15i2.925

  16. Using Health Conditions for Laughs and Health Policy Support: The Case of Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Melissa M; Slater, Michael D; Jain, Parul

    2017-07-01

    Health conditions are sometimes included in entertainment media comedies as a context for and as a source of humor. Food allergies are a typical case in point: They are potentially life-threatening yet may be used in humorous contexts. We conducted a content analysis of food allergies in entertainment media and tested the effects of humorous portrayals from an exemplar entertainment program. The content analysis confirmed that when food allergies were portrayed in television and the movies, it was most frequently in a humorous context and often contained inaccurate information. A follow-up experiment showed viewing a humorous portrayal of food allergies had an indirect negative effect on related health policy support via decreased perceived seriousness of food allergies. Inclusion of an educational video eliminated this effect on reduced policy support, with cognitive dissonance as a mediator. Findings support the hypothesis that portraying a health condition in a humorous context may reduce perceptions of seriousness and willingness to support public health policies to address risks associated with the condition, supporting and extending prior research findings.

  17. Housing and Health: The relationship between housing conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    okanlawon

    2011-10-22

    Oct 22, 2011 ... The Book Housing and Health: The Relationship between Housing conditions and the Health of Council Tenants was a report of research work carried out on council housing in metropolitan District of Gateshead in England. The five- chapter book, written by four authors, gives the historical and ...

  18. Health and safety conditions of building maintenance sites in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    This research assessed the safety of the environmental conditions of timber buildings as maintenance ... emissions of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds ... and Safety, 2009). Mouldy buildings also present serious health risks to occupants and construction employees. (World Health Organization, 2003; Stevens, 2004;.

  19. Health conditions and support needs of persons living in residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Intellectual disability (ID) is a relatively high-incidence disability, with an increased risk of poor physical and mental health. Persons with ID also have lifelong support needs that must be met if they are to achieve an acceptable quality of life. Little is known about these health conditions and support needs in the ...

  20. Study of the Working Conditions of Health Extension Workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coverage: 2005-2009” of which “The Health Extension Program (HEP)” is a major component”. Objective: The study focuses on the first batch of Health Extension Workers (HEWs) with the overall objective of assessing the working conditions of HEWs and their job satisfaction. Methods: An in-depth field study was carried ...

  1. Disability Mediates the Impact of Common Conditions on Perceived Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, Jordi; Vilagut, Gemma; Adroher, Nuria D.; Chatterji, Somnath; He, Yanling; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Maria Haro, Josep; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; Iwata, Noboru; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Elena Medina-Mora, Maria; O'Neill, Siobhan; Hormel, J.; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Xavier, Miguel; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: We examined the extent to which disability mediates the observed associations of common mental and physical conditions with perceived health. Methods and Findings: WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys carried out in 22 countries worldwide (n = 51,344 respondents, 72.0% response rate).

  2. Predicting Comorbid Conditions and Trajectories using Social Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiang; Ae Chun, Soon; Geller, James

    2016-05-05

    Many patients suffer from comorbidity conditions, for example, obese patients often develop type-2 diabetes and hypertension. In the US, 80% of Medicare spending is for managing patients with these multiple coexisting conditions. Predicting potential comorbidity conditions for an individual patient can promote preventive care and reduce costs. Predicting possible comorbidity progression paths can provide important insights into population heath and aid with decisions in public health policies. Discovering the comorbidity relationships is complex and difficult, due to limited access to Electronic Health Records by privacy laws. In this paper, we present a collaborative comorbidity prediction method to predict likely comorbid conditions for individual patients, and a trajectory prediction graph model to reveal progression paths of comorbid conditions. Our prediction approaches utilize patient generated health reports on online social media, called Social Health Records (SHR). The experimental results based on one SHR source show that our method is able to predict future comorbid conditions for a patient with coverage values of 48% and 75% for a top-20 and a top-100 ranked list, respectively. For risk trajectory prediction, our approach is able to reveal each potential progression trajectory between any two conditions and infer the confidence of the future trajectory, given any observed condition. The predicted trajectories are validated with existing comorbidity relations from the medical literature.

  3. Universal health coverage in ‘One ASEAN’: are migrants included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R.; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S.

    2015-01-01

    Background As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. Design A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. Results In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC

  4. Universal health coverage in ‘One ASEAN’: are migrants included?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Lorenzo Luis R. Guinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. Design: A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. Results: In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as

  5. Health conditions and role limitation in three European Regions: a public-health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Barbaglia

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The contribution of health conditions to role limitation in the three European regions studied is high. Mental disorders are associated with the largest impact in most of the regions. There is a need for mainstreaming disability in the public health agenda to reduce the role limitation associated with health conditions. The cross-regional differences found require further investigation.

  6. Influence of probiotics, included in peanut butter, on the fate of selected Salmonella and Listeria strains under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Y A K; Chen, J

    2016-04-01

    This study observed the behaviour of probiotics and selected bacterial pathogens co-inoculated into peanut butter during gastrointestinal simulation. Peanut butter homogenates co-inoculated with Salmonella/Listeria strains (5 log CFU ml(-1) ) and lyophilized or cultured probiotics (9 log CFU ml(-1) ) were exposed to simulated gastrointestinal conditions for 24 h at 37°C. Sample pH, titratable acidity and pathogen populations were determined. Agar diffusion assay was performed to assess the inhibitory effect of probiotic culture supernatants with either natural (3·80 (Lactobacillus), 3·78 (Bifidobacteirum) and 5·17 (Streptococcus/Lactococcus)) or neutralized (6·0) pH. Antibacterial effect of crude bacteriocin extracts were also evaluated against the pathogens. After 24 h, samples with probiotics had lower pH and higher titratable acidity than those without probiotics. The presence of probiotics caused a significant reduction (P pH diminished their antibacterial activities. Crude bacteriocin extracts had a strain-specific inhibitory effect only towards Listeria monocytogenes. Probiotics in 'peanut butter' survived simulated gastrointestinal conditions and inhibited the growth of Salmonella/Listeria. Peanut butter is a plausible carrier to deliver probiotics to improve the gastrointestinal health of children in developing countries. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Sexual Health questions included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study: an international methodological pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Honor; Költő, András; Reis, Marta; Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Moreau, Nathalie; Burke, Lorraine; Cosma, Alina; Windlin, Béat; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2016-12-05

    This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people's sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed. An international pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of these proposed changes. Questionnaires and classroom discussion groups were conducted in five pilot countries in 2012/2013 (France, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania) with a total of 612 school-aged children (age M = 15.55 years, SD = 0.95). The majority of participants in each country provided positive feedback about the appropriateness of the questions. Some small cross-national differences were found in the self-reported quantitative data relating to the appropriateness of the questions (χ 2  = 22.831, df = 9, p = .007, V = .117). Qualitative feedback suggests that for the vast majority of students the phrasing and age-targeting of the questions were considered appropriate. With the exception of a small number of respondents who commented on the clarity and/or personal nature of the content, no specific issues with the questions were identified. These findings provide guidance on the answerability (including the extent of missing and inconsistent data), understandability, acceptability (including in different cultures) and relevance of questions to potential participants. The findings from the pilot study suggest that in general, the questions are understandable, acceptable, and of a high priority to the target population, and that the simplification has significantly reduced the proportion of missing data

  8. Sexual Health questions included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC Study: an international methodological pilot investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honor Young

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people’s sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed. Methods An international pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of these proposed changes. Questionnaires and classroom discussion groups were conducted in five pilot countries in 2012/2013 (France, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania with a total of 612 school-aged children (age M = 15.55 years, SD = 0.95. Results The majority of participants in each country provided positive feedback about the appropriateness of the questions. Some small cross-national differences were found in the self-reported quantitative data relating to the appropriateness of the questions (χ2 = 22.831, df = 9, p = .007, V = .117. Qualitative feedback suggests that for the vast majority of students the phrasing and age-targeting of the questions were considered appropriate. With the exception of a small number of respondents who commented on the clarity and/or personal nature of the content, no specific issues with the questions were identified. Conclusions These findings provide guidance on the answerability (including the extent of missing and inconsistent data, understandability, acceptability (including in different cultures and relevance of questions to potential participants. The findings from the pilot study suggest that in general, the questions are understandable, acceptable, and of a high priority to the target population, and that the

  9. Risk and resilience: health inequalities, working conditions and sickness benefit arrangements: an analysis of the 2010 European Working Conditions survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Bambra, Clare; Dragano, Nico; Eikemo, Terje A; Lunau, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    In this article we ask whether the level of sickness benefit provision protects the health of employees, particularly those who are most exposed to hazardous working conditions or who have a little education. The study uses the European Working Condition Survey that includes information on 20,626 individuals from 28 countries. Health was measured by self-reported mental wellbeing and self-rated general health. Country-level sickness benefit provision was constructed using spending data from Eurostat. Group-specific associations were fitted using cross-level interaction terms between sickness benefit provision and physical and psychosocial working conditions respectively, as well as those with little education. The mental wellbeing of employees exposed to psychosocial job strain and physical hazards, or who had little education, was better in countries that offer more generous sickness benefit. These results were found in both men and women and were robust to the inclusion of GDP and country fixed effects. In the analyses of self-reported general health, few group-specific associations were found. This article concludes that generous sickness benefit provision may strengthen employee's resilience against mental health risks at work and risks associated with little education. Consequently, in countries with a generous provision of sickness benefit, social inequalities in mental health are smaller. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  10. Mental health among young adult survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings including posttraumatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sato, Iori; Honda, Misato; Ozono, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Okamura, Jun; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Kakee, Naoko; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi

    2010-12-01

    Few studies have addressed the mental health status of young adult childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) and their siblings (SIBs). This paper focuses on depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among Japanese CCSs and their SIBs. Adolescent and young adult CCSs (n=185), in remission for more than 1 year, their SIBs (n=72), and general controls (CONTs) (n=1,000) completed anonymous self-report questionnaires for depression, anxiety, PTSS, and PTG. The physicians in charge also completed an anonymous disease/treatment data sheet. CCSs were approximately 8 years old at diagnosis and approximately 23 years old at the time of the survey. Their diagnoses included leukemia (57%), lymphoma (12%), and solid tumors (30%). Thirty-eight percent underwent surgery and 25% received stem cell transplantation. No significant differences were found between CCSs and CONTs in terms of depression and anxiety. CCSs had significantly more PTSS and had remarkably greater PTG compared to CONTs. Although no significant differences were found between SIBs and CONTs regarding depression, anxiety, or PTSS, female SIBs exhibited greater PTG compared to female CONTs. To empower CCSs, they should be evaluated periodically regarding PTSS and PTG and should be provided appropriate care and feedback. The fact that the mental health status of young adult SIBs was similar to CONTs at 15 years after their siblings' diagnoses may help reassure parents who worry about mental health among the siblings of an affected child during and after his/her treatment.

  11. Concept Analysis of Health Care Transition in Adolescents with Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladores, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Children with chronic conditions are living into adulthood and present with unique needs. One such need is their transition from pediatric to adult health care. This paper examined the literature to analyze and synthesize the concept of transition within two contexts, health care and adolescents with chronic conditions. Fifty multidisciplinary sources were included for analysis. A refined, working definition of the concept of health care transition in adolescents with chronic conditions is presented. Results will enable the scientific community to discuss salient issues using well-defined, uniform terminology. Nursing implications are delineated to ensure that these youths thrive into adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. HEALTH CONDITION OF THE FIRST YEAR INFANTS IN MIGRANT FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Yu. Albitsky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex clinical social study of health status, life style and conditions of infants aged 3 months to 1 year in migrant families living in Pushkino district of Moscow region for more than 2 years was carried out. The study has revealed that children in migrant families fall behind in physical development, most of them show a delay of psychomotor development, the level of revealed pathology is significantly higher vs. children of famia lies permanently residing in the area. The data acquired indicate the need of intent attention to the children in migrant families from both medical and social authorities.Key words: children, health status, physical development, children's condition.

  13. 76 FR 9283 - Medicaid Program; Payment Adjustment for Provider-Preventable Conditions Including Health Care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Options'' tab. 2. By regular mail. You may mail written comments to the following address ONLY: Centers... provide for payment that is consistent with efficiency, economy, and quality of care. With the...

  14. 76 FR 32815 - Medicaid Program; Payment Adjustment for Provider-Preventable Conditions Including Health Care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... conformity with all Federal requirements. The Federal government pays its share of medical assistance... policies through some other authority like State law or administrative procedures will be required to... collaboratively to develop policies and implement reporting systems that would complement existing payment...

  15. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jung Kim, RN, PhD

    2016-03-01

    Conlcusions: The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population.

  16. Reproducibility and validity of self-perceived oral health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Camila; de Castro Monteiro Loffredo, Leonor

    2007-12-01

    The reproducibility and validity of self-perceived periodontal, dental, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) conditions were investigated. A questionnaire was applied in interview to 200 adults aged from 35 to 44, who were attending as casual patients at Araraquara School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University, São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical examination was based on the guidelines of the World Health Organization manual. The interview and the clinical examination were performed in two occasions, by a calibrated examiner. Reproducibility and validity were, respectively, verified by kappa statistics (kappa) and sensitivity (Sen) and specificity (Spec) values, having clinical examination as the validation criterion. The results showed an almost perfect agreement for self-perceived TMJ (kappa = 0.85) and periodontal conditions (kappa = 0.81), and it was substantial for dental condition (kappa = 0.69). Reproducibility according to clinical examination showed good results (kappa = 0.73 for CPI index, kappa = 0.96 for dental caries, and kappa = 0.74 for TMJ conditions). Sensitivity and specificity values were higher for self-perceived dental (Sen = 0.84, Spec = 1.0) and TMJ conditions (Sen = 1.0, Spec = 0.8). With regard to periodontal condition, specificity was low (0.43), although sensitivity was very high (1.0). Self-perceived oral health was reliable for the examined conditions. Validity was good to detect dental conditions and TMJ disorders, and it was more sensitive than specific to detect the presence of periodontal disease.

  17. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences

  18. Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading...... of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry...... in fire. Finally a definition is suggested for a nature preservation willingness index, which by an invariance postulate leads to a rational format for allocating means to avoid pollution accidents....

  19. Retrospective cohort study shows that the risks for retinopathy of prematurity included birth age and weight, medical conditions and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aliaa A; Gomaa, Nancy A S; Awadein, Ahmed R; Al-Hayouti, Huda H; Hegazy, Ahmed I

    2017-12-01

    This study described the characteristics and risk factors of neonates who developed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and severe treatable ROP in two Egyptian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This retrospective cohort study comprised 108 preterm neonates who were screened for ROP after being admitted to the two NICUs run by Cairo University Hospital from June 2014 to May 2015. Patients were examined using digital fundus photography and indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed if ROP was detected. Retinopathy of prematurity occurred in 75 patients. Late-onset sepsis, ventilation and hypercapnia were independently associated with ROP. Patients who developed severe treatable ROP had a younger gestational age (GA) than patients who did not develop ROP or developed mild or moderate ROP (29 weeks, range 27-33 weeks versus 32 weeks, range 28-36 weeks, p = 0.002) and a lower birthweight (1200 g, range 980-1590 g versus 1460 g, range 770-2475 g, p = 0.029). The risk factors associated with severe treatable ROP included the duration of admission, the duration of incubator oxygen, late-onset sepsis, intraventricular haemorrhage, total parenteral nutrition and the duration of caffeine citrate therapy. This study showed that the risks for ROP were wide-ranging and included GA and weight, medical conditions and treatment. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Pattern of presentation of oral health conditions by children at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The study aimed to determine the pattern of occurrence of oral conditions among children that attended the Child Dental Health clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu over a 45 months period. Materials and Methods: Clinical records of 305 patients, aged 3 days to 16 years, who attended ...

  1. [Children's health under the conditions of social differentiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, T M; Gaenko, O N; Belov, V B

    2004-01-01

    Results of social-and-hygienic research of the health condition of children belonging to different social-and-economic population categories are under discussion. The material family status is shown to directly affect the child's life quality, i.e. family life mode, psychological climate, scope and variety of food-stuffs, the possibility to have a regular and valuable recreation, educational regime, and the possibility to satisfy the spiritual demands of a child etc. The morbidity goes up among children as the family income decreases. The social-and-economic conditions are the uttermost and often decisive risk factor that provokes the development of deviations in children's health. The material stratification of society conditions, for children, differing degrees of access to public benefits that are involved in shaping the children's health, thus, entailing the disequilibrium in their health. A realistic pattern of children's health is needed as a data base to define an objective necessity of children in medical care of different types as well as their necessity in medical drugs and equipment.

  2. Financial well-being of older Australians with multiple health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeromey B; Williams, Ruth

    2018-02-10

    Given recent rises in out-of-pocket health expenses, we examined the financial well-being of older Australians with multiple health conditions and disabilities. The 2014 General Social Survey was used to measure the: (i) current financial position; (ii) propensity to experience financial difficulties; and (iii) types of behaviours older people with multiple health conditions engage in to improve financial resilience. Compared to older Australians with no health conditions, respondents with multiple health conditions had lower incomes and assets and a higher propensity to hold consumer debt (once controls were included). They were at a higher risk of cash flow difficulties, dissaving to meet day-to-day living expenses and exclusion from financial providers. However, the majority of people with multiple health conditions engaged in financially resilient behaviours. Many older Australians with multiple health conditions were in a financially precarious situation with implications for the ability to afford ongoing increases in out-of-pocket health-care costs. © 2018 AJA Inc.

  3. Comparison of Two Prostate Cancer Risk Calculators that Include the Prostate Health Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roobol, Monique J; Vedder, Moniek M; Nieboer, Daan; Houlgatte, Alain; Vincendeau, Sébastien; Lazzeri, Massimo; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Stephan, Carsten; Semjonow, Axel; Haese, Alexander; Graefen, Markus; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2015-09-01

    Risk prediction models for prostate cancer (PCa) have become important tools in reducing unnecessary prostate biopsies. The Prostate Health Index (PHI) may increase the predictive accuracy of such models. To compare two PCa risk calculators (RCs) that include PHI. We evaluated the predictive performance of a previously developed PHI-based nomogram and updated versions of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) RCs based on digital rectal examination (DRE): RC3 (no prior biopsy) and RC4 (prior biopsy). For the ERSPC updates, the original RCs were recalibrated and PHI was added as a predictor. The PHI-updated ERSPC RCs were compared with the Lughezzani nomogram in 1185 men from four European sites. Outcomes were biopsy-detectable PC and potentially advanced or aggressive PCa, defined as clinical stage >T2b and/or a Gleason score ≥7 (clinically relevant PCa). The PHI-updated ERSPC models had a combined area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) of 0.72 for all PCa and 0.68 for clinically relevant PCa. For the Lughezzani PHI-based nomogram, AUCs were 0.75 for all PCa and 0.69 for clinically relevant PCa. For men without a prior biopsy, PHI-updated RC3 resulted in AUCs of 0.73 for PCa and 0.66 for clinically relevant PCa. Decision curves confirmed these patterns, although the number of clinically relevant cancers was low. Differences between RCs that include PHI are small. Addition of PHI to an RC leads to further reductions in the rate of unnecessary biopsies when compared to a strategy based on prostate-specific antigen measurement. Risk prediction models for prostate cancer have become important tools in reducing unnecessary prostate biopsies. We compared two risk prediction models for prostate cancer that include the Prostate Health Index. We found that these models are equivalent to each other, and both perform better than the prostate-specific antigen test alone in predicting cancer. Copyright © 2015

  4. Health Status and Working Condition of Migrant Workers: Major Public Health Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bener, Abdulbari

    2017-01-01

    Background: Very little research and survey have been performed on the occupational health, hazards, and working condition of urban and rural of workers in Qatar. The aim of the current study is to identify the health status, lifestyle condition, working-related problems, and accidents experienced by Indian subcontinental migrants (ISCM) in Qatar and their access to health-care facilities. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on a representative sample of 1186 workers and study cove...

  5. Public health questions on physical disabilities and musculoskeletal conditions : studies using health surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picavet, H.S.J.

    2001-01-01

    For population-based information on physical disability and musculoskeletal conditions health surveys are the most important source of information. In this thesis studies are presented on the methods of the health survey and on public health questions concerning physical disabilities and

  6. Modifying the Interagency Emergency Health Kit to include treatment for non-communicable diseases in natural disasters and complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Marcello; Wiebe, Natasha; Nadler, Brian; Darzi, Ara; Rasheed, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    The Interagency Emergency Health Kit (IEHK) provides a standard package of medicines and simple medical devices for aid agencies to use in emergencies such as disasters and armed conflicts. Despite the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in such settings, the IEHK includes few drugs and devices for management of NCDs. Using published data to model the population burden of acute and chronic presentations of NCDs in emergency-prone regions, we estimated the quantity of medications and devices that should be included in the IEHK. NCDs considered were cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension and chronic respiratory disease. In scenario 1 (the primary scenario), we assumed that resources in the IEHK would only include those needed to manage acute life-threatening conditions. In scenario 2, we included resources required to manage both acute and chronic presentations of NCDs. Drugs and devices that might be required included amlodipine, aspirin, atenolol, beclomethasone, dextrose 50%, enalapril, furosemide, glibenclamide, glyceryl trinitrate, heparin, hydralazine, hydrochlorothiazide, insulin, metformin, prednisone, salbutamol and simvastatin. For scenario 1, the number of units required ranged from 12 (phials of hydralazine) to ∼15 000 (tablets of enalapril). Space and weight requirements were modest and total cost for all drugs and devices was approximately US$2078. As expected, resources required for scenario 2 were much greater. Space and cost requirements increased proportionately: estimated total cost of scenario 2 was $22 208. The resources required to treat acute NCD presentations appear modest, and their inclusion in the IEHK seems feasible.

  7. Understanding stigma in chronic health conditions: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, Joan

    2013-10-01

    This article explores the social processes in stigmatization and the theoretical background on the impact in chronic illness. Review of literature from social sciences and applications to health issues. Understanding the social utility of stigmatization in preserving social cohesion and protecting the social order is an important function. However, this process can be harmful when applied to persons with chronic illness, such as HIV-AIDS, and psychiatric illness. These individuals often become shamed, ostracized, isolated, discredited, and socially and economically marginalized. Recent theoretical work on stigma has identified several issues and patient responses that may have implications in many other chronic conditions. Stigma is based on visible or nonvisible health conditions and can be both externally imposed or perceived in a process of self-stigma. Understanding stigma can aid clinicians in providing supportive help for patients with chronic illness. Stigma has been well researched in a few chronic illnesses; however, future studies in other conditions are much needed. Recognizing the underlying social factors has potential use in health-promoting behaviors. Sensitivity to stigma allows health professionals to critically reflect on ways the healthcare environment may add to stigma for their patients. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  8. Research Priorities to Advance the Health and Health Care of Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisminetzky, Mayra; Bayliss, Elizabeth A; Magaziner, Jay S; Allore, Heather G; Anzuoni, Kathryn; Boyd, Cynthia M; Gill, Thomas M; Go, Alan S; Greenspan, Susan L; Hanson, Leah R; Hornbrook, Mark C; Kitzman, Dalane W; Larson, Eric B; Naylor, Mary D; Shirley, Benjamin E; Tai-Seale, Ming; Teri, Linda; Tinetti, Mary E; Whitson, Heather E; Gurwitz, Jerry H

    2017-07-01

    To prioritize research topics relevant to the care of the growing population of older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). Survey of experts in MCC practice, research, and policy. Topics were derived from white papers, funding announcements, or funded research projects relating to older adults with MCCs. Survey conducted through the Health Care Systems Research Network (HCSRN) and Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Centers (OAICs) Advancing Geriatrics Infrastructure and Network Growth Initiative, a joint endeavor of the HCSRN and OAICs. Individuals affiliated with the HCSRN or OAICs and national MCC experts, including individuals affiliated with funding agencies having MCC-related grant portfolios. A "top box" methodology was used, counting the number of respondents selecting the top response on a 5-point Likert scale and dividing by the total number of responses to calculate a top box percentage for each of 37 topics. The highest-ranked research topics relevant to the health and healthcare of older adults with MCCs were health-related quality of life in older adults with MCCs; development of assessment tools (to assess, e.g., symptom burden, quality of life, function); interactions between medications, disease processes, and health outcomes; disability; implementation of novel (and scalable) models of care; association between clusters of chronic conditions and clinical, financial, and social outcomes; role of caregivers; symptom burden; shared decision-making to enhance care planning; and tools to improve clinical decision-making. Study findings serve to inform the development of a comprehensive research agenda to address the challenges relating to the care of this "high-need, high-cost" population and the healthcare delivery systems responsible for serving it. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Effect of roasting conditions on color and volatile profile including HMF level in sweet almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agila, Amal; Barringer, Sheryl

    2012-04-01

    Microwave, oven, and oil roasting of almonds were used to promote almond flavor and color formation. Raw pasteurized almonds were roasted in a microwave for 1 to 3 min, in an oven at 177 °C for 5, 10, 15, and 20 min; and at 135 and 163 °C for 20 min, and in oil at 135, 163, and 177 °C for 5 min and 177 °C for 10 min. Volatile compounds were quantified in the headspace of ground almonds, both raw and roasted, by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. Strong correlations were found between L value, chroma, and 5-(hydroxy methyl)-2- furfural; and were independent of roasting method. Raw almonds had lower concentrations of most volatiles than roasted almonds. Conditions that produced color equivalent to commercial samples were 2 min in the microwave, 5 min at 177 °C in the oven, and 5 min at 135 °C in oil. Microwave heating produced higher levels of most volatiles than oven and oil roasting at commercial color. Sensory evaluation indicated that microwave-roasted almonds had the strongest aroma and were the most preferred. Oil-roasted almonds showed significantly lower levels of volatiles than other methods, likely due to loss of these volatiles into the oil. Alcohols such as benzyl alcohols and strecker aldehydes including benzaldehyde and methional were at higher concentrations than other volatiles in roasted almonds. The oxidation of lipids to form alkanals such as nonanal and degradation of sugars to form furan type compounds was also observed. The Maillard reaction contributed to the formation of more of the total volatiles in almonds than the lipid oxidation reaction. The level of 5-(hydroxy methyl)-2- furfural (HMF), color, volatile profile, and sensory perception can be used to develop the best roasting method, time, and temperature for almonds. The rate of color development and the production of volatiles differ under different roasting conditions. Based on the color, volatile, and sensory assessments of the 3 almonds, the use of microwave technology

  10. The health effects of jobs: status, working conditions, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Rennie M; Strazdins, Lyndall; Clements, Mark S; Broom, Dorothy H; Parslow, Ruth; Rodgers, Bryan

    2005-06-01

    This study investigates whether the association of job strain and insecurity with health differs by status. A cross-sectional study of 2,249 employed workers aged 40-44 years conducted in two regions in south-east Australia in 2000 used a self-completed questionnaire to collect data. Multivariate analyses were used to compare depression, anxiety, physical health and general practitioner (GP) visits over 12 months across categories of job strain and insecurity for three status groups (high, middle and low). High job strain and job insecurity were independently associated with poor mental health, poor physical health and visits to the GP for all status groups when adjusted for confounders. High job strain was associated with depression (OR = 2.46, 95% CI 1.96-3.07), anxiety (OR = 2.56, 95% Cl 2.05-3.20), lower mean physical health scores (-1.11, 95% CI -1.98 - -0.23), and more visits to the GP (IRR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.05-1.37). High job insecurity also showed significant associations with depression (OR = 3.03, 95% Cl 2.03-4.53), anxiety (OR = 2.66, 95% CI 1.81-3.91), and GP visits (IRR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.60). There were no significant differences by status in the associations of job strain and insecurity with outcomes. High-status workers were just as likely as low-status workers to be exposed to adverse work conditions and both status groups showed similar health effects. Exposure to insecure and high-strain jobs is likely to rise as economies and labour markets respond to globalisation and political change. High status may not protect employees from either exposure or impact, thus widening the population health consequences of adverse work conditions.

  11. Neonatal health including congenital malformation risk of 1072 children born after vitrified embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belva, F; Bonduelle, M; Roelants, M; Verheyen, G; Van Landuyt, L

    2016-07-01

    Does vitrification of Day 3 and Day 5 embryos adversely affect birth outcomes of singletons and twins in comparison with peers born after fresh embryo transfer? Neonatal health parameters, including the prevalence of congenital malformations, in singletons and twins born after embryo vitrification are similar to or slightly better than after fresh embryo transfer. Although vitrification, rather than slow-freezing, of embryos is routine practice nowadays, convincing evidence regarding the safety for the offspring is sparse. Literature data comprise results from mostly small-sized studies or studies including only Day 3 or only Day 5 vitrified embryo transfers. Overall, better or comparable perinatal outcomes, in terms of higher birthweight and lower risk for small-for-gestational age or for low birthweight, have been reported for singletons born after vitrified embryo transfer compared with fresh embryo transfer. According to the single available study with sufficient sample size, the congenital malformation rate was found to be comparable after vitrified and fresh embryo transfers. Data were collected from 960 cycles after transfer of embryos vitrified on Day 3 (n = 457) or Day 5 (n = 503) and from 1644 cycles after fresh embryo transfer on Day 3 (n = 853) or Day 5 (n = 791), performed between 2008 and 2013 at the Centre for Reproductive Medicine of the university hospital UZ Brussel. Outcome measures were neonatal health in terms of birthweight, small-for-gestational age, prematurity rate, perinatal death and major/minor/total malformation rate. Perinatal health parameters of 11 stillborns and 1061 live borns (827 singletons and 234 twins) in the vitrified group and of 28 stillborns and 1838 live borns (1374 singletons and 464 twins) in the fresh embryo group are reported. Within 3 months after birth, children in the two study groups were assessed clinically with special attention to congenital malformations by a paediatrician blinded to the type of embryo

  12. Comparison of Health Information Technology Use Between American Adults With and Without Chronic Health Conditions: Findings From The National Health Interview Survey 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Lauche, Romy; Sibbritt, David; Olaniran, Bolanle; Cook, Ronald; Adams, Jon

    2017-10-05

    Health information technology (HIT) is utilized by people with different chronic conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. However, there has been no comparison of HIT use between persons without a chronic condition, with one chronic condition, and multiple (≥2) chronic conditions (MCCs). The aim of the study was to assess the difference in HIT use between persons without a chronic condition, with one chronic condition, and with MCCs, to describe the characteristics of HIT use among those with chronic conditions and to identify the predictors of HIT use of the persons with one chronic condition and MCCs. A secondary data analysis was conducted in spring 2017 using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2012 Family Core and Sample Adult Core datasets that yielded 34,525 respondents aged 18 years and older. Measures included overall HIT use (ie, any use of the following five HIT on the Internet: seeking health information, ordering prescription, making appointment, emailing health provider, and using health chat groups), as well as sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. Sociodemographic and health characteristics were compared between HIT users and nonusers among those who reported having at least one chronic condition using chi-square tests. Independent predictors of HIT use were identified using multiple logistic regression analyses for those with one chronic condition, with MCCs, and without a chronic condition. Analyses were weighted and performed at significance level of .005. In 2012, adults with one health chronic condition (raw count 4147/8551, weighted percentage 48.54%) was significantly higher than among those with MCCs (3816/9637, 39.55%) and those with none of chronic condition (7254/16,337, 44.40%, P<.001). Seeking health information was the most prevalent HIT use. Chi-square tests revealed that among adults with chronic conditions, those who used HIT were significantly different from their counterpart peers who did not use HIT

  13. Use of Electronic Health Records and Administrative Data for Public Health Surveillance of Eye Health and Vision-Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Amanda; Davidson, Arthur; Lum, Flora; Chiang, Michael; Saaddine, Jinan B; Zhang, Xinzhi; Crews, John E.; Chou, Chiu-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To discuss the current trend toward greater use of electronic health records and how these records could enhance public health surveillance of eye health and vision-related conditions. Methods We describe three currently available sources of electronic health data (Kaiser Permanente, the Veterans Health Administration, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services) and how these sources can contribute to a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system. Results Each of the three sources of electronic health data can contribute meaningfully to a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system, but none currently provide all the information required. The use of electronic health records for vision and eye health surveillance has both advantages and disadvantages. Conclusions Electronic health records may provide additional information needed to create a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system. Recommendations for incorporating electronic health records into such a system are presented. PMID:23158225

  14. Crisis in the health sector: Impact on nurses' working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero-Lázaro, Alberto; Blanch-Ribas, Josep M; Roldán-Merino, Juan Francisco; Torralbas-Ortega, Jordi; Escayola-Maranges, Ana María

    In a context of economic crisis and policies to reduce the public deficit, the budgets of the Catalan Health Institute (CHI) were cut by 15.33% between 2010 and 2014. To assess the perceived impact on nurses' work conditions of measures to contain health spending. The study design was descriptive and transversal. A sample of 1,760 nurses from the province of Barcelona answered a questionnaire on the perceived impact of health spending containment measures implemented in their workplace during the early years of the crisis. Among the main aspects of the perceived impact of these measures, 86.6% of the nurses identified a pay cut and an increase in the following relevant parameters of their working conditions: number of hours worked (66.7%), final ratio of treated patients (35.2%), task complexity and workload (75.3%), rotation through various departments (31.5%), work shifts (21.4%) or work areas (23.4%), job insecurity (58.4%) and loss of employment by dismissal (6.6%) or non-renewal of contract (9%). The perceived impact of the crisis showed a triple negative component: Pay cut, work overload and job insecurity. As a combined effect of this multiple trend, the nurses acknowledged a deterioration in their working conditions and quality of working life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Condition Assessment for Power Transformer Using Health Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wu, Kuihua; Zhu, Wenbing; Gu, Chao

    2017-05-01

    To improve the forecasting accuracy and ensure reliable and stable operation of transformer, based on health index estimation model is proposed. The transformer data is divided into different levels and parts, so multi-parameter statistical analysis is carried on. The indicator system is scored and weighted by computing history data (inspection and maintenance, family defects, basic information and loading history) and condition data (such as routine test data). The condition parameters, which are classified on the component level, are scored and weighted, using statistical tools calculation. By using the statistical tools SPSS (statistical product and service solutions), multivariate statistical analysis was carried out. On the basis of studying the relationship between various parameters, a health evaluation model, which is based on contribution analysis, is presented. A condition-based evaluation tool, that quantifies power transformer degradation and clarifies the relationship between each health index, is put forward. Results are presented to verify the validity and feasibility of evaluating model and assessment algorithm. This paper provides a scientific method for the transmitting and transforming field.

  16. Including public-health benefits of trees in urban-forestry decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2017-01-01

    Research demonstrating the biophysical benefits of urban trees are often used to justify investments in urban forestry. Far less emphasis, however, is placed on the non-bio-physical benefits such as improvements in public health. Indeed, the public-health benefits of trees may be significantly larger than the biophysical benefits, and, therefore, failure to account for...

  17. Twitter: a good place to detect health conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M Prieto

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of social networks and blogs, the Internet is increasingly being used to disseminate personal health information rather than just as a source of information. In this paper we exploit the wealth of user-generated data, available through the micro-blogging service Twitter, to estimate and track the incidence of health conditions in society. The method is based on two stages: we start by extracting possibly relevant tweets using a set of specially crafted regular expressions, and then classify these initial messages using machine learning methods. Furthermore, we selected relevant features to improve the results and the execution times. To test the method, we considered four health states or conditions, namely flu, depression, pregnancy and eating disorders, and two locations, Portugal and Spain. We present the results obtained and demonstrate that the detection results and the performance of the method are improved after feature selection. The results are promising, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve between 0.7 and 0.9, and f-measure values around 0.8 and 0.9. This fact indicates that such approach provides a feasible solution for measuring and tracking the evolution of health states within the society.

  18. Twitter: a good place to detect health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Víctor M; Matos, Sérgio; Álvarez, Manuel; Cacheda, Fidel; Oliveira, José Luís

    2014-01-01

    With the proliferation of social networks and blogs, the Internet is increasingly being used to disseminate personal health information rather than just as a source of information. In this paper we exploit the wealth of user-generated data, available through the micro-blogging service Twitter, to estimate and track the incidence of health conditions in society. The method is based on two stages: we start by extracting possibly relevant tweets using a set of specially crafted regular expressions, and then classify these initial messages using machine learning methods. Furthermore, we selected relevant features to improve the results and the execution times. To test the method, we considered four health states or conditions, namely flu, depression, pregnancy and eating disorders, and two locations, Portugal and Spain. We present the results obtained and demonstrate that the detection results and the performance of the method are improved after feature selection. The results are promising, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve between 0.7 and 0.9, and f-measure values around 0.8 and 0.9. This fact indicates that such approach provides a feasible solution for measuring and tracking the evolution of health states within the society.

  19. Health Care Expenditures and Length of Disability Across Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, Catherine S; Ethiraj, Rajesh K; Berenji, Manijeh; Gaspar, Fraser W

    2018-02-19

    To describe the relationship between the length of short-term disability (STD) and health care spending. Medical claims for insured US employees on STD were evaluated to describe the distribution of disability durations and health expenditures across major diagnostic categories and common medical conditions. Correlations between health expenditures and disability durations were examined. The most expensive 10% of cases accounted for more than half of total health spending. The longest 10% of cases accounted for more than one-third of total disability time. Only one-third of the most expensive cases were also among the longest in duration. Disability durations were moderately correlated with medical spending and this relationship was modified by comorbid conditions and age. Psychosocial barriers, in addition to biomedical factors, should be considered to achieve optimal functional outcomes and well-being of patients.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

  20. ls with Chronic Conditions Want More Guidance from Health Professionals in Finding Quality Online Health SourcesIndividua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Merkley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To explore how and when individuals with chronic health conditions seek out health information online, and the challenges they encounter when doing so. Design – Qualitative study employing thematic analysis. Setting – Urban Western Australia. Subjects – 17 men and women between 19 and 85 years of age with at least 1 chronic health condition. Methods – Participants were recruited in late 2013 at nine local pharmacies, through local radio, media channels, and a university's social media channels. Participants were adult English speakers who had looked for information on their chronic health condition(s using the Internet. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with each participant, audio recorded, and transcribed. The transcripts were coded in QSR Nvivo using two different processes – an initial data-driven inductive approach to coding, followed by a theory driven analysis of the data. Main Results – Three major themes emerged: trust, patient activation, and relevance. Many of the participants expressed trust both in health professionals and in the efficacy of search engines like Google. However, there was uncertainty about the quality of some of the health information sources found. Searching for information online was seen by some participants as a way to feel more empowered about their condition(s and treatment, but they reported frustration in finding information that was relevant to their specific condition(s given the volume of information available. Low health literacy emerged in participant interviews as an intrinsic barrier to effective online searches for health information, along with low patient motivation and lack of time. The many extrinsic barriers identified included difficulty determining the quality of information found, the accessibility of the information (e.g., journal paywalls, and poor relationships with health care providers. Conclusion – Individuals look for online health

  1. [Health and social inequality in Europe: changes of the basic conditions for municipal health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, E U

    1998-11-01

    Good health is not distributed equally, neither in life conditions--including the individual ability to act--nor according to the supply grid. These interrelations, shown in several empirical investigations, assume more importance in view of the groving tendency to social polarisation in the countries of Europe, different in fact in the single countries, but clear in respect of tendency: social exclusion does not only mean to have less financial resources but also social disadvantages in other realms of living, especially in health. Migration, not only from East to West, but also inside and between the countries of the European Union and inside of Eastern Europe too, is only an especially dear expression that social problems have their origin in international problems and casualities, but become visible in local and regional structures and thus in the responsibility of the municipalities. Globalisation, Europe etc., terms mostly connected with positive connotations, have not only a positive side, but also another one, namely, the re-regionalisation of social problems especially in the municipalities. Normally the municipalities have to counterbalance and to regulate the negative consequences of these European--and moreover international--changes of the structures, although their financial means are declining. The municipal health service is integrated in this contradictory constellation. To prevent irrational social and/or political developments, the reasons and possible strategies of reform policy will have to be discussed carefully.

  2. The high price of depression: Family members' health conditions and health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, G Thomas; Weisner, Constance M; Taillac, Cosette J; Campbell, Cynthia I

    2017-05-01

    To compare the health conditions and health care costs of family members of patients diagnosed with a Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) to family members of patients without an MDD diagnosis. Using electronic health record data, we identified family members (n=201,914) of adult index patients (n=92,399) diagnosed with MDD between 2009 and 2014 and family members (n=187,011) of matched patients without MDD. Diagnoses, health care utilization and costs were extracted for each family member. Logistic regression and multivariate models were used to compare diagnosed health conditions, health services cost, and utilization of MDD and non-MDD family members. Analyses covered the 5years before and after the index patient's MDD diagnosis. MDD family members were more likely than non-MDD family members to be diagnosed with mood disorders, anxiety, substance use disorder, and numerous other conditions. MDD family members had higher health care costs than non-MDD family members in every period analyzed, with the highest difference being in the year before the index patient's MDD diagnosis. Family members of patients with MDD are more likely to have a number of health conditions compared to non-MDD family members, and to have higher health care cost and utilization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Potential of human health in the modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Dobryden

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proves that man’s relationship to their health  in each case have varying traits under the influence of sociocultural, psychological and physiological factors  which the world outlook is created from childhood, which implies the appropriate type of behavior that is fixed through the media and social authorities. It is established that scientific knowledge should not be against a man, and should enhance the power of man over nature, but can be transformed into a powerful weapon against humanity. It is noted that science is neutral in terms of values. Will it carry a positive or negative charge to human health depends on the social and cultural markers specific historical era and behavior of the individual. It was found that in addition to the economic crisis, which requires long-term joint economic and political transformations, the most important factor and more accessible to maintaining high adaptive potential health functions at all levels is valeological literacy social subjects and, therefore, imperative the systematic distribution of hygiene recommendations is a significant component of preventive medicine. With the growth of social and technological factors with their aggressive effect on psychophysiological state of man is seen timely more  talk even not about health in general, but should talk about  potential health, which underlines  the  difficulties adaptive and protective processes and susceptibility factors and resistance to pathological changes in the human body. All the more so when we following the formal standards of medicine is unlikely, unfortunately, we be found absolutely healthy people. Under the proposed potential health understood as a set of quantitative and qualitative structural and functional characteristics of the organism, which determine the level of adaptation and protection of human capabilities in adverse conditions, internal and external environment. It is proposed to examine potential

  4. Are health inequalities rooted in the past? Income inequalities in metabolic syndrome decomposed by childhood conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Paola A; San Sebastian, Miguel; Ivarsson, Anneli; Weinehall, Lars; Gustafsson, Per E

    2017-04-01

    Early life is thought of as a foundation for health inequalities in adulthood. However, research directly examining the contribution of childhood circumstances to the integrated phenomenon of adult social inequalities in health is absent. The present study aimed to examine whether, and to what degree, social conditions during childhood explain income inequalities in metabolic syndrome in mid-adulthood. The sample ( N = 12 481) comprised all 40- and 50-year-old participants in the Västerbotten Intervention Program in Northern Sweden 2008, 2009 and 2010. Measures from health examinations were used to operationalize metabolic syndrome, which was linked to register data including socioeconomic conditions at age 40-50 years, as well as childhood conditions at participant age 10-12 years. Income inequality in metabolic syndrome in middle age was estimated by the concentration index and decomposed by childhood and current socioeconomic conditions using decomposition analysis. Childhood conditions jointed explained 7% (men) to 10% (women) of health inequalities in middle age. Adding mid-adulthood sociodemographic factors showed a dominant contribution of chiefly current income and educational level in both gender. In women, the addition of current factors slightly attenuated the contribution of childhood conditions, but with paternal income and education still contributing. In contrast, the corresponding addition in men removed all explanation attributable to childhood conditions. Despite that the influence of early life conditions to adult health inequalities was considerably smaller than that of concurrent conditions, the study suggests that early interventions against social inequalities potentially could reduce health inequalities in the adult population for decades to come. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  5. World Trade Center Health Program requirements for the addition of new WTC-related health conditions. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    Title I of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 amended the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act) to establish the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program. Sections 3311, 3312, and 3321 of Title XXXIII of the PHS Act require that the WTC Program Administrator develop regulations to implement portions of the WTC Health Program established within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The WTC Health Program, which is administered by the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), provides medical monitoring and treatment to eligible firefighters and related personnel, law enforcement officers, and rescue, recovery and cleanup workers who responded to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in New York City, Shanksville, PA, and at the Pentagon, and to eligible survivors of the New York City attacks. This final rule establishes the processes by which the WTC Program Administrator may add a new condition to the list of WTC-related health conditions through rulemaking, including a process for considering petitions by interested parties to add a new condition.

  6. Persistence of microbial communities including Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a hospital environment: a potential health hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The persistence of microbial communities and how they change in indoor environments is of immense interest to public health. Moreover, hospital acquired infections are significant contributors to morbidity and mortality. Evidence suggests that, in hospital environments agent transfer between surfaces causes healthcare associated infections in humans, and that surfaces are an important transmission route and may act as a reservoir for some of the pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity of microorganisms that persist on noncritical equipment and surfaces in a main hospital in Portugal, and are able to grow in selective media for Pseudomonas, and relate them with the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results During 2 years, a total of 290 environmental samples were analyzed, in 3 different wards. The percentage of equipment in each ward that showed low contamination level varied between 22% and 38%, and more than 50% of the equipment sampled was highly contaminated. P. aeruginosa was repeatedly isolated from sinks (10 times), from the taps’ biofilm (16 times), and from the showers and bedside tables (two times). Two ERIC clones were isolated more than once. The contamination level of the different taps analyzed showed correlation with the contamination level of the hand gels support, soaps and sinks. Ten different bacteria genera were frequently isolated in the selective media for Pseudomonas. Organisms usually associated with nosocomial infections as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Enterococcus feacalis, Serratia nematodiphila were also repeatedly isolated on the same equipment. Conclusions The environment may act as a reservoir for at least some of the pathogens implicated in nosocomial infections. The bacterial contamination level was related to the presence of humidity on the surfaces, and tap water (biofilm) was a point of dispersion of bacterial species, including potentially pathogenic organisms. The materials of the equipment

  7. Health Status and Working Condition of Migrant Workers: Major Public Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari

    2017-01-01

    Very little research and survey have been performed on the occupational health, hazards, and working condition of urban and rural of workers in Qatar. The aim of the current study is to identify the health status, lifestyle condition, working-related problems, and accidents experienced by Indian subcontinental migrants (ISCM) in Qatar and their access to health-care facilities. This is a cross-sectional study based on a representative sample of 1186 workers and study covering sociodemographic characteristics, medical conditions, and health-seeking behaviors and personal experience. There were statistically significant differences between semi-urban and urban migrant workers in terms of educational, occupation, income, working hours, and accommodation type ( P migrant workers in terms of body mass index, delay in receiving salary, the right to medical insurance and sick day entitlement, cigarettes and shisha smoking, amenities, having on-site safety measure, and sleeping hours ( P migrant workers in terms of pain, cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, and pseudoneurologic and medical symptoms ( P health problems in migrant workers such as the absence of drinking water, tap water availability, safety facility tools, occupational status, shisha smoking, toilet facility, working hours, and accommodation type were considered the strong predictors. The current study revealed that there is a lack of insufficient information for the migrants about their lifestyle, medical conditions, health risks, injury, and rights privilege in relation to legal working condition and health services.

  8. Social demographic aspects and self-referred health conditions of men attending a health care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa de Oliveira Martins Cabacinha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at characterizing social demographic aspects and health conditions of men attending a Primary Family Health Care unit in Montes Claros, MG, Brazil, correlating these variables with health self-perception and identifying men’s difficulty in using the health service. 115 adult men were interviewed who had attended the service in April and May, 2013. Most of them had completed high school, were married and adopted healthy practices, although they consumed alcoholic beverages. The main complaint regarding the health service was the long waiting time for attendance. The main factors that contributed for negative self-perception of health were: being married, suffering from chronic diseases and having low education; whereas those that contributed to the positive self-perception of health were: being young, being employed and not making regular use of medication (p<0.05. Those findings can subsidize policies to prevent diseases in promoting men’s health.

  9. Multitarget survey on the Finance Police personnel: assessment of the health condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraco, Giancarlo; Pagano, Stefano; Lupoli, Grazia; Dolci, Alessandro; Colagrosso, Beniamino

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10-15 years, Italy has undergone a social transformation, and the class of employees and workers has become more economically stable with a higher buying power. Along with the increased expectations of patients on the quality of life, it has now become a priority to make health and social services ready to face users bearing new requirements and different needs. To provide a description of the state of health of the operating personnel of the Finance Police (Guardia di Finanza), including elements for planning the most appropriate interventions for health promotion and prevention. The study analyzed the health condition of a group of soldiers (178 subjects, divided into different age classes) by evaluating the effectiveness of a training and information program and subsequently the level of benefit. The study population showed a good state of health correlated to the quality of life. Although the population voluntarily submitted to health assessment, the rigour of the calls and briefings carried out in the military health unit and the attention of the group to follow instructions on prevention underlined a positive trend, even in behaviours considered as health-risky. Socio-cultural components and the work environment influence the quality of life. In the case of military health care, the specific military organization was useful to monitor the health condition of the population, maximizing the effectiveness of services, enhancing the information and carrying out prevention strategies and demand of care, which should be an example for the public health services.

  10. Stressful working conditions and poor self-rated health among financial services employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Sérgio Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between exposure to adverse psychosocial working conditions and poor self-rated health among bank employees. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including a sample of 2,054 employees of a government bank was conducted in 2008. Self-rated health was assessed by a single question: "In general, would you say your health is (...." Exposure to adverse psychosocial working conditions was evaluated by the effort-reward imbalance model and the demand-control model. Information on other independent variables was obtained through a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed and odds ratio calculated to assess independent associations between adverse psychosocial working conditions and poor self-rated health. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of poor self-rated health was 9%, with no significant gender difference. Exposure to high demand and low control environment at work was associated with poor self-rated health. Employees with high effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment also reported poor self-rated health, with a dose-response relationship. Social support at work was inversely related to poor self-rated health, with a dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to adverse psychosocial work factors assessed based on the effort-reward imbalance model and the demand-control model is independently associated with poor self-rated health among the workers studied.

  11. Childhood interventions to reduce stigma towards peers with disabilities and chronic health conditions: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Eilis; Silke, C.; Stokes, Diarmuid; Heary, Caroline; Swords, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Stigma is a problem for children with a wide range of disabilities and chronic health conditions including epilepsy, HIV/AIDS, and mental health problems (e.g. ADHD). When stigma occurs, it has particular significance for a child¿s psychological wellbeing and development.  Evidence that stigmatizing attitudes develop early in life make it imperative that interventions for school-age children are developed to prevent or reduce stigma.  While several interventions exist,...

  12. Risk of incident mental health conditions among critical care air transport team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvaryanas, Anthony P; Maupin, Genny M

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) members are at increased risk for incident post-deployment mental health conditions. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 604 U.S. Air Force medical personnel without preexisting mental health conditions who had at least one deployment as a CCATT member during 2003-2012 as compared to a control group of 604 medical personnel, frequency matched based on job role, with at least one deployment during the same period, but without CCATT experience. Electronic health record data were used to ascertain the diagnosis of a mental health condition. The incidence of post-deployment mental health conditions was 2.1 per 1000 mo for the CCATT group versus 2.2 per 1000 mo for the control group. The six most frequent diagnoses were the same in both groups: adjustment reaction not including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, major depressive disorder, specific disorders of sleep of nonorganic origin, PTSD, and depressive disorder not elsewhere classified. Women were at marginally increased risk and nurses and technicians were at twice the risk of physicians. The distribution of the time interval from end of the most recent deployment to diagnosis of incident mental health condition was positively skewed with a median greater than 6 mo. CCATT members were at no increased risk for incident post-deployment mental health conditions as compared to non-CCATT medical service members. Nearly two-thirds of incident post-deployment mental health conditions were diagnosed outside the standard 6-mo medical surveillance period, a finding warranting further study.

  13. Factors associated with a patient-centered medical home among children with behavioral health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Caprice; Woodworth, Lindsey; Fernandez-Baca, Daniel; Baron-Lee, Jacqueline; Thompson, Lindsay; Hinojosa, Melanie

    2013-11-01

    At some point in their lives, nearly one-half of all American children will have a behavioral health condition. Many will not receive the care they need from a fragmented health delivery system. The patient-centered medical home is a promising model to improve their care; however, little evidence exists. Our study aim was to examine the association between several behavioral health indicators and having a patient-centered medical home. 91,642 children's parents or guardians completed the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. An indicator for patient-centered medical home was included in the dataset. Descriptive statistics, bivariate tests, and multivariate regression models were used in the analyses. Children in the sample were mostly Male (52 %), White (78 %), non-Hispanic (87 %), and did not have a special health care need (80 %). 6.2 % of the sample had at least one behavioral health condition. Conditions ranged from ADHD (6 %) to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (1 %). Frequency of having a patient-centered medical home also varied for children with a behavioral health condition (49 % of children with ADHD and 33 % of children with ASD). Frequency of having a patient-centered medical home decreased with multiple behavioral health conditions. Higher severity of depression, anxiety, and conduct disorder were associated with a decreased likelihood of a patient-centered medical home. Results from our study can be used to target patient-centered medical home interventions toward children with one or more behavioral health conditions and consider that children with depression, anxiety, and conduct disorder are more vulnerable to these disparities.

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities in health in the working population: the contribution of working conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Schrijvers, Carola; Mheen, Dike; Stronks, Karien; Mackenbach, Johan

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The aim was to study the impact of different categories of working conditions on the association between occupational class and self-reported health in the working population. METHODS: Data were collected through a postal survey conducted in 1991 among inhabitants of 18 municipalities in the southeastern Netherlands. Data concerned 4521 working men and 2411 working women and included current occupational class (seven classes), working conditions (physical working condi...

  15. [Health and informal work conditions among recyclers in the rural area of Medellin, Colombia, 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenis Ballesteros, Viviana; López Arango, Yolanda Lucía; Cuadros Urrego, Yicenia Milena

    2012-10-01

    To characterize the work, health and occupational risk conditions of recyclers from the rural area. Cross-sectional study, with the participation of one hundred informal recyclers in five corregimientos (small administrative units) of Medellin in 2008. The source of information was primary: a structured survey on work, health and occupational risk conditions and also on perceived morbidity, which enabled to characterize the population's risks through descriptive statistics and approach the relationships and associations of the risks with the morbidity in the population. One hundred and four people were engaged in recycling, and 100 of them were included in the study: 34 people belonged to community-based organizations and 66 people worked independently. Social security affiliation, fulfillment of basic needs, work satisfaction, access to training activities and periodic provision of work supplies presented differences according to group (p integral waste management in rural areas of Medellin, although the informal nature of their work exposes them to working conditions that directly affect their health and the health of their families. The social recognition of recycling goes hand in hand with the improvement in the working conditions of the people engaged in this activity. The environmental recycling workers, even if belonging to a union, have precarious work and health conditions. The transformation of these conditions should be one of the State's priorities.

  16. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Vos (Amber); M.J. van Veen (Mieke); E. Birnie (Erwin); S. Denktaş (Semiha); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractGrowing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed

  17. Are health inequalities rooted in the past? Income inequalities in metabolic syndrome decomposed by childhood conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Sebastian, Miguel; Ivarsson, Anneli; Weinehall, Lars; Gustafsson, Per E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Early life is thought of as a foundation for health inequalities in adulthood. However, research directly examining the contribution of childhood circumstances to the integrated phenomenon of adult social inequalities in health is absent. The present study aimed to examine whether, and to what degree, social conditions during childhood explain income inequalities in metabolic syndrome in mid-adulthood. Methods: The sample (N = 12 481) comprised all 40- and 50-year-old participants in the Västerbotten Intervention Program in Northern Sweden 2008, 2009 and 2010. Measures from health examinations were used to operationalize metabolic syndrome, which was linked to register data including socioeconomic conditions at age 40–50 years, as well as childhood conditions at participant age 10–12 years. Income inequality in metabolic syndrome in middle age was estimated by the concentration index and decomposed by childhood and current socioeconomic conditions using decomposition analysis. Results: Childhood conditions jointed explained 7% (men) to 10% (women) of health inequalities in middle age. Adding mid-adulthood sociodemographic factors showed a dominant contribution of chiefly current income and educational level in both gender. In women, the addition of current factors slightly attenuated the contribution of childhood conditions, but with paternal income and education still contributing. In contrast, the corresponding addition in men removed all explanation attributable to childhood conditions. Conclusions: Despite that the influence of early life conditions to adult health inequalities was considerably smaller than that of concurrent conditions, the study suggests that early interventions against social inequalities potentially could reduce health inequalities in the adult population for decades to come. PMID:27744345

  18. Oral health conditions in leprosy cases in hyperendemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilanda Martins de Almeida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leprosy is a hyperendemic chronic condition in the Rondônia State . Despite the significant impact of oral health on the quality of life and clinical evolution of leprosy patients, systematic evaluation of oral health status has been neglected. To analyze the dental-clinical profile, self-perceived oral health and dental health service access of leprosy cases in the municipality of Cacoal in Rondônia State , North Brazil, from 2001 to 2012. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was performed based on dental evaluation and standardized structured instruments. We investigated clinically assessed and self-perceived oral health status, as well as dental health service access. A total of 303 leprosy cases were included; 41.6% rated their oral health as good, and 42.6% reported being satisfied with their oral health. Self-reported loss of upper teeth was 45.5%. The clinical evaluation revealed that 54.5% had active caries. Most (97.7% cases reported having been to the dentist at least once in their life and 23.1% used public health services. The poor standard of oral health in this population may increase the risk for leprosy reactions, consequently reducing quality of life. Low access to public health dental services and poor self-perceived oral health reinforce the need to achieve comprehensive health care in this population.

  19. [Relationships between air conditioning, airborne microorganisms and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parat, S; Perdrix, A; Baconnier, P

    1999-01-01

    Concurrently with the increase of air-conditioning, potentially severe or frequent new diseases have emerged, giving rise to social and economical consequences. The first part of this work is a state of the art review of the relationships between air-conditioning, airborne microorganisms and health, through a technical, metrological and medical approach. The second part presents four studies performed in this field. Two of them deal with the relationship between airborne microorganisms and technical features of air-conditioning. Measurements performed on actual sites demonstrated the benefit of using high efficiency filters and low risk components in air-conditioning systems. The third study was aimed to look for a relationship between airborne microorganisms and sick building syndrome symptoms. Statistical analyses of individual data revealed significant associations between airborne bacteria or fungi and symptoms. These results may be the first step in determining a dose-response relationship, in order to define threshold limit values in this field. In the fourth study, the contribution of particle counting in assessing exposure to airborne microorganisms was explored by monitoring simultaneous variations of microbial and particle concentrations. The results showed that associating particle counting may allow to detect microbial variations instantaneously, and therefore improve the assessment of exposure to airborne microorganisms.

  20. Widening the Aim of Health Promotion to Include the Most Disadvantaged: Vulnerable Adolescents and the Social Determinants of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajer, Nicole; Earnest, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Growing numbers of adolescents are marginalized by social factors beyond their control, leading to poor health outcomes for their families and future generations. Although the role of the social determinants of health has been recognized for many years, there is a gap in our knowledge about the strategies needed to address these factors in health…

  1. The health condition of uranium mine workers of the Shantobe settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenova, F.K.; Bajdurin, S.A.; Zhuravlev, M.Ya.; Bajkenov, M.B.; Abrakhmanova, R.Kh.; Esenbaeva, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    The condition of health was estimated by results of profound medical inspection of 797 inhabitants of Shantobe settlement, including by 392 working miners. The most wide-spread diseases among workers were a hyperplasia of a thyroid glands, an arterial hypertension, and chronic bronchitis

  2. Prevalence of Chronic Health Conditions in Children with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeseburg, Barth; Dijkstra, Geke J.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review of the prevalence rates of chronic health conditions in populations of children with intellectual disability was provided. We identified 2,994 relevant studies by searching Medline, Cinahl, and PsycINFO databases from 1996 to 2008. We included the 31 studies that had sufficient methodological quality. The 6 most prevalent…

  3. Health conditions and role limitation in three European Regions: a public-health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaglia, Gabriela; Adroher, Núria D; Vilagut, Gemma; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Bunting, Brentan; Caldas de Almeida, José Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kovess-Masfety, Vivianne; Matschinger, Herbert; Alonso, Jordi

    To describe the distribution of role limitation in the European population aged 18-64 years and to examine the contribution of health conditions to role limitation using a public-health approach. Representative samples of the adult general population (n=13,666) aged 18-64 years from 10 European countries of the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys Initiative, grouped into three regions: Central-Western, Southern and Central-Eastern. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) was used to assess six mental disorders and standard checklists for seven physical conditions. Days with full and with partial role limitation in the month previous to the interview were reported (WMH-WHODAS). Population Attributable Fraction (PAFs) of full and partial role limitation were estimated. Health conditions explained a large proportion of full role limitation (PAF=62.6%) and somewhat less of partial role limitation (46.6%). Chronic pain was the single condition that consistently contributed to explain both disability measures in all European Regions. Mental disorders were the most important contributors to full and partial role limitation in Central-Western and Southern Europe. In Central-Eastern Europe, where mental disorders were less prevalent, physical conditions, especially cardiovascular diseases, were the highest contributors to disability. The contribution of health conditions to role limitation in the three European regions studied is high. Mental disorders are associated with the largest impact in most of the regions. There is a need for mainstreaming disability in the public health agenda to reduce the role limitation associated with health conditions. The cross-regional differences found require further investigation. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Health conditions and their impact among adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terri J Pikora

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of medical conditions and use of health services among young adults with Down syndrome and describe the impact of these conditions upon their lives. METHODS: Using questionnaire data collected in 2011 from parents of young adults with Down syndrome we investigated the medical conditions experienced by their children in the previous 12 months. Univariate, linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: We found that in addition to the conditions commonly experienced by children with Down syndrome, including eye and vision problems (affecting 73%, ear and hearing problems (affecting 45%, cardiac (affecting 25% and respiratory problems (affecting 36%, conditions also found to be prevalent within our young adult cohort included musculoskeletal conditions (affecting 61%, body weight (affecting 57%, skin (affecting 56% and mental health (affecting 32% conditions and among young women menstrual conditions (affecting 58%. Few parents reported that these conditions had no impact, with common impacts related to restrictions in opportunities to participate in employment and community leisure activities for the young people, as well as safety concerns. CONCLUSION: There is the need to monitor, screen and provide appropriate strategies such as through the promotion of healthy lifestyles to prevent the development of comorbidities in young people with Down syndrome and, where present, to reduce their impact.

  5. Work-relatedness of selected chronic medical conditions and workers' compensation utilization: National health interview survey occupational health supplement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhaupt, Sara E; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2010-12-01

    An occupational health supplement (OHS) to the 1988 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) bypassed many limitations of traditional occupational health surveillance systems, but the data collected about chronic work-related conditions have not yet been reported. We calculated the prevalence and proportion of cases related to work for the aggregation of 13 chronic conditions included in the NHIS-OHS, and for 11 conditions individually. For each of nine conditions, and for the aggregation of all conditions, we also calculated the prevalence of workers' compensation claims filed. The overall prevalence of work-related chronic conditions was 7.5% (SE = 0.16). The work-related conditions with the highest prevalence were repeated trouble with the back/neck/spine (4.91%; SE = 0.13) and trouble hearing (1.14%; SE = 0.06). Overall, workers' compensation claims were filed for 39.0% (SE = 1.00) of work-related cases. The burden of work-related illnesses in the US is substantial, and the workers' compensation system is underutilized.

  6. Increased 30-Day Emergency Department Revisits Among Homeless Patients with Mental Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Nok; Arora, Sanjay; Menchine, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Patients with mental health conditions frequently use emergency medical services. Many suffer from substance use and homelessness. If they use the emergency department (ED) as their primary source of care, potentially preventable frequent ED revisits and hospital readmissions can worsen an already crowded healthcare system. However, the magnitude to which homelessness affects health service utilization among patients with mental health conditions remains unclear in the medical community. This study assessed the impact of homelessness on 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions among patients presenting with mental health conditions in an urban, safety-net hospital. We conducted a secondary analysis of administrative data on all adult ED visits in 2012 in an urban safety-net hospital. Patient demographics, mental health status, homelessness, insurance coverage, level of acuity, and ED disposition per ED visit were analyzed using multilevel modeling to control for multiple visits nested within patients. We performed multivariate logistic regressions to evaluate if homelessness moderated the likelihood of mental health patients' 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions. Study included 139,414 adult ED visits from 92,307 unique patients (43.5±15.1 years, 51.3% male, 68.2% Hispanic/Latino). Nearly 8% of patients presented with mental health conditions, while 4.6% were homeless at any time during the study period. Among patients with mental health conditions, being homeless contributed to an additional 28.0% increase in likelihood (4.28 to 5.48 odds) of 30-day ED revisits and 38.2% increase in likelihood (2.04 to 2.82 odds) of hospital readmission, compared to non-homeless, non-mental health (NHNM) patients as the base category. Adjusted predicted probabilities showed that homeless patients presenting with mental health conditions have a 31.1% chance of returning to the ED within 30-day post discharge and a 3.7% chance of hospital readmission, compared to non

  7. Increased 30-Day Emergency Department Revisits Among Homeless Patients with Mental Health Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Nok Lam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with mental health conditions frequently use emergency medical services. Many suffer from substance use and homelessness. If they use the emergency department (ED as their primary source of care, potentially preventable frequent ED revisits and hospital readmissions can worsen an already crowded healthcare system. However, the magnitude to which homelessness affects health service utilization among patients with mental health conditions remains unclear in the medical community. This study assessed the impact of homelessness on 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions among patients presenting with mental health conditions in an urban, safety-net hospital. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of administrative data on all adult ED visits in 2012 in an urban safety-net hospital. Patient demographics, mental health status, homelessness, insurance coverage, level of acuity, and ED disposition per ED visit were analyzed using multilevel modeling to control for multiple visits nested within patients. We performed multivariate logistic regressions to evaluate if homelessness moderated the likelihood of mental health patients’ 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions. Results: Study included 139,414 adult ED visits from 92,307 unique patients (43.5±15.1 years, 51.3% male, 68.2% Hispanic/Latino. Nearly 8% of patients presented with mental health conditions, while 4.6% were homeless at any time during the study period. Among patients with mental health conditions, being homeless contributed to an additional 28.0% increase in likelihood (4.28 to 5.48 odds of 30-day ED revisits and 38.2% increase in likelihood (2.04 to 2.82 odds of hospital readmission, compared to non-homeless, non-mental health (NHNM patients as the base category. Adjusted predicted probabilities showed that homeless patients presenting with mental health conditions have a 31.1% chance of returning to the ED within 30-day post discharge and a 3

  8. Working conditions and mental health in teachers: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, I; Benevene, P; Fiorilli, C; D'Amelio, F; Pozzi, G

    2014-10-01

    Unfavourable working conditions are associated with poor mental health and many studies show that teachers are at risk of this. To investigate if and to what extent specific dimensions of working conditions are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety in teachers in state schools in Italy. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of Italian state schoolteachers using the Karasek Job Content Questionnaire, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We tested the hypotheses that high job demand, low decision latitude and low support are associated with anxiety and depression in teachers using a correlation matrix and hierarchical multiple regression models. 113/180 (63%) of schoolteachers invited to participate completed the survey. 49% scored above the cut-off on CES-D and 11% on SAS. CES-D was positively correlated with job demand (r = 0.517, P health in teachers is significantly associated with high job demand and low social support. These results should be confirmed in larger, more representative samples. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Shaping of macroinvertebrate structures in a small fishless lowland stream exposed to anthropopressure, including the environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krepski Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In studies of abiotic and biotic factors influencing macroinvertebrate assemblages, there is always the problem of which factor – fish predation or environmental conditions – has the strongest impact on the invertebrates and whether the impact is positive or negative. The aim of our study was to determine the impact on the structures of macrozoobenthos in a small field watercourse exerted by abiotic conditions, with the concurrent lack of predators and varied intensity of anthropopressure. During the entire study period, the presence of 49 taxa of macroinvertebrates was recorded. The highest number of taxa and value of biodiversity was observed in the upper part of the watercourse, and subsequently decreased down the stream, reaching the lowest value at the sites located near the outlet. The tributaries significantly differed between each other in the number of taxa. In the tributary carrying water from wetland, a much higher number of taxa was noted than in the tributary carrying municipal water where the density achieved a significantly higher value of individuals than the remaining sites. The most limiting factors for the abundance of the investigated taxa were the oxygen concentration, nutrients and ammonia.

  10. Hepatic ALT isoenzymes are elevated in gluconeogenic conditions including diabetes and suppressed by insulin at the protein level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Zhong, Shao; Xie, Keming; Yu, Daozhan; Yang, Rongze; Gong, Da-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Alanine transaminase (ALT) plays an important role in gluconeogenesis by converting alanine into pyruvate for glucose production. Early studies have shown that ALT activities are upregulated in gluconeogenic conditions and may be implicated in the development of diabetes. ALT consists of two isoforms, ALT1 and ALT2, with distinctive subcellular and tissue distributions. Whether and how they are regulated are largely unknown. By using Western blotting analysis, we measured hepatic ALT isoforms at the protein level in obese and diabetic animals and in Fao hepatoma cells treated with dexamethasone and insulin. In addition, we measured glucose output in Fao cells over-expressing ALT1 and ALT2. Both ALT isoforms in the liver were increased in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats and during fasting. However, in ob/ob mice, only ALT2, but not ALT1, protein levels were elevated, and the increase of ALT2 was correlated with that of ALT activity. We further demonstrated that, in vitro, both ALT1 and ALT2 were induced by glucocorticoid dexamethasone, but suppressed by insulin in Fao cells. Finally, we showed that the over-expression of ALT1 and ALT2 in Fao cells directly increased glucose output. We have shown the similarity and difference in the regulation of ALT isoforms in gluconeogenic conditions at the protein level, supporting that ALT isoenzymes play an important role in glucose metabolism and may be implicated the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Health condition and residual life of deteriorating technical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinertsen, Rune

    1997-12-31

    Many offshore installations in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea approach the end of their useful life. The same is true of many power plants and technical systems in general. This thesis describes the theory and improves the methods for the determination of the health condition and residual life of technical systems. Rather than developing new methods it discusses new ways of using existing statistical methods. The main contributions are: (1) A survey of the literature of diagnosis, prediction and life extension for deteriorating technical systems, (2) A discussion of some consequences of selecting the wrong life model, (3) A description of problems related to the determination of mean residual life of non-repairable technical systems, (4) Presentation of the concept of `technical health` to describe the soundness of a system exposed to failure mechanisms, (5) A model for predicting the technical health and residual life of a corroding system, (6) Recommends requirements and methods for using expert knowledge in safety and reliability analysis, (7) A general inspection strategy for system fault diagnosis by using Shannon entropy, (8) Points out weaknesses and strengths of risk measures used in the offshore industry today. 237 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Introducing the National Library for Health Skin Conditions Specialist Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Hywel C

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper introduces the new National Library for Health Skin Conditions Specialist Library http://www.library.nhs.uk/skin. Description The aims, scope and audience of the new NLH Skin Conditions Specialist Library, and the composition and functions of its core Project Team, Editorial Team and Stakeholders Group are described. The Library's collection building strategy, resource and information types, editorial policies, quality checklist, taxonomy for content indexing, organisation and navigation, and user interface are all presented in detail. The paper also explores the expected impact and utility of the new Library, as well as some possible future directions for further development. Conclusion The Skin Conditions Specialist Library is not just another new Web site that dermatologists might want to add to their Internet favourites then forget about it. It is intended to be a practical, "one-stop shop" dermatology information service for everyday practical use, offering high quality, up-to-date resources, and adopting robust evidence-based and knowledge management approaches.

  13. Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program including the adjunct programs of design reconstitution and material condition and aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This standard presents program criteria and implementation guidance for an operational configuration management program for DOE nuclear and non-nuclear facilities in the operational phase. Portions of this standard are also useful for other DOE processes, activities, and programs. This Part 1 contains foreword, glossary, acronyms, bibliography, and Chapter 1 on operational configuration management program principles. Appendices are included on configuration management program interfaces, and background material and concepts for operational configuration management

  14. Assessing the significance of health information seeking in chronic condition management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Caress A; Geneus, Christian J; Rice, Shahida; Johns, Marquisha; Quasie-Woode, Delores; Broom, Kevin; Elder, Keith

    2017-08-01

    To examine the relationship between health information seeking and confidence in performing self-management activities, and to assess the influence of predisposing, enabling, and perceive need factors on confidence to perform self-management activities among adults with chronic conditions. The sample included 6724 adults from the 2007 Health Tracking Household Survey who were ≥18 years with a chronic condition. Binary logistic regression examined the relationship between health information seeking, predisposing, enabling, and perceive need factors and confidence in performing three self-management activities; prevent symptoms, tell doctor concerns, and know when to get medical care. Analyses indicated that 63.7% of adults sought health information. Rural residents who sought health information had 50% (95% CI: 0.28-0.89) lower odds of being confident to tell doctor concerns compared to urban residents who did not seek health information. The relationship between health information seeking and confidence to perform self-management varies by self-management activity. Rurality, education level, having a usual source of care, and perceived health status strongly predict confidence to perform self-management activities. Self-management strategies should incorporate health information seeking behavior that will enhance confidence to perform specific self-management activities, and should incorporate predisposing, enabling, and perceive need factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Amanda Vos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenatal detection of risk factors and tailored prevention in an integrated care setting.Methods: A review of published instruments complemented with evidence from cohort studies. Selection and standardization of risk factors associated with small for gestational age, preterm birth, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. Risk factors were weighted to obtain a cumulative risk score. Responses were then connected to corresponding care pathways. A cumulative risk threshold was defined, which can be adapted to the population and the availability of preventive facilities. A score above the threshold implies multidisciplinary consultation between caregivers.Results: The resulting digital score card consisted of 70 items, subdivided into four non-medical and two medical domains. Weighing of risk factors was based on existing evidence. Pilot-evidence from a cohort of 218 pregnancies in a multi-practice urban setting showed a cut-off of 16 points would imply 20% of all pregnant women to be assessed in a multidisciplinary setting. A total of 28 care pathways were defined.Conclusion: The resulting score card is a universal risk screening instrument which incorporates recent evidence on non-medical risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and enables systematic risk management in an integrated antenatal health care setting.

  16. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Amanda Vos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenatal detection of risk factors and tailored prevention in an integrated care setting. Methods: A review of published instruments complemented with evidence from cohort studies. Selection and standardization of risk factors associated with small for gestational age, preterm birth, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. Risk factors were weighted to obtain a cumulative risk score. Responses were then connected to corresponding care pathways. A cumulative risk threshold was defined, which can be adapted to the population and the availability of preventive facilities. A score above the threshold implies multidisciplinary consultation between caregivers. Results: The resulting digital score card consisted of 70 items, subdivided into four non-medical and two medical domains. Weighing of risk factors was based on existing evidence. Pilot-evidence from a cohort of 218 pregnancies in a multi-practice urban setting showed a cut-off of 16 points would imply 20% of all pregnant women to be assessed in a multidisciplinary setting. A total of 28 care pathways were defined. Conclusion: The resulting score card is a universal risk screening instrument which incorporates recent evidence on non-medical risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and enables systematic risk management in an integrated antenatal health care setting.

  17. Health Status and Working Condition of Migrant Workers: Major Public Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari

    2017-01-01

    Background: Very little research and survey have been performed on the occupational health, hazards, and working condition of urban and rural of workers in Qatar. The aim of the current study is to identify the health status, lifestyle condition, working-related problems, and accidents experienced by Indian subcontinental migrants (ISCM) in Qatar and their access to health-care facilities. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on a representative sample of 1186 workers and study covering sociodemographic characteristics, medical conditions, and health-seeking behaviors and personal experience. Results: There were statistically significant differences between semi-urban and urban migrant workers in terms of educational, occupation, income, working hours, and accommodation type (P < 0.001). Furthermore, there were statistically significant differences between migrant workers in terms of body mass index, delay in receiving salary, the right to medical insurance and sick day entitlement, cigarettes and shisha smoking, amenities, having on-site safety measure, and sleeping hours (P < 0.01). Moreover, there were statistically significant differences between semi-urban and urban migrant workers in terms of pain, cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, and pseudoneurologic and medical symptoms (P < 0.01). Multiple logistic regression was used for predictors’ health problems in migrant workers such as the absence of drinking water, tap water availability, safety facility tools, occupational status, shisha smoking, toilet facility, working hours, and accommodation type were considered the strong predictors. Conclusions: The current study revealed that there is a lack of insufficient information for the migrants about their lifestyle, medical conditions, health risks, injury, and rights privilege in relation to legal working condition and health services. PMID:28966757

  18. Health investment behaviours and oral/gingival health condition, a cross-sectional study among Swedish 19-year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Jessica S; Wennström, Jan L; Lindgren, Björn; Petzold, Max; Östberg, Anna-Lena; Abrahamsson, Kajsa H

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that certain individual, environmental and lifestyle factors are positively associated with beneficial health investment behaviours and oral/periodontal health among adolescents. Five hundred and six randomly selected 19-year old subjects living in two different areas (Fyrbodal and Skaraborg) in the county council of Västra Götaland, Sweden participated in a clinical examination and answered questionnaires covering psycho-social and health behavioural issues. Two oral-health models were estimated with gingivitis score as an objective and self-perceived oral health as a subjective indicator. Three health- investment behaviour models were designed with indicators directly related to oral health and two with indicators related to general health as well. The explanatory variables included gender, upper secondary education programme, native country, living area, general self-efficacy and parents' education level. In the objective oral-health model, theoretical studies and living in the Skaraborg area were both positively associated with a lower gingivitis score. For the subjective oral-health indicator, none of the explanatory variables showed statistical significance. In the investment-behaviour model with 'tooth-brushing ≥ 2 times daily' as a health indicator, female gender and theoretical studies showed statistically significant associations. With the indicators 'no/few missed dental appointments', 'no tobacco use' and 'weekly exercise', theoretical studies were statistically significant and positively associated. In the investment model with 'perceived oral health care attention' as an indicator, a high score of general self-efficacy was significantly associated with the feeling of taking good care of the teeth. Individual, environmental and lifestyle factors are associated with young individuals' oral health investment behaviours and gingival health conditions.

  19. Impact of a Usual Source of Care on Health Care Use, Spending, and Quality Among Adults With Mental Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Catherine A; Witt, Whitney P; Chow, Clifton M; Gokhale, Manjusha; Walsh, Christine E; Crable, Erika L; Naeger, Sarah

    2017-11-30

    Physical comorbidities associated with mental health conditions contribute to high health care costs. This study examined the impact of having a usual source of care (USC) for physical health on health care utilization, spending, and quality for adults with a mental health condition using Medicaid administrative data. Having a USC decreased the probability of inpatient admissions and readmissions. It decreased expenditures on emergency department visits for physical health, 30-day readmissions, and behavioral health inpatient admissions. It also had a positive effect on several quality measures. Results underscore the importance of a USC for physical health and integrated care for adults with mental health conditions.

  20. The Atlas of Health and Working Conditions by Occupation. 2. A comparison with the "Atlas of Health and Working Conditions in the Construction Industry"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersen, J. P.; Weel, A. N.; van Dijk, F. J.; Verbeek, J. H.; Bloemhoff, A.; Van Duivenbooden, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    The results of the general Atlas of Health and Working Conditions by Occupation were compared with the results of the Atlas of Health and Working Conditions in the Construction Industry. Both are based on questionnaire data from periodical occupational health surveys [POHSs]. The scores on most of

  1. Mental health and development: targeting people with mental health conditions as a vulnerable group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drew, Natalie; Faydi, Edwige; Freeman, Melvyn; Funk, Michelle; Kettaneh, Audrey; Van Ommeren, Mark

    2010-01-01

    .... It argues that mental health should be included in sectoral and broader development strategies and plans, and that development stakeholders have important roles to play in ensuring that people...

  2. [Work history, health conditions and hearing loss of Ishigaki fishermen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, T; Kitano, T; Nagano, M; Miyakita, T; Ueno, T; Takeda, J; Ohama, N

    1992-12-01

    Based on our previous health survey among Ishigaki fishermen in 1979, this study aimed at clarifying the relations of their work histories to physical characteristics, physiological functions, blood conditions and hearing levels. Medical examination was conducted in 1987 on 118 fishermen inclusive of 33 followed-up fishermen, and in 1989 noise-level and noise-induced temporary threshold shift of hearing was measured for different fishing methods. The results were as follows; 1) Fishing history was not specifically associated with any physical characteristics. 2) High HDL cholesterol, which was observed among divers using diving apparatus, was considered to be a survival effect for divers, since HDL cholesterol is amplified by intensive muscle work. 3) Abnormalities of ECG except for a high R wave were notably observed among the divers, who once changed from unassisted diving to diving with apparatus and then to fishing lines. The main reason for switching jobs was claimed to be caisson disease, and it was suggested that diving with apparatus was related to a high risk of health hazards in the central nervous system and/or respiro-circulatory system. 4) Acoustic acuity greatly declined with aging, and which was commonly observed in groups with different work histories. By way of explanation, exposure to ship engine sounds during daily travelling was the most likely cause. It was also revealed that several hours' exposure to the engine sounds was needed to detect a temporary threshold shift of hearing before and after work.

  3. The Burnout Condition of Primary Health Care Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kaya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of burnout was first introduced by Fredeunberger in 1974. Fredeunberger had stated that burnout occurred more commonly in occupations whose members directly work with people. The aim of the study is to examine the burnout status of primary health care staff. The universe of this descriptive study is 466 health staff who work in primary health care units in Kecioren. The participation of the study was 54%. A Questionnaire including Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and some characteristics of the participants were used for data collection. Mann-whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests have been used for analizing the survey data. Seventyseven percent of the participants were female and the emotional exhaustion score of female was higher than male (p<0.01. The age of the participants effect the individual achievement scores (p<0.01. The profession or marital status of the participants didn’t affect the MBI scores. Some socio-demografic characteristics of the participants such as gender and age, affect the scores of MBI. Comprehensive studies which display the causes of problems, needed in this issue. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 357-363

  4. The Burnout Condition of Primary Health Care Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kaya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of burnout was first introduced by Fredeunberger in 1974. Fredeunberger had stated that burnout occurred more commonly in occupations whose members directly work with people. The aim of the study is to examine the burnout status of primary health care staff. The universe of this descriptive study is 466 health staff who work in primary health care units in Kecioren. The participation of the study was 54%. A Questionnaire including Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and some characteristics of the participants were used for data collection. Mann-whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests have been used for analizing the survey data. Seventyseven percent of the participants were female and the emotional exhaustion score of female was higher than male (p<0.01. The age of the participants effect the individual achievement scores (p<0.01. The profession or marital status of the participants didn’t affect the MBI scores. Some socio-demografic characteristics of the participants such as gender and age, affect the scores of MBI. Comprehensive studies which display the causes of problems, needed in this issue. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 357-363

  5. Self-reported delays in receipt of health care among women with diabetes and cardiovascular conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Judy H; Kaftarian, Shakeh J; Tilson, Wilma M; Gorrell, Paul; Chen, Xiuhua; Chesley, Francis D; Scholle, Sarah Hudson

    2010-09-01

    Midlife and older adults have high rates of chronic conditions, and differences in health insurance coverage may affect their access to care. Women may be particularly at risk for access problems. This study examines the association of gender and health insurance status with delays in care, a dimension of access to care, among midlife (age 45-64) and older (age > or = 65) adults with diabetes and cardiovascular conditions. Data were from the 2004 through 2006 national Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. A total of 4,706 adults with self-identified diabetes and 17,636 adults with self-identified cardiovascular conditions, aged 45 years and older, were included. The analyses examined associations of gender and insurance status with self-reported delays in medical care, dental care, prescription medication, and illness/injury care, using bivariate and multivariate analyses adjusted for race/ethnicity, education, income, and perceived health status. Midlife women with diabetes or cardiovascular conditions were more likely to report delays in care than men, even after adjusting for key factors (85%-111% higher odds of delays among diabetes patients, 56%-84% higher odds of delays among cardiovascular patients; all p care. Women are more likely to experience delays in health care, even after adjusting for health coverage. Efforts are needed to understand factors that influence gender differences in these delays and to determine whether policy reforms eliminate or exacerbate these differences. 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women

  6. Choir singing and creative writing enhance emotion regulation in adults with chronic mental health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, Genevieve A; Williams, Elyse; Jetten, Jolanda; Welch, Jonathon

    2017-11-01

    Adults with mental health conditions commonly experience difficulties with emotion regulation which affect their social functioning. Arts-based groups provide opportunities for shared emotional experiences and emotion regulation. This study explores emotion regulation strategies and the emotional effects of arts-based group participation in adults with mental health problems and in controls. The 62 participants included 39 adults with chronic mental health problems who were members of arts-based groups (ABG) and 23 comparison choir (CC) members who were not specifically experiencing mental health problems. The repeated measures design included self-reports of emotion upon waking (T1), the hour before group (T2), end of the group (T3), and evening (T4), as well as participant notes to explain their emotion ratings at each time. They also completed measures of individual and interpersonal emotion regulation. The ABG participants engaged marginally more in affect worsening strategies than CC (p = .057 and .08), but there were no other group differences. All participants reported a significant increase in positive emotions, F (3, 180) = 28.044, p emotions during the arts-based activity: F (2.637, 155.597) = 21.09, p emotions was short-lived, while the effect on negative emotions lasted until evening. Findings show that participation in arts-based groups benefits the emotions of both healthy adults and those experiencing mental health conditions through individual and interpersonal processes. Individuals with chronic mental health conditions often experience difficulties in emotion processing Participation in arts-based groups was associated with significant increases in positive emotions although these were short-lived Negative emotion was significantly decreased during arts-based group activities, and sustained to the evening assessment Adults with chronic mental health conditions were equally able to derive emotional benefits as healthy adults. © 2017 The

  7. Statistics concerning the Apollo command module water landing, including the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, sucessful impact, and body X-axis loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1971-01-01

    Statistical information for the Apollo command module water landings is presented. This information includes the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, a successful impact, and body X-axis loads of various magnitudes.

  8. [Position Paper of The AG Digital Health DNVF on Digital Health Applications: Framework Conditions For Use in Health Care, Structural Development and Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmar, Horst Christian; Kramer, Ursula; Müller, Hardy; Griemmert, Maria; Noelle, Guido; Schrappe, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    The term "digital health" is currently the most comprehensive term that includes all information and communication technologies in healthcare, including e-health, mobile health, telemedicine, big data, health apps and others. Digital health can be seen as a good example of the use of the concept and methodology of health services research in the interaction between complex interventions and complex contexts. The position paper deals with 1) digital health as the subject of health services research; 2) digital health as a methodological and ethical challenge for health services research. The often-postulated benefits of digital health interventions should be demonstrated with good studies. First systematic evaluations of apps for "treatment support" show that risks are higher than benefits. The need for a rigorous proof applies even more to big data-assisted interventions that support decision-making in the treatment process with the support of artificial intelligence. Of course, from the point of view of health services research, it is worth participating as much as possible in data access available through digital health and "big data". However, there is the risk that a noncritical application of digital health and big data will lead to a return to a linear understanding of biomedical research, which, at best, accepts complex conditions assuming multivariate models but does not take complex facts into account. It is not just a matter of scientific ethical requirements in health services care research, for instance, better research instead of unnecessary research ("reducing waste"), but it is primarily a matter of anticipating the social consequences (system level) of scientific analysis and evaluation. This is both a challenge and an attractive option for health services research to present itself as a mature and responsible scientific discipline. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Physical and psychosocial working conditions as explanations for occupational class inequalities in self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaikkonen, Risto; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero

    2009-10-01

    Socio-economic health inequalities are well documented, but efforts to explain health inequalities are less. However, previous studies suggest that working conditions provide potential explanations for inequalities in health. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey data, collected from municipal employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years (n = 8960, response rate 67%) in 2000-02, were examined using binomial regression analysis. Socio-economic position was measured by six occupational social classes ranging from top managers to manual workers, and the outcome was self-rated health (SRH). Key physical and psychosocial working conditions and work arrangements were included as explanatory factors for inequalities in health. Occupational class inequalities in SRH were clear among women [prevalence ratio (PR) 1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54-2.32] and men (PR 1.78, 95% CI 1.40-2.25). Heavy physical workload explained a half of the health inequalities among women and almost one-third among men. Physical and chemical exposures at work explained one-fifth of the health inequalities among women and a half among men. Job control explained 24% of the men's and 40% of women's inequalities, whereas job demands widened the inequalities by 13-14%. The effects of shift work and working hours were negligible. In the fully adjusted model, 60% of the women's and 32% of the men's inequalities in SRH were explained. Physical working conditions explained a large part and job control, a somewhat smaller part of socio-economic inequalities in SRH. Improving physical working conditions and increasing job control provide potential routes to reduced inequalities in health among employees.

  10. Health Service Utilization among Syrian Refugees with Chronic Health Conditions in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Oweis, Arwa; Al Ward, Nada; Burton, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system, particularly in treating chronic health conditions. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services for chronic health conditions among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings. A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care for hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and arthritis. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households. Of 1363 cases with a chronic health condition diagnosis, 84.7% had received care in Jordan. Public facilities faced a heavy burden serving over half (53.9%) of care-seekers; the remainder received care in the private (29.6%) and NGO/charity (16.6%) sectors. Individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the central region of Jordan and with arthritis had the lowest rates of care-seeking when compared to other regions and conditions. Overall, 31.6% of care-seekers had an out-of-pocket payment for the most recent care-seeking event which averaged 18.8 USD (median = 0 USD), excluding cost of medications. Forced displacement presents major challenges to those with NCDs, which have the potential to seriously impact both the quality of life and life expectancy amongst refugees. NCD patterns among Syrian refugees indicate the importance of continuing support to public sector services in Jordan to adequately meet expanding needs and ensure appropriate prevention and control of priority NCDs.

  11. Health Service Utilization among Syrian Refugees with Chronic Health Conditions in Jordan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Doocy

    Full Text Available The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system, particularly in treating chronic health conditions. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services for chronic health conditions among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings.A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care for hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and arthritis. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households.Of 1363 cases with a chronic health condition diagnosis, 84.7% had received care in Jordan. Public facilities faced a heavy burden serving over half (53.9% of care-seekers; the remainder received care in the private (29.6% and NGO/charity (16.6% sectors. Individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCDs in the central region of Jordan and with arthritis had the lowest rates of care-seeking when compared to other regions and conditions. Overall, 31.6% of care-seekers had an out-of-pocket payment for the most recent care-seeking event which averaged 18.8 USD (median = 0 USD, excluding cost of medications.Forced displacement presents major challenges to those with NCDs, which have the potential to seriously impact both the quality of life and life expectancy amongst refugees. NCD patterns among Syrian refugees indicate the importance of continuing support to public sector services in Jordan to adequately meet expanding needs and ensure appropriate prevention and control of priority NCDs.

  12. The mental health status of refugees and asylum seekers attending a refugee health clinic including comparisons with a matched sample of Australian-born residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawyer, Frances; Enticott, Joanne C; Block, Andrew A; Cheng, I-Hao; Meadows, Graham N

    2017-02-21

    The aim of this study was to survey refugees and asylum-seekers attending a Refugee Health Service in Melbourne, Australia to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders based on screening measures and with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) specifically highlighted. A secondary aim was to compare the prevalence findings with Australian-born matched comparators from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 135 refugees and asylum-seeker participants using instruments including Kessler-10 (K10) and PTSD-8 to obtain estimates of the prevalence of mental disorders. We also performed a comparative analysis using matched sets of one participant and four Australian-born residents, comparing prevalence results with conditional Poisson regression estimated risk ratios (RR). The prevalence of mental illness as measured by K10 was 50.4%, while 22.9% and 31.3% of participants screened positive for PTSD symptoms in the previous month and lifetime, respectively. The matched analysis yielded a risk ratio of 3.16 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.30, 4.34] for abnormal K10, 2.25 (95% CI: 1.53, 3.29) for PTSD-lifetime and 4.44 (95% CI: 2.64, 7.48) for PTSD-month. This information on high absolute and relative risk of mental illness substantiate the increased need for mental health screening and care in this and potentially other refugee clinics and should be considered in relation to service planning. While the results cannot be generalised outside this setting, the method may be more broadly applicable, enabling the rapid collection of key information to support service planning for new waves of refugees and asylum-seekers. Matching data with existing national surveys is a useful way to estimate differences between groups at no additional cost, especially when the target group is comparatively small within a population.

  13. Missed opportunities: Do states require screening of children for health conditions that interfere with learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaney Gracy

    Full Text Available Investigators reviewed websites of state departments of health and education, and legislation for all 50 states and DC. For states with mandated screenings and a required form, investigators applied structured analysis to assess HBL inclusion.No state mandated that schools require screening for all 7 HBLs. Less than half (49% required comprehensive school health examinations and only 12 states plus DC required a specific form. Of these, 12 of the forms required documentation of vision screening, 11 of hearing screening, and 12 of dental screening. Ten forms asked about asthma and 9 required documentation of lead testing. Seven asked about general well-being, emotional problems, or mental health. None addressed hunger. When including states without comprehensive school health examination requirements, the most commonly required HBL screenings were for vision (80% of states; includes DC, hearing (75% of states; includes DC and dental (24% of state; includes DC.The lack of state mandated requirements for regular student health screening represents a missed opportunity to identify children with HBLs. Without state mandates, accompanying comprehensive forms, and protocols, children continue to be at risk of untreated health conditions that can undermine their success in school.

  14. Poor oral health including active caries in 187 UK professional male football players: clinical dental examination performed by dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Meehan, Lyndon; Petrie, Aviva; Weiler, Richard; McNally, Steve; Ayer, Chris; Hanna, Rob; Hunt, Ian; Kell, Steven; Ridgewell, Paul; Taylor, Russell

    2016-01-01

    The few studies that have assessed oral health in professional/elite football suggest poor oral health with minimal data on impact on performance. The aim of this research was to determine oral health in a representative sample of professional footballers in the UK and investigate possible determinants of oral health and self-reported impact on well-being, training and performance. Clinical oral health examination of senior squad players using standard methods and outcomes carried out at club training facilities. Questionnaire data were also collected. 8 teams were included, 5 Premier League, 2 Championship and 1 League One. 6 dentists examined 187 players who represented >90% of each senior squad. Oral health was poor: 37% players had active dental caries, 53% dental erosion and 5% moderate-severe irreversible periodontal disease. 45% were bothered by their oral health, 20% reported an impact on their quality of life and 7% on training or performance. Despite attendance for dental check-ups, oral health deteriorated with age. This is the first large, representative sample study in professional football. Oral health of professional footballers is poor, and this impacts on well-being and performance. Successful strategies to promote oral health within professional football are urgently needed, and research should investigate models based on best evidence for behaviour change and implementation science. Furthermore, this study provides strong evidence to support oral health screening within professional football. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. [Women in informal economy health and work conditions Bogotá. 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Suárez, Nidia R; Quiroz-Arcentáles, Jorge L; Mahecha-Montilla, Charo P; López-Sánchez, Paola A

    2012-06-01

    To determine work and health conditions of women working in informal economy in Bogotá, as well as to recommend priority action plans for preventing illnesses and accidents related to work and their consequences. Descriptive observational study. This study analyzed information collected by local groups in work-related contexts during 2007 as part of a set of forms of intervention established according to the Plan de Atención Básica (Primary Care Plan). This plan included 3 715 units of informal work from every point of the city. 3 936 women registers in all were analyzed. This study reveals evident precariousness conditions of women in this economic sector. Specifically, there are certain evident conditions that had shown in this study such as low education levels, incomes below the minimum legal standards, high exposure to damaging health work conditions, long work hours, and few hours for leisure and free time. Furthermore, 75 % of women included in this study are female head of household. This condition makes them more vulnerable to a heavier family and social burden. Closer attention to informal economy phenomenon is suggested in order to avoid vulnerable conditions of working women. Besides, it is necessary to improve the articulation between Academy and forms of intervention through public policies for knowing deeply repeated phenomena regarding the population of study. This articulation can be thought for implementing programs designed for improving women's quality of life.

  16. Revisiting the impact of macroeconomic conditions on health behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Giorgio

    2018-02-01

    This paper estimates the average population effect of macroeconomic conditions on health behaviours accounting for the heterogeneous impact of the business cycle on individuals. While previous studies use models relying on area-specific unemployment rates to estimate this average effect, this paper employs a model based on area-specific unemployment rates by gender and age group. The rationale for breaking down unemployment rates is that the severity of cyclical upturns and downturns does not only significantly vary across geographical areas, but also across gender and age. The empirical analysis uses microdata from the Italian Multipurpose Household Survey on Everyday Life Issues. The estimates suggest that models employing aggregated and disaggregated unemployment rate measures as a proxy for the business cycle produce similar findings for some health behaviours (such as smoking), whereas different results are obtained for others. While using unemployment rates by gender and age group, fruits and/or vegetables consumption turns out to be procyclical (a 1pp increase in this unemployment rate decreases the probability of consuming at least five daily fruit and/or vegetable servings by 0.0016pp), the opposite effect, though statistically insignificant, is observed once general unemployment rates are used. While both models conclude that physical activity declines during economic downturns, the size of the procyclical effect is much smaller when employing disaggregated rather than aggregated unemployment rates (a 1pp increase in the unemployment rate by gender and age group decreases the probability of doing any physical activity by 0.0017pp). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Web-Based Mindfulness Interventions for People With Physical Health Conditions: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivonen, Kirsti I; Zernicke, Kristin; Carlson, Linda E

    2017-08-31

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are becoming increasingly popular for helping people with physical health conditions. Expanding from traditional face-to-face program delivery, there is growing interest in Web-based application of MBIs, though Web-based MBIs for people with physical health conditions specifically have not been thoroughly reviewed to date. The objective of this paper was to review Web-based MBIs for people with physical health conditions and to examine all outcomes reported (eg, efficacy or effectiveness for physical changes or psychological changes; feasibility). Databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Science Direct, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science were searched. Full-text English papers that described any Web-based MBI, examining any outcome, for people with chronic physical health conditions were included. Randomized, nonrandomized, controlled, and uncontrolled trials were all included. Extracted data included intervention characteristics, population characteristics, outcomes, and quality indicators. Intervention characteristics (eg, synchronicity and guidance) were examined as potential factors related to study outcomes. Of 435 publications screened, 19 published papers describing 16 studies were included. They examined Web-based MBIs for people with cancer, chronic pain or fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), epilepsy, heart disease, tinnitus, and acquired brain injury. Overall, most studies reported positive effects of Web-based MBIs compared with usual care on a variety of outcomes including pain acceptance, coping measures, and depressive symptoms. There were mixed results regarding the effectiveness of Web-based MBIs compared with active control treatment conditions such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Condition-specific symptoms (eg, cancer-related fatigue and IBS symptoms) targeted by treatment had the largest effect size improvements following MBIs. Results are inconclusive regarding physical variables. Preliminary evidence suggests

  18. Chiropractic manipulation in pediatric health conditions – an updated systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotlib Allan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Our purpose was to review the biomedical literature from January 2004 to June 2007 inclusive to determine the extent of new evidence related to the therapeutic application of manipulation for pediatric health conditions. This updates a previous systematic review published in 2005. No critical appraisal of the evidence is undertaken. Data Sources We searched both the indexed and non-indexed biomedical manual therapy literature. This included PubMed, MANTIS, CINAHL, ICL, as well as reference tracking. Other resources included the Cochrane Library, CCOHTA, PEDro, WHO ICTRP, AMED, EMBASE and AHRQ databases, as well as research conferences and symposium proceedings. Results The search identified 1275 citations of which 57 discrete citations met the eligibility criteria determined by three reviewers who then determined by consensus, each citation's appropriate level on the strength of evidence scale. The new evidence from the relevant time period was 1 systematic review, 1 RCT, 2 observational studies, 36 descriptive case studies and 17 conference abstracts. When this additional evidence is combined with the previous systematic review undertaken up to 2003, there are now in total, 2 systematic reviews, 10 RCT's, 3 observational studies, 177 descriptive studies, and 31 conference abstracts defining this body of knowledge. Summary There has been no substantive shift in this body of knowledge during the past 3 1/2 years. The health claims made by chiropractors with respect to the application of manipulation as a health care intervention for pediatric health conditions continue to be supported by only low levels of scientific evidence. Chiropractors continue to treat a wide variety of pediatric health conditions. The evidence rests primarily with clinical experience, descriptive case studies and very few observational and experimental studies. The health interests of pediatric patients would be advanced if more rigorous scientific

  19. [Materiality Analysis of Health Plans Based on Stakeholder Engagement and the Issues Included at ISO 26000:2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano Santiago, Miguel Angel; Rivera Lirio, Juana María

    2017-01-18

    Health plans of the Spanish autonomous communities can incorporate sustainable development criteria in its development. There have been no analysis or proposals about development and indicators. The goal is to add a contribution to help build better health plans aimed at sustainable development and help to manage economic, social and environmental impacts of health systems criteria. We used a variation of the RAND/UCLA or modified Delphi technique method. The process consisted of a bibliographical and context matters and issues related to health and social responsibility analysis based on ISO 26000: 2010. A survey by deliberately to a selection of 70 expert members of the identified stakeholders was carried out and a discussion group was held to determine the consensus on the issues addressed in the survey sample. The research was conducted in 2015. From the literature review 33 health issues included in ISO 26000:2010 were obtained. 7 survey proved relevant high consensus, 8 relevance and average consensus and 18 with less relevance and high level of dissent. The expert group excluded 4 of the 18 subjects with less consensus. 29 issues included 33 at work, divided into 7 subjects contained in the guide ISO 26000 of social responsibility, were relevant stakeholders regarding possible inclusion in health plans. Considering the direct relationship published by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) among the issues ISO 26000 and the economic, social and environmental indicators in GRI (Global Reporting Initiative) in its G4 version, a panel with monitoring indicators related to relevant issues were elaborated.

  20. Practicalities and challenges in re-orienting the health system in Zambia for treating chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aantjes, Carolien J; Quinlan, Tim K C; Bunders, Joske F G

    2014-07-08

    The rapid evolution in disease burdens in low- and middle income countries is forcing policy makers to re-orient their health system towards a system which has the capability to simultaneously address infectious and non-communicable diseases. This paper draws on two different but overlapping studies which examined how actors in the Zambian health system are re-directing their policies, strategies and service structures to include the provision of health care for people with chronic conditions. Study methods in both studies included semi-structured interviews with government health officials at national level, and governmental and non-governmental health practitioners operating from community-, primary health care to hospital facility level. Focus group discussions were conducted with staff, stakeholders and caregivers of programmes providing care and support at community- and household levels. Study settings included urban and rural sites. A series of adaptations transformed the HIV programme from an emergency response into the first large chronic care programme in the country. There are clear indications that the Zambian government is intending to expand this reach to patients with non-communicable diseases. Challenges to do this effectively include a lack of proper NCD prevalence data for planning, a concentration of technology and skills to detect and treat NCDs at secondary and tertiary levels in the health system and limited interest by donor agencies to support this transition. The reorientation of Zambia's health system is in full swing and uses the foundation of a decentralised health system and presence of local models for HIV chronic care which actively involve community partners, patients and their families. There are early warning signs which could cause this transition to stall, one of which is the financial capability to resource this process.

  1. An assessment of the relationships between overweight, obesity, related chronic health conditions and worker absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeffrey T; Potter, Lloyd B

    2014-01-01

    Worker absenteeism is an important area of study within the field of occupational health. Prior studies have linked the presence of obesity to higher rates of absenteeism, but have not examined whether or not the relationship is moderated by the presence of other chronic health conditions or whether or not the relationships have been stable over time. Data from the 2000 and 2010 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative sample of the US population, were analyzed to determine the extent to which the presence of 5 obesity-related chronic health conditions moderates the relationship between overweight/obesity and worker absenteeism, and whether or not these relationships are stable over time. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between overweight/obesity, the obesity-related chronic health conditions and worker absenteeism, while controlling for demographic, socio-economic, occupational, health related and behavioral variables. The findings suggest that obesity (p worker illness absence, and that the presence of diabetes positively moderates this relationship (p health conditions, including hypertension, coronary heart disease, other heart disease and stroke, were not found to have significant moderating effects. The evidence suggests that obesity is associated with a higher likelihood of worker illness absenteeism, and that the effect is doubled for those with both class III obesity (BMI ≥ 40) and diabetes. The moderating effect between class III obesity and diabetes was observed only in 2010, indicating that this may be a relatively new phenomenon. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of Condition-Specific Preference-Based Measures in Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, Donna; Brazier, John; Ara, Roberta; Azzabi Zouraq, Ismail

    2017-12-01

    A condition-specific preference-based measure (CSPBM) is a measure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) that is specific to a certain condition or disease and that can be used to obtain the quality adjustment weight of the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for use in economic models. This article provides an overview of the role and the development of CSPBMs, and presents a description of existing CSPBMs in the literature. The article also provides an overview of the psychometric properties of CSPBMs in comparison with generic preference-based measures (generic PBMs), and considers the advantages and disadvantages of CSPBMs in comparison with generic PBMs. CSPBMs typically include dimensions that are important for that condition but may not be important across all patient groups. There are a large number of CSPBMs across a wide range of conditions, and these vary from covering a wide range of dimensions to more symptomatic or uni-dimensional measures. Psychometric evidence is limited but suggests that CSPBMs offer an advantage in more accurate measurement of milder health states. The mean change and standard deviation can differ for CSPBMs and generic PBMs, and this may impact on incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. CSPBMs have a useful role in HTA where a generic PBM is not appropriate, sensitive or responsive. However, due to issues of comparability across different patient groups and interventions, their usage in health technology assessment is often limited to conditions where it is inappropriate to use a generic PBM or sensitivity analyses.

  3. Effect on attendance by including focused information on spirometry in preventive health checks: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Løkke, Anders; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2016-12-01

    Early detection of lung diseases can help to reduce their severity. Lung diseases are among the most frequently occurring and serious diseases worldwide; nonetheless, many patients remain undiagnosed. Preventive health checks including spirometry can detect lung diseases at early stages; however, recruitment for health checks remains a challenge, and little is known about what motivates the attendance. The aim of the study is to examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation compared to general information will impact the attendance rate in preventive health checks. This randomized, controlled trial tests the effect of information on spirometry embedded in the Check your Health Preventive Program (CHPP). The CHPP is an open-label, household cluster-randomized, controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30- to -49-year-olds in a Danish municipality from 2012 to 2017 (n = 26,216). During 2015-2016, 4356 citizens aged 30-49 years will be randomized into two groups. The intervention group receives an invitation which highlights the value and contents of spirometry as part of a health check and information about lung diseases. The comparison group receives a standard invitation containing practical information and specifies the contents of the general health check. Outcomes are (1) differences in attendance rates measured by the proportion of citizens attending each of the two study groups and (2) proportion of persons at risk defined by smoking status and self-reported lung symptoms in the study groups. The proportion of participants with abnormal spirometry assessed at the preventive health check will be compared between the two study groups. The results from the present study will inform future recruitment strategies to health checks. The developed material on content, value, and information about lung disease is feasible and transferable to other populations, making it easy to implement if effective. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT

  4. Using Electronic Health Record Data to Measure Care Quality for Individuals with Multiple Chronic Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Elizabeth A; McQuillan, Deanna B; Ellis, Jennifer L; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Zeng, Chan; Barton, Mary B; Boyd, Cynthia M; Fortin, Martin; Ling, Shari M; Tai-Seale, Ming; Ralston, James D; Ritchie, Christine S; Zulman, Donna M

    2016-09-01

    To inform the development of a data-driven measure of quality care for individuals with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs) derived from an electronic health record (EHR). Qualitative study using focus groups, interactive webinars, and a modified Delphi process. Research department within an integrated delivery system. The webinars and Delphi process included 17 experts in clinical geriatrics and primary care, health policy, quality assessment, health technology, and health system operations. The focus group included 10 individuals aged 70-87 with three to six chronic conditions selected from a random sample of individuals aged 65 and older with three or more chronic medical conditions. Through webinars and the focus group, input was solicited on constructs representing high-quality care for individuals with MCCs. A working list was created of potential measures representing these constructs. Using a modified Delphi process, experts rated the importance of each possible measure and the feasibility of implementing each measure using EHR data. High-priority constructs reflected processes rather than outcomes of care. High-priority constructs that were potentially feasible to measure included assessing physical function, depression screening, medication reconciliation, annual influenza vaccination, outreach after hospital admission, and documented advance directives. High-priority constructs that were less feasible to measure included goal setting and shared decision-making, identifying drug-drug interactions, assessing social support, timely communication with patients, and other aspects of good customer service. Lower-priority domains included pain assessment, continuity of care, and overuse of screening or laboratory testing. High-quality MCC care should be measured using meaningful process measures rather than outcomes. Although some care processes are currently extractable from electronic data, capturing others will require adapting and applying technology to

  5. [The public health legislation in conditions of globalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremov, D V; Jyliyaeva, E P

    2013-01-01

    The article demonstrates the impact of globalization on development of public health legislation at the international level and in particular countries. The legislation is considered as a tool to decrease the globalization health risks for population

  6. Public Health and Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction Including Fracking: Global Lessons from a Scottish Government Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Andrew; Dinan, William

    2018-04-04

    Unconventional oil and gas extraction (UOGE) including fracking for shale gas is underway in North America on a large scale, and in Australia and some other countries. It is viewed as a major source of global energy needs by proponents. Critics consider fracking and UOGE an immediate and long-term threat to global, national, and regional public health and climate. Rarely have governments brought together relatively detailed assessments of direct and indirect public health risks associated with fracking and weighed these against potential benefits to inform a national debate on whether to pursue this energy route. The Scottish government has now done so in a wide-ranging consultation underpinned by a variety of reports on unconventional gas extraction including fracking. This paper analyses the Scottish government approach from inception to conclusion, and from procedures to outcomes. The reports commissioned by the Scottish government include a comprehensive review dedicated specifically to public health as well as reports on climate change, economic impacts, transport, geology, and decommissioning. All these reports are relevant to public health, and taken together offer a comprehensive review of existing evidence. The approach is unique globally when compared with UOGE assessments conducted in the USA, Australia, Canada, and England. The review process builds a useful evidence base although it is not without flaws. The process approach, if not the content, offers a framework that may have merits globally.

  7. Public Health and Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction Including Fracking: Global Lessons from a Scottish Government Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watterson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional oil and gas extraction (UOGE including fracking for shale gas is underway in North America on a large scale, and in Australia and some other countries. It is viewed as a major source of global energy needs by proponents. Critics consider fracking and UOGE an immediate and long-term threat to global, national, and regional public health and climate. Rarely have governments brought together relatively detailed assessments of direct and indirect public health risks associated with fracking and weighed these against potential benefits to inform a national debate on whether to pursue this energy route. The Scottish government has now done so in a wide-ranging consultation underpinned by a variety of reports on unconventional gas extraction including fracking. This paper analyses the Scottish government approach from inception to conclusion, and from procedures to outcomes. The reports commissioned by the Scottish government include a comprehensive review dedicated specifically to public health as well as reports on climate change, economic impacts, transport, geology, and decommissioning. All these reports are relevant to public health, and taken together offer a comprehensive review of existing evidence. The approach is unique globally when compared with UOGE assessments conducted in the USA, Australia, Canada, and England. The review process builds a useful evidence base although it is not without flaws. The process approach, if not the content, offers a framework that may have merits globally.

  8. Oral health conditions and frailty in Mexican community-dwelling elderly: a cross sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castrejón-Pérez Roberto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health is an important component of general well-being for the elderly. Oral health-related problems include loss of teeth, nonfunctional removable dental prostheses, lesions of the oral mucosa, periodontitis, and root caries. They affect food selection, speaking ability, mastication, social relations, and quality of life. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that confers vulnerability to negative health-related outcomes. The association between oral health and frailty has not been explored thoroughly. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of some oral health conditions, and frailty status among Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Methods Analysis of baseline data of the Mexican Study of Nutritional and Psychosocial Markers of Frailty, a cohort study carried out in a representative sample of people aged 70 and older residing in one district of Mexico City. Frailty was defined as the presence of three or more of the following five components: weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, weakness, and low physical activity. Oral health variables included self-perception of oral health compared with others of the same age; utilization of dental services during the last year, number of teeth, dental condition (edentate, partially edentate, or completely dentate, utilization and functionality of removable partial or complete dentures, severe periodontitis, self-reported chewing problems and xerostomia. Covariates included were gender, age, years of education, cognitive performance, smoking status, recent falls, hospitalization, number of drugs, and comorbidity. The association between frailty and dental variables was determined performing a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Final models were adjusted by socio-demographic and health factors Results Of the 838 participants examined, 699 had the information needed to establish the criteria for diagnosis of frailty. Those who had a higher probability of being

  9. The Impact of Including Immigrants without Permanent Residence Status in the Public Health Insurance System in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepperová Jana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whether an individual can or cannot participate in the Czech public health insurance system depends on several characteristics, one of which is whether he/she has permanent residence status in the Czech Republic, and a second whether he/she is employed. This means that those without permanent residence status, including self-employed migrants from third countries, their dependent relatives, and the dependent relatives of third country employees in the Czech Republic, cannot participate in the public health insurance system. Some argue that such migrants should be included in the system, since commercial health insurance is disadvantageous and the contributions they would pay into the public health insurance system would increase the public health insurance agencies’ income. We estimate the value of the contributions to public health insurance that would be paid by third country self-employed and non-working immigrants, if they were insured based on data from 2011 to 2013, and compare this to the assumed costs of their medical care. To calculate the contributions for self-employed migrants we use data on the distribution of the tax base for self-employed persons from personal income tax returns. Our estimation results in an overall negative balance of 22 million CZK on the data for 2012 and 2013. In the current system this deficit would be covered by the state, which would pay contributions to the system for certain (state insured persons amounting to 97 million CZK; overall therefore the inclusion of these immigrants would result in a positive balance of 75 million CZK.

  10. Integrative review of research on general health status and prevalence of common physical health conditions of women after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Li, Qing

    2008-01-01

    Postpartum mothers experience certain physical health conditions that may affect their quality of life, future health, and health of their children. Yet, the physical health of postpartum mothers is relatively neglected in both research and practice. The purpose of this review is to describe the general health status and prevalence of common physical health conditions of postpartum mothers. The review followed standard procedures for integrative literature reviews. Twenty-two articles were reviewed from searches in scientific databases, reference lists, and an up-to-date survey. Three tables were designed to answer review questions. In general, postpartum mothers self-rate their health as good. They experience certain physical conditions such as fatigue/physical exhaustion, sleep-related problems, pain, sex-related concerns, hemorrhoids/constipation, and breast problems. Despite a limited number of studies, the findings provide a glimpse of the presence of a number of physical health conditions experienced by women in the 2 years postpartum. In the articles reviewed, physical health conditions and postpartum period were poorly defined, no standard scales existed, and the administration of surveys varied widely in time. Those disparities prevented systematic comparisons of results and made it difficult to gain a coherent understanding of the physical health conditions of postpartum mothers. More longitudinal research is needed that focuses on the etiology, predictors, and management of the health conditions most prevalent among postpartum mothers. Instruments are needed that target a broader range of physical conditions in respect to type and severity.

  11. [The health conditions of prison inmates in Tuscany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voller, Fabio; Silvestri, Caterina; Orsini, Cristina; Aversa, Laura; Da Frè, Monica; Cipriani, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of health conditions of prison inmates in Tuscany (Italy) compared with non-institutionalized population and literature data. Cross-sectional descriptive study of a sample recruited for a prospective cohort study. SETTING E PARTICIPANTS: Prison inmates detained in Tuscany on June 15th 2009. Istat data concerning the survey "Aspects of daily life" 2006-2009 has been used for comparison. The measures used for the analysis are prevalence data by age classes and odds ratios obtained through a logistic regression model. Outcome variables are: broad disease groups, in particular infectious and parasitic diseases and psychic disorders. Prison inmates from Northern Africa and Eastern Europe are 40% of the population studied. A high consumption of tobacco is observed, with 70.6% of regular smokers among prisoners vs 33.2% among free citizens. Digestive system diseases are the most frequent diseases (25.1%), followed by infectious and parasitic diseases (15.7%). Among digestive disease,more than half are teeth and oral cavity pathologies that affect 13.7% of prisoners.Other frequently reported disease groups were diseases of the bone-muscular and connective systems (11.0%), of the circulatory system (10.8%), endocrine and metabolic systems (9.2%), traumatisms and poisonings (6.8%), respiratory system diseases (5.9%), and nervous system diseases (4.9%). The prevalence of ischemic heart diseases, diabetes, obesity and esophagitis, gastritis and gastro-duodenal ulcers is significantly higher among prisoners than in the general population. The most frequent infectious and parasitic diseases are Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection with a prevalence of 9.0%, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection (2.2%), and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection (1.4%). Hepatitis C, HIV and hepatitis A have a higher prevalence among inmates of Italian nationality, while syphilis is more common among prisoners from Eastern Europe (1.2%). The prevalence of psychic disorders among

  12. Management of common eye conditions in a primary health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated by properly trained middle cadre eye health worker working with simple diagnostic tools in a primary health care setting or by referring to secondary care in a timely ... Personal and environmental hygiene: (regular hand and face washing, proper disposal of garbage, human and animal waste and maintenance of a.

  13. Conditional cash transfer programs and the health and nutrition of Latin American children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Segura-Pérez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To 1 describe the benefits, conditions, coverage, funding, goals, governance, and structure of well-established conditional cash transfer programs (CCTs in Latin America and 2 identify their health and nutritional impacts among children under 5 years old. Methods A realist review was conducted. CCTs were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: 1 current national-level program; 2 coverage of at least 50% of the target population; 3 continuous operation at scale for 10+ years; 4 clear description of structure, funding sources, and governance; 5 both health/nutrition- and education-related conditions for participation; and 6 available impact evaluation studies with health, development, and/or nutrition indicators among children under 5 years old. Three CCTs (one each in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico met the criteria. Results There was consistent evidence that the three CCTs selected for review had positive impacts on child health and nutrition outcomes in their respective countries. In all three countries, the programs were scaled up and positive impacts were documented relatively quickly. All three programs had strong political support and clear and transparent governance structures, including accountability and social participation mechanisms, which might explain their success and sustainability. Conclusions CCTs in Latin America have had a positive impact on child health and nutrition outcomes among the poorest families. A key challenge for the future is to reform these programs to help families move out of not only extreme poverty but all poverty in order to lead healthy and productive lives, as called for in the post-2105 Sustainable Development Goals.

  14. Cost-Utility Analysis of Extending Public Health Insurance Coverage to Include Diabetic Retinopathy Screening by Optometrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Katwyk, Sasha; Jin, Ya-Ping; Trope, Graham E; Buys, Yvonne; Masucci, Lisa; Wedge, Richard; Flanagan, John; Brent, Michael H; El-Defrawy, Sherif; Tu, Hong Anh; Thavorn, Kednapa

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of vision loss and blindness in Canada. Eye examinations play an important role in early detection. However, DR screening by optometrists is not always universally covered by public or private health insurance plans. This study assessed whether expanding public health coverage to include diabetic eye examinations for retinopathy by optometrists is cost-effective from the perspective of the health care system. We conducted a cost-utility analysis of extended coverage for diabetic eye examinations in Prince Edward Island to include examinations by optometrists, not currently publicly covered. We used a Markov chain to simulate disease burden based on eye examination rates and DR progression over a 30-year time horizon. Results were presented as an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. A series of one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Extending public health coverage to eye examinations by optometrists was associated with higher costs ($9,908,543.32) and improved QALYs (156,862.44), over 30 years, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1668.43/QALY gained. Sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential determinants of the results were the cost of optometric screening and selected utility scores. At the commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY, the probability that the new policy was cost-effective was 99.99%. Extending public health coverage to eye examinations by optometrists is cost-effective based on a commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY. Findings from this study can inform the decision to expand public-insured optometric services for patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing the Relationship Between Chronic Health Conditions and Productivity Loss Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranksy, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between health conditions and the risk for membership in longitudinal trajectories of productivity loss. Methods: Trajectories of productivity loss from the ages of 25 to 44 years, previously identified in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), were combined with information on health conditions from the age 40 years health module in the NLSY79. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relative risk of being in the low-risk, early-onset increasing risk, late-onset increasing risk, or high-risk trajectories compared with the no-risk trajectory for having various health conditions. Results: The trajectories with the greatest probability of productivity loss longitudinally had a greater prevalence of the individual health conditions and a greater total number of health conditions experienced. Conclusions: Health conditions are associated with specific longitudinal patterns of experiencing productivity loss. PMID:25479294

  16. Comorbid subjective health complaints in patients with sciatica: a prospective study including comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne J; Ihlebaek, Camilla M; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens I; Grotle, Margreth

    2011-06-01

    Chronic nonspecific low back pain is accompanied by high rates of comorbid mental and physical conditions. The aims of this study were to investigate if patients with specific back pain, that is, sciatica caused by lumbar herniation, report higher rates of subjective health complaints (SHCs) than the general population and if there is an association between change in sciatica symptoms and change in SHCs over a 12-month period. A multicenter cohort study of 466 sciatica patients was conducted with follow-up at 3 months and 1 year. Comorbid SHCs were measured by 27 items of the SHC inventory. Odds ratios (ORs) for each SHC were calculated with comparison to a general population sample (n=928) by logistic regression. The SHC number was calculated by summing all complaints present. At baseline, the ORs for reporting SHCs for the sciatica patients were significantly elevated in 15 of the 27 items with a mean (S.D.) SHC number of 7.5 (4.4), compared to 5.2 (4.4) in the general population (Psciatica, the SHC number was reduced to normal levels. Among those with persisting or worsening sciatica, the number increased to a level almost double that of the general population. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of subjective health complaints in sciatica is increased. During follow-up, the number of health complaints increased in patients with persisting or worsening sciatica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral health status and prosthodontic conditions of Chinese adults: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Kreulen, C.M.; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess oral health and prosthodontic conditions of Chinese adults and the changes in these conditions over time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed was searched by combining the keyword China with dental health survey, oral health, tooth loss, DMFT (decayed/missing/filled teeth), dental

  18. ROMANIAN FOOD CONSUMPTION AND ITS EFFECTS ON POPULATION'S HEALTH CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela CONSTANDACHE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Public health is a top priority for the European Union. The main factor in ensuring population health is food consumption and in particular food quality. The present paper aims at analyzing Romanian population food consumption during the 1990-2012 periods, its evolution in time; it identifies its main features and their effects on population health. Amid the economic crisis the purchasing power of population is impaired leading to insufficient consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables and a low intake of vitamins, calcium, phosphorous and iron (especially in children, women and elderly people, which could be an important risk factor in the development of chronic diseases.

  19. Testing a discrete choice experiment including duration to value health states for large descriptive systems: addressing design and sampling issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansback, Nick; Hole, Arne Risa; Mulhern, Brendan; Tsuchiya, Aki

    2014-08-01

    There is interest in the use of discrete choice experiments that include a duration attribute (DCETTO) to generate health utility values, but questions remain on its feasibility in large health state descriptive systems. This study examines the stability of DCETTO to estimate health utility values from the five-level EQ-5D, an instrument with depicts 3125 different health states. Between January and March 2011, we administered 120 DCETTO tasks based on the five-level EQ-5D to a total of 1799 respondents in the UK (each completed 15 DCETTO tasks on-line). We compared models across different sample sizes and different total numbers of observations. We found the DCETTO coefficients were generally consistent, with high agreement between individual ordinal preferences and aggregate cardinal values. Keeping the DCE design and the total number of observations fixed, subsamples consisting of 10 tasks per respondent with an intermediate sized sample, and 15 tasks with a smaller sample provide similar results in comparison to the whole sample model. In conclusion, we find that the DCETTO is a feasible method for developing values for larger descriptive systems such as EQ-5D-5L, and find evidence supporting important design features for future valuation studies that use the DCETTO. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/women-and-depression-discovering-hope/complete-index.shtml Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Arthritis-related statistics . Retrieved August 22, 2012, from http://www.cdc. ...

  1. Working conditions and mental health: Results from the CARESUN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feola, Daniela; Pedata, Paola; D'Ancicco, Francesco; Santalucia, Laura; Sannolo, Nicola; Ascione, Eduardo; Nienhaus, Albert; Magliano, Lorenza; Lamberti, Monica

    2016-05-03

    The authors conducted a work-related stress surveillance study in 2013 on 6,558 public-sector employees in Italy, examining how they perceived their jobs, via the Job Content Questionnaire, and their mental health status, via the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). Of the 2,094 employees completing the questionnaires, 60% were male, 52% had a medium-level education, and 76% had a medium-level job. Three hundred and eighty-five employees (18%) had a GHQ-12 score >3 and were classified as GHQ-12 cases: these were more often female (54%), medium-to-highly educated (54%), and had more often reported health problems over the previous year (51%). Thus, GHQ-12 cases represented a significant percentage of the examined population, indicating that work-related stress surveillance programs are needed for the planning of psychosocial interventions aimed at the reintegration of individuals with mental health problems.

  2. Resolving embarrassing medical conditions with online health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redston, Sarah; de Botte, Sharon; Smith, Carl

    2018-06-01

    Reliance on online health information is proliferating and the Internet has the potential to revolutionize the provision of public health information. The anonymity of online health information may be particularly appealing to people seeking advice on 'embarrassing' health problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether data generated by the embarrassingproblems.com health information site showed any temporal patterns in problem resolution, and (2) whether successful resolution of a medical problem using online information varied with the type of medical problem. We analyzed the responses of visitors to the embarrassingproblems.com website on the resolution of their problems. The dataset comprised 100,561 responses to information provided on 77 different embarrassing problems grouped into 9 classes of medical problem over an 82-month period. Data were analyzed with a Bernoulli Generalized Linear Model using Bayesian inference. We detected a statistically important interaction between embarrassing problem type and the time period in which data were collected, with an improvement in problem resolution over time for all of the classes of medical problem on the website but with a lower rate of increase in resolution for urinary health problems and medical problems associated with the mouth and face. As far as we are aware, this is the first analysis of data of this nature. Findings support the growing recognition that online health information can contribute to the resolution of embarrassing medical problems, but demonstrate that outcomes may vary with medical problem type. The results indicate that building data collection into online information provision can help to refine and focus health information for online users. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Martyniuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and express-assessment. Material: in the research 47 first and second year girl students participated, who belonged to main health group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “ dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied by accelerated processes of organism’s age destructions and tension of regulation mechanisms. Conclusions: the received results permit to further develop and generalize the data of students’ health’s assessment by indicators of adaptation potentials, biological age and physical health’s condition.

  4. Impact of impairment and secondary health conditions on health preference among Canadians with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Catharine; Hitzig, Sander L; Mittmann, Nicole

    2012-09-01

    To describe the relationships between secondary health conditions and health preference in a cohort of adults with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional telephone survey. Community. Community-dwelling adult men and women (N = 357) with chronic traumatic and non-traumatic SCI (C1-L3 AIS A-D) who were at least 1 year post-injury/onset. Not applicable. Health Utilities Index-Mark III (HUI-Mark III) and SCI Secondary Conditions Scale-Modified (SCS-M). SCS-M responses for different secondary health conditions were used to create "low impact = absent/mild" and "high impact = moderate/significant" secondary health condition groups. Analysis of covariance was used to examine differences in HUI-Mark III scores for different secondary health conditions while controlling for impairment. The mean HUI-Mark III was 0.24 (0.27, range, -0.28 to 1.00). HUI-Mark III scores were lower (P Mark III scores were lower (P bone ossification, sexual dysfunction, postural hypotension, cardiac problems, and neurological deterioration than low-impact groups. High-impact secondary health conditions are negatively associated with health preference in persons with SCI. Although further work is required, the HUI-Mark III data may be a useful tool for calculating quality-adjusted life years, and advocating for additional resources where secondary health conditions have substantial adverse impact on health.

  5. Health conditions in people with spinal cord injury: Contemporary evidence from a population-based community survey in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkhof, Martin W G; Al-Khodairy, Abdul; Eriks-Hoogland, Inge; Fekete, Christine; Hinrichs, Timo; Hund-Georgiadis, Margret; Meier, Sonja; Scheel-Sailer, Anke; Schubert, Martin; Reinhardt, Jan D

    2016-02-01

    Health conditions in people with spinal cord injury are major determinants for disability, reduced well-being, and mortality. However, population-based evidence on the prevalence and treatment of health conditions in people with spinal cord injury is scarce. To investigate health conditions in Swiss residents with spinal cord injury, specifically to analyse their prevalence, severity, co-occurrence, and treatment. Cross-sectional data (n = 1,549) from the community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury (SwiSCI) cohort study, including Swiss residents with spinal cord injury aged over 16 years, were analysed. Nineteen health conditions and their self-reported treatment were assessed with the spinal cord injury Secondary Conditions Scale and the Self-Administered Comorbidity Questionnaire. Prevalence and severity were compared across demographics and spinal cord injury characteristics. Co-occurrence of health conditions was examined using a binary non-metric dissimilarity measure and multi-dimensional scaling. Treatment rates were also examined. Number of concurrent health conditions was high (median 7; interquartile range 4-9; most frequent: spasticity, chronic pain, sexual dysfunction). Prevalence of health conditions increased with age and was higher in non-traumatic compared with traumatic spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury specific conditions co-occurred. Relative frequencies of treatment were low (median 44%, interquartile range 25-64%), even for significant or chronic problems. A high prevalence of multimorbidity was found in community-dwelling persons with spinal cord injury. Treatment for some highly prevalent health conditions was infrequent.

  6. Risk Factors for Incident Postdeployment Mental Health Conditions Among U.S. Air Force Medical Service Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Genny M; Tvaryanas, Anthony P; White, Edward D; Lysfjord, Heather J

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of postdeployment mental health (PDMH) conditions in military health care personnel appears to be on par with that of other military personnel. However, there is no comprehensive analysis of incident PDMH conditions within the overall population of U.S. Air Force Medical Service personnel. This study explored the epidemiology of incident PDMH conditions among Air Force Medical Service personnel returning from deployment. A cohort survival analysis was conducted of 24,409 subjects without preexisting mental health conditions and at least one deployment during 2003-2013. Electronic health record data were used to ascertain the diagnosis of a PDMH condition. The primary outcome measure was an incident PDMH condition defined as a mental health diagnosis on at least two separate clinical encounters. The incidence of PDMH conditions was 59.74 per 1,000 person-years. Adjustment, anxiety, mood, sleep, and post-traumatic stress disorders accounted for 78% diagnoses. Protective factors included officer, surgeon, specific enlisted career fields, Air National Guard or Air Force Reserve, and multiple deployments. Risk factors included nurse, other specific enlisted career fields, female, and unmarried with dependents. Most subjects (73%) were diagnosed within the standard 30-month surveillance time period; median time to diagnosis was 13 months. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Conditions of radiological protection in the health unities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, L.R.B.S.; Neto, A.T.; Pires, A.; Azevedo, H.F.; Boasquevisque, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was explained which conditions is practiced for occupational and environmental radiological protection. Fifteen hospitables and ambulatories services, pertaining to the public system are studies, verifying that the professional group that are preoccupied with the radioprotection conditions are the assistants services and technician. The common knowledge about Basic Standards of Radiological Protection was also observed, of which is rather precarious. (C.G.C.) [pt

  8. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.

  9. All slums are not equal: Maternal health conditions among two urban slum dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfia Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women inhabiting urban slums are a "high risk" group with limited access to health facilities. Hazardous maternal health practices are rampant in slum areas. Barriers to utilization of health services are well documented. Slums in the same city may differ from one another in their health indicators and service utilization rates. The study examines whether hazardous maternal care practices exist in and whether there are differences in the utilization rates of health services in two different slums. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in two urban slums of Aligarh city (Uttar Pradesh, India. House-to-house survey was conducted and 200 mothers having live births in the study period were interviewed. The outcome measures were utilization of antenatal care, natal care, postnatal care, and early infant feeding practices. Rates of hazardous health practices and reasons for these practices were elicited. Results: Hazardous maternal health practices were common. At least one antenatal visit was accepted by a little more than half the mothers, but delivery was predominantly home based carried out under unsafe conditions. Important barriers to utilization included family tradition, financial constraints, and rude behavior of health personnel in hospitals. Significant differences existed between the two slums. Conclusion: The fact that barriers to utilization at a local level may differ significantly between slums must be recognized, identified, and addressed in the district level planning for health. Empowerment of slum communities as one of the stakeholders can lend them a stronger voice and help improve access to services.

  10. Exploring the Impacts of Housing Condition on Migrants’ Mental Health in Nanxiang, Shanghai: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rapid urbanization and associated rural-to-urban migration has brought in enormous economic benefits in Chinese cities, one of the negative externalities include adverse effects upon the migrant workers’ mental health. The links between housing conditions and mental health are well-established in healthy city and community planning scholarship. Nonetheless, there has thusfar been no Chinese study deciphering the links between housing conditions and mental health accounting for macro-level community environments, and no study has previously examined the nature of the relationships in locals and migrants. To overcome this research gap, we hypothesized that housing conditions may have a direct and indirect effects upon mental which may be mediated by neighbourhood satisfaction. We tested this hypothesis with the help of a household survey of 368 adult participants in Nanxiang Town, Shanghai, employing a structural equation modeling approach. Our results point to the differential pathways via which housing conditions effect mental health in locals and migrants. For locals, housing conditions have direct effects on mental health, while as for migrants, housing conditions have indirect effects on mental health, mediated via neighborhood satisfaction. Our findings have significant policy implications on building an inclusive and harmonious society. Upstream-level community interventions in the form of sustainable planning and designing of migrant neighborhoods can promote sense of community, social capital and support, thereby improving mental health and overall mental capital of Chinese cities.

  11. Exploring the Impacts of Housing Condition on Migrants’ Mental Health in Nanxiang, Shanghai: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Geng, Huizhi

    2018-01-01

    Although rapid urbanization and associated rural-to-urban migration has brought in enormous economic benefits in Chinese cities, one of the negative externalities include adverse effects upon the migrant workers’ mental health. The links between housing conditions and mental health are well-established in healthy city and community planning scholarship. Nonetheless, there has thusfar been no Chinese study deciphering the links between housing conditions and mental health accounting for macro-level community environments, and no study has previously examined the nature of the relationships in locals and migrants. To overcome this research gap, we hypothesized that housing conditions may have a direct and indirect effects upon mental which may be mediated by neighbourhood satisfaction. We tested this hypothesis with the help of a household survey of 368 adult participants in Nanxiang Town, Shanghai, employing a structural equation modeling approach. Our results point to the differential pathways via which housing conditions effect mental health in locals and migrants. For locals, housing conditions have direct effects on mental health, while as for migrants, housing conditions have indirect effects on mental health, mediated via neighborhood satisfaction. Our findings have significant policy implications on building an inclusive and harmonious society. Upstream-level community interventions in the form of sustainable planning and designing of migrant neighborhoods can promote sense of community, social capital and support, thereby improving mental health and overall mental capital of Chinese cities. PMID:29382174

  12. Exploring the Impacts of Housing Condition on Migrants' Mental Health in Nanxiang, Shanghai: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Miao, Siyu; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Geng, Huizhi; Lu, Yi

    2018-01-29

    Although rapid urbanization and associated rural-to-urban migration has brought in enormous economic benefits in Chinese cities, one of the negative externalities include adverse effects upon the migrant workers' mental health. The links between housing conditions and mental health are well-established in healthy city and community planning scholarship. Nonetheless, there has thusfar been no Chinese study deciphering the links between housing conditions and mental health accounting for macro-level community environments, and no study has previously examined the nature of the relationships in locals and migrants. To overcome this research gap, we hypothesized that housing conditions may have a direct and indirect effects upon mental which may be mediated by neighbourhood satisfaction. We tested this hypothesis with the help of a household survey of 368 adult participants in Nanxiang Town, Shanghai, employing a structural equation modeling approach. Our results point to the differential pathways via which housing conditions effect mental health in locals and migrants. For locals, housing conditions have direct effects on mental health, while as for migrants, housing conditions have indirect effects on mental health, mediated via neighborhood satisfaction. Our findings have significant policy implications on building an inclusive and harmonious society. Upstream-level community interventions in the form of sustainable planning and designing of migrant neighborhoods can promote sense of community, social capital and support, thereby improving mental health and overall mental capital of Chinese cities.

  13. Disparity in disaster preparedness among rheumatoid arthritis patients with various general health, functional, and disability conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomio, Jun; Sato, Hajime; Mizumura, Hiroko

    2012-07-01

    To describe disaster preparedness among chronically ill patients and to examine how differences in health, functional, and disability conditions are associated with disaster preparedness, focusing on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with various functional and disability levels. In 2007, 1,477 members of a nationwide RA patient group in Japan who lived in municipalities affected by natural disasters between 2004 and 2006 were asked to participate in a questionnaire survey. Three medical preparedness indicators, namely, medication stockpiles, the carrying of medications, and the carrying of prescription/treatment records, and three general preparedness indicators, namely, having emergency packs, emergency communication plans, and emergency evacuation plans, were used as dependent variables. Multivariable logistic models were applied to examine the associations of health-related vulnerability variables with the preparedness variables. Of the 553 subjects included into the analysis, only one-half had taken medical preparedness measures and only one-quarter had taken general preparedness measures. Although physical disability and poorer functional level were associated positively with the medical preparedness, those with poorer perceived health were less likely to carry medications and prescription/treatment records, and those receiving the highest long-term care levels were less likely to carry medications than their healthier counterparts. Among the population of chronically ill RA patients surveyed, disaster preparedness was insufficient, and their preparedness status varied with health, functional, and disability conditions. We suggest that policy-makers should give careful thought to the targets they set for disaster preparedness.

  14. Experience of Primary Care among Homeless Individuals with Mental Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrystal, Joya G.; Glover, Dawn L.; Young, Alexander S.; Whelan, Fiona; Austin, Erika L.; Johnson, Nancy K.; Pollio, David E.; Holt, Cheryl L.; Stringfellow, Erin; Gordon, Adam J.; Kim, Theresa A.; Daigle, Shanette G.; Steward, Jocelyn L.; Kertesz, Stefan G

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of primary care to homeless individuals with mental health conditions presents unique challenges. To inform healthcare improvement, we studied predictors of favorable primary care experience among homeless persons with mental health conditions treated at sites that varied in degree of homeless-specific service tailoring. This was a multi-site, survey-based comparison of primary care experiences at three mainstream primary care clinics of the Veterans Administration (VA), one homeless-tailored VA clinic, and one tailored non-VA healthcare program. Persons who accessed primary care service two or more times from July 2008 through June 2010 (N = 366) were randomly sampled. Predictor variables included patient and organization characteristics suggested by the patient perception model developed by Sofaer and Firminger (2005), with an emphasis on mental health. The primary care experience was assessed with the Primary Care Quality-Homeless (PCQ-H) questionnaire, a validated survey instrument. Multiple regression identified predictors of positive experiences (i.e. higher PCQ-H total score). Significant predictors of a positive experience included a site offering tailored service design, perceived choice among providers, and currently domiciled status. There was an interaction effect between site and severe psychiatric symptoms. For persons with severe psychiatric symptoms, a homeless-tailored service design was significantly associated with a more favorable primary care experience. For persons without severe psychiatric symptoms, this difference was not significant. This study supports the importance of tailored healthcare delivery designed for homeless persons’ needs, with such services potentially holding special relevance for persons with mental health conditions. To improve patient experience among the homeless, organizations may want to deliver services that are tailored to homelessness and offer a choice of providers. PMID:25659142

  15. Experience of primary care among homeless individuals with mental health conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joya G Chrystal

    Full Text Available The delivery of primary care to homeless individuals with mental health conditions presents unique challenges. To inform healthcare improvement, we studied predictors of favorable primary care experience among homeless persons with mental health conditions treated at sites that varied in degree of homeless-specific service tailoring. This was a multi-site, survey-based comparison of primary care experiences at three mainstream primary care clinics of the Veterans Administration (VA, one homeless-tailored VA clinic, and one tailored non-VA healthcare program. Persons who accessed primary care service two or more times from July 2008 through June 2010 (N = 366 were randomly sampled. Predictor variables included patient and organization characteristics suggested by the patient perception model developed by Sofaer and Firminger (2005, with an emphasis on mental health. The primary care experience was assessed with the Primary Care Quality-Homeless (PCQ-H questionnaire, a validated survey instrument. Multiple regression identified predictors of positive experiences (i.e. higher PCQ-H total score. Significant predictors of a positive experience included a site offering tailored service design, perceived choice among providers, and currently domiciled status. There was an interaction effect between site and severe psychiatric symptoms. For persons with severe psychiatric symptoms, a homeless-tailored service design was significantly associated with a more favorable primary care experience. For persons without severe psychiatric symptoms, this difference was not significant. This study supports the importance of tailored healthcare delivery designed for homeless persons' needs, with such services potentially holding special relevance for persons with mental health conditions. To improve patient experience among the homeless, organizations may want to deliver services that are tailored to homelessness and offer a choice of providers.

  16. Experience of primary care among homeless individuals with mental health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrystal, Joya G; Glover, Dawn L; Young, Alexander S; Whelan, Fiona; Austin, Erika L; Johnson, Nancy K; Pollio, David E; Holt, Cheryl L; Stringfellow, Erin; Gordon, Adam J; Kim, Theresa A; Daigle, Shanette G; Steward, Jocelyn L; Kertesz, Stefan G

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of primary care to homeless individuals with mental health conditions presents unique challenges. To inform healthcare improvement, we studied predictors of favorable primary care experience among homeless persons with mental health conditions treated at sites that varied in degree of homeless-specific service tailoring. This was a multi-site, survey-based comparison of primary care experiences at three mainstream primary care clinics of the Veterans Administration (VA), one homeless-tailored VA clinic, and one tailored non-VA healthcare program. Persons who accessed primary care service two or more times from July 2008 through June 2010 (N = 366) were randomly sampled. Predictor variables included patient and organization characteristics suggested by the patient perception model developed by Sofaer and Firminger (2005), with an emphasis on mental health. The primary care experience was assessed with the Primary Care Quality-Homeless (PCQ-H) questionnaire, a validated survey instrument. Multiple regression identified predictors of positive experiences (i.e. higher PCQ-H total score). Significant predictors of a positive experience included a site offering tailored service design, perceived choice among providers, and currently domiciled status. There was an interaction effect between site and severe psychiatric symptoms. For persons with severe psychiatric symptoms, a homeless-tailored service design was significantly associated with a more favorable primary care experience. For persons without severe psychiatric symptoms, this difference was not significant. This study supports the importance of tailored healthcare delivery designed for homeless persons' needs, with such services potentially holding special relevance for persons with mental health conditions. To improve patient experience among the homeless, organizations may want to deliver services that are tailored to homelessness and offer a choice of providers.

  17. [Third working conditions and health survey in Navarre, Spain: main findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Vega

    To describe health problems and working conditions perceived by workers of Navarra, Spain. Conduct of the Third Survey of Working Conditions and Health in Navarre. We administered the Seventh Spanish National Survey of Working Conditions questionnaire by personal interviews conducted in the workers' homes between October 2014 and December 2014, and using a three-stage stratified sampling approach, by economic activity, work establishment size and gender. A total of 2744 interviews were completed, with a confidence level of 95.5% and P=Q, error ± 1.99. The analysis was weighted by the sampling variables. The results were summarized as percentages for qualitative variables and point estimates for quantitative variables. Among the postivie findings, 85% of respondents were well informed of job risks, 68% had access to a health and safety representative, 50% underwent risk assessments and 60% received periodic medical examinations. Among the notable self-reported occupational risk factors were exposure to loud noise (16%), chemicals (33%), accident-prone situations (76%), repetitive movements (62%), awkward postures (41%) and biological agents (11%). Issues of concern include a high percentage of overtime work (44% of men and 39% of women), feelings of being overworked (30.6% and 29.4%, respectively) and exposure to abusive behaviors (11.7% for verbal abuse), especially among women, healthcare workers and teachers. The most prevalent health problems were musculoskeletal (49% reporting back pain) and issues related to work stress (20%). The current working conditions in Navarre feature improved preventive services, persistence of traditional occupational risk factors and emergence of new issues such as violence and work stressors. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  18. MGEx-Udb: a mammalian uterus database for expression-based cataloguing of genes across conditions, including endometriosis and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Akhilesh K; Davuluri, Sravanthi; Chandrashekar, Darshan S; Ilakya, Selvarajan; Dinakaran, Mahalakshmi; Acharya, Kshitish K

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of uterus tissue has been performed in various contexts, but a significant amount of the data remains underutilized as it is not covered by the existing general resources. We curated 2254 datasets from 325 uterus related mass scale gene expression studies on human, mouse, rat, cow and pig species. We then computationally derived a 'reliability score' for each gene's expression status (transcribed/dormant), for each possible combination of conditions and locations, based on the extent of agreement or disagreement across datasets. The data and derived information has been compiled into the Mammalian Gene Expression Uterus database (MGEx-Udb, http://resource.ibab.ac.in/MGEx-Udb/). The database can be queried with gene names/IDs, sub-tissue locations, as well as various conditions such as the cervical cancer, endometrial cycles and disorders, and experimental treatments. Accordingly, the output would be a) transcribed and dormant genes listed for the queried condition/location, or b) expression profile of the gene of interest in various uterine conditions. The results also include the reliability score for the expression status of each gene. MGEx-Udb also provides information related to Gene Ontology annotations, protein-protein interactions, transcripts, promoters, and expression status by other sequencing techniques, and facilitates various other types of analysis of the individual genes or co-expressed gene clusters. In brief, MGEx-Udb enables easy cataloguing of co-expressed genes and also facilitates bio-marker discovery for various uterine conditions.

  19. Chronic conditions and use of health care service among German centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Berenberg, Petra; Dräger, Dagmar; Zahn, Thomas; Neuwirth, Julia; Kuhlmey, Adelheid; Gellert, Paul

    2017-11-01

    there is limited data comparing conditions and health service use across care settings in centenarians. To improve health service delivery in centenarians, the aim of this study was to compare the proportion of centenarians who have chronic conditions, take medication and use health care services across different care settings. this cohort study uses routine data from a major health insurance company serving Berlin, Germany and the surrounding region, containing almost complete information on health care transactions. The sample comprised all insured individuals aged 100 years and older (N = 1,121). Community-dwelling and institutionalised individuals were included. Charlson comorbidity index was based on 5 years of recordings. Hospital stays, medical specialist visits and medication prescribed in the previous year were analysed. while 6% of the centenarians did not receive any support; 45% received family homecare or homecare by professional care services; 49% were in long-term care. The most frequent conditions were dementia and rheumatic disease/arthritis, with the highest prevalence found among long-term care residents. A total of 97% of the centenarians saw a general practitioner in the previous year. Women were more often in long-term care and less often without any care. Centenarians with long-term care showed higher proportions of comorbidities, greater medication use, and more visits to medical specialists compared with centenarians in other care settings. the higher prevalence of dementia and rheumatic disease/arthritis in long-term care compared to other care settings emphasises the role of these diseases in relation to the loss of physical and cognitive functioning.

  20. Family and professionals underestimate quality of life across diverse cultures and health conditions: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Thomas F; Smith, Jaime K; Skevington, Suzanne M

    2015-05-01

    To examine how accurately proxies evaluate quality of life (QoL) in people they know, using cross-cultural data from the multidimensional, multilingual World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment short-form (the WHOQOL-BREF) and whether accuracy varies by health condition or proxy type (eg, family/professional). Systematic review with meta-analysis: We searched five databases for reports of proxy-completed WHOQOL-BREF scores and aggregated results using a random-effects model. Minimal clinically important difference values were calculated. Analyses included nine studies (1980 dyads) of physical (n = 762) or mental (n = 604) health conditions, or intellectual disability (n = 614), in 10 countries. Mean person-proxy correlations ranged from 0.28 (social QoL) to 0.44 (physical QoL). Proxy measures were underestimates (ie, significantly lower than persons reported for themselves) for social [mean difference (MD) = 4.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 7.6], psychological (MD = 3.7, 95% CI: 0.6, 6.8), and physical (MD = 3.1, 95% CI: 0.6, 5.6) QoL. Underestimates varied significantly between health conditions for social (P Family members assessed psychological and environmental QoL better than professionals. Proxies tend to be imprecise, underestimating QoL, and should be aware of this tendency. Where health care is decided for others, family members' views about QoL should be prioritized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Odors, Deployment Stress, and Health: A Conditioning Analysis of Gulf War Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalton, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    .... The goal of this research is to investigate the extent to which people can acquire stress reactions as conditioned responses to odors and exhibit health symptoms as a result of such conditioning episodes...

  2. Odors, Deployment Stress and Health: A Conditioning Analysis of Gulf War Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalton, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    .... The goal of this research is to investigate the extent to which people can acquire stress reactions as conditioned responses to odors and exhibit health symptoms as a result of such conditioning episodes...

  3. Odors, Deployment Stress, and Health: A Conditioning Analysis of Gulf War Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalton, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    .... The goal of this research is to investigate the extent to which people can acquire stress reactions as conditioned responses to odors and exhibit health symptoms as a result of such conditioning episodes...

  4. Work conditions and occupational health of dentists in Brazilian Public Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba Moimaz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: work healthy conditions are essential for a great professional performance. Objective: To verify the perception of dentists regarding structural and healthy conditions of dental offices in the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS and their satisfaction with work and public job. Material and Method: In this cross-sectional study, type inquiry, 24 Brazilian dentists were interviewed. The follow variables were asked: cleaning and asepsis; maintenance and time of use of dental equipment; satisfaction with work and public job. Results: The professionals were "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with cleaning and asepsis (66.67%; Dental equipment (54.17%, reflectors (54.17% and the dental chairs (54.17% had more than 24 years of use; 20% of all professionals said that the equipment had maintenance but only to fix them. Of total, 58.33% had already given no attendance for patients and broken equipment was the most frequent cause (92.86%. It was observed satisfaction with work (79.1% and public job (95.83%. It was concluded that dentists who worked in SUS were satisfied with public job, although they had said the need for improvement on structural and healthy work conditions.

  5. Health conditions and support needs of persons living in residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Social Development. ... Intellectual disability (ID) is a relatively high-incidence disability, with an increased risk of poor physical and mental health. ..... marketable skills. This shortcoming is contrary to international trends that favour supported employment directed toward increased social inclusion, skills ...

  6. Relation between oral health and nutritional condition in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Lauro Rodrigues Junior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral health is a prerequisite for a good chewing function, which may have an impact on food choices and nutritional well-being. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between oral health status and nutritional status in the elderly. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 33 elderly people from the Group for the Elderly Interdisciplinary Geriatrics and Gerontology Program, at Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, RJ, Brazil, completed a questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, eating habits, physical activity and health habits, undertook a clinical oral examination, blood test, and anthropometric measurements, and were allocated into groups according to age. The oral health status was assessed using the index for decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT. The nutritional status was assessed using hemoglobin, hematocrit and albumin concentrations in blood, anthropometric values and the body mass index. RESULTS: Tooth loss was the biggest nuisance to the elderly subjects (57.6%, followed by the use of dentures (30.3% and ill-fitting dentures (33.3%. 66.6% of patients had difficulty in chewing, and 54.5% reported this to be due to prostheses and 13.6% to the absence of teeth. A significant correlation was found between DMFT and the value of suprailiac skinfold thickness (rho=0.380, p=0.029. CONCLUSION: The results support the temporal association between tooth loss and detrimental changes in anthropometry, which could contribute to increased risk of developing chronic diseases.

  7. Pattern of presentation of oral health conditions by children at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-05

    Apr 5, 2013 ... American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) recommends that a child should visit the oral health center with the appearance of the first tooth, typically at 6 months, but not later than 1 year of age.[4] During this visit, the developing occlusion should be monitored throughout eruption at regular clinical ...

  8. Young People with Health Conditions and the Inclusive Education Problematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    This article revisits debates about inclusive education from the perspective of the "Keeping Connected" project, a qualitative longitudinal research project focusing on young people with health-related disrupted experiences of schooling. Drawing on findings from this project, three main arguments are advanced and illustrated in relation…

  9. Web Use for Symptom Appraisal of Physical Health Conditions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia; Jay, Caroline; Harper, Simon; Davies, Alan; Vega, Julio; Todd, Chris

    2017-06-13

    The Web has become an important information source for appraising symptoms. We need to understand the role it currently plays in help seeking and symptom evaluation to leverage its potential to support health care delivery. The aim was to systematically review the literature currently available on Web use for symptom appraisal. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ACM Digital Library, SCOPUS, and Web of Science for any empirical studies that addressed the use of the Web by lay people to evaluate symptoms for physical conditions. Articles were excluded if they did not meet minimum quality criteria. Study findings were synthesized using a thematic approach. A total of 32 studies were included. Study designs included cross-sectional surveys, qualitative studies, experimental studies, and studies involving website/search engine usage data. Approximately 35% of adults engage in Web use for symptom appraisal, but this proportion varies between 23% and 75% depending on sociodemographic and disease-related factors. Most searches were symptom-based rather than condition-based. Users viewed only the top search results and interacted more with results that mentioned serious conditions. Web use for symptom appraisal appears to impact on the decision to present to health services, communication with health professionals, and anxiety. Web use for symptom appraisal has the potential to influence the timing of help seeking for symptoms and the communication between patients and health care professionals during consultations. However, studies lack suitable comparison groups as well as follow-up of participants over time to determine whether Web use results in health care utilization and diagnosis. Future research should involve longitudinal follow-up so that we can weigh the benefits of Web use for symptom appraisal (eg, reductions in delays to diagnosis) against the disadvantages (eg, unnecessary anxiety and health care use) and relate these to health care costs. ©Julia Mueller

  10. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Mariza Alves Barbosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elizângela; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição

    2014-05-15

    Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers.

  11. An analysis of online health information on schizophrenia or related conditions: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Around 20% of those who seek health information online, search specifically for mental health. However, little is known about the nature of the online health information offered by two European countries, Finland and Greece, which are characterized by markedly differing levels of Internet access and online health information seeking. This study aims to assess, describe and compare websites, written in two European, non-English languages (Finnish and Greek) that appear first after performing an online search concerning schizophrenia or related conditions. Methods The first 20 results from four search terms (searched in Finnish and Greek) in the Web search engine ‘Google’ were screened. A total of 160 websites were retrieved (80 Finnish, 80 Greek) and evaluated using a preformulated coding system which consisted of websites’ indicators, such as: types, characteristics, accountability, interactivity, aesthetics and content. Differences between websites were evaluated with Chi-Square or Fisher’s Exact tests for categorical data and independent t-tests for parametric data. Results Twenty-four Finnish and thirty-four Greek websites (36% in total) were included. Almost two-thirds (62%, n=36) were owned by an organization, compared to 17% (n=10) by an individual. In both countries, aesthetics had the highest score (possible range 0–4, mean = 2.6, SD = .62), while interactivity the lowest (range 0–5, mean = 1.79, SD = .87). There were no statistically significant differences among the accountability, interactivity and aesthetics scores of the Finnish and Greek websites. Conclusions All assessed indicators suggest there is a need to improve Finnish and Greek online information about schizophrenia or related conditions. The poor website interactivity is of particular concern given the challenges faced by the target group. The findings can be used to guide the development and dissemination of online mental health information aimed at Finnish and Greek

  12. Nutrition in children with long-term health conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with conditions such as cystic fibrosis, where high-energy intake is promoted to overcome excess energy losses or energy expenditure. Poorly managed parental zeal produces an oppositional response in the child. This may set a pattern for life, unless it is recognised and dealt with. Children and adolescents with type 1.

  13. The Environmental Health Condition of The New University of Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in-patient wards had large windows, but the out-patient clinics had poor natural lighting, small windows and had to rely on massive air conditioning sets for ventilation. Conclusion: The permanent site of the hospital had all the facilities required for the safety and comfort of clients and staff, but maintenance has been an ...

  14. Processes of Metastudy: A Study of Psychosocial Adaptation to Childhood Chronic Health Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Nichola

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastudy introduces a systematically aggregated interpretive portrayal of a body of literature, based on saturation and the synthesis of findings. In this metastudy, the authors examined qualitative studies addressing psychosocial adaptation to childhood chronic health conditions, published over a 30-year period (1970–2000. They describe metastudy processes, including study identification, strategies for study search and retrieval, adjudication of difference in study design and rigor, and analysis of findings. They also illustrate metastudy components through examples drawn from this project and discuss implications for practice and recommendations.

  15. Stepwise intervention including 1-on-1 counseling is highly effective in increasing influenza vaccination among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younghee; Kwon, Mihye; Song, Jeongmi

    2017-06-01

    The influenza vaccination rate among health care workers (HCWs) remains suboptimal. We attempted to increase vaccine uptake in HCWs by nonmandatory measures, including 1-on-1 counseling. In 2015 we used a stepwise approach including (1) text messaging on the last day of the vaccination period, (2) extending the vaccination period by 3 days, (3) education for the low uptake group, and (4) 1-on-1 counseling for unvaccinated HCWs after the 3 interventions. There were 1,433 HCWs included. By the end of the initial 3 days, the uptake rate was 80.0% (1,146/1,433). During an extension for a further 3 days, 33 additional HCWs received the vaccine. One month after starting the vaccination, 90.1% (1,291/1,433) of the HCWs were vaccinated, but this included only 76.1% (210/276) of the doctors (lowest among HCWs). After 3 educational presentations targeted at the unvaccinated doctors, no additional individuals were vaccinated in the following 2 weeks. After 1-on-1 counseling for unvaccinated HCWs, the overall vaccination rate increased to 94.7% (1,357/1,433) in 2015, higher than in the previous year (82.5%, P vaccinated, therefore achieving 92.4% (255/276) compliance, higher than the 56.5% in the previous year (152/269, P vaccination rates among HCWs. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Consequences of IMF Conditionality for Government Expenditure on Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Moosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Monetary Fund (IMF was established in 1944 to supervise the international monetary system that collapsed in 1971. Since then, the Fund has reinvented itself as some sort of a “development agency,” providing loans with strings attached. Any country that wishes to obtain loans must follow the IMF-prescribed policies that reflect the neoliberal ideas of the Washington Consensus. As these policies are typically contractionary and involve austerity, the IMF has been accused of pursuing policies that exhibit a negative impact on health expenditure, with dire consequences for the population. Although the empirical evidence on this issue is mixed, it is well known that the IMF operations are more likely to exert a negative effect than a positive effect on government spending on health.

  17. Work and health conditions of sugar cane workers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Hong, Oi-Saeng

    2010-12-01

    This is an exploratory research, with a quantitative approach, developed with the objective of analyzing the work and of life situations that can offer risks to the workers' health involved in the manual and automated cut of the sugar cane. The sample was composed by 39 sugar cane cutters and 16 operators of harvesters. The data collection occurred during the months of July and August of 2006, by the technique of direct observation of work situations and workers' homes and through interviews semi-structured. The interviews were recorded and later transcribed. Data were analyzed according to Social Ecological Theory. It was observed that the workers deal with multiple health risk situations, predominantly to the risks of occurrence of respiratory, musculoskeletal and psychological problems and work-related accidents due to the work activities. The interaction of individual, social and environmental factors can determine the workers' tendency to falling ill.

  18. Electronic Health Records: Cure-all or Chronic Condition?

    OpenAIRE

    Kimble, Chris

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Computer-based information systems feature in almost every aspect of our lives, and yet most of us receive handwritten prescriptions when we visit our doctors and rely on paper-based medical records in our healthcare. Although electronic health record (EHR) systems have long been promoted as a cost-effective and efficient alternative to this situation, clear-cut evidence of their success has not been forthcoming. An examination of some of the underlying problems that p...

  19. Conditions for religious discourse in secularized ethical health care deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nistelrooy, Inge; Vosman, Frans

    2012-01-01

    Religious discourse is no longer self-evident in professional health care ethical deliberation in the North Atlantic cultural sphere. However, in a world of pluralism, care professionals still seek substantive views of good care. Religious and non-religious beliefs should not be excluded from ethical deliberation. They offer patients and professionals a helpful language for expressing values and beliefs. Chaplains have a role to play as allies in sense-making processes and resourcing care.

  20. Employment status and perceived health condition: longitudinal data from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Liliana; Pigini, Claudia; Chiavarini, Manuela; Bartolucci, Francesco

    2014-09-12

    The considerable increase of non-standard labor contracts, unemployment and inactivity rates raises the question of whether job insecurity and the lack of job opportunities affect physical and mental well-being differently from being employed with an open-ended contract. In this paper we offer evidence on the relationship between self-reported health and the employment status in Italy using the Survey on Household Income and Wealth (SHIW); another aim is to investigate whether these potential inequalities have changed with the recent economic downturn (time period 2006-2010). We estimate an ordered logit model with self-reported health status (SRHS) as response variable based on a fixed-effects approach which has certain advantages with respect to the random-effects formulation: the fixed-effects nature of the model also allows us to solve the problems of incidental parameters and non-random selection of individuals into different labor market categories. We find that temporary workers, first-job seekers and unemployed individuals are worse off than permanent employees, especially males, young workers, and those living in the center and south of Italy. Health inequalities between permanent workers and job seekers widen over time for male and young workers, and arise in the north of the country as well.

  1. Mental health status, including depression and quality of life among members of an elderly club in suburban Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosulwit, Lampu

    2012-01-01

    Evolution of medical technologies extent human life expectancy. The United Nations found Thai elderly population were increased rapidly compared with other developing countries. Global estimations of the burden of disease show that mental illness plays a prominent role. Elderly club is one of the several ways to promote social interaction, gain self esteem, slow progression of physical and mental disabilities in old age people. However, the activities which certainly proper for each elderly group remains unclear because various demographic data background of elderly in each area. To determine the mental health status, including depression and quality of life among members of the Thammasat hospital elderly club which covers elderly members in northen Bangkok, Pathumthani and Ayutthaya province. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Seventy members were sampled for interview from 207 members. The assessment tools were Thai Mental Health Indicator (TMHI-54), Thai Geriatric Depression Scale (TGDS), Stress self assessment questionnaire, and World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief-Thai Version (WHOQOL-BREF-THAI). The majority of the sample was females (78.6%). The age ranged from 60 to 84 years old (mean 70.24). The prevalences of psychological problems were; poor mental health (12.90%), depression (5.7%) and stress (15.2%). The sample reported poorer quality of life on 3 sub-domains of WHOQOL; physical (2.9%), psychological (1.4%) and social relationship (4.30%) domains. The level of depression, reported by those who had not enough income, was significantly higher than those who had enough income (p = 0.022). Quality of life (physical and social relationship domain) among those aged younger than 70 years, was better than that among those aged 70 or older (p = 0.024 and p = 0.023 respectively). Quality of life (psychological domain) among those who had not enough income, was significantly poorer than those with enough income (p = 0.020). Quality of

  2. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Resources Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  3. The Condition of Oral Health in Regular Users of Psychoactive Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minic, I; Pejcic, A

    2016-02-09

    Besides various harmful effects on the overall health, chronic consumption of psychoactive substances has different consequences on oral health. The goal of this paper was to examine the condition of oral health in psychoactive substance users during the healing process and to do a comparative analysis of maintaining oral hygiene before and during the substance abuse treatment. The study included 26 regular users of psychoactive substance. All the respondents used different types of psychoactive substances for at least two years and were treated for three months. The examination was divided into two parts. The first included completing the questionnaires that contained questions related to maintaining oral hygiene while using psychoactive substances and during the substance abuse treatment (the moment of interviewing). The second included the clinical examination of the respondents during the therapy. Taking into account all information collected from the questionnaires, respondents used heroin statistically significantly more than all the other substances ( p psychoactive substances, gingiva and other periodontal tissues suffer the worst damage, but when the healing process starts, the awareness about the importance of maintaining oral hygiene improves.

  4. Differences among Thai Agricultural Workers' Health, Working Conditions, and Pesticide Use by Farm Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Mahaboonpeeti, Redeerat; Bootsikeaw, Sasivimol; Batsungnoen, Kiattisak; Hanchenlaksh, Chalalai; Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros; Woskie, Susan

    2018-02-13

    More than 11 million Thai people (38%) work in agriculture, but since most are in the informal sector, government enforcement and support are very limited. As a result, working conditions on Thai farms vary greatly, putting the health of many agricultural workers at risk. A cross-sectional study in three Thai provinces collected information on the work activities and conditions of 424 farmers representing five farm types: rice, vegetable, flower, rice/vegetable, and flower/vegetable. The agricultural workers were mainly women (60%); their average age was 53 but ranged from 18 to 87 years. More than 64% worked more than 5 days/week. Seventy-four percent of them had only primary school education. A number of the health and hazardous working conditions surveyed were significantly different by farm type. Rice farmers were found to have the highest prevalence of allergies, nasal congestion, wheezing, and acute symptoms after pesticide use, while flower farmers had the lowest prevalence of these health outcomes. Rice farmers reported the highest prevalence of hazardous working conditions including high noise levels, working on slippery surfaces, sitting or standing on a vibrating machine, spills of chemicals/pesticides, and sharp injuries. The lowest prevalence of these working conditions (except noise) was reported by flower farmers. Vegetable farmers reported the highest prevalence knee problems, while rice farmers had the lowest prevalence. Among these farmers, more than 27 different types of pesticides were reported in use during the past year, with the majority reporting use once a month. The flower/vegetable farming group reported the highest frequency of good exposure prevention practices during pesticide use. They were the most likely to report using cotton or rubber gloves or a disposable paper masks during insecticide spraying. Those farmers who only grew vegetables had the lowest frequency of good exposure prevention practices, including use of personal

  5. The Environmental Health Condition of The New University of Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    specialist hospital in. Port Harcourt, south-south Nigeria. Method: The study was carried out using an assessment checklist originally developed by the WHO. Data collected include the quantity and quality of water provided for services in the ...

  6. Working Conditions, Occupational Injuries, and Health Among Filipino Fish Processing Workers in Dutch Harbor, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gabriel Macasiray; de Castro, Butch

    2017-05-01

    This study explored how unique environmental conditions in Alaska influenced occupational health and safety for Filipino fish processing workers, many of whom migrated from warm locations (e.g., the Philippines, California, and Nevada). In-depth interviews were conducted with 26 Filipino workers in one commercial fish processing company in Dutch Harbor. Results indicated that cold weather interferes with workers' job performance, increasing their risk for injury and illness, whereas the community's isolation and rural nature causes loneliness and boredom, resulting in more high-risk behaviors. Other non-environmental factors affecting worker health include roommate and supervisor concerns and culture-specific practices. Findings suggest the importance of job rotation to avoid long exposures to cold temperatures, the value of a designated individual to inform workers about company and community resources that promote healthy lifestyles, and the possible utility of a joint worker-management safety committee.

  7. Undocumented migrants in Canada: a scope literature review on health, access to services, and working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Lilian; Carrasco, Christine; Gastaldo, Denise

    2010-02-01

    It is estimated that there are 30-40 million undocumented workers worldwide. Although undocumented migration has become an issue of high international relevance, it has been strikingly understudied in Canada, especially with respect to its impact on health. The purpose of this study is to explore the concept of undocumentedness in Canada through a scoping review of peer-reviewed and grey literature written in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish between 2002 and 2008. The specific aims are to: (i) summarize and disseminate current academic and community-based findings on the health, service access and working conditions of undocumented migrants in Canada; (ii) examine the sources and use of evidence; (iii) identify significant gaps in existing knowledge; (iv) set recommendations for policy and research, including considerations on transnationalism, ethics, interdisciplinary approaches, gender differences, resilience, and impact on the children of non-status parents.

  8. Factors associated with attributions about child health conditions and social distance preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukolo, Abraham; Heflinger, Craig Anne

    2011-06-01

    In order to better understand factors that account for the emergence and persistence of negative attitudes towards mental health problems, attributions about and stigma towards children's mental and physical illnesses were examined using National Stigma Study-Children data. Parent blame attributions were most strongly associated with attention deficit disorder, environmental causes with depression, and biology with asthma. Parent blame was more frequent for mental than physical health conditions. Child blame was associated with higher preferred social distance from the child, but no clear links were observed between social distance and attributions about genetic/biology, environment, or parent blame. Rurality was not significantly associated with attributions or social distance preference. Higher educational achievement was associated with increased endorsement of environmental stress factors and reduced odds of child blaming. The general public holds complex explanatory models of and nuanced responses to children's mental disorders that need further investigation, including effects on parents' and children's help-seeking.

  9. Assessing the Financial Condition of Provider-Sponsored Health Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of health plans sponsored by provider organizations, with respect to plans generating strong positive cash flow relative to plans generating weaker cash flow. A secondary aim was to assess their capital adequacy. The study identified 24 provider-sponsored health plans (PSHPs) with an average positive cash flow margin from 2011 through 2013 at or above the top 75th percentile, defined as "strong cash flow PSHPs:" This group was compared with 72 PSHPs below the 75th percentile, defined as "weak cash flow PSHPs:" Atlantic Information Services Directory of Health Plans was used to identify the PSHPs. Financial ratios were computed from 2013 National Association of Insurance Commissioners Financial Filings. The study conducted a t test mean comparison between strong and weak cash flow PSHPs across an array of financial performance and capital adequacy measures. In 2013, the strong cash flow PSHPs averaged a cash-flow margin ratio of 6.6%. Weak cash flow PSHPs averaged a cash-flow margin of -0.4%. The net worth capital position of both groups was more than 4.5 times authorized capital. The operational analysis shows that strong cash-flow margin PSHPs are managing their medical costs to achieve this position. Although their medical loss ratio increased by almost 300 basis points from 2011 to 2013, it was still statistically significantly lower than the weaker cash flow PSHP group (P<.001). In terms of capital adequacy, both strong and weak cash-flow margin PSHP groups possessed sufficient capital to ensure the viability of these plans.

  10. Health Condition of Individuals in Contact with 60 Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milacic, S.; Jovicic, D.; Bulat, P.

    1997-01-01

    Individuals who are not professionally exposed to ionizing radiation may have the risk of contact with radioactive substances by nature of teir profession. Our aim is ti suggest a methodology for evaluation of immediate health impairment and possible late consquences of exposure of these individuals. Except for anamnestic, clinical and general laboratory indicators we analyzed cell morphology, enzymes and chromosomal aberration as well as indicators of free radicals concentrations in 62 which were in contact with 60 Co. The obtained results and evaluation of exposure and absorbed doses indicate possible consequaences in 8 subjects who are close to the source. (author)

  11. Self-management support and training for patients with chronic and complex conditions improves health-related behaviour and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Peter W; Petkov, John N; Misan, Gary; Fuller, Jeffrey; Battersby, Malcolm W; Cayetano, Teofilo N; Warren, Kate; Holmes, Paul

    2008-05-01

    The Sharing Health Care SA chronic disease self-management (CDSM) project in rural South Australia was designed to assist patients with chronic and complex conditions (diabetes, cardiovascular disease and arthritis) to learn how to participate more effectively in the management of their condition and to improve their self-management skills. Participants with chronic and complex conditions were recruited into the Sharing Health Care SA program and offered a range of education and support options (including a 6-week peer-led chronic disease self-management program) as part of the Enhanced Primary Care care planning process. Patient self-reported data were collected at baseline and subsequent 6-month intervals using the Partners in Health (PIH) scale to assess self-management skill and ability for 175 patients across four data collection points. Health providers also scored patient knowledge and self-management skills using the same scale over the same intervals. Patients also completed a modified Stanford 2000 Health Survey for the same time intervals to assess service utilisation and health-related lifestyle factors. Results show that both mean patient self-reported PIH scores and mean health provider PIH scores for patients improved significantly over time, indicating that patients demonstrated improved understanding of their condition and improved their ability to manage and deal with their symptoms. These results suggest that involvement in peer-led self-management education programs has a positive effect on patient self-management skill, confidence and health-related behaviour.

  12. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Mental Health, Chronic Medical Conditions, and Development in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerker, Bonnie D; Zhang, Jinjin; Nadeem, Erum; Stein, Ruth E K; Hurlburt, Michael S; Heneghan, Amy; Landsverk, John; McCue Horwitz, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    To determine the relationships between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and mental health, chronic medical conditions, and social development among young children in the child welfare system. This cross-sectional study used a nationally representative sample of children investigated by child welfare (National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II) from 2008 to 2009. Our analysis included caregiver interviews and caseworker reports about children aged 18 to 71 months who were not in out-of-home care (n = 912). We examined the associations between ACEs and mental health (measured by the Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL]), reported chronic medical conditions, and social development (measured by the Vineland Socialization Scale) in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Nearly all children (98.1%) were reported to have had an ACE in their lifetime; the average number of ACEs was 3.6. For every additional reported ACE, there was a 32% increased odds of having a problem score on the CBCL (odds ratio [OR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14, 1.53) and a 21% increased odds of having a chronic medical condition (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.05, 1.40). Among children aged 36 to 71 months, for every additional reported ACE, there was a 77% increased odds of a low Vineland Socialization score (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.12, 2.78). ACEs were associated with poor early childhood mental health and chronic medical conditions, and, among children aged 3 to 5, social development. Efforts are needed to examine whether providing early intervention to families with multiple stressors mitigates the impact of ACEs on children's outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of zeolite on health condition of canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučićević Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of investigations of elementary hematological and biochemical blood parameters of German Shepherd dogs administered zeolite through feed daily for a period of 50 days. No undesired effects were established during the period of observation, and in fact there was a full normalization of the condition of the dogs that previously exhibited transitory symptoms of gastrointestinal tract disorders. No significant digressions were observed in the examined biochemical parameters of blood, either, that could indicate any harmful effects of zeolite, with the exception of the tendency toward a reduction in the concentrations of phosphorus and calcium, which was not manifest clinically as well during this period.

  14. [Informal sellers' health status and working conditions in the Bazurto market in Cartagena].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Palencia, Isabel P; Castillo-Ávila, Irma Y; Banquez-Salas, Annia P; Castro-Ortega, Audrey J; Lara-Escalante, Hilda R

    2012-06-01

    Determining informal sellers' health status and working conditions in the Bazurto market in Cartagena. The target population consisted of informal sellers working in the Bazurto market; sample size consisted of 584 sellers. A check-list was used to describe their working conditions. A "health disorders" test and neurotoxic symptoms scale (Q16) were used to determine health status and the body mass index (BMI) for determining nutritional status. 583 sellers participated in the study, having an average age of 39 years (38-40 95 %CI). 87.8 % (512) of the participants were exposed to constant noise, 84.9 % (495) worked in places having high temperatures, 74.1 % (432) were exposed to dust, and 69.8 % (407) did not use personal protective equipment. They were working 10 hours a day on average. 71 % (414) suffered from physical exhaustion, 72.4 % (422) had headaches, 63.7 % (371) had back pain and 62.7 % (365) suffered from pains in their legs. The target population's physical environment was inadequate, they worked for too many hours and some workplaces were dangerous. The informal sellers' symptoms included back pain, headaches, leg pain, eye strain and physical fatigue.

  15. [Clinical and cost effectiveness of rehabilitation programs including physical exercises for patients with ischemic heart disease under conditions of resort and outpatient clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhova, E V; Guliaeva, S F; Tsarev, Iu K; Chervotkina, L A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate clinical and cost effectiveness of rehabilitation programs including long-term physical training of moderate intensity intended for the management of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who had undergone acute coronary events; the programs were adapted to the treatment under conditions of spa resorts, dispensaries, and outpatient clinics. It was shown that rehabilitation of patients presenting with CDH with the use of moderately intensive physical exercises during a long period enhances the effectiveness of application of the available funds due to improved clinical course of coronary heart disease, tolerance of physical load, and quality of life.

  16. Consent for use of personal information for health research: Do people with potentially stigmatizing health conditions and the general public differ in their opinions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Lisa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma refers to a distinguishing personal trait that is perceived as or actually is physically, socially, or psychologically disadvantageous. Little is known about the opinion of those who have more or less stigmatizing health conditions regarding the need for consent for use of their personal information for health research. Methods We surveyed the opinions of people 18 years and older with seven health conditions. Participants were drawn from: physicians' offices and clinics in southern Ontario; and from a cross-Canada marketing panel of individuals with the target health conditions. For each of five research scenarios presented, respondents chose one of five consent choices: (1 no need for me to know; (2 notice with opt-out; (3 broad opt-in; (4 project-specific permission; and (5 this information should not be used. Consent choices were regressed onto: demographics; health condition; and attitude measures of privacy, disclosure concern, and the benefits of health research. We conducted focus groups to discuss possible reasons for observed consent choices. Results We observed substantial variation in the control that people wish to have over use of their personal information for research. However, consent choice profiles were similar across health conditions, possibly due to sampling bias. Research involving profit or requiring linkage of health information with income, education, or occupation were associated with more restrictive consent choices. People were more willing to link their health information with biological samples than with information about their income, occupation, or education. Conclusions The heterogeneity in consent choices suggests individuals should be offered some choice in use of their information for different types of health research, even if limited to selectively opting-out. Some of the implementation challenges could be designed into the interoperable electronic health record. However, many

  17. Including health economic analysis in pilot studies: lessons learned from a cost-utility analysis within the PROSPECTIV pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richéal M. Burns

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo assess feasibility and health economic benefits and costs as part of a pilot study for a nurse-led, psychoeducational intervention (NPLI for prostate cancer in order to understand the potential for cost effectiveness as well as contribute to the design of a larger scale trial.MethodsMen with stable prostate cancer post-treatment were recruited from two cancer centres in the UK. Eighty-three men were randomised to the NLPI plus usual care or usual care alone (UCA (42 NLPI and 41 UCA; the NLPI plus usual care was delivered in the primary-care setting (the intervention and included an initial face-to-face consultation with a trained nurse, with follow-up tailored to individual needs. The study afforded the opportunity to undertake a short-term within pilot analysis. The primary outcome measure for the economic evaluation was quality of life, as measured by the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L instrument. Costs (£2014 assessed included health-service resource use, out-of-pocket expenses and losses from inability to undertake usual activities.ResultsTotal and incremental costs varied across the different scenarios assessed, with mean cost differences ranging from £173 to £346; incremental effect, as measured by the change in utility scores over the duration of follow-up, exhibited wide confidence intervals highlighting inconclusive effectiveness (95% CI: -0.0226; 0.0438. The cost per patient of delivery of the intervention would be reduced if rolled out to a larger patient cohort.ConclusionsThe NLPI is potentially cost saving depending on the scale of delivery; however, the results presented are not considered generalisable.

  18. 42 CFR 486.104 - Condition for coverage: Qualifications, orientation and health of technical personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition for coverage: Qualifications, orientation...-Ray Services § 486.104 Condition for coverage: Qualifications, orientation and health of technical... in a school approved by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT), or...

  19. A gene-derived SNP-based high resolution linkage map of carrot including the location of QTL conditioning root and leaf anthocyanin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, Pablo F; Iorizzo, Massimo; Yildiz, Mehtap; Senalik, Douglas; Parsons, Joshua; Ellison, Shelby; Simon, Philipp W

    2014-12-16

    Purple carrots accumulate large quantities of anthocyanins in their roots and leaves. These flavonoid pigments possess antioxidant activity and are implicated in providing health benefits. Informative, saturated linkage maps associated with well characterized populations segregating for anthocyanin pigmentation have not been developed. To investigate the genetic architecture conditioning anthocyanin pigmentation we scored root color visually, quantified root anthocyanin pigments by high performance liquid chromatography in segregating F2, F3 and F4 generations of a mapping population, mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) onto a dense gene-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based linkage map, and performed comparative trait mapping with two unrelated populations. Root pigmentation, scored visually as presence or absence of purple coloration, segregated in a pattern consistent with a two gene model in an F2, and progeny testing of F3-F4 families confirmed the proposed genetic model. Purple petiole pigmentation was conditioned by a single dominant gene that co-segregates with one of the genes conditioning root pigmentation. Root total pigment estimate (RTPE) was scored as the percentage of the root with purple color.All five anthocyanin glycosides previously reported in carrot, as well as RTPE, varied quantitatively in the F2 population. For the purpose of QTL analysis, a high resolution gene-derived SNP-based linkage map of carrot was constructed with 894 markers covering 635.1 cM with a 1.3 cM map resolution. A total of 15 significant QTL for all anthocyanin pigments and for RTPE mapped to six chromosomes. Eight QTL with the largest phenotypic effects mapped to two regions of chromosome 3 with co-localized QTL for several anthocyanin glycosides and for RTPE. A single dominant gene conditioning anthocyanin acylation was identified and mapped.Comparative mapping with two other carrot populations segregating for purple color indicated that carrot anthocyanin

  20. Mental Health Conditions and Symptoms in Pediatric Hospitalizations: A Single-Center Point Prevalence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doupnik, Stephanie K; Henry, M Katherine; Bae, Hanah; Litman, Jessica; Turner, Shanarra; Scharko, Alexander M; Feudtner, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Children and adolescents necessitating hospitalization for physical health conditions are at high risk for mental health conditions; however, the prevalence of mental health conditions and symptoms among hospitalized children and adolescents is uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of hospitalized children and adolescents who have diagnosed mental health disorders or undiagnosed mental health problems. In this single-center point prevalence study of hospitalized children between the ages of 4 and 21 years, patients or their parents reported known mental health diagnoses and use of services using the Services Assessment for Children and Adolescent, and they reported patient mental health symptoms using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist, 17-item form (PSC-17). Of 229 eligible patients, 119 agreed to participate. Demographic characteristics of patients who enrolled were not statistically significantly different from those of patients who declined to participate. Among participants, 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18%-35%) reported a known mental health diagnosis. On the PSC-17, 29% (95% CI, 21%-38%) of participants had a positive screen for mental health symptoms. Of those with a positive screen, 38% (95% CI, 21%-55%) had no known mental health diagnosis, and 26% (95% CI, 12%-43%) had not received ambulatory mental health services in the 12 months before hospitalization. Mental health conditions and symptoms are common among patients hospitalized in a tertiary children's hospital, and many affected patients are not receiving ambulatory mental health services. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing Sustainable Workplaces with Leadership: Feedback about Organizational Working Conditions to Support Leaders in Health-Promoting Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jiménez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Organizations should support leaders in promoting their employees’ health in every possible way to achieve a sustainable workplace. A good way to support leaders could include getting feedback about their health-promoting behavior from their employees. The present study introduces an instrument (Health-Promoting Leadership Conditions; HPLC that enables the provision of feedback about the leaders’ efforts to create health-promoting working conditions in seven key aspects: health awareness, workload, control, reward, community, fairness and value-fit. The instrument was used in employee surveys and in an online study, obtaining a sample of 430 participants. The results showed that all seven key aspects of health-promoting leadership can be assigned to a main factor of health-promoting leadership. In addition, the HPLC shows high construct validity with dimensions of stress, resources and burnout (Recovery-Stress- Questionnaire for Work [RESTQ-Work] and Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey [MBI-GS]. The results indicate that the HPLC can be used as a basis on which to assess health-promoting leadership behavior with a focus on changing working conditions. By getting feedback about their leadership behavior from their employees, leaders can identify their potential and fields for improvement for supporting their employees’ health and developing a sustainable workplace.

  2. Bacterial diversity in saliva and oral health-related conditions: the Hisayama Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Toru; Kageyama, Shinya; Furuta, Michiko; Tsuboi, Hidenori; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shibata, Yukie; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2016-02-01

    This population-based study determined the salivary microbiota composition of 2,343 adult residents of Hisayama town, Japan, using 16S rRNA gene next-generation high-throughput sequencing. Of 550 identified species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 72 were common, in ≥75% of all individuals, as well as in ≥75% of the individuals in the lowest quintile of phylogenetic diversity (PD). These “core” OTUs constituted 90.9 ± 6.1% of each microbiome. The relative abundance profiles of 22 of the core OTUs with mean relative abundances ≥1% were stratified into community type I and community type II by partitioning around medoids clustering. Multiple regression analysis revealed that a lower PD was associated with better conditions for oral health, including a lower plaque index, absence of decayed teeth, less gingival bleeding, shallower periodontal pockets and not smoking, and was also associated with tooth loss. By contrast, multiple Poisson regression analysis demonstrated that community type II, as characterized by a higher ratio of the nine dominant core OTUs, including Neisseria flavescens, was implicated in younger age, lower body mass index, fewer teeth with caries experience, and not smoking. Our large-scale data analyses reveal variation in the salivary microbiome among Japanese adults and oral health-related conditions associated with the salivary microbiome.

  3. Single particle ICP-MS as a tool for determining the stability of silver nanoparticles in aquatic matrixes under various environmental conditions, including treatment by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telgmann, Lena; Nguyen, Michael Thanh Khoa; Shen, Li; Yargeau, Viviane; Hintelmann, Holger; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2016-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in a large number of consumer products due to their antimicrobial and antifungal properties, and these materials may be discharged into municipal wastewater. Wastewater treatment, including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), may modify the forms of silver in wastewater before they are discharged into surface waters. In addition, little is known about the changes in AgNPs that occur in natural waters under different environmental conditions. In this project, we utilized single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analytical techniques to evaluate changes in the number and size of AgNPs in laboratory experiments with milliQ water under different environmental conditions, as well as during ozonation. Changes in the number and size of AgNPs determined by spICP-MS were evidence of altered stability of the nanoparticles. Increased rates of dissolution occurred under extremes of pH. Lower temperature decreased the rate of dissolution of AgNP relative to the dissolution in treatments at room temperature. The addition of chloride resulted in the loss of AgNPs from suspension due to agglomeration and precipitation. Ozonation led to a rapid decline in the number and size of AgNPs, as indicated by both spICP-MS and DLS analysis. An increase in the concentration of dissolved silver in the ozone treatments was evidence that changes in particle size were a result of oxidative dissolution of AgNPs to silver ion. Graphical abstract Single particle ICP-MS is used to evaluate dissolution of silver nanoparticles under different environmental conditions, including water treatment by ozonation.

  4. The double whammy of a work handicap (differential) effects of health on working conditions and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, R.; Giesen, F.B.M.; Ybema, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of health on working conditions and outcomes. METHODS: Data were collected in the longitudinal Study on Health at Work (n = 1597 employees), using multiple regression analyses and focusing on three groups of employees: 1) healthy, 2) chronic health complaints

  5. Characterisation of mental health conditions in social media using Informed Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsis, George; Oellrich, Anika; Velupillai, Sumithra; Liakata, Maria; Hubbard, Tim J. P.; Dobson, Richard J. B.; Dutta, Rina

    2017-03-01

    The number of people affected by mental illness is on the increase and with it the burden on health and social care use, as well as the loss of both productivity and quality-adjusted life-years. Natural language processing of electronic health records is increasingly used to study mental health conditions and risk behaviours on a large scale. However, narrative notes written by clinicians do not capture first-hand the patients’ own experiences, and only record cross-sectional, professional impressions at the point of care. Social media platforms have become a source of ‘in the moment’ daily exchange, with topics including well-being and mental health. In this study, we analysed posts from the social media platform Reddit and developed classifiers to recognise and classify posts related to mental illness according to 11 disorder themes. Using a neural network and deep learning approach, we could automatically recognise mental illness-related posts in our balenced dataset with an accuracy of 91.08% and select the correct theme with a weighted average accuracy of 71.37%. We believe that these results are a first step in developing methods to characterise large amounts of user-generated content that could support content curation and targeted interventions.

  6. An Analysis of health conditions in municipalities of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovídio Cesar Barbosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to analyze the health conditions in the municipal districts checking which of them best optimize the available resources, consequently offering more and better services to the population. In this approach, first was characterized the public health in Brazil, in the state of Paraná and in its municipalities. We build a Performance Indicator for each county in the state (PI and used variables representing mortality and longevity - infant mortality, mortality up to five years, life expectancy and probability of achieving 60 years. Regarding variables, those relating to health spending, the analysis period was from 2007 to 2010, the population information refer to the 2010 Census and the related infrastructure and health of the population, were collected at the DATASUS. The work includes all municipalities in the state of Paraná. By analyzing the results it was found that there are municipalities that can equate better their inputs and thus provide better service to its population, consequently your ID is better. Another aspect to consider is that the municipalities considered Big City are less dependent on current transfers both the state and the Union, which also have better PI. The city of Colombo was the one with the best performance indicator, while the municipalities of Cruzmaltina and Cantagalo have the worst state ID.

  7. [Fulfilment of the criteria about scientific authorship in Spanish biomedical and health science journals included in Journal Citation Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Rafael; Marcos-Cartagena, Diego; Delgado López-Cózar, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Scientific journals have been recognized to have the authority to register both the ownership of ideas and the validity of published knowledge. This paper explores the extent to which the editorial policies of journals contribute to ensure the accuracy of scientific authorship. Cross-sectional study of scientific authorship criteria used by 23 Spanish medical journals included in Journal Citation Reports 2008 and evaluation of their fulfilment to the uniformity requirements URM of ICMJE. Criteria have been structured in observational items and six levels of fulfilment have been established in order to quantify its adjustment to URM. 52% of journals do not make a reference to URM, 39% only provides some information on the conditions to be respected by the signatories of an article and only 26% (6 magazines) comply with URM. 61% of the journals declare information regarding the responsibility contracted by authors. 35% of the journals give some type guidelines as to the number of authors but no one mentions signature order. As for acknowledgments and corresponding address instructions, 61% declare it but 30,4% only properly formulate their aims. Only 48% of the journals include one or some instructions related with scientific authorship. Results coincide with those of other studies. Despite the existence of an international standard such as URM, authorship criteria provided by journals are scarce and uneven. The assertion that URM is universally well-known by medical journals is questioned.

  8. How hard can it be to include research evidence and evaluation in local health policy implementation? Results from a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Bridie Angela

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an evidence-based approach is the ideal model for planning and delivering healthcare, barriers exist to using research evidence to implement and evaluate service change. This paper aims to inform policy implementation and evaluation by understanding the role of research evidence at the local level through implementation of a national chronic conditions management policy. Methods We conducted a national email survey of health service commissioners at the most devolved level of decision-making in Wales (Local Health Boards – LHBs followed by in-depth interviews with representatives of LHBs, purposively selecting five to reflect geographic and economic characteristics. Survey data were analysed descriptively; we used thematic analysis for interview data. Results All LHBs (n = 22 completed questionnaires. All reported they routinely assessed the research literature before implementing interventions, but free-text answers revealed wide variation in approach. Most commonly reported information sources included personal contacts, needs assessments, information or research databases. No consistent approach to evaluation was reported. Frequently reported challenges were: insufficient staff capacity (17/22; limited skills, cost, limited time, competing priorities (16/22; availability and quality of routine data (15/22. Respondents reported they would value central guidance on evaluation. Five interviews were held with managers from the five LHBs contacted. Service delivery decisions were informed by Welsh Government initiatives and priorities, budgets, perceived good practice, personal knowledge, and local needs, but did not include formal research evidence, they reported. Decision making was a collaborative process including clinical staff, patient representatives, and partner organization managers with varying levels of research experience. Robust evaluation data were required, but they were constrained by a lack of skills

  9. Stress, Health Behavior, and Sleep as Mediators of the Association between Loneliness and Adverse Health Conditions among Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Julie

    Prior research has established an association between loneliness and a variety of negative health conditions among older people. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the association. The Loneliness Model seeks to explain the mechanisms through which chronic loneliness might...... affect the development of adverse health conditions. The present study was designed to test the explanation proposed by the Loneliness Model. The sample consisted of 8.593 elderly ranging from 65 to 103 years participating in the 2013 Public Health Survey; “How are you?”. Results showed that loneliness...... was significantly associated with poor self-rated health, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and migraine. In addition, high perceived stress, physical inactivity, problems with alcohol, and poor sleep demonstrated an indirect effect on the association between loneliness and adverse health conditions. The findings...

  10. Social and economic conditions in childhood and the progression of functional health problems from midlife into old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agahi, Neda; Shaw, Benjamin A; Fors, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    Childhood living conditions have been found to predict health and mortality in midlife and in old age. This study examines the associations between social and economic childhood conditions and the onset and progression of functional health problems from midlife into old age, and the extent to which potential associations are mediated by educational attainment and smoking. Data from the Level of Living Survey and the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old were merged to create a longitudinal data set with five repeated measures from 1968 to 2004 (n=1765, aged 30-50 years and free from functional health problems at baseline). Multilevel regression models were used to analyse retrospective reports of social and economic conditions in childhood (eg, conflicts or economic problems in the family) in relation to the progression of functional health problems over the 36-year period. Results showed that social and economic disadvantages in childhood were associated with an earlier onset and a faster progression of functional health problems from midlife into old age. Subsequent models showed that differences in educational attainment, but not smoking, explained much of the association between childhood disadvantages and trajectories of functional health problems. According to these results, adverse social and economic conditions in childhood affect the development of functional health problems from midlife into old age indirectly through less favourable life careers, including lower education. Creating equal opportunities for educational attainment may help reduce the long-term effects of disadvantaged childhood conditions and postpone functional health problems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Work, health, and welfare: the association between working conditions, welfare states, and self-reported general health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; Van der Wel, Kjetil A; Eikemo, Terje A; Dragano, Nico

    2014-01-01

    This article is the first to examine the association between self-reported general health and a wide range of working conditions at the European level and by type of welfare state regime. Data for 21,705 men and women ages 16 to 60 from 27 European countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. The influence of individual-level sociodemographic, physical, and psychosocial working conditions and of the organization of work were assessed in multilevel logistic regression analyses, with additional stratification by welfare state regime type (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Eastern European, Scandinavian, and Southern). At the European level, we found that "not good" general health was more likely to be reported by workers more exposed to hazardous working conditions. Most notably, tiring working positions, job strain, and temporary job contracts were strongly associated with a higher likelihood of reporting "not good" health. Analysis by welfare state regime found that only tiring or painful working conditions were consistently associated with worse self-reported health in all regimes. There was no evidence that the Scandinavian welfare regime protected against the adverse health effects of poor working conditions. The article concludes by examining the implications for comparative occupational health research.

  12. Use of health care claims data to study patients with ophthalmologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Joshua D; Lum, Flora; Lee, Paul P; Rich, William L; Coleman, Anne L

    2014-05-01

    To describe what information is or is not included in health care claims data, provide an overview of the main advantages and limitations of performing analyses using health care claims data, and offer general guidance on how to report and interpret findings of ophthalmology-related claims data analyses. Systematic review. Not applicable. A literature review and synthesis of methods for claims-based data analyses. Not applicable. Some advantages of using claims data for analyses include large, diverse sample sizes, longitudinal follow-up, lack of selection bias, and potential for complex, multivariable modeling. The disadvantages include (a) the inherent limitations of claims data, such as incomplete, inaccurate, or missing data, or the lack of specific billing codes for some conditions; and (b) the inability, in some circumstances, to adequately evaluate the appropriateness of care. In general, reports of claims data analyses should include clear descriptions of the following methodological elements: the data source, the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the specific billing codes used, and the potential confounding factors incorporated in the multivariable models. The use of claims data for research is expected to increase with the enhanced availability of data from Medicare and other sources. The use of claims data to evaluate resource use and efficiency and to determine the basis for supplementary payment methods for physicians is anticipated. Thus, it will be increasingly important for eye care providers to use accurate and descriptive codes for billing. Adherence to general guidance on the reporting of claims data analyses, as outlined in this article, is important to enhance the credibility and applicability of findings. Guidance on optimal ways to conduct and report ophthalmology-related investigations using claims data will likely continue to evolve as health services researchers refine the metrics to analyze large administrative data sets. Copyright

  13. The post-millennium development goals agenda: include 'end to all wars' as a public health goal!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2014-09-01

    The process of identifying global post-millennium development goals (post-MDGs) has begun in earnest. Consensus is emerging in certain areas (e.g. eliminating poverty) and conflicts and violence are recognized as key factors that retard human development. However, current discussions focus on tackling intra-state conflicts and individual-based violence and hardly mention eliminating wars as a goal. Wars create public health catastrophes. They kill, maim, displace and affect millions. Inter-state wars fuel intra-state conflicts and violence. The peace agenda should not be the monopoly of the UN Security Council, and the current consensus-building process setting the post-MDG agenda is a rallying point for the global community. The human rights approach will not suffice to eliminate wars, because few are fought to protect human rights. The development agenda should therefore commit to eliminating all wars by 2030. Targets to reduce tensions and discourage wars should be included. We should act now. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Nonrandomized studies are not always found even when selection criteria for health systems intervention reviews include them: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Mayhew, Alain; Scheel, Inger; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Systematic reviews within the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) can include both randomized and nonrandomized study designs. We explored how many EPOC reviews consider and identify nonrandomized studies, and whether the proportion of nonrandomized studies identified is linked to the review topic. We recorded the study designs considered in 65 EPOC reviews. For reviews that considered nonrandomized studies, we calculated the proportion of identified studies that were nonrandomized and explored whether there were differences in the proportion of nonrandomized studies according to the review topic. Fifty-one (78.5%) reviews considered nonrandomized studies. Forty-six of these reviews found nonrandomized studies, but the proportion varied a great deal (median, 33%; interquartile range, 25--50%). Reviews of health care delivery interventions had lower proportions of nonrandomized studies than those of financial and governance interventions. Most EPOC reviews consider nonrandomized studies, but the degree to which they find them varies. As nonrandomized studies are believed to be at higher risk of bias and their inclusion entails a considerable effort, review authors should consider whether the benefits justify the inclusion of these designs. Research should explore whether it is more useful to consider nonrandomized studies in reviews of some intervention types than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stress, Health Behavior, and Sleep as Mediators of the Association between Loneliness and Adverse Health Conditions among Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Julie

    was significantly associated with poor self-rated health, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and migraine. In addition, high perceived stress, physical inactivity, problems with alcohol, and poor sleep demonstrated an indirect effect on the association between loneliness and adverse health conditions. The findings...

  17. An Innovative Mixed Methods Approach to Studying the Online Health Information Seeking Experiences of Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoh, Joanne; Bond, Carol S.; Todres, Les

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative sequential mixed methods approach to researching the experiences of U.K. adults with chronic health conditions seeking health information online. The use of multiple methods integrated within a single study ensured that the focus of the research was emergent and relevant and ultimately provided a more complete…

  18. Forest health conditions on the Allegheny National Forest (1989-1999): Analysis of forest health monitoring surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Morin; A.M. Liebhold; K.W. Gottschalk; D.B. Twardus; R.E. Acciavatti; R.L. White; S.B. Horsley; W.D. Smith; E.R. Luzader

    2001-01-01

    This publication describes the forest vegetation and health conditions of the Allegheny National Forest (ANF). During the past 15 years, the ANF has experienced four severe droughts, several outbreaks of exotic and native insect defoliators, and the effects of other disturbance agents. An increase in tree mortality has raised concerns about forest health. Historical...

  19. Use of electronic health records and administrative data for public health surveillance of eye health and vision-related conditions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Amanda F; Davidson, Arthur; Lum, Flora; Chiang, Michael F; Saaddine, Jinan B; Zhang, Xinzhi; Crews, John E; Chou, Chiu-Fang

    2012-12-01

    To discuss the current trend toward greater use of electronic health records and how these records could enhance public health surveillance of eye health and vision-related conditions. Perspective, comparing systems. We describe 3 currently available sources of electronic health data (Kaiser Permanente, the Veterans Health Administration, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services) and how these sources can contribute to a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system. Each of the 3 sources of electronic health data can contribute meaningfully to a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system, but none currently provide all the information required. The use of electronic health records for vision and eye health surveillance has both advantages and disadvantages. Electronic health records may provide additional information needed to create a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system. Recommendations for incorporating electronic health records into such a system are presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Health, work and working conditions: a review of the European economic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnay, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Economists have traditionally been very cautious when studying the interaction between employment and health because of the two-way causal relationship between these two variables: health status influences the probability of being employed and, at the same time, working affects the health status. Because these two variables are determined simultaneously, researchers control endogeneity skews (e.g., reverse causality, omitted variables) when conducting empirical analysis. With these caveats in mind, the literature finds that a favourable work environment and high job security lead to better health conditions. Being employed with appropriate working conditions plays a protective role on physical health and psychiatric disorders. By contrast, non-employment and retirement are generally worse for mental health than employment, and overemployment has a negative effect on health. These findings stress the importance of employment and of adequate working conditions for the health of workers. In this context, it is a concern that a significant proportion of European workers (29 %) would like to work fewer hours because unwanted long hours are likely to signal a poor level of job satisfaction and inadequate working conditions, with detrimental effects on health. Thus, in Europe, labour-market policy has increasingly paid attention to job sustainability and job satisfaction. The literature clearly invites employers to take better account of the worker preferences when setting the number of hours worked. Overall, a specific "flexicurity" (combination of high employment protection, job satisfaction and active labour-market policies) is likely to have a positive effect on health.

  1. Do unfavourable working conditions explain mental health inequalities between ethnic groups? Cross-sectional data of the HELIUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Schene, Aart H; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2015-08-20

    Ethnic inequalities in mental health have been found in many high-income countries. The purpose of this study is to test whether mental health inequalities between ethnic groups are mediated by exposure to unfavourable working conditions. Workers (n = 6278) were selected from baseline data of the multi-ethnic HELIUS study. Measures included two indices of unfavourable working conditions (lack of recovery opportunities, and perceived work stress), and two mental health outcomes (generic mental health: MCS-12 and depressive symptoms: PHQ-9). Mediation of the relationships between ethnicity and mental health by unfavourable working conditions was tested using the bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals technique. Linear models with and without the mediators included, and adjusted for gender and age. Attenuation was calculated as the change in B between the models with and without mediators. The sample comprised Dutch (1355), African Surinamese (1290), South-Asian Surinamese (1121), Turkish (1090), Ghanaian (729), and Moroccan (693) workers. After controlling for age and gender, all ethnic minorities had a higher risk of mental health problems as compared to the Dutch host population, with the exception of Ghanaians in the case of depressive symptoms, and African Surinamese workers with regard to both outcomes. The Turkish group stands out with the lowest mental health on both mental health indices, followed by Moroccan and South-Asian Surinamese workers. A lack of recovery opportunities mediated the relationship between ethnic group and a higher risk of mental health problems. Perceived work stress did not contribute to the explanation of ethnic inequalities. The higher risk of mental health problems in ethnic minority groups can be partly accounted for by a lack of recovery opportunities at work, but not by perceived work stress. This may imply that workplace prevention targeting recovery opportunities have the potential to reduce ethnic inequalities, but

  2. Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions and quality of primary care: their relation with socioeconomic and health care variables in the Madrid regional health service (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magán, Purificación; Alberquilla, Angel; Otero, Angel; Ribera, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSH) have been proposed as an indirect indicator of the effectiveness and quality of care provided by primary health care. To investigate the association of ACSH rates with population socioeconomic factors and with characteristics of primary health care. Cross-sectional, ecologic study. Using hospital discharge data, ACSH were selected from the list of conditions validated for Spain. All 34 health districts in the Region of Madrid, Spain. Individuals aged 65 years or older residing in the region of Madrid between 2001 and 2003, inclusive. Age- and gender-adjusted ACSH rates in each health district. The adjusted ACSH rate per 1000 population was 35.37 in men and 20.45 in women. In the Poisson regression analysis, an inverse relation was seen between ACSH rates and the socioeconomic variables. Physician workload was the only health care variable with a statistically significant relation (rate ratio of 1.066 [95% CI; 1.041-1.091]). These results were similar in the analyses disaggregated by gender. In the multivariate analyses that included health care variables, none of the health care variables were statistically significant. ACSH may be more closely related with socioeconomic variables than with characteristics of primary care activity. Therefore, other factors outside the health system must be considered to improve health outcomes in the population.

  3. The double whammy of a work handicap (differential) effects of health on working conditions and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbeek, Romy; Giesen, Femke B M; Ybema, Jan Fekke

    2009-08-01

    To determine the effect of health on working conditions and outcomes. Data were collected in the longitudinal Study on Health at Work (n = 1597 employees), using multiple regression analyses and focusing on three groups of employees: 1) healthy, 2) chronic health complaints without a work handicap, and 3) chronic health complaints with a work handicap. 1) Employees with a work handicap experienced less favorable working conditions and outcomes than other employees. 2) Employees with a work handicap experienced less favorable working conditions and outcomes over time. 3) Employees with chronic health complaints were more vulnerable to the influence of working conditions on outcomes, whereas employees with a work handicap, unexpectedly, benefited from high work pressure and low autonomy. 1) Employees with a work handicap differ considerably from employees with chronic health complaints. 2) Employees with a work handicap drift into less favorable working conditions and outcomes. 3) Healthy employees, employees with chronic health complaints, and employees with a work handicap, all are vulnerable to different working conditions.

  4. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Health behaviours and their facilitation under depletion conditions: the case of snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellahewa, Dilan A; Mullan, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Previous research suggests that depletion (the state ensuing from self-control exertion) engenders lapses in health behaviours. The present study tested for that effect in relation to the health behaviour of limiting snacking, and investigated whether health goal-priming might facilitate such health behaviours even under depletion conditions. A laboratory study was conducted involving an analytic sample of 85 undergraduates (mean age = 20.08, SD = 3.96; female: n= 63). Depletion was manipulated by having participants watch a humorous video while suppressing their responses (depletion condition) or remaining natural (non-depletion condition). The activation of participants' health goals was then manipulated by subtly exposing (goal-priming condition) or not exposing (non-priming condition) participants to health-related words in a Scrambled Sentence Task. Finally, snacking was measured using a bogus taste-test. Controlling for initial hunger, snacking was higher among depleted compared to non-depleted participants. Snacking was lower among primed compared to non-primed participants. The interaction between depletion and goal-priming was not significant. These findings suggest that depletion should be recognised as a risk factor for lapses in health behaviours, and that health goal-priming may be a useful technique for facilitating such behaviours even when individuals are depleted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  7. Identification of priority health conditions for field-based screening in urban slums in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Sarah; Wadugodapitiya, Avanti; Bedaf, Sandra; George, Carolin Elizabeth; Norman, Gift; Hawley, Mark; de Witte, Luc

    2018-03-02

    Urban slums are characterised by unique challenging living conditions, which increase their inhabitants' vulnerability to specific health conditions. The identification and prioritization of the key health issues occurring in these settings is essential for the development of programmes that aim to enhance the health of local slum communities effectively. As such, the present study sought to identify and prioritise the key health issues occurring in urban slums, with a focus on the perceptions of health professionals and community workers, in the rapidly growing city of Bangalore, India. The study followed a two-phased mixed methods design. During Phase I of the study, a total of 60 health conditions belonging to four major categories: - 1) non-communicable diseases; 2) infectious diseases; 3) maternal and women's reproductive health; and 4) child health - were identified through a systematic literature review and semi-structured interviews conducted with health professionals and other relevant stakeholders with experience working with urban slum communities in Bangalore. In Phase II, the health issues were prioritised based on four criteria through a consensus workshop conducted in Bangalore. The top health issues prioritized during the workshop were: diabetes and hypertension (non-communicable diseases category), dengue fever (infectious diseases category), malnutrition and anaemia (child health, and maternal and women's reproductive health categories). Diarrhoea was also selected as a top priority in children. These health issues were in line with national and international reports that listed them as top causes of mortality and major contributors to the burden of diseases in India. The results of this study will be used to inform the development of technologies and the design of interventions to improve the health outcomes of local communities. Identification of priority health issues in the slums of other regions of India, and in other low and lower middle

  8. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfortmueller, Carmen Andrea; Schwetlick, Miriam; Mueller, Thomas; Lehmann, Beat; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria. Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an "asylum seeker" or "refugee" from the Middle East. In total, 880 patients were included in the study. Of these, 625 (71.0%) were male and 255 (29.0%) female. The median age was 34 (range 16-84). 222 (25.2%) of our patients were from Syria. The most common reason for presentation was surgical (381, 43.3%), followed by medical (321, 36.5%) and psychiatric (137, 15.6%). In patients with surgical presentations, trauma-related problems were most common (n = 196, 50.6%). Within the group of patients with medical presentation, acute infectious diseases were most common (n = 141, 43.9%), followed by neurological problems (n = 70, 21.8%) and gastrointestinal problems (n = 47, 14.6%). There were no differences between Syrian and non-Syrian refugees concerning surgical or medical admissions. The most common chronic disorder of unclear significance was chronic gastrointestinal problems (n = 132, 15%), followed by chronic musculoskeletal problems (n = 108, 12.3%) and chronic headaches (n = 78, 8.9%). Patients from Syria were significantly younger and more often suffered from a post-traumatic stress disorder than patients of other nationalities (pSyria when compared to other nationalities of asylum seekers from the Middle East.

  9. Current and emerging occupational safety and health (OSH) issues in the healthcare sector, including home and community care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, T. de; Bos, E.; Pawlowska-Cyprysiak, K.; Hildt-Ciupinska, K.; Malinska, M.; Nicolescu, G.; Trifu, A.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the current and emerging OSH issues for health- and social care workers and how these affect their safety and health at work and influence the quality of care they provide. It combines a literature review and the responses received to a questionnaire sent to OSH

  10. 76 FR 14417 - ``Low Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs Included in Titles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... adjusts the low-income levels based on the Department's poverty guidelines and makes them available to... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration ``Low Income... to identify a ``low-income family'' for the purpose of determining eligibility for programs that...

  11. Out-of-Pocket Expenditures on Complementary Health Approaches Associated with Painful Health Conditions in a Nationally Representative Adult Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahin, Richard L.; Stussman, Barbara J.; Herman, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    National surveys suggest that millions of adults in the United States use complementary health approaches such as acupuncture, chiropractic manipulation, and herbal medicines to manage painful conditions such as arthritis, back pain and fibromyalgia. Yet, national and per person out-of-pocket (OOP) costs attributable to this condition-specific use are unknown. In the 2007 National Health Interview Survey, use of complementary health approaches, reasons for this use, and associated OOP costs were captured in a nationally representative sample of 5,467 adults. Ordinary least square regression models that controlled for co-morbid conditions were used to estimate aggregate and per person OOP costs associated with 14 painful health conditions. Individuals using complementary approaches spent a total of $14.9 billion (S.E. $0.9 billion) OOP on these approaches to manage these painful conditions. Total OOP expenditures seen in those using complementary approaches for their back pain ($8.7 billion, S.E. $0.8 billion) far outstripped that of any other condition, with the majority of these costs ($4.7 billion, S.E. $0.4 billion) resulting from visits to complementary providers. Annual condition-specific per-person OOP costs varied from a low of $568 (SE $144) for regular headaches, to a high of $895 (SE $163) for fibromyalgia. PMID:26320946

  12. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  13. Enterprising health: creating the conditions for entrepreneurial behaviour as a strategy for effective and sustainable change in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exton, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate conditions under which entrepreneurs emerge as agents of effective and sustainable change in UK National Health Service Trusts. The research synthesises literature on changing regulatory structures ("post-bureaucracy") and entrepreneurial behaviour to understand how individual identity construction is informed both by context and by individual attributes. Thematic analysis of interview data involving managers from 11 NHS Trusts, including detailed analysis of six transcripts, focuses on regulatory processes, the emergence of entrepreneurial behaviour and outcome variations in workplace innovation and improvement. This study identifies co-existing modes of regulation, which interact with individual behaviour, generating strategies differentiated as entrepreneurial or conformist. Four ideal types are identified: organisational entrepreneurship, resisted or dissonant entrepreneurship, conformity, and symbolic entrepreneurship. Analysis reinforces those literature findings, which suggest that the interaction of regulatory structures and the identity work of individuals influence the emergence of entrepreneurial behaviour and the effectiveness of change. The ability to achieve effective and sustainable outcomes varies considerably even between NHS Trusts faced with comparable challenges in implementing nationally prescribed targets. This variance is explained in terms of the organisation's ability to generate the structures, processes, individual competence and motivation which enable employees at all levels to act entrepreneurially with the ability and legitimacy to achieve strategic goals by working creatively in the spaces between formal organisational structures. The study identifies specific conditions, which stimulate the emergence of entrepreneurs as agents of effective and sustainable change in the NHS, identifying factors that policymakers should consider when implementing change.

  14. Medical Licensure Questions and Physician Reluctance to Seek Care for Mental Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrbye, Liselotte N; West, Colin P; Sinsky, Christine A; Goeders, Lindsey E; Satele, Daniel V; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether state medical licensure application questions (MLAQs) about mental health are related to physicians' reluctance to seek help for a mental health condition because of concerns about repercussions to their medical licensure. In 2016, we collected initial and renewal medical licensure application forms from 50 states and the District of Columbia. We coded MLAQs related to physicians' mental health as "consistent" if they inquired only about current impairment from a mental health condition or did not ask about mental health conditions. We obtained data on care-seeking attitudes for a mental health problem from a nationally representative convenience sample of 5829 physicians who completed a survey between August 28, 2014, and October 6, 2014. Analyses explored relationships between state of employment, MLAQs, and physicians' reluctance to seek formal medical care for treatment of a mental health condition because of concerns about repercussions to their medical licensure. We obtained initial licensure applications from 51 of 51 (100%) and renewal applications from 48 of 51 (94.1%) medical licensing boards. Only one-third of states currently have MLAQs about mental health on their initial and renewal application forms that are considered consistent. Nearly 40% of physicians (2325 of 5829) reported that they would be reluctant to seek formal medical care for treatment of a mental health condition because of concerns about repercussions to their medical licensure. Physicians working in a state in which neither the initial nor the renewal application was consistent were more likely to be reluctant to seek help (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.07-1.37; P=.002 vs both applications consistent). Our findings support that MLAQs regarding mental health conditions present a barrier to physicians seeking help. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A review of health utilities across conditions common in paediatric and adult populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopkins Robert B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-utility analyses are commonly used in economic evaluations of interventions or conditions that have an impact on health-related quality of life. However, evaluating utilities in children presents several challenges since young children may not have the cognitive ability to complete measurement tasks and thus utility values must be estimated by proxy assessors. Another solution is to use utilities derived from an adult population. To better inform the future conduct of cost-utility analyses in paediatric populations, we reviewed the published literature reporting utilities among children and adults across selected conditions common to paediatric and adult populations. Methods An electronic search of Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to November 2008 was conducted to identify studies presenting utility values derived from the Health Utilities Index (HUI or EuroQoL-5Dimensions (EQ-5D questionnaires or using time trade off (TTO or standard gamble (SG techniques in children and/or adult populations from randomized controlled trials, comparative or non-comparative observational studies, or cross-sectional studies. The search was targeted to four chronic diseases/conditions common to both children and adults and known to have a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Results After screening 951 citations identified from the literature search, 77 unique studies included in our review evaluated utilities in patients with asthma (n = 25, cancer (n = 23, diabetes mellitus (n = 11, skin diseases (n = 19 or chronic diseases (n = 2, with some studies evaluating multiple conditions. Utility values were estimated using HUI (n = 33, EQ-5D (n = 26, TTO (n = 12, and SG (n = 14, with some studies applying more than one technique to estimate utility values. 21% of studies evaluated utilities in children, of those the majority being in the area of oncology. No utility values for children were reported in skin

  16. Health Inequalities among Workers with a Foreign Background in Sweden: Do Working Conditions Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Rostila

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Employment and working conditions are key social determinants of health, yet current information is lacking regarding relationships between foreign background status, working conditions and health among workers in Sweden. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU and the Level of Living Survey for Foreign Born Persons and their Children (LNU-UFB to assess whether or not health inequalities exist between native Swedish and foreign background workers and if exposure to adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions contributes to the risk for poor health among foreign background workers. A sub-sample of 4,021 employed individuals aged 18–65 was analyzed using logistic regression. Eastern European, Latin American and Other Non-Western workers had an increased risk of both poor self-rated health and mental distress compared to native Swedish workers. Exposure to adverse working conditions only minimally influenced the risk of poor health. Further research should examine workers who are less integrated or who have less secure labor market attachments and also investigate how additional working conditions may influence associations between health and foreign background status.

  17. Motivational interviewing to increase physical activity in people with chronic health conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Paul D; Blackstock, Felicity; Shields, Nora; Holland, Anne; Iles, Ross; Kingsley, Mike; Bernhardt, Julie; Lannin, Natasha; Morris, Meg E; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2014-12-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine if motivational interviewing leads to increased physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness or functional exercise capacity in people with chronic health conditions. Seven electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE, AMED, CINHAL, SPORTDiscus and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials) were searched from inception until January 2014. Two reviewers independently examined publications for inclusion. Trials were included if participants were adults (>18 years), had a chronic health condition, used motivational interviewing as the intervention and examined physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness or functional exercise capacity. Two reviewers independently extracted data. Risk of bias within trials was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale. Meta-analyses were conducted with standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach was used to evaluate the quality of the evidence. Eleven publications (of ten trials) were included. There was moderate level evidence that motivational interviewing had a small effect in increasing physical activity levels in people with chronic health conditions relative to comparison groups (standardized mean differences = 0.19, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.32, p = 0.004). Sensitivity analysis based on trials that confirmed treatment fidelity produced a larger effect. No conclusive evidence was observed for cardiorespiratory fitness or functional exercise capacity. The addition of motivational interviewing to usual care may lead to modest improvements in physical activity for people with chronic health conditions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. A multi-period analysis of a carbon tax including local health feedback: an application to Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.C. [International Food Policy Research Inst. (United States)

    2006-06-15

    An ancillary benefit of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) mitigation refers to a benefit derived from GHG mitigation that is in addition to the reduction in adverse impacts of global climate change. One type of ancillary benefits of GHG mitigation is reduced local conventional pollutants, which is associated with improved health. Middle-income countries like Thailand are in unique positions to obtain large ancillary health gains from reduced local conventional pollutants when GHG is mitigated by curbing fossil fuel consumption. (Author)

  19. Utilization of emergency medical transports and hospital admissions among persons with behavioral health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddeback, Gary; Patterson, P Daniel; Moore, Charity Galena; Brice, Jane H

    2010-04-01

    Emergency medical services transport and emergency department misuse among persons with behavioral health conditions is a concern. Administrative data were used to examine medical transports and hospital admissions among persons with behavioral health conditions. Data on 70,126 medical transports to emergency departments in three southeastern counties were analyzed. Compared with general medical transports, fewer behavioral health transports resulted in a hospital admission. Among behavioral health transports, persons with schizophrenia were 2.62 times more likely than those with substance use disorders to be admitted, and persons with mood disorders were 4.36 times more likely than those with substance use disorders to be admitted. Also, among behavioral health transports, rural transports were less likely than more urban transports to result in a hospital admission. More training of emergency medical services personnel and more behavioral health crisis resources, especially targeting rural areas and substance use disorders, are needed.

  20. Introduction to the special section: Sustainability of work with chronic health conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaw, W.S.; Tveito, T.H.; Boot, C.R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of older workers and chronic health conditions represents a growing occupational health concern. More research is needed to understand risk factors, apply and adapt theories, and test workplace-focused interventions that might prevent work disability and

  1. Introduction to the Special Section: Sustainability of Work with Chronic Health Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaw, W.S.; Tveito, T.H.; Boot, C.R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of older workers and chronic health conditions represents a growing occupational health concern. More research is needed to understand risk factors, apply and adapt theories, and test workplace-focused interventions that might prevent work disability and

  2. Learning to Promote Health at an Emergency Care Department: Identifying Expansive and Restrictive Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Maria; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a planned workplace health promotion intervention, and the aim is to identify conditions that facilitated or restricted the learning to promote health at an emergency care department in a Swedish hospital. The study had a longitudinal design, with interviews before and after the intervention and follow-up…

  3. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Andrea Pfortmueller

    Full Text Available Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria.Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an "asylum seeker" or "refugee" from the Middle East.In total, 880 patients were included in the study. Of these, 625 (71.0% were male and 255 (29.0% female. The median age was 34 (range 16-84. 222 (25.2% of our patients were from Syria. The most common reason for presentation was surgical (381, 43.3%, followed by medical (321, 36.5% and psychiatric (137, 15.6%. In patients with surgical presentations, trauma-related problems were most common (n = 196, 50.6%. Within the group of patients with medical presentation, acute infectious diseases were most common (n = 141, 43.9%, followed by neurological problems (n = 70, 21.8% and gastrointestinal problems (n = 47, 14.6%. There were no differences between Syrian and non-Syrian refugees concerning surgical or medical admissions. The most common chronic disorder of unclear significance was chronic gastrointestinal problems (n = 132, 15%, followed by chronic musculoskeletal problems (n = 108, 12.3% and chronic headaches (n = 78, 8.9%. Patients from Syria were significantly younger and more often suffered from a post-traumatic stress disorder than patients of other nationalities (p<0.0001, and p = 0.05, respectively.Overall a remarkable number of our very young group of patients suffered from psychiatric disorders and unspecified somatic symptoms. Asylum seekers should be carefully evaluated when presenting to a medical facility and physicians should be aware of the high incidence of unspecified somatic symptoms in this patient population

  4. Inappropriate Suppression of Thyrotropin Concentrations in Young Patients with Thyroid Nodules Including Thyroid Cancer: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoru; Nakamura, Izumi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ohkouchi, Chiyo; Mizunuma, Hiroshi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Ito, Yuko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Matsuzuka, Takashi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Abe, Masafumi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-05-01

    Serum thyroid hormone concentration is regulated through the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. This study aimed to clarify the relationships between thyroid hormone regulation and ultrasonographic findings in subjects with thyroid nodules detected during thyroid ultrasound examination for the Fukushima Health Management Survey. As of October 31, 2014, a total of 296,253 subjects, who had been living in Fukushima Prefecture at the time of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and were aged ≤18 years on March 11, 2011, participated in two concurrent screening programs. In the primary screening, thyroid nodules were detected in 2241 subjects. A secondary confirmatory thyroid ultrasound examination and blood sampling for thyroid function tests were performed on 2004 subjects. The subjects were reassessed and classified into disease-free subjects (Group 1), subjects with cysts only (Group 2), subjects with nodules (Group 3), and subjects with malignancy or suspected malignancy (Group 4). Serum concentrations of free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyrotropin (TSH), thyroglobulin, and the fT3/fT4 ratio were classified according to the diagnoses. Inverse relationships between age and log TSH values (Spearman's correlation r = -0.311, p = 0.015), serum fT3 concentration (r = -0.688, p < 0.001), and the fT3/fT4 ratio (r = -0.520, p < 0.001) were observed in Group 1. When analysis of covariance with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons was used in the four groups, the log TSH values were significantly lower in both Group 3 and Group 4 compared with Group 1 and Group 2 after correcting for age (p < 0.001; Group 1 vs. Group 3, p = 0.016; Group 1 vs. Group 4, p = 0.022; Group 2 vs. Group 3, p = 0.001; Group 2 vs. Group 4, p = 0.008). However, no significant differences were observed between the four groups regarding levels of fT3, fT4, fT3/fT4 ratio, and thyroglobulin (p = 0.304, 0.340, 0.208, and 0

  5. Perceptions of housing conditions among migrant farmworkers and their families: implications for health, safety and social policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Spears Johnson, Chaya R; Quandt, Sara A; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    In the USA, migrant farmworkers are a vulnerable group due to their low socioeconomic status, risk of occupational exposures and injury, lack of social mobility, lack of adequate access to health services and dependency on employer for provided housing. Previous reports have documented migrant farmworker housing conditions to be variable, but poor overall. This paper explores the perceptions of housing conditions among migrant farmworkers in rural North Carolina, and develops an understanding of potential impacts of their housing on health and safety. This study used qualitative descriptive data and directed content analysis to analyse semi-structured interviews and photographs that were data elements of a larger community-based participatory research study designed to document housing quality and health among North Carolina farmworkers. Many of the study participants described poor housing conditions that were reflected in the photographic analysis of the houses and camps. Specific problems described by the participants include exposure to pesticides, safety issues, pests, water supply and air quality, temperature and moisture. This study describes migrant farmworkers' perceptions of housing quality and numerous potential impacts on health and safety. Research, social policy and practice-based implications derived from this research could serve to improve the health status of these individuals and their families. This study suggests there is much room for sustained advocacy and action, given that many of the farmworkers' descriptions and photographs depicted housing conditions below accepted standards of living. Access to adequate and safe employer-provided housing for migrant farmworkers should be considered a basic human right.

  6. Questionnaire surveys on health and working conditions: development of an instrument for risk assessment in companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, A. N.; Broersen, J. P.; van Dijk, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    Periodic Occupational Health Surveys (POHS) are frequently used by occupational health and safety services in the Netherlands as a risk assessment instrument. These surveys include a questionnaire on work and health. Systematic attention is paid in this questionnaire to a broad range of working

  7. Health behaviors, periodontal conditions, and periodontal pathogens in spontaneous preterm birth: a case-control study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jae-In; Oh, Kyungjoon; Yang, Hyejin; Choi, Bong-Kyu; Ha, Jung-Eun; Jin, Bo-Hyoung; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to determine whether periodontal conditions or dental health behaviors are risk factors for preterm birth (PTB), and whether periodontal pathogens are risk indicators for PTB among Korean mothers. This study was designed as a hospital-based case-control study. Examiner masking was ensured for the validity of the examinations. The mothers included those who gave birth between November 2007 and July 2009 at the obstetrics clinic of a general hospital in Seoul, Korea. Information on demographic and health conditions, periodontal conditions, and microbacterial data was collected. A total of 172 women met the inclusion criteria, 59 mothers who delivered a preterm neonate were assigned to the case group while the other 113 were assigned to the control group. There were no significant differences in demographic information, oral health conditions, and obstetric characteristics. Among health-related behaviors, only scaling within 12 months before pregnancy showed a significant difference (P = 0.031). Even in the adjusted logistic model, only the difference in the experience of scaling before pregnancy was significant between the PTB cases and the controls (P = 0.039). Periodontal disease did not exhibit a significant relationship with PTB even after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Among the microbacterial factors, only Porphyromonas gingivalis showed a slight difference (P = 0.060). There was a significant difference in scaling experience within 12 months before pregnancy and P. gingivalis showed a marginal difference between the PTB and the control groups but clinical periodontal conditions showed no association with PTB.

  8. Individualized Health Care Plans: Supporting Children With Chronic Conditions in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Amanda F.; Hughes, Mary-alayne

    2016-01-01

    Due to the major advances in technology and the sciences, advances in the medical treatment options for children with chronic conditions are being made at an astonishing rate. In the health care field, "children with chronic conditions" is a generic phrase that typically refers to children with physical, developmental, behavioral, or…

  9. Effects of a Self-Directed Nutrition Intervention among Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Jake-Schoffman, Danielle E.; Schlaff, Rebecca A.; Goldufsky, Tatum M.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic diseases are common among adults. A healthy diet may be beneficial for managing the consequences of such conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a self-directed nutrition program on dietary behaviors among adults with chronic health conditions. As part of a larger trial examining the effects of a self-directed…

  10. Teacher Perception of Burden and Willingness to Accommodate Children with Chronic Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Aimee M.; Denzer, Anna Q.; Wildman, Beth G.; Anhalt, Karla

    2013-01-01

    Children with chronic health conditions need the support of school staff to flourish socially and academically in educational settings. This study explored teacher experiences and knowledge of the following common paediatric conditions: asthma, food allergies, cancer, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, heart disease and seizure disorder. Participants included…

  11. Do Early Life and Contemporaneous Macro-conditions explain Health at Older Ages?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, Rob; Deeg, Dorly; Portrait, France

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents an approach which thoroughly assesses the role of early life and contemporaneous macro-conditions in explaining health at older ages. In particular, we investigate the role of exposure to infectious diseases and economic conditions during infancy and childhood, as well as the

  12. Assessing cost-effectiveness in mental health: family interventions for schizophrenia and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Magnus, Anne; Carter, Rob; Vos, Theo

    2004-07-01

    Existing evidence suggests that family interventions can be effective in reducing relapse rates in schizophrenia and related conditions. Despite this, such interventions are not routinely delivered in Australian mental health services. The objective of the current study is to investigate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of introducing three types of family interventions, namely: behavioural family management (BFM); behavioural intervention for families (BIF); and multiple family groups (MFG) into current mental health services in Australia. The ICER of each of the family interventions is assessed from a health sector perspective, including the government, persons with schizophrenia and their families/carers using a standardized methodology. A two-stage approach is taken to the assessment of benefit. The first stage involves a quantitative analysis based on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. The second stage involves application of 'second filter' criteria (including equity, strength of evidence, feasibility and acceptability to stakeholders) to results. The robustness of results is tested using multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The most cost-effective intervention, in order of magnitude, is BIF (8000 Australian dollars per DALY averted), followed by MFG (21,000 Australian dollars per DALY averted) and lastly BFM (28,000 Australian dollars per DALY averted). The inclusion of time costs makes BFM more cost-effective than MFG. Variation of discount rate has no effect on conclusions. All three interventions are considered 'value-for-money' within an Australian context. This conclusion needs to be tempered against the methodological challenge of converting clinical outcomes into a generic economic outcome measure (DALY). Issues surrounding the feasibility of routinely implementing such interventions need to be addressed.

  13. Adults with an epilepsy history fare significantly worse on positive mental and physical health than adults with other common chronic conditions-Estimates from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey and Patient Reported Outcome Measurement System (PROMIS) Global Health Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobau, Rosemarie; Cui, Wanjun; Zack, Matthew M

    2017-07-01

    Healthy People 2020, a national health promotion initiative, calls for increasing the proportion of U.S. adults who self-report good or better health. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Global Health Scale (GHS) was identified as a reliable and valid set of items of self-reported physical and mental health to monitor these two domains across the decade. The purpose of this study was to examine the percentage of adults with an epilepsy history who met the Healthy People 2020 target for self-reported good or better health and to compare these percentages to adults with history of other common chronic conditions. Using the 2010 National Health Interview Survey, we compared and estimated the age-standardized prevalence of reporting good or better physical and mental health among adults with five selected chronic conditions including epilepsy, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and hypertension. We examined response patterns for physical and mental health scale among adults with these five conditions. The percentages of adults with epilepsy who reported good or better physical health (52%) or mental health (54%) were significantly below the Healthy People 2020 target estimate of 80% for both outcomes. Significantly smaller percentages of adults with an epilepsy history reported good or better physical health than adults with heart disease, cancer, or hypertension. Significantly smaller percentages of adults with an epilepsy history reported good or better mental health than adults with all other four conditions. Health and social service providers can implement and enhance existing evidence-based clinical interventions and public health programs and strategies shown to improve outcomes in epilepsy. These estimates can be used to assess improvements in the Healthy People 2020 Health-Related Quality of Life and Well-Being Objective throughout the decade. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Conditional cash transfers for improving uptake of health interventions in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Mylene; Haines, Andy; Palmer, Natasha

    2007-10-24

    Cash transfers conditional on certain behaviors, intended to provide access to social services, have been introduced in several developing countries. The effectiveness of these strategies in different contexts has not previously been the subject of a systematic review. To assess the effectiveness of conditional monetary transfers in improving access to and use of health services, as well as improving health outcomes, in low- and middle-income countries. Relevant publications were identified via electronic medical and social science databases from inception to April 2006 (PubMED, EMBASE, POPLINE, CAB Direct, Healthcare Management Information Consortium, WHOLIS (World Health Organization Library Database), African Healthline, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS), Eldis, British Library for Development Studies (BLDS), ID21, Journal Storage (Jstor), Inter-Science, ScienceDirect, Internet Documents in Economics Access Service (Research Papers in Economics) (IDEAS[Repec]), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), MEDCARIB, Virtual Library in Health (ADOLEC), Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), FRANCIS, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, and the Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group (EPOC) Register. Reference lists of relevant papers and "gray" literature resources were also searched. To be included, a paper had to meet study design criteria (randomized controlled trial, interrupted time series analysis, and controlled before and after study) and include a measure of at least 1 of the following outcomes: health care utilization, health expenditure, or health outcomes. Twenty-eight papers were retrieved for assessment and 10 were included in this review. Methodological details and outcomes were extracted by 2 reviewers who independently assessed the quality of the papers. Overall, the evidence suggests that conditional cash transfer programs

  15. Long-acting Reversible Contraception Among Homeless Women Veterans With Chronic Health Conditions: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Lori M; Redd, Andrew; Suo, Ying; Pettey, Warren; Turok, David K; Gundlapalli, Adi V

    2017-09-01

    US women Veterans are at increased risk of homelessness and chronic health conditions associated with unintended pregnancy. Veterans Health Administration (VHA) provision of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) can assist in healthy pregnancy planning. To evaluate perinatal risk factors and LARC exposure in ever-homeless women Veterans. A retrospective cohort study of women Veterans using VHA administrative data from fiscal years 2002-2015. We included 41,747 ever-homeless women Veterans age 18-44 years and 46,391 housed women Veterans matched by military service period. A subgroup of 7773 ever-homeless and 8674 matched housed women Veterans deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan [Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND)] conflicts comprised a second analytic cohort. Descriptive statistics compared demographic, military, health conditions, and LARC exposure in ever-homeless versus housed women Veterans. Multivariable logistic regression explored factors associated with LARC exposure in the OEF/OIF/OND subgroup. All health conditions were significantly higher in ever-homeless versus housed Veterans: mental health disorder in 84.5% versus 48.7% (Phomeless Veterans versus 5.4% in housed Veterans (Phomeless Veterans versus 8.2% in housed Veterans (Phomelessness along Veterans with medical and mental health indicators were leading LARC exposure predictors. The VHA is successfully engaging homeless women Veterans and providing LARC access. The prevalence of perinatal risk factors in ever-homeless women Veterans highlights a need for further programmatic enhancements to improve reproductive planning.

  16. Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggebø, Kristian; Dahl, Espen

    2015-11-04

    Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 european countries. People with ill health tend to be overrepresented among the unemployment population. The relationship between health and unemployment might, however, be sensitive to the overall economic condition. Specifically, the health composition of the unemployment population could change dramatically when the economy takes a turn for the worse. Using EU-SILC cross sectional data from 2007 (pre-crisis) and 2011 (during crisis) and linear regression models, this paper investigates the relationship between health and unemployment probabilities under differing economic conditions in 28 European countries. The countries are classified according to (i) the level of and (ii) increase in unemployment rate (i.e. >10 percent and doubling of unemployment rate = crisis country). Firstly, the unemployment likelihood for people with ill health is remarkably stable over time in Europe: the coefficients are very similar in pre-crisis and crisis years. Secondly, people with ill health have experienced unemployment to a lesser extent than those with good health status in the crisis year (when we pool the data and compare 2007 and 2011), but only in the countries with a high and rising unemployment rate. The health composition of the unemployment population changes significantly for the better, but only in those European countries that have been severely hit by the current economic crisis.

  17. Adolescents in speciality mental health services (BUP): time trends, referral problems, and co-occuring conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Reigstad, Bjørn Steinar

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, research on mental health problems among children and adolescents has focused mainly on prevalences and predictors of stability and changes in these disorders. Less is known about associated conditions as referral problems, and cooccurring conditions as pain and sleep disturbances, and psychosocial adversities like abuse and neglect. The purpose of this study is to focus on these less investigated problems and conditions which might be highly significant in day-to-day clinical ...

  18. Gender inequalities in occupational health related to the unequal distribution of working and employment conditions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Serna, Javier; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Artazcoz, Lucia; Moen, Bente E; Benavides, Fernando G

    2013-08-05

    Gender inequalities exist in work life, but little is known about their presence in relation to factors examined in occupation health settings. The aim of this study was to identify and summarize the working and employment conditions described as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health in studies related to occupational health published between 1999 and 2010. A systematic literature review was undertaken of studies available in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Sociological Abstracts, LILACS, EconLit and CINAHL between 1999 and 2010. Epidemiologic studies were selected by applying a set of inclusion criteria to the title, abstract, and complete text. The quality of the studies was also assessed. Selected studies were qualitatively analysed, resulting in a compilation of all differences between women and men in the prevalence of exposure to working and employment conditions and work-related health problems as outcomes. Most of the 30 studies included were conducted in Europe (n=19) and had a cross-sectional design (n=24). The most common topic analysed was related to the exposure to work-related psychosocial hazards (n=8). Employed women had more job insecurity, lower control, worse contractual working conditions and poorer self-perceived physical and mental health than men did. Conversely, employed men had a higher degree of physically demanding work, lower support, higher levels of effort-reward imbalance, higher job status, were more exposed to noise and worked longer hours than women did. This systematic review has identified a set of working and employment conditions as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health from the occupational health literature. These results may be useful to policy makers seeking to reduce gender inequalities in occupational health, and to researchers wishing to analyse these determinants in greater depth.

  19. Gender inequalities in occupational health related to the unequal distribution of working and employment conditions: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Gender inequalities exist in work life, but little is known about their presence in relation to factors examined in occupation health settings. The aim of this study was to identify and summarize the working and employment conditions described as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health in studies related to occupational health published between 1999 and 2010. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken of studies available in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Sociological Abstracts, LILACS, EconLit and CINAHL between 1999 and 2010. Epidemiologic studies were selected by applying a set of inclusion criteria to the title, abstract, and complete text. The quality of the studies was also assessed. Selected studies were qualitatively analysed, resulting in a compilation of all differences between women and men in the prevalence of exposure to working and employment conditions and work-related health problems as outcomes. Results Most of the 30 studies included were conducted in Europe (n=19) and had a cross-sectional design (n=24). The most common topic analysed was related to the exposure to work-related psychosocial hazards (n=8). Employed women had more job insecurity, lower control, worse contractual working conditions and poorer self-perceived physical and mental health than men did. Conversely, employed men had a higher degree of physically demanding work, lower support, higher levels of effort-reward imbalance, higher job status, were more exposed to noise and worked longer hours than women did. Conclusions This systematic review has identified a set of working and employment conditions as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health from the occupational health literature. These results may be useful to policy makers seeking to reduce gender inequalities in occupational health, and to researchers wishing to analyse these determinants in greater depth. PMID:23915121

  20. Dr Google and the consumer: a qualitative study exploring the navigational needs and online health information-seeking behaviors of consumers with chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth; Hoti, Kreshnik; Hughes, Jeffery David; Emmerton, Lynne

    2014-12-02

    The abundance of health information available online provides consumers with greater access to information pertinent to the management of health conditions. This is particularly important given an increasing drive for consumer-focused health care models globally, especially in the management of chronic health conditions, and in recognition of challenges faced by lay consumers with finding, understanding, and acting on health information sourced online. There is a paucity of literature exploring the navigational needs of consumers with regards to accessing online health information. Further, existing interventions appear to be didactic in nature, and it is unclear whether such interventions appeal to consumers' needs. Our goal was to explore the navigational needs of consumers with chronic health conditions in finding online health information within the broader context of consumers' online health information-seeking behaviors. Potential barriers to online navigation were also identified. Semistructured interviews were conducted with adult consumers who reported using the Internet for health information and had at least one chronic health condition. Participants were recruited from nine metropolitan community pharmacies within Western Australia, as well as through various media channels. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and then imported into QSR NVivo 10. Two established approaches to thematic analysis were adopted. First, a data-driven approach was used to minimize potential bias in analysis and improve construct and criterion validity. A theory-driven approach was subsequently used to confirm themes identified by the former approach and to ensure identified themes were relevant to the objectives. Two levels of analysis were conducted for both data-driven and theory-driven approaches: manifest-level analysis, whereby face-value themes were identified, and latent-level analysis, whereby underlying concepts were identified. We conducted 17

  1. Condition Monitoring for Roller Bearings of Wind Turbines Based on Health Evaluation under Variable Operating States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring (CM is used to assess the health status of wind turbines (WT by detecting turbine failure and predicting maintenance needs. However, fluctuating operating conditions cause variations in monitored features, therefore increasing the difficulty of CM, for example, the frequency-domain analysis may lead to an inaccurate or even incorrect prediction when evaluating the health of the WT components. In light of this challenge, this paper proposed a method for the health evaluation of WT components based on vibration signals. The proposed approach aimed to reduce the evaluation error caused by the impact of the variable operating condition. First, the vibration signal was decomposed into a set of sub-signals using variational mode decomposition (VMD. Next, the sub-signal energy and the probability distribution were obtained and normalized. Finally, the concept of entropy was introduced to evaluate the health condition of a monitored object to provide an effective guide for maintenance. In particular, the health evaluation for CM was based on a performance review over a range of operating conditions, rather than at a certain single operating condition. Experimental investigations were performed which verified the efficiency of the evaluation method, as well as a comparison with the previous method.

  2. The effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave therapy in common lower limb conditions: a systematic review including quantification of patient-rated pain reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korakakis, Vasileios; Whiteley, Rodney; Tzavara, Alexander; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in treating Achilles tendinopathy (AT), greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), patellar tendinopathy (PT) and proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT). Systematic review. Randomised and non-randomised studies assessing ESWT in patients with AT, GTPS, MTSS, PT and PHT were included. Risk of bias and quality of studies were evaluated. Moderate-level evidence suggests (1) no difference between focused ESWT and placebo ESWT at short and mid-term in PT and (2) radial ESWT is superior to conservative treatment at short, mid and long term in PHT. Low-level evidence suggests that ESWT (1) is comparable to eccentric training, but superior to wait-and-see policy at 4 months in mid-portion AT; (2) is superior to eccentric training at 4 months in insertional AT; (3) less effective than corticosteroid injection at short term, but ESWT produced superior results at mid and long term in GTPS; (4) produced comparable results to control treatment at long term in GTPS; and (5) is superior to control conservative treatment at long term in PT. Regarding the rest of the results, there was only very low or no level of evidence. 13 studies showed high risk of bias largely due to methodology, blinding and reporting. Low level of evidence suggests that ESWT may be effective for some lower limb conditions in all phases of the rehabilitation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Trends in hospitalization due to cardiovascular conditions sensitive to primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentsck, Maicon Henrique; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the trend in hospitalizations for primary care-sensitive cardiovascular conditions for residents of the state of Paraná, Brazil, from 2000 to 2011. Ecological, time series study of the rates of hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases in residents aged 35-74 years old by sex, age and main diagnosis for hospitalization. Data from the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System (SIH-SUS) and polynomial regression models for trend analyses were used. Hospitalization rates for cardiovascular conditions decreased during the period (r2 = 0.96; p care-sensitive cardiovascular conditions in the state of Paraná between 2000 and 2011 may have resulted from the expansion of the health network of and the access to primary health attention, as well as other factors that influence this set of diseases, such as improved socioeconomic conditions of the population, organization of primary care services for higher age ranges and women and decrease in risk factors.

  4. Dyspnea in Community-Dwelling Older Persons: A Multifactorial Geriatric Health Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Brienne; Tinetti, Mary E.; Van Ness, Peter H.; Han, Ling; Leo-Summers, Linda; Newman, Anne B.; Lee, Patty J.; Fragoso, Carlos A. Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The evaluation of dyspnea in older persons is traditionally focused on cardiorespiratory diseases, rather than systematically evaluating the multiple impairments that often occur with advancing age and which may also contribute to dyspnea. Accordingly, we have evaluated the associations between a broad array of cardiorespiratory and non-cardiorespiratory impairments and dyspnea in older persons. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Cardiovascular Health Study. Participants 4,413 community-dwelling persons; mean age was 72.6, 57.1% were female, 4.5% were African-American, 27.2% had less than a high school education, and 54.7% were ever-smokers. Measurements Dyspnea severity (American Thoracic Society grade ≥2 defined moderate-to-severe) and several impairments, including those established by: spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1-second [FEV1]), maximal inspiratory pressure (respiratory muscle strength), echocardiography, ankle-brachial index, blood pressure, whole-body muscle mass (bioelectrical impedance), single chair stand (lower extremity function), grip strength, serum hemoglobin and creatinine, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Mini Mental State Examination, medication use, and body mass index (BMI). Results In a multivariable logistic regression model, impairments having strong associations with moderate-to-severe dyspnea included: FEV1 dyspnea included respiratory muscle weakness, diastolic cardiac dysfunction, grip weakness, anxiety symptoms, and use of cardiovascular and psychoactive medications (adjORs ranged from 1.31-1.71). Conclusion In community-dwelling older persons, several cardiorespiratory and non-cardiorespiratory impairments were significantly associated with moderate-to-severe dyspnea, akin to a multifactorial geriatric health condition. PMID:27549914

  5. 77 FR 22790 - ``Low Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs Included in Titles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... practice, and other public or private nonprofit health or education entities to assist the disadvantaged to... who live together. A ``household'' may be only one person. Most HRSA programs use the income of the... for the 48 Contiguous States and the District of Columbia Income Size of parents' family* level** 1...

  6. Evaluation of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) to Monitor Forest Health Conditions in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P. W.; Hatfield, M. C.; Heutte, T. M.; Winton, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    US Forest Service Alaska Region Forest Health Protection (FHP) and University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) are evaluating the capability of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS, "drone" informally) to monitor forest health conditions in Alaska's Interior Region. On July 17-20 2017, FHP and ACUASI deployed two different UAS at permanent forest inventory plots managed by the UAF programs Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) and Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory (CAFI). The purpose of the mission was to explore capabilities of UAS for evaluating aspen tree mortality at inaccessible locations and at a scale and precision not generally achievable with currently used ground- or air-based methods. Drawing from experience gained during the initial 2016 campaign, this year emphasized the efficient use of UAS to accomplish practical field research in a variety of realistic situations. The vehicles selected for this years' effort included the DJI Matrice quadcopter with the Zenmuse-X3 camera to quickly capture initial video of the site and tree conditions; followed by the ING Responder (single rotor electric helicopter based on the Gaui X7 airframe) outfitted with a Nikon D810 camera to collect high-resolution stills suitable for construction of orthomosaic models. A total of 12 flights were conducted over the campaign, with two full days dedicated to the Delta Junction Gerstle River Intermediate (GRI) sites and the remaining day at the Bonanza Creek site. In addition to demonstrating the ability of UAS to operate safely and effectively in various canopy conditions, the effort also validated the ability of teams to deliver UAS and scientific payloads into challenging terrain using all-terrain vehicles (ATV) and foot traffic. Analysis of data from the campaign is underway. Because the permanent plots have been recently evaluated it is known that nearly all aspen mortality is caused by an aggressive canker

  7. Air-conditioning and antibiotics: Demand management insights from problematic health and household cooling practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, Larissa; Strengers, Yolande

    2014-01-01

    Air-conditioners and antibiotics are two technologies that have both been traditionally framed around individual health and comfort needs, despite aspects of their use contributing to social health problems. The imprudent use of antibiotics is threatening the capacity of the healthcare system internationally. Similarly, in Australia the increasing reliance on air-conditioning to maintain thermal comfort is contributing to rising peak demand and electricity prices, and is placing an inequitable health and financial burden on vulnerable heat-stressed households. This paper analyses policy responses to these problems through the lens of social practice theory. In the health sector, campaigns are attempting to emphasise the social health implications of antibiotic use. In considering this approach in relation to the problem of air-conditioned cooling and how to change the ways in which people keep cool during peak times, our analysis draws on interviews with 80 Australian households. We find that the problem of peak electricity demand may be reduced through attention to the social health implications of air-conditioned cooling on very hot days. We conclude that social practice theory offers a fruitful analytical route for identifying new avenues for research and informing policy responses to emerging health and environmental problems. - Highlights: • Over-use of antibiotics and air-conditioning has social health implications. • Focusing on financial incentives limits the potential of demand management programs. • Explaining peak demand to households shifts the meanings of cooling practices. • Emphasising the social health implications of antibiotics and air-conditioning may resurrect alternative practices. • Analysing policy with social practice theory offers insights into policy approaches

  8. Ideal Cardiovascular Health Metrics Are Associated with Disability Independently of Vascular Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana Devulapalli

    Full Text Available Vascular risk factors may be associated with disability independently of vascular events. We examined whether the American Heart Association's 7 ideal cardiovascular health (CVH metrics were independently associated with disability in a nationally representative cohort.Adults age ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012 were included. Ideal CVH was calculated as a composite of 7 measures, each scored 0-2. Primary predictors were number of ideal CVH metrics and score of CVH metrics. The outcome was a dichotomous score from 20 activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental ADLs. Unadjusted and adjusted weighted logistic models estimated associations between ideal CVH and disability. The data were analyzed in 2015.Among 22692 participants, mean age was 46.9 years. Cardiac disease and stroke were present in 6.6% and 2.8%; 90.3% had poor physical activity and 89.9% poor diet. Among 3975 individuals with full CVH data, in fully adjusted models, OR for disability was 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.98 per point increase in ideal CVH score, and 0.84 (0.73-0.97 per additional number of ideal CVH metrics.CVH metrics were strongly and significantly associated with reduced odds of disability independently of vascular and non-vascular conditions. Poorer CVH may cause subclinical vascular disease resulting in disability.

  9. Representation of Health Conditions on Facebook: Content Analysis and Evaluation of User Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathipati, Akhilesh S; Zan, Shiyi; Jethwani, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background A sizable majority of adult Internet users report looking for health information online. Social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook represent a common place to seek information, but very little is known about the representation and use of health content on SNS. Objective Our goal in this study was to understand the role of SNS in health information seeking. More specifically, we aimed to describe how health conditions are represented on Facebook Pages and how users interact with these different conditions. Methods We used Google Insights to identify the 20 most searched for health conditions on Google and then searched each of the resulting terms on Facebook. We compiled a list of the first 50 Facebook “Pages” results for each health condition. After filtering results to identify pages relevant to our research, we categorized pages into one of seven categories based on the page’s primary purpose. We then measured user engagement by evaluating the number of “Likes” for different conditions and types of pages. Results The search returned 50 pages for 18 of the health conditions, but only 48 pages were found for “anemia” and 5 pages were found for “flu symptoms”, yielding a total of 953 pages. A large number of pages (29.4%, 280/953) were irrelevant to the health condition searched. Of the 673 relevant pages, 151 were not in English or originated outside the United States, leaving 522 pages to be coded for content. The most common type of page was marketing/promotion (32.2%, 168/522) followed by information/awareness (20.7%, 108/522), Wikipedia-type pages (15.5%, 81/522), patient support (9.4%, 49/522), and general support (3.6%, 19/522). Health conditions varied greatly by the primary page type. All health conditions had some marketing/promotion pages and this made up 76% (29/38) of pages on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The largest percentage of general support pages were cancer (19%, 6/32) and stomach (16%, 4/25). For

  10. Addressing individual behaviours and living conditions: Four Nordic public health policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2011-01-01

    : Analyses of recent public health programmes in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Results: Focus is on either, or both, individual behaviour and living conditions as causes of ill health; the remedies are classical liberal as well as social democratic policies. None of the programmes is consistent...... environment and the politicians’ responsibility to improve the population’s health. The Swedish and the Finnish programmes lie between those of Denmark and Norway. The Finnish and Norwegian governments stress their responsibility for the health of the population. Conclusions: No common Nordic political...... approach to public health exists. All programmes contain contradictory policies and ideological statements with differences regarding the emphasis on individual behaviour versus choice and living conditions and political responsibility. The policies are not entirely predictable from the political stance...

  11. The Mental Health Condition of Manufacturing Front-line Workers: The Interrelationship of Personal Resources, Professional Tasks and Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing front-line workers were more likely to experience mental health problems. Personal resources and professional tasks were the major factors of workers’ mental health. Therefore, this study was to explore the interrelationship of these three key factors. A questionnaire including the revised Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI-R and the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90 covered 480 manufacturing front-line workers to measure their personal resources, professional tasks and mental health. Results showed that among manufacturing front-line workers, the status of mental health and professional tasks were below the national average level, and the personal resources were relatively deficient as well. Correlation analysis indicated a negative relation between the indicators of mental health and professional tasks (except responsibility, while personal resources and mental health were significantly positive correlation. These findings suggested that personal resources and professional tasks were highly related to mental health in manufacturing front-line workers.

  12. Effectiveness of Telephone-Based Health Coaching for Patients with Chronic Conditions: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Härter

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases, like diabetes mellitus, heart disease and cancer are leading causes of death and disability. These conditions are at least partially preventable or modifiable, e.g. by enhancing patients' self-management. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of telephone-based health coaching (TBHC in chronically ill patients.This prospective, pragmatic randomized controlled trial compares an intervention group (IG of participants in TBHC to a control group (CG without TBHC. Endpoints were assessed two years after enrolment. Three different groups of insurees with 1 multiple conditions (chronic campaign, 2 heart failure (heart failure campaign, or 3 chronic mental illness conditions (mental health campaign were targeted. The telephone coaching included evidence-based information and was based on the concepts of motivational interviewing, shared decision-making, and collaborative goal setting. Patients received an average of 12.9 calls. Primary outcome was time from enrolment until hospital readmission within a two-year follow-up period. Secondary outcomes comprised the probability of hospital readmission, number of daily defined medication doses (DDD, frequency and duration of inability to work, and mortality within two years. All outcomes were collected from routine data provided by the statutory health insurance. As informed consent was obtained after randomization, propensity score matching (PSM was used to minimize selection bias introduced by decliners. For the analysis of hospital readmission and mortality, we calculated Kaplan-Meier curves and estimated hazard ratios (HR. Probability of hospital readmission and probability of death were analysed by calculating odds ratios (OR. Quantity of health service use and inability to work were analysed by linear random effects regression models. PSM resulted in patient samples of 5,309 (IG: 2,713; CG: 2,596 in the chronic campaign, of 660 (IG: 338; CG: 322 in the heart failure campaign, and of

  13. The impact of conditional cash transfers on child health in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer; Cross, Ruth

    2014-08-01

    The review aimed to assess the effectiveness of conditional cash transfers (CCTs) in improving child health in low- and middle-income countries. Seven electronic databases were searched for papers: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, PsychINFO, BIOSIS Previews, Academic Search Complete, and CSA Sociological Abstracts. The included studies comprised of randomised controlled trials and controlled before-and-after studies evaluating the impact of CCTs on child health. Due to the substantial heterogeneity of the studies, a narrative synthesis was conducted on the extracted data. Sixteen studies predominantly from Latin American countries met the inclusion criteria. The outcomes reported by the studies in relation to CCTs' effectiveness in improving child health were reduction in morbidity risk, improvement in nutritional outcomes, health services utilisation, and immunisation coverage. The review suggests that to a large extent, CCTs are effective in improving child health by addressing child health determinants such as access to health care, child and maternal nutrition, morbidity risk, immunisation coverage, and household poverty in developing countries particularly middle-income countries. Of importance to both policy and practice, it appears that CCTs require effective functioning of health care systems to effectively promote child health.

  14. Potential role of coenzyme Q10 in health and disease conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodick TC

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Taylor C Rodick,1 Donna R Seibels,2 Jeganathan Ramesh Babu,1 Kevin W Huggins,1 Guang Ren,3 Suresh T Mathews2 1Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, & Hospitality Management, Auburn University, Auburn, 2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Samford University, 3Medicine-Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, an endogenously produced compound, is found in all human cells. Within the mitochondria, it plays a substantial role in energy production by acting as a mobile electron carrier in the electron transport chain. Outside the mitochondria, it acts as an excellent antioxidant by sequestering free radicals and working synergistically with other antioxidants, including vitamin E. Dietary contribution is limited, making endogenous production the primary source for optimal function. Now widely available as an over-the-counter supplement, CoQ10 has gained attention for its possible therapeutic use in minimizing the outcomes of certain metabolic diseases, notably cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. Research has shown positive results in subjects supplemented with CoQ10, especially in relation to upregulating antioxidant capability. Emerging research suggests beneficial effects of CoQ10 supplementation in individuals on statin medications. CoQ10 supplementation in individuals participating in strenuous exercise seems to exert some beneficial effects, although the data are conflicting with other types of physical activity. This broad review of current CoQ10 literature, while outlining its physiological/functional significance in health and disease conditions, also offers a dietitian’s perspective on its potential use as a supplement in the promotion of health and management of disease conditions. Keywords: coenzyme Q, antioxidant, oxidative stress, dietary supplement, statin

  15. Assessing cost-effectiveness in mental health: vocational rehabilitation for schizophrenia and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamat, Maturot; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Carter, Rob; Vos, Theo

    2005-08-01

    Existing evidence suggests that vocational rehabilitation services, in particular individual placement and support (IPS), are effective in assisting people with schizophrenia and related conditions gain open employment. Despite this, such services are not available to all unemployed people with schizophrenia who wish to work. Existing evidence suggests that while IPS confers no clinical advantages over routine care, it does improve the proportion of people returning to employment. The objective of the current study is to investigate the net benefit of introducing IPS services into current mental health services in Australia. The net benefit of IPS is assessed from a health sector perspective using cost-benefit analysis. A two-stage approach is taken to the assessment of benefit. The first stage involves a quantitative analysis of the net benefit, defined as the benefits of IPS (comprising transfer payments averted, income tax accrued and individual income earned) minus the costs. The second stage involves application of 'second-filter' criteria (including equity, strength of evidence, feasibility and acceptability to stakeholders) to results. The robustness of results is tested using the multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The costs of IPS are 10.3M Australian dollars (95% uncertainty interval 7.4M-13.6M Australian dollars), the benefits are 4.7M (3.1M-6.5M Australian dollars), resulting in a negative net benefit of 5.6M Australian dollars (8.4M-3.4M Australian dollars). The current analysis suggests that IPS costs are greater than the monetary benefits. However, the evidence-base of the current analysis is weak. Structural conditions surrounding welfare payments in Australia create disincentives to full-time employment for people with disabilities.

  16. [Psychosocial working conditions and mental health status of the German babyboomer generation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tophoven, S; Tisch, A; Rauch, A; Burghardt, A

    2015-04-01

    The baby boomers are the first to be available to the German labour market up to the age of 67. A crucial premise for a long working life is good health. However, there is evidence that psychosocial working conditions are related to health. More and more employees report psychosocial stress at work. In addition, mental illness has become one of the main reasons for the entry into disability pension. Against this background this study considers the relationship between psychosocial work conditions and mental health exemplarily for two birth cohorts of the German baby boomers. For the analysis of the assumed relationships data of the lidA study "lidA - leben in der Arbeit - German Cohort Study on Work, Age and Health" is used (N=6 057). Mental health is assessed by the mental health scale of the SF-12. In addition, the items and the scales quantitative job requirements, work pace and support from colleagues from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) are used. As further control variables cohort affiliation, level of education, occupational status and partnership are considered. Multivariate analyses of the relations between quantitative job requirements, work pace and the experienced support from colleagues show significant relationship to mental health. The increasing frequency of the requirement to work quickly and increasing quantitative job demands are negatively associated to mental health. However, support of colleagues shows a positive relationship to mental health. These results are similarly observed for women and men. For the regarded group of the German babyboomers, employees at the threshold to higher working age, it is clearly shown that psychosocial working conditions are related to mental health. Since this group still has to work up to 18 years given a statutory retirement age of 67, psychosocial working conditions should rather be in the focus of occupational safety. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Veterinary education in the area of food safety (including animal health, food pathogens and surveillance of foodborne diseases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, S M; Fajardo, P I; González, C G

    2013-08-01

    The animal foodstuffs industry has changed in recent decades as a result of factors such as: human population growth and longer life expectancy, increasing urbanisation and migration, emerging zoonotic infectious diseases and foodborne diseases (FBDs), food security problems, technological advances in animal production systems, globalisation of trade and environmental changes. The Millennium Development Goals and the 'One Health' paradigm provide global guidelines on efficiently addressing the issues of consumer product safety, food security and risks associated with zoonoses. Professionals involved in the supply chain must therefore play an active role, based on knowledge and skills that meet current market requirements. Accordingly, it is necessary for the veterinary medicine curriculum, both undergraduate and postgraduate, to incorporate these skills. This article analyses the approach that veterinary education should adopt in relation to food safety, with an emphasis on animal health, food pathogens and FBD surveillance.

  18. Diet quality: associations with health messages included in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, personal attitudes and social factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Groth, Margit Velsing; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    used to explore the independent effects of energy intake, leisure-time physical activity, food variety, BMI, age, gender, education, household income, location of residence and intention to eat healthily on the likelihood to have high diet quality measured by an index based on the intake of dietary...... with healthy eating. The dietary habits reported were strongly influenced by personal intentions. Thus, the biggest challenge for public health nutritionists will be to reach non-compliers who seldom have intentions to eat healthily.......Objective: To Study the association between diet quality and the new health messages in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, i.e. 'Eat a varied diet', 'Engage in regular physical activity' and 'Maintain a healthy body weight'. Design/setting/subjects: The study was cross-sectional, comprising...

  19. World Trade Center Health Program; amendments to list of WTC-related health conditions; cancer; revision. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-18

    On September 12, 2012, the Administrator of the WTC Health Program (Administrator) published a final rule in the Federal Register adding certain types of cancer to the List of World Trade Center (WTC)-Related Health Conditions (List) in the WTC Health Program regulations; an additional final rule was published on September 19, 2013 adding prostate cancer to the List. Through the process of implementing the addition of cancers to the List and integrating cancer coverage into the WTC Health Program, the Administrator has identified the need to amend the rule to remove the ICD codes and specific cancer sub-sites, clarify the definition of ``childhood cancers,'' revise the definition of ``rare cancers,'' and notify stakeholders that the Administrator is revising WTC Health Program policy related to coverage of cancers of the brain and the pancreas. No types of cancer covered by the WTC Health Program will be removed by this action; four types of cancer--malignant neoplasms of the brain, the cervix uteri, the pancreas, and the testis--are newly eligible for certification as WTC-related health conditions as a result of this action.

  20. [Health and working conditions of high school and university teachers in Mendoza: between commitment and emotional distress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Patricia Alejandra; Soria, Cecilia Beatriz; Canafoglia, Eliana; Collado, Sandra Alicia

    2016-01-01

    With the objective of analyzing aspects related to the perception of working conditions and their impact on health in the teachers and professors who work for the Universidad Nacional de Cuyo (UNCuyo) in Mendoza, Argentina, this work analyzes the results of the Primer Censo de Condiciones y Salud Laboral [First Census on Health and Working Conditions]. The census was conducted in late 2013 in two academic units (one at the high school level and the other at the university level), including 193 educators. The exploration set out to characterize the teaching staff and the conditions affecting their health, primarily with respect to psycho-social health. In order to do, so a self-administered questionnaire was applied, the dimensions of which were discussed in sensitivity workshops with educators who helped to formulate the data collection instrument. Among the primary results emerge the physical and emotional burnout of these highly skilled workers, owing to the combined effect of their committed response to the demands of their work and the deterioration (both material and symbolic) of the conditions in which they carry out that work.

  1. Job Burnout, Work Engagement and Self-reported Treatment for Health Conditions in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Leon T; Pienaar, Jaco; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study being reported here was to investigate the relationship of job burnout and work engagement with self-reported received treatment for health conditions (cardiovascular condition, high cholesterol, depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome), while controlling for age, gender, smoking and alcohol use. The sample comprised 7895 employees from a broad range of economic sectors in the South African working population. A cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. Structural equation modelling methods were implemented with a weighted least squares approach. The results showed that job burnout had a positive relationship with self-reported received treatment for depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome. Work engagement did not have any significant negative or positive relationships with the treatment for these health conditions. The results of this study make stakeholders aware of the relationship between job burnout, work engagement and self-reported treatment for health conditions. Evidence for increased reporting of treatment for ill-health conditions due to burnout was found. Therefore, attempts should be made to manage job burnout to prevent ill-health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Health- and Performance-Related Outcomes in Air Force Medical Service Personnel with a Post-Deployment Mental Health Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jacob L; Tvaryanas, Anthony P; Maupin, Genny M

    2018-01-01

    This study examined associations between incident post-deployment mental health (PDMH) conditions and health- and performance-related outcomes in the population of Air Force Medical Service personnel on active duty between 2003 and 2013 who had at least one deployment. Using a posttest-only with nonequivalent groups design, the study cohort was divided into two groups based on the occurrence of an incident PDMH condition, and the groups were then compared in terms of the following health- and performance-related outcomes: health care and pharmaceutical utilization, duty and mobility restrictions, and physical fitness assessment exemptions and composite fitness score. Archival data were extracted from existing databases and associations were assessed using both parametric and nonparametric approaches. The cohort comprised 12,216 participants, from which subcohorts were drawn to assess specific outcome measures. Participants with an incident PDMH used health care at 1.8 times the rate and were 6.2 times more likely to be classified as a high utilizer of health care as compared with those without a PDMH condition (controls). They were 2.1-103.0 times more likely to be prescribed one of 22 therapeutic classes of medication and were 2.4 times more likely to have polypharmacy than controls. They were 2.5 times more likely to have a duty or mobility restriction, and the ratio of days spent with a restriction to days without a restriction was 1.8 times that of controls. Lastly, they were 2.4 times more likely to have a physical fitness assessment exemption, but there was no significant difference in the likelihood of a composite fitness score of <90 points. The presence of an incident PDMH condition was associated with increased health care and pharmaceutical utilization and decreased occupational performance as assessed in terms of restricted duty status and participation in physical fitness assessments.

  3. Characteristics of young people with long term conditions close to transfer to adult health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Hannah; McConachie, Helen; Le Couteur, Ann; Mann, Kay; Parr, Jeremy R; Pearce, Mark S; Colver, Allan

    2015-09-30

    For many young people with long term conditions (LTC), transferring from paediatric to adult health services can be difficult and outcomes are often reported to be poor. We report the characteristics and representativeness of three groups of young people with LTCs as they approach transfer to adult services: those with autism spectrum disorder with additional mental health problems (ASD); cerebral palsy (CP); or diabetes. Young people aged 14 years-18 years 11 months with ASD, or those with diabetes were identified from children's services and those with CP from population databases. Questionnaires, completed by the young person and a parent, included the 'Mind the Gap' Scale, the Rotterdam Transition Profile, and the Warwick and Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale. Three hundred seventy four young people joined the study; 118 with ASD, 106 with CP, and 150 with diabetes. Participants had a significant (p young people were small. Parents' satisfaction was significantly lower than their children's (p young people with diabetes were in a more independent phase of participation than those with ASD or CP. The wellbeing scores of those with diabetes (median = 53, IQR: 47-58) and CP (median = 53, IQR: 48-60) were similar, and significantly higher than for those with ASD (median = 47, IQR: 41-52; p young people with one of three LTCs recruited close to transfer to adult services was representative, we have described aspects of their satisfaction with services, participation and wellbeing, noting similarities and differences by LTC. This information about levels of current functioning is important for subsequent evaluation of the impact of service features on the health and wellbeing of young people with LTCs following transfer from child services to adult services.

  4. Gender differences of the influential factors on the mental health condition of teachers in the A university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Mika; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Tanioka, Tetsuya; Okuda, Kikuko; Chiba, Shinichi; Tomotake, Masahito; King, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the gender differences of the influential factors on the mental health condition among university teachers in the A university in Japan. A questionnaire survey was mailed to 924 university teachers in Japan, with a survey return rate of 43.8% (N=405). The General Health Questionnaire 28 (GHQ-28), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), the Japanese version of the Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) and the Work Situation Questionnaire (WSQ) developed by the authors were administered to subjects. The GHQ-28 total score and all of sub-score of the woman was significantly higher than men. In the correlated factor of mental health, level of job satisfaction and job control, social support of significant others was observed in the both sexes. However, gender differences was observed in the coping style. Some copings including self-distraction and self-blame were related to the men, but the woman was related to the substance use. University teachers had some gender differences in the factors affecting their mental health condition. In order to improve university teacher's mental health condition, it is necessary to increase their level of job satisfaction and feeling of job control in the workplace. Especially, it was considered women's coping using substance use was important.

  5. Periodontal conditions and associated factors among adults and the elderly: findings from the first National Oral Health Survey in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo, Susana M.; Alvarez, Ramón; Andrade, Ernesto; Piccardo, Virginia; Francia, Alejandro; Massa, Fernando; Correa, Marcos Britto; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal conditions in the Uruguayan adult and elderly population and its association with socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Data from adults (35-44, n = 358) and elderly (65-74, n = 411) who participated in the first National Oral Health Survey, Uruguay, 2011, were used. The survey included a household questionnaire addressing socioeconomic characteristics, and tobacco use. Bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal ...

  6. The Relationship Between Sociodemographic Characteristics, Work Conditions, and Level of "Mobbing" of Health Workers in Primary Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picakciefe, Metin; Acar, Gulcihan; Colak, Zehra; Kilic, Ibrahim

    2015-06-19

    Mobbing is a type of violence which occurs in workplaces and is classified under the community violence subgroup of interpersonal violence. The aim of this study is to examine health care workers who work in primary health care in the city of Mugla and to determine whether there is a relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, work conditions, and their level of mobbing. A cross-sectional analysis has been conducted in which 130 primary health care workers were selected. Of the 130, 119 health workers participated, yielding a response rate of 91.5%; 83.2% of health workers are female, 42.9% are midwives, 27.7% are nurses, and 14.3% are doctors. In all, 31.1% of health workers have faced with "mobbing" in the last 1 year, and the frequency of experiencing "mobbing" of those 48.6% of them is 1 to 3 times per year. A total of 70.3% of those who apply "mobbing" are senior health workers, and 91.9% are female. The frequency of encountering with "mobbing" was found significantly in married health workers, in those 16 years and above according to examined total working time, in those who have psychosocial reactions, and in those who have counterproductive behaviors. It has been discovered that primary health care workers have high prevalence of "mobbing" exposure. To avoid "mobbing" at workplace, authorities and responsibilities of all employees have to be clearly determined. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Prescription for natural cures: a self-care guide for treating health problems with natural remedies including diet, nutrition, supplements, and other holistic methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balch, James F; Stengler, Mark; Young-Balch, Robin

    2011-01-01

    .... You'll find easy-to-understand discussions of the symptoms and root causes of each health problem along with a proven, natural, customized prescription that may include supplements, herbal medicine...

  8. 77 FR 24628 - World Trade Center Health Program Requirements for the Addition of New WTC-Related Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... disorder be added to the list of WTC-related health conditions. Those comments are outside the scope of... upon a finding of good cause. In the case of such an extension, the Administrator shall publish notice... be required to conduct rulemaking to make an addition, as required by Title XXXIII of the PHS Act...

  9. Do stress, health behavior, and sleep mediate the association between loneliness and adverse health conditions among older people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Julie; Larsen, Finn Breinholt; Lasgaard, Mathias

    2016-03-01

    Prior research has established an association between loneliness and a variety of negative health conditions among older people. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this association. Building on the Loneliness Model, Hawkley and Cacioppo (2010) identified possible pathways through which loneliness may affect the development of adverse health conditions. The present study was designed to test the pathways proposed by Hawkley and Cacioppo. The sample consisted of 8593 elderly ranging from 65 to 102 years of age participating in the 2013 Public Health Survey "How are you?". Findings show that loneliness was significantly associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and migraine. In addition high perceived stress, physical inactivity, daily smoking, and poor sleep mediated the association between loneliness and adverse health conditions. Moreover, findings demonstrate several gender differences in the association between loneliness and various adverse condition and the indirect mechanisms affecting these associations. The findings largely support the pathways proposed by Hawkley and Cacioppo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 38937 - World Trade Center Health Program Requirements for the Addition of New WTC-Related Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... and lower airway diseases, esophageal disorders from acid reflux, musculoskeletal injuries, and mental health problems (most notably post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression). In 2008, Congress... causing the illness or condition (Title XXXIII, Sec. 3312(a)(1)(A)(i)). Procedures for the addition of a...

  11. Perceived unfairness in working conditions: The case of public health services in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massay Deodatus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The focus on the determinants of the quality of health services in low-income countries is increasing. Health workers' motivation has emerged as a topic of substantial interest in this context. The main objective of this article is to explore health workers' experience of working conditions, linked to motivation to work. Working conditions have been pointed out as a key factor in ensuring a motivated and well performing staff. The empirical focus is on rural public health services in Tanzania. The study aims to situate the results in a broader historical context in order to enhance our understanding of the health worker discourse on working conditions. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit detailed information on health workers' experience of their working conditions. The data comprise focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews (IDIs with administrators, clinicians and nursing staff in the public health services in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in the same part of Tanzania. Results The article provides insights into health workers' understanding and assessment of their working conditions. An experience of unsatisfactory working conditions as well as a perceived lack of fundamental fairness dominated the FGDs and IDIs. Informants reported unfairness with reference to factors such as salary, promotion, recognition of work experience, allocation of allowances and access to training as well as to human resource management. The study also revealed that many health workers lack information or knowledge about factors that influence their working conditions. Conclusions The article calls for attention to the importance of locating the discourse of unfairness related to working conditions in a broader historical/political context. Tanzanian history has been characterised by an ambiguous and shifting landscape of state regulation

  12. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in children taking part in an oral health programme including fluoride tablet supplements from the age of 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersten, Charlotte; Pylvänen, Lena; Schröder, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years.......To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years....

  13. The Role of Labor Unions in Creating Working Conditions That Promote Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Jenn; Paras, Claudia Alexandra; Greenwich, Howard; Hagopian, Amy

    2016-06-01

    We sought to portray how collective bargaining contracts promote public health, beyond their known effect on individual, family, and community well-being. In November 2014, we created an abstraction tool to identify health-related elements in 16 union contracts from industries in the Pacific Northwest. After enumerating the contract-protected benefits and working conditions, we interviewed union organizers and members to learn how these promoted health. Labor union contracts create higher wage and benefit standards, working hours limits, workplace hazards protections, and other factors. Unions also promote well-being by encouraging democratic participation and a sense of community among workers. Labor union contracts are largely underutilized, but a potentially fertile ground for public health innovation. Public health practitioners and labor unions would benefit by partnering to create sophisticated contracts to address social determinants of health.

  14. [Probable Mental Health Disorders Prevalence in Children With Chronic Conditions. Results From the National Mental Health Survey of Colombia 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Ramirez, Sandra; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Rodriguez, Maria Nelcy; Rodríguez, Andrea; Rengifo, Henrey

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of chronic conditions is increasing globally and this phenomenon covers pediatric populations. There is a relationship between chronic conditions and mental health problems, which has been insufficiently studied in the case of children. To measure the frequency of problems and mental disorders in the Colombian population between 7 and 11 years, depending on the presence or absence of chronic conditions. The information pertains to the National Survey of Mental Health of Colombia 2015, an observational cross-sectional nationally representative for the group between 7 and 11 years old. Mental problems where measure with the Reporting Questionnaire for Children (RQC), the 12 month prevalence of seven mental disorders were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version parents (DISC-P) and a list of chronic conditions. Univariate and stratification analysis of the data were performed. 41.6% of the children with no chronic conditions, 56.7% of the children with 1 chronic condition and 70.8% in those with 2 or more have at least one RQC symptom; the highest prevalence of mental health symptoms are those with chronic inflammatory lung disease, followed by diabetes mellitus and allergies. The prevalence of one or more mental disorders in children without chronic conditions is 3.1% while those with at least 1 is 13.8%. A higher prevalence of mental disorders in children and its association with chronic conditions justifies further studies that address this issue and develop strategies with multidisciplinary interventions. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of including fitness testing in preventive health checks on cardiorespiratory fitness and motivation: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høj, Kirsten; Skriver, Mette Vinther; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Christensen, Bo; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2014-10-10

    Preventive health checks may identify individuals with an unhealthy lifestyle and motivate them to change behaviour. However, knowledge about the impact of the different components included in preventive health checks is deficient. The aim of this trial is to evaluate whether including cardiorespiratory fitness testing in preventive health checks 1) increases cardiorespiratory fitness level and motivation to change physical activity behaviour and 2) reduces physical inactivity prevalence and improves self-rated health compared with preventive health checks without fitness testing. An open-label, household-cluster, randomized controlled trial with a two-group parallel design is used. The trial is embedded in a population-based health promotion program, "Check your Health Preventive Program", in which all 30-49 year-old citizens in a Danish municipality are offered a preventive health check. In each arm of the trial, 750 citizens will be recruited (1,500 in total). The primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness level assessed by submaximal cycle ergometer testing after one year. An intermediate outcome is the percentage of participants increasing motivation for physical activity behaviour change between baseline and two-weeks follow-up assessed using the Transtheoretical Model's stages of change. Secondary outcomes include changes from baseline to one-year follow-up in physical inactivity prevalence measured by a modified version of the questions developed by Saltin and Grimby, and in self-rated health measures using the Short-Form 12, Health Survey, version 2. This trial will contribute to a critical appraisal of the value of fitness testing as part of preventive health checks. The conduction in real-life community and general practice structures makes the trial findings applicable and transferable to other municipalities providing support to decision-makers in the development of approaches to increase levels of physical activity and improve health. Clinical

  16. Occupational class inequalities in health across employment sectors: the contribution of working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko; Aittomäki, Akseli

    2009-01-01

    While health inequalities among employees are well documented, their variation and determinants among employee subpopulations are poorly understood. We examined variations in occupational class inequalities in health within four employment sectors and the contribution of working conditions to these inequalities. Cross-sectional data from the Helsinki Health Study in 2000-2002 were used. Each year, employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years, received a mailed questionnaire (n = 8,960, 80% women, overall response rate for 3 years 67%). The outcome was physical health functioning measured by the overall physical component summary of SF-36. The socioeconomic indicator was occupational social class. Employment sectors studied were health care, education, social welfare and administration (n = 6,557). Physical and mental workload, and job demands and job control were explanatory factors. Inequality indices from logistic regression analysis were calculated. Occupational class inequalities in physical health functioning were slightly larger in education (1.47) than in the other sectors (1.43-1.40). Physical workload explained 95% of inequalities in social welfare and 32-36% in the other sectors. Job control also partly explained health inequalities. However, adjusting for mental workload and job demands resulted in larger health inequalities. Inequalities in physical health functioning were found within each employment sector, with minor variation in their magnitude. Physical workload was the main explanation for these inequalities, but its contribution varied between the sectors. In contrast, considering psychosocial working conditions led to wider inequalities. Improving physical working conditions among the lower occupational classes would help reduce health inequalities within different employment sectors.

  17. The organization of health-saving educational process in university with modern conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boreyko N.U.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the fundamentals of health-saving educational process in accordance with the current conditions of educational modernization. The analysis of more than 30 regulatory documents and literature. The study involved 1896 students of NTU "KPI". With the help of theoretical analysis, the content, principles of health-saving educational process, identified the pedagogical conditions of health-saving system for students of technical universities. It is well-proven that for upgrading education the lead through of optimization of the educational, psychological and physical loading of students and teachers, creation in higher educational закладах of terms, is needed for a maintainance and strengthening of their health.

  18. Hygienic assessment of priority risk factors of environment and health condition of the population of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Andreeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of work on the dual hygienic assessment of priority risk factors of the environment and the health condition of the population of Moscow. It is shown that in the territory of the metropolis the impact of conditions of negative factors on human health is retained. These trends are confirmed by the excess of the hygienic standards of pollutants in ambient air (up to 6.6 TLVc.e., by the substantial increase (up to 65.8 % of share of the centralized sources of water supply, water quality does not meet the hygienic standards due to the high level of non-standard samples of soil (more than 50 % on a number of sanitary-chemical and microbiological parameters in the territories of certain administrative districts. At the same time there is a tendency to a decrease in non-standard drinking water samples taken from the distribution network of centralized drinking water supply (from 4.36 % to 2.45 %. It was established that the primary morbidity have a number of positive trends to decrease, but exceeds the average indicators for individual classes and nosology, including the classes of "Respiratory diseases", "Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue", "Neoplasms" and etc. by 4.1–68.3 %. Analysis of causality (about 50 significant biologically-based mathematical models were received on the system of "quality of habitat (a risk factor – health status (morbidity, mortality " showed that the impact of negative environmental factors probably shape up to 29.2 ‰ of additional cases and up to 0.056 ‰ of the additional deaths per year. The largest contribution to the formation of the probability of additional cases is made by the excess of morbidity by hygienic standards of air quality and soil, mortality and air quality. Risk factors are phenol, benzo a pyrene, nitrogen dioxide, suspended solids, ammonia, chlorine and its compounds, and sulfur dioxide, etc., coming from the atmospheric air, and cadmium

  19. Health inequities: lower socio-economic conditions and higher incidences of intestinal parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limoncu M Emin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections affect child health and development and slow down growth, while reducing adults' productivity and work capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the incidences of intestinal parasitic infections and the socio-economic status of two near primary school children in Manisa, a western city of Turkey. Methods A total of 352 children were involved a questionnaire study from a private school (Ülkem Primary School – ÜPS, 116 children and a community-based school (Şehzadeler Primary School – ŞPS, 236 children. Of these, stool samples could be obtained from a total of 294 students; 97 (83.6% from ÜPS, and 197 (83.5% from ŞPS. The wet mount preparations of the stool samples were examined; samples were also fixed in polyvinyl alcohol and examined with modified formalin ethyl acetate sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 10.0. The chi-squared test was used for the analytic assessment. Results The percentages of the students found to be infected with intestinal parasites, were 78 (39.6% and 13 (13.4% in ŞPS and ÜPS, respectively. Totally 91 (31.0% of the students from both schools were found to be infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most common pathogenic intestinal parasite and Blastocystis hominis was prevalent independently from the hygienic conditions. The factors which significantly (p Conclusion Intestinal parasitic infections in school children were found to be a public health problem that increased due to lower socio-economic conditions. We conclude that organization of education seminars including the topics such as prevention of the infectious diseases, improving general hygienic conditions, and application of supportive programs for the parents may be suggested not only to reduce intestinal parasitic infections, but also to elevate the socio

  20. Gender inequalities in health: exploring the contribution of living conditions in the intersection of social class

    OpenAIRE

    Malmusi, Davide; Vives, Alejandra; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme

    2014-01-01

    Background: Women experience poorer health than men despite their longer life expectancy, due to a higher prevalence of non-fatal chronic illnesses. This paper aims to explore whether the unequal gender distribution of roles and resources can account for inequalities in general self-rated health (SRH) by gender, across social classes, in a Southern European population.Methods: Cross-sectional study of residents in Catalonia aged 25–64, using data from the 2006 population living conditions sur...

  1. Enhancing care for urban poor living with chronic conditions: role of local health systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bhojani, Upendra

    2016-01-01

    Five-year research in a poor urban neighborhood in South India reveals a high burden of chronic conditions where the majority rely on private health facilities for care. Poverty hinders people from accessing health services and those who seek care get further impoverished. Socially defined roles and positions limit women and elderly in managing care. Fragmented services imply patients having to visit more than one facility for a single episode of care. The limited use of medical records and l...

  2. An Analysis of health conditions in municipalities of Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Ovídio Cesar Barbosa; Sidnei Pereira do Nascimento; José Carlos Dalmas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to analyze the health conditions in the municipal districts checking which of them best optimize the available resources, consequently offering more and better services to the population. In this approach, first was characterized the public health in Brazil, in the state of Paraná and in its municipalities. We build a Performance Indicator for each county in the state (PI) and used variables representing mortality and longevity - infant mortality, mortality up to...

  3. Peculiarities of Population Health Forming in Children at Contemporary Ecological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Frolova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Results of study of peculiarities of population health in children in current contemporary ecological conditions of Kharkiv region were shown in the article. Features of mineral imbalance with increase of accumulation of conditionally toxic trace elements that reflects the influence of ecological factors on chronic somatic pathology formation in children. The necessity of recording of trace elements balance indices in monitoring system of children’s health and usage of individual preventive measures of eco-dependent pathology formation has been proved.

  4. Age, physical inactivity, obesity, health conditions, and health-related quality of life among patients receiving conservative management for musculoskeletal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPhail SM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Steven M McPhail,1,2 Mandy Schippers,1,2 Alison L Marshall2 1Centre for Functioning and Health Research, Metro South Health, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, and School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Background: Musculoskeletal conditions and insufficient physical activity have substantial personal and economic costs among contemporary aging societies. This study examined the age distribution, comorbid health conditions, body mass index (BMI, self-reported physical activity levels, and health-related quality of life of patients accessing ambulatory hospital clinics for musculoskeletal disorders. The study also investigated whether comorbidity, BMI, and self-reported physical activity were associated with patients’ health-related quality of life after adjusting for age as a potential confounder. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in three ambulatory hospital clinics for musculoskeletal disorders. Participants (n=224 reported their reason for referral, age, comorbid health conditions, BMI, physical activity levels (Active Australia Survey, and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D. Descriptive statistics and linear modeling were used to examine the associations between age, comorbidity, BMI, intensity and duration of physical activity, and health-related quality of life.Results: The majority of patients (n=115, 51.3% reported two or more comorbidities. In addition to other musculoskeletal conditions, common comorbidities included depression (n=41, 18.3%, hypertension (n=40, 17.9%, and diabetes (n=39, 17.4%. Approximately one-half of participants (n=110, 49.1% self-reported insufficient physical activity to meet minimum recommended guidelines and 150 (67.0% were overweight (n=56, 23.2%, obese (n=64, 28.6%, severely obese (n=16, 7.1%, or very severely obese (n=14, 6.3%, with a higher proportion of older patients affected. A

  5. Including the urban heat island in spatial heat health risk assessment strategies: a case study for Birmingham, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornes John E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heatwaves present a significant health risk and the hazard is likely to escalate with the increased future temperatures presently predicted by climate change models. The impact of heatwaves is often felt strongest in towns and cities where populations are concentrated and where the climate is often unintentionally modified to produce an urban heat island effect; where urban areas can be significantly warmer than surrounding rural areas. The purpose of this interdisciplinary study is to integrate remotely sensed urban heat island data alongside commercial social segmentation data via a spatial risk assessment methodology in order to highlight potential heat health risk areas and build the foundations for a climate change risk assessment. This paper uses the city of Birmingham, UK as a case study area. Results When looking at vulnerable sections of the population, the analysis identifies a concentration of "very high" risk areas within the city centre, and a number of pockets of "high risk" areas scattered throughout the conurbation. Further analysis looks at household level data which yields a complicated picture with a considerable range of vulnerabilities at a neighbourhood scale. Conclusions The results illustrate that a concentration of "very high" risk people live within the urban heat island, and this should be taken into account by urban planners and city centre environmental managers when considering climate change adaptation strategies or heatwave alert schemes. The methodology has been designed to be transparent and to make use of powerful and readily available datasets so that it can be easily replicated in other urban areas.

  6. Practicalities and challenges in re-orienting the health system in Zambia for treating chronic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Aantjes, Carolien J; Quinlan, Tim KC; Bunders, Joske FG

    2014-01-01

    Background The rapid evolution in disease burdens in low- and middle income countries is forcing policy makers to re-orient their health system towards a system which has the capability to simultaneously address infectious and non-communicable diseases. This paper draws on two different but overlapping studies which examined how actors in the Zambian health system are re-directing their policies, strategies and service structures to include the provision of health care for people with chronic...

  7. Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe, the PHEWE project: background, objectives, design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Hugh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe" (PHEWE had the aim of assessing the association between weather conditions and acute health effects, during both warm and cold seasons in 16 European cities with widely differing climatic conditions and to provide information for public health policies. Methods The PHEWE project was a three-year pan-European collaboration between epidemiologists, meteorologists and experts in public health. Meteorological, air pollution and mortality data from 16 cities and hospital admission data from 12 cities were available from 1990 to 2000. The short-term effect on mortality/morbidity was evaluated through city-specific and pooled time series analysis. The interaction between weather and air pollutants was evaluated and health impact assessments were performed to quantify the effect on the different populations. A heat/health watch warning system to predict oppressive weather conditions and alert the population was developed in a subgroup of cities and information on existing prevention policies and of adaptive strategies was gathered. Results Main results were presented in a symposium at the conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology in Paris on September 6th 2006 and will be published as scientific articles. The present article introduces the project and includes a description of the database and the framework of the applied methodology. Conclusion The PHEWE project offers the opportunity to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in 16 European cities, representing a wide range of climatic, socio-demographic and cultural characteristics; the use of a standardized methodology allows for direct comparison between cities.

  8. Characterisation of mental health conditions in social media using Informed Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gkotsis, George; Oellrich, Anika; Velupillai, Sumithra; Liakata, Maria; Hubbard, Tim J P; Dobson, Richard J B; Dutta, Rina

    2017-01-01

    The number of people affected by mental illness is on the increase and with it the burden on health and social care use, as well as the loss of both productivity and quality-adjusted life-years. Natural language\\ud processing of electronic health records is increasingly used to study mental health conditions and risk behaviours on a large scale. However, narrative notes written by clinicians do not capture first-hand\\ud the patients’ own experiences, and only record cross-sectional, professio...

  9. Associations between headache and stress, alcohol drinking, exercise, sleep, and comorbid health conditions in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Masako; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Funazu, Kazuo; Yamashita, Takeshi; Kondo, Shuji; Hosoai, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Akira; Nakamura, Haruo

    2009-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 12,988 subjects aged 20-79 years (5,908 men and 7,090 women) receiving health checkups at a Tokyo clinic. They filled out a self-administered structured questionnaire, and 5.4% of the men and 15.4% of the women reported having headaches. Younger subjects were more prone to having headaches. The likelihood of having headaches increased with stress level and decreased ability to relieve stress in both genders. There was an inverse dose-response relationship between having headaches and alcohol consumption, and less walking/exercise and sleep problems increased the likelihood of headaches in both genders. Headache sufferers of both genders were more likely to report multiple additional poor health conditions. A multivariate stepwise logistic analysis showed that age, self-estimated degree of stress, reported number of additional poor health conditions, and less alcohol consumption were independently correlated with having headaches. In conclusion, although women were more susceptible to headache, Japanese men and women in Tokyo shared factors associated with headache, including age, stress, having other poor health conditions, alcohol consumption, sleep, and exercise.

  10. The Impact of Socioeconomic Conditions, Social Networks, and Health on Frail Older People's Life Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Helene; Hasson, Henna; Wilhelmson, Katarina; Dunér, Anna; Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve

    2016-06-23

    It has been shown that frailty is associated with low levels of well-being and life satisfaction. Further exploration is needed, however, to better understand which components constitute life satisfaction for frail older people and how satisfaction is related to other life circumstances. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between frail older people's life satisfaction and their socioeconomic conditions, social networks, and health-related conditions. A cross-sectional study was conducted (n=179). A logistic regression analysis was performed, including life satisfaction as the dependent variable and 12 items as independent variables. Four of the independent variables made statistically significant contributions: financial situation (OR 3.53), social contacts (OR 2.44), risk of depression (OR 2.26), and self-rated health (OR 2.79). This study demonstrates that financial situation, self-rated health conditions and social networks are important components for frail older people's life satisfaction. Health and social care professionals and policy makers should consider this knowledge in the care and service for frail older people; and actions that benefit life satisfaction - such as social support - should be promoted.

  11. Clinical Updates in Women's Health Care Primary and Preventive Care Review Summary: Common Dermatologic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsand, Kate O; Iyer, Jayasri G; Abson, Kim Gittere

    2018-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ in the human body, and as such, cutaneous problems constitute a common component of visits to medical professionals. The skin functions as a physiologic barrier and a major organ of homeostasis. The practicing obstetrician-gynecologist can play an important role in identifying skin diseases and initiating management. Additionally, the skin often reflects internal disease states. An astute health care provider can identify systemic conditions early, with the goal of improving management. This monograph reviews common cutaneous conditions, both benign and malignant, hair and nail disorders, and skin conditions unique to the adult woman.

  12. Cohort differences in exercise adherence among primary care patients referred for mental health versus physical health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobi, Patrick; Kemp, Philip; Schmidt, Elena

    2017-09-01

    Aim To compare the characteristics of mental health and physical health participants attending an exercise referral scheme (ERS) and investigate associations with their adherence to exercise. While people referred to an ERS with a mental health diagnosis have similar initial rates of uptake as physical health participants, they are more likely to drop out. Comparisons of the groups to understand their differences and how these might impact on their adherence have been limited by the typically low numbers of mental health referrals in many schemes. Retrospective analysis of a participant cohort. Data were extracted on all participants enrolled over a 12- month period (n = 701) and included measurements at baseline, mid-point (13 weeks) and end of programme (20-26 weeks). Differences were explored between the mental health (n=141) and physical health (n=560) subcohorts, and between adherers and non-adherers in each group. Binomial logistic regression estimated the effect of group-level factors associated with adherence. Findings Mental health referrals were more likely to be younger, White and unemployed, and had a lower mean body mass index and lower proportion of participants with high blood pressure. They were also more likely to drop out. While occupation was associated with exercise adherence among the physical health group, no predictive factors were identified in the mental health group. Participants referred for mental health disorders are more likely to drop out of exercise referral schemes than those with physical health problems. While no factors were found to be predictive of their exercise adherence, an understanding of their distinguishing characteristics and attendance behaviour can guide in making better referral decisions concerning them and planning more appropriately tailored support.

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in health in the working population: the contribution of working conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, C. T.; van de Mheen, H. D.; Stronks, K.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    The aim was to study the impact of different categories of working conditions on the association between occupational class and self-reported health in the working population. Data were collected through a postal survey conducted in 1991 among inhabitants of 18 municipalities in the southeastern

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities in health in the working population: the contribution of working conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.Th.M. Schrijvers (Carola); H. van de Mheen (Dike); K. Stronks (Karien); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The aim was to study the impact of different categories of working conditions on the association between occupational class and self-reported health in the working population. METHODS: Data were collected through a postal survey conducted in 1991

  15. An Evaluation of the Effects of Chronic Diseases and Health Conditions on Tobacco Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Dawn E.; Barr, Nikki; Rickert, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of chronic health conditions on tobacco cessation and participation in a follow-up assessment among 13,900 smokers in a telephone-based tobacco cessation programme. Design: This study involved gathering data from individuals during pre- and post-intervention telephonic assessments following their decision…

  16. Information Behavior of People Diagnosed with a Chronic Serious Health Condition: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Jean, Beth Lenore

    2012-01-01

    This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…

  17. Allocation of Public Resources for Psychological Therapy between Types of Mental Health Condition: Towards Structural Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustin, Don

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses issues of allocating public resources efficiently between mental health conditions that are associated with different levels of disability, and presents an adaptation of an established framework to help decision-making in this area. The adapted framework refers to psychological interventions that are universal, indicated,…

  18. Prevalence of Obesity-Related Chronic Health Conditions in Overweight Adolescents with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, Kiyoshi; Rimmer, James H.; Lowry, Brienne D.; Vogel, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of 15 common obesity-related chronic health conditions was examined in a convenience sample of adolescents, ages 12-18 years old, with mobility and non-mobility limitations (n=208 and 435, respectively). In both groups, overweight adolescents (BMI[greater than or equal to] 85th %ile) had a significantly higher number of…

  19. Sensitivity analysis of bridge health index to element failure and element conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Bridge Health Index (BHI) is a bridge performance measure based on the condition of the bridge elements. It : is computed as the ratio of remaining value of the bridge structure to the initial value of the structure. Since it : is expressed as a perc...

  20. Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oredugba, Folakemi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…

  1. Perceived Working Conditions and Personal Resources Predicting Mental Health Counselor Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Isabel A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of counselor perceived working conditions, length of time in field, counselor gender, mindfulness attitudes, compassion satisfaction, emotion-focused coping, problem focused coping, and maladaptive coping on levels of burnout and compassion fatigue in a sample of 213 mental health counselors. Cross-sectional…

  2. An Evaluation of Specialist Mentoring for University Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Mental Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rebecca; James, Alana I.

    2018-01-01

    Mentoring is often recommended to universities as a way of supporting students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and/or mental health conditions (MHC), but there is little literature on optimising this support. We used mixed-methods to evaluate mentees' and mentors' experiences of a specialist mentoring programme. Mentees experienced academic,…

  3. Hospital Admissions for Physical Health Conditions for People with Intellectual Disabilities: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kirsty; Hughes-McCormack, Laura; Cooper, Sally-Ann

    2018-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities may have inequalities in hospital admissions compared with the general population. The present authors aimed to investigate admissions for physical health conditions in this population. Methods: The present authors conducted a systematic review, searching six databases using terms on intellectual…

  4. The effects of a cycling warm-up including high-intensity heavy-resistance conditioning contractions on subsequent 4 km time trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorley, Alan; Lamb, Kevin L

    2017-03-25

    Prior exercise has been shown to improve subsequent performance via different mechanisms. Sport-specific conditioning contractions can be used to exploit the 'post-activation potentiation' (PAP) phenomenon to enhance performance although this has rarely been investigated in short endurance events. The aim of this study was to compare a cycling warm-up with PAP-inducing conditioning contractions (CW) with a moderate intensity warm-up (MW) on performance and physiological outcomes of 4 km time trial. Ten well-trained male endurance cyclists (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 65.3 ± 5.6 ml·kg·min) performed two 4 km cycling time trials following a 5-minute recovery after a warm-up at 60% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for 6.5-minutes (MW), and a warm-up with conditioning contractions (CW) consisting of 5 minutes at 60% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max then 3 x 10-seconds at 70% of peak power interspersed with 30-seconds recovery. Blood lactate concentrations were measured before and after time trial. Expired gases were analysed along with time, power output (PO), and peak forces over each 500 m split. Following CW, mean completion time was reduced (1.7 ± 3.5 s p > 0.05), PO increased (5.1 ± 10.5 W p > 0.05) as did peak force per pedal stroke (5.7 ± 11 N p > 0.05) when compared to MW. V[Combining Dot Above]O2 increased (1.4 ± 1.6 ml·kg·min p cycling but work and recovery durations should be optimised for each athlete.

  5. Estimating the prevalence of comorbid conditions and their effect on health care costs in patients with diabetes mellitus in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber CA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carola A Huber,1 Peter Diem,2 Matthias Schwenkglenks,3 Roland Rapold,1 Oliver Reich1 1Department of Health Sciences, Helsana Group, Zürich, Switzerland; 2Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland Background: Estimating the prevalence of comorbidities and their associated costs in patients with diabetes is fundamental to optimizing health care management. This study assesses the prevalence and health care costs of comorbid conditions among patients with diabetes compared with patients without diabetes. Distinguishing potentially diabetes- and nondiabetes-related comorbidities in patients with diabetes, we also determined the most frequent chronic conditions and estimated their effect on costs across different health care settings in Switzerland. Methods: Using health care claims data from 2011, we calculated the prevalence and average health care costs of comorbidities among patients with and without diabetes in inpatient and outpatient settings. Patients with diabetes and comorbid conditions were identified using pharmacy-based cost groups. Generalized linear models with negative binomial distribution were used to analyze the effect of comorbidities on health care costs. Results: A total of 932,612 persons, including 50,751 patients with diabetes, were enrolled. The most frequent potentially diabetes- and nondiabetes-related comorbidities in patients older than 64 years were cardiovascular diseases (91%, rheumatologic conditions (55%, and hyperlipidemia (53%. The mean total health care costs for diabetes patients varied substantially by comorbidity status (US$3,203–$14,223. Patients with diabetes and more than two comorbidities incurred US$10,584 higher total costs than patients without comorbidity. Costs were significantly higher in patients with

  6. Chronic physical health conditions among children of different racial/ethnic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsantas, P; Kornides, M L; Cantiello, J; Wu, H

    2013-06-01

    It is estimated that 20% of children in the USA are affected by at least one chronic disease. Although the burden of chronic conditions is greater for minority populations of children, research that has explored the prevalence and risk factors of chronic disease across different racial/ethnic groups is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence rates of common physical, chronic diseases in White, Black and Hispanic children; and assess the effect of several factors on the risk of having a chronic disease. Using the 2007 National Survey of Childrens Health, prevalence estimates were calculated for asthma, hearing impairment, visual impairment, joint/bone/muscle problems, brain injury and other illnesses for each racial/ethnic group. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the effects of several risk factors on the risk of each of these health conditions. The findings show that the prevalence for all health conditions was significantly higher (25.3%) among Black children than White (19.8%) and Hispanic (18.6%) children. Furthermore, 19.5% of Black children have had or currently have asthma compared with 12.2% of White and Hispanic children. More Black and Hispanic children were covered by public health insurance, while 19% of Hispanic children were currently uninsured. White children whose mothers had a health problem were associated with asthma, hearing impairment, visual impairment and joint/bone/muscle problems, while Black children were more likely to report asthma and Hispanics reported visual impairment and joint/bone muscle problems. Hispanic children who were living in poverty or were uninsured were at lower risk for any chronic disease. Regardless of race/ethnicity, children living in a single-parent household were more likely to be associated with any health condition. This study provides evidence that racial/ethnic disparities in chronic physical conditions and health care among US

  7. Days out of role due to common physical and mental conditions: results from the WHO World Mental Health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, J; Petukhova, M; Vilagut, G; Chatterji, S; Heeringa, S; Üstün, T B; Alhamzawi, A O; Viana, M C; Angermeyer, M; Bromet, E; Bruffaerts, R; de Girolamo, G; Florescu, S; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Hinkov, H; Hu, C-y; Karam, E G; Kovess, V; Levinson, D; Medina-Mora, M E; Nakamura, Y; Ormel, J; Posada-Villa, J; Sagar, R; Scott, K M; Tsang, A; Williams, D R; Kessler, R C

    2011-12-01

    Days out of role because of health problems are a major source of lost human capital. We examined the relative importance of commonly occurring physical and mental disorders in accounting for days out of role in 24 countries that participated in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 62 971 respondents (72.0% pooled response rate). Presence of ten chronic physical disorders and nine mental disorders was assessed for each respondent along with information about the number of days in the past month each respondent reported being totally unable to work or carry out their other normal daily activities because of problems with either physical or mental health. Multiple regression analysis was used to estimate associations of specific conditions and comorbidities with days out of role, controlling by basic socio-demographics (age, gender, employment status and country). Overall, 12.8% of respondents had some day totally out of role, with a median of 51.1 a year. The strongest individual-level effects (days out of role per year) were associated with neurological disorders (17.4), bipolar disorder (17.3) and post-traumatic stress disorder (15.2). The strongest population-level effect was associated with pain conditions, which accounted for 21.5% of all days out of role (population attributable risk proportion). The 19 conditions accounted for 62.2% of all days out of role. Common health conditions, including mental disorders, make up a large proportion of the number of days out of role across a wide range of countries and should be addressed to substantially increase overall productivity.

  8. Working conditions in mid-life and mental health in older ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David; Bartley, Mel; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-03-01

    This article illustrates the importance of previous working conditions during mid-life (between 40 and 55) for mental health among older retired men and women (60 or older) across 13 European countries. We link information on health from the second wave (2006-2007) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) with information on respondents' working life collected retrospectively in the SHARELIFE interview (2008-2009). To measure working conditions, we rely on core assumptions of existing theoretical models of work stress (the demand-control-support and the effort-reward imbalance model) and distinguish four types of unhealthy working conditions: (1) a stressful psychosocial work environment (as assessed by the two work stress models) (2) a disadvantaged occupational position throughout the whole period of mid-life, (3) experience of involuntary job loss, and (4) exposure to job instability. Health after labour market exit is measured using depressive symptoms, as measured by the EURO-D depression scale. Main results show that men and women who experienced psychosocial stress at work or had low occupational positions during mid-life had significantly higher probabilities of high depressive symptoms during retirement. Additionally, men with unstable working careers and an involuntary job loss were at higher risks to report high depressive symptoms in later life. These associations remain significant after controlling for workers' health and social position prior mid-life. These findings support the assumption that mental health of retirees who experienced poor working conditions during mid-life is impaired. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Disparities in chronic conditions and health status by type of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner-Johnson, Willi; Dobbertin, Konrad; Lee, Jae Chul; Andresen, Elena M

    2013-10-01

    Prior research has established health disparities between people with and without disabilities. However, disparities within the disability population, such as those related to type of disability, have been much less studied. To examine differences in chronic conditions and health status between subgroups of people with different types of disability. We analyzed Medical Expenditure Panel Survey annual data files from 2002 to 2008. Logistic regression analyses considered disparity from three perspectives: 1) basic differences, unadjusted for other factors; 2) controlling for key demographic and health covariates; and 3) controlling for a larger set of demographic variables and socioeconomic status as well as health and access to healthcare. Individuals with vision, physical, cognitive, or multiple disability types fared worse than people with hearing impairment on most health outcomes. This was most consistently true for people with multiple disabilities. Even when all covariates were accounted for, people with multiple types of disability were significantly more likely (p disability types were reduced when controlling for other factors, some differences remained significant. This argues for a more individualized approach to understanding and preventing chronic conditions and poor health in specific disability groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Primary health care quality and hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in the public health system in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Marcelo Rodrigues; Hauser, Lisiane; Prestes, Isaías Valente; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Harzheim, Erno

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the relation of hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) with the quality of public primary care health services in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Cohort study constructed by probabilistic record linkage performed from August 2006 to December 2011 in a population ≥18 years of age that attended public primary care health services. The Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool-Brazil) was used for evaluation of primary care services. Of 1200 subjects followed, 84 were hospitalized for primary care sensitive conditions. The main causes of ACSC hospital admissions were cardiovascular (40.5%) and respiratory (16.2%) diseases. The PCATool average score was 5.3, a level considerably below that considered to represent quality care. After adjustment through Cox proportional hazard modelling for covariates, >60 years of age [hazard ratio (HR): 1.13; P = 0.001), lesser education (HR: 0.66; P = 0.02), ethnicity other than white (HR: 1.77; P = 0.01) and physical inactivity (HR: 1.65; P = 0.04) predicted hospitalization, but higher quality of primary health care did not. Better quality of health care services, in a setting of overwhelmingly low quality services not adapted to the care of chronic conditions, did not influence the rate of avoidable hospitalizations, while social and demographic characteristics, especially non-white ethnicity and lesser schooling, indicate that social inequities play a predominant role in health outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The effect of presenteeism-related health conditions on employee work engagement levels: A comparison between groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon T. de Beer

    2014-10-01

    Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to determine the differences in work engagement levels based on groups of presenteeism-related conditions in employees. Motivation for the study: Awareness of the impact of presenteeism-related conditions on work engagement levels can aid in the crafting of interventions to assist employees who suffer from these conditions, which in turn can boost work engagement levels. Research design, approach and method: Cross-sectional data was collected from an availability sample of employees in the manufacturing sector (N = 3387. Main findings: The results of the multi-group structural equation modelling revealed significant mean differences in work engagement levels between the groups. Practical significance tests revealed significant differences between all the groups. The largest difference was between the group who suffered from no presenteeism-related conditions and the group who suffered from all three conditions included in this study concurrently. Practical/managerial implications: Organisational stakeholders are encouraged to take note of the effects that presenteeism-related health conditions have on work engagement and to consider relevant strategies and interventions to address and alleviate symptoms in order to tend to employee health and obviate the effect on productivity. Contribution: This study found that there were clear practical differences between employees who suffer from the presenteeism-related conditions and those who suffer from none of the conditions. Furthermore, there was also a clear difference when comparing the ‘no condition’ group to a general random sample in which employees might experience some symptoms but not comorbidity.

  12. Working conditions and workplace health and safety promotion in home care: A mixed-method study from Swedish managers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Gunvor; Larsson, Agneta

    2017-11-02

    Today, we can see a trend toward increased psychosocial strain at work among home-care managers and staff. The aim of this study is to describe home care managers' views on their own psychosocial working conditions and on how to promote workplace health and safety in a municipality in northern Sweden. A mixed-methods design was used, including questionnaire and qualitative focus group data. The qualitative data were analyzed by manifest content analysis. The results indicate that most managers perceived increased variety in work and opportunities for development at work, but at the same time increased demands. The managers suggested that workplace health and safety could be improved by risk assessment and improved communication, a clear communication chain by a real as well as a virtual platform for communication. In summary, workplace health and safety could be improved by risk assessments and by a physical as well as a virtual platform for communication.

  13. Development of a kinetic model, including rate constant estimations, on iodine and caesium behaviour in the primary circuit of LWR's under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Buron, J.M.; Fernandez, S.

    1991-07-01

    In this report, a kinetic model has been developed with the aim to try to reproduce the chemical phenomena that take place in a flowing system containing steam, hydrogen and iodine and caesium vapours. The work is divided into two different parts. The first part consists in the estimation, through the Activited Complex Theory, of the reaction rate constants, for the chosen reactions, and the development of the kinetic model based on the concept of ideal tubular chemical reactor. The second part deals with the application of such model to several cases, which were taken from the Phase B 'Scoping Calculations' of the Phebus-FP Project (sequence AB) and the SFD-ST and SFD1.1 experiments. The main conclusion obtained from this work is that the assumption of instantaneous equilibrium could be inacurrate in order to estimate the iodine and caesium species distribution under severe accidents conditions

  14. The relationship between local area labor market conditions and the use of Veterans Affairs health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Edwin S; Liu, Chuan-Fen

    2013-03-13

    In the U.S., economic conditions are intertwined with labor market decisions, access to health care, health care utilization and health outcomes. The Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system has served as a safety net provider by supplying free or reduced cost care to qualifying veterans. This study examines whether local area labor market conditions, measured using county-level unemployment rates, influence whether veterans obtain health care from the VA. We used survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in years 2000, 2003 and 2004 to construct a random sample of 73,964 respondents self-identified as veterans. VA health service utilization was defined as whether veterans received all, some or no care from the VA. Hierarchical ordered logistic regression was used to address unobserved state and county random effects while adjusting for individual characteristics. Local area labor market conditions were defined as the average 12-month unemployment rate in veterans' county of residence. The mean unemployment rate for veterans receiving all, some and no care was 5.56%, 5.37% and 5.24%, respectively. After covariate adjustment, a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate in a veteran's county of residence was associated with an increase in the probability of receiving all care (0.34%, p-value = 0.056) or some care (0.29%, p-value = 0.023) from the VA. Our findings suggest that the important role of the VA in providing health care services to veterans is magnified in locations with high unemployment.

  15. All slums are not equal: child health conditions among the urban poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Siddharth; Taneja, Shivani

    2005-03-01

    Increasing urbanization has resulted in a faster growth of slum population. Various agencies, especially those in developing countries are finding it difficult to respond to this situation effectively. Disparities among slums exist owing to various factors. This has led to varying degrees of health burden on the slum children. Child health conditions in slums with inadequate services are worse in comparison to relatively better served slums. Identification, mapping and assessment of all slums is important for locating the hitherto missed out slums and focusing on the neediest slums. In view of the differential vulnerabilities across slums, an urban child health program should build context appropriate and community-need-responsive approaches to improve children's health in the slums.

  16. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) for individuals with self-reported chronic physical and/or mental health conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayliss, Martha; Rendas-Baum, Regina; White, Michelle K

    2012-01-01

    In the US, approximately 53% of adults have at least one chronic condition. Comorbid physical and mental health conditions often have an incremental negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Primary study objectives were to quantify the impact on HRQL of a) ≥ 1 physical condition...

  17. Preschool children's health and its association with parental education and individual living conditions in East and West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schikowski Tamara

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social inequalities in health exist globally and are a major public health concern. This study focus on a systematic investigation into the associations between health indicators, living conditions and parental educational level as indicator of the social status of 6-year-old children living in West and East Germany in the decade after re-unification. Explanations of observed associations between parental education and health indicators were examined. Methods All boys and girls entering elementary school and living in predefined areas of East and West Germany were invited to participate in a series of cross-sectional surveys conducted between 1991 and 2000. Data of 28,888 German children with information on parental education were included in the analysis. Information about educational level of the parents, individual living conditions, symptoms and diagnoses of infectious diseases and allergies were taken from questionnaire. At the day of investigation, atopic eczema was diagnosed by dermatologists, blood was taken for the determination of allergen-specific immuno-globulin E, height and weight was measured and lung function tests were done in subgroups. Regression analysis was applied to investigate the associations between the health indicators and parental educational level as well as the child's living conditions. Gender, urban/rural residency and year of survey were used to control for confounding. Results Average response was 83% in East Germany and 71% in West Germany. Strong associations between health indicators and parental education were observed. Higher educated parents reported more diagnoses and symptoms than less educated. Children of higher educated parents were also more often sensitized against grass pollen or house dust mites, but had higher birth weights, lower airway resistance and were less overweight at the age of six. Furthermore, most of the health indicators were significantly associated with one or

  18. Country differences of psychosocial working conditions in Europe: the role of health and safety management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2017-10-01

    In times of demographic change, maintaining health and employability of older employees is important. In this context, studies show that stressful working conditions differ by countries. Yet, it is unclear if specific national management practices to deal with these conditions contribute towards explaining country differences. This study combines two different data sources. The first one provides detailed information on psychosocial working conditions in 17 European countries, based on 12,284 employees from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). We link this information to the second data source that provides information on health and safety management practices in each of the countries under study (collected among 17,477 managers at the level of companies in the Enterprise survey on new and emerging risks (ESENER)). We distinguish six different types of risk management procedures in the analysis. Results show that levels of psychosocial risks are generally lower in countries with more developed management practices, in particular if national management practices are marked by (1) procedures to deal with work stress, (2) information about whom to address in case of work-related psychosocial problems, and (3) health and safety services provided by psychologists. The findings underline the importance of a comprehensive psychosocial risk management approach in reducing work-related stress, as lower levels of psychosocial risks are linked to specific psychosocial risk management practices within companies, in particular those pointing to clear responsibilities and coordinated procedures in dealing with psychosocial risks.

  19. Customers' perspectives on the impact of the Pathways to Work condition management programme on their health, well-being and vocational activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secker, Jenny; Pittam, Gail; Ford, Fiona

    2012-11-01

    Pathways to Work is a UK initiative aimed at supporting customers on incapacity benefits to return to work. This qualitative study complements previous evaluations of Pathways to Work by exploring customers' perceptions of the impact of the Condition Management Programme (CMP) offered to claimants with long-term health conditions. 39 customers took part in focus groups held at the seven sites where Pathways was originally piloted. The main focus of the discussions was on perceptions of the ways in which participation had impacted on health, well-being and return to work. The discussions were audio-recorded and fully transcribed for analysis using a text analysis framework to enable the development and refinement of categories and overarching patterns in the data. Perceived impacts on health and well-being included a more positive outlook, social contact, changed perceptions of conditions and improvements in health. Some customers also reported an increase in their vocational activity and others felt ready to embark on new activities. Factors associated with positive outcomes included the extent and quality of contact with CMP staff and practical advice about condition management. Factors impeding positive employment outcomes related mainly to obstacles to returning to work. The results indicated that CMP can assist customers to learn about and manage their health conditions and increase their vocational activity, and that CMP therefore provides a promising means of enabling people with long-term health conditions to regain a fulfilling, productive life.

  20. [Assessment of the technology of care relations in the health services: perception of the elderly included in the family health strategy in Bambuí, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Wagner Jorge dos; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-08-01

    In the health field, technologies of care relations are in the scope of the worker-user encounter, implying intersubjectivity with the development of relationships between subjects, resulting in action. Evaluation studies synthesize knowledge produced on the consequences of using these technologies for society. This anthropological study aims to understand the perception of the elderly regarding the resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts produced in health care relationships in the context of the Family Health Strategy (ESF). The group studied consisted of 57 elderly residents in Bambui, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The model of signs, meanings and actions was used for collecting and analyzing data and the semi-structured interview was applied as a research technique. Elderly individuals assess resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts of care in the ESF as negative, with relation to the quality of user and professional interaction. The ESF is not effective and the desired change in the health care model has not occurred in practice. It repeats the centrality of the medical-drug-procedure model that treats the disease rather than the patient, perceiving old age as a disease and illness as being related to aging.

  1. Including a Client Sexual Health Pathway in a National Youth Mental Health Early Intervention Service--Project Rationale and Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C. A.; Britton, M. L.; Jenkins, L.; Rickwood, D. J.; Gillham, K. E.

    2014-01-01

    Young people have higher rates of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) than the general population. Research has shown that there is a clear link between emotional distress, depression, substance abuse and sexual risk taking behaviours in young people. "headspace" is a youth mental health early intervention service operating in more…

  2. The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Conditions of Trust Among Leaders at the Kentucky Department for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Redmond Knight

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited leadership research on emotional intelligence and trust in governmental public health settings. The purpose of this study was to identify and seek to understand the relationship between trust and elements of emotional intelligence, including stress management, at the Kentucky Department for Public Health. The Kentucky Department for Public Health (KDPH serves as Kentucky’s state governmental health department. KDPH is led by a Commissioner and composed of seven primary divisions and 25 branches within those divisions. The study was a non-randomized cross-sectional study utilizing electronic surveys that evaluated conditions of trust among staff members and emotional intelligence among supervisors. Pearson correlation coefficients and corresponding p-values are presented to provide the association between emotional intelligence scales and the conditions of trust. Significant positive correlations were observed between supervisors' stress management and the staff members' trust or perception of supervisors' loyalty(r=0.6, p=0.01, integrity(r=0.5, p=0.03, receptivity(r=0.6, p=0.02, promise fulfillment(r=0.6, p=0.02 and availability (r=0.5, p=0.07. This research lays the foundation for emotional intelligence and trust research and leadership training in other governmental public health settings, such as local, other state, national or international organizations. This original research provides metrics to assess the public health workforce with attention to organizational management and leadership constructs. The survey tools could be used in other governmental public health settings in order to develop tailored training opportunities related to emotional intelligence and trust organizations.

  3. Mental health under war conditions during the 1991-1995 war in the former Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, S B

    1996-01-01

    If this war were a "peace time disaster" it is estimated that more than one million people would be in need of assistance due to mental health issues. The estimated helping capacity, however, can cover only a small proportion of the need. This imbalance may create a severe threat to the mental health of the war-torn population in a medium- and long-term perspective. Complications related to war-trauma-induced stress disorders may give rise to significant increases in alcohol and drug abuse, domestic and criminal violence, suicides, homicides and chronic mental illness. This article outlines the international efforts to include psychosocial and mental health interventions as part of the emergency assistance programme. Special emphasis is directed at the development of the new WHO Regional Model on Mental Health. The model is a coordinated set of mental health activities for a defined geographical area with a population of 300,000-400,000 inhabitants. The key elements are: coordination, collection of background data ("war-time epidemiology"), capacity building and self-empowerment of local professionals at all levels, as well as a community-oriented approach to mental health care and primary health care. A new structure to achieve sustainability and continuity of preventive mental health interventions, the European University Centre for Mental Health and Human Rights, is proposed for the medium- and long-term perspective of assistance.

  4. [A questionnaire study on health of taxi drivers--relations to work conditions and daily life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, T; Hashimoto, M; Yasui, I; Sunaga, M; Higashida, T; Hara, I

    1989-05-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted on 5,523 taxi drivers in Osaka Prefecture to investigate their working conditions and daily life as well as characteristics of their health condition and various effects on health, especially on their cardiovascular system. The major results of this survey were as follows: 1) The rate of subjective symptoms, morbidity rate and rate of poor physical condition over the past year in the taxi drivers were higher than those of the control group. Among the subjective symptoms, the rate of gastrointestinal disorders, fatigue, musculoskeletal system disorders, sensory system disorders, hemorrhoids, etc. was especially high. 2) Work shift, density of work, years of experience in taxi-driving, frequency of fright while driving, pattern of taking meals, way of recuperation on rest days or holidays, obesity, smoking, and intake of coffee and alcohol were found to be factors affecting the health of taxi drivers. 3) Nearly half of the respondents said that they would like to quit or change their job with as much as 62% giving "condition of health" as reason. On the other hand, the rate of heart-related symptoms such as palpitation, and breathlessness did not differ from that of the control group. The possible reason for this deduced from the foregoing results, is that there were some who had changed or quit the job at an early stage for health reasons such as heart trouble and severe physical and mental burden resulting from taxi driving. 4) Many taxi driver are obese and the rate of those with heart-related symptoms was considerably high among those classified as obese. In addition, the results showed that those with longer driving experience tended to be obese.

  5. College health service capacity to support youth with chronic medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemly, Diana C; Lawlor, Katherine; Scherer, Emily A; Kelemen, Skyler; Weitzman, Elissa R

    2014-11-01

    Twenty percent of US youth have a chronic medical condition and many attend college. Guidelines for transition from pediatric to adult care do not address college health services, and little is known about their capacity to identify, support, and provide care for these youth. The objective of this study was to describe college health center policies, practices, and resources for youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC). Survey of medical directors from health centers of a representative sample of 200 4-year US colleges with ≥ 400 enrolled undergraduate students. Patterns of identification, management, and support for youth with a general chronic medical condition and with asthma, diabetes, and depression, were investigated; χ(2) and Fisher exact tests were used to ascertain differences by institutional demographics. Directors at 153 institutions completed the survey (76.5% response rate). Overall, 42% of schools had no system to identify YCMC. However, almost a third (31%) did identify and add to a registry of incoming YCMC on review of medical history, more likely in private (P < .001) and small (<5000 students, P = .002) colleges; 24% of health centers contacted YCMC to check-in/make initial appointments. Most institutions could manage asthma and depression (83% and 69%, respectively); 51% could manage diabetes on campus. Relatively few US colleges have health systems to identify and contact YCMC, although many centers have capacity to provide primary care and management of some conditions. Guidelines for transition should address policy and practices for pediatricians and colleges to enhance comanagement of affected youth. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Prevalence of cardiovascular conditions and health services utilization in Puerto Rico, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palmieri, Mario R; Pérez-Perdomo, Rosa; Colón, Samira Rosa

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the prevalence of cardiovascular conditions and health services utilization in Puerto Rico, 2001. METHODS All medical claims for coronary heart disease (ICD-9 410-414), hypertension (ICD-9 401-405), congestive heart failure (ICD-9 428) and cerebrovascular accidents and transient ischemia (ICD-9:430-438.9) submitted for reimbursement purposes to an insurance company (private and public sector) in Puerto Rico in 2001 were identified. Prevalence and medical care utilization concerning cardiovascular conditions was estimated with 95% confidence. RESULTS Overall prevalence of cardiovascular conditions was 13.5% (95% CI: 11.68%-15.44%), being larger in the private sector (16.0%; 95% CI: 15.98%-16.08% vs. 11.7%; 95% CI: 11.62%-11.77%). Although in both sectors prevalence increased with age, at same age groups was two times higher in the private sector. Hypertension was the most prevalent condition (9.7; 95% CI: 8.14%-11.41%) being higher in females (10.4; 95% CI: 10.37%-10.51%) than in males (8.9; 95% CI: 8.81%-8.96%). The health service utilization (physician's office visits, emergency room visits, and hospital admissions) was higher in males. However, it varies by sectors. CONCLUSIONS Significant difference exists in the prevalence of cardiovascular conditions and health services utilization among private and public sectors in Puerto Rico. The observed differences among the private and public populations imply that there are factors such as socioeconomic status, education, lifestyles, environmental hazards in neighborhoods, and health habits that could be involved in the differences.

  7. Boosting health insurance coverage in developing countries: do conditional cash transfer programmes matter in Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosca, Olga; Brown, Heather

    2015-03-01

    Achieving universal health insurance coverage is a goal for many developing countries. Even when universal health insurance programmes are in place, there are significant barriers to reaching the lowest socio-economic groups such as a lack of awareness of the programmes or knowledge of the benefits to participating in the insurance market. Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes can encourage participation through mandatory health education classes, increased contact with the health care system and cash payments to reduce costs of participating in the insurance market. To explore if participation in a CCT programme in Mexico, Oportunidades, is significantly associated with self-reported enrolment in a public health insurance programme. Cross-sectional data from 2007 collected on 29 595 Mexican households where the household head is aged between ages 15 and 60 were analysed. A logit model was used to estimate the association between Oportunidades participation and awareness of enrolment in a public health insurance programme. Participation in the Oportunidades programme is associated with a 25% higher likelihood of being actively aware of enrolment in Seguro Popular, a public health insurance scheme for the lowest socio-economic groups. Participation in the Oportunidades CCT programme is positively associated with awareness of enrolment in public health insurance. CCT programmes may be used to promote participation of the lowest socio-economic groups in universal public health insurance systems. This is crucial to achieving universal health insurance coverage in developing countries. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  8. Temperature and moisture conditions for life in the extreme arid region of the Atacama desert: four years of observations including the El Nino of 1997-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Friedmann, E. Imre; Gomez-Silva, Benito; Caceres-Villanueva, Luis; Andersen, Dale T.; Landheim, Ragnhild

    2003-01-01

    The Atacama along the Pacific Coast of Chile and Peru is one of the driest and possibly oldest deserts in the world. It represents an extreme habitat for life on Earth and is an analog for life in dry conditions on Mars. We report on four years (September 1994-October 1998) of climate and moisture data from the extreme arid region of the Atacama. Our data are focused on understanding moisture sources and their role in creating suitable environments for photosynthetic microorganisms in the desert surface. The average air temperature was 16.5 degrees C and 16.6 degrees C in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The maximum air temperature recorded was 37.9 degrees C, and the minimum was -5.7 degrees C. Annual average sunlight was 336 and 335 W m(-2) in 1995 and 1996, respectively. Winds averaged a few meters per second, with strong fohn winds coming from the west exceeding 12 m s(-1). During our 4 years of observation there was only one significant rain event of 2.3 mm, which occurred near midnight local time. We suggest that this event was a rainout of a heavy fog. It is of interest that the strong El Nino of 1997-1998 brought heavy rainfall to the deserts of Peru, but did not bring significant rain to the central Atacama in Chile. Dew occurred at our station frequently following high nighttime relative humidity, but is not a significant source of moisture in the soil or under stones. Groundwater also does not contribute to surface moisture. Only the one rain event of 2.3 mm resulted in liquid water in the soil and beneath stones for a total of only 65-85 h over 4 years. The paucity of liquid water under stones is consistent with the apparent absence of hypolithic (under-stone) cyanobacteria, the only known primary producers in such extreme deserts.

  9. Behavior and failure of uniformly hydrided Zircaloy-4 fuel claddings between 25 C and 480 C under various stress states, including RIA loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Saux, M.; Carassou, S.; Averty, X.; Le Saux, M.; Besson, J.; Poussard, C.

    2010-01-01

    The anisotropic plastic behavior and the fracture of as-received and hydrided Cold-Worked Stress Relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes are investigated under thermal-mechanical loading conditions representative of Pellet-Clad Mechanical Interaction during Reactivity Initiated Accidents in Pressurized Water Reactors. In order to study the combined effects of temperature, hydrogen content, loading direction and stress state, Axial Tensile, Hoop Tensile, Expansion Due to Compression and hoop Plane Strain Tensile tests are performed at room temperature, 350 C and 480 C on the material containing various hydrogen contents up to 1200 wt. ppm (hydrides are circumferential and homogeneously distributed). These tests are combined with digital image correlation and metallographic and fractographic observations at different scales. The flow stress of the material decreases with increasing temperature. The material is either strengthened or softened by hydrogen depending on temperature and hydrogen content. Plastic anisotropy depends on temperature but not on hydrogen content. The ductility of the material decreases with increasing hydrogen content at room temperature due to damage nucleation by hydride cracking. The plastic strain that leads to hydride fracture at room temperature decreases with increasing hydrogen content. The influence of stress triaxiality on hydride cracking is negligible in the studied range. The influence of hydrogen on material ductility is negligible at 350 C and 480 C since hydrides do not crack at these temperatures. The ductility of the material increases with increasing temperature. The evolution of material ductility is associated with a change in both the macroscopic fracture mode of the specimens and the microscopic failure mechanisms. (authors)

  10. Streamflow and water-quality conditions including geologic sources and processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Suzanne S.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2013-01-01

    Toll Gate Creek is a perennial stream draining a suburban area in Aurora, Colorado, where selenium concentrations have consistently exceeded the State of Colorado aquatic-life standard for selenium of 4.6 micrograms per liter since the early 2000s. In cooperation with the City of Aurora, Colorado, Utilities Department, a synoptic water-quality study was performed along an 18-kilometer reach of Toll Gate Creek extending from downstream from Quincy Reservoir to the confluence with Sand Creek to develop a detailed understanding of streamflow and concentrations and loads of selenium in Toll Gate Creek. Streamflow and surface-water quality were characterized for summer low-flow conditions (July–August 2007) using four spatially overlapping synoptic-sampling subreaches. Mass-balance methods were applied to the synoptic-sampling and tracer-injection results to estimate streamflow and develop spatial profiles of concentration and load for selenium and other chemical constituents in Toll Gate Creek surface water. Concurrent groundwater sampling determined concentrations of selenium and other chemical constituents in groundwater in areas surrounding the Toll Gate Creek study reaches. Multivariate principal-component analysis was used to group samples and to suggest common sources for dissolved selenium and major ions. Hydrogen and oxygen stable-isotope ratios, groundwater-age interpretations, and chemical analysis of water-soluble paste extractions from core samples are presented, and interpretation of the hydrologic and geochemical data support conclusions regarding geologic sources of selenium and the processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed.

  11. Effects of Cd and Ni toxicity to Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions in soft and hard water including a German lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Elisa, E-mail: Elisa.Andresen@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Opitz, Judith, E-mail: Daniela.Opitz@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Thomas, George, E-mail: George.Thomas@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Stärk, Hans-Joachim, E-mail: Ha-Jo.Staerk@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Dienemann, Holger, E-mail: Holger.Dienemann@smul.sachsen.de [Saxon State Company for Environment and Agriculture, Business Domain 5 (Laboratory), Department 53, Bitterfelder Str. 25, D-04849 Bad Düben (Germany); Jenemann, Kerstin, E-mail: Kerstin.Jenemann@smul.sachsen.de [Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Abteilung Wasser, Boden, Wertstoffe, Zur Wetterwarte 11, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Dickinson, Bryan C., E-mail: Bryan.Dickinson@gmail.com [Harvard University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Küpper, Hendrik, E-mail: Hendrik.Kuepper@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Institute of Physical Biology, Branišovská 31, CZ-370 05 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Hardly any macrophytic growth occurred in an oligotrophic hard water lake in Germany. •All parameters were optimal, besides elevated, nanomolar concentrations of Ni and Cd. •We cultivated submerged macrophytes in real and simulated hard and soft lake water. •Nanomolar Cd and Ni inhibited the plants’ photosynthetic light reactions in soft water. •The inhibition was synergistic, i.e. stronger than the addition of Cd and Ni effects. -- Abstract: Even essential trace elements are phytotoxic over a certain threshold. In this study, we investigated whether heavy metal concentrations were responsible for the nearly complete lack of submerged macrophytes in an oligotrophic lake in Germany. We cultivated the rootless aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions like sinusoidal light and temperature cycles and a low plant biomass to water volume ratio. Experiments lasted for six weeks and were analysed by detailed measurements of photosynthetic biophysics, pigment content and hydrogen peroxide production. We established that individually non-toxic cadmium (3 nM) and slightly toxic nickel (300 nM) concentrations became highly toxic when applied together in soft water, severely inhibiting photosynthetic light reactions. Toxicity was further enhanced by phosphate limitation (75 nM) in soft water as present in many freshwater habitats. In the investigated lake, however, high water hardness limited the toxicity of these metal concentrations, thus the inhibition of macrophytic growth in the lake must have additional reasons. The results showed that synergistic heavy metal toxicity may change ecosystems in many more cases than estimated so far.

  12. Health warnings on tobacco packaging in Italy: do they describe all possible smoking-related conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Colamesta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This report aims to evaluate the adherence between the health warnings on tobacco products in Italy and the smoking-related conditions known in the scientific literature. The Legislative Decree 2003 and 2012 established the general and the additional warnings on tobacco packaging. Regarding the smoking-related conditions, the health damages presented in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC report are reported. Also a narrative review was performed. Respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood neurobehavioral disorders are well reported in the textual health warning. Also there is at least one message indicating that the exposure of secondhand smoke is harmful. Conversely, several smoking-related cancers and other adverse health effects (diabetes, hip fractures, low bone density in postmenopausal women, rheumatoid arthritis, mental decline, acne and allergy, etc are not considered. The health warnings represent an important mean for communicating that may change smokers’ attitudes and behaviours, therefore, it’s important to implement them, also considering the introduction of graphical warnings, to maintain their effectiveness over time.

  13. Regional differences in infection control conditions in a sample of primary health care services in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de Abreu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available International guidelines have pointed out the importance of the physical environment of health care facilities in preventing and controlling infection. We aimed to describe the physical environment of dental care facilities in Brazil in 2014, focusing on characteristics designed to control infections. Exactly 16,202 dental offices in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS participated in this survey. Trained researchers extracted information about the infection control characteristics of health facilities by using a structured instrument. We used data from 12 dichotomous questions that evaluated the wall, floor, sink and tap conditions, and the presence and condition of sterilization equipment. We calculated a score by summing the number of characteristics handled appropriately for infection control, which could range from 0 to 12. Hierarchical cluster analyses were developed. None of the 12 criteria were met by all the oral health teams. Only 208 (1.3% dental offices correctly performed all 12-infection control practices. Two clusters, with different frequencies of structure for infection control in dental offices, were identified. South and Southeast regions had the highest frequencies for Cluster 1, with better structure of infection control in dental offices. Dental care facilities of oral health teams were not typically meeting the infection control guidelines regarding clinic design and equipment. Adherence to the guidelines varied among the Brazilian geographic regions.

  14. Income-related inequalities in diseases and health conditions over the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Jóhannsdóttir, Hildur Margrét

    2017-12-01

    How business cycles affect income-related distribution of diseases and health disorders is largely unknown. We examine how the prevalence of thirty diseases and health conditions is distributed across the income spectrum using survey data collected in Iceland in 2007, 2009 and 2012. Thus, we are able to take advantage of the unusually sharp changes in economic conditions in Iceland during the Great Recession initiated in 2008 and the partial recovery that had already taken place by 2012 to analyze how income-related health inequality changed across time periods that can be described as a boom, crisis and recovery. The concentration curve and the concentration index are calculated for each disease, both overall and by gender. In all cases, we find a considerable income-related health inequality favoring higher income individuals, with a slight increase over the study period. Between 2007 and 2009, our results indicate increased inequality for women but decreased inequality for men. Between 2009 and 2012 on the contrary, men's inequality increases but women's decreases. The overarching result is thus that the economic hardship of the crisis temporarily increased female income-related health inequality, but decreased that of men.

  15. Patient perspectives of Condition Management Programmes as a route to better health, well-being and employability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, K E; Smith, K E; Henderson, G; Greig, G; Bambra, C

    2010-02-01

    Condition Management Programmes (CMPs), delivered through primary care settings, have been identified as possible vehicles to facilitate return to work for individuals with chronic health problems. There is little research, however, which examines how such programmes are received by patients. To explore patients' experiences of CMPs in terms of health, well-being and employability. Four focus groups and nine semi-structured interviews were conducted in order to capture patients' (n = 25) perceptions and experiences regarding participation in one of five different CMPs: Cardiac Rehabilitation, Counselling, Lower Back Pain Services, Smoking Cessation and a GP Exercise Referral Programme. Experiences of the CMPs were generally positive. Respondents reported improved health behaviours (specifically better diets and increased exercise), positive psychosocial outcomes (including increased self-esteem, confidence and social support) and in some cases, return to work. However, concerns were expressed about the shortness of interventions and their accessibility. Although condition management appears to have been well received by participants, the findings also illustrate that there is no 'one size fits all' template for CMPs. Rather, interventions should be adapted to take account of the dynamics of specific conditions, the context in which the intervention is based and the characteristics of the individuals involved.

  16. Technical issues and conservation conditions of medicines in the primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediná Alves Costa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize the technical issues and conditions of medicines conservation in Primary Health Care of Brazilian regions, responsible for pharmacy/dispensing unit profile; environmental, storage, and dose fractioning conditions; inventory control and waste management; fire and electrical failure safety items; transportation problems; advertising regulation; and pharmacovigilance. METHODS This article is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos – Serviços (National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines – Services–, a cross-sectional and exploratory study, of evaluative nature, consisting of an information survey within a representative sample of municipalities, stratified by Brazilian regions, which constitute the study domains, and a sample of Primary Health Care services. Pharmaceutical services (PS were directly observed with photographic record and face-to-face interviews with those responsible for the dispensing of medicines and over the telephone with those responsible for pharmaceutical services. Data were processed with the SPSS® software version 21. RESULTS The investigated dimensions showed relevant deficiencies and inequalities between the regions, generally more favorable in the Southeast and Midwest regions and weaker in the Northeast and North regions. We verified non-compliance with technical requirements and conditions essential to the conservation of medicines, which may interfere with the maintenance of stability and, thus, on their quality, efficacy, and safety. The regulation of advertising/promotion of medicines is still incipient and there is some progress in the structuring of mechanisms regarding pharmacovigilance. CONCLUSIONS The sanitary situation of medicines in Brazilian Primary Health Care is alarming due to the violation of the specific sanitary legislation for dispensing establishments and due to a

  17. Technical issues and conservation conditions of medicines in the primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ediná Alves; Araújo, Patrícia Sodré; Pereira, Marcelo Tavares; Souto, Ana Cristina; Souza, Gisélia Santana; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Alvares, Juliana; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Leite, Silvana Nair

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize the technical issues and conditions of medicines conservation in Primary Health Care of Brazilian regions, responsible for pharmacy/dispensing unit profile; environmental, storage, and dose fractioning conditions; inventory control and waste management; fire and electrical failure safety items; transportation problems; advertising regulation; and pharmacovigilance. METHODS This article is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos – Serviços (National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines – Services)–, a cross-sectional and exploratory study, of evaluative nature, consisting of an information survey within a representative sample of municipalities, stratified by Brazilian regions, which constitute the study domains, and a sample of Primary Health Care services. Pharmaceutical services (PS) were directly observed with photographic record and face-to-face interviews with those responsible for the dispensing of medicines and over the telephone with those responsible for pharmaceutical services. Data were processed with the SPSS® software version 21. RESULTS The investigated dimensions showed relevant deficiencies and inequalities between the regions, generally more favorable in the Southeast and Midwest regions and weaker in the Northeast and North regions. We verified non-compliance with technical requirements and conditions essential to the conservation of medicines, which may interfere with the maintenance of stability and, thus, on their quality, efficacy, and safety. The regulation of advertising/promotion of medicines is still incipient and there is some progress in the structuring of mechanisms regarding pharmacovigilance. CONCLUSIONS The sanitary situation of medicines in Brazilian Primary Health Care is alarming due to the violation of the specific sanitary legislation for dispensing establishments and due to a wide range of

  18. Technical issues and conservation conditions of medicines in the primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ediná Alves; Araújo, Patrícia Sodré; Pereira, Marcelo Tavares; Souto, Ana Cristina; Souza, Gisélia Santana; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Alvares, Juliana; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Leite, Silvana Nair

    2017-11-13

    To characterize the technical issues and conditions of medicines conservation in Primary Health Care of Brazilian regions, responsible for pharmacy/dispensing unit profile; environmental, storage, and dose fractioning conditions; inventory control and waste management; fire and electrical failure safety items; transportation problems; advertising regulation; and pharmacovigilance. This article is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços (National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services)-, a cross-sectional and exploratory study, of evaluative nature, consisting of an information survey within a representative sample of municipalities, stratified by Brazilian regions, which constitute the study domains, and a sample of Primary Health Care services. Pharmaceutical services (PS) were directly observed with photographic record and face-to-face interviews with those responsible for the dispensing of medicines and over the telephone with those responsible for pharmaceutical services. Data were processed with the SPSS® software version 21. The investigated dimensions showed relevant deficiencies and inequalities between the regions, generally more favorable in the Southeast and Midwest regions and weaker in the Northeast and North regions. We verified non-compliance with technical requirements and conditions essential to the conservation of medicines, which may interfere with the maintenance of stability and, thus, on their quality, efficacy, and safety. The regulation of advertising/promotion of medicines is still incipient and there is some progress in the structuring of mechanisms regarding pharmacovigilance. The sanitary situation of medicines in Brazilian Primary Health Care is alarming due to the violation of the specific sanitary legislation for dispensing establishments and due to a wide range of requirements essential to the conservation of medicines. We

  19. The association between mid-life socioeconomic position and health after retirement--exploring the role of working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Vanessa; Andel, Ross; Nilsen, Charlotta; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2013-08-01

    To explore the role of working conditions in the association between socioeconomic position and health after retirement age using over 20 years follow-up. Two Swedish nationally representative Level of Living Surveys (total N = 1,131) were used. Ordered logistic regression was used to assess the association between socioeconomic position and health (self-rated health, psychological distress, musculoskeletal pain, circulatory problems, physical and cognitive impairment). The role of physical and psychological working conditions was also assessed. Lower socioeconomic position was associated with more adverse physical, but not psychological, working conditions. Physical working conditions partially explained the differences in physical impairment and musculoskeletal pain in old age attributed to socioeconomic position, but not differences in self-rated health, circulatory problems, psychological distress, and cognitive impairment. Socioeconomic position was a stronger correlate of health than psychological working conditions alone. Improving physical working conditions may be important for reducing the influence of socioeconomic position on health after retirement.

  20. The changing epidemiology of Ebstein's anomaly and its relationship with maternal mental health conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Breidge; Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria

    2017-01-01

    from 0.29 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20-0.41) to 0.48 (95% CI 0.40-0.57) (pmental health conditions/medications (adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 2.64, 95% CI 1.33-5.21) compared with cardiac controls. Cases were more likely to be exposed to maternal......'s anomaly is associated with maternal mental health problems generally rather than lithium or benzodiazepines specifically; therefore, changing or stopping medications may not be preventative. We found new associations requiring confirmation....

  1. Burnout: Interpreting the perception of Iranian primary rural health care providers from working and organizational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahrokh Keshvari

    2012-01-01

    Results: During the content analysis process, six themes were obtained; "instability and frequent changes", "involved in laws and regulations", "pressure and stress due to unbalanced workload and manpower", "helplessness in performing the tasks and duties", "sense of identity threat and low self-concept", and "deprivation of professional development". The mentioned themes indicate a main and more important theme called "burnout". Conclusions: Health services providers in the rural health centers are working in stressful and challenging work conditions and are suffered from deprivation of something for which are responsible to the community.

  2. A Transdiagnostic Minority Stress Treatment Approach for Gay and Bisexual Men’s Syndemic Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachankis, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Developing and deploying separate treatments for separate conditions seems ill-suited to intervening upon the co-occurring, and possibly functionally similar, psychosocial conditions facing gay and bisexual men. This article argues for the need to create transdiagnostic interventions that reduce multiple syndemic conditions facing gay and bisexual men at the level of their shared source in minority stress pathways. This article first reviews psychosocial syndemic conditions affecting gay and bisexual men, then suggests pathways that might link minority stress to psychosocial syndemics based on recent advancements in emotion science, psychiatric nosology, and cognitive-affective neuroscience, and finally suggests cross-cutting psychosocial treatment principles to reduce minority stress–syndemic pathways among gay and bisexual men. Because minority stress serves as a common basis of all psychosocial syndemic conditions reviewed here, locating the pathways through which minority stress generates psychosocial syndemics and employing overarching treatment principles capable of simultaneously alleviating these pathways will ultimately create a transdiagnostic approach to improving gay and bisexual men’s health. Clinical research and training approaches are suggested to further validate the pathways suggested here, establish the efficacy of treatment approaches tied to those pathways, and generate effective methods for disseminating a transdiagnostic minority stress treatment approach for gay and bisexual men’s psychosocial syndemic health. PMID:26123065

  3. Annona muricata: Is the natural therapy to most disease conditions including cancer growing in our backyard? A systematic review of its research history and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavamukulya, Yahaya; Wamunyokoli, Fred; El-Shemy, Hany A

    2017-09-01

    Annona muricata (A. muricata) is a tropical plant species belonging to family Annonaceae and known for its many medicinal uses. This review focuses on the research history of its traditional uses, phytochemicals, pharmacological activities, toxicological aspects of the extracts and isolated compounds, as well as the in vitro propagation studies with the objective of stimulating further studies on this plant for human consumption and treatment. A. muricata extracts have been identified in tropical regions to traditionally treat diverse conditions ranging from fever to diabetes and cancer. More than 200 chemical compounds have been identified and isolated from this plant, the most important being alkaloids, phenols and acetogenins. Using in vitro studies, its extracts and phytochemicals have been characterized as antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, larvicidal, and cytotoxic to cancer cells. In vivo studies have revealed anxiolytic, anti-stress, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antimalarial, antidepressant, gastro protective, wound healing, hepato-protective, hypoglycemic, anticancer and anti-tumoral activities. In silico studies have also been reported. In addition, clinical studies support the hypoglycemic as well as some anticancer activities. Mechanisms of action of some pharmacological activities have been elucidated. However, some phytochemical compounds isolated from A. muricata have shown a neurotoxic effect in vitro and in vivo, and therefore, these crude extracts and isolated compounds need to be further investigated to define the magnitude of the effects, optimal dosage, and mechanisms of action, long-term safety, and potential side effects. Additionally, more clinical studies are necessary to support the therapeutic potential of this plant. Some studies were also found to have successfully regenerated the plant in vitro, but with limited success. The reported toxicity notwithstanding, A. muricata extracts seem to be

  4. The Frontlines of Medicine Project: a proposal for the standardized communication of emergency department data for public health uses including syndromic surveillance for biological and chemical terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthell, Edward N; Cordell, William H; Moorhead, John C; Handler, Jonathan; Feied, Craig; Smith, Mark S; Cochrane, Dennis G; Felton, Christopher W; Collins, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    The Frontlines of Medicine Project is a collaborative effort of emergency medicine (including emergency medical services and clinical toxicology), public health, emergency government, law enforcement, and informatics. This collaboration proposes to develop a nonproprietary, "open systems" approach for reporting emergency department patient data. The common element is a standard approach to sending messages from individual EDs to regional oversight entities that could then analyze the data received. ED encounter data could be used for various public health initiatives, including syndromic surveillance for chemical and biological terrorism. The interlinking of these regional systems could also permit public health surveillance at a national level based on ED patient encounter data. Advancements in the Internet and Web-based technologies could allow the deployment of these standardized tools in a rapid time frame.

  5. The social gradient in work and health: a cross-sectional study exploring the relationship between working conditions and health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmig, Oliver; Bauer, Georg F

    2013-12-13

    Social inequalities in health are widely examined. But the reasons behind this phenomenon still remain unclear in parts. It is undisputed that the work environment plays a crucial role in this regard. However, the contribution of psychosocial factors at work is unclear and inconsistent, and most studies are limited with regard to work factors and health outcomes. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the role and contribution of various physical and psychosocial working conditions to explaining social inequalities in different self-reported health outcomes. Data from a postal survey among the workforces of four medium-sized and large companies from diverse industries of the secondary sector in Switzerland were used and analysed. The study sample covered 1,846 employees aged 20 and 64 and included significant proportions of unskilled manual workers and highly qualified non-manual workers. Cross tabulations and logistic regression analyses were performed to study multiple associations between social status, work factors and health outcomes. Combinations of educational level and occupational position wee used as a measure of social status or class. Clear social gradients were observed for almost all adverse working conditions and poor health outcomes studied, but in different directions. While physical workloads and other typical blue-collar job characteristics not suprisingly, were found to be much more common among the lower classes, most psychosocial work demands and job resources were more prevalent in the higher classes. Furthermore, workers in lower classes, i.e. with lower educational and occupational status, were more likely to report poor self-rated health, limited physical functioning and long sickness absence, but at the same time were less likely to experience increased stress feelings and burnout symptoms showing a reversed health gradient. Finally, blue-collar job characteristics contributed substantially to the social gradient found in general and

  6. The social gradient in work and health: a cross-sectional study exploring the relationship between working conditions and health inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Social inequalities in health are widely examined. But the reasons behind this phenomenon still remain unclear in parts. It is undisputed that the work environment plays a crucial role in this regard. However, the contribution of psychosocial factors at work is unclear and inconsistent, and most studies are limited with regard to work factors and health outcomes. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the role and contribution of various physical and psychosocial working conditions to explaining social inequalities in different self-reported health outcomes. Methods Data from a postal survey among the workforces of four medium-sized and large companies from diverse industries of the secondary sector in Switzerland were used and analysed. The study sample covered 1,846 employees aged 20 and 64 and included significant proportions of unskilled manual workers and highly qualified non-manual workers. Cross tabulations and logistic regression analyses were performed to study multiple associations between social status, work factors and health outcomes. Combinations of educational level and occupational position wee used as a measure of social status or class. Results Clear social gradients were observed for almost all adverse working conditions and poor health outcomes studied, but in different directions. While physical workloads and other typical blue-collar job characteristics not suprisingly, were found to be much more common among the lower classes, most psychosocial work demands and job resources were more prevalent in the higher classes. Furthermore, workers in lower classes, i.e. with lower educational and occupational status, were more likely to report poor self-rated health, limited physical functioning and long sickness absence, but at the same time were less likely to experience increased stress feelings and burnout symptoms showing a reversed health gradient. Finally, blue-collar job characteristics contributed substantially to the social

  7. Health Conditions and Functional Status in Adults with Autism: A Cross-Sectional Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Robert J; Robinson, Laura; Smith, Tristram H; Meccarello, Jon; Bullen, Beth; Nobis, Kathryn; Davidson, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have many well-known health concerns, yet health conditions in adults with ASD remain poorly defined. To examine health conditions and functional status in adults with ASD and identify factors associated with health and functional status across age cohorts. We collected cross-sectional data from 255 adult subjects aged 18 to 71 years with ASD using the Rochester Health Status Survey IV (RHSS-IV), a 58-item validated survey instrument. We used the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey and National Health Interview Survey to provide comparative prevalence rates in the general population. Compared to the general population, young adults aged 18-29 with ASD had a substantially higher prevalence of seizure disorder (11.2 % vs. 1.4 %; p = 0.002), depression (16.4 % vs. 6.4 %; p = 0.007), hypertension (12.9 % vs. 6.3 %; p = 0.05), and allergies (39.7 % vs. 8.4 %; p adults with ASD had considerably lower rates of sexually transmitted illness (STI) (0.9 % vs. 4.3 %; p = 0.03), tobacco use (5.2 % vs. 31.9 %; p ; p Adults 40 and over with ASD also had higher rates of seizure disorder (29.2 % vs. 1.7 %; p ; p ; p intellectual disability (IQ Adults with ASD have a high prevalence of seizure disorders and depression, but low rates of STIs, tobacco use, and alcohol misuse. Within our cohort, the majority of older adults with ASD required some assistance with activities of daily living.

  8. Supporting Accurate Interpretation of Self-Administered Medical Test Results for Mobile Health: Assessment of Design, Demographics, and Health Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Jess C; Baumer, Eric Ps; Reynolds, Lindsay; Murnane, Elizabeth L; O'Dell, Dakota; Lee, Seoho; Guha, Shion; Qi, Yu; Rieger, Erin; Gay, Geri

    2018-02-28

    Technological advances in personal informatics allow people to track their own health in a variety of ways, representing a dramatic change in individuals' control of their own wellness. However, research regarding patient interpretation of traditional medical tests highlights the risks in making complex medical data available to a general audience. This study aimed to explore how people interpret medical test results, examined in the context of a mobile blood testing system developed to enable self-care and health management. In a preliminary investigation and main study, we presented 27 and 303 adults, respectively, with hypothetical results from several blood tests via one of the several mobile interface designs: a number representing the raw measurement of the tested biomarker, natural language text indicating whether the biomarker's level was low or high, or a one-dimensional chart illustrating this level along a low-healthy axis. We measured respondents' correctness in evaluating these results and their confidence in their interpretations. Participants also told us about any follow-up actions they would take based on the result and how they envisioned, generally, using our proposed personal health system. We find that a majority of participants (242/328, 73.8%) were accurate in their interpretations of their diagnostic results. However, 135 of 328 participants (41.1%) expressed uncertainty and confusion about their ability to correctly interpret these results. We also find that demographics and interface design can impact interpretation accuracy, including false confidence, which we define as a respondent having above average confidence despite interpreting a result inaccurately. Specifically, participants who saw a natural language design were the least likely (421.47 times, P=.02) to exhibit false confidence, and women who saw a graph design were less likely (8.67 times, P=.04) to have false confidence. On the other hand, false confidence was more likely

  9. Obstetric Outcomes and Delivery-Related Health Care Utilization and Costs Among Pregnant Women With Multiple Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admon, Lindsay K; Winkelman, Tyler N A; Heisler, Michele; Dalton, Vanessa K

    2018-02-08

    Our objective was to measure obstetric outcomes and delivery-related health care utilization and costs among pregnant women with multiple chronic conditions. We used 2013-2014 data from the National Inpatient Sample to measure obstetric outcomes and delivery-related health care utilization and costs among women with no chronic conditions, 1 chronic condition, and multiple chronic conditions. Women with multiple chronic conditions were at significantly higher risk than women with 1 chronic condition or no chronic conditions across all outcomes measured. High-value strategies are needed to improve birth outcomes among vulnerable mothers and their infants.

  10. Obstetric Outcomes and Delivery-Related Health Care Utilization and Costs Among Pregnant Women With Multiple Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Tyler N. A.; Heisler, Michele; Dalton, Vanessa K.

    2018-01-01

    Our objective was to measure obstetric outcomes and delivery-related health care utilization and costs among pregnant women with multiple chronic conditions. We used 2013–2014 data from the National Inpatient Sample to measure obstetric outcomes and delivery-related health care utilization and costs among women with no chronic conditions, 1 chronic condition, and multiple chronic conditions. Women with multiple chronic conditions were at significantly higher risk than women with 1 chronic condition or no chronic conditions across all outcomes measured. High-value strategies are needed to improve birth outcomes among vulnerable mothers and their infants. PMID:29420168

  11. Crisis, Living Conditions and Health in Mexico: New Challenges for Social Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva López Arellano

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years, Mexico has faced major crises in its political, economic, and social life. These crises have affected living conditions and health. With the implementation in the 1980's of structural adjustment and economic stabilization policies, Mexico saw a rapid growth of poverty accelerating trends toward social polarization and social division. The current crisis, fueled by deregulation of the global financial markets, only deepens the tendency towards economic stagnation. It has led to an increase in unemployment, worsening income inequalities, and generalized inflation. The increase in food prices, in particular, has made life more difficult for the Mexican population. The crisis has had a palpable and concrete impact on living conditions, health status, and food security for diverse social groups.

  12. Association of Psychosocial Conditions, Oral Health, and Dietary Variety with Intellectual Activity in Older Community-Dwelling Japanese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the factors related to intellectual activity in community-dwelling elderly persons. Self-administered questionnaires mailed to all people aged ≥65 years in a dormitory suburb in Japan (n = 15,210). The response rate was 72.2%. Analytical subjects (n = 8,910) were those who lived independently and completely answered questions about independent and dependent variables and covariates. Independent variables included psychosocial conditions (i.e., social activities, hobbies, and a sense that life is worth living (ikigai)), oral health (i.e., dental health behaviors and oral function evaluated by chewing difficulties, swallowing difficulties, and oral dryness), and dietary variety measured using the dietary variety score (DVS). A dependent variable was intellectual activity measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Covariates included age, gender, family structure, pensions, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, medical history, self-rated health, medications, cognitive function, depression, and falling. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for poor intellectual activity. Poor intellectual activity was reported by 28.9% of the study population. After adjustment for covariates and independent variables, poor intellectual activity was significantly associated with nonparticipation in social activities (OR = 1.90, 95%CI = 1.61-2.24), having neither hobbies nor ikigai (3.13, 2.55-3.84), having neither regular dental visits nor daily brushing (1.70, 1.35-2.14), the poorest oral function (1.61, 1.31-1.98), and the lowest DVS quartile (1.96, 1.70-2.26). These results indicate that psychosocial conditions, oral health, and dietary variety are independently associated with intellectual activity in elderly persons. The factors identified in this study may be used in community health programs for maintaining the intellectual activity ability of the elderly.

  13. Association of Psychosocial Conditions, Oral Health, and Dietary Variety with Intellectual Activity in Older Community-Dwelling Japanese Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiko Tomioka

    Full Text Available This study examined the factors related to intellectual activity in community-dwelling elderly persons.Self-administered questionnaires mailed to all people aged ≥65 years in a dormitory suburb in Japan (n = 15,210. The response rate was 72.2%. Analytical subjects (n = 8,910 were those who lived independently and completely answered questions about independent and dependent variables and covariates. Independent variables included psychosocial conditions (i.e., social activities, hobbies, and a sense that life is worth living (ikigai, oral health (i.e., dental health behaviors and oral function evaluated by chewing difficulties, swallowing difficulties, and oral dryness, and dietary variety measured using the dietary variety score (DVS. A dependent variable was intellectual activity measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Covariates included age, gender, family structure, pensions, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, medical history, self-rated health, medications, cognitive function, depression, and falling. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR for poor intellectual activity.Poor intellectual activity was reported by 28.9% of the study population. After adjustment for covariates and independent variables, poor intellectual activity was significantly associated with nonparticipation in social activities (OR = 1.90, 95%CI = 1.61-2.24, having neither hobbies nor ikigai (3.13, 2.55-3.84, having neither regular dental visits nor daily brushing (1.70, 1.35-2.14, the poorest oral function (1.61, 1.31-1.98, and the lowest DVS quartile (1.96, 1.70-2.26.These results indicate that psychosocial conditions, oral health, and dietary variety are independently associated with intellectual activity in elderly persons. The factors identified in this study may be used in community health programs for maintaining the intellectual activity ability of the elderly.

  14. Plants used during maternity, menstrual cycle and other women's health conditions among Brazilian cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazbek, P B; Tezoto, J; Cassas, F; Rodrigues, E

    2016-02-17

    For innumerous clinical cases related to women's health and precarious medical care in developing countries, a large repertoire of plants have been used as popular medicines in order to fill this gap, which in a certain way creates health risks to users, since pharmacological and toxicological tests are still insufficient to guarantee their efficacy and safety. Besides therapeutic use, abortive plants are broadly used in countries where abortion is prohibited, increasing that risk even more. In this way, ethnopharmacological studies that register plants used for women's health can contribute not only to the selection of potential bioactives, enriching the repertoire of drugs available to females, above all in public health systems, but also questioning the safety of products that are used without prescription. This review aims at determining plants applied by Brazilian cultures in the treatment of conditions related to maternity, menstrual cycle and other women's health particularities, and to supplement the lack of epidemiological data available to assess the health of indigenous, rural and other populations of Brazilian women. A literature review was conducted of the collection at the Ethnobotanical and Ethnopharmacological Center of the Federal University of São Paulo (period covered: 1965 to 2012). All of the 343 articles were consulted and 31 articles mentioning therapeutic uses of interest were selected. Relevant information was extracted to compose Table 1 - Maternity, Table 2 - Menstrual Cycle and Table 3 - Other Conditions. Data was statistically analyzed in order to generate the discussion about plants used in healing contexts by different Brazilian ethnicities. A bibliographic review was performed using the Scopus database to collect the following information about the most cited plants: ethnobotany/ethnopharmacology of non-Brazilian cultures for women's health conditions, pharmacology, toxicology, and adverse reactions. A total of 319 species were

  15. Physical Health Conditions Among a Population-Based Cohort of Vietnam-Era Women Veterans: Agreement Between Self-Report and Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Amy M; Schumacher, Karen; Frayne, Susan M; Cypel, Yasmin; Barbaresso, Michelle M; Nord, Kristina M; Perzhinsky, Juliette; Lai, Zongshan; Prenovost, Katherine; Spiro, Avron; Gleason, Theresa C; Kimerling, Rachel; Huang, Grant D; Serpi, Tracey B; Magruder, Kathryn M

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about medical morbidity among women Vietnam-era veterans, or the long-term physical health problems associated with their service. This study assessed agreement comparing data on physical health conditions from self-report and medical records from a population-based cohort of women Vietnam-era Veterans from the Health of Vietnam Era Women's Study (HealthViEWS). Women Vietnam-era veterans (n = 4219) self-completed a survey and interview on common medical conditions. A subsample (n = 900) were contacted to provide permission to obtain medical records from as many as three of their providers. Medical record reviews were conducted using a standardized checklist. Agreement and kappa (agreement beyond chance) were calculated for physical health condition groups. Of the 900, 449 had medical records returned, and of those, 412 had complete surveys/interviews. The most commonly reported conditions based on self-report or medical record review included hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or arthritis. Kappa scores between self-reported conditions and medical record documentation were 0.75-0.91 for hypertension, diabetes, most cancers, and neurological conditions, but lower (k = 0.29-0.55) for cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal, and gastrointestinal conditions. Generally, agreement did not significantly vary by different sociodemographic groups. There was relatively high agreement for physical health conditions when self-report was compared with medical record review. As more women are increasingly represented in the military and more veterans in general seek care outside the Veterans Health Administration, accurate measurement of physical health conditions among population-based samples is crucial.

  16. Haulage Methods in Different Areas of Nepal and the Health Condition of the Porters in Kathmandu

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneda, Eiko; Yamauchi, Masaki; Ohwatari, Nobu; Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kosaka, Mitsuo

    1999-01-01

    The complicated geographical features of Nepal make transport of goods difficult. People have to depend on human power even today, especially porters who use a number of different transport styles. The objectives of this study were to document (1) the characteristics of haulage methods in relation to the geographical conditions, and (2) the diurnal activities and health of porters in Kathmandu. The observed methods used by the porters in Nepal to carry loads were divided into four main classe...

  17. Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla M; Kritz, Eivor I K; Bogren, I Kristina

    2002-06-01

    Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females The aims of this study were to examine self-reported sleep quality, perceived strain and health in relation to working conditions; the prevalence and severity of sleep disturbances and daytime distress arising from poor sleep in women on different work shifts. Furthermore, to see whether females with gastrointestinal symptoms, joint-, back- or muscle-pain and who are dissatisfied with working hours differ with regard to the above aspects. Finally, degree of strain-related symptoms and sleep difficulties were tested as predictors of sleep quality and general health outcome. Important research questions are whether registered nurses and those on rotating work shifts have greater sleep problems than others. A total of 156 females, aged 20-59 years, working at three different casualty departments, answered structured questionnaires. The results showed a persistently high rate of psycho-physiological long-term effects of stress related to working conditions. Thirty-four per cent were dissatisfied with their working hours, and exhibited significantly more mental strain, fatigue/excessive tiredness and inability to relax after work because of involuntary thoughts, in relation to working conditions than others did. Sixty-two females (39.7%) complained of insufficient sleep. The sleep quality outcome was significantly predicted by difficulty falling asleep (odds ratio 8.4), difficulty in falling asleep after nocturnal awakening (odds ratio 3.4) and perceived exhaustion (odds ratio 2.6). Females suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms and joint-, back- and muscle symptoms for several days in a week or even everyday were especially sensitive to worse sleep quality. Independent of work shifts, registered nurses exhibited a higher degree of mental strain and prolonged recovery in comparison with others. In conclusions, sleep initiation difficulties, troubled sleep and

  18. Motives and perceptions regarding electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use among adults with mental health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Claire Adams; Jones, Dina M; Weaver, Scott R; Pechacek, Terry F; Eriksen, Michael P

    2018-05-01

    Smoking rates are disproportionately high among adults with mental health conditions (MHC), and recent research suggests that among former smokers, those with MHC are more likely to use electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). This study investigated reasons for ENDS use and related risk perceptions among individuals with versus without MHC. Among adult current ENDS users (n=550), associations between self-reported MHC diagnoses and motives for ENDS use and ENDS risk perceptions were examined, stratified by smoking status. There were no significant associations between MHC status and ENDS motives or perceptions in the overall sample. However, current smokers with MHC indicated thinking more about how ENDS might improve their health, and former smokers with MHC reported thinking less about how ENDS might harm their health, compared to their counterparts without MHC. Former smokers with MHC rated several reasons for ENDS use (e.g., less harmful than regular cigarettes; to quit smoking; appealing flavors) as more important than did those without MHC. Current and former smokers with MHC may be especially optimistic about health benefits of ENDS. However, they might also be prone to health risks of continued ENDS use or concurrent use with traditional cigarettes. It will be important for public health messaging to provide this population with accurate information about benefits and risks of ENDS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. HEALTH CONDITIONS AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SATISFACTION WITH LIFE IN PHYSICAL THERAPY OF ACADEMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cerqueira Reis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Describe health conditions and self-reported factors associated with life satisfaction of Physiotherapy course students. cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study, the type census, where 167 students were enrolled. The data collection instrument used was Isaq-A and had the outcome variable "satisfaction with life". The independent variables correspond sociodemographic and self-reported health status characteristics. Of the 167 students interviewed, 128 (76.65% autorrelataram have a good general state of health, 123 (73.65% a lot of stress, 146 (87.43% good sleep quality and 94 (56.30% they were satisfied with life. In the inferential analysis, a statistically significant association between life satisfaction and the variables gender (PR = 1.20; CI = 1.009 to 1.445, work (PR = 0.20; CI = 0.044 to 0.978, state of self-report health (OR = 1.21, CI = 1.011 to 1.466 and sleep quality (PR = 1.17; CI = 1.031 to 1.337. The highest proportion of students autorrelataram present a good general state of health, too much stress, good sleep quality and life satisfaction. Sex, work, health and quality of sleep are associated with life satisfaction.

  20. The Involvement of Adolescents With Chronic Health Conditions in Medical Education: An Exploratory Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Katherine A; Eady, Kaylee

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we explored the involvement of adolescents with chronic health conditions in medical education. We focused specifically on adolescents' desired level of involvement in the education of medical students and residents, strategies for involving them in it, and topics on which they would feel comfortable educating these learners. We used a community-based participatory research approach and qualitative one-on-one semistructured interviews. Adolescents (ages 13-18) with chronic health conditions lasting >3 months who were admitted on inpatient wards and were well enough to participate in an interview were eligible. Two investigators analyzed the interview transcripts to identify common categories across the interview data. A total of 17 adolescents participated. Data analysis revealed that adolescents want to be regularly involved in medical education, compensated in some way for their time and effort, and receive support and oversight in their activities. Adolescents discussed the following 5 strategies for involving them in the education of medical students and residents: face-to-face presentations, shadowing and mentoring, videos, handouts and books, and assessment feedback. Adolescents want to educate learners on their experiences and coping strategies as well as on how to interact and develop rapport with adolescents. The adolescents with chronic health conditions who participated in this study want to be actively involved in medical education and can provide innovative insights and strategies for doing so. However, future researchers need to explore the benefits and limitations of such involvement. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. A Bayesian localized conditional autoregressive model for estimating the health effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duncan; Rushworth, Alastair; Sahu, Sujit K

    2014-06-01

    Estimation of the long-term health effects of air pollution is a challenging task, especially when modeling spatial small-area disease incidence data in an ecological study design. The challenge comes from the unobserved underlying spatial autocorrelation structure in these data, which is accounted for using random effects modeled by a globally smooth conditional autoregressive model. These smooth random effects confound the effects of air pollution, which are also globally smooth. To avoid this collinearity a Bayesian localized conditional autoregressive model is developed for the random effects. This localized model is flexible spatially, in the sense that it is not only able to model areas of spatial smoothness, but also it is able to capture step changes in the random effects surface. This methodological development allows us to improve the estimation performance of the covariate effects, compared to using traditional conditional auto-regressive models. These results are established using a simulation study, and are then illustrated with our motivating study on air pollution and respiratory ill health in Greater Glasgow, Scotland in 2011. The model shows substantial health effects of particulate matter air pollution and nitrogen dioxide, whose effects have been consistently attenuated by the currently available globally smooth models. © 2014, The Authors Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Biometric Society.

  2. [Socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons of Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moquillaza-Risco, Marlene; León, Elsa; Dongo, Mario; Munayco, César V

    2015-10-01

    Determine the socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment into the National Program "Vida Digna" and the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment. MATERIALS ANDE METHODS: We performed a cross sectional study, reviewing all registration forms of the program in order to identify socio-demographic variables and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment in the program. We did a descriptive analysis of the socio-demographic variables and we also determined the frequency of health conditions. Furthermore, we determined the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment through a logistic regression model. The older homeless persons at the time of enrollment in the program were mostly single men, with a primary education or no education. The study subjects had a high frequency of chronic and mental diseases. 50% of them had certain level of functional impairment and roughly 70% had a certain level of cognitive impairment. The probability of functional dependency increased by age, and it was higher in women than in men. This probability increased according to the level of cognitive impairment. This study shows that older homeless persons are a vulnerable population not only because they live outdoors but also because they a have also for the high prevalence of chronic and mental diseases. These diseases prevent the homeless persons from living by themselves special care to overcome their situations.

  3. Assessment of transition readiness in adolescents and young adults with chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Paul T; Paul, Gabrielle V; LaCount, Stephanie; Peng, Juan; Spencer, Charles H; Higgins, Gloria C; Boyle, Brendan; Kamboj, Manmohan; Smallwood, Christopher; Ardoin, Stacy P

    2017-09-09

    Transition from pediatric to adult health care is a vulnerable period for adolescents and young adults. Challenges include paucity of validated measures to assess patients' transition readiness. We evaluated the Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire (TRAQ) in adolescents and young adults with rheumatic, gastrointestinal, and endocrine disorders. We examined whether baseline TRAQ scores and other demographic variables predicted transition to adult care over a three year follow up period. In this descriptive study at a single institution, eighty-nine adolescents at a single pediatric academic medical center completed demographic and medical history surveys and the TRAQ and were followed over 3 years by telephone interview to determine whether they had transitioned to adult subspecialty care. Transition was defined as attending at least one adult subspecialty appointment. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine whether TRAQ scores predicted time to transition. Of the participants, 56% had rheumatic, 21% endocrine, and 23% gastrointestinal conditions. The TRAQ self-management domain score was not significantly associated with age, gender, socioeconomic status, or specialty. The TRAQ self-advocacy score increased with age. Baseline TRAQ scores did not predict transition or time to transition over three years. In this cohort of adolescents and young adults who were 16 to 23 years of age at enrollment, 48% transitioned to adult care over three years of follow up. Nearly half reported not discussing transition with provider or seeing provider independently for part of visit. Older age but not other demographic variables nor baseline TRAQ score predicted transition or time to transition to an adult subspecialty provider; however, a there was a trend towards shorter time to transition with the highest quartile TRAQ scores.

  4. The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Conditions of Trust among Leaders at the Kentucky Department for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jennifer Redmond; Bush, Heather M; Mase, William A; Riddell, Martha Cornwell; Liu, Meng; Holsinger, James W

    2015-01-01

    There has been limited leadership research on emotional intelligence and trust in governmental public health settings. The purpose of this study was to identify and seek to understand the relationship between trust and elements of emotional intelligence, including stress management, at the Kentucky Department for Public Health (KDPH). The KDPH serves as Kentucky's state governmental health department. KDPH is led by a Commissioner and composed of seven primary divisions and 25 branches within those divisions. The study was a non-randomized cross-sectional study utilizing electronic surveys that evaluated conditions of trust among staff members and emotional intelligence among supervisors. Pearson correlation coefficients and corresponding p-values are presented to provide the association between emotional intelligence scales and the conditions of trust. Significant positive correlations were observed between supervisors' stress management and the staff members' trust or perception of supervisors' loyalty (r = 0.6, p = 0.01), integrity (r = 0.5, p = 0.03), receptivity (r = 0.6, p = 0.02), promise fulfillment (r = 0.6, p = 0.02), and availability (r = 0.5, p = 0.07). This research lays the foundation for emotional intelligence and trust research and leadership training in other governmental public health settings, such as local, other state, national, or international organizations. This original research provides metrics to assess the public health workforce with attention to organizational management and leadership constructs. The survey tools could be used in other governmental public health settings in order to develop tailored training opportunities related to emotional intelligence and trust organizations.

  5. Environmental conditions in health care facilities in low- and middle-income countries: Coverage and inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2018-01-11

    Safe environmental conditions and the availability of standard precaution items are important to prevent and treat infection in health care facilities (HCFs) and to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for health and water, sanitation, and hygiene. Baseline coverage estimates for HCFs have yet to be formed for the SDGs; and there is little evidence describing inequalities in coverage. To address this, we produced the first coverage estimates of environmental conditions and standard precaution items in HCFs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); and explored factors associated with low coverage. Data from monitoring reports and peer-reviewed literature were systematically compiled; and information on conditions, service levels, and inequalities tabulated. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with low coverage. Data for 21 indicators of environmental conditions and standard precaution items were compiled from 78 LMICs which were representative of 129,557 HCFs. 50% of HCFs lack piped water, 33% lack improved sanitation, 39% lack handwashing soap, 39% lack adequate infectious waste disposal, 73% lack sterilization equipment, and 59% lack reliable energy services. Using nationally representative data from six countries, 2% of HCFs provide all four of water, sanitation, hygiene, and waste management services. Statistically significant inequalities in coverage exist between HCFs by: urban-rural setting, managing authority, facility type, and sub-national administrative unit. We identified important, previously undocumented inequalities and environmental health challenges faced by HCFs in LMICs. The information and analyses provide evidence for those engaged in improving HCF conditions to develop evidence-based policies and efficient programs, enhance service delivery systems, and make better use of available resources. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupational Therapy and Management of Multiple Chronic Conditions in the Context of Health Care Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelberg, Donald J.; Halle, Ashley D.; Mroz, Tracy M.

    2017-01-01

    One in four individuals living in the United States has multiple chronic conditions (MCCs), and the already high prevalence of MCCs continues to grow. This population has high rates of health care utilization yet poor outcomes, leading to elevated concerns about fragmented, low-quality care provided within the current health care system. Several national initiatives endeavor to improve care for the population with MCCs, and occupational therapy is uniquely positioned to contribute to these efforts for more efficient, effective, client-centered management of care. By integrating findings from the literature with current policy and practice, we aim to highlight the potential role for occupational therapy in managing MCCs within the evolving health care system. PMID:28027031

  7. Employee working conditions and healthcare system performance: the Veterans Health Administration experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Nicholas; Hodgson, Michael; Craig, Thomas; Dyrenforth, Sue; Perlin, Jonathan; Murphy, Frances

    2007-04-01

    The authors explored the association between health care employees' perceptions of their organizations and objective measures of system performance. A national survey of employees conducted in 2001 by the Veterans Administration (VA) assessed employee perceptions of hospital organizational characteristics. The authors analyzed cross-sectional associations between these perceptions and objective measures of health care system performance--employee and patient care outcomes. Employee perceptions of organizational climate (indicators of the organizational culture) were strongly related to overall satisfaction and measures of system performance. Overall, change in perceptions of organizational climate by 1 standard deviation (SD) was potentially associated with changes of 2% to 35% in selected outcomes. Organizational climate, policies, and resultant working conditions in health care institutions appear to be strong drivers of system performance. Interventions directed toward improving care quality and safety should address these factors.

  8. Assessing health conditions and medication use among the homeless community in Long Beach, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mok Thoong; Yamaki, Jason; Harwood, Megan; d'Assalenaux, Richard; Rosenberg, Ettie; Aruoma, Okezie; Bishayee, Anupam

    2014-04-01

    Persons experiencing homelessness are a vulnerable population and are at increased risk for morbidity and all-cause mortality compared to the general population. This study sought to evaluate medication use, regular physician visits, and identify health conditions among the homeless population of Long Beach, California. Two "brown bag" medication review events were held at homeless shelters in the Long Beach area. Demographic information, medication use, and comorbid disease states were obtained through surveys. Three-fourths of the cohort (95 participants) consisted of males, and the average age of participants was 48 years. Psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular disease were the most common disease states reported at 32% and 46%, respectively and so were medications used in treating these chronic diseases. Medication adherence was found to be a significant problem in this population, where more than 30% of patients were nonadherent to medications for chronic diseases. Furthermore, foot problems, hearing and vision difficulties constitute the most commonly overlooked health problems within the homeless population. Based on this and other similar finding, we must accept that the homeless represent a vulnerable population, and that because of this fact, more programs should be focused at improving availability and access to health care among the homeless. Regarding the high number of reported health problems in the study, more studies are needed and more studies should incorporate screening for foot, hearing, and vision issues, both to increase awareness and to provide an opportunity for devising possible solutions to these highly preventable conditions.

  9. Health surveillance under adverse ergonomics conditions--validity of a screening method adapted for the occupational health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Dirk; Gustafsson, Ewa; Rolander, Bo; Arvidsson, Inger; Nordander, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    A new health surveillance protocol for work-related upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders has been validated by comparing the results with a reference protocol. The studied protocol, Health Surveillance in Adverse Ergonomics Conditions (HECO), is a new version of the reference protocol modified for application in the Occupational Health Service (OHS). The HECO protocol contains both a screening part and a diagnosing part. Sixty-three employees were examined. The screening in HECO did not miss any diagnosis found when using the reference protocol, but in comparison to the reference protocol considerable time savings could be achieved. Fair to good agreement between the protocols was obtained for one or more diagnoses in neck/shoulders (86%, k = 0.62) and elbow/hands (84%, k = 0.49). Therefore, the results obtained using the HECO protocol can be compared with a reference material collected with the reference protocol, and thus provide information of the magnitude of disorders in an examined work group. Practitioner Summary: The HECO protocol is a relatively simple physical examination protocol for identification of musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and upper extremities. The protocol is a reliable and cost-effective tool for the OHS to use for occupational health surveillance in order to detect workplaces at high risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders.

  10. Health surveillance under adverse ergonomics conditions – validity of a screening method adapted for the occupational health service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Dirk; Gustafsson, Ewa; Rolander, Bo; Arvidsson, Inger; Nordander, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    A new health surveillance protocol for work-related upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders has been validated by comparing the results with a reference protocol. The studied protocol, Health Surveillance in Adverse Ergonomics Conditions (HECO), is a new version of the reference protocol modified for application in the Occupational Health Service (OHS). The HECO protocol contains both a screening part and a diagnosing part. Sixty-three employees were examined. The screening in HECO did not miss any diagnosis found when using the reference protocol, but in comparison to the reference protocol considerable time savings could be achieved. Fair to good agreement between the protocols was obtained for one or more diagnoses in neck/shoulders (86%, k = 0.62) and elbow/hands (84%, k = 0.49). Therefore, the results obtained using the HECO protocol can be compared with a reference material collected with the reference protocol, and thus provide information of the magnitude of disorders in an examined work group. Practitioner Summary: The HECO protocol is a relatively simple physical examination protocol for identification of musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and upper extremities. The protocol is a reliable and cost-effective tool for the OHS to use for occupational health surveillance in order to detect workplaces at high risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:25761380

  11. Identification of relevant ICF categories in patients with chronic health conditions: a Delphi exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Martin; Cieza, Alarcos; Andersen, Christina; Kollerits, Barbara; Amann, Edda; Stucki, Gerold

    2004-07-01

    To identify the most typical and relevant categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for patients with low back pain, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, chronic generalized pain, stroke, depression, obesity, chronic ischaemic heart disease, obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and breast cancer. An international expert survey using the Delphi technique was conducted. Data were collected in 3 rounds. Answers were linked to the ICF and analysed for the degree of consensus. Between 21 (osteoporosis, chronic ischaemic heart disease, and obstructive pulmonary disease) and 43 (stroke) experts responded in each of the conditions. In all conditions, with the exception of depression, there were categories in all ICF components that were considered typical and/or relevant by at least 80% of the responders. While all conditions had a distinct typical spectrum of relevant ICF categories, there were also some common relevant categories throughout the majority of conditions. Lists of ICF categories that are considered relevant and typical for specific conditions by international experts could be created. This is an important step towards identifying ICF Core Sets for chronic conditions.

  12. Cumulative burden of comorbid mental disorders, substance use disorders, chronic medical conditions, and poverty on health among adults in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Elizabeth Reisinger; Druss, Benjamin G

    2017-07-01

    The health of individuals in the U.S.A. is increasingly being defined by complexity and multimorbidity. We examined the patterns of co-occurrence of mental illness, substance abuse/dependence, and chronic medical conditions and the cumulative burden of these conditions and living in poverty on self-rated health. We conducted a secondary data analysis using publically-available data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), which is an annual nationally-representative survey. Pooled data from the 2010-2012 NSDUH surveys included 115,921 adults 18 years of age or older. The majority of adults (52.2%) had at least one type of condition (mental illness, substance abuse/dependence, or chronic medical conditions), with substantial overlap across the conditions. 1.2%, or 2.2 million people, reported all three conditions. Generally, as the number of conditions increased, the odds of reporting worse health also increased. The likelihood of reporting fair/poor health was greatest for people who reported AMI, chronic medical conditions, and poverty (AOR = 9.41; 95% CI: 7.53-11.76), followed by all three conditions and poverty (AOR = 9.32; 95% CI: 6.67-13.02). For each combination of conditions, the addition of poverty increased the likelihood of reporting fair/poor health. Traditional conceptualizations of multimorbidity should be expanded to take into account the complexities of co-occurrence between mental illnesses, chronic medical conditions, and socioeconomic factors.

  13. How Veterans With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Comorbid Health Conditions Utilize eHealth to Manage Their Health Care Needs: A Mixed-Methods Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whealin, Julia M; Jenchura, Emily C; Wong, Ava C; Zulman, Donna M

    2016-10-26

    Mental health conditions are prevalent among US veterans and pose a number of self-management and health care navigation challenges. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) with comorbid chronic medical conditions (CMCs) is especially common, in both returning Iraq or Afghanistan and earlier war-era veterans. Patient-facing electronic health (eHealth) technology may offer innovative strategies to support these individuals' needs. This study was designed to identify the types of eHealth tools that veterans with PTSD and comorbid CMCs use, understand how they currently use eHealth technology to self-manage their unique health care needs, and identify new eHealth resources that veterans feel would empower them to better manage their health care. A total of 119 veterans with PTSD and at least one CMC who have used the electronic personal health record system of the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) responded to a mailed survey about their chronic conditions and preferences related to the use of technology. After the survey, 2 focus groups, stratified by sex, were conducted with a subgroup of patients to explore how veterans with PTSD and comorbid CMCs use eHealth technology to support their complex health care needs. Focus groups were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using standard content analysis methods for coding textual data, guided by the "Fit between Individual, Task, and Technology" framework. Survey respondents had a mean age of 64.0 (SD 12.0) years, 85.1% (97/114) were male, 72.4% (84/116) were white, and 63.1% (70/111) had an annual household income of eHealth literacy was 27.7 (SD 9.8). Of the respondents, 44.6% (50/112) used health-related technology 1 to 3 times per month and 21.4% (24/112) used technology less than once per month. Veterans reported using technology most often to search for health information (78.9%, 90/114), communicate with providers (71.1%, 81/114), and track medications (64.9%, 74/114). Five major themes emerged that describe how

  14. Prevalence of tanning addiction and associations with behavioral health conditions among multiethnic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kimberly A; Piombo, Sarah E; Cho, Junhan; Higgins, Shauna; Wysong, Ashley; Sussman, Steve; Cockburn, Myles G; Leventhal, Adam M

    2018-02-23

    Evidence indicates that tanning may be addictive and is associated with other behavioral health conditions. Few studies have examined tanning addiction among adolescents. We performed a cross-sectional study to explore the relationship between tanning addiction, substance use, and psychological conditions among ethnoracially diverse 16-17 year-olds. Tanning addiction was assessed using the modified (m) CAGE measure among 11 th grade students in Los Angeles (N=2,637; response rate 78%). Overall, 7.02% of the sample met tanning addiction criteria. Tanning addiction was significantly associated with past 30-day smoking and marijuana use, problem substance use, depression, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and bipolar disorder in regression models. After controlling for all significant substance use and psychological variables, problem marijuana use and OCD remained significantly associated with tanning addiction (odds ratio 2.06, 95% confidence interval 1.03-4.09; and 2.54, 1.73-3.72, respectively.) Tanning addiction was also significantly associated with multiple problem substance use and behavioral health conditions. Our findings indicate an appreciable prevalence of tanning addiction among multiethnic adolescents, and suggest the importance of addressing tanning addiction in the context of comorbid behavioral conditions to reduce this high-risk behavior among diverse youth. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Medical errors in hospitalized pediatric trauma patients with chronic health conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compares medical errors in pediatric trauma patients with and without chronic conditions. Methods: The 2009 Kids’ Inpatient Database, which included 123,303 trauma discharges, was analyzed. Medical errors were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes. The medical error rates per 100 discharges and per 1000 hospital days were calculated and compared between inpatients with and without chronic conditions. Results: Pediatric trauma patients with chronic conditions experienced a higher medical error rate compared with patients without chronic conditions: 4.04 (95% confidence interval: 3.75–4.33 versus 1.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.98–1.16 per 100 discharges. The rate of medical error differed by type of chronic condition. After controlling for confounding factors, the presence of a chronic condition increased the adjusted odds ratio of medical error by 37% if one chronic condition existed (adjusted odds ratio: 1.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.21–1.5, and 69% if more than one chronic condition existed (adjusted odds ratio: 1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.48–1.53. In the adjusted model, length of stay had the strongest association with medical error, but the adjusted odds ratio for chronic conditions and medical error remained significantly elevated even when accounting for the length of stay, suggesting that medical complexity has a role in medical error. Higher adjusted odds ratios were seen in other subgroups. Conclusion: Chronic conditions are associated with significantly higher rate of medical errors in pediatric trauma patients. Future research should evaluate interventions or guidelines for reducing the risk of medical errors in pediatric trauma patients with chronic conditions.

  16. Using patient reported outcome measures in health services: A qualitative study on including people with low literacy skills and learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahagirdar Deepa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs are self-report measures of health status increasingly promoted for use in healthcare quality improvement. However people with low literacy skills or learning disabilities may find PROMs hard to complete. Our study investigated stakeholder views on the accessibility and use of PROMs to develop suggestions for more inclusive practice. Methods Taking PROMs recommended for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as an example, we conducted 8 interviews with people with low literacy skills and/or learning disabilities, and 4 focus groups with 20 health professionals and people with COPD. Discussions covered the format and delivery of PROMs using the EQ-5D and St George Respiratory Questionnaire as prompts. Thematic framework analysis focused on three main themes: Accessibility, Ease of Use, and Contextual factors. Results Accessibility included issues concerning the questionnaire format, and suggestions for improvement included larger font sizes and more white space. Ease of Use included discussion about PROMs’ administration. While health professionals suggested PROMs could be completed in waiting rooms, patients preferred settings with more privacy and where they could access help from people they know. Contextual Factors included other challenges and wider issues associated with completing PROMs. While health professionals highlighted difficulties created by the system in managing patients with low literacy/learning disabilities, patient participants stressed that understanding the purpose of PROMs was important to reduce intimidation. Conclusions Adjusting PROMs’ format, giving an explicit choice of where patients can complete them, and clearly conveying PROMs’ purpose and benefit to patients may help to prevent inequality when using PROMs in health services.

  17. Suicide ideation, plans, and attempts among general practice patients with chronic health conditions in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Huertas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mildred Vera2,4, María L Reyes-Rabanillo1, Sarah Huertas3, Deborah Juarbe4, Coralee Pérez-Pedrogo4, Aracelis Huertas5, Marisol Peña61Veterans Affairs Caribbean Healthcare System, San Juan, Puerto Rico; 2Department of Health Services Administration, School of Public Health; 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine; 4Center for Evaluation and Sociomedical Research, School of Public Health; 5School of Health Professions; 6Center for Preparedness in Public Health, School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico San Juan, Puerto Rico.Background: Little is known about suicidal ideation among general practice patients in Puerto Rico. In this study we examined the rates, severity, and correlates of suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts among general practice patients with chronic illnesses. This is important in targeting appropriate interventions and management approaches to minimize and prevent suicide.Methods: We screened patients with chronic physical conditions at general practices. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the suicidality module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Major depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module. The relationship between sociodemographic factors, depression and suicidal ideation was examined with multiple logistic regression analysis. Among the subgroup that acknowledged suicidal ideation, we used multinomial logistic regression analysis to estimate simultaneously the multivariate associations of depression and sociodemographic factors with suicidality risk levels.Results: Of the 2068 patients screened, 15.4% acknowledged recent suicidal ideation. Among this group, 8.6% reported passive ideation, 3.7% active ideation without a plan, and 3.1% active ideation with a plan or attempt. According to multivariate logistic regression, suicidal ideation was higher among patients with moderately severe depression and severe depression than

  18. Alcohol Use and Mental Health Conditions Among Black College Males: Do Those Attending Postsecondary Minority Institutions Fare Better Than Those at Primarily White Institutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Jackson, Zachary; Watkins, Daphne C; Goodwill, Janelle R; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2017-07-01

    While there is a sizeable body of research examining the association between alcohol use and mental health conditions among college students, there are sparse investigations specifically focusing on these associations among Black college students. This is concerning given Black college students face different stressors compared with their non-Black peers. Black males appear especially at risk, exhibiting increased susceptibility to mental health issues and drinking in greater quantities and more frequently than Black females. This investigation examined the association between alcohol consumption and mental health conditions among Black men attending institutions of higher education in the United States and sought to determine differences between Black men attending predominantly White institutions (PWIs) compared with those attending postsecondary minor