WorldWideScience

Sample records for include health conditions

  1. 76 FR 9283 - Medicaid Program; Payment Adjustment for Provider-Preventable Conditions Including Health Care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... on March 22, 1995) UTI Urinary tract infection I. Background Title XIX of the Social Security Act... Diabetes with Hyperosmolarity. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). Vascular Catheter... for State Health Policy, the National Association of Children's Hospitals, the Joint Commission, and...

  2. Energy principle with included boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1994-01-01

    Earlier comments by the author on the limitations of the classical form of the extended energy principle are supported by a complementary analysis on the potential energy change arising from free-boundary displacements of a magnetically confined plasma. In the final formulation of the extended principle, restricted displacements, satisfying pressure continuity by means of plasma volume currents in a thin boundary layer, are replaced by unrestricted (arbitrary) displacements which can give rise to induced surface currents. It is found that these currents contribute to the change in potential energy, and that their contribution is not taken into account by such a formulation. A general expression is further given for surface currents induced by arbitrary displacements. The expression is used to reformulate the energy principle for the class of displacements which satisfy all necessary boundary conditions, including that of the pressure balance. This makes a minimization procedure of the potential energy possible, for the class of all physically relevant test functions which include the constraints imposed by the boundary conditions. Such a procedure is also consistent with a corresponding variational calculus. (Author)

  3. Including customers in health service design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrott, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    This article will explore the concept and meaning of codesign as it applies to the delivery of health services. The results of a pilot study in health codesign will be used as a research based case discussion, thus providing a platform to suggest future research that could lead to building more robust knowledge of how the consumers of health services may be more effectively involved in the process of developing and delivering the type of services that are in line with expectations of the various stakeholder groups.

  4. Working Conditions, Lifestyles and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cottini, Elena; Ghinetti, Paolo

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether employee health is affected by the environment in which the individual works - in terms of both physical and psychosocial working conditions - and by his or her lifestyle. Health measures are computed from Danish data, and refer to both self assessed...... general health and two more objective health measures: mental health specific to work-related problems, and physical health. We find that both bad working conditions and bad lifestyles reduce health, especially in its self-assessed component. The impact of lifetsyle indicators have a more modest health...... impact on both physical and mental health....

  5. Holistic Health: Does It Really Include Mental Health?

    OpenAIRE

    McClanahan, Kimberly K.; Huff, Marlene B.; Omar, Hatim A.

    2006-01-01

    Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S.) over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate publi...

  6. Holistic health: does it really include mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Kimberly K; Huff, Marlene B; Omar, Hatim A

    2006-03-14

    Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S.) over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate public perceptions regarding mental illness are adequately addressed and resolved. Until then, mental and physical health will continue to be viewed as disparate entities rather than parts of a unified whole. We conclude that the U.S. currently does not generally incorporate the tenets of holistic health in its view of the mental and physical health of its citizens, and provide some suggestions for changing that viewpoint.

  7. Holistic Health: Does It Really Include Mental Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly K. McClanahan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S. over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate public perceptions regarding mental illness are adequately addressed and resolved. Until then, mental and physical health will continue to be viewed as disparate entities rather than parts of a unified whole. We conclude that the U.S. currently does not generally incorporate the tenets of holistic health in its view of the mental and physical health of its citizens, and provide some suggestions for changing that viewpoint.

  8. A framework for including family health spillovers in economic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Al-Janabi (Hareth); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); J. Coast (Joanna)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHealth care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these health spillovers? should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health

  9. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Radiation and nuclear safety included in the environmental health programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.

    1996-01-01

    Finland is currently preparing a national environmental health programme, the objective of which is to chart the main environmental health problems in Finland, to identify means for securing a healthy environment, and to draw up a practical action programme for preventing and rectifying problems pertaining to environmental health. Radiation and nuclear safety form an essential part of preventive health care. The action programme is based on decisions and programmes approved at the WHO Conference on the Environment and Health, held in Helsinki in June 1994. In addition to the state of the Finnish environment and the health of the Finnish population, the programme addresses the relevant international issues, in particular in areas adjacent to Finland. The Committee on Environmental Health is expected to complete its work by the end of the year. A wide range of representatives from various branches of administration have contributed to the preparation of the programme. Besides physical, biological and chemical factors, the environmental factors affecting health also include the physical environment and the psychological, social and aesthetic features of the environment. Similarly, environmental factors that have an impact on the health of present or future generations, on the essential preconditions of life and on the quality of life are investigated. The serious risk to nature caused by human actions is also considered as a potential risk to human health. (orig.)

  11. [Origin of sennosides in health teas including Malva leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, T; Kishi, M; Sekita, S; Satake, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify whether sennosides are contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and then to clarify the source of sennosides in health teas including malva leaves. The identification and determination of sennosides were performed with thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The leaf of Malva verticillata L. did not contain sennosides A or B and could be easily distinguished from senna leaf. Our previous report showed that sennosides are contained in weight-reducing herbal teas including malva leaves, and that senna leaf is a herbal component in some teas. Furthermore, in 10 samples of health tea including malva leaves that were bought last year, the smallest amount of sennosides was 6.1 mg/bag, and all health teas including malva leaves contained the leaf and midrib of senna. We suggest that sennosides A and B are not contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and that the sennosides in health teas including malva leaves are not derived from malva leaf but from senna leaf.

  12. 78 FR 68907 - Agency Information Collection (Foot (Including Flatfeet (pes planus)) Conditions Disability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... planus)) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review: New data collection. Abstract... (Including Flatfeet (pes planus)) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY...)) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  13. Comprehensive adolescent health programs that include sexual and reproductive health services: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kågesten, Anna; Parekh, Jenita; Tunçalp, Ozge; Turke, Shani; Blum, Robert William

    2014-12-01

    We systematically reviewed peer-reviewed and gray literature on comprehensive adolescent health (CAH) programs (1998-2013), including sexual and reproductive health services. We screened 36 119 records and extracted articles using predefined criteria. We synthesized data into descriptive characteristics and assessed quality by evidence level. We extracted data on 46 programs, of which 19 were defined as comprehensive. Ten met all inclusion criteria. Most were US based; others were implemented in Egypt, Ethiopia, and Mexico. Three programs displayed rigorous evidence; 5 had strong and 2 had modest evidence. Those with rigorous or strong evidence directly or indirectly influenced adolescent sexual and reproductive health. The long-term impact of many CAH programs cannot be proven because of insufficient evaluations. Evaluation approaches that take into account the complex operating conditions of many programs are needed to better understand mechanisms behind program effects.

  14. Universal health coverage in 'One ASEAN': are migrants included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S

    2015-01-01

    As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC beyond the basis of

  15. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  16. Birth Defects & Other Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  17. Macroeconomic Conditions, Health and Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Ruhm

    2004-01-01

    Although health is conventionally believed to deteriorate during macroeconomic downturns, the empirical evidence supporting this view is quite weak and comes from studies containing methodological shortcomings that are difficult to remedy. Recent research that better controls for many sources of omitted variables bias instead suggests that mortality decreases and physical health improves when the economy temporarily weakens. This partially reflects reductions in external sources of death, suc...

  18. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  19. [Effectiveness of mental health training including active listening for managers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Kazunori; Tagawa, Yoshimasa; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori; Nagata, Shoji

    2008-07-01

    significant increases post-training in "Job demands", "Worksite support by supervisor" and "Worksite support by co-worker", subscales of the BJSQ 12 items version. Particularly, the "Worksite support by supervisor" subscale increased significantly in 8 of the 47 sections in a comparison among sections. In this present study, we investigated the effectiveness of mental health training including Active Listening for managers, and suggest that to train Active Listening and use it at the worksite possibly strengthens "Worksite support by supervisor".

  20. Health effects of air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, C.; Caillaud, D.

    The air conditioning used in residential or commercial buildings (offices, hotels, sterile areas of hospitals, computer and electronics industries) is responsible for a certain number of well identified ailments which can be classified in three groups: infections (legionnaires'disease, ornithosis), allergies (mainly respiratory) eg. rhinitis, asthma, alveolitis but also Monday morning illness or humidifier fever, various functional disorders grouped under the name Sick Building Syndrome. To avoid these problems, a certain number of recommendations may be made. They concern: installation of air conditioning, humidification which is the cause of bacterial and fungal contamination, filtration, monitoring of the installation by qualitative and quantitative measurements, maintenance. The legal problems relating to these illnesses, the responsibility for which is ultimately laid at the door of the installers, should also be mentioned. Allergies are recognized to be of professional origin in Table 66 of allergic illnesses issued by the Social Security.

  1. Post-Polio Health International including International Ventilator Users Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PHI Annual Reports Contact Us Copyright EDUCATION Post-Polio Health newsletter Health Care Considerations Handbook on the Late Effects ... Late Effects of Polio Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS) About Acute Polio Major ...

  2. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Strategies to include sexual orientation and gender identity in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-04

    May 4, 2015 ... Social justice and equity are important principles in African health sciences ... Courses that endeavour to develop students' skills in patient-provider .... (sexual and emotional attraction) and gender identity (one's sense of.

  4. Nativity, Chronic Health Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayog, Maria L G; Waters, Catherine M

    2018-05-01

    Nearly half of Americans have a chronic health condition related to unhealthful behavior. One in four Americans is an immigrant; yet immigrants' health has been studied little, particularly among Asian American subpopulations. Years lived in United States, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, walking, adiposity, and fruit/vegetable variables in the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey were analyzed to examine the influence of nativity on chronic health conditions and health behaviors in 555 adult Filipinos, the second largest Asian American immigrant subpopulation. Recent and long-term immigrant Filipinos had higher odds of having hypertension and diabetes, but lower odds of smoking and overweight/obesity compared with second-generation Filipinos. Being born in the United States may be protective against chronic health conditions, but not for healthful behaviors among Filipinos. Chronic disease prevention and health promotion strategies should consider nativity/length of residence, which may be a more consequential health determinant than other immigration and acculturation characteristics.

  5. Global agenda, local health: including concepts of health security in preparedness programs at the jurisdictional level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Chas

    2014-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda's objectives contain components that could help health departments address emerging public health challenges that threaten the population. As part of the agenda, partner countries with advanced public health systems will support the development of infrastructure in stakeholder health departments. To facilitate this process and augment local programs, state and local health departments may want to include concepts of health security in their public health preparedness offices in order to simultaneously build capacity. Health security programs developed by public health departments should complete projects that are closely aligned with the objectives outlined in the global agenda and that facilitate the completion of current preparedness grant requirements. This article identifies objectives and proposes tactical local projects that run parallel to the 9 primary objectives of the Global Health Security Agenda. Executing concurrent projects at the international and local levels in preparedness offices will accelerate the completion of these objectives and help prevent disease epidemics, detect health threats, and respond to public health emergencies. Additionally, future funding tied or related to health security may become more accessible to state and local health departments that have achieved these objectives.

  6. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael Lee; Hsu, John

    2016-01-01

    decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing......There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case...... and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some...

  7. F1 occurrence including L condition in TUCUMAN and BUENOS AIRES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosert Gonzalez, M. de; Ezquer, R.G.; Oviedo, R.V. del

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of the occurrence of the F1 layer including the L condition has been done, using data from two Argentine stations: TUCUMAN and BUENOS AIRES, at different seasons and solar activity conditions. The comparisons between observations and the F1 occurrence predicted by the IRI-90 model show the need of reviewing the use of the DuCharme et al. (1973) formula adopted by the model to predict the occurrence of the intermediate F1 layer including the L condition. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Strategies to include sexual orientation and gender identity in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various disciplines can teach sexual orientation and gender identity issues in their context by challenging heteronormativity and highlighting specific LGBTI health concerns, and can do so more successfully with interactive teaching approaches that hold more potential than formalised lectures. Rights-based teaching ...

  9. Including oral health training in a health system strengthening program in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Seymour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rwanda's Ministry of Health, with the Clinton Health Access Initiative, implemented the Human Resources for Health (HRH Program. The purpose of the program is to train and retain high-quality health care professionals to improve and sustain health in Rwanda. Design: In May 2011, an oral health team from Rwanda and the United States proposed that oral health be included in the HRH Program, due to its important links to health, in a recommendation to the Rwandan Ministry of Health. The proposal outlined a diagonal approach to curriculum design that supports the principles of global health through interconnected training for both treatment and collaborative prevention, rather than discipline-based fragmented training focused on isolated risk factors. It combined ‘vertical’ direct patient care training with ‘horizontal’ interdisciplinary training to address common underlying risk factors and associations for disease through primary care, program retention, and sustainability. Results: The proposal was accepted by the Ministry of Health and was approved for funding by the US Government and The Global Fund. Rwanda's first Bachelor of Dental Surgery program, which is in the planning phase, is being developed. Conclusions: Competencies, the training curriculum, insurance and payment schemes, licensure, and other challenges are currently being addressed. With the Ministry of Health supporting the dental HRH efforts and fully appreciating the importance of oral health, all are hopeful that these developments will ultimately lead to more robust oral health data collection, a well-trained and well-retained dental profession, and vastly improved oral health and overall health for the people of Rwanda in the decades to come.

  10. Including oral health training in a health system strengthening program in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Brittany; Muhumuza, Ibra; Mumena, Chris; Isyagi, Moses; Barrow, Jane; Meeks, Valli

    2013-01-01

    Objective Rwanda's Ministry of Health, with the Clinton Health Access Initiative, implemented the Human Resources for Health (HRH) Program. The purpose of the program is to train and retain high-quality health care professionals to improve and sustain health in Rwanda. Design In May 2011, an oral health team from Rwanda and the United States proposed that oral health be included in the HRH Program, due to its important links to health, in a recommendation to the Rwandan Ministry of Health. The proposal outlined a diagonal approach to curriculum design that supports the principles of global health through interconnected training for both treatment and collaborative prevention, rather than discipline-based fragmented training focused on isolated risk factors. It combined ‘vertical’ direct patient care training with ‘horizontal’ interdisciplinary training to address common underlying risk factors and associations for disease through primary care, program retention, and sustainability. Results The proposal was accepted by the Ministry of Health and was approved for funding by the US Government and The Global Fund. Rwanda's first Bachelor of Dental Surgery program, which is in the planning phase, is being developed. Conclusions Competencies, the training curriculum, insurance and payment schemes, licensure, and other challenges are currently being addressed. With the Ministry of Health supporting the dental HRH efforts and fully appreciating the importance of oral health, all are hopeful that these developments will ultimately lead to more robust oral health data collection, a well-trained and well-retained dental profession, and vastly improved oral health and overall health for the people of Rwanda in the decades to come. PMID:23473054

  11. How to change environmental conditions for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commers, Matthew J; Gottlieb, Nell; Kok, Gerjo

    2007-03-01

    Since the Lalonde report, contemporary public-health theory has given steadily more attention to the role of environments in influencing health status. Environments, both social and physical, influence health directly or through complex interactions with behavior, genetics and health-care systems. They are also important for public-health because environments are the complex systems through which people are both empowered and exercise their empowerment. If public-health professionals are to play a significant role in influencing environments for health, they need analytical instruments that enable them to link specific environmental conditions with the actions necessary to improve them. These instruments must also enable public-health professionals to identify points of leverage for stimulating key actors to take the actions necessary to make environments more promoting of health. This article first presents one such analytical instrument. Then, building on examples relating to socio-economic health inequities, the analytical instrument is applied to reveal how it can add value to health professionals' effectiveness in planning interventions for more health-promoting environments.

  12. Conducting Accessible Research: Including People With Disabilities in Public Health, Epidemiological, and Outcomes Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Dianne; Magasi, Susan; Novak, Catherine; Harniss, Mark

    2016-12-01

    People with disabilities are largely absent from mainstream health research. Exclusion of people with disabilities may be explicit, attributable to poorly justified exclusion criteria, or implicit, attributable to inaccessible study documents, interventions, or research measures. Meanwhile, people with disabilities experience poorer health, greater incidence of chronic conditions, and higher health care expenditure than people without disabilities. We outline our approach to "accessible research design"-research accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. We describe a model that includes 3 tiers: universal design, accommodations, and modifications. Through our work on several large-scale research studies, we provide pragmatic examples of accessible research design. Making efforts to include people with disabilities in public health, epidemiological, and outcomes studies will enhance the interpretability of findings for a significant patient population.

  13. Including health insurance in poverty measurement: The impact of Massachusetts health reform on poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Sanders D; Remler, Dahlia K

    2016-12-01

    We develop and implement what we believe is the first conceptually valid health-inclusive poverty measure (HIPM) - a measure that includes health care or insurance in the poverty needs threshold and health insurance benefits in family resources - and we discuss its limitations. Building on the Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, we construct a pilot HIPM for the under-65 population under ACA-like health reform in Massachusetts. This pilot demonstrates the practicality, face validity and value of a HIPM. Results suggest that public health insurance benefits and premium subsidies accounted for a substantial, one-third reduction in the health inclusive poverty rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Work disability resulting from chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Debra; Allaire, Saralynn H; Reisine, Susan T

    2005-03-01

    To describe current programs and policies for addressing work disability among adults with chronic health conditions, and to identify opportunities for new research aimed at reducing the problem. The authors conducted secondary data analysis and a literature review. Millions of Americans with a chronic health condition have a work disability or are at risk of developing one. This public health problem is costing hundreds of billions of dollars a year nationally in lost productivity and diminishing the quality of life of millions of Americans. The medical care system, employers, and government--three traditional sources of help for adults with chronic health problems--are not sufficiently oriented toward the primary or secondary prevention of work disability. New research is urgently needed to reduce the burden of work disability on individuals and society.

  15. Chronic Health Conditions Managed by School Nurses. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgitan, Judith; Bushmiaer, Margo; DeSisto, Marie C.; Duff, Carolyn; Lambert, C. Patrice; Murphy, M. Kathleen; Roland, Sharon; Selser, Kendra; Wyckoff, Leah; White, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that students with chronic health conditions have access to a full-time registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse). School districts should include school nurse positions in their full-time instructional support personnel to provide health services…

  16. The value of including spirometry in health checks - a randomized controlled study in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Ottesen, Anders Løkke; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise

    Background Lung diseases are among the most frequent and most serious ailments in Denmark. Preventive health checks including spirometry can be used to detect lung diseases earlier. Over time the attendance at preventive health checks has decreased and at present the response rate is approximately...... 50%. Little is known about initiatives that can influence the attendance rate. Objectives To examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation material will influence the attendance in preventive health checks. Materiel/Methods Design: A randomized controlled study on information...... on spirometry embedded in “Check your health Prevention Program, CHPP” from 2015-16. CHPP is a house-hold cluster randomized controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30-49 year olds in a Danish municipality during the years 2012 through to 2017 (n= 26,216), carried out in collaboration between...

  17. Changing living conditions, life style and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Kvernmo, Siv; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    . The aim of the paper is to illustrate the influence of environmental change on living conditions and life style and some of the mechanisms through which such changes affect physical and mental health. The interrelationship between environmental and societal change is illustrated by an example from a small......Human health is the result of the interaction of genetic, nutritional, socio-cultural, economic, physical infrastructure and ecosystem factors. All of the individual, social, cultural and socioeconomic factors are influenced by the environment they are embedded in and by changes in this environment...... community in Greenland, where changing environmental conditions have influenced fishing and employment opportunities to the extent that the size of the population has changed dramatically. The link between social change and health is shown with reference to studies on education, housing and occupation...

  18. [Circadian blood pressure variation under several pathophysiological conditions including secondary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yutaka; Hosaka, Miki; Satoh, Michihiro

    2014-08-01

    Abnormality of circadian blood pressure (BP) variation, i.e. non-dipper, riser, nocturnal hypertension etc, is brought by several pathophysiological conditions especially by secondary hypertension. These pathophysiological conditions are classified into several categories, i.e. disturbance of autonomic nervous system, metabolic disorder, endocrine disorder, disorder of Na and water excretion (e.g. sodium sensitivity), severe target organ damage and ischemia, cardiovascular complications and drug induced hypertension. Each pathophysiological condition which brings disturbance of circadian BP variation is included in several categories, e.g. diabetes mellitus is included in metabolic disorder, autonomic imbalance, sodium sensitivity and endocrine disorder. However, it seems that unified principle of the genesis of disturbance of circadian BP variation in many pathophysiological conditions is autonomic imbalance. Thus, it is concluded that disturbance of circadian BP variation is not purposive biological behavior but the result of autonomic imbalance which looks as if compensatory reaction such as exaggerated Na-water excretion during night in patient with Na-water retention who reveals disturbed circadian BP variation.

  19. Which Pediatricians Comanage Mental Health Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cori; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Stein, Ruth E K; Garner, Andrew S; Kerker, Bonnie D; Szilagyi, Moira; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2017-07-01

    Given the prevalence of mental health (MH) conditions (MHC) in children, pediatricians should initiate treatment alone or in collaboration with a specialist for children with MHC. However, the majority of pediatricians do not manage or comanage common MHC even with an on-site MH provider. We examined which physician, practice, and training characteristics are associated with pediatricians' comanaging at least half of their patients with MHC. We analyzed responses of general pediatricians (n = 305) from the American Academy of Pediatrics 2013 Periodic Survey. Practice characteristics include presence of an on-site MH provider and perceived access to services. Independent variables included sociodemographics, training experiences, and interest in further training. The outcome was comanagement of ≥50% of patients with MHC. Weighted univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses were performed. Of the pediatricians who reported comanaging ≥50% of their patients with MHC, logistic regression analysis showed that pediatricians who completed ≥4 weeks of developmental behavioral pediatrics training had 1.8 increased odds (95% confidence interval 1.06, 3.08, P = .03) of comanagement, those very interested in further education in managing/treating MHC had 2.75 increased odds (95% confidence interval 1.63, 3.08, P < .001), and those with more training in MH treatment with medications had 1.4 increased odds (95% confidence interval 1.12, 1.75, P = .004) of comanaging children with MHC. Specific educational experiences and interest in further education in managing or treating MHC were significantly associated with comanaging ≥50% of patients, suggesting that enhanced MH training among pediatricians could increase the comanagement of children with MHC. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral Health Condition of Children Living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Spillere Rovaris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AIDS progression is faster in children than adults. Little is known about the oral health status of children living with HIV. Aim: To carry out a literature review about the oral health conditions of children living with HIV in order to observe if this specific population presents different oral health conditions compared to children without HIV infection. Methods: A documental study of literature review was carried out. Studies were searched at PubMed using “oral health”, “children”, “HIV” and “AIDS” as keywords. Papers published between 2001 and 2011 were included. After applying the exclusion criteria and complete reading of the selected studies, other articles were selected from the references lists of the first ones. Results: Firstly, 24 studies were identified. Among them, 65.5% were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. From the five selected articles, another five from the references of these were included. Only one article compared the oral health conditions of children living with HIV with controls without HIV infection. Conclusions: Only 10 papers contained information on the oral health conditions of children living with HIV, and just one compared the results with controls. The few studies found were insufficient to establish the oral health condition profile of children living with HIV. This lack of information could represent the lack of interest of researchers and health authorities in more integrative care and can result in neglect with this specific population of children.

  1. Forest health conditions in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkacz, Borys; Moody, Ben; Castillo, Jaime Villa; Fenn, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Some of the greatest forest health impacts in North America are caused by invasive forest insects and pathogens (e.g., emerald ash borer and sudden oak death in the US), by severe outbreaks of native pests (e.g., mountain pine beetle in Canada), and fires exacerbated by changing climate. Ozone and N and S pollutants continue to impact the health of forests in several regions of North America. Long-term monitoring of forest health indicators has facilitated the assessment of forest health and sustainability in North America. By linking a nationwide network of forest health plots with the more extensive forest inventory, forest health experts in the US have evaluated current trends for major forest health indicators and developed assessments of future risks. Canada and Mexico currently lack nationwide networks of forest health plots. Development and expansion of these networks is critical to effective assessment of future forest health impacts. - The forests of North America continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fragmentation, fires, native and invasive pests, and air pollution

  2. Gendered work conditions, health, and work outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Meg A; Punnett, Laura; Pyle, Jean L; Cazeca, Dianne; Cooperman, Manuela

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study of nonfaculty university employees examined associations among gendered work conditions (e.g., sexism and discrimination), job demands, and employee job satisfaction and health. Organizational responsiveness and social support were examined as effect modifiers. Comparisons were made by gender and by the male-female ratio in each job category. The relationship of gendered conditions of work to outcomes differed on the basis of respondents' sex and the job sex ratio. Although the same predictors were hypothesized for job satisfaction, physical health, and psychological distress, there were some differing results. The strongest correlate of job satisfaction was social support; perceived sexism in the workplace also contributed for both men and women. Organizational factors associated with psychological distress differed between female- and male-dominated jobs.

  3. Macroeconomic conditions and population health in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristín Helga Birgisdóttir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Results from recent research on the impact of economic cycles and population health have been mixed, with results appearing to be context-sensitive. Objective: We examine the long-term relationship between economic conditions and population health in Iceland, which has experienced some economically turbulent times in the last years and decades. Methods: We use aggregate annual data for 1981‒2014. We use three aggregate indicators of economic activity to proxy the economic cycle: unemployment rate, real GDP per capita, and real GDP. Life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, and total mortality as well as four cause-specific mortality rates were used as outcome measures. Results: Our results do not suggest a statistically significant relationship between economic conditions and total mortality, infant mortality, or life expectancy. Different responses between causes of death are found, and in some instances between genders, although statistical significance is low. We do, however, find a consistent and statistically significant relationship for females aged 45‒64, where economic downturns are associated with lower all-cause mortality. Conclusions: For the time period studied we do not find a significant relationship between economic cycles and population health, where health is proxied by mortality rates, life expectancy at birth, and infant mortality. Further studies using less extreme health outcomes, such as morbidity rates, are warranted. Contribution: This type of study has not been performed using Icelandic data before and provides a comparison to research from other countries where the relationship has been explored more. Additionally, one of the contributions of this paper is to use a variety of economic indicators as proxies for economic cycles in a study examining their relationship with population health.

  4. A new wall function boundary condition including heat release effect for supersonic combustion flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhen-Xun; Jiang, Chong-Wen; Lee, Chun-Hian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new wall function including heat release effect is theoretically derived. • The new wall function is a unified form holding for flows with/without combustion. • The new wall function shows good results for a supersonic combustion case. - Abstract: A new wall function boundary condition considering combustion heat release effect (denoted as CWFBC) is proposed, for efficient predictions of skin friction and heat transfer in supersonic combustion flows. Based on a standard flow model including boundary-layer combustion, the Shvab–Zeldovich coupling parameters are introduced to derive a new velocity law-of-the-wall including the influence of combustion. For the temperature law-of-the-wall, it is proposed to use the enthalpy–velocity relation, instead of the Crocco–Busemann equation, to eliminate explicit influence of chemical reactions. The obtained velocity and temperature law-of-the-walls constitute the CWFBC, which is a unified form simultaneously holding for single-species, multi-species mixing and multi-species reactive flows. The subsequent numerical simulations using this CWFBC on an experimental case indicate that the CWFBC could accurately reflect the influences on the skin friction and heat transfer by the chemical reactions and heat release, and show large improvements compared to previous WFBC. Moreover, the CWFBC can give accurate skin friction and heat flux for a coarse mesh with y"+ up to 200 for the experimental case, except for slightly larger discrepancy of the wall heat flux around ignition position.

  5. Nutrition in children with long-term health conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Westwood, A

    2015-01-01

    Long-term health conditions (LTHCs) in children may affect nutrition and growth by means of multiple mechanisms. Both undernutrition and overweight/obesity are risk factors. Direct effects of the condition that may cause undernutrition include increased resting energy expenditure, excess losses through malabsorption, difficulty ingesting food, and decreased appetite. Indirect effects of LTHCs may be mediated by learnt or adaptive behaviours, secondary anorexia, inappropriate diets, or conditi...

  6. Integrating structural health and condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Allan; Thöns, Sebastian; McMillan, David

    2015-01-01

    window’ allowing for the possible detection of faults up to 6 months in advance. The SHM system model uses a reduction in the probability of failure factor to account for lower modelling uncertainties. A case study is produced that shows a reduction in operating costs and also a reduction in risk......There is a large financial incentive to minimise operations and maintenance (O&M) costs for offshore wind power by optimising the maintenance plan. The integration of condition monitoring (CM) and structural health monitoring (SHM) may help realise this. There is limited work on the integration...

  7. Health conditions of inmates in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voller, Fabio; Silvestri, Caterina; Martino, Gianrocco; Fanti, Eleonora; Bazzerla, Giorgio; Ferrari, Fabio; Grignani, Marco; Libianchi, Sandro; Pagano, Antonio Maria; Scarpa, Franco; Stasi, Cristina; Di Fiandra, Teresa

    2016-11-16

    Several studies have shown that prison is characterized by a higher prevalence of chronic diseases than unconfined settings. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and health of inmates, focusing on internal diseases. We designed a specific clinical record using the Python programming language. We considered all of the diagnoses according to the ICD-9-CM. Of a total of 17,086 inmates, 15,751 were enrolled in our study (M = 14,835; F = 869), corresponding to 92.2% of the entire inmate population (mean age of 39.6 years). The project involved a total of 57 detention facilities in six Italian regions (for a total of 28% of all detainees in Italy), as counted in a census taken on February 3, 2014. From the entire study sample, 32.5% of prisoners did not present any disorders, while 67.5% suffered from at least one disease. The most frequent pathologies were psychiatric (41.3%), digestive (14.5%), infectious (11.5%), cardiovascular (11.4%), endocrine, metabolic, and immune (8.6%), and respiratory (5.4%). The findings showed that a large number of detainees were affected by several chronic conditions such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, with an unusually high prevalence for such a young population. Therefore, a series of preventive measures is recommended to strengthen the entire care process and improve the health and living conditions of prisoners.

  8. [Working conditions, living conditions and physical health problems declared among penitentiary administration personnel in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, P; Landre, M F; David, S; Goldberg, M; Dassa, S; Marne, M J

    1996-06-01

    A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted among prison staff in France to investigate the relationships between working conditions and health. The sample included men and women 20 to 64 years old belonging to all categories of prison personnel: prison guards, administrative staff, socioeducational workers, technicians, health care workers, and managers (n = 4587, response rate 45.7%). A mailed self-administered questionnaire was used to assess sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, and physical and mental disorders. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the effects of working conditions and social relationships on health of prison staff. However, the results reported here only concern 17 health disorders: body mass index, sick leave, medication use, accidents, digestive disorders, lower extremities and back disorders, hypertension, hemorrhoids, arthritis, skin disorders, urinary infections, chronic bronchitis, cholesterol, gastric ulcer, respiratory infections, ocular disorders. The living non professional conditions mostly associated with health disorders were financial difficulties (OR: 1.9 for digestive disorders, 1.8 for gastric ulcer, 1.7 for medication use) and irregularity of meals (OR = 1.5 for digestive disorders, and hypertension). In the occupational environment, the factors most associated with health disorders are seniority (OR = 4.2 for arthritis, 2.3 for cholesterol) and constraints (OR = 1.7 for lower extremities disorders). In spite of some limits associated to this kind of study, relationships between occupational and non occupational factors and physical health conditions were observed; the results also pointed out the protective role of the social relationships for health conditions.

  9. Disability mediates the impact of common conditions on perceived health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Alonso

    Full Text Available We examined the extent to which disability mediates the observed associations of common mental and physical conditions with perceived health.WHO World Mental Health (WMH Surveys carried out in 22 countries worldwide (n = 51,344 respondents, 72.0% response rate. We assessed nine common mental conditions with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, and ten chronic physical with a checklist. A visual analog scale (VAS score (0, worst to 100, best measured perceived health in the previous 30 days. Disability was assessed using a modified WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS, including: cognition, mobility, self-care, getting along, role functioning (life activities, family burden, stigma, and discrimination. Path analysis was used to estimate total effects of conditions on perceived health VAS and their separate direct and indirect (through the WHODAS dimensions effects. Twelve-month prevalence was 14.4% for any mental and 51.4% for any physical condition. 31.7% of respondents reported difficulties in role functioning, 11.4% in mobility, 8.3% in stigma, 8.1% in family burden and 6.9% in cognition. Other difficulties were much less common. Mean VAS score was 81.0 (SD = 0.1. Decrements in VAS scores were highest for neurological conditions (9.8, depression (8.2 and bipolar disorder (8.1. Across conditions, 36.8% (IQR: 31.2-51.5% of the total decrement in perceived health associated with the condition were mediated by WHODAS disabilities (significant for 17 of 19 conditions. Role functioning was the dominant mediator for both mental and physical conditions. Stigma and family burden were also important mediators for mental conditions, and mobility for physical conditions.More than a third of the decrement in perceived health associated with common conditions is mediated by disability. Although the decrement is similar for physical and mental conditions, the pattern of mediation is different. Research is needed on the

  10. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Nakamura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR, germinated brown rice (GBR and partially-milled rice (PMR contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR. Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled, and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society.

  11. Health Conditions and Passive Suicidal Ideation in the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kimberly; Turiano, Nicholas A.; Fiske, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the associations between health conditions and passive suicidal ideation in middle-aged and older adults. Method: Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted on data from 35,664 middle-aged and older adults from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe. Mediation analyses were also conducted to test the roles of disability and depression in risk of ideation. Results: After including demographic variables, disability, depression, and other health conditions as covariates, heart attack, diabetes/high blood sugar, chronic lung disease, arthritis, ulcer, and hip/femoral fractures were associated with increased odds of passive suicidal ideation. When grouped by organ systems, conditions affecting the endocrine, respiratory, and musculoskeletal systems were associated with increased odds of passive suicidal ideation, as was the total number of conditions. Individuals with greater numbers of health conditions exhibited greater levels of disability and depression, which partially explained the increased risk of passive suicidal ideation among those with more health conditions. Discussion: Certain specific health conditions, as well as total number of conditions, are associated with passive suicidal ideation in middle age and older adulthood. Health is a critical risk factor for suicidal ideation in late life and should be further studied in this particularly at-risk population. PMID:27013533

  12. Health conditions of inmates in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Voller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that prison is characterized by a higher prevalence of chronic diseases than unconfined settings. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and health of inmates, focusing on internal diseases. Methods We designed a specific clinical record using the Python programming language. We considered all of the diagnoses according to the ICD-9-CM. Results Of a total of 17,086 inmates, 15,751 were enrolled in our study (M = 14,835; F = 869, corresponding to 92.2% of the entire inmate population (mean age of 39.6 years. The project involved a total of 57 detention facilities in six Italian regions (for a total of 28% of all detainees in Italy, as counted in a census taken on February 3, 2014. From the entire study sample, 32.5% of prisoners did not present any disorders, while 67.5% suffered from at least one disease. The most frequent pathologies were psychiatric (41.3%, digestive (14.5%, infectious (11.5%, cardiovascular (11.4%, endocrine, metabolic, and immune (8.6%, and respiratory (5.4%. Conclusion The findings showed that a large number of detainees were affected by several chronic conditions such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, with an unusually high prevalence for such a young population. Therefore, a series of preventive measures is recommended to strengthen the entire care process and improve the health and living conditions of prisoners.

  13. Health conditions of young and old elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelle Barbosa Reis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the elderly about the socio-demographic profile and health conditions in the age groups from 60 to 75 years old (“young” elderly and above 76 years (“old” elderly. Methods: this is a cross-sectional study and home based. The data were collected applying a questionnaire based on the model developed by the Older Americans Resources and Services. Results: 118 elderly participated in the study, being 68.6% “young”, 58% illiterate, 85.2% with income less than two minimum wages and 70.4% with non-white skin. The “old” elderly had a higher proportion of loss of the companion (p=0.002, non-communicable chronic diseases (p=0.023 and dependence to perform activities of daily living (p=0.036. Both age groups had low physical activity, excessive consumption of medicaments and chewing problems. Conclusion: the model of health facing the elderly, should not be restricted to treatment of diseases but cover their functional capacity.

  14. Evaluation of the Environmental Health Conditions of Qom Hotels & Inns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Farzinnia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesTourism is one of the three major global industries with 4 percent annual economic growth. Qom with roughly 17 million tourists in 2005 was the second religious tourism center in Iran. This study was designed to determine the environmental health criteria of Qom hotels and inns in 2007.MethodsThis descriptive - cross sectional study was carried out based on a standard check list of substance of edible, drinkable, cosmetic and hygienic products law from ministry of health and medical sciences. The checklist included 73 questions which were completed by face to face interviews and sanitary inspections. After analyzing the results of each residential center, the questionnaires were classified into three categories: hygienic (over 80 score, sanitary (40-79 and unacceptable centers (less than 40. The data were presented and analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistical methods such as X 2 and Fisher exact test.ResultsThe percentages of hygienic, sanitary and unacceptable conditions of hotels and inns were 35.5, 54.8 and 9.7, respectively. There was a direct relationship between academic degree of residential managers and the validity of employees health card (P=0.042 ConclusionBased on this the research, the environmental status of Qom hotels and inns was in relatively desirable conditions. Residential places with unacceptable condition were almost located in the old region of the city (e.g. around the Holly Shrine. Due to the structural failures, architectural problems and tremendous cost for repairs, it’s better that their activities be stopped and banned by government. With regard to the high percentage of hotels with sanitary conditions, at least improvements in health conditions accompanied by training and supervision are recommended. Keywords: Environmental Health; Environment and Public Health; Hotel; Inn; Qom, Iran.

  15. The need to include Health Impact Assessment at the International Monetary Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Ben; Birley, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The lending and technical support provided by the International Monetary Fund affect the determinants of health and healthy equity. Most health determinants lie outside the control of the health sector, and thus non-health-sector policies have profound positive and negative effects on population health. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is an instrument for identifying the effect of policies, plans, programs, and projects on population health and health equity. It is a feasible, cost-effective, and transparent process that has been adopted by several financial institutions, including members of the World Bank Group. Adopting HIA would assist the IMF in ensuring that the potential health consequences of its policies are identified and addressed.

  16. Analysis of health condition of workers RHMK Trepca - Zvecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galjak Milivoje

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Working conditions in RMHK Trepca directly conditioned by exposure to a wide variety of harmful causes of the diseases, both physical, and chemical hazards and occupational exposure to heavy metals. The aim is to analyze the health status of workers metarluškog-Mining-Chemical Combine Trepca - Zvečan (RMHK Trepca. The research was conducted at the Health Zvecan in Zvecan using the results of the periodic inspection of employees RMHK Trepca. The study included 738 employees in 2014 and 628 employees in 2015. Department of Occupational Health of the Health Zvečan organized and done these examinations in accordance with the rules on conducting preliminary and periodic medical examinations of employees at the workplace with increased risk to health, and as an additional source of data used is referred to a periodic review of employee (form no. 2 containing information on sex, age, occupation, place of work, qualification, education level, the drive, the total working age, the expository seniority, the requirements in the workplace, working conditions and workers' exposure to harmful agents or elements of job description city of the Act on risk assessment specific workplace. Diseases of the heart and blood vessels after the hearing damage to the second place in both 2014 (28.86% and in 2015 (18.47%. Followed by diseases of the urinary tract, respiratory organs. Able to work at the workplace with increased risk to the health worker was 92.67% in 2014 and 83.44% of workers in 2015. Preventive measures should be directed towards reducing occupational hazards and adverse working conditions and to insist on the strict implementation of safety measures. Periodic medical examinations to the full extent and quality prescribed in the rules are of great importance for the prevention of occupational morbidity, trauma and disability.

  17. Assessment of radiological technologist health condition by Todai health index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ham Gyum [Ansan College, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wha Sun [College of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the general health status of radiological technologists by using Todai Health Index(THI) that has been employed as a standard health assessment tool for a specific group. The subjects in this study were 800 radiological technologists who were working in clinics, hospitals and university hospitals in and around Seoul and in some provincial cities. A survey was conducted directly or by mail in June and July, 2001. And the response rate was 68%. Using THI, the following findings were acquired: 1. By gender, both male and female radiological technologists complained about multiple subjective symptom(I) the most, And the women made more significant complaint of eight items including irregular life. 2. By age group, the radiological technologists whose age ranged from 20 to 24 got higher marks in most of the items, including multiple subjective symptom(I) and symptoms related to eyes and skin. 3. For career, those who had worked for a year or less or for one to five years got higher marks in most of the items. 4. Concerning marital status, the unmarried people complained about many items more, and the married people's symptom was more associated with live scale(L). 5. By the type of medical institution, the radiological technologists in the university hospitals got higher marks in two items including aggressiveness(F), but those in the clinics complained about the others more. 6. Regarding a place of service, there were little differences between the radiological technologists in basement and on the ground.

  18. Assessment of radiological technologist health condition by Todai health index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ham Gyum; Kim, Wha Sun

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the general health status of radiological technologists by using Todai Health Index(THI) that has been employed as a standard health assessment tool for a specific group. The subjects in this study were 800 radiological technologists who were working in clinics, hospitals and university hospitals in and around Seoul and in some provincial cities. A survey was conducted directly or by mail in June and July, 2001. And the response rate was 68%. Using THI, the following findings were acquired: 1. By gender, both male and female radiological technologists complained about multiple subjective symptom(I) the most, And the women made more significant complaint of eight items including irregular life. 2. By age group, the radiological technologists whose age ranged from 20 to 24 got higher marks in most of the items, including multiple subjective symptom(I) and symptoms related to eyes and skin. 3. For career, those who had worked for a year or less or for one to five years got higher marks in most of the items. 4. Concerning marital status, the unmarried people complained about many items more, and the married people's symptom was more associated with live scale(L). 5. By the type of medical institution, the radiological technologists in the university hospitals got higher marks in two items including aggressiveness(F), but those in the clinics complained about the others more. 6. Regarding a place of service, there were little differences between the radiological technologists in basement and on the ground

  19. A Lumped Thermal Model Including Thermal Coupling and Thermal Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Detailed thermal dynamics of high power IGBT modules are important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behavior in the IGBTs: The typically used...... thermal model based on one-dimensional RC lumps have limits to provide temperature distributions inside the device, moreover some variable factors in the real-field applications like the cooling and heating conditions of the converter cannot be adapted. On the other hand, the more advanced three......-dimensional thermal models based on Finite Element Method (FEM) need massive computations, which make the long-term thermal dynamics difficult to calculate. In this paper, a new lumped three-dimensional thermal model is proposed, which can be easily characterized from FEM simulations and can acquire the critical...

  20. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Teles, Mariza Alves Barbosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elizângela; e Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Background Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. Methods This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health...

  1. 40 CFR 142.307 - What terms and conditions must be included in a small system variance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that may affect proper and effective operation and maintenance of the technology; (2) Monitoring... effective installation, operation and maintenance of the applicable small system variance technology in... health, which may include: (i) Public education requirements; and (ii) Source water protection...

  2. Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Emily; Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Lane, Anna; Baum, Fran

    2018-05-10

    Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs) is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW) projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA). We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health only at the EIA stage may be a significant

  3. Multiple chronic health conditions and their link with wealth assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Deborah J; Callander, Emily J; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Passey, Megan E; Kelly, Simon J; Percival, Richard

    2015-04-01

    There has been little research on the economic status of those with multiple health conditions, particularly on the relationship between multiple health conditions and wealth. This paper will assess the difference in the value and type of wealth assets held by Australians who have multiple chronic health conditions. Using Health&WealthMOD, a microsimulation model of the 45-64-year-old Australian population in 2009, a counterfactual analysis was undertaken. The actual proportion of people with different numbers of chronic health conditions with any wealth, and the value of this wealth was estimated. This was compared with the counterfactual values had the individuals had no chronic health conditions. There was no change in the proportion of people with one health condition who actually had any wealth, compared to the counterfactual proportion had they had no chronic health conditions. Ninety-four percent of those with four or more health conditions had some accumulated wealth; however, under the counterfactual, 100% would have had some accumulated wealth. There was little change in the value of non-income-producing assets under the counterfactual, regardless of number of health conditions. Those with four or more chronic health conditions had a mean value of $17 000 in income-producing assets; under the counterfactual, the average would have been $78 000. This study has highlighted the variation in the value of wealth according to number of chronic health conditions, and hence the importance of considering multiple morbidities when discussing the relationship between health and wealth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunological Assays as an Opportunity of Assessment of Health Risks of Airborne Particle Mixture Including Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzicová, Tána; Danihelka, Pavel; Micka, Vladimír; Lochman, Ivo; Lach, Karel; Lochmanová, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate perspectives of the assessment of nonspecific biological effects of airborne particulate matter including nanoparticles using appropriate immunological assays. We have selected various in vitro immunological assays to establish an array allowing us to monitor activation of the cell-mediated and humoral response of both the innate and adaptive immunity. To assess comprehensive interactions and effects, the assays were performed in whole blood cultures from healthy volunteers and we used an original airborne particle mixture from high pollution period in Ostrava region representing areas with one of the most polluted air in Europe. Even if certain effects were observed, the results of the immunological assays did not prove significant effects of airborne particles on immune cells' functions of healthy persons. However, obtained data do not exclude health risks of long-term exposure to airborne particles, especially in case of individuals with genetic predisposition to certain diseases or already existing disease. This study emphasizes the in vitro assessment of complex effects of airborne particles in conditions similar to actual ones in an organism exposed to particle mixture present in the polluted air.

  5. Evaluation of Forest Health Conditions using Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Heutte, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    US Forest Service Alaska Region Forest Health Protection (FHP) and University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) are evaluating capability of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to monitor forest health conditions in Alaska's Interior Region. In July 2016, the team deployed UAS at locations in the Tanana Valley near Fairbanks in order to familiarize FHP staff with capabilities of UAS for evaluating insect and disease damage. While many potential uses of UAS to evaluate and monitor forest health can be envisioned, this project focused on use of a small UAS for rapid assessment of insect and disease damage. Traditional ground-based methods are limited by distance from ground to canopy and inaccessibility of forest stands due to terrain conditions. Observation from fixed-wing aircraft provide a broad overview of conditions but are limited by minimum safe flying altitude (500' AGL) and aircraft speed ( 100 mph). UAS may provide a crucial bridge to fill in gaps between ground and airborne methods, and offer significant cost savings and greater flexibility over helicopter-based observations. Previous uses of UAS for forest health monitoring are limited - this project focuses on optimizing choice of vehicle, sensors, resolution and area scanned from different altitudes, and use of visual spectrum vs NIR image collection. The vehicle selected was the ACUASI Ptarmigan, a small hexacopter (based on DJI S800 airframe and 3DR autopilot) capable of carrying a 1.5 kg payload for 15 min for close-range environmental monitoring missions. Sites were chosen for conditions favorable to UAS operation and presence of forest insect and disease agents including spruce broom rust, aspen leaf miner, birch leaf roller, and willow leafblotch miner. A total of 29 flights were conducted with 9000+ images collected. Mission variables included camera height, UAS speed, and medium- (Sony NEX-7) vs low-resolution (GoPro Hero) cameras. Invaluable

  6. Changing living conditions, life style and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Kvernmo, Siv; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Human health is the result of the interaction of genetic, nutritional, socio-cultural, economic, physical infrastructure and ecosystem factors. All of the individual, social, cultural and socioeconomic factors are influenced by the environment they are embedded in and by changes in this environme...

  7. Chronic health conditions and work ability in the ageing workforce: the impact of work conditions, psychosocial factors and perceived health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, Wendy; van der Klink, Jac J L; de Boer, Michiel R; Groothoff, Johan W; Brouwer, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of work conditions, psychosocial factors and perceived health on the association between the presence of a chronic health condition and (single-item) work ability among workers aged 45 years and older. In addition, we aimed to examine variables associated with work ability for workers with and without a chronic health condition separately. The data of this cross-sectional study were obtained from 5,247 workers aged 45 years and older in five different work sectors. Work ability was assessed with the first item of the Work Ability Index. The presence of a chronic health condition was assessed by self-report. Independent variables in the multivariable linear regression analysis were work conditions, psychosocial factors and perceived health status. The presence of a chronic health condition was negatively associated with work ability (B = -0.848). The strength of this association slightly attenuated after subsequently adding individual characteristics (B = -0.824), work conditions (B = -0.805) and more so after adding psychosocial factors (B = -0.704) and especially perceived health variables (B = -0.049) to the model. Variables associated with work ability for workers with and without a chronic health condition were similar. Perceived health and psychosocial factors, rather than work conditions, explained the association between the presence of a chronic health condition and work ability. Substantial differences in variables associated with work ability for workers with and without a chronic health condition were not found. Based on the lower mean scores for workers with a chronic health condition and work ability as well for predictors, these workers might have the most benefit by a policy focussing on enhancing these associated variables.

  8. Do Undergraduate Engineering Faculty Include Occupational and Public Health and Safety in the Engineering Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwell, Dianna; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether and, if so, why engineering faculty include occupational and public health and safety in their undergraduate engineering courses. Data were collected from 157 undergraduate engineering faculty from 65 colleges of engineering in the United States. (LZ)

  9. Shared decision making interventions for people with mental health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Edward; Best, Catherine; Hagen, Suzanne

    2010-01-20

    One person in every four will suffer from a diagnosable mental health condition during their life course. Such conditions can have a devastating impact on the lives of the individual, their family and society. Increasingly partnership models of mental health care have been advocated and enshrined in international healthcare policy. Shared decision making is one such partnership approach. Shared decision making is a form of patient-provider communication where both parties are acknowledged to bring expertise to the process and work in partnership to make a decision. This is advocated on the basis that patients have a right to self-determination and also in the expectation that it will increase treatment adherence. To assess the effects of provider-, consumer- or carer-directed shared decision making interventions for people of all ages with mental health conditions, on a range of outcomes including: patient satisfaction, clinical outcomes, and health service outcomes. We searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to November 2008), EMBASE (1980 to November 2008), PsycINFO (1967 to November 2008), CINAHL (1982 to November 2008), British Nursing Index and Archive (1985 to November 2008) and SIGLE (1890 to September 2005 (database end date)). We also searched online trial registers and the bibliographies of relevant papers, and contacted authors of included studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised controlled trials (q-RCTs), controlled before-and-after studies (CBAs); and interrupted time series (ITS) studies of interventions to increase shared decision making in people with mental health conditions (by DSM or ICD-10 criteria). Data on recruitment methods, eligibility criteria, sample characteristics, interventions, outcome measures, participant flow and outcome data from each study were extracted by one author and checked by another. Data are presented in a narrative

  10. Chronic health conditions and work ability in the ageing workforce: the impact of work conditions, psychosocial factors and perceived health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; Brouwer, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of work conditions, psychosocial factors and perceived health on the association between the presence of a chronic health condition and (single-item) work ability among workers aged 45 years and older. In addition, we aimed to examine

  11. Chronic health conditions and work ability in the ageing workforce : the impact of work conditions, psychosocial factors and perceived health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, Wendy; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of work conditions, psychosocial factors and perceived health on the association between the presence of a chronic health condition and (single-item) work ability among workers aged 45 years and older. In addition, we aimed to examine variables

  12. Mental Health of Elementary Schoolteachers in Southern Brazil: Working Conditions and Health Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz

    2015-01-01

    The mental health of educators is a growing problem in many countries. This study sought to identify self-reported stressful working conditions of elementary schoolteachers and the biopsychosocial consequences of those working conditions and then identify working conditions that promote well-being for teachers in the workplace. Exploratory study was done with 37 teachers. Data collection was performed using a structured interview with a questionnaire. Results show that stressful working conditions are related to inadequate salary, an excessive number of activities, and having to take work home. Biopsychosocial consequences include anxiety, stress, and sleep disorders. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate salary and anxiety (p = 0.01) and between an excessive number of activities and stress (p = 0.01). Teachers reported that a good relationship among colleagues is a working condition that promotes well-being in the workplace. The identification of stressful working conditions for teachers, the biopsychosocial consequences, and working conditions that promote well-being in the workplace are relevant to determining actions that improve the work environment and, consequently, the health of teachers.

  13. Mental Health of Elementary Schoolteachers in Southern Brazil: Working Conditions and Health Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mental health of educators is a growing problem in many countries. This study sought to identify self-reported stressful working conditions of elementary schoolteachers and the biopsychosocial consequences of those working conditions and then identify working conditions that promote well-being for teachers in the workplace. Exploratory study was done with 37 teachers. Data collection was performed using a structured interview with a questionnaire. Results show that stressful working conditions are related to inadequate salary, an excessive number of activities, and having to take work home. Biopsychosocial consequences include anxiety, stress, and sleep disorders. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate salary and anxiety (p = 0.01 and between an excessive number of activities and stress (p = 0.01. Teachers reported that a good relationship among colleagues is a working condition that promotes well-being in the workplace. The identification of stressful working conditions for teachers, the biopsychosocial consequences, and working conditions that promote well-being in the workplace are relevant to determining actions that improve the work environment and, consequently, the health of teachers.

  14. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The need to include obstetric nurses in prenatal care visits in the public health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aparecida Lagrosa Garcia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate, with a qualitative approach, the role of Obstetric Nurses at the primary level of care given to women’s health as a vital component of the multidisciplinary team, which today is fundamental for providing care, prevention as well as health education and promotion, especially in programs whose activities are geared towards primary care of pregnant, parturient, and puerpera women. Methods: Brazilian laws and the determinations of Nursing Councils in reference to the activities of the obstetric nurse were researched, including the nurse’s responsibilities and limits. The bibliographic search was conducted in health-related journals, lay publications, and the Internet. Results: The conflicts between professional physicians and nurses were discussed. Conclusions: It was concluded that the activities of the nurse, conducting low-risk prenatal clinical visits in the basic healthcare network, has legal and ethical support and provides true benefit to the clients.

  16. Oral Health Conditions of Older People: Focus on the Balkan Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzopoulos Georgios S.

    2015-01-01

    Oral health plays a pivotal role in general health, especially in older people. Oral diseases may affect the development of systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stroke and hypertension. The most important oral health conditions that have been recorded in dental literature for older population include tooth loss, dental caries, periodontal diseases, xerostomia (dry mouth) and oral cancer. Edentulism influences social life, either causing aesthetic problems or...

  17. Women waste pickers: living conditions, work, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Alexa Pupiara Flores; Beck, Carmem Lúcia Colomé; Fernandes, Marcelo Nunes da Silva; Freitas, Natiellen Quatrin; Prestes, Francine Cassol; Tonel, Juliana Zancan

    2016-09-29

    To know the elements of work, health, and living conditions of women who pick recyclable waste and are members of a waste cooperative in a town of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study with seven subjects. Data were collected through participative observation, semi structured interview, and a focus group from July to August of 2013. The data were subjected to content analysis. The following thematic categories emerged: Women's work, informality and precariousness; Experiences of job satisfaction; and Working conditions and health: experiences with accidents, illness and health services. It was concluded that the women who collect recyclable material are exposed to precarious work conditions and potential health risks, such as work overload, accidents, illness, and social insecurity, and that nurses are responsible for promoting actions that ensure the health and inclusion of these workers.

  18. Housing conditions and mental health of orphans in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, Lochner; Sharp, Carla; Pappin, Michele; Lenka, Molefi; Cloete, Jan; Skinner, Donald; Serekoane, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Literature from the developed world suggests that poor housing conditions and housing environments contribute to poor mental health outcomes, although research results are mixed. This study investigates the relationship between housing conditions and the socio-emotional health of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in South Africa. The results of the study are mainly inconclusive, although it is suggested that methodological considerations play a vital role in explaining the mixed results. ...

  19. Using Health Conditions for Laughs and Health Policy Support: The Case of Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Melissa M; Slater, Michael D; Jain, Parul

    2017-07-01

    Health conditions are sometimes included in entertainment media comedies as a context for and as a source of humor. Food allergies are a typical case in point: They are potentially life-threatening yet may be used in humorous contexts. We conducted a content analysis of food allergies in entertainment media and tested the effects of humorous portrayals from an exemplar entertainment program. The content analysis confirmed that when food allergies were portrayed in television and the movies, it was most frequently in a humorous context and often contained inaccurate information. A follow-up experiment showed viewing a humorous portrayal of food allergies had an indirect negative effect on related health policy support via decreased perceived seriousness of food allergies. Inclusion of an educational video eliminated this effect on reduced policy support, with cognitive dissonance as a mediator. Findings support the hypothesis that portraying a health condition in a humorous context may reduce perceptions of seriousness and willingness to support public health policies to address risks associated with the condition, supporting and extending prior research findings.

  20. Health conditions and support needs of persons living in residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Intellectual disability (ID) is a relatively high-incidence disability, with an increased risk of poor physical and mental health. Persons with ID also have lifelong support needs that must be met if they are to achieve an acceptable quality of life. Little is known about these health conditions and support needs in the ...

  1. Study of the Working Conditions of Health Extension Workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coverage: 2005-2009” of which “The Health Extension Program (HEP)” is a major component”. Objective: The study focuses on the first batch of Health Extension Workers (HEWs) with the overall objective of assessing the working conditions of HEWs and their job satisfaction. Methods: An in-depth field study was carried ...

  2. Universal health coverage in ‘One ASEAN’: are migrants included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R.; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S.

    2015-01-01

    Background As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. Design A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. Results In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC

  3. Universal health coverage in ‘One ASEAN’: are migrants included?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Lorenzo Luis R. Guinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. Design: A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. Results: In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as

  4. Predicting Comorbid Conditions and Trajectories using Social Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiang; Ae Chun, Soon; Geller, James

    2016-05-05

    Many patients suffer from comorbidity conditions, for example, obese patients often develop type-2 diabetes and hypertension. In the US, 80% of Medicare spending is for managing patients with these multiple coexisting conditions. Predicting potential comorbidity conditions for an individual patient can promote preventive care and reduce costs. Predicting possible comorbidity progression paths can provide important insights into population heath and aid with decisions in public health policies. Discovering the comorbidity relationships is complex and difficult, due to limited access to Electronic Health Records by privacy laws. In this paper, we present a collaborative comorbidity prediction method to predict likely comorbid conditions for individual patients, and a trajectory prediction graph model to reveal progression paths of comorbid conditions. Our prediction approaches utilize patient generated health reports on online social media, called Social Health Records (SHR). The experimental results based on one SHR source show that our method is able to predict future comorbid conditions for a patient with coverage values of 48% and 75% for a top-20 and a top-100 ranked list, respectively. For risk trajectory prediction, our approach is able to reveal each potential progression trajectory between any two conditions and infer the confidence of the future trajectory, given any observed condition. The predicted trajectories are validated with existing comorbidity relations from the medical literature.

  5. Lifestyle and health conditions of adults with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the lifestyle of adults with spinal cord injury and explore its relation with some health conditions. Methodology. Cross sectional study, in which a questionnaire containing sociodemographic, habits and health conditions variables was used. Forty-seven people with spinal cord injury participated and answered the self-report questionnaire. Results. The group under study was predominantly male (92%, under 40 years of age (47%, and had low educational level (76%. The most frequent risk factors related to the lifestyle were: smoking (28%, alcohol consumption (36%, coffee consumption (92% and being physically inactive (64%. Association was found between having four or more risk factors related to lifestyle and the loss of appetite, as well as constipation. Conclusion. The actual inadequate lifestyle is associated with the health conditions of patients, and the nursing team should pay special attention to the education and promotion of health related to people with spinal cord injury.

  6. Lifestyle and health conditions of adults with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier de França, Inacia Sátiro; Cruz Enders, Bertha; Silva Coura, Alexsandro; Pereira Cruz, Giovanna Karinny; da Silva Aragão, Jamilly; Carvalho de Oliveira, Déborah Raquel

    2014-01-01

    . To describe the lifestyle of adults with spinal cord injury and explore its relation with some health conditions. Cross sectional study, in which a questionnaire containing sociodemographic, habits and health conditions variables was used. Forty-seven people with spinal cord injury participated and answered the self-report questionnaire. The group under study was predominantly male (92%), under 40 years of age (47%), and had low educational level (76%). The most frequent risk factors related to the lifestyle were: smoking (28%), alcohol consumption (36%), coffee consumption (92%) and being physically inactive (64%). Association was found between having four or more risk factors related to lifestyle and the loss of appetite, as well as constipation. . The actual inadequate lifestyle is associated with the health conditions of patients, and the nursing team should pay special attention to the education and promotion of health related to people with spinal cord injury.

  7. Health conditions and role limitation in three European Regions: a public-health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Barbaglia

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The contribution of health conditions to role limitation in the three European regions studied is high. Mental disorders are associated with the largest impact in most of the regions. There is a need for mainstreaming disability in the public health agenda to reduce the role limitation associated with health conditions. The cross-regional differences found require further investigation.

  8. Health conditions detected in a comprehensive periodic health evaluation of 558 professional football players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakken, Arnhild; Targett, Stephen; Bere, Tone; Adamuz, Maria-Carmen; Tol, Johannes L.; Whiteley, Rod; Wilson, Mathew G.; Witvrouw, Erik; Khan, Karim M.; Bahr, Roald

    2016-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of periodic health evaluation (PHE) to detect and prevent injury and illness in athletes, its effectiveness in detecting health conditions and relevant risk factors is still debated. To assess health conditions detected by a comprehensive PHE in professional male football

  9. Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading...... of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry...

  10. Influence of probiotics, included in peanut butter, on the fate of selected Salmonella and Listeria strains under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Y A K; Chen, J

    2016-04-01

    This study observed the behaviour of probiotics and selected bacterial pathogens co-inoculated into peanut butter during gastrointestinal simulation. Peanut butter homogenates co-inoculated with Salmonella/Listeria strains (5 log CFU ml(-1) ) and lyophilized or cultured probiotics (9 log CFU ml(-1) ) were exposed to simulated gastrointestinal conditions for 24 h at 37°C. Sample pH, titratable acidity and pathogen populations were determined. Agar diffusion assay was performed to assess the inhibitory effect of probiotic culture supernatants with either natural (3·80 (Lactobacillus), 3·78 (Bifidobacteirum) and 5·17 (Streptococcus/Lactococcus)) or neutralized (6·0) pH. Antibacterial effect of crude bacteriocin extracts were also evaluated against the pathogens. After 24 h, samples with probiotics had lower pH and higher titratable acidity than those without probiotics. The presence of probiotics caused a significant reduction (P Probiotics in 'peanut butter' survived simulated gastrointestinal conditions and inhibited the growth of Salmonella/Listeria. Peanut butter is a plausible carrier to deliver probiotics to improve the gastrointestinal health of children in developing countries. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Mental health among young adult survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings including posttraumatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sato, Iori; Honda, Misato; Ozono, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Okamura, Jun; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Kakee, Naoko; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi

    2010-12-01

    Few studies have addressed the mental health status of young adult childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) and their siblings (SIBs). This paper focuses on depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among Japanese CCSs and their SIBs. Adolescent and young adult CCSs (n=185), in remission for more than 1 year, their SIBs (n=72), and general controls (CONTs) (n=1,000) completed anonymous self-report questionnaires for depression, anxiety, PTSS, and PTG. The physicians in charge also completed an anonymous disease/treatment data sheet. CCSs were approximately 8 years old at diagnosis and approximately 23 years old at the time of the survey. Their diagnoses included leukemia (57%), lymphoma (12%), and solid tumors (30%). Thirty-eight percent underwent surgery and 25% received stem cell transplantation. No significant differences were found between CCSs and CONTs in terms of depression and anxiety. CCSs had significantly more PTSS and had remarkably greater PTG compared to CONTs. Although no significant differences were found between SIBs and CONTs regarding depression, anxiety, or PTSS, female SIBs exhibited greater PTG compared to female CONTs. To empower CCSs, they should be evaluated periodically regarding PTSS and PTG and should be provided appropriate care and feedback. The fact that the mental health status of young adult SIBs was similar to CONTs at 15 years after their siblings' diagnoses may help reassure parents who worry about mental health among the siblings of an affected child during and after his/her treatment.

  12. Comparison of health conditions treated with traditional and biomedical health care in a Quechua community in rural Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandebroek, Ina; Thomas, Evert; Sanca, Sabino; Van Damme, Patrick; Puyvelde, Luc Van; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2008-01-14

    The objective of the present study was to reveal patterns in the treatment of health conditions in a Quechua-speaking community in the Bolivian Andes based on plant use data from traditional healers and patient data from a primary health care (PHC) service, and to demonstrate similarities and differences between the type of illnesses treated with traditional and biomedical health care, respectively. A secondary analysis of plant use data from semi-structured interviews with eight healers was conducted and diagnostic data was collected from 324 patients in the community PHC service. Health conditions were ranked according to: (A) the percentage of patients in the PHC service diagnosed with these conditions; and (B) the citation frequency of plant use reports to treat these conditions by healers. Healers were also queried about the payment modalities they offer to their patients. Plant use reports from healers yielded 1166 responses about 181 medicinal plant species, which are used to treat 67 different health conditions, ranging from general symptoms (e.g. fever and body pain), to more specific ailments, such as arthritis, biliary colic and pneumonia. The results show that treatment offered by traditional medicine overlaps with biomedical health care in the case of respiratory infections, wounds and bruises, fever and biliary colic/cholecystitis. Furthermore, traditional health care appears to be complementary to biomedical health care for chronic illnesses, especially arthritis, and for folk illnesses that are particularly relevant within the local cultural context. Payment from patients to healers included flexible, outcome contingent and non-monetary options. Traditional medicine in the study area is adaptive because it corresponds well with local patterns of morbidity, health care needs in relation to chronic illnesses, cultural perceptions of health conditions and socio-economic aspects of health care. The quantitative analysis of plant use reports and patient

  13. Changes in dental care access upon health care benefit expansion to include scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Jung; Lee, Jun Hyup; Park, Sujin; Kim, Tae-Il

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a policy change to expand Korean National Health Insurance (KNHI) benefit coverage to include scaling on access to dental care at the national level. A nationally representative sample of 12,794 adults aged 20 to 64 years from Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2014) was analyzed. To examine the effect of the policy on the outcomes of interest (unmet dental care needs and preventive dental care utilization in the past year), an estimates-based probit model was used, incorporating marginal effects with a complex sampling structure. The effect of the policy on individuals depending on their income and education level was also assessed. Adjusting for potential covariates, the probability of having unmet needs for dental care decreased by 6.1% and preventative dental care utilization increased by 14% in the post-policy period compared to those in the pre-policy period (2010, 2012). High income and higher education levels were associated with fewer unmet dental care needs and more preventive dental visits. The expansion of coverage to include scaling demonstrated to have a significant association with decreasing unmet dental care needs and increasing preventive dental care utilization. However, the policy disproportionately benefited certain groups, in contrast with the objective of the policy to benefit all participants in the KNHI system.

  14. Chronic health conditions and school performance among children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Rivera, Diana; London, Rebecca; Landau, Melinda; Erlendson, Bill; Rodriguez, Eunice

    2013-04-01

    Chronic health conditions are common and increasing among U.S. children and youth. We examined whether chronic health conditions are associated with low school performance. This retrospective cohort study of 22,730 children and youth (grades 2-11) in San Jose, California, was conducted from 2007 through 2010. Health conditions were defined as chronic if reported in each of the first 2 years, and school performance was measured using standardized English language arts (ELA) and math assessments. Chronic health conditions were independently associated with low ELA and math performance, irrespective of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or grade level. Adjusted odds ratios for the association between any chronic health condition and low ("basic or below") performance were 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.36; P absenteeism had little effect on these results. The strongest associations were found for ADHD, autism, and seizure disorders, whereas a weak association was found for asthma before but not after adjusting for absenteeism, and no associations were found for cardiovascular disorders or diabetes. Chronic neurodevelopmental and seizure disorders, but not cardiovascular disorders or diabetes, were independently associated with low school performance among children and youth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk and resilience: health inequalities, working conditions and sickness benefit arrangements: an analysis of the 2010 European Working Conditions survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Bambra, Clare; Dragano, Nico; Eikemo, Terje A; Lunau, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    In this article we ask whether the level of sickness benefit provision protects the health of employees, particularly those who are most exposed to hazardous working conditions or who have a little education. The study uses the European Working Condition Survey that includes information on 20,626 individuals from 28 countries. Health was measured by self-reported mental wellbeing and self-rated general health. Country-level sickness benefit provision was constructed using spending data from Eurostat. Group-specific associations were fitted using cross-level interaction terms between sickness benefit provision and physical and psychosocial working conditions respectively, as well as those with little education. The mental wellbeing of employees exposed to psychosocial job strain and physical hazards, or who had little education, was better in countries that offer more generous sickness benefit. These results were found in both men and women and were robust to the inclusion of GDP and country fixed effects. In the analyses of self-reported general health, few group-specific associations were found. This article concludes that generous sickness benefit provision may strengthen employee's resilience against mental health risks at work and risks associated with little education. Consequently, in countries with a generous provision of sickness benefit, social inequalities in mental health are smaller. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  16. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jung Kim, RN, PhD

    2016-03-01

    Conlcusions: The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population.

  17. [WORKING CONDITIONS AND STATE OF HEALTH OF TBILISI SUBWAY EMPLOYEES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunashvili, N; Tsimakuridze, Mar; Bakradze, L; Khachapuridze, N; Tsimakuridze, Maya

    2017-03-01

    For the purpose of preventive events complex hygienic, clinical-functional, laboratory and biostatic researches are implemented on the basis of Tbilisi Subway. Conditions of work are characterized by complex of unfavorable factors of the working environment and the labor process. Working environment is characterized by combination of unfavorable state of physical factors and air pollution with dust and toxic substances. The levels of noise and vibration refer to the 3.4 class of harmfulness. The content of dust and toxic substances corresponds to 3.1-3.2 classes of working conditions harmfulness. In the indexes of health status, the leading diseases are pathology of cardiovascular, nervous and digestive systems. Cause-effect relationships between working conditions and individual health indicators have been already established, which served as the basis for the development of comprehensive preventive health measures.

  18. 76 FR 32815 - Medicaid Program; Payment Adjustment for Provider-Preventable Conditions Including Health Care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... 1995 (Pub. L. 104-04, enacted on March 22, 1995) UTI Urinary tract infection I. Background Title XIX of.... + Secondary Diabetes with Hyperosmolarity. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). Vascular... of Children's Hospitals, the Joint Commission, and State Medicaid Medical Directors. Most of these...

  19. Macroeconomic conditions and health: Inspecting the transmission mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Emilio; Rotondi, Valentina; Stanca, Luca

    2018-02-01

    We study the relationship between macroeconomic conditions and self-reported health in a large sample of Italian individuals, focusing on the mediating role played by health behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, eating habits) and economic stress. Our findings indicate that, overall, higher local unemployment is negatively related to individuals' health conditions. A one percentage point increase in the province-level unemployment rate is associated with a significant increase in the probability of experiencing diabetes (0.03 percentage points), infarction (0.01), ulcer (0.06), cirrhosis (0.01) and nervous disorders (0.07), with a time lag that differs across individual health conditions. Employment status and educational level play a significant role as moderators of these relationships. Eating habits, in addition to economic stress, play a key role as mediators, by enhancing the negative relationship between macroeconomic conditions and health outcomes, while physical exercise is found to play a dampening role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. HEALTH CONDITION OF THE FIRST YEAR INFANTS IN MIGRANT FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Yu. Albitsky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex clinical social study of health status, life style and conditions of infants aged 3 months to 1 year in migrant families living in Pushkino district of Moscow region for more than 2 years was carried out. The study has revealed that children in migrant families fall behind in physical development, most of them show a delay of psychomotor development, the level of revealed pathology is significantly higher vs. children of famia lies permanently residing in the area. The data acquired indicate the need of intent attention to the children in migrant families from both medical and social authorities.Key words: children, health status, physical development, children's condition.

  1. Effects of macroeconomic conditions on health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, Paulo de Andrade; Tejada, César Augusto Oviedo; Sousa, Tanara Rosângela Vieira de

    2010-04-01

    To analyze the relationship between macroeconomic conditions and health in Brazil. The analysis of the impact of employment and income on mortality in Brazil was based on panel data from Brazilian states between 1981 and 2002. Mortality rates obtained from the national mortality database was used as a proxy for health status, whereas the variables employment, income, and illiteracy rates were used as proxies for macroeconomic and socioeconomic conditions. Static and dynamic models were applied for the analysis of two hypotheses: a) there is a positive relationship between mortality rates and income and employment, as suggested by Ruhm; b) there is a negative relationship between mortality rates and income and employment, as suggested by Brenner. There was found a negative relationship between mortality rates (proxy for health) and macroeconomic conditions (measured by employment rate). The estimates indicated that the overall mortality rate was higher during economic recession, suggesting that as macroeconomic conditions improved, increasing employment rates, there was a decrease in the mortality rate. The estimate for the relationship between illiteracy (proxy for education level) and mortality rate showed that higher levels of education can improve health. The results from the static and dynamic models support Brenner's hypothesis that there is a negative relationship between mortality rates and macroeconomic conditions.

  2. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences

  3. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences.

  4. On one-loop corrections to matching conditions of lattice HQET including 1/m{sub b} terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korcyl, Piotr [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2013-12-15

    HQET is an effective theory for QCD with N{sub f} light quarks and a massive valence quark if the mass of the latter is much bigger than LQCD. As any effective theory, HQET is predictive only when a set of parameters has been determined through a process called matching. The non-perturbative matching procedure including 1/m{sub b} terms, developed by the ALPHA collaboration, consists of 19 carefully chosen observables which are precisely computable in lattice QCD as well as in lattice HQET. The matching conditions are then a set of 19 equations which relate the QCD and HQET values of these observables. We present a study of one-loop corrections to two generic matching observables involving correlation function with an insertion of the A{sub 0} operator. Our results enable us to quantify the quality of the relevant observables in view of the envisaged nonperturbative implementation of this matching procedure.

  5. Applications of the conjugate gradient FFT method in scattering and radiation including simulations with impedance boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkeshli, Kasra; Volakis, John L.

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical and computational aspects related to the application of the Conjugate Gradient FFT (CGFFT) method in computational electromagnetics are examined. The advantages of applying the CGFFT method to a class of large scale scattering and radiation problems are outlined. The main advantages of the method stem from its iterative nature which eliminates a need to form the system matrix (thus reducing the computer memory allocation requirements) and guarantees convergence to the true solution in a finite number of steps. Results are presented for various radiators and scatterers including thin cylindrical dipole antennas, thin conductive and resistive strips and plates, as well as dielectric cylinders. Solutions of integral equations derived on the basis of generalized impedance boundary conditions (GIBC) are also examined. The boundary conditions can be used to replace the profile of a material coating by an impedance sheet or insert, thus, eliminating the need to introduce unknown polarization currents within the volume of the layer. A general full wave analysis of 2-D and 3-D rectangular grooves and cavities is presented which will also serve as a reference for future work.

  6. Impact of ACA Health Reforms for People With Mental Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathleen C; Shartzer, Adele; Kurth, Noelle K; Hall, Jean P

    2018-02-01

    This brief report explores the impact of health reform for people with mental illness. The Health Reform Monitoring Survey was used to examine health insurance, access to care, and employment for 1,550 people with mental health conditions pre- and postimplementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and by state Medicaid expansion status. Multivariate logistic regressions with predictive margins were used. Post-ACA reforms, people with mental health conditions were less likely to be uninsured (5% versus 13%; t=-6.89, df=50, peffects were experienced in both Medicaid expansion and nonexpansion states. Findings underscore the importance of ACA improvements in the quality of health insurance coverage.

  7. Health Conditions Prior to Imprisonment and the Impact of Prison on Health: Views of Detained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Joana; Maia, Ângela; Teixeira, Filipa

    2016-05-01

    Detained women have certain health conditions prior to incarceration and these conditions can improve, worsen, or remain the same in prison, depending on the prisoner's background, the characteristics of the prison, and the arrest experience. This study investigated the health of detained women and the influence of incarceration from their perspective. Three focus groups were conducted among 15 inmates, and data were analyzed according to thematic analysis procedures. Detainer's health backgrounds varied with regard to their level of health concerns, contact with health services, and health behaviors. A positive influence of incarceration was described by patients with chronic illness, patients with drug addiction, and victims of interpersonal violence. Among women with mental illnesses or those without previous health problems, reports do not reveal benefits of imprisonment for mental health. These data emphasize the importance of specialized health care and the need to invest in mental health care in corrective institutions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. [Parents' unemployment, selected life conditions, adolescents' wellbeing and perceived health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supranowicz, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment in Poland is one of the most negative outcomes of the economical transformations taking place in the last decade of the XX and first years of the XXI century. Therefore, the study on an influence of parents' unemployment upon adolescents' life conditions and health was undertaken in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Training Department of the National Institute of Hygiene. The data were collected from randomly selected sample of 783 students aged 14-15 years attending to ten private and public secondary schools (gymnasiums) in Warsaw. A part of the questionnaire elaborated in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Department covered information about negative life events, which had occurred in the previous year, also about a loss of the job by father or mother. The self-assessment of health, and physical and psychical wellbeing measured the perceived health. The study showed that significantly higher percentage of the students, whose father or mother had lost a job in the previous year, noticed also occurrence of father and mother health disorders, lack of support from father and mother, frequent quarrels between parents, too much of home duties, worsening a housing conditions, lack of possibilities to travel away on vacation and lack of own money. The differences were higher, if both the parents were unemployed. Moreover, the children of unemployed parents significantly lower assessed their health, and physical and psychical wellbeing. It is necessary to help immediately the students, whose parents are unemployed, with financial and psychological support in frame of the programmes of unemployment overcoming.

  9. Retrospective cohort study shows that the risks for retinopathy of prematurity included birth age and weight, medical conditions and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aliaa A; Gomaa, Nancy A S; Awadein, Ahmed R; Al-Hayouti, Huda H; Hegazy, Ahmed I

    2017-12-01

    This study described the characteristics and risk factors of neonates who developed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and severe treatable ROP in two Egyptian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This retrospective cohort study comprised 108 preterm neonates who were screened for ROP after being admitted to the two NICUs run by Cairo University Hospital from June 2014 to May 2015. Patients were examined using digital fundus photography and indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed if ROP was detected. Retinopathy of prematurity occurred in 75 patients. Late-onset sepsis, ventilation and hypercapnia were independently associated with ROP. Patients who developed severe treatable ROP had a younger gestational age (GA) than patients who did not develop ROP or developed mild or moderate ROP (29 weeks, range 27-33 weeks versus 32 weeks, range 28-36 weeks, p = 0.002) and a lower birthweight (1200 g, range 980-1590 g versus 1460 g, range 770-2475 g, p = 0.029). The risk factors associated with severe treatable ROP included the duration of admission, the duration of incubator oxygen, late-onset sepsis, intraventricular haemorrhage, total parenteral nutrition and the duration of caffeine citrate therapy. This study showed that the risks for ROP were wide-ranging and included GA and weight, medical conditions and treatment. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 29 CFR 825.113 - Serious health condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... illness, injury, impairment or physical or mental condition that involves inpatient care as defined in... medications such as aspirin, antihistamines, or salves; or bed-rest, drinking fluids, exercise, and other... “serious health conditions” unless inpatient hospital care is required or unless complications develop...

  11. Children with disabling chronic conditions in the Western health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Children with disabling chronic conditions often have extensive, complex and unmet healthcare and educational needs. ... such children that access specialist health and special educational services, particularly in an urban setting, and what services exist for them. ..... Kromberg J, Zwane E, Manga P, et al.

  12. [Children's health under the conditions of social differentiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, T M; Gaenko, O N; Belov, V B

    2004-01-01

    Results of social-and-hygienic research of the health condition of children belonging to different social-and-economic population categories are under discussion. The material family status is shown to directly affect the child's life quality, i.e. family life mode, psychological climate, scope and variety of food-stuffs, the possibility to have a regular and valuable recreation, educational regime, and the possibility to satisfy the spiritual demands of a child etc. The morbidity goes up among children as the family income decreases. The social-and-economic conditions are the uttermost and often decisive risk factor that provokes the development of deviations in children's health. The material stratification of society conditions, for children, differing degrees of access to public benefits that are involved in shaping the children's health, thus, entailing the disequilibrium in their health. A realistic pattern of children's health is needed as a data base to define an objective necessity of children in medical care of different types as well as their necessity in medical drugs and equipment.

  13. The Case to Include Brand of Moist Snuff in Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, David S

    2016-08-01

    Brand of smokeless tobacco was added to the most recent Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS), but deleted from the Centers for Disease Control's National Adult Tobacco Survey. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of brand in distinguishing users of moist snuff. The sample consisted of participants from the 2010-2011 TUS-CPS who reported having used one of 14 brands of moist snuff in the past month (n = 2334). The brands were categorized into one of three types: snus, discount snuff, premium snuff. Multinomial logistic regression was employed for testing for associations between brand type and a series of demographic and tobacco use measures. Females, metropolitan residents, current smokers, and moderate users of snuff had significantly greater odds of using snus relative to premium snuff in the adjusted model (P discount versus premium snuff. Separate analyses among current smokers (n = 470) and former smokers (n = 70) revealed positive associations between smoking cessation attempts and smokers' switch to discount snuff. Differences among the three categories of snuff users are likely attributed to variations in marketing campaigns. The differences are sufficient to warrant inclusion of snuff brand in health surveys because brand type could serve as a proxy measure for snuff use and dependence. Inclusion of brand of moist snuff in health surveys will enable researchers to categorize snuff users by brand type. Findings from this study indicate that brand type, defined according to cost (ie, discount vs. premium brands) and type of preferred snuff (ie, snus vs. other moist snuff), can distinguish snuff users by various demographic and tobacco use measures. Consequently, categorization by brand type could be used as a proxy measure for studies whose surveys do not include detailed information on snuff use and behavior. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on

  14. Housing conditions and mental health of orphans in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Lochner; Sharp, Carla; Pappin, Michele; Lenka, Molefi; Cloete, Jan; Skinner, Donald; Serekoane, Joe

    2013-11-01

    Literature from the developed world suggests that poor housing conditions and housing environments contribute to poor mental health outcomes, although research results are mixed. This study investigates the relationship between housing conditions and the socio-emotional health of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in South Africa. The results of the study are mainly inconclusive, although it is suggested that methodological considerations play a vital role in explaining the mixed results. However, a positive relationship was found between living in informal settlements and better socio-emotional health of the OVC. We speculate that the historical context of informal settlement formation in South Africa helps to explain this unexpected result. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Financial well-being of older Australians with multiple health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeromey B; Williams, Ruth

    2018-02-10

    Given recent rises in out-of-pocket health expenses, we examined the financial well-being of older Australians with multiple health conditions and disabilities. The 2014 General Social Survey was used to measure the: (i) current financial position; (ii) propensity to experience financial difficulties; and (iii) types of behaviours older people with multiple health conditions engage in to improve financial resilience. Compared to older Australians with no health conditions, respondents with multiple health conditions had lower incomes and assets and a higher propensity to hold consumer debt (once controls were included). They were at a higher risk of cash flow difficulties, dissaving to meet day-to-day living expenses and exclusion from financial providers. However, the majority of people with multiple health conditions engaged in financially resilient behaviours. Many older Australians with multiple health conditions were in a financially precarious situation with implications for the ability to afford ongoing increases in out-of-pocket health-care costs. © 2018 AJA Inc.

  16. Use of Silver Diamine Fluoride for Dental Caries Management in Children and Adolescents, Including Those with Special Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, Yasmi O; Marghalani, Abdullah A; Ureles, Steven D; Wright, John Timothy; Sulyanto, Rosalyn; Divaris, Kimon; Fontana, Margherita; Graham, Laurel

    2017-09-15

    This manuscript presents evidence-based guidance on the use of 38 percent silver diamine fluoride (SDF) for dental caries management in children and adolescents, including those with special health care needs. A guideline workgroup formed by the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry developed guidance and an evidence-based recommendation regarding the application of 38 percent SDF to arrest cavitated caries lesions in primary teeth. The basis of the guideline's recommendation is evidence from an existing systematic review "Clinical trials of silver diamine fluoride in arresting caries among children: A systematic review." (JDR Clin Transl Res 2016;1[3]:201-10). A systematic search was conducted in PubMed®/MEDLINE, Embase®, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and gray literature databases to identify randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews reporting on the effect of silver diamine fluoride and address peripheral issues such as adverse effects and cost. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the quality of the evidence and the evidence-to-decision framework was employed to formulate a recommendation. The panel made a conditional recommendation regarding the use of 38 percent SDF for the arrest of cavitated caries lesions in primary teeth as part of a comprehensive caries management program. After taking into consideration the low cost of the treatment and the disease burden of caries, panel members were confident that the benefits of SDF application in the target populations outweigh its possible undesirable effects. Per GRADE, this is a conditional recommendation based on low-quality evidence. Conclusions and practical implications: The guideline intends to inform the clinical practices involving the application of 38 percent SDF to enhance dental caries management outcomes in children and adolescents, including those with special health care needs. These recommended

  17. Understanding stigma in chronic health conditions: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, Joan

    2013-10-01

    This article explores the social processes in stigmatization and the theoretical background on the impact in chronic illness. Review of literature from social sciences and applications to health issues. Understanding the social utility of stigmatization in preserving social cohesion and protecting the social order is an important function. However, this process can be harmful when applied to persons with chronic illness, such as HIV-AIDS, and psychiatric illness. These individuals often become shamed, ostracized, isolated, discredited, and socially and economically marginalized. Recent theoretical work on stigma has identified several issues and patient responses that may have implications in many other chronic conditions. Stigma is based on visible or nonvisible health conditions and can be both externally imposed or perceived in a process of self-stigma. Understanding stigma can aid clinicians in providing supportive help for patients with chronic illness. Stigma has been well researched in a few chronic illnesses; however, future studies in other conditions are much needed. Recognizing the underlying social factors has potential use in health-promoting behaviors. Sensitivity to stigma allows health professionals to critically reflect on ways the healthcare environment may add to stigma for their patients. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  18. Neonatal health including congenital malformation risk of 1072 children born after vitrified embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belva, F; Bonduelle, M; Roelants, M; Verheyen, G; Van Landuyt, L

    2016-07-01

    Does vitrification of Day 3 and Day 5 embryos adversely affect birth outcomes of singletons and twins in comparison with peers born after fresh embryo transfer? Neonatal health parameters, including the prevalence of congenital malformations, in singletons and twins born after embryo vitrification are similar to or slightly better than after fresh embryo transfer. Although vitrification, rather than slow-freezing, of embryos is routine practice nowadays, convincing evidence regarding the safety for the offspring is sparse. Literature data comprise results from mostly small-sized studies or studies including only Day 3 or only Day 5 vitrified embryo transfers. Overall, better or comparable perinatal outcomes, in terms of higher birthweight and lower risk for small-for-gestational age or for low birthweight, have been reported for singletons born after vitrified embryo transfer compared with fresh embryo transfer. According to the single available study with sufficient sample size, the congenital malformation rate was found to be comparable after vitrified and fresh embryo transfers. Data were collected from 960 cycles after transfer of embryos vitrified on Day 3 (n = 457) or Day 5 (n = 503) and from 1644 cycles after fresh embryo transfer on Day 3 (n = 853) or Day 5 (n = 791), performed between 2008 and 2013 at the Centre for Reproductive Medicine of the university hospital UZ Brussel. Outcome measures were neonatal health in terms of birthweight, small-for-gestational age, prematurity rate, perinatal death and major/minor/total malformation rate. Perinatal health parameters of 11 stillborns and 1061 live borns (827 singletons and 234 twins) in the vitrified group and of 28 stillborns and 1838 live borns (1374 singletons and 464 twins) in the fresh embryo group are reported. Within 3 months after birth, children in the two study groups were assessed clinically with special attention to congenital malformations by a paediatrician blinded to the type of embryo

  19. The early warning system of landslides and sediment runoffs using meteorological condition including rainfall-soil moisture index (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, T.; Silva, I. C.; Hasnawir, H.

    2009-12-01

    The research including observation of rain, soil moisture content and sediment discharge is conducted on a torrent in northern Kyushu whose geology consists of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks (mainly schist) and whose vegetation consists of mainly Japanese cypress and cedar. Soil depth is approximately 50cm in average and permeability k is 0.1~0.01 order. With data obtained by the observation for more than 4 years, standard rainfalls of warning and evacuation against the sudden sediment runoffs are analyzed. Then, the result was compared with the ones in Nuevo Leon Mexico (geology of schist, slate, k=0.01~0.001 order) and in southern Sulawesi Island Indonesia (volcanic geology, k=0.001~0.0001 order). Hitherto, various methods were proposed to analyze the warning critical standard for landslide disaster or large sediment discharge. In this study, we employed Hirano's element slope runoff theory, the Self Organized Criticality Assumption (SOC), and the Elementary Catastrophe Theory (ETC) to analyze the data, although the soil moisture fluctuation, meteorological condition such as upper air wind and dew point depression, the rainfall-soil moisture index provided by Japan Meteorological Agency was considered. The last one is a cutting edge technology based on the tank model calculation of soil moisture content combined with short term rainfall prediction which is a product of numerical simulation using radar image advection analysis compensated with surface rain data and with orographic rain effect. In Hirano's theory, we can describe the critical rain Rc and rain intensity Ric as following equation. Q/A/M/ cosθ = Ri ∫(r*cosθ)dt = Ri*R (1) ∴ Ric*Rc = C (2) Here, Q: sediment runoff or debris flow discharge, A: watershed area, M: function concerning with sediment deposit features on the upstream torrents or slopes (porosity, torrent bed slope gradient, sediment accumulation length and depth, cohesion), t: time, θ: torrent bed or hillside slope gradient, r: instant

  20. Effect of roasting conditions on color and volatile profile including HMF level in sweet almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agila, Amal; Barringer, Sheryl

    2012-04-01

    Microwave, oven, and oil roasting of almonds were used to promote almond flavor and color formation. Raw pasteurized almonds were roasted in a microwave for 1 to 3 min, in an oven at 177 °C for 5, 10, 15, and 20 min; and at 135 and 163 °C for 20 min, and in oil at 135, 163, and 177 °C for 5 min and 177 °C for 10 min. Volatile compounds were quantified in the headspace of ground almonds, both raw and roasted, by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. Strong correlations were found between L value, chroma, and 5-(hydroxy methyl)-2- furfural; and were independent of roasting method. Raw almonds had lower concentrations of most volatiles than roasted almonds. Conditions that produced color equivalent to commercial samples were 2 min in the microwave, 5 min at 177 °C in the oven, and 5 min at 135 °C in oil. Microwave heating produced higher levels of most volatiles than oven and oil roasting at commercial color. Sensory evaluation indicated that microwave-roasted almonds had the strongest aroma and were the most preferred. Oil-roasted almonds showed significantly lower levels of volatiles than other methods, likely due to loss of these volatiles into the oil. Alcohols such as benzyl alcohols and strecker aldehydes including benzaldehyde and methional were at higher concentrations than other volatiles in roasted almonds. The oxidation of lipids to form alkanals such as nonanal and degradation of sugars to form furan type compounds was also observed. The Maillard reaction contributed to the formation of more of the total volatiles in almonds than the lipid oxidation reaction. The level of 5-(hydroxy methyl)-2- furfural (HMF), color, volatile profile, and sensory perception can be used to develop the best roasting method, time, and temperature for almonds. The rate of color development and the production of volatiles differ under different roasting conditions. Based on the color, volatile, and sensory assessments of the 3 almonds, the use of microwave technology

  1. Research Priorities to Advance the Health and Health Care of Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisminetzky, Mayra; Bayliss, Elizabeth A; Magaziner, Jay S; Allore, Heather G; Anzuoni, Kathryn; Boyd, Cynthia M; Gill, Thomas M; Go, Alan S; Greenspan, Susan L; Hanson, Leah R; Hornbrook, Mark C; Kitzman, Dalane W; Larson, Eric B; Naylor, Mary D; Shirley, Benjamin E; Tai-Seale, Ming; Teri, Linda; Tinetti, Mary E; Whitson, Heather E; Gurwitz, Jerry H

    2017-07-01

    To prioritize research topics relevant to the care of the growing population of older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). Survey of experts in MCC practice, research, and policy. Topics were derived from white papers, funding announcements, or funded research projects relating to older adults with MCCs. Survey conducted through the Health Care Systems Research Network (HCSRN) and Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Centers (OAICs) Advancing Geriatrics Infrastructure and Network Growth Initiative, a joint endeavor of the HCSRN and OAICs. Individuals affiliated with the HCSRN or OAICs and national MCC experts, including individuals affiliated with funding agencies having MCC-related grant portfolios. A "top box" methodology was used, counting the number of respondents selecting the top response on a 5-point Likert scale and dividing by the total number of responses to calculate a top box percentage for each of 37 topics. The highest-ranked research topics relevant to the health and healthcare of older adults with MCCs were health-related quality of life in older adults with MCCs; development of assessment tools (to assess, e.g., symptom burden, quality of life, function); interactions between medications, disease processes, and health outcomes; disability; implementation of novel (and scalable) models of care; association between clusters of chronic conditions and clinical, financial, and social outcomes; role of caregivers; symptom burden; shared decision-making to enhance care planning; and tools to improve clinical decision-making. Study findings serve to inform the development of a comprehensive research agenda to address the challenges relating to the care of this "high-need, high-cost" population and the healthcare delivery systems responsible for serving it. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Association of Adverse Childhood Experiences with Co-occurring Health Conditions in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Melissa A; Thompson, Lindsay A

    2018-01-01

    To understand how adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with co-occurring physical, mental and developmental problems during early childhood. A subsample of 19,957 children aged 2-5 years were selected from the 2011-2012 National Survey for Child Health. Outcomes included 18 health conditions organized in singular condition domains (physical, mental, and developmental), and combinations of condition domains (e.g., physical plus mental, mental plus developmental, etc.). Predictors included 8 ACEs (divorce of a parent, death of a parent, exposure to domestic violence, living with someone with a drug or alcohol abuse problem, household member with a mental illness, parent incarceration, neighborhood violence, discrimination). Multivariable logistic regression was performed controlling for demographic characteristics, having a personal doctor, health insurance coverage, and seeing a health care professional in the previous year. Experiencing 3 or more ACEs before the age of 5 years was associated with increased likelihood of nearly every co-occurring condition combination across 3 domains of health. Most notably, experiencing 3 or more ACEs was also associated with a 2-fold increase in likelihood of having ≥1 physical condition and ≥1 developmental condition, a 9-fold increase in likelihood of having ≥1 mental and ≥1 developmental condition, and a 7-fold increase in likelihood of having ≥1 physical, ≥1 mental, and ≥1 developmental condition. This study demonstrates that we can identify the health effects of adversity quite early in development and that management should include communication between both health care and early childhood education providers.

  3. Including local rainfall dynamics and uncertain boundary conditions into a 2-D regional-local flood modelling cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, María; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Bates, Paul D.; Coxon, Gemma; Freer, Jim E.; Cea, Luis; Puertas, Jerónimo

    2016-04-01

    Flood inundation models require appropriate boundary conditions to be specified at the limits of the domain, which commonly consist of upstream flow rate and downstream water level. These data are usually acquired from gauging stations on the river network where measured water levels are converted to discharge via a rating curve. Derived streamflow estimates are therefore subject to uncertainties in this rating curve, including extrapolating beyond the maximum observed ratings magnitude. In addition, the limited number of gauges in reach-scale studies often requires flow to be routed from the nearest upstream gauge to the boundary of the model domain. This introduces additional uncertainty, derived not only from the flow routing method used, but also from the additional lateral rainfall-runoff contributions downstream of the gauging point. Although generally assumed to have a minor impact on discharge in fluvial flood modeling, this local hydrological input may become important in a sparse gauge network or in events with significant local rainfall. In this study, a method to incorporate rating curve uncertainty and the local rainfall-runoff dynamics into the predictions of a reach-scale flood inundation model is proposed. Discharge uncertainty bounds are generated by applying a non-parametric local weighted regression approach to stage-discharge measurements for two gauging stations, while measured rainfall downstream from these locations is cascaded into a hydrological model to quantify additional inflows along the main channel. A regional simplified-physics hydraulic model is then applied to combine these inputs and generate an ensemble of discharge and water elevation time series at the boundaries of a local-scale high complexity hydraulic model. Finally, the effect of these rainfall dynamics and uncertain boundary conditions are evaluated on the local-scale model. Improvements in model performance when incorporating these processes are quantified using observed

  4. 42 CFR 417.155 - How the HMO option must be included in the health benefits plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... printed materials that meet the requirements of § 417.124(b). (ii) Access may not be more restrictive or... benefits plan. 417.155 Section 417.155 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... Organizations in Employee Health Benefits Plans § 417.155 How the HMO option must be included in the health...

  5. Including public-health benefits of trees in urban-forestry decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2017-01-01

    Research demonstrating the biophysical benefits of urban trees are often used to justify investments in urban forestry. Far less emphasis, however, is placed on the non-bio-physical benefits such as improvements in public health. Indeed, the public-health benefits of trees may be significantly larger than the biophysical benefits, and, therefore, failure to account for...

  6. Use of Electronic Health Records and Administrative Data for Public Health Surveillance of Eye Health and Vision-Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Amanda; Davidson, Arthur; Lum, Flora; Chiang, Michael; Saaddine, Jinan B; Zhang, Xinzhi; Crews, John E.; Chou, Chiu-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To discuss the current trend toward greater use of electronic health records and how these records could enhance public health surveillance of eye health and vision-related conditions. Methods We describe three currently available sources of electronic health data (Kaiser Permanente, the Veterans Health Administration, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services) and how these sources can contribute to a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system. Results Each of the three sources of electronic health data can contribute meaningfully to a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system, but none currently provide all the information required. The use of electronic health records for vision and eye health surveillance has both advantages and disadvantages. Conclusions Electronic health records may provide additional information needed to create a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system. Recommendations for incorporating electronic health records into such a system are presented. PMID:23158225

  7. Web-Scale Discovery Services Retrieve Relevant Results in Health Sciences Topics Including MEDLINE Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Margaret Stovold

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Hanneke, R., & O’Brien, K. K. (2016. Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 104(2, 109-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.3163/1536-5050.104.2.004 Abstract Objective – To compare the results of health sciences search queries in three web-scale discovery (WSD services for relevance, duplicate detection, and retrieval of MEDLINE content. Design – Comparative evaluation and bibliometric study. Setting – Six university libraries in the United States of America. Subjects – Three commercial WSD services: Primo, Summon, and EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS. Methods – The authors collected data at six universities, including their own. They tested each of the three WSDs at two data collection sites. However, since one of the sites was using a legacy version of Summon that was due to be upgraded, data collected for Summon at this site were considered obsolete and excluded from the analysis. The authors generated three questions for each of six major health disciplines, then designed simple keyword searches to mimic typical student search behaviours. They captured the first 20 results from each query run at each test site, to represent the first “page” of results, giving a total of 2,086 total search results. These were independently assessed for relevance to the topic. Authors resolved disagreements by discussion, and calculated a kappa inter-observer score. They retained duplicate records within the results so that the duplicate detection by the WSDs could be compared. They assessed MEDLINE coverage by the WSDs in several ways. Using precise strategies to generate a relevant set of articles, they conducted one search from each of the six disciplines in PubMed so that they could compare retrieval of MEDLINE content. These results were cross-checked against the first 20 results from the corresponding query in the WSDs. To aid investigation of overall

  8. Crisis in the health sector: Impact on nurses' working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero-Lázaro, Alberto; Blanch-Ribas, Josep M; Roldán-Merino, Juan Francisco; Torralbas-Ortega, Jordi; Escayola-Maranges, Ana María

    In a context of economic crisis and policies to reduce the public deficit, the budgets of the Catalan Health Institute (CHI) were cut by 15.33% between 2010 and 2014. To assess the perceived impact on nurses' work conditions of measures to contain health spending. The study design was descriptive and transversal. A sample of 1,760 nurses from the province of Barcelona answered a questionnaire on the perceived impact of health spending containment measures implemented in their workplace during the early years of the crisis. Among the main aspects of the perceived impact of these measures, 86.6% of the nurses identified a pay cut and an increase in the following relevant parameters of their working conditions: number of hours worked (66.7%), final ratio of treated patients (35.2%), task complexity and workload (75.3%), rotation through various departments (31.5%), work shifts (21.4%) or work areas (23.4%), job insecurity (58.4%) and loss of employment by dismissal (6.6%) or non-renewal of contract (9%). The perceived impact of the crisis showed a triple negative component: Pay cut, work overload and job insecurity. As a combined effect of this multiple trend, the nurses acknowledged a deterioration in their working conditions and quality of working life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors influencing adult physical health after controlling for current health conditions: evidence from a british cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cheng

    Full Text Available This study explored a longitudinal data set of 6875 British adults examining the effects of parental social status (measured at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11 yrs, personality traits, education and occupational attainment on physical health and functioning (all measured at age 50 yrs, after taking account of current health conditions (number of illness. Correlation analysis showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and two personality traits (Emotional Stability/Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness were all significantly associated with adult physical health variables. Structural equation modelling showed that health conditions and personality traits were significantly, and inversely, associated with physical health (indicated by good daily physical functioning, relative absence of pain, perceived health, and low level of limitations at work due to physical health. Parental social status, childhood intelligence, educational and occupational attainment were all modestly, but significantly and directly, associated with adult physical health. The effect of childhood intelligence on adult physical health was, in part, mediated through Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness. After controlling for health conditions Emotional Stability was the strongest predictor of physical health. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  10. ls with Chronic Conditions Want More Guidance from Health Professionals in Finding Quality Online Health SourcesIndividua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Merkley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To explore how and when individuals with chronic health conditions seek out health information online, and the challenges they encounter when doing so. Design – Qualitative study employing thematic analysis. Setting – Urban Western Australia. Subjects – 17 men and women between 19 and 85 years of age with at least 1 chronic health condition. Methods – Participants were recruited in late 2013 at nine local pharmacies, through local radio, media channels, and a university's social media channels. Participants were adult English speakers who had looked for information on their chronic health condition(s using the Internet. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with each participant, audio recorded, and transcribed. The transcripts were coded in QSR Nvivo using two different processes – an initial data-driven inductive approach to coding, followed by a theory driven analysis of the data. Main Results – Three major themes emerged: trust, patient activation, and relevance. Many of the participants expressed trust both in health professionals and in the efficacy of search engines like Google. However, there was uncertainty about the quality of some of the health information sources found. Searching for information online was seen by some participants as a way to feel more empowered about their condition(s and treatment, but they reported frustration in finding information that was relevant to their specific condition(s given the volume of information available. Low health literacy emerged in participant interviews as an intrinsic barrier to effective online searches for health information, along with low patient motivation and lack of time. The many extrinsic barriers identified included difficulty determining the quality of information found, the accessibility of the information (e.g., journal paywalls, and poor relationships with health care providers. Conclusion – Individuals look for online health

  11. Twitter: a good place to detect health conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M Prieto

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of social networks and blogs, the Internet is increasingly being used to disseminate personal health information rather than just as a source of information. In this paper we exploit the wealth of user-generated data, available through the micro-blogging service Twitter, to estimate and track the incidence of health conditions in society. The method is based on two stages: we start by extracting possibly relevant tweets using a set of specially crafted regular expressions, and then classify these initial messages using machine learning methods. Furthermore, we selected relevant features to improve the results and the execution times. To test the method, we considered four health states or conditions, namely flu, depression, pregnancy and eating disorders, and two locations, Portugal and Spain. We present the results obtained and demonstrate that the detection results and the performance of the method are improved after feature selection. The results are promising, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve between 0.7 and 0.9, and f-measure values around 0.8 and 0.9. This fact indicates that such approach provides a feasible solution for measuring and tracking the evolution of health states within the society.

  12. [Health and social inequality in Europe: changes of the basic conditions for municipal health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, E U

    1998-11-01

    Good health is not distributed equally, neither in life conditions--including the individual ability to act--nor according to the supply grid. These interrelations, shown in several empirical investigations, assume more importance in view of the groving tendency to social polarisation in the countries of Europe, different in fact in the single countries, but clear in respect of tendency: social exclusion does not only mean to have less financial resources but also social disadvantages in other realms of living, especially in health. Migration, not only from East to West, but also inside and between the countries of the European Union and inside of Eastern Europe too, is only an especially dear expression that social problems have their origin in international problems and casualities, but become visible in local and regional structures and thus in the responsibility of the municipalities. Globalisation, Europe etc., terms mostly connected with positive connotations, have not only a positive side, but also another one, namely, the re-regionalisation of social problems especially in the municipalities. Normally the municipalities have to counterbalance and to regulate the negative consequences of these European--and moreover international--changes of the structures, although their financial means are declining. The municipal health service is integrated in this contradictory constellation. To prevent irrational social and/or political developments, the reasons and possible strategies of reform policy will have to be discussed carefully.

  13. Innovations in occupational health nursing education, including a distance learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowis, A; Ellington, H

    1991-07-01

    The results of a survey in the United Kingdom in the late 1980s indicated that many occupational health nurses were not being sent for formal training because of the length of time nurses needed to be away from their employment and the difficulty employers had in finding nurse replacements during training. To meet the needs of occupational health nurses and their employers, the Robert Gordon Institute of Technology (RGIT) instituted a modular training course that offers full time attendance or distance learning options. RGIT's course consists of six modules over a 1 to 3 year period, which students can take in any order after completing a short Return to Study course. Using the innovative distance learning option, occupational health nurses can earn a Diploma in Occupational Health Nursing while completing most of their courses at the workplace, thus avoiding conflicts between training and work schedules.

  14. The high price of depression: Family members' health conditions and health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, G Thomas; Weisner, Constance M; Taillac, Cosette J; Campbell, Cynthia I

    2017-05-01

    To compare the health conditions and health care costs of family members of patients diagnosed with a Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) to family members of patients without an MDD diagnosis. Using electronic health record data, we identified family members (n=201,914) of adult index patients (n=92,399) diagnosed with MDD between 2009 and 2014 and family members (n=187,011) of matched patients without MDD. Diagnoses, health care utilization and costs were extracted for each family member. Logistic regression and multivariate models were used to compare diagnosed health conditions, health services cost, and utilization of MDD and non-MDD family members. Analyses covered the 5years before and after the index patient's MDD diagnosis. MDD family members were more likely than non-MDD family members to be diagnosed with mood disorders, anxiety, substance use disorder, and numerous other conditions. MDD family members had higher health care costs than non-MDD family members in every period analyzed, with the highest difference being in the year before the index patient's MDD diagnosis. Family members of patients with MDD are more likely to have a number of health conditions compared to non-MDD family members, and to have higher health care cost and utilization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Dental health state of children living in different anthropogenic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Luchynskyі

    2015-11-01

    I. Y. Horbachevskyy Ternopil State Medical University of Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Ukraine, Ternopil (Ternopil, Maydan Voli, 1, 46001   Abstract   The purpose of the work is to study dental health of children living in conditions of combined negative impact of natural and technological factors. Materials and methods. It was performed an epidemiological dental examination of 2,551 children aged 6 to 15 years, who settled in different regions of the Precarpathians, in conditions of iodine and fluoride deficiency (plain - 1087 children, foothills - 730 and mountain - 734 children. Results. Comprehensive epidemiological studies found low levels of dental health of children living in different geochemical and anthropogenic conditions of Ivano-Frankivsk region (48,83 ± 0,36% in the general observation, that is not statistically different by regions examination, moreover girls level is lower, than that of boys in examined regions (48,14 ± 0,50 and (49,51 ± 0,52%, respectively. It was founded, that the main diseases, which contribute to the reduction of dental health in children, is dental caries and its complications and abnormalities of dentoalveolar system. It was found, that the frequency and severity of dentoalveolar abnormalities depend on anthropogenic environmental conditions: in children of plain and foothill regions, that suffer from greater anthropogenic pressure, dentoalveolar abnormalities where found in (67,99 ± 1,42 and (65,21 ± 1,76%, against (45,91 ± 1,84% in children of conditionally pure mountain region. These same children also often recorded more severe pathology – combined anomalies (24,09 ± 1,57 and (22,06 ± 1,90%, against (12,17 ± 1,78%, respectively. It was found the connection between the dentoalveolar abnormalities and the presence of caries (r = + 0,95; p <0,01 and periodontal tissue diseases (r = + 0,79; p <0,05.   Keywords: children, dental health, dentoalveolar abnormalities, dental caries, periodontal disease, hypoplasia.

  16. Comparison of Health Information Technology Use Between American Adults With and Without Chronic Health Conditions: Findings From The National Health Interview Survey 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Lauche, Romy; Sibbritt, David; Olaniran, Bolanle; Cook, Ronald; Adams, Jon

    2017-10-05

    Health information technology (HIT) is utilized by people with different chronic conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. However, there has been no comparison of HIT use between persons without a chronic condition, with one chronic condition, and multiple (≥2) chronic conditions (MCCs). The aim of the study was to assess the difference in HIT use between persons without a chronic condition, with one chronic condition, and with MCCs, to describe the characteristics of HIT use among those with chronic conditions and to identify the predictors of HIT use of the persons with one chronic condition and MCCs. A secondary data analysis was conducted in spring 2017 using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2012 Family Core and Sample Adult Core datasets that yielded 34,525 respondents aged 18 years and older. Measures included overall HIT use (ie, any use of the following five HIT on the Internet: seeking health information, ordering prescription, making appointment, emailing health provider, and using health chat groups), as well as sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. Sociodemographic and health characteristics were compared between HIT users and nonusers among those who reported having at least one chronic condition using chi-square tests. Independent predictors of HIT use were identified using multiple logistic regression analyses for those with one chronic condition, with MCCs, and without a chronic condition. Analyses were weighted and performed at significance level of .005. In 2012, adults with one health chronic condition (raw count 4147/8551, weighted percentage 48.54%) was significantly higher than among those with MCCs (3816/9637, 39.55%) and those with none of chronic condition (7254/16,337, 44.40%, PHIT use. Chi-square tests revealed that among adults with chronic conditions, those who used HIT were significantly different from their counterpart peers who did not use HIT in terms of sociodemographic and health characteristics

  17. Potential of human health in the modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Dobryden

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proves that man’s relationship to their health  in each case have varying traits under the influence of sociocultural, psychological and physiological factors  which the world outlook is created from childhood, which implies the appropriate type of behavior that is fixed through the media and social authorities. It is established that scientific knowledge should not be against a man, and should enhance the power of man over nature, but can be transformed into a powerful weapon against humanity. It is noted that science is neutral in terms of values. Will it carry a positive or negative charge to human health depends on the social and cultural markers specific historical era and behavior of the individual. It was found that in addition to the economic crisis, which requires long-term joint economic and political transformations, the most important factor and more accessible to maintaining high adaptive potential health functions at all levels is valeological literacy social subjects and, therefore, imperative the systematic distribution of hygiene recommendations is a significant component of preventive medicine. With the growth of social and technological factors with their aggressive effect on psychophysiological state of man is seen timely more  talk even not about health in general, but should talk about  potential health, which underlines  the  difficulties adaptive and protective processes and susceptibility factors and resistance to pathological changes in the human body. All the more so when we following the formal standards of medicine is unlikely, unfortunately, we be found absolutely healthy people. Under the proposed potential health understood as a set of quantitative and qualitative structural and functional characteristics of the organism, which determine the level of adaptation and protection of human capabilities in adverse conditions, internal and external environment. It is proposed to examine potential

  18. Psychological distress is associated with a range of high-priority health conditions affecting working Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Scuffham, Paul; Hilton, Michael; Vecchio, Nerina; Whiteford, Harvey

    2010-06-01

    Psychological distress is growing in prevalence in Australia. Comorbid psychological distress and/or depressive symptoms are often associated with poorer health, higher healthcare utilisation and decreased adherence to medical treatments. The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC) study cross-sectional screening dataset was used to explore the association between psychological distress and a range of health conditions in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The study uses the World Health Organization Health and Productivity Questionnaire (HPQ), to identify self-reported health status. Within the HPQ is the Kessler 6 (K6), a six-item scale of psychological distress which strongly discriminates between those with and without a mental disorder. Potential confounders of age, sex, marital status, number of children, education level and annual income were included in multivariate logistic regression models. Psychological distress was significantly associated with all investigated health conditions in both crude and adjusted estimates. The conditions with the strongest adjusted association were, in order from highest: drug and alcohol problems, fatigue, migraine, CVD, COPD, injury and obesity. Psychological distress is strongly associated with all 14 health conditions or risk factors investigated in this study. Comorbid psychological distress is a growing public health issue affecting Australian workers.

  19. Multitarget survey on the Finance Police personnel: assessment of the health condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraco, Giancarlo; Pagano, Stefano; Lupoli, Grazia; Dolci, Alessandro; Colagrosso, Beniamino

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10-15 years, Italy has undergone a social transformation, and the class of employees and workers has become more economically stable with a higher buying power. Along with the increased expectations of patients on the quality of life, it has now become a priority to make health and social services ready to face users bearing new requirements and different needs. To provide a description of the state of health of the operating personnel of the Finance Police (Guardia di Finanza), including elements for planning the most appropriate interventions for health promotion and prevention. The study analyzed the health condition of a group of soldiers (178 subjects, divided into different age classes) by evaluating the effectiveness of a training and information program and subsequently the level of benefit. The study population showed a good state of health correlated to the quality of life. Although the population voluntarily submitted to health assessment, the rigour of the calls and briefings carried out in the military health unit and the attention of the group to follow instructions on prevention underlined a positive trend, even in behaviours considered as health-risky. Socio-cultural components and the work environment influence the quality of life. In the case of military health care, the specific military organization was useful to monitor the health condition of the population, maximizing the effectiveness of services, enhancing the information and carrying out prevention strategies and demand of care, which should be an example for the public health services.

  20. Health coaching interventions for persons with chronic conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Kasey R; Barakat, Suzette; Ahn, Sangwoo; Prokop, Larry J; Erwin, Patricia J; Murad, M Hassan

    2016-09-01

    Chronic conditions are increasingly more common and negatively impact quality of life, disability, morbidity, and mortality. Health coaching has emerged as a possible intervention to help individuals with chronic conditions adopt health supportive behaviors that improve both quality of life and health outcomes. We planned a systematic review and meta-analysis of the contemporary health coaching literature published in the last decade to evaluate the effect of health coaching on clinically important, disease-specific, functional, and behavioral outcomes. We will include randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental studies that compared health coaching to alternative interventions or usual care. To enable adoption of effective interventions, we aim to explore how the effect of intervention is modified by the intervention components, delivering personnel (i.e., health professionals vs trained lay or peer persons), dose, frequency, and setting. Analysis of intervention outcomes will be reported and classified using an existing theoretical framework, the Theory of Patient Capacity, to identify the areas of patients' capacity to access and use healthcare and enact self-care where coaching may be an effective intervention. This systematic review and meta-analysis will identify and synthesize evidence to inform the practice of health coaching by providing evidence on components and characteristics of the intervention essential for success in individuals with chronic health conditions. PROSPERO CRD42016039730.

  1. Psychosocial work conditions, unemployment and self-reported psychological health: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the association between psychosocial conditions at work, unemployment and self-reported psychological health. A cross-sectional postal questionnaire for the 2000 public health survey in Scania was administered to both working and unemployed people aged 18-64 years. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between psychosocial factors at work/unemployment and self-reported psychological health (General Health Questionnaire 12). Psychosocial conditions at work were classified according to the Karasek-Theorell demand-control/decision latitudes into relaxed, active, passive and job strain. The multivariate analyses included age, country of origin, education, economic stress and social participation. A total of 5180 people returned their questionnaire, giving a participation rate of 59%. Fifteen per cent of men and 20% of women reported poor psychological health. Those with high demands and high control (active category), those with high demands and low control (job strain category) and the unemployed had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health compared to those with low demands and high control (relaxed category). Those with low demands and low control (passive category) did not differ significantly from the relaxed category. The associations remained in the multivariate analyses. The study found that certain psychosocial work factors are associated with higher levels of self-reported psychological ill-health and illustrates the great importance of psychosocial conditions in determining psychological health at the population level. As found elsewhere, being unemployed was an even stronger predictor of psychological ill-health.

  2. Stressful working conditions and poor self-rated health among financial services employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Sérgio Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between exposure to adverse psychosocial working conditions and poor self-rated health among bank employees. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including a sample of 2,054 employees of a government bank was conducted in 2008. Self-rated health was assessed by a single question: "In general, would you say your health is (...." Exposure to adverse psychosocial working conditions was evaluated by the effort-reward imbalance model and the demand-control model. Information on other independent variables was obtained through a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed and odds ratio calculated to assess independent associations between adverse psychosocial working conditions and poor self-rated health. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of poor self-rated health was 9%, with no significant gender difference. Exposure to high demand and low control environment at work was associated with poor self-rated health. Employees with high effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment also reported poor self-rated health, with a dose-response relationship. Social support at work was inversely related to poor self-rated health, with a dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to adverse psychosocial work factors assessed based on the effort-reward imbalance model and the demand-control model is independently associated with poor self-rated health among the workers studied.

  3. Impact of socioeconomic status and medical conditions on health and healthcare utilization among aging Ghanaians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Bashiru Ii; Xicang, Zhao; Yawson, Alfred Edwin; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Nsowah-Nuamah, Nicholas N N

    2015-03-20

    This study attempts to examine the impact of socioeconomic and medical conditions in health and healthcare utilization among older adults in Ghana. Five separate models with varying input variables were estimated for each response variable. Data (Wave 1 data) were drawn from the World Health Organization Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted during 2007-2008 and included a total of 4770 respondents aged 50+ and 803 aged 18-49 in Ghana. Ordered logits was estimated for self-rated health, and binary logits for functional limitation and healthcare utilization. Our results show that the study provides enough grounds for further research on the interplay between socioeconomic and medical conditions on one hand and the health of the aged on the other. Controlling for socioeconomic status substantially contributes significantly to utilization. Also, aged women experience worse health than men, as shown by functioning assessment, self-rated health, chronic conditions and functional limitations. Women have higher rates of healthcare utilization, as shown by significantly higher rates of hospitalization and outpatient encounters. Expansion of the national health insurance scheme to cover the entire older population--for those in both formal and informal employments--is likely to garner increased access and improved health states for the older population.

  4. Completed Research in Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance; Including International Sources. Volume 27. 1985 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedson, Patty S., Ed.

    This compilation lists research completed in the areas of health, physical education, recreation, dance, and allied areas during 1984. The document is arranged in two parts. In the index, references are arranged under the subject headings in alphabetical order. Abstracts of master's and doctor's theses from institutions offering graduate programs…

  5. Should catastrophic risks be included in a regulated competitive health insurance market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.P.M.M. van de Ven (Wynand); F.T. Schut (Erik)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn 1988 the Dutch government launched a proposal for a national health insurance based on regulated competition. The mandatory benefits package should be offered by competing insurers and should cover both non-catastrophic risks (like hospital care, physician services and drugs) and

  6. Widening the Aim of Health Promotion to Include the Most Disadvantaged: Vulnerable Adolescents and the Social Determinants of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajer, Nicole; Earnest, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Growing numbers of adolescents are marginalized by social factors beyond their control, leading to poor health outcomes for their families and future generations. Although the role of the social determinants of health has been recognized for many years, there is a gap in our knowledge about the strategies needed to address these factors in health…

  7. Shared decision making among parents of children with mental health conditions compared to children with chronic physical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashley M; Elkins, Sara; Kowalkowski, Marc; Raphael, Jean L

    2015-02-01

    High quality care in pediatrics involves shared decision making (SDM) between families and providers. The extent to which children with common mental health disorders experience SDM is not well known. The objectives of this study were to examine how parent-reported SDM varies by child health (physical illness, mental health condition, and comorbid mental and physical conditions) and to examine whether medical home care attenuates any differences. We analyzed data on children (2-17 years) collected through the 2009/2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. The sample consisted of parents of children in one of three child health categories: (1) children with a chronic physical illness but no mental health condition; (2) children with a common mental health condition but no chronic physical condition; and (3) children with comorbid mental and chronic physical conditions. The primary dependent variable was parent-report of provider SDM. The primary independent variable was health condition category. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted. Multivariate analyses controlling for sociodemographic variables and parent-reported health condition impact indicated lower SDM among children with a common mental health condition-only (B = -0.40; p mental health condition-only were no longer significant in the model adjusting for medical home care. However, differences in SDM for children with comorbid conditions persisted after adjusting for medical home care. Increasing medical home care may help mitigate differences in SDM for children with mental health conditions-only. Other interventions may be needed to improve SDM among children with comorbid mental and physical conditions.

  8. Supporting self-management of chronic health conditions: common approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Sharon; Schoo, Adrian

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this paper are to provide a description of the principles of chronic condition self-management, common approaches to support currently used in Australian health services, and benefits and challenges associated with using these approaches. We examined literature in this field in Australia and drew also from our own practice experience of implementing these approaches and providing education and training to primary health care professionals and organizations in the field. Using common examples of programs, advantages and disadvantages of peer-led groups (Stanford Courses), care planning (The Flinders Program), a brief primary care approach (the 5As), motivational interviewing and health coaching are explored. There are a number of common approaches used to enhance self-management. No one approach is superior to other approaches; in fact, they are often complimentary. The nature and context for patients' contact with services, and patients' specific needs and preferences are what must be considered when deciding on the most appropriate support mode to effectively engage patients and promote self-management. Choice of approach will also be determined by organizational factors and service structures. Whatever self-management support approaches used, of importance is how health services work together to provide support. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Are health inequalities rooted in the past? Income inequalities in metabolic syndrome decomposed by childhood conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Sebastian, Miguel; Ivarsson, Anneli; Weinehall, Lars; Gustafsson, Per E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Early life is thought of as a foundation for health inequalities in adulthood. However, research directly examining the contribution of childhood circumstances to the integrated phenomenon of adult social inequalities in health is absent. The present study aimed to examine whether, and to what degree, social conditions during childhood explain income inequalities in metabolic syndrome in mid-adulthood. Methods: The sample (N = 12 481) comprised all 40- and 50-year-old participants in the Västerbotten Intervention Program in Northern Sweden 2008, 2009 and 2010. Measures from health examinations were used to operationalize metabolic syndrome, which was linked to register data including socioeconomic conditions at age 40–50 years, as well as childhood conditions at participant age 10–12 years. Income inequality in metabolic syndrome in middle age was estimated by the concentration index and decomposed by childhood and current socioeconomic conditions using decomposition analysis. Results: Childhood conditions jointed explained 7% (men) to 10% (women) of health inequalities in middle age. Adding mid-adulthood sociodemographic factors showed a dominant contribution of chiefly current income and educational level in both gender. In women, the addition of current factors slightly attenuated the contribution of childhood conditions, but with paternal income and education still contributing. In contrast, the corresponding addition in men removed all explanation attributable to childhood conditions. Conclusions: Despite that the influence of early life conditions to adult health inequalities was considerably smaller than that of concurrent conditions, the study suggests that early interventions against social inequalities potentially could reduce health inequalities in the adult population for decades to come. PMID:27744345

  10. The impact of conditional cash transfers on health outcomes and use of health services in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Mylene; Haines, Andy; Palmer, Natasha

    2009-10-07

    Conditional cash transfers (CCT) provide monetary transfers to households on the condition that they comply with some pre-defined requirements. CCT programmes have been justified on the grounds that demand-side subsidies are necessary to address inequities in access to health and social services for poor people. In the past decade they have become increasingly popular, particularly in middle income countries in Latin America. To assess the effectiveness of CCT in improving access to care and health outcomes, in particular for poorer populations in low and middle income countries. We searched a wide range of international databases, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE, in addition to development studies and economic databases. We also searched the websites and online resources of numerous international agencies, organisations and universities to find relevant grey literature. The original searches were conducted between November 2005 and April 2006. An updated search in MEDLINE was carried out in May 2009. CCT were defined as monetary transfers made to households on the condition that they comply with some pre-determined requirements in relation to health care. Studies had to include an objective measure of at least one of the following outcomes: health care utilisation, health expenditure, health outcomes or equity outcomes. Eligible study designs were: randomised controlled trial, interrupted time series analysis, or controlled before-after study of the impact of health financing policies following criteria used by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group. We performed qualitative analysis of the evidence. We included ten papers reporting results from six intervention studies. Overall, design quality and analysis limited the risks of bias. Several CCT programmes provided strong evidence of a positive impact on the use of health services, nutritional status and health outcomes

  11. Health conditions and role limitation in three European Regions: a public-health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaglia, Gabriela; Adroher, Núria D; Vilagut, Gemma; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Bunting, Brentan; Caldas de Almeida, José Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kovess-Masfety, Vivianne; Matschinger, Herbert; Alonso, Jordi

    To describe the distribution of role limitation in the European population aged 18-64 years and to examine the contribution of health conditions to role limitation using a public-health approach. Representative samples of the adult general population (n=13,666) aged 18-64 years from 10 European countries of the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys Initiative, grouped into three regions: Central-Western, Southern and Central-Eastern. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) was used to assess six mental disorders and standard checklists for seven physical conditions. Days with full and with partial role limitation in the month previous to the interview were reported (WMH-WHODAS). Population Attributable Fraction (PAFs) of full and partial role limitation were estimated. Health conditions explained a large proportion of full role limitation (PAF=62.6%) and somewhat less of partial role limitation (46.6%). Chronic pain was the single condition that consistently contributed to explain both disability measures in all European Regions. Mental disorders were the most important contributors to full and partial role limitation in Central-Western and Southern Europe. In Central-Eastern Europe, where mental disorders were less prevalent, physical conditions, especially cardiovascular diseases, were the highest contributors to disability. The contribution of health conditions to role limitation in the three European regions studied is high. Mental disorders are associated with the largest impact in most of the regions. There is a need for mainstreaming disability in the public health agenda to reduce the role limitation associated with health conditions. The cross-regional differences found require further investigation. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating health state utility values for comorbid health conditions using SF-6D data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Roberta; Brazier, John

    2011-01-01

    When health state utility values for comorbid health conditions are not available, data from cohorts with single conditions are used to estimate scores. The methods used can produce very different results and there is currently no consensus on which is the most appropriate approach. The objective of the current study was to compare the accuracy of five different methods within the same dataset. Data collected during five Welsh Health Surveys were subgrouped by health status. Mean short-form 6 dimension (SF-6D) scores for cohorts with a specific health condition were used to estimate mean SF-6D scores for cohorts with comorbid conditions using the additive, multiplicative, and minimum methods, the adjusted decrement estimator (ADE), and a linear regression model. The mean SF-6D for subgroups with comorbid health conditions ranged from 0.4648 to 0.6068. The linear model produced the most accurate scores for the comorbid health conditions with 88% of values accurate to within the minimum important difference for the SF-6D. The additive and minimum methods underestimated or overestimated the actual SF-6D scores respectively. The multiplicative and ADE methods both underestimated the majority of scores. However, both methods performed better when estimating scores smaller than 0.50. Although the range in actual health state utility values (HSUVs) was relatively small, our data covered the lower end of the index and the majority of previous research has involved actual HSUVs at the upper end of possible ranges. Although the linear model gave the most accurate results in our data, additional research is required to validate our findings. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Relationships between air conditioning, airborne microorganisms and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parat, S; Perdrix, A; Baconnier, P

    1999-01-01

    Concurrently with the increase of air-conditioning, potentially severe or frequent new diseases have emerged, giving rise to social and economical consequences. The first part of this work is a state of the art review of the relationships between air-conditioning, airborne microorganisms and health, through a technical, metrological and medical approach. The second part presents four studies performed in this field. Two of them deal with the relationship between airborne microorganisms and technical features of air-conditioning. Measurements performed on actual sites demonstrated the benefit of using high efficiency filters and low risk components in air-conditioning systems. The third study was aimed to look for a relationship between airborne microorganisms and sick building syndrome symptoms. Statistical analyses of individual data revealed significant associations between airborne bacteria or fungi and symptoms. These results may be the first step in determining a dose-response relationship, in order to define threshold limit values in this field. In the fourth study, the contribution of particle counting in assessing exposure to airborne microorganisms was explored by monitoring simultaneous variations of microbial and particle concentrations. The results showed that associating particle counting may allow to detect microbial variations instantaneously, and therefore improve the assessment of exposure to airborne microorganisms.

  14. Health conditions and their impact among adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terri J Pikora

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of medical conditions and use of health services among young adults with Down syndrome and describe the impact of these conditions upon their lives. METHODS: Using questionnaire data collected in 2011 from parents of young adults with Down syndrome we investigated the medical conditions experienced by their children in the previous 12 months. Univariate, linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: We found that in addition to the conditions commonly experienced by children with Down syndrome, including eye and vision problems (affecting 73%, ear and hearing problems (affecting 45%, cardiac (affecting 25% and respiratory problems (affecting 36%, conditions also found to be prevalent within our young adult cohort included musculoskeletal conditions (affecting 61%, body weight (affecting 57%, skin (affecting 56% and mental health (affecting 32% conditions and among young women menstrual conditions (affecting 58%. Few parents reported that these conditions had no impact, with common impacts related to restrictions in opportunities to participate in employment and community leisure activities for the young people, as well as safety concerns. CONCLUSION: There is the need to monitor, screen and provide appropriate strategies such as through the promotion of healthy lifestyles to prevent the development of comorbidities in young people with Down syndrome and, where present, to reduce their impact.

  15. Can conditional health policies be justified? A policy analysis of the new NHS dental contract reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Louise; Harris, Rebecca

    2018-06-01

    Conditional policies, which emphasise personal responsibility, are becoming increasingly common in healthcare. Although used widely internationally, they are relatively new within the UK health system where there have been concerns about whether they can be justified. New NHS dental contracts include the introduction of a conditional component that restricts certain patients from accessing a full range of treatment until they have complied with preventative action. A policy analysis of published documents on the NHS dental contract reforms from 2009 to 2016 was conducted to consider how conditionality is justified and whether its execution is likely to cause distributional effects. Contractualist, paternalistic and mutualist arguments that reflect notions of responsibility and obligation are used as justification within policy. Underlying these arguments is an emphasis on preserving the finite resources of a strained NHS. We argue that the proposed conditional component may differentially affect disadvantaged patients, who do not necessarily have access to the resources needed to meet the behavioural requirements. As such, the conditional component of the NHS dental contract reform has the potential to exacerbate oral health inequalities. Conditional health policies may challenge core NHS principles and, as is the case with any conditional policy, should be carefully considered to ensure they do not exacerbate health inequities. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several types of plasma cell neoplasms, including monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), isolated plasmacytoma of the bone, extramedullary plasmacytoma, and multiple myeloma. Find evidence-based information on plasma cell neoplasms treatment, research, and statistics.

  17. Increased 30-Day Emergency Department Revisits Among Homeless Patients with Mental Health Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Nok Lam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with mental health conditions frequently use emergency medical services. Many suffer from substance use and homelessness. If they use the emergency department (ED as their primary source of care, potentially preventable frequent ED revisits and hospital readmissions can worsen an already crowded healthcare system. However, the magnitude to which homelessness affects health service utilization among patients with mental health conditions remains unclear in the medical community. This study assessed the impact of homelessness on 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions among patients presenting with mental health conditions in an urban, safety-net hospital. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of administrative data on all adult ED visits in 2012 in an urban safety-net hospital. Patient demographics, mental health status, homelessness, insurance coverage, level of acuity, and ED disposition per ED visit were analyzed using multilevel modeling to control for multiple visits nested within patients. We performed multivariate logistic regressions to evaluate if homelessness moderated the likelihood of mental health patients’ 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions. Results: Study included 139,414 adult ED visits from 92,307 unique patients (43.5±15.1 years, 51.3% male, 68.2% Hispanic/Latino. Nearly 8% of patients presented with mental health conditions, while 4.6% were homeless at any time during the study period. Among patients with mental health conditions, being homeless contributed to an additional 28.0% increase in likelihood (4.28 to 5.48 odds of 30-day ED revisits and 38.2% increase in likelihood (2.04 to 2.82 odds of hospital readmission, compared to non-homeless, non-mental health (NHNM patients as the base category. Adjusted predicted probabilities showed that homeless patients presenting with mental health conditions have a 31.1% chance of returning to the ED within 30-day post discharge and a 3

  18. Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J

    1996-01-01

    In addition to the person-environment fit model (J. R. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990), a third theoretical concept is proposed to assess adverse health effects of stressful experience at work: the effort-reward imbalance model. The focus of this model is on reciprocity of exchange in occupational life where high-cost/low-gain conditions are considered particularly stressful. Variables measuring low reward in terms of low status control (e.g., lack of promotion prospects, job insecurity) in association with high extrinsic (e.g., work pressure) or intrinsic (personal coping pattern, e.g., high need for control) effort independently predict new cardiovascular events in a prospective study on blue-collar men. Furthermore, these variables partly explain prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, atherogenic lipids) in 2 independent studies. Studying adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions seems well justified, especially in view of recent developments of the labor market.

  19. Health condition and residual life of deteriorating technical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinertsen, Rune

    1998-12-31

    Many offshore installations in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea approach the end of their useful life. The same is true of many power plants and technical systems in general. This thesis describes the theory and improves the methods for the determination of the health condition and residual life of technical systems. Rather than developing new methods it discusses new ways of using existing statistical methods. The main contributions are: (1) A survey of the literature of diagnosis, prediction and life extension for deteriorating technical systems, (2) A discussion of some consequences of selecting the wrong life model, (3) A description of problems related to the determination of mean residual life of non-repairable technical systems, (4) Presentation of the concept of `technical health` to describe the soundness of a system exposed to failure mechanisms, (5) A model for predicting the technical health and residual life of a corroding system, (6) Recommends requirements and methods for using expert knowledge in safety and reliability analysis, (7) A general inspection strategy for system fault diagnosis by using Shannon entropy, (8) Points out weaknesses and strengths of risk measures used in the offshore industry today. 237 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Health condition and residual life of deteriorating technical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinertsen, Rune

    1997-12-31

    Many offshore installations in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea approach the end of their useful life. The same is true of many power plants and technical systems in general. This thesis describes the theory and improves the methods for the determination of the health condition and residual life of technical systems. Rather than developing new methods it discusses new ways of using existing statistical methods. The main contributions are: (1) A survey of the literature of diagnosis, prediction and life extension for deteriorating technical systems, (2) A discussion of some consequences of selecting the wrong life model, (3) A description of problems related to the determination of mean residual life of non-repairable technical systems, (4) Presentation of the concept of `technical health` to describe the soundness of a system exposed to failure mechanisms, (5) A model for predicting the technical health and residual life of a corroding system, (6) Recommends requirements and methods for using expert knowledge in safety and reliability analysis, (7) A general inspection strategy for system fault diagnosis by using Shannon entropy, (8) Points out weaknesses and strengths of risk measures used in the offshore industry today. 237 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Should catastrophic risks be included in a regulated competitive health insurance market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, W P; Schut, F T

    1994-11-01

    In 1988 the Dutch government launched a proposal for a national health insurance based on regulated competition. The mandatory benefits package should be offered by competing insurers and should cover both non-catastrophic risks (like hospital care, physician services and drugs) and catastrophic risks (like several forms of expensive long-term care). However, there are two arguments to exclude some of the catastrophic risks from the competitive insurance market, at least during the implementation process of the reforms. Firstly, the prospects for a workable system of risk-adjusted payments to the insurers that should take away the incentives for cream skimming are, at least during the next 5 years, more favorable for the non-catastrophic risks than for the catastrophic risks. Secondly, even if a workable system of risk-adjusted payments can be developed, the problem of quality skimping may be relevant for some of the catastrophic risks, but not for non-catastrophic risks. By 'quality skimping' we mean the reduction of the quality of care to a level which is below the minimum level that is acceptable to society. After 5 years of health care reforms in the Netherlands new insights have resulted in a growing support to confine the implementation of the reforms to the non-catastrophic risks. In drawing (and redrawing) the exact boundaries between different regulatory regimes for catastrophic and non-catastrophic risks, the expected benefits of a cost-effective substitution of care have to be weighted against the potential harm caused by cream skimming and quality skimping.

  2. Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program including the adjunct programs of design reconstitution and material condition and aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This standard presents program criteria and implementation guidance for an operational configuration management program for DOE nuclear and non-nuclear facilities in the operational phase. Portions of this standard are also useful for other DOE processes, activities, and programs. This Part 1 contains foreword, glossary, acronyms, bibliography, and Chapter 1 on operational configuration management program principles. Appendices are included on configuration management program interfaces, and background material and concepts for operational configuration management

  3. Mobile health applications for the most prevalent conditions by the World Health Organization: review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2013-06-14

    New possibilities for mHealth have arisen by means of the latest advances in mobile communications and technologies. With more than 1 billion smartphones and 100 million tablets around the world, these devices can be a valuable tool in health care management. Every aid for health care is welcome and necessary as shown by the more than 50 million estimated deaths caused by illnesses or health conditions in 2008. Some of these conditions have additional importance depending on their prevalence. To study the existing applications for mobile devices exclusively dedicated to the eight most prevalent health conditions by the latest update (2004) of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) of the World Health Organization (WHO): iron-deficiency anemia, hearing loss, migraine, low vision, asthma, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis (OA), and unipolar depressive disorders. Two reviews have been carried out. The first one is a review of mobile applications in published articles retrieved from the following systems: IEEE Xplore, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Knowledge, and PubMed. The second review is carried out by searching the most important commercial app stores: Google play, iTunes, BlackBerry World, Windows Phone Apps+Games, and Nokia's Ovi store. Finally, two applications for each condition, one for each review, were selected for an in-depth analysis. Search queries up to April 2013 located 247 papers and more than 3673 apps related to the most prevalent conditions. The conditions in descending order by the number of applications found in literature are diabetes, asthma, depression, hearing loss, low vision, OA, anemia, and migraine. However when ordered by the number of commercial apps found, the list is diabetes, depression, migraine, asthma, low vision, hearing loss, OA, and anemia. Excluding OA from the former list, the four most prevalent conditions have fewer apps and research than the final four. Several results are extracted from the in-depth analysis: most of the apps

  4. 78 FR 12358 - Cardinal Health, Financial Shared Services West, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... office financial services from India and the Philippines. Based on these findings, the Department is..., Financial Shared Services West, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, eXcel Staffing, Experis..., applicable to workers of Cardinal Health, Financial Shared Services West, including on-site leased workers...

  5. Housing and Health: The relationship between housing conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    okanlawon

    2011-10-22

    Oct 22, 2011 ... Housing and Health: The relationship between housing ... The authors in chapter one, deal extensively with historical context of housing and health chronologically ... Housing and Health: Time Again for Public Health Action.

  6. Mental health and development: targeting people with mental health conditions as a vulnerable group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drew, Natalie; Faydi, Edwige; Freeman, Melvyn; Funk, Michelle; Kettaneh, Audrey; Van Ommeren, Mark

    2010-01-01

    .... It argues that mental health should be included in sectoral and broader development strategies and plans, and that development stakeholders have important roles to play in ensuring that people...

  7. The Burnout Condition of Primary Health Care Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kaya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of burnout was first introduced by Fredeunberger in 1974. Fredeunberger had stated that burnout occurred more commonly in occupations whose members directly work with people. The aim of the study is to examine the burnout status of primary health care staff. The universe of this descriptive study is 466 health staff who work in primary health care units in Kecioren. The participation of the study was 54%. A Questionnaire including Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and some characteristics of the participants were used for data collection. Mann-whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests have been used for analizing the survey data. Seventyseven percent of the participants were female and the emotional exhaustion score of female was higher than male (p<0.01. The age of the participants effect the individual achievement scores (p<0.01. The profession or marital status of the participants didn’t affect the MBI scores. Some socio-demografic characteristics of the participants such as gender and age, affect the scores of MBI. Comprehensive studies which display the causes of problems, needed in this issue. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 357-363

  8. The Burnout Condition of Primary Health Care Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kaya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of burnout was first introduced by Fredeunberger in 1974. Fredeunberger had stated that burnout occurred more commonly in occupations whose members directly work with people. The aim of the study is to examine the burnout status of primary health care staff. The universe of this descriptive study is 466 health staff who work in primary health care units in Kecioren. The participation of the study was 54%. A Questionnaire including Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and some characteristics of the participants were used for data collection. Mann-whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests have been used for analizing the survey data. Seventyseven percent of the participants were female and the emotional exhaustion score of female was higher than male (p<0.01. The age of the participants effect the individual achievement scores (p<0.01. The profession or marital status of the participants didn’t affect the MBI scores. Some socio-demografic characteristics of the participants such as gender and age, affect the scores of MBI. Comprehensive studies which display the causes of problems, needed in this issue. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 357-363

  9. Choir singing and creative writing enhance emotion regulation in adults with chronic mental health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, Genevieve A; Williams, Elyse; Jetten, Jolanda; Welch, Jonathon

    2017-11-01

    Adults with mental health conditions commonly experience difficulties with emotion regulation which affect their social functioning. Arts-based groups provide opportunities for shared emotional experiences and emotion regulation. This study explores emotion regulation strategies and the emotional effects of arts-based group participation in adults with mental health problems and in controls. The 62 participants included 39 adults with chronic mental health problems who were members of arts-based groups (ABG) and 23 comparison choir (CC) members who were not specifically experiencing mental health problems. The repeated measures design included self-reports of emotion upon waking (T1), the hour before group (T2), end of the group (T3), and evening (T4), as well as participant notes to explain their emotion ratings at each time. They also completed measures of individual and interpersonal emotion regulation. The ABG participants engaged marginally more in affect worsening strategies than CC (p = .057 and .08), but there were no other group differences. All participants reported a significant increase in positive emotions, F (3, 180) = 28.044, p emotions during the arts-based activity: F (2.637, 155.597) = 21.09, p emotions was short-lived, while the effect on negative emotions lasted until evening. Findings show that participation in arts-based groups benefits the emotions of both healthy adults and those experiencing mental health conditions through individual and interpersonal processes. Individuals with chronic mental health conditions often experience difficulties in emotion processing Participation in arts-based groups was associated with significant increases in positive emotions although these were short-lived Negative emotion was significantly decreased during arts-based group activities, and sustained to the evening assessment Adults with chronic mental health conditions were equally able to derive emotional benefits as healthy adults. © 2017 The

  10. Statistics concerning the Apollo command module water landing, including the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, sucessful impact, and body X-axis loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1971-01-01

    Statistical information for the Apollo command module water landings is presented. This information includes the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, a successful impact, and body X-axis loads of various magnitudes.

  11. [Position Paper of The AG Digital Health DNVF on Digital Health Applications: Framework Conditions For Use in Health Care, Structural Development and Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmar, Horst Christian; Kramer, Ursula; Müller, Hardy; Griemmert, Maria; Noelle, Guido; Schrappe, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    The term "digital health" is currently the most comprehensive term that includes all information and communication technologies in healthcare, including e-health, mobile health, telemedicine, big data, health apps and others. Digital health can be seen as a good example of the use of the concept and methodology of health services research in the interaction between complex interventions and complex contexts. The position paper deals with 1) digital health as the subject of health services research; 2) digital health as a methodological and ethical challenge for health services research. The often-postulated benefits of digital health interventions should be demonstrated with good studies. First systematic evaluations of apps for "treatment support" show that risks are higher than benefits. The need for a rigorous proof applies even more to big data-assisted interventions that support decision-making in the treatment process with the support of artificial intelligence. Of course, from the point of view of health services research, it is worth participating as much as possible in data access available through digital health and "big data". However, there is the risk that a noncritical application of digital health and big data will lead to a return to a linear understanding of biomedical research, which, at best, accepts complex conditions assuming multivariate models but does not take complex facts into account. It is not just a matter of scientific ethical requirements in health services care research, for instance, better research instead of unnecessary research ("reducing waste"), but it is primarily a matter of anticipating the social consequences (system level) of scientific analysis and evaluation. This is both a challenge and an attractive option for health services research to present itself as a mature and responsible scientific discipline. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Health Service Utilization among Syrian Refugees with Chronic Health Conditions in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Oweis, Arwa; Al Ward, Nada; Burton, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system, particularly in treating chronic health conditions. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services for chronic health conditions among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings. A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care for hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and arthritis. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households. Of 1363 cases with a chronic health condition diagnosis, 84.7% had received care in Jordan. Public facilities faced a heavy burden serving over half (53.9%) of care-seekers; the remainder received care in the private (29.6%) and NGO/charity (16.6%) sectors. Individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the central region of Jordan and with arthritis had the lowest rates of care-seeking when compared to other regions and conditions. Overall, 31.6% of care-seekers had an out-of-pocket payment for the most recent care-seeking event which averaged 18.8 USD (median = 0 USD), excluding cost of medications. Forced displacement presents major challenges to those with NCDs, which have the potential to seriously impact both the quality of life and life expectancy amongst refugees. NCD patterns among Syrian refugees indicate the importance of continuing support to public sector services in Jordan to adequately meet expanding needs and ensure appropriate prevention and control of priority NCDs.

  13. Health Service Utilization among Syrian Refugees with Chronic Health Conditions in Jordan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Doocy

    Full Text Available The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system, particularly in treating chronic health conditions. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services for chronic health conditions among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings.A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care for hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and arthritis. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households.Of 1363 cases with a chronic health condition diagnosis, 84.7% had received care in Jordan. Public facilities faced a heavy burden serving over half (53.9% of care-seekers; the remainder received care in the private (29.6% and NGO/charity (16.6% sectors. Individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCDs in the central region of Jordan and with arthritis had the lowest rates of care-seeking when compared to other regions and conditions. Overall, 31.6% of care-seekers had an out-of-pocket payment for the most recent care-seeking event which averaged 18.8 USD (median = 0 USD, excluding cost of medications.Forced displacement presents major challenges to those with NCDs, which have the potential to seriously impact both the quality of life and life expectancy amongst refugees. NCD patterns among Syrian refugees indicate the importance of continuing support to public sector services in Jordan to adequately meet expanding needs and ensure appropriate prevention and control of priority NCDs.

  14. [Materiality Analysis of Health Plans Based on Stakeholder Engagement and the Issues Included at ISO 26000:2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano Santiago, Miguel Angel; Rivera Lirio, Juana María

    2017-01-18

    Health plans of the Spanish autonomous communities can incorporate sustainable development criteria in its development. There have been no analysis or proposals about development and indicators. The goal is to add a contribution to help build better health plans aimed at sustainable development and help to manage economic, social and environmental impacts of health systems criteria. We used a variation of the RAND/UCLA or modified Delphi technique method. The process consisted of a bibliographical and context matters and issues related to health and social responsibility analysis based on ISO 26000: 2010. A survey by deliberately to a selection of 70 expert members of the identified stakeholders was carried out and a discussion group was held to determine the consensus on the issues addressed in the survey sample. The research was conducted in 2015. From the literature review 33 health issues included in ISO 26000:2010 were obtained. 7 survey proved relevant high consensus, 8 relevance and average consensus and 18 with less relevance and high level of dissent. The expert group excluded 4 of the 18 subjects with less consensus. 29 issues included 33 at work, divided into 7 subjects contained in the guide ISO 26000 of social responsibility, were relevant stakeholders regarding possible inclusion in health plans. Considering the direct relationship published by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) among the issues ISO 26000 and the economic, social and environmental indicators in GRI (Global Reporting Initiative) in its G4 version, a panel with monitoring indicators related to relevant issues were elaborated.

  15. [Women in informal economy health and work conditions Bogotá. 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Suárez, Nidia R; Quiroz-Arcentáles, Jorge L; Mahecha-Montilla, Charo P; López-Sánchez, Paola A

    2012-06-01

    To determine work and health conditions of women working in informal economy in Bogotá, as well as to recommend priority action plans for preventing illnesses and accidents related to work and their consequences. Descriptive observational study. This study analyzed information collected by local groups in work-related contexts during 2007 as part of a set of forms of intervention established according to the Plan de Atención Básica (Primary Care Plan). This plan included 3 715 units of informal work from every point of the city. 3 936 women registers in all were analyzed. This study reveals evident precariousness conditions of women in this economic sector. Specifically, there are certain evident conditions that had shown in this study such as low education levels, incomes below the minimum legal standards, high exposure to damaging health work conditions, long work hours, and few hours for leisure and free time. Furthermore, 75 % of women included in this study are female head of household. This condition makes them more vulnerable to a heavier family and social burden. Closer attention to informal economy phenomenon is suggested in order to avoid vulnerable conditions of working women. Besides, it is necessary to improve the articulation between Academy and forms of intervention through public policies for knowing deeply repeated phenomena regarding the population of study. This articulation can be thought for implementing programs designed for improving women's quality of life.

  16. Web-Based Mindfulness Interventions for People With Physical Health Conditions: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivonen, Kirsti I; Zernicke, Kristin; Carlson, Linda E

    2017-08-31

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are becoming increasingly popular for helping people with physical health conditions. Expanding from traditional face-to-face program delivery, there is growing interest in Web-based application of MBIs, though Web-based MBIs for people with physical health conditions specifically have not been thoroughly reviewed to date. The objective of this paper was to review Web-based MBIs for people with physical health conditions and to examine all outcomes reported (eg, efficacy or effectiveness for physical changes or psychological changes; feasibility). Databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Science Direct, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science were searched. Full-text English papers that described any Web-based MBI, examining any outcome, for people with chronic physical health conditions were included. Randomized, nonrandomized, controlled, and uncontrolled trials were all included. Extracted data included intervention characteristics, population characteristics, outcomes, and quality indicators. Intervention characteristics (eg, synchronicity and guidance) were examined as potential factors related to study outcomes. Of 435 publications screened, 19 published papers describing 16 studies were included. They examined Web-based MBIs for people with cancer, chronic pain or fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), epilepsy, heart disease, tinnitus, and acquired brain injury. Overall, most studies reported positive effects of Web-based MBIs compared with usual care on a variety of outcomes including pain acceptance, coping measures, and depressive symptoms. There were mixed results regarding the effectiveness of Web-based MBIs compared with active control treatment conditions such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Condition-specific symptoms (eg, cancer-related fatigue and IBS symptoms) targeted by treatment had the largest effect size improvements following MBIs. Results are inconclusive regarding physical variables. Preliminary evidence suggests

  17. Revisiting the impact of macroeconomic conditions on health behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Giorgio

    2018-02-01

    This paper estimates the average population effect of macroeconomic conditions on health behaviours accounting for the heterogeneous impact of the business cycle on individuals. While previous studies use models relying on area-specific unemployment rates to estimate this average effect, this paper employs a model based on area-specific unemployment rates by gender and age group. The rationale for breaking down unemployment rates is that the severity of cyclical upturns and downturns does not only significantly vary across geographical areas, but also across gender and age. The empirical analysis uses microdata from the Italian Multipurpose Household Survey on Everyday Life Issues. The estimates suggest that models employing aggregated and disaggregated unemployment rate measures as a proxy for the business cycle produce similar findings for some health behaviours (such as smoking), whereas different results are obtained for others. While using unemployment rates by gender and age group, fruits and/or vegetables consumption turns out to be procyclical (a 1pp increase in this unemployment rate decreases the probability of consuming at least five daily fruit and/or vegetable servings by 0.0016pp), the opposite effect, though statistically insignificant, is observed once general unemployment rates are used. While both models conclude that physical activity declines during economic downturns, the size of the procyclical effect is much smaller when employing disaggregated rather than aggregated unemployment rates (a 1pp increase in the unemployment rate by gender and age group decreases the probability of doing any physical activity by 0.0017pp). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chiropractic manipulation in pediatric health conditions – an updated systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotlib Allan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Our purpose was to review the biomedical literature from January 2004 to June 2007 inclusive to determine the extent of new evidence related to the therapeutic application of manipulation for pediatric health conditions. This updates a previous systematic review published in 2005. No critical appraisal of the evidence is undertaken. Data Sources We searched both the indexed and non-indexed biomedical manual therapy literature. This included PubMed, MANTIS, CINAHL, ICL, as well as reference tracking. Other resources included the Cochrane Library, CCOHTA, PEDro, WHO ICTRP, AMED, EMBASE and AHRQ databases, as well as research conferences and symposium proceedings. Results The search identified 1275 citations of which 57 discrete citations met the eligibility criteria determined by three reviewers who then determined by consensus, each citation's appropriate level on the strength of evidence scale. The new evidence from the relevant time period was 1 systematic review, 1 RCT, 2 observational studies, 36 descriptive case studies and 17 conference abstracts. When this additional evidence is combined with the previous systematic review undertaken up to 2003, there are now in total, 2 systematic reviews, 10 RCT's, 3 observational studies, 177 descriptive studies, and 31 conference abstracts defining this body of knowledge. Summary There has been no substantive shift in this body of knowledge during the past 3 1/2 years. The health claims made by chiropractors with respect to the application of manipulation as a health care intervention for pediatric health conditions continue to be supported by only low levels of scientific evidence. Chiropractors continue to treat a wide variety of pediatric health conditions. The evidence rests primarily with clinical experience, descriptive case studies and very few observational and experimental studies. The health interests of pediatric patients would be advanced if more rigorous scientific

  19. Effect on attendance by including focused information on spirometry in preventive health checks: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Løkke, Anders; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2016-12-01

    Early detection of lung diseases can help to reduce their severity. Lung diseases are among the most frequently occurring and serious diseases worldwide; nonetheless, many patients remain undiagnosed. Preventive health checks including spirometry can detect lung diseases at early stages; however, recruitment for health checks remains a challenge, and little is known about what motivates the attendance. The aim of the study is to examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation compared to general information will impact the attendance rate in preventive health checks. This randomized, controlled trial tests the effect of information on spirometry embedded in the Check your Health Preventive Program (CHPP). The CHPP is an open-label, household cluster-randomized, controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30- to -49-year-olds in a Danish municipality from 2012 to 2017 (n = 26,216). During 2015-2016, 4356 citizens aged 30-49 years will be randomized into two groups. The intervention group receives an invitation which highlights the value and contents of spirometry as part of a health check and information about lung diseases. The comparison group receives a standard invitation containing practical information and specifies the contents of the general health check. Outcomes are (1) differences in attendance rates measured by the proportion of citizens attending each of the two study groups and (2) proportion of persons at risk defined by smoking status and self-reported lung symptoms in the study groups. The proportion of participants with abnormal spirometry assessed at the preventive health check will be compared between the two study groups. The results from the present study will inform future recruitment strategies to health checks. The developed material on content, value, and information about lung disease is feasible and transferable to other populations, making it easy to implement if effective. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT

  20. Psychosocial work conditions, unemployment and health locus of control: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq Mohammad Ali; Lindström, Martin

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the association between psychosocial work conditions, unemployment and lack of belief in the possibility of influencing one's own health. The 2000 public health survey in Scania is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study with a 59% participation rate. In total, 5180 persons aged 18-64 years who belonged to the workforce and the unemployed were included in this study. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between psychosocial factors at work and unemployment, and lack of belief in the possibility of influencing one's own health (external locus of control). Psychosocial conditions at work were defined according to the Karasek-Theorell demand-control/decision latitudes into relaxed, active, passive, and job strain categories. The multivariate analyses included age, country of birth, education, economic stress, and social participation. In total, 26.6% of all men and 26.9% of all women lack an internal locus of control. The passive, job strain and unemployed categories have significantly higher odds ratios of lack of internal locus of control, as compared to the relaxed reference category. No such significant differences are observed for the active category. These patterns remain in the multivariate models, with the exception of the passive and unemployed categories among men, in which the significant differences disappear. Psychosocial work conditions and unemployment may affect health locus of control. The control dimension in the Karasek-Theorell model seems to be of greatest importance.

  1. Structural health monitoring methodology for aircraft condition-based maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniger, Jordi; Reithler, Livier; Guedra-Degeorges, Didier; Takeda, Nobuo; Dupuis, Jean Pierre

    2001-06-01

    Reducing maintenance costs while keeping a constant level of safety is a major issue for Air Forces and airlines. The long term perspective is to implement condition based maintenance to guarantee a constant safety level while decreasing maintenance costs. On this purpose, the development of a generalized Structural Health Monitoring System (SHMS) is needed. The objective of such a system is to localize the damages and to assess their severity, with enough accuracy to allow low cost corrective actions. The present paper describes a SHMS based on acoustic emission technology. This choice was driven by its reliability and wide use in the aerospace industry. The described SHMS uses a new learning methodology which relies on the generation of artificial acoustic emission events on the structure and an acoustic emission sensor network. The calibrated acoustic emission events picked up by the sensors constitute the knowledge set that the system relies on. With this methodology, the anisotropy of composite structures is taken into account, thus avoiding the major cause of errors of classical localization methods. Moreover, it is adaptive to different structures as it does not rely on any particular model but on measured data. The acquired data is processed and the event's location and corrected amplitude are computed. The methodology has been demonstrated and experimental tests on elementary samples presented a degree of accuracy of 1cm.

  2. Oral Health Conditions of Older People: Focus on the Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzopoulos Georgios S.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral health plays a pivotal role in general health, especially in older people. Oral diseases may affect the development of systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stroke and hypertension. The most important oral health conditions that have been recorded in dental literature for older population include tooth loss, dental caries, periodontal diseases, xerostomia (dry mouth and oral cancer. Edentulism influences social life, either causing aesthetic problems or affecting functional abilities, such as speaking, chewing and eating. Dental caries in older people is similar to that in people in their thirties. Socio-economic status and living area play a key role in the development of dental caries. In addition, the accumulation of several risk factors, such as plaque or systemic diseases, acts synergistically in the onset of periodontal disease in seniors. Furthermore, older people, mainly due to their medications, exhibit a reduced amount of saliva. Xerostomia causes difficulties in chewing, speaking and swallowing, and it has a substantial impact on older people’s lives. The prevalence of oral cancer is 1-10 per 100,000 patients, and several factors (smoking, alcohol, education, economic status play crucial role. Limited data exists today that evaluates oral health conditions of seniors in the Balkan countries. Aging and socio-economic status of seniors in the Balkans are significantly associated with oral health problems.

  3. Flexible working conditions and their effects on employee health and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Kerry; Pabayo, Roman; Critchley, Julia A; Bambra, Clare

    2010-02-17

    Flexible working conditions are increasingly popular in developed countries but the effects on employee health and wellbeing are largely unknown. To evaluate the effects (benefits and harms) of flexible working interventions on the physical, mental and general health and wellbeing of employees and their families. Our searches (July 2009) covered 12 databases including the Cochrane Public Health Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; PsycINFO; Social Science Citation Index; ASSIA; IBSS; Sociological Abstracts; and ABI/Inform. We also searched relevant websites, handsearched key journals, searched bibliographies and contacted study authors and key experts. Randomised controlled trials (RCT), interrupted time series and controlled before and after studies (CBA), which examined the effects of flexible working interventions on employee health and wellbeing. We excluded studies assessing outcomes for less than six months and extracted outcomes relating to physical, mental and general health/ill health measured using a validated instrument. We also extracted secondary outcomes (including sickness absence, health service usage, behavioural changes, accidents, work-life balance, quality of life, health and wellbeing of children, family members and co-workers) if reported alongside at least one primary outcome. Two experienced review authors conducted data extraction and quality appraisal. We undertook a narrative synthesis as there was substantial heterogeneity between studies. Ten studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Six CBA studies reported on interventions relating to temporal flexibility: self-scheduling of shift work (n = 4), flexitime (n = 1) and overtime (n = 1). The remaining four CBA studies evaluated a form of contractual flexibility: partial/gradual retirement (n = 2), involuntary part-time work (n = 1) and fixed-term contract (n = 1). The studies retrieved had a number of methodological limitations including short follow-up periods

  4. The Role of Condition-Specific Preference-Based Measures in Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, Donna; Brazier, John; Ara, Roberta; Azzabi Zouraq, Ismail

    2017-12-01

    A condition-specific preference-based measure (CSPBM) is a measure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) that is specific to a certain condition or disease and that can be used to obtain the quality adjustment weight of the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for use in economic models. This article provides an overview of the role and the development of CSPBMs, and presents a description of existing CSPBMs in the literature. The article also provides an overview of the psychometric properties of CSPBMs in comparison with generic preference-based measures (generic PBMs), and considers the advantages and disadvantages of CSPBMs in comparison with generic PBMs. CSPBMs typically include dimensions that are important for that condition but may not be important across all patient groups. There are a large number of CSPBMs across a wide range of conditions, and these vary from covering a wide range of dimensions to more symptomatic or uni-dimensional measures. Psychometric evidence is limited but suggests that CSPBMs offer an advantage in more accurate measurement of milder health states. The mean change and standard deviation can differ for CSPBMs and generic PBMs, and this may impact on incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. CSPBMs have a useful role in HTA where a generic PBM is not appropriate, sensitive or responsive. However, due to issues of comparability across different patient groups and interventions, their usage in health technology assessment is often limited to conditions where it is inappropriate to use a generic PBM or sensitivity analyses.

  5. Public Health and Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction Including Fracking: Global Lessons from a Scottish Government Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watterson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional oil and gas extraction (UOGE including fracking for shale gas is underway in North America on a large scale, and in Australia and some other countries. It is viewed as a major source of global energy needs by proponents. Critics consider fracking and UOGE an immediate and long-term threat to global, national, and regional public health and climate. Rarely have governments brought together relatively detailed assessments of direct and indirect public health risks associated with fracking and weighed these against potential benefits to inform a national debate on whether to pursue this energy route. The Scottish government has now done so in a wide-ranging consultation underpinned by a variety of reports on unconventional gas extraction including fracking. This paper analyses the Scottish government approach from inception to conclusion, and from procedures to outcomes. The reports commissioned by the Scottish government include a comprehensive review dedicated specifically to public health as well as reports on climate change, economic impacts, transport, geology, and decommissioning. All these reports are relevant to public health, and taken together offer a comprehensive review of existing evidence. The approach is unique globally when compared with UOGE assessments conducted in the USA, Australia, Canada, and England. The review process builds a useful evidence base although it is not without flaws. The process approach, if not the content, offers a framework that may have merits globally.

  6. Public Health and Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction Including Fracking: Global Lessons from a Scottish Government Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Andrew; Dinan, William

    2018-04-04

    Unconventional oil and gas extraction (UOGE) including fracking for shale gas is underway in North America on a large scale, and in Australia and some other countries. It is viewed as a major source of global energy needs by proponents. Critics consider fracking and UOGE an immediate and long-term threat to global, national, and regional public health and climate. Rarely have governments brought together relatively detailed assessments of direct and indirect public health risks associated with fracking and weighed these against potential benefits to inform a national debate on whether to pursue this energy route. The Scottish government has now done so in a wide-ranging consultation underpinned by a variety of reports on unconventional gas extraction including fracking. This paper analyses the Scottish government approach from inception to conclusion, and from procedures to outcomes. The reports commissioned by the Scottish government include a comprehensive review dedicated specifically to public health as well as reports on climate change, economic impacts, transport, geology, and decommissioning. All these reports are relevant to public health, and taken together offer a comprehensive review of existing evidence. The approach is unique globally when compared with UOGE assessments conducted in the USA, Australia, Canada, and England. The review process builds a useful evidence base although it is not without flaws. The process approach, if not the content, offers a framework that may have merits globally.

  7. Public Health and Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction Including Fracking: Global Lessons from a Scottish Government Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Unconventional oil and gas extraction (UOGE) including fracking for shale gas is underway in North America on a large scale, and in Australia and some other countries. It is viewed as a major source of global energy needs by proponents. Critics consider fracking and UOGE an immediate and long-term threat to global, national, and regional public health and climate. Rarely have governments brought together relatively detailed assessments of direct and indirect public health risks associated with fracking and weighed these against potential benefits to inform a national debate on whether to pursue this energy route. The Scottish government has now done so in a wide-ranging consultation underpinned by a variety of reports on unconventional gas extraction including fracking. This paper analyses the Scottish government approach from inception to conclusion, and from procedures to outcomes. The reports commissioned by the Scottish government include a comprehensive review dedicated specifically to public health as well as reports on climate change, economic impacts, transport, geology, and decommissioning. All these reports are relevant to public health, and taken together offer a comprehensive review of existing evidence. The approach is unique globally when compared with UOGE assessments conducted in the USA, Australia, Canada, and England. The review process builds a useful evidence base although it is not without flaws. The process approach, if not the content, offers a framework that may have merits globally. PMID:29617318

  8. Using Electronic Health Record Data to Measure Care Quality for Individuals with Multiple Chronic Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Elizabeth A; McQuillan, Deanna B; Ellis, Jennifer L; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Zeng, Chan; Barton, Mary B; Boyd, Cynthia M; Fortin, Martin; Ling, Shari M; Tai-Seale, Ming; Ralston, James D; Ritchie, Christine S; Zulman, Donna M

    2016-09-01

    To inform the development of a data-driven measure of quality care for individuals with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs) derived from an electronic health record (EHR). Qualitative study using focus groups, interactive webinars, and a modified Delphi process. Research department within an integrated delivery system. The webinars and Delphi process included 17 experts in clinical geriatrics and primary care, health policy, quality assessment, health technology, and health system operations. The focus group included 10 individuals aged 70-87 with three to six chronic conditions selected from a random sample of individuals aged 65 and older with three or more chronic medical conditions. Through webinars and the focus group, input was solicited on constructs representing high-quality care for individuals with MCCs. A working list was created of potential measures representing these constructs. Using a modified Delphi process, experts rated the importance of each possible measure and the feasibility of implementing each measure using EHR data. High-priority constructs reflected processes rather than outcomes of care. High-priority constructs that were potentially feasible to measure included assessing physical function, depression screening, medication reconciliation, annual influenza vaccination, outreach after hospital admission, and documented advance directives. High-priority constructs that were less feasible to measure included goal setting and shared decision-making, identifying drug-drug interactions, assessing social support, timely communication with patients, and other aspects of good customer service. Lower-priority domains included pain assessment, continuity of care, and overuse of screening or laboratory testing. High-quality MCC care should be measured using meaningful process measures rather than outcomes. Although some care processes are currently extractable from electronic data, capturing others will require adapting and applying technology to

  9. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in emergency care and to have treatment to control their cholesterol levels. Mental health Women are more likely to show signs ... mental_health/prevention/genderwomen/en/ National Institute ... Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Arthritis-related statistics . Retrieved May ...

  10. [The public health legislation in conditions of globalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremov, D V; Jyliyaeva, E P

    2013-01-01

    The article demonstrates the impact of globalization on development of public health legislation at the international level and in particular countries. The legislation is considered as a tool to decrease the globalization health risks for population

  11. Perceptions of working conditions amongst health workers in state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... affect health outcomes and patient safety. There is ... availability of tools and consumables in the workplace and progress towards personal professional goals appear to ... health care managers need to influence factors that.

  12. The Environmental Health Condition of The New University of Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    modern health care delivery; while it provides an avenue for the treatment of ... hospitals safe for the patients, carers, health workers and the. 5 ... providing excellent medical services, manpower training and ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  13. Should CAM and CAM Training Programs Be Included in the Curriculum of Schools That Provide Health Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the knowledge levels and attitudes of School of Health and Vocational School of Health students toward complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Methods: Three hundred thirty-three (333 students studying at the Mehmet Akif Ersoy University School of Health and the Golhisar Vocational School of Health in Burdur, Turkey, were included in the study. Research data were collected by using a survey method based on the expressed opinions of the participants. Results: Of the participants, 69.7% were female and 97% were single (unmarried. Of cigarette users and those with chronic illnesses, 46.8% and 47.8%, respectively, used CAM. Those using CAM were statistically more likely to be female (P < 0.021, to have higher grades (P < 0.007, to be single (P < 0.005, to be vocational school of health graduates (P < 0.008, and to have fathers at work (P < 0.021. While 9.6% of the students thought CAM to be nonsense, 10.8% thought that the methods of CAM should be tried before consulting a doctor. Conclusion: A majority of the students in the study population were found to use complementary and alternative medicine, but that they lacked information about its methods. As a way to address this, CAM should be included in the curriculum of schools that provide health education, and CAM training programs should be given to healthcare professionals to improve their knowledge of CAM. In Turkey, many more studies should be performed to determine nurses’ and doctors’ knowledge of and attitudes about CAM methods so that they can give correct guidance to society and take more active responsibility in improving patient safety.

  14. The Impact of Including Immigrants without Permanent Residence Status in the Public Health Insurance System in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepperová Jana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whether an individual can or cannot participate in the Czech public health insurance system depends on several characteristics, one of which is whether he/she has permanent residence status in the Czech Republic, and a second whether he/she is employed. This means that those without permanent residence status, including self-employed migrants from third countries, their dependent relatives, and the dependent relatives of third country employees in the Czech Republic, cannot participate in the public health insurance system. Some argue that such migrants should be included in the system, since commercial health insurance is disadvantageous and the contributions they would pay into the public health insurance system would increase the public health insurance agencies’ income. We estimate the value of the contributions to public health insurance that would be paid by third country self-employed and non-working immigrants, if they were insured based on data from 2011 to 2013, and compare this to the assumed costs of their medical care. To calculate the contributions for self-employed migrants we use data on the distribution of the tax base for self-employed persons from personal income tax returns. Our estimation results in an overall negative balance of 22 million CZK on the data for 2012 and 2013. In the current system this deficit would be covered by the state, which would pay contributions to the system for certain (state insured persons amounting to 97 million CZK; overall therefore the inclusion of these immigrants would result in a positive balance of 75 million CZK.

  15. Oral health conditions and frailty in Mexican community-dwelling elderly: a cross sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castrejón-Pérez Roberto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health is an important component of general well-being for the elderly. Oral health-related problems include loss of teeth, nonfunctional removable dental prostheses, lesions of the oral mucosa, periodontitis, and root caries. They affect food selection, speaking ability, mastication, social relations, and quality of life. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that confers vulnerability to negative health-related outcomes. The association between oral health and frailty has not been explored thoroughly. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of some oral health conditions, and frailty status among Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Methods Analysis of baseline data of the Mexican Study of Nutritional and Psychosocial Markers of Frailty, a cohort study carried out in a representative sample of people aged 70 and older residing in one district of Mexico City. Frailty was defined as the presence of three or more of the following five components: weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, weakness, and low physical activity. Oral health variables included self-perception of oral health compared with others of the same age; utilization of dental services during the last year, number of teeth, dental condition (edentate, partially edentate, or completely dentate, utilization and functionality of removable partial or complete dentures, severe periodontitis, self-reported chewing problems and xerostomia. Covariates included were gender, age, years of education, cognitive performance, smoking status, recent falls, hospitalization, number of drugs, and comorbidity. The association between frailty and dental variables was determined performing a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Final models were adjusted by socio-demographic and health factors Results Of the 838 participants examined, 699 had the information needed to establish the criteria for diagnosis of frailty. Those who had a higher probability of being

  16. Integrative review of research on general health status and prevalence of common physical health conditions of women after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Li, Qing

    2008-01-01

    Postpartum mothers experience certain physical health conditions that may affect their quality of life, future health, and health of their children. Yet, the physical health of postpartum mothers is relatively neglected in both research and practice. The purpose of this review is to describe the general health status and prevalence of common physical health conditions of postpartum mothers. The review followed standard procedures for integrative literature reviews. Twenty-two articles were reviewed from searches in scientific databases, reference lists, and an up-to-date survey. Three tables were designed to answer review questions. In general, postpartum mothers self-rate their health as good. They experience certain physical conditions such as fatigue/physical exhaustion, sleep-related problems, pain, sex-related concerns, hemorrhoids/constipation, and breast problems. Despite a limited number of studies, the findings provide a glimpse of the presence of a number of physical health conditions experienced by women in the 2 years postpartum. In the articles reviewed, physical health conditions and postpartum period were poorly defined, no standard scales existed, and the administration of surveys varied widely in time. Those disparities prevented systematic comparisons of results and made it difficult to gain a coherent understanding of the physical health conditions of postpartum mothers. More longitudinal research is needed that focuses on the etiology, predictors, and management of the health conditions most prevalent among postpartum mothers. Instruments are needed that target a broader range of physical conditions in respect to type and severity.

  17. Cost-Utility Analysis of Extending Public Health Insurance Coverage to Include Diabetic Retinopathy Screening by Optometrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Katwyk, Sasha; Jin, Ya-Ping; Trope, Graham E; Buys, Yvonne; Masucci, Lisa; Wedge, Richard; Flanagan, John; Brent, Michael H; El-Defrawy, Sherif; Tu, Hong Anh; Thavorn, Kednapa

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of vision loss and blindness in Canada. Eye examinations play an important role in early detection. However, DR screening by optometrists is not always universally covered by public or private health insurance plans. This study assessed whether expanding public health coverage to include diabetic eye examinations for retinopathy by optometrists is cost-effective from the perspective of the health care system. We conducted a cost-utility analysis of extended coverage for diabetic eye examinations in Prince Edward Island to include examinations by optometrists, not currently publicly covered. We used a Markov chain to simulate disease burden based on eye examination rates and DR progression over a 30-year time horizon. Results were presented as an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. A series of one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Extending public health coverage to eye examinations by optometrists was associated with higher costs ($9,908,543.32) and improved QALYs (156,862.44), over 30 years, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1668.43/QALY gained. Sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential determinants of the results were the cost of optometric screening and selected utility scores. At the commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY, the probability that the new policy was cost-effective was 99.99%. Extending public health coverage to eye examinations by optometrists is cost-effective based on a commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY. Findings from this study can inform the decision to expand public-insured optometric services for patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of the work conditions of allied health professionals on satisfaction, commitment and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, John; Noblet, Andrew; Demir, Defne; Steane, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Allied health professionals are integral to the effective delivery of hospital-based health care, yet little is known about the working conditions associated with the attitudinal and health outcomes of these employees. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the demand-control-support model, in combination with organizational justice variables, predicts the employee-level outcomes of allied health professionals. Allied health professionals from an Australian health care organization were surveyed, with 113 (52.6%) participating. The survey included measures of job demands, job control, social support, organizational justice, satisfaction, commitment and psychological distress. Multiple regression analyses reveal that the additive demand-control-support model predicts the outcome variables of job satisfaction, organizational commitment and psychological distress, whereas the organizational justice variables predicted organizational commitment and psychological distress. Further, both work and nonwork sources of support, in addition to specific justice dimensions, were closely associated with employee-level outcomes. When coupled with previous research involving social support and organizational justice, the findings from this study suggest that initiatives aimed at strengthening supervisor and nonwork support, while enhancing perceptions of organizational fairness, may offer useful avenues for increasing the levels of satisfaction, commitment and well-being experienced by allied health professionals.

  19. Comorbid subjective health complaints in patients with sciatica: a prospective study including comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne J; Ihlebaek, Camilla M; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens I; Grotle, Margreth

    2011-06-01

    Chronic nonspecific low back pain is accompanied by high rates of comorbid mental and physical conditions. The aims of this study were to investigate if patients with specific back pain, that is, sciatica caused by lumbar herniation, report higher rates of subjective health complaints (SHCs) than the general population and if there is an association between change in sciatica symptoms and change in SHCs over a 12-month period. A multicenter cohort study of 466 sciatica patients was conducted with follow-up at 3 months and 1 year. Comorbid SHCs were measured by 27 items of the SHC inventory. Odds ratios (ORs) for each SHC were calculated with comparison to a general population sample (n=928) by logistic regression. The SHC number was calculated by summing all complaints present. At baseline, the ORs for reporting SHCs for the sciatica patients were significantly elevated in 15 of the 27 items with a mean (S.D.) SHC number of 7.5 (4.4), compared to 5.2 (4.4) in the general population (Psciatica, the SHC number was reduced to normal levels. Among those with persisting or worsening sciatica, the number increased to a level almost double that of the general population. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of subjective health complaints in sciatica is increased. During follow-up, the number of health complaints increased in patients with persisting or worsening sciatica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Conditional cash transfer programs and the health and nutrition of Latin American children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Segura-Pérez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To 1 describe the benefits, conditions, coverage, funding, goals, governance, and structure of well-established conditional cash transfer programs (CCTs in Latin America and 2 identify their health and nutritional impacts among children under 5 years old. Methods A realist review was conducted. CCTs were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: 1 current national-level program; 2 coverage of at least 50% of the target population; 3 continuous operation at scale for 10+ years; 4 clear description of structure, funding sources, and governance; 5 both health/nutrition- and education-related conditions for participation; and 6 available impact evaluation studies with health, development, and/or nutrition indicators among children under 5 years old. Three CCTs (one each in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico met the criteria. Results There was consistent evidence that the three CCTs selected for review had positive impacts on child health and nutrition outcomes in their respective countries. In all three countries, the programs were scaled up and positive impacts were documented relatively quickly. All three programs had strong political support and clear and transparent governance structures, including accountability and social participation mechanisms, which might explain their success and sustainability. Conclusions CCTs in Latin America have had a positive impact on child health and nutrition outcomes among the poorest families. A key challenge for the future is to reform these programs to help families move out of not only extreme poverty but all poverty in order to lead healthy and productive lives, as called for in the post-2105 Sustainable Development Goals.

  1. Children with disabling chronic conditions in the Western health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    scientific quality. ... The purpose of this study was to count the number of children with ... 2 School of Child and Adolescent Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, .... any direct medical support in the form of a full-time nursing sister ... realistic figure as comparison, because the current study was biased.

  2. Management of common eye conditions in a primary health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated by properly trained middle cadre eye health worker working with simple diagnostic tools in a primary health care setting or by referring to secondary care in a timely ... Personal and environmental hygiene: (regular hand and face washing, proper disposal of garbage, human and animal waste and maintenance of a.

  3. Preparations for Severe Winter Conditions by Emergency Health Personnel in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calışkan, Cüneyt; Algan, Aysun; Koçak, Hüseyin; Biçer, Burcu Küçük; Sengelen, Meltem; Cakir, Banu

    2014-04-23

    Emergency and core ambulance personnel work under all environmental conditions, including severe weather condtions. We evaluated emergency medical personnel in Çanakkale, Turkey, for their degree of preparedness. A descriptive study was conducted in Çanakkale, Turkey, within 112 emergency service units and their 17 district stations. Surveys were developed to measure the level of preparedness for serious winter conditions that individual workers made for themselves, their homes, and their cars. Of the 167 survey participants, the mean age was 29.8 ± 7.9 years; 52.7% were women; more than half (54.75%) were emergency medical technicians; and 53.3% were married. Only 10.4% of those who heated their homes with natural gas had carbon monoxide detectors. Scores relating to household and individual preparation for severe winter conditions increased by participants' age (P tires (P winter conditions (P = .016). Many of the surveyed emergency health personel demonstrated insufficient preparations for serious winter conditions. To increase the safety and efficiency of emergency medical personnel, educational training programs should be rountinely conducted. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-4).

  4. Assessing the Relationship Between Chronic Health Conditions and Productivity Loss Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranksy, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between health conditions and the risk for membership in longitudinal trajectories of productivity loss. Methods: Trajectories of productivity loss from the ages of 25 to 44 years, previously identified in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), were combined with information on health conditions from the age 40 years health module in the NLSY79. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relative risk of being in the low-risk, early-onset increasing risk, late-onset increasing risk, or high-risk trajectories compared with the no-risk trajectory for having various health conditions. Results: The trajectories with the greatest probability of productivity loss longitudinally had a greater prevalence of the individual health conditions and a greater total number of health conditions experienced. Conclusions: Health conditions are associated with specific longitudinal patterns of experiencing productivity loss. PMID:25479294

  5. ROMANIAN FOOD CONSUMPTION AND ITS EFFECTS ON POPULATION'S HEALTH CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela CONSTANDACHE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Public health is a top priority for the European Union. The main factor in ensuring population health is food consumption and in particular food quality. The present paper aims at analyzing Romanian population food consumption during the 1990-2012 periods, its evolution in time; it identifies its main features and their effects on population health. Amid the economic crisis the purchasing power of population is impaired leading to insufficient consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables and a low intake of vitamins, calcium, phosphorous and iron (especially in children, women and elderly people, which could be an important risk factor in the development of chronic diseases.

  6. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.

  7. Health conditions of prisoners in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Ribeiro, Adalgisa Peixoto

    2016-06-01

    We present the results of a quantitative and qualitative study on the living conditions and health of prisoners in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The goal was to produce strategic information to support the action of public officials who work in prisons. The results show that prisoners are young (average age: 30 years), poor, mostly black and brown (70.5%), have little education (only 1.5% of them have a higher education), and have been in prison for less than four years. Among the problems that indirectly affect their health, we emphasize: overcrowding (1.39 prisoners per one vacancy), idleness (only 4.4% of them work), lack of perspective, violence and relationships of conflict. The most common physical health problems include: musculoskeletal problems, such as pain in the neck, back, and spine (76.7%), joint dislocation (28.2%), bursitis (22.9%), sciatica (22, 1%), arthritis (15.9%), bone fracture (15.3%), problems with bone and cartilage (12.5%), and muscle and tendon injuries (15.7%); respiratory problems, such as sinusitis (55.6%), allergic rhinitis (47%), chronic bronchitis (15.6%), tuberculosis (4.7%) and others (11.9%); and skin diseases. Despite legal requirements that include prison health care among the Universal Health System's (SUS) obligations, services are scarce and inefficient and a major cause of inmate dissatisfaction.

  8. Resolving embarrassing medical conditions with online health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redston, Sarah; de Botte, Sharon; Smith, Carl

    2018-06-01

    Reliance on online health information is proliferating and the Internet has the potential to revolutionize the provision of public health information. The anonymity of online health information may be particularly appealing to people seeking advice on 'embarrassing' health problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether data generated by the embarrassingproblems.com health information site showed any temporal patterns in problem resolution, and (2) whether successful resolution of a medical problem using online information varied with the type of medical problem. We analyzed the responses of visitors to the embarrassingproblems.com website on the resolution of their problems. The dataset comprised 100,561 responses to information provided on 77 different embarrassing problems grouped into 9 classes of medical problem over an 82-month period. Data were analyzed with a Bernoulli Generalized Linear Model using Bayesian inference. We detected a statistically important interaction between embarrassing problem type and the time period in which data were collected, with an improvement in problem resolution over time for all of the classes of medical problem on the website but with a lower rate of increase in resolution for urinary health problems and medical problems associated with the mouth and face. As far as we are aware, this is the first analysis of data of this nature. Findings support the growing recognition that online health information can contribute to the resolution of embarrassing medical problems, but demonstrate that outcomes may vary with medical problem type. The results indicate that building data collection into online information provision can help to refine and focus health information for online users. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Martyniuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and express-assessment. Material: in the research 47 first and second year girl students participated, who belonged to main health group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “ dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied by accelerated processes of organism’s age destructions and tension of regulation mechanisms. Conclusions: the received results permit to further develop and generalize the data of students’ health’s assessment by indicators of adaptation potentials, biological age and physical health’s condition.

  10. Health conditions in people with spinal cord injury: Contemporary evidence from a population-based community survey in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkhof, Martin W G; Al-Khodairy, Abdul; Eriks-Hoogland, Inge; Fekete, Christine; Hinrichs, Timo; Hund-Georgiadis, Margret; Meier, Sonja; Scheel-Sailer, Anke; Schubert, Martin; Reinhardt, Jan D

    2016-02-01

    Health conditions in people with spinal cord injury are major determinants for disability, reduced well-being, and mortality. However, population-based evidence on the prevalence and treatment of health conditions in people with spinal cord injury is scarce. To investigate health conditions in Swiss residents with spinal cord injury, specifically to analyse their prevalence, severity, co-occurrence, and treatment. Cross-sectional data (n = 1,549) from the community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury (SwiSCI) cohort study, including Swiss residents with spinal cord injury aged over 16 years, were analysed. Nineteen health conditions and their self-reported treatment were assessed with the spinal cord injury Secondary Conditions Scale and the Self-Administered Comorbidity Questionnaire. Prevalence and severity were compared across demographics and spinal cord injury characteristics. Co-occurrence of health conditions was examined using a binary non-metric dissimilarity measure and multi-dimensional scaling. Treatment rates were also examined. Number of concurrent health conditions was high (median 7; interquartile range 4-9; most frequent: spasticity, chronic pain, sexual dysfunction). Prevalence of health conditions increased with age and was higher in non-traumatic compared with traumatic spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury specific conditions co-occurred. Relative frequencies of treatment were low (median 44%, interquartile range 25-64%), even for significant or chronic problems. A high prevalence of multimorbidity was found in community-dwelling persons with spinal cord injury. Treatment for some highly prevalent health conditions was infrequent.

  11. All slums are not equal: Maternal health conditions among two urban slum dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfia Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women inhabiting urban slums are a "high risk" group with limited access to health facilities. Hazardous maternal health practices are rampant in slum areas. Barriers to utilization of health services are well documented. Slums in the same city may differ from one another in their health indicators and service utilization rates. The study examines whether hazardous maternal care practices exist in and whether there are differences in the utilization rates of health services in two different slums. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in two urban slums of Aligarh city (Uttar Pradesh, India. House-to-house survey was conducted and 200 mothers having live births in the study period were interviewed. The outcome measures were utilization of antenatal care, natal care, postnatal care, and early infant feeding practices. Rates of hazardous health practices and reasons for these practices were elicited. Results: Hazardous maternal health practices were common. At least one antenatal visit was accepted by a little more than half the mothers, but delivery was predominantly home based carried out under unsafe conditions. Important barriers to utilization included family tradition, financial constraints, and rude behavior of health personnel in hospitals. Significant differences existed between the two slums. Conclusion: The fact that barriers to utilization at a local level may differ significantly between slums must be recognized, identified, and addressed in the district level planning for health. Empowerment of slum communities as one of the stakeholders can lend them a stronger voice and help improve access to services.

  12. Health workers' perception on the work, working conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the philosophy that ensures proper utilization of human resources that would ... on the work, working conditions, compensation, and career development in a ... of human resources management practices to change the negative perceptions ...

  13. Association of employment and working conditions with physical and mental health symptoms for people with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovski, Carter; Zettel-Watson, Laura; Rutledge, Dana

    2012-01-01

    This study examines physical and mental health symptoms among people with fibromyalgia (FM) by employment status and working conditions. Secondary data analysis of the 2007 National Fibromyalgia Association Questionnaire study resulted in employment and symptom information for 1702 people of working age with FM. In this cross-sectional internet study, six factors of symptom clusters (physical, mental health, sleeping, concentration, musculoskeletal, support) were seen in the data. Linear regression models used employment, age, income, gender, and education to predict symptom clusters. Among those employed, working conditions were also associated with symptom severity. In the predominately female sample, 51% were working. Of these, 70% worked over 30 hours/week and half had flexible hours. Employment, higher income, and education were strongly associated with fewer symptoms. Working conditions, including level of physical and mental exertion required on the job as well as coworkers' understanding of FM, were related to symptoms, particularly physical and mental health symptoms. Many participants reported modifying their work environment (66%) or changing occupations (33%) due to FM. Work modifications could allow more people with FM to remain employed and alleviate symptoms. Persons with FM should be counseled to consider what elements of their work may lead to symptom exacerbation.

  14. Conditions of radiological protection in the health unities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, L.R.B.S.; Neto, A.T.; Pires, A.; Azevedo, H.F.; Boasquevisque, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was explained which conditions is practiced for occupational and environmental radiological protection. Fifteen hospitables and ambulatories services, pertaining to the public system are studies, verifying that the professional group that are preoccupied with the radioprotection conditions are the assistants services and technician. The common knowledge about Basic Standards of Radiological Protection was also observed, of which is rather precarious. (C.G.C.) [pt

  15. Exploring the Impacts of Housing Condition on Migrants’ Mental Health in Nanxiang, Shanghai: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rapid urbanization and associated rural-to-urban migration has brought in enormous economic benefits in Chinese cities, one of the negative externalities include adverse effects upon the migrant workers’ mental health. The links between housing conditions and mental health are well-established in healthy city and community planning scholarship. Nonetheless, there has thusfar been no Chinese study deciphering the links between housing conditions and mental health accounting for macro-level community environments, and no study has previously examined the nature of the relationships in locals and migrants. To overcome this research gap, we hypothesized that housing conditions may have a direct and indirect effects upon mental which may be mediated by neighbourhood satisfaction. We tested this hypothesis with the help of a household survey of 368 adult participants in Nanxiang Town, Shanghai, employing a structural equation modeling approach. Our results point to the differential pathways via which housing conditions effect mental health in locals and migrants. For locals, housing conditions have direct effects on mental health, while as for migrants, housing conditions have indirect effects on mental health, mediated via neighborhood satisfaction. Our findings have significant policy implications on building an inclusive and harmonious society. Upstream-level community interventions in the form of sustainable planning and designing of migrant neighborhoods can promote sense of community, social capital and support, thereby improving mental health and overall mental capital of Chinese cities.

  16. Exploring the Impacts of Housing Condition on Migrants’ Mental Health in Nanxiang, Shanghai: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Geng, Huizhi

    2018-01-01

    Although rapid urbanization and associated rural-to-urban migration has brought in enormous economic benefits in Chinese cities, one of the negative externalities include adverse effects upon the migrant workers’ mental health. The links between housing conditions and mental health are well-established in healthy city and community planning scholarship. Nonetheless, there has thusfar been no Chinese study deciphering the links between housing conditions and mental health accounting for macro-level community environments, and no study has previously examined the nature of the relationships in locals and migrants. To overcome this research gap, we hypothesized that housing conditions may have a direct and indirect effects upon mental which may be mediated by neighbourhood satisfaction. We tested this hypothesis with the help of a household survey of 368 adult participants in Nanxiang Town, Shanghai, employing a structural equation modeling approach. Our results point to the differential pathways via which housing conditions effect mental health in locals and migrants. For locals, housing conditions have direct effects on mental health, while as for migrants, housing conditions have indirect effects on mental health, mediated via neighborhood satisfaction. Our findings have significant policy implications on building an inclusive and harmonious society. Upstream-level community interventions in the form of sustainable planning and designing of migrant neighborhoods can promote sense of community, social capital and support, thereby improving mental health and overall mental capital of Chinese cities. PMID:29382174

  17. Use of telehealth for health care of Indigenous peoples with chronic conditions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah; Mackean, Tamara; Grant, Julian; Hunter, Kate; Towers, Kurt; Ivers, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Telehealth may be a cost effective modality in healthcare delivery, but how well used or how appropriate it is for the care of Indigenous peoples is unclear. This review examines the evidence for telehealth in facilitating chronic conditions management with Indigenous peoples. Databases were systematically searched for qualitative or quantitative primary research studies that investigated telehealth use for chronic conditions management with Indigenous peoples worldwide. Evidence of effectiveness was by consumer health outcomes, evidence of acceptability was through consumer and user perception, and health service feasibility was evident by service impact. Data were assessed for quality and data extracted using pre-defined tools. Articles (n=32) examined effectiveness (n=11), critiqued telehealth from the perspectives of the client (n=10) and healthcare professionals (n=8), and examined feasibility (n=12). Studies reported Indigenous people tend to be satisfied with telehealth, but are sceptical about its cultural safety. Evidence for the effectiveness of telehealth from a western biomedical perspective was found. Telehealth is promising; however, a lack of robust studies in this review make tangible conclusions difficult. A better overall understanding of telehealth use with Indigenous peoples, including delivery of culturally competent health care, true consultation and cultural competency of the professionals involved, would be helpful. Telehealth may have the potential to improve health care for Indigenous people, however the modality needs to be culturally competent and the care received must be culturally safe.

  18. Experience of primary care among homeless individuals with mental health conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joya G Chrystal

    Full Text Available The delivery of primary care to homeless individuals with mental health conditions presents unique challenges. To inform healthcare improvement, we studied predictors of favorable primary care experience among homeless persons with mental health conditions treated at sites that varied in degree of homeless-specific service tailoring. This was a multi-site, survey-based comparison of primary care experiences at three mainstream primary care clinics of the Veterans Administration (VA, one homeless-tailored VA clinic, and one tailored non-VA healthcare program. Persons who accessed primary care service two or more times from July 2008 through June 2010 (N = 366 were randomly sampled. Predictor variables included patient and organization characteristics suggested by the patient perception model developed by Sofaer and Firminger (2005, with an emphasis on mental health. The primary care experience was assessed with the Primary Care Quality-Homeless (PCQ-H questionnaire, a validated survey instrument. Multiple regression identified predictors of positive experiences (i.e. higher PCQ-H total score. Significant predictors of a positive experience included a site offering tailored service design, perceived choice among providers, and currently domiciled status. There was an interaction effect between site and severe psychiatric symptoms. For persons with severe psychiatric symptoms, a homeless-tailored service design was significantly associated with a more favorable primary care experience. For persons without severe psychiatric symptoms, this difference was not significant. This study supports the importance of tailored healthcare delivery designed for homeless persons' needs, with such services potentially holding special relevance for persons with mental health conditions. To improve patient experience among the homeless, organizations may want to deliver services that are tailored to homelessness and offer a choice of providers.

  19. Experience of Primary Care among Homeless Individuals with Mental Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrystal, Joya G.; Glover, Dawn L.; Young, Alexander S.; Whelan, Fiona; Austin, Erika L.; Johnson, Nancy K.; Pollio, David E.; Holt, Cheryl L.; Stringfellow, Erin; Gordon, Adam J.; Kim, Theresa A.; Daigle, Shanette G.; Steward, Jocelyn L.; Kertesz, Stefan G

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of primary care to homeless individuals with mental health conditions presents unique challenges. To inform healthcare improvement, we studied predictors of favorable primary care experience among homeless persons with mental health conditions treated at sites that varied in degree of homeless-specific service tailoring. This was a multi-site, survey-based comparison of primary care experiences at three mainstream primary care clinics of the Veterans Administration (VA), one homeless-tailored VA clinic, and one tailored non-VA healthcare program. Persons who accessed primary care service two or more times from July 2008 through June 2010 (N = 366) were randomly sampled. Predictor variables included patient and organization characteristics suggested by the patient perception model developed by Sofaer and Firminger (2005), with an emphasis on mental health. The primary care experience was assessed with the Primary Care Quality-Homeless (PCQ-H) questionnaire, a validated survey instrument. Multiple regression identified predictors of positive experiences (i.e. higher PCQ-H total score). Significant predictors of a positive experience included a site offering tailored service design, perceived choice among providers, and currently domiciled status. There was an interaction effect between site and severe psychiatric symptoms. For persons with severe psychiatric symptoms, a homeless-tailored service design was significantly associated with a more favorable primary care experience. For persons without severe psychiatric symptoms, this difference was not significant. This study supports the importance of tailored healthcare delivery designed for homeless persons’ needs, with such services potentially holding special relevance for persons with mental health conditions. To improve patient experience among the homeless, organizations may want to deliver services that are tailored to homelessness and offer a choice of providers. PMID:25659142

  20. Work and health conditions of nursing staff in palliative care and hospices in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Christina; Bänsch, Alexander; Schröder, Harry

    2004-01-01

    Aims of this representative study were to assess the relevant differences between the work and organisational characteristics as well as the subjective resources and health status of nurses occupied in hospice care, compared to nurses from palliative stations. Further, the assessment of the predictive correlations between the work situation of this nurses as a factor influencing their health and perceived strains was also a leading intention. Method: In a written survey conducted in Germany in 2001, 820 nursing staff of 113 palliative stations and stationary hospices were included. A qualified diagnostic procedure for the assessment of health promoting work was implemented. In order of obtaining a secure comparison, a sample of 320 nurses working in 12 homes for old people in Saxony was also considered. Results: The nurses referred generally to favourable working conditions, still they informed about deficiencies in the perceived participation, organizational benefits and experienced gratification. Hospice nurses experienced overall more favourable work conditions than palliative nurses or than the staff of homes for old people (regarding identification with the institution, organizational benefits, accurate gratification and little time pressure during work). Hospice personnel were psychologically and physically healthier than the staff of palliative stations. Important predictors for health stability that could be assessed by multiple regression analysis were: positively evaluated work contents, the identification with the institution, little time pressure and a positive working atmosphere. Conclusions: The assessed organisational framework is generally more favourable in the institutions of professional terminal care than in common hospitals and homes for old people. Therefore, the conditions in hospices could have a modelling function for the inner-institutional work organisation and for the anchorage of the intrinsic motivation of nurses in the health care

  1. Musculoskeletal Health Conditions Represent a Global Threat to Healthy Aging: A Report for the 2015 World Health Organization World Report on Ageing and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew M; Cross, Marita J; Hoy, Damian G; Sànchez-Riera, Lídia; Blyth, Fiona M; Woolf, Anthony D; March, Lyn

    2016-04-01

    Persistent pain, impaired mobility and function, and reduced quality of life and mental well-being are the most common experiences associated with musculoskeletal conditions, of which there are more than 150 types. The prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal conditions increase with aging. A profound burden of musculoskeletal disease exists in developed and developing nations. Notably, this burden far exceeds service capacity. Population growth, aging, and sedentary lifestyles, particularly in developing countries, will create a crisis for population health that requires a multisystem response with musculoskeletal health services as a critical component. Globally, there is an emphasis on maintaining an active lifestyle to reduce the impacts of obesity, cardiovascular conditions, cancer, osteoporosis, and diabetes in older people. Painful musculoskeletal conditions, however, profoundly limit the ability of people to make these lifestyle changes. A strong relationship exists between painful musculoskeletal conditions and a reduced capacity to engage in physical activity resulting in functional decline, frailty, reduced well-being, and loss of independence. Multilevel strategies and approaches to care that adopt a whole person approach are needed to address the impact of impaired musculoskeletal health and its sequelae. Effective strategies are available to address the impact of musculoskeletal conditions; some are of low cost (e.g., primary care-based interventions) but others are expensive and, as such, are usually only feasible for developed nations. In developing nations, it is crucial that any reform or development initiatives, including research, must adhere to the principles of development effectiveness to avoid doing harm to the health systems in these settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The importance of organizational characteristics for psychosocial working conditions and health

    OpenAIRE

    Bolin, Malin

    2009-01-01

    The importance of organizations for understanding differences in the working conditions and health of employees is often emphasized but rarely explored empirically. The general aim of this thesis is to describe organizational characteristics of workplaces, and to assess their impact on the psychosocial working conditions and health of employees. In modern working life, it is assumed that employees' working conditions and health are affected by a general transformation of workplaces from burea...

  3. "Broken windows": Relationship between neighborhood conditions and behavioral health among low-income African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R; Kim, Dong Ha

    2018-03-01

    This study explored the association between neighborhood conditions and behavioral health among African American youth. Cross-sectional data were collected from 683 African American youth from low-income communities. Measures for demographics, neighborhood conditions (i.e. broken windows index), mental health, delinquency, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors were assessed. Major findings indicated that participants who reported poorer neighborhood conditions compared to those who lived in better living conditions were more likely to report higher rates of mental health problems, delinquency, substance use, and unsafe sexual behaviors. Environmental factors need to be considered when addressing the behavioral health of low-income African American youth.

  4. Odors, Deployment Stress, and Health: A Conditioning Analysis of Gulf War Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalton, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    .... The goal of this research is to investigate the extent to which people can acquire stress reactions as conditioned responses to odors and exhibit health symptoms as a result of such conditioning episodes...

  5. Odors, Deployment Stress, and Health: A Conditioning Analysis of Gulf War Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalton, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    .... The goal of this research is to investigate the extent to which people can acquire stress reactions as conditioned responses to odors and exhibit health symptoms as a result of such conditioning episodes...

  6. Odors, Deployment Stress and Health: A Conditioning Analysis of Gulf War Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalton, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    .... The goal of this research is to investigate the extent to which people can acquire stress reactions as conditioned responses to odors and exhibit health symptoms as a result of such conditioning episodes...

  7. Work conditions and occupational health of dentists in Brazilian Public Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba Moimaz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: work healthy conditions are essential for a great professional performance. Objective: To verify the perception of dentists regarding structural and healthy conditions of dental offices in the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS and their satisfaction with work and public job. Material and Method: In this cross-sectional study, type inquiry, 24 Brazilian dentists were interviewed. The follow variables were asked: cleaning and asepsis; maintenance and time of use of dental equipment; satisfaction with work and public job. Results: The professionals were "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with cleaning and asepsis (66.67%; Dental equipment (54.17%, reflectors (54.17% and the dental chairs (54.17% had more than 24 years of use; 20% of all professionals said that the equipment had maintenance but only to fix them. Of total, 58.33% had already given no attendance for patients and broken equipment was the most frequent cause (92.86%. It was observed satisfaction with work (79.1% and public job (95.83%. It was concluded that dentists who worked in SUS were satisfied with public job, although they had said the need for improvement on structural and healthy work conditions.

  8. Public Health Risk Conditioned by Chemical Composition of Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovich, E.; Osipova, N.; Yankovich, K.; Matveenko, I.

    2016-03-01

    The article studies the public health potential risk originated from water consumption and estimated on the basis of the groundwater chemical composition. We have processed the results of chemical groundwater analysis in different aquifers of Tomsk district (Tomsk Oblast, Russia). More than 8400 samples of chemical groundwater analyses were taken during long-term observation period. Human health risk assessment of exposure to contaminants in drinking water was performed in accordance with the risk assessment guidance for public health concerning chemical pollution of the environment (Russian reference number: 2.1.10.1920-04-M, 2004). Identified potential risks were estimated for consuming water of each aquifer. The comparative analysis of water quality of different aquifers was performed on the basis of the risk coefficient of the total non-carcinogenic effects. The non-carcinogenic risk for the health of the Tomsk district population due to groundwater consumption without prior sanitary treatment was admitted acceptable. A rather similar picture is observed for all aquifers, although deeper aquifers show lower hazard coefficients.

  9. Young People with Health Conditions and the Inclusive Education Problematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    This article revisits debates about inclusive education from the perspective of the "Keeping Connected" project, a qualitative longitudinal research project focusing on young people with health-related disrupted experiences of schooling. Drawing on findings from this project, three main arguments are advanced and illustrated in relation…

  10. Pattern of presentation of oral health conditions by children at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Out of a total of 305 children who visited the Child Dental Health Clinic ... traumatic dental injuries, 12.1% had malocclusion and other esthetic problems, 15.1% had other oral pathologies, 14.4% had abnormalities of tooth eruption.

  11. Relation between oral health and nutritional condition in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Lauro Rodrigues Junior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral health is a prerequisite for a good chewing function, which may have an impact on food choices and nutritional well-being. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between oral health status and nutritional status in the elderly. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 33 elderly people from the Group for the Elderly Interdisciplinary Geriatrics and Gerontology Program, at Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, RJ, Brazil, completed a questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, eating habits, physical activity and health habits, undertook a clinical oral examination, blood test, and anthropometric measurements, and were allocated into groups according to age. The oral health status was assessed using the index for decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT. The nutritional status was assessed using hemoglobin, hematocrit and albumin concentrations in blood, anthropometric values and the body mass index. RESULTS: Tooth loss was the biggest nuisance to the elderly subjects (57.6%, followed by the use of dentures (30.3% and ill-fitting dentures (33.3%. 66.6% of patients had difficulty in chewing, and 54.5% reported this to be due to prostheses and 13.6% to the absence of teeth. A significant correlation was found between DMFT and the value of suprailiac skinfold thickness (rho=0.380, p=0.029. CONCLUSION: The results support the temporal association between tooth loss and detrimental changes in anthropometry, which could contribute to increased risk of developing chronic diseases.

  12. Relation between oral health and nutritional condition in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    RODRIGUES JUNIOR, Humberto Lauro; SCELZA, Miriam F. Zaccaro; BOAVENTURA, Gilson Teles; CUSTÓDIO, Silvia Maria; MOREIRA, Emília Addison Machado; OLIVEIRA, Diane de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Oral health is a prerequisite for a good chewing function, which may have an impact on food choices and nutritional well-being. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between oral health status and nutritional status in the elderly. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 33 elderly people from the Group for the Elderly Interdisciplinary Geriatrics and Gerontology Program, at Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, RJ, Brazil, completed a questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, eating habits, physical activity and health habits, undertook a clinical oral examination, blood test, and anthropometric measurements, and were allocated into groups according to age. The oral health status was assessed using the index for decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT). The nutritional status was assessed using hemoglobin, hematocrit and albumin concentrations in blood, anthropometric values and the body mass index. Results Tooth loss was the biggest nuisance to the elderly subjects (57.6%), followed by the use of dentures (30.3%) and ill-fitting dentures (33.3%). 66.6% of patients had difficulty in chewing, and 54.5% reported this to be due to prostheses and 13.6% to the absence of teeth. A significant correlation was found between DMFT and the value of suprailiac skinfold thickness (rho=0.380, p=0.029). Conclusion The results support the temporal association between tooth loss and detrimental changes in anthropometry, which could contribute to increased risk of developing chronic diseases. PMID:22437676

  13. Pattern of presentation of oral health conditions by children at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-05

    Apr 5, 2013 ... Oral health presentations by children in University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital. 48 ... Results. A total of 305 children aged 3 days to 16 years with a ... This can be attributed to the poor attitude towards oral .... A free application to browse and search the journal's content is now available for iPhone/iPad.

  14. Web Use for Symptom Appraisal of Physical Health Conditions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia; Jay, Caroline; Harper, Simon; Davies, Alan; Vega, Julio; Todd, Chris

    2017-06-13

    The Web has become an important information source for appraising symptoms. We need to understand the role it currently plays in help seeking and symptom evaluation to leverage its potential to support health care delivery. The aim was to systematically review the literature currently available on Web use for symptom appraisal. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ACM Digital Library, SCOPUS, and Web of Science for any empirical studies that addressed the use of the Web by lay people to evaluate symptoms for physical conditions. Articles were excluded if they did not meet minimum quality criteria. Study findings were synthesized using a thematic approach. A total of 32 studies were included. Study designs included cross-sectional surveys, qualitative studies, experimental studies, and studies involving website/search engine usage data. Approximately 35% of adults engage in Web use for symptom appraisal, but this proportion varies between 23% and 75% depending on sociodemographic and disease-related factors. Most searches were symptom-based rather than condition-based. Users viewed only the top search results and interacted more with results that mentioned serious conditions. Web use for symptom appraisal appears to impact on the decision to present to health services, communication with health professionals, and anxiety. Web use for symptom appraisal has the potential to influence the timing of help seeking for symptoms and the communication between patients and health care professionals during consultations. However, studies lack suitable comparison groups as well as follow-up of participants over time to determine whether Web use results in health care utilization and diagnosis. Future research should involve longitudinal follow-up so that we can weigh the benefits of Web use for symptom appraisal (eg, reductions in delays to diagnosis) against the disadvantages (eg, unnecessary anxiety and health care use) and relate these to health care costs. ©Julia Mueller

  15. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. Methods This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Results Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. Conclusions There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among

  16. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Mariza Alves Barbosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elizângela; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição

    2014-05-15

    Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers.

  17. An analysis of online health information on schizophrenia or related conditions: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Around 20% of those who seek health information online, search specifically for mental health. However, little is known about the nature of the online health information offered by two European countries, Finland and Greece, which are characterized by markedly differing levels of Internet access and online health information seeking. This study aims to assess, describe and compare websites, written in two European, non-English languages (Finnish and Greek) that appear first after performing an online search concerning schizophrenia or related conditions. Methods The first 20 results from four search terms (searched in Finnish and Greek) in the Web search engine ‘Google’ were screened. A total of 160 websites were retrieved (80 Finnish, 80 Greek) and evaluated using a preformulated coding system which consisted of websites’ indicators, such as: types, characteristics, accountability, interactivity, aesthetics and content. Differences between websites were evaluated with Chi-Square or Fisher’s Exact tests for categorical data and independent t-tests for parametric data. Results Twenty-four Finnish and thirty-four Greek websites (36% in total) were included. Almost two-thirds (62%, n=36) were owned by an organization, compared to 17% (n=10) by an individual. In both countries, aesthetics had the highest score (possible range 0–4, mean = 2.6, SD = .62), while interactivity the lowest (range 0–5, mean = 1.79, SD = .87). There were no statistically significant differences among the accountability, interactivity and aesthetics scores of the Finnish and Greek websites. Conclusions All assessed indicators suggest there is a need to improve Finnish and Greek online information about schizophrenia or related conditions. The poor website interactivity is of particular concern given the challenges faced by the target group. The findings can be used to guide the development and dissemination of online mental health information aimed at Finnish and Greek

  18. Autoimmune, atopic, and mental health comorbid conditions associated with alopecia areata in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kathie P; Mullangi, Samyukta; Guo, Ye; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of comorbid conditions among patients with alopecia areata (AA) seen at tertiary care hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts, during an 11-year period. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Tertiary care hospitals in Boston, including Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital. We identified 3568 individuals with AA seen in the Partners health care system in Boston between January 1, 2000, and January 1, 2011. We performed comprehensive searches of the Research Patient Data Repository using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 704.01. We randomly selected 350 patients and manually reviewed their medical records to train and validate a novel artificial intelligence program. This program then used natural language processing to review free-text medical records and confirm a diagnosis of AA. To confirm the algorithm, we manually reviewed a subset of records and found 93.9% validity. The prevalence of comorbid conditions was assessed. Common comorbid conditions included autoimmune diagnoses (thyroid disease in 14.6%, diabetes mellitus in 11.1%, inflammatory bowel disease in (2.0%) [corrected], systemic lupus erythematosus in 4.3%, rheumatoid arthritis in 3.9%, and psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis in (6.3%) [corrected], atopy (allergic rhinitis, asthma, and/or eczema in 38.2% and contact dermatitis and other eczema in 35.9%), and mental health problems (depression or anxiety in 25.5%). We also found high prevalences of hyperlipidemia (24.5%), hypertension (21.9%), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (17.3%). This profile was different from that seen in a comparison psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis group. We found a high prevalence of comorbid conditions among individuals with AA presenting to academic medical centers in Boston. Physicians caring for patients with AA should consider screening for comorbid conditions.

  19. Processes of Metastudy: A Study of Psychosocial Adaptation to Childhood Chronic Health Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Nichola

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastudy introduces a systematically aggregated interpretive portrayal of a body of literature, based on saturation and the synthesis of findings. In this metastudy, the authors examined qualitative studies addressing psychosocial adaptation to childhood chronic health conditions, published over a 30-year period (1970–2000. They describe metastudy processes, including study identification, strategies for study search and retrieval, adjudication of difference in study design and rigor, and analysis of findings. They also illustrate metastudy components through examples drawn from this project and discuss implications for practice and recommendations.

  20. Nutrition in children with long-term health conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    synergistically negative effect is especially important if the LTHC has an intrinsic ... In many severe conditions, undernutrition is directly linked to life expectancy, even in ... 1 demonstrates the normal energy balance in a healthy child. Inadequate energy ..... clinician and healthcare team to work with the parents, family and.

  1. Comparison of steam sterilization conditions efficiency in the treatment of Infectious Health Care Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamari, Olivia; Mouaffak, Lara; Kamel, Ramza; Brandam, Cedric; Lteif, Roger; Salameh, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Many studies show that the treatment of Infectious Health Care Waste (IHCW) in steam sterilization devices at usual operating standards does not allow for proper treatment of Infectious Health Care Waste (IHCW). Including a grinding component before sterilization allows better waste sterilization, but any hard metal object in the waste can damage the shredder. The first objective of the study is to verify that efficient IHCW treatment can occur at standard operating parameters defined by the contact time-temperature couple in steam treatment systems without a pre-mixing/fragmenting or pre-shredding step. The second objective is to establish scientifically whether the standard operation conditions for a steam treatment system including a step of pre-mixing/fragmenting were sufficient to destroy the bacterial spores in IHCW known to be the most difficult to treat. Results show that for efficient sterilization of dialysis cartridges in a pilot 60L steam treatment system, the process would require more than 20 min at 144°C without a pre-mixing/fragmenting step. In a 720L steam treatment system including pre-mixing/fragmenting paddles, only 10 min at 144°C are required to sterilize IHCW proved to be sterilization challenges such as dialysis cartridges and diapers in normal conditions of rolling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Living conditions, including life style, in primary-care patients with nonacute, nonspecific spinal pain compared with a population-based sample: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Lindell

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Odd Lindell, Sven-Erik Johansson, Lars-Erik Strender1Center for Family and Community Medicine, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, SwedenBackground: Nonspecific spinal pain (NSP, comprising back and/or neck pain, is one of the leading disorders behind long-term sick-listing, including disability pensions. Early interventions to prevent long-term sick-listing require the identification of patients at risk. The aim of this study was to compare living conditions associated with long-term sick-listing for NSP in patients with nonacute NSP, with a nonpatient population-based sample. Nonacute NSP is pain that leads to full-time sick-listing>3 weeks.Methods: One hundred and twenty-five patients with nonacute NSP, 2000–2004, were included in a randomized controlled trial in Stockholm County with the objective of comparing cognitive–behavioral rehabilitation with traditional primary care. For these patients, a cross-sectional study was carried out with baseline data. Living conditions were compared between the patients and 338 nonpatients by logistic regression. The conditions from univariate analyses were included in a multivariate analysis. The nonsignificant variables were excluded sequentially to yield a model comprising only the significant factors (P <0.05. The results are shown as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals.Results: In the univariate analyses, 13 of the 18 living conditions had higher odds for the patients with a dominance of physical work strains and Indication of alcohol over-consumption, odds ratio (OR 14.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2–67.6. Five conditions qualified for the multivariate model: High physical workload, OR 13.7 (CI 5.9–32.2; Hectic work tempo, OR 8.4 (CI 2.5–28.3; Blue-collar job, OR 4.5 (CI 1.8–11.4; Obesity, OR 3.5 (CI 1.2–10.2; and Low education, OR 2.7 (CI 1.1–6.8.Conclusions: As most of the living conditions have previously been

  3. Association between employment status and self-rated health: Korean working conditions survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kimin; Park, Jae Bum; Lee, Kyung-Jong; Cho, Yoon-Sik

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted with an aim of determining the association between employment status and self-rated health. Using the data from the Third Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2011, We included data from 34,783 respondents, excluding employers, self-employed workers, unpaid family workers, others. Self-rated health was compared according to employment status and a logistic regression analysis was performed. Among the 34,783 workers, the number of permanent and non-permanent workers was 27,564 (79.2 %) and 7,219 (20.8 %). The risk that the self-rated health of non-permanent workers was poor was 1.20 times higher when both socio-demographic factors, work environment and work hazards were corrected. In this study, perceived health was found to be worse in the non-permanent workers than permanent workers. Additional research should investigate whether other factors mediate the relationship between employment status and perceived health.

  4. The Consequences of IMF Conditionality for Government Expenditure on Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Moosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Monetary Fund (IMF was established in 1944 to supervise the international monetary system that collapsed in 1971. Since then, the Fund has reinvented itself as some sort of a “development agency,” providing loans with strings attached. Any country that wishes to obtain loans must follow the IMF-prescribed policies that reflect the neoliberal ideas of the Washington Consensus. As these policies are typically contractionary and involve austerity, the IMF has been accused of pursuing policies that exhibit a negative impact on health expenditure, with dire consequences for the population. Although the empirical evidence on this issue is mixed, it is well known that the IMF operations are more likely to exert a negative effect than a positive effect on government spending on health.

  5. Work and health conditions of sugar cane workers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Hong, Oi-Saeng

    2010-12-01

    This is an exploratory research, with a quantitative approach, developed with the objective of analyzing the work and of life situations that can offer risks to the workers' health involved in the manual and automated cut of the sugar cane. The sample was composed by 39 sugar cane cutters and 16 operators of harvesters. The data collection occurred during the months of July and August of 2006, by the technique of direct observation of work situations and workers' homes and through interviews semi-structured. The interviews were recorded and later transcribed. Data were analyzed according to Social Ecological Theory. It was observed that the workers deal with multiple health risk situations, predominantly to the risks of occurrence of respiratory, musculoskeletal and psychological problems and work-related accidents due to the work activities. The interaction of individual, social and environmental factors can determine the workers' tendency to falling ill.

  6. The health and working conditions of female immigrants in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Akhavan, Sharareh

    2006-01-01

    Sweden is one of the European countries that has gradually changed from a mainly ethnically homogeneous society into a multi-ethnic society. This change began in the late 1940s and has increased in pace, especially since the early 1960s. The overall aim of this thesis is to understand, describe and analyze the factors that contribute to poor health among female immigrants in Sweden, from the perspectives of class, gender and ethnicity. This thesis is based on four differ...

  7. THE LEGITIMACY OF INCLUDING THE SOCIAL PARAMETERS IN EVALUATING THE HEALTH STATUS IN THE SOCIAL ASSURANCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI NEDELCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The social state crisis encouraged a reductionist tendency which had recently developed in the evaluations of the health status in the social assurance system. A holistic, psycho-medical approach, which took in consideration the implications of the social factors regarding disability, was confronted with a strictly medical model, in which the illness is exclusively considered a person’s problem; therefore, the references towards the „social” are irrelevant. In this context, the present paper states the question of the legitimacy of using some sociological concepts, in medical expertise, considered relevant in this area, such as: „occupational access” or the „social functioning of the person”. The present study doesn’t stop at offering as arguments of legitimacy the authority of some recommendations regarding the use of the social-medical model, including the evaluation of the health status, recommendations received from the behalf of OMS and the European Council (see CIF. The paper presents the construction of specific evaluation instruments and tries to identify the sense in which using the references regarding the „social” could influence the pressures in the social assurance system.

  8. Self-administered foot reflexology for the management of chronic health conditions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Jin; Choi, Sun Mi; Seo, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Heeyoung; Son, Heejeong; Lee, Sanghun

    2015-02-01

    To systematically review the effect of self-administered foot reflexology in patients with chronic health conditions. Electronic databases were searched for literature published from 1948 to January 2014. The databases included MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, CNKI, J-STAGE, Koreamed, Kmbase, KISS, NDSL, KISTI, and OASIS. Key search terms were "exp/relaxation therapy," "foot," "reflexology," "zone therapy," and "self." All study designs were included. Two raters independently extracted data and assessed study quality by using the Cochrane risk of bias tool (for randomized controlled trials) and the risk of bias assessment tool for nonrandomized studies (for nonrandomized and before-and-after studies). A qualitative and descriptive analysis was performed because of the clinical diversity associated with chronic health conditions. Of the 224 records assessed, 4 trials met the inclusion criteria: 3 nonrandomized controlled trials and 1 before-and-after study without comparison. Self-administered foot reflexology might have a positive effect in type 2 diabetes, but the low quality of the included study and the lack of adequately reported clinical outcomes obscure the results. Two studies of hypertensive patients and 1 study of patients with urinary incontinence showed that self-performed foot reflexology may exert a beneficial effect on lowering blood pressure and urinary incontinence; however, given the small sample size and the lack of any description of medications and other cointerventions, there was insufficient evidence to conclusively determine whether foot reflexology had any effect. The included studies on self-administered foot reflexology in patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, or urinary incontinence provided insufficient evidence to determine a treatment effect. Therefore, a well-designed, large-scale, and randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm the effect of self-administered foot reflexology for chronic conditions.

  9. Including health economic analysis in pilot studies: lessons learned from a cost-utility analysis within the PROSPECTIV pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richéal M. Burns

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo assess feasibility and health economic benefits and costs as part of a pilot study for a nurse-led, psychoeducational intervention (NPLI for prostate cancer in order to understand the potential for cost effectiveness as well as contribute to the design of a larger scale trial.MethodsMen with stable prostate cancer post-treatment were recruited from two cancer centres in the UK. Eighty-three men were randomised to the NLPI plus usual care or usual care alone (UCA (42 NLPI and 41 UCA; the NLPI plus usual care was delivered in the primary-care setting (the intervention and included an initial face-to-face consultation with a trained nurse, with follow-up tailored to individual needs. The study afforded the opportunity to undertake a short-term within pilot analysis. The primary outcome measure for the economic evaluation was quality of life, as measured by the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L instrument. Costs (£2014 assessed included health-service resource use, out-of-pocket expenses and losses from inability to undertake usual activities.ResultsTotal and incremental costs varied across the different scenarios assessed, with mean cost differences ranging from £173 to £346; incremental effect, as measured by the change in utility scores over the duration of follow-up, exhibited wide confidence intervals highlighting inconclusive effectiveness (95% CI: -0.0226; 0.0438. The cost per patient of delivery of the intervention would be reduced if rolled out to a larger patient cohort.ConclusionsThe NLPI is potentially cost saving depending on the scale of delivery; however, the results presented are not considered generalisable.

  10. Chronic health conditions and school performance in first graders: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Isabell; Diefenbach, Christiane; Gräf, Christine; König, Jochem; Schmidt, Martina F; Schnick-Vollmer, Kathleen; Blettner, Maria; Urschitz, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    Children with chronic health conditions may perform poorer at school. Associations may be confounded by numerous social factors. We aimed to estimate the effects of a chronic health condition on overall school performance in first graders with an emphasis on rigorous adjustment for potential confounders. A population-based cohort study was performed in the area of Mainz-Bingen (Germany). In 2015 all preschoolers were approached and the presence of a chronic health condition was assessed by parental questionnaires and preschool health examination data. The identification of a chronic health condition was based on special health care needs and presence of a doctor's diagnosis out of 24 school-relevant diseases. At the end of the first school year, overall school performance was assessed by teachers and rated on a 5-item scale ranging from -10 to +10. Of 3683 children approached, 2003 were enrolled. Overall school performance was available for 1462 children (51% boys). Of these, 52% suffered from a chronic health condition. Compared to children without a chronic health condition, children with special health care needs (15%) performed worse at school (adjusted mean difference: -0.95, 95% CI: [-1.55; -0.35], P = 0.002). Children with a doctor's diagnosis but without special health care needs (37%) did not perform worse at school. The effect was further analysed considering the extent of special health care needed. Chronic health conditions affect overall school performance early in primary school. To identify academically at-risk children, a chronic health condition identification based on special health care needs may be used.

  11. Differences among Thai Agricultural Workers' Health, Working Conditions, and Pesticide Use by Farm Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Mahaboonpeeti, Redeerat; Bootsikeaw, Sasivimol; Batsungnoen, Kiattisak; Hanchenlaksh, Chalalai; Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros; Woskie, Susan

    2018-02-13

    More than 11 million Thai people (38%) work in agriculture, but since most are in the informal sector, government enforcement and support are very limited. As a result, working conditions on Thai farms vary greatly, putting the health of many agricultural workers at risk. A cross-sectional study in three Thai provinces collected information on the work activities and conditions of 424 farmers representing five farm types: rice, vegetable, flower, rice/vegetable, and flower/vegetable. The agricultural workers were mainly women (60%); their average age was 53 but ranged from 18 to 87 years. More than 64% worked more than 5 days/week. Seventy-four percent of them had only primary school education. A number of the health and hazardous working conditions surveyed were significantly different by farm type. Rice farmers were found to have the highest prevalence of allergies, nasal congestion, wheezing, and acute symptoms after pesticide use, while flower farmers had the lowest prevalence of these health outcomes. Rice farmers reported the highest prevalence of hazardous working conditions including high noise levels, working on slippery surfaces, sitting or standing on a vibrating machine, spills of chemicals/pesticides, and sharp injuries. The lowest prevalence of these working conditions (except noise) was reported by flower farmers. Vegetable farmers reported the highest prevalence knee problems, while rice farmers had the lowest prevalence. Among these farmers, more than 27 different types of pesticides were reported in use during the past year, with the majority reporting use once a month. The flower/vegetable farming group reported the highest frequency of good exposure prevention practices during pesticide use. They were the most likely to report using cotton or rubber gloves or a disposable paper masks during insecticide spraying. Those farmers who only grew vegetables had the lowest frequency of good exposure prevention practices, including use of personal

  12. Self-management support and training for patients with chronic and complex conditions improves health-related behaviour and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Peter W; Petkov, John N; Misan, Gary; Fuller, Jeffrey; Battersby, Malcolm W; Cayetano, Teofilo N; Warren, Kate; Holmes, Paul

    2008-05-01

    The Sharing Health Care SA chronic disease self-management (CDSM) project in rural South Australia was designed to assist patients with chronic and complex conditions (diabetes, cardiovascular disease and arthritis) to learn how to participate more effectively in the management of their condition and to improve their self-management skills. Participants with chronic and complex conditions were recruited into the Sharing Health Care SA program and offered a range of education and support options (including a 6-week peer-led chronic disease self-management program) as part of the Enhanced Primary Care care planning process. Patient self-reported data were collected at baseline and subsequent 6-month intervals using the Partners in Health (PIH) scale to assess self-management skill and ability for 175 patients across four data collection points. Health providers also scored patient knowledge and self-management skills using the same scale over the same intervals. Patients also completed a modified Stanford 2000 Health Survey for the same time intervals to assess service utilisation and health-related lifestyle factors. Results show that both mean patient self-reported PIH scores and mean health provider PIH scores for patients improved significantly over time, indicating that patients demonstrated improved understanding of their condition and improved their ability to manage and deal with their symptoms. These results suggest that involvement in peer-led self-management education programs has a positive effect on patient self-management skill, confidence and health-related behaviour.

  13. Working Conditions, Occupational Injuries, and Health Among Filipino Fish Processing Workers in Dutch Harbor, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gabriel Macasiray; de Castro, Butch

    2017-05-01

    This study explored how unique environmental conditions in Alaska influenced occupational health and safety for Filipino fish processing workers, many of whom migrated from warm locations (e.g., the Philippines, California, and Nevada). In-depth interviews were conducted with 26 Filipino workers in one commercial fish processing company in Dutch Harbor. Results indicated that cold weather interferes with workers' job performance, increasing their risk for injury and illness, whereas the community's isolation and rural nature causes loneliness and boredom, resulting in more high-risk behaviors. Other non-environmental factors affecting worker health include roommate and supervisor concerns and culture-specific practices. Findings suggest the importance of job rotation to avoid long exposures to cold temperatures, the value of a designated individual to inform workers about company and community resources that promote healthy lifestyles, and the possible utility of a joint worker-management safety committee.

  14. Numerical simulation of CO2 leakage from a geologic disposal reservoir, including transitions from super- to sub-critical conditions, and boiling of liquid of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2003-01-01

    The critical point of CO 2 is at temperature and pressure conditions of T crit = 31.04 C, P crit = 73.82 bar. At lower (subcritical) temperatures and/or pressures, CO 2 can exist in two different phase states, a liquid and a gaseous state, as well as in two-phase mixtures of these states. Disposal of CO 2 into brine formations would be made at supercritical pressures. However, CO 2 escaping from the storage reservoir may migrate upwards towards regions with lower temperatures and pressures, where CO 2 would be in subcritical conditions. An assessment of the fate of leaking CO 2 requires a capability to model not only supercritical but also subcritical CO 2 , as well as phase changes between liquid and gaseous CO 2 in sub-critical conditions. We have developed a methodology for numerically simulating the behavior of water-CO 2 mixtures in permeable media under conditions that may include liquid, gaseous, and supercritical CO 2 . This has been applied to simulations of leakage from a deep storage reservoir in which a rising CO 2 plume undergoes transitions from supercritical to subcritical conditions. We find strong cooling effects when liquid CO 2 rises to elevations where it begins to boil and evolve a gaseous CO 2 phase. A three-phase zone forms (aqueous - liquid - gas), which over time becomes several hundred meters thick as decreasing temperatures permit liquid CO 2 to advance to shallower elevations. Fluid mobilities are reduced in the three-phase region from phase interference effects. This impedes CO 2 upflow, causes the plume to spread out laterally, and gives rise to dispersed CO 2 discharge at the land surface. Our simulation suggests that temperatures along a CO 2 leakage path may decline to levels low enough so that solid water ice and CO 2 hydrate phases may be formed

  15. Health Care Autonomy in Children with Chronic Conditions: Implications for Self Care and Family Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacham, Barbara L.; Deatrick, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Health care autonomy typically occurs during late adolescence but health care providers and families often expect children with chronic health conditions to master self-care earlier. Few studies have examined the development of health care autonomy as it pertains to self-care and family management. This review will link the three concepts and discuss implications for families and health care providers. Case studies are provided as exemplars to highlight areas where intervention and research is needed. PMID:23659815

  16. Assessing the Financial Condition of Provider-Sponsored Health Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of health plans sponsored by provider organizations, with respect to plans generating strong positive cash flow relative to plans generating weaker cash flow. A secondary aim was to assess their capital adequacy. The study identified 24 provider-sponsored health plans (PSHPs) with an average positive cash flow margin from 2011 through 2013 at or above the top 75th percentile, defined as "strong cash flow PSHPs:" This group was compared with 72 PSHPs below the 75th percentile, defined as "weak cash flow PSHPs:" Atlantic Information Services Directory of Health Plans was used to identify the PSHPs. Financial ratios were computed from 2013 National Association of Insurance Commissioners Financial Filings. The study conducted a t test mean comparison between strong and weak cash flow PSHPs across an array of financial performance and capital adequacy measures. In 2013, the strong cash flow PSHPs averaged a cash-flow margin ratio of 6.6%. Weak cash flow PSHPs averaged a cash-flow margin of -0.4%. The net worth capital position of both groups was more than 4.5 times authorized capital. The operational analysis shows that strong cash-flow margin PSHPs are managing their medical costs to achieve this position. Although their medical loss ratio increased by almost 300 basis points from 2011 to 2013, it was still statistically significantly lower than the weaker cash flow PSHP group (P<.001). In terms of capital adequacy, both strong and weak cash-flow margin PSHP groups possessed sufficient capital to ensure the viability of these plans.

  17. Associations of psychosocial working conditions with self-rated general health and mental health among municipal employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Rahkonen, Ossi; Martikainen, Pekka; Lahelma, Eero

    2006-03-01

    To examine associations of job demands and job control, procedural and relational organizational fairness, and physical work load with self-rated general health and mental health. In addition, the effect of occupational class on these associations is examined. The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study baseline surveys in 2001-2002. Respondents to cross-sectional postal surveys were middle-aged employees of the City of Helsinki (n=5.829, response rate 67%). Associations of job demands and job control, organizational fairness and physical work load with less than good self-rated health and poor GHQ-12 mental health were examined. Those with the poorest working conditions two to three times more, often reported poor general and mental health than those with the best working conditions. Adjustment for occupational class weakened the associations of low job control and physical work load with general health by one fifth, but even more strengthened that of high job demands. Adjustment for occupational class clearly strengthened the associations of job control and physical work load with mental health in men. Mutual adjustment for all working conditions notably weakened their associations with both health measures, except those of job control in men. All working conditions except relational organizational fairness remained independently associated with general and mental health. All studied working conditions were strongly associated with both general and mental health but the associations weakened after mutual adjustments. Of the two organizational fairness measures, procedural fairness remained independently associated with both health outcomes. Adjustment for occupational class had essentially different effects on the associations of different working conditions and different health outcomes.

  18. Health Condition of Individuals in Contact with 60 Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milacic, S.; Jovicic, D.; Bulat, P.

    1997-01-01

    Individuals who are not professionally exposed to ionizing radiation may have the risk of contact with radioactive substances by nature of teir profession. Our aim is ti suggest a methodology for evaluation of immediate health impairment and possible late consquences of exposure of these individuals. Except for anamnestic, clinical and general laboratory indicators we analyzed cell morphology, enzymes and chromosomal aberration as well as indicators of free radicals concentrations in 62 which were in contact with 60 Co. The obtained results and evaluation of exposure and absorbed doses indicate possible consequaences in 8 subjects who are close to the source. (author)

  19. A participatory model for improving occupational health and safety: improving informal sector working conditions in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manothum, Aniruth; Rukijkanpanich, Jittra; Thawesaengskulthai, Damrong; Thampitakkul, Boonwa; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Arphorn, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of an Occupational Health and Safety Management Model for informal sector workers in Thailand. The studied model was characterized by participatory approaches to preliminary assessment, observation of informal business practices, group discussion and participation, and the use of environmental measurements and samples. This model consisted of four processes: capacity building, risk analysis, problem solving, and monitoring and control. The participants consisted of four local labor groups from different regions, including wood carving, hand-weaving, artificial flower making, and batik processing workers. The results demonstrated that, as a result of applying the model, the working conditions of the informal sector workers had improved to meet necessary standards. This model encouraged the use of local networks, which led to cooperation within the groups to create appropriate technologies to solve their problems. The authors suggest that this model could effectively be applied elsewhere to improve informal sector working conditions on a broader scale.

  20. [Informal sellers' health status and working conditions in the Bazurto market in Cartagena].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Palencia, Isabel P; Castillo-Ávila, Irma Y; Banquez-Salas, Annia P; Castro-Ortega, Audrey J; Lara-Escalante, Hilda R

    2012-06-01

    Determining informal sellers' health status and working conditions in the Bazurto market in Cartagena. The target population consisted of informal sellers working in the Bazurto market; sample size consisted of 584 sellers. A check-list was used to describe their working conditions. A "health disorders" test and neurotoxic symptoms scale (Q16) were used to determine health status and the body mass index (BMI) for determining nutritional status. 583 sellers participated in the study, having an average age of 39 years (38-40 95 %CI). 87.8 % (512) of the participants were exposed to constant noise, 84.9 % (495) worked in places having high temperatures, 74.1 % (432) were exposed to dust, and 69.8 % (407) did not use personal protective equipment. They were working 10 hours a day on average. 71 % (414) suffered from physical exhaustion, 72.4 % (422) had headaches, 63.7 % (371) had back pain and 62.7 % (365) suffered from pains in their legs. The target population's physical environment was inadequate, they worked for too many hours and some workplaces were dangerous. The informal sellers' symptoms included back pain, headaches, leg pain, eye strain and physical fatigue.

  1. Consent for use of personal information for health research: Do people with potentially stigmatizing health conditions and the general public differ in their opinions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Lisa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma refers to a distinguishing personal trait that is perceived as or actually is physically, socially, or psychologically disadvantageous. Little is known about the opinion of those who have more or less stigmatizing health conditions regarding the need for consent for use of their personal information for health research. Methods We surveyed the opinions of people 18 years and older with seven health conditions. Participants were drawn from: physicians' offices and clinics in southern Ontario; and from a cross-Canada marketing panel of individuals with the target health conditions. For each of five research scenarios presented, respondents chose one of five consent choices: (1 no need for me to know; (2 notice with opt-out; (3 broad opt-in; (4 project-specific permission; and (5 this information should not be used. Consent choices were regressed onto: demographics; health condition; and attitude measures of privacy, disclosure concern, and the benefits of health research. We conducted focus groups to discuss possible reasons for observed consent choices. Results We observed substantial variation in the control that people wish to have over use of their personal information for research. However, consent choice profiles were similar across health conditions, possibly due to sampling bias. Research involving profit or requiring linkage of health information with income, education, or occupation were associated with more restrictive consent choices. People were more willing to link their health information with biological samples than with information about their income, occupation, or education. Conclusions The heterogeneity in consent choices suggests individuals should be offered some choice in use of their information for different types of health research, even if limited to selectively opting-out. Some of the implementation challenges could be designed into the interoperable electronic health record. However, many

  2. Effect of zeolite on health condition of canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučićević Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of investigations of elementary hematological and biochemical blood parameters of German Shepherd dogs administered zeolite through feed daily for a period of 50 days. No undesired effects were established during the period of observation, and in fact there was a full normalization of the condition of the dogs that previously exhibited transitory symptoms of gastrointestinal tract disorders. No significant digressions were observed in the examined biochemical parameters of blood, either, that could indicate any harmful effects of zeolite, with the exception of the tendency toward a reduction in the concentrations of phosphorus and calcium, which was not manifest clinically as well during this period.

  3. Developing Sustainable Workplaces with Leadership: Feedback about Organizational Working Conditions to Support Leaders in Health-Promoting Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jiménez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Organizations should support leaders in promoting their employees’ health in every possible way to achieve a sustainable workplace. A good way to support leaders could include getting feedback about their health-promoting behavior from their employees. The present study introduces an instrument (Health-Promoting Leadership Conditions; HPLC that enables the provision of feedback about the leaders’ efforts to create health-promoting working conditions in seven key aspects: health awareness, workload, control, reward, community, fairness and value-fit. The instrument was used in employee surveys and in an online study, obtaining a sample of 430 participants. The results showed that all seven key aspects of health-promoting leadership can be assigned to a main factor of health-promoting leadership. In addition, the HPLC shows high construct validity with dimensions of stress, resources and burnout (Recovery-Stress- Questionnaire for Work [RESTQ-Work] and Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey [MBI-GS]. The results indicate that the HPLC can be used as a basis on which to assess health-promoting leadership behavior with a focus on changing working conditions. By getting feedback about their leadership behavior from their employees, leaders can identify their potential and fields for improvement for supporting their employees’ health and developing a sustainable workplace.

  4. Estimating Health Condition of the Wind Turbine Drivetrain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Qian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Condition Monitoring (CM has been considered as an effective method to enhance the reliability of wind turbines and implement cost-effective maintenance. Thus, adopting an efficient approach for condition monitoring of wind turbines is desirable. This paper presents a data-driven model-based CM approach for wind turbines based on the online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM algorithm. A physical kinetic energy correction model is employed to normalize the temperature change to the value at the rated power output to eliminate the effect of variable speed operation of the turbines. The residual signal, obtained by comparing the predicted values and practical measurements, is processed by the physical correction model and then assessed with a Bonferroni interval method for fault diagnosis. Models have been validated using supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA data acquired from an operational wind farm, which contains various types of temperature data of the gearbox. The results show that the proposed method can detect more efficiently both the long-term aging characteristics and the short-term faults of the gearbox.

  5. Bacterial diversity in saliva and oral health-related conditions: the Hisayama Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Toru; Kageyama, Shinya; Furuta, Michiko; Tsuboi, Hidenori; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shibata, Yukie; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2016-02-01

    This population-based study determined the salivary microbiota composition of 2,343 adult residents of Hisayama town, Japan, using 16S rRNA gene next-generation high-throughput sequencing. Of 550 identified species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 72 were common, in ≥75% of all individuals, as well as in ≥75% of the individuals in the lowest quintile of phylogenetic diversity (PD). These “core” OTUs constituted 90.9 ± 6.1% of each microbiome. The relative abundance profiles of 22 of the core OTUs with mean relative abundances ≥1% were stratified into community type I and community type II by partitioning around medoids clustering. Multiple regression analysis revealed that a lower PD was associated with better conditions for oral health, including a lower plaque index, absence of decayed teeth, less gingival bleeding, shallower periodontal pockets and not smoking, and was also associated with tooth loss. By contrast, multiple Poisson regression analysis demonstrated that community type II, as characterized by a higher ratio of the nine dominant core OTUs, including Neisseria flavescens, was implicated in younger age, lower body mass index, fewer teeth with caries experience, and not smoking. Our large-scale data analyses reveal variation in the salivary microbiome among Japanese adults and oral health-related conditions associated with the salivary microbiome.

  6. Health Conditions at Periodic Medical Surveillance in Romanian Offshore Workforce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liga, Percsi Letitia; Jensen, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    and analysed. The variables included body mass index, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and liver transaminases. The metabolic syndrome was defined using the ADAM criteria. Results The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed for 18 % and 16 % respectively in the age group over...

  7. [Actual conditions of occupational health activities in small-scale enterprises in Japan: system for occupational health, health management and demands by small-scale enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, M; Kumagai, S; Tabuchi, T; Tainaka, H; Andoh, K; Oda, H

    1999-11-01

    In order to clarify the real conditions of occupational health services (OHS) in small-scale enterprises (SSEs) in Japan, we analyzed questionnaires recovered from 765 SSEs in the area of a city neighboring Osaka City (recovery rate, 69.3%). The SSEs included 358 SSEs with 1 to 4 workers (46.8% of total SSEs), 203 with 5 to 9 (26.5%), 163 with 10 to 29 (21.3%) and 41 with 30 to 49 (5.4%). The main types of businesses were manufacturing (374, 48.9% of total SSEs), wholesale/retail trade/restaurants (153, 20.0%), community, social and personal services (132, 17.3%) and construction (72, 9.4%). Health examinations were performed in 47.7% of SSEs. The reason for the lack of examinations were "shortage of time" (33.3% of SSEs lacking health examination) and "employees do not want to be examined" (28.1%). Some health promotion measures were conducted in 29.2% of SSEs. Health examination (59.0% of SSEs), health promotion (36.5%), measure of mental health (25.9%) and information service for employers and employees (25.5%) were demanded by SSEs as OHS. Financial subsidies and economical incentives were demanded by 46.4% and 28.8% of SSEs, respectively. Regional occupational health center in this area was poorly known among SSEs (8.2%), but health examination (48.4%), information service (37.5%), assessment of work method and advice to improve (19.8%) and environment measurement (12.4%) are demanded of the center by SSEs.

  8. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF THE INFLUENZA VACCINE AMONG CHILDREN WITH DIFFERENT HEALTH CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    M.G. Galitskaya

    2007-01-01

    Efficacy and safety of vaccine «Grippol» among children with different health status was analyzed. The most efficacy of the influenza vaccine revealed in the group of children with compromised health status, as well as in the group of allergic children. The safety of influenza vaccination was confirmed in children with different health conditions.Key words: children, vaccination, influenza, efficacy, safety.

  9. An Analysis of health conditions in municipalities of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovídio Cesar Barbosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to analyze the health conditions in the municipal districts checking which of them best optimize the available resources, consequently offering more and better services to the population. In this approach, first was characterized the public health in Brazil, in the state of Paraná and in its municipalities. We build a Performance Indicator for each county in the state (PI and used variables representing mortality and longevity - infant mortality, mortality up to five years, life expectancy and probability of achieving 60 years. Regarding variables, those relating to health spending, the analysis period was from 2007 to 2010, the population information refer to the 2010 Census and the related infrastructure and health of the population, were collected at the DATASUS. The work includes all municipalities in the state of Paraná. By analyzing the results it was found that there are municipalities that can equate better their inputs and thus provide better service to its population, consequently your ID is better. Another aspect to consider is that the municipalities considered Big City are less dependent on current transfers both the state and the Union, which also have better PI. The city of Colombo was the one with the best performance indicator, while the municipalities of Cruzmaltina and Cantagalo have the worst state ID.

  10. Characterisation of mental health conditions in social media using Informed Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsis, George; Oellrich, Anika; Velupillai, Sumithra; Liakata, Maria; Hubbard, Tim J. P.; Dobson, Richard J. B.; Dutta, Rina

    2017-03-01

    The number of people affected by mental illness is on the increase and with it the burden on health and social care use, as well as the loss of both productivity and quality-adjusted life-years. Natural language processing of electronic health records is increasingly used to study mental health conditions and risk behaviours on a large scale. However, narrative notes written by clinicians do not capture first-hand the patients’ own experiences, and only record cross-sectional, professional impressions at the point of care. Social media platforms have become a source of ‘in the moment’ daily exchange, with topics including well-being and mental health. In this study, we analysed posts from the social media platform Reddit and developed classifiers to recognise and classify posts related to mental illness according to 11 disorder themes. Using a neural network and deep learning approach, we could automatically recognise mental illness-related posts in our balenced dataset with an accuracy of 91.08% and select the correct theme with a weighted average accuracy of 71.37%. We believe that these results are a first step in developing methods to characterise large amounts of user-generated content that could support content curation and targeted interventions.

  11. Association between mental health conditions and rehospitalization, mortality, and functional outcomes in patients with stroke following inpatient rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, Almas; Glickman, Mark E; Berlowitz, Dan

    2011-11-15

    Limited evidence exists regarding the association of pre-existing mental health conditions in patients with stroke and stroke outcomes such as rehospitalization, mortality, and function. We examined the association between mental health conditions and rehospitalization, mortality, and functional outcomes in patients with stroke following inpatient rehabilitation. Our observational study used the 2001 VA Integrated Stroke Outcomes database of 2162 patients with stroke who underwent rehabilitation at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Separate models were fit to our outcome measures that included 6-month rehospitalization or death, 6-month mortality post-discharge, and functional outcomes post inpatient rehabilitation as a function of number and type of mental health conditions. The models controlled for patient socio-demographics, length of stay, functional status, and rehabilitation setting. Patients had an average age of 68 years. Patients with stroke and two or more mental health conditions were more likely to be readmitted or die compared to patients with no conditions (OR: 1.44, p = 0.04). Depression and anxiety were associated with a greater likelihood of rehospitalization or death (OR: 1.33, p = 0.04; OR:1.47, p = 0.03). Patients with anxiety were more likely to die at six months (OR: 2.49, p = 0.001). Patients with stroke with pre-existing mental health conditions may need additional psychotherapy interventions, which may potentially improve stroke outcomes post-hospitalization.

  12. What You Don't Know May Kill You: The Importance of Including Sexual Health in Premarital Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, LaTrina M.; Cummings Aholou, Tiffiany M.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual health is a widespread concern for intimate partners. As couples transition to marriage, it is vitally important to explore issues related to sexual health. Moreover, premarital counselors are encouraged to facilitate a sexual health discussion with premarital couples. This article presents the importance of raising the topic of sexual…

  13. Invited commentary: co-occurring health conditions among women living with profound life challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2011-09-01

    People challenged by homelessness are living with several losses including the loss of a home, employment, economic security, health or well-being, and personal security. Assistance programs for people who are homeless consist of housing, emergency shelter, food services, employment assistance, peer support, medical care, and mental health services. An article by Riley et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2011;175(5):515-522) appearing in this issue of the Journal examines the relation between basic subsistence needs and health outcomes in a cohort of 129 human immunodeficiency virus-infected women who were recruited from a probability sample of low-income hotels, homeless shelters, and free food programs in San Francisco, California. The results of their study underscore the importance of addressing subsistence needs and providing access to medical and psychological treatment for homeless and unstably housed women. In addition to subsistence needs, more attention should be given to comorbid psychiatric and medical conditions that occur among homeless women, including trauma-related disorders.

  14. Private prayer associations with depression, anxiety and other health conditions: an analytical review of clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James W; Nunnelley, Paige A

    2016-09-01

    To critically analyze appropriate clinical studies to assess the relationship between health conditions and the frequency of private prayer. Private prayer is defined as individuals praying for themselves. Using PubMed and other search engines, we identified over 300 articles reporting relationships between prayer and health conditions. We identified 41 observational clinical studies that evaluated the relationship between private prayer and health conditions. Prayer scores of 5 to 1 were assigned to studies, with 5 being private prayer for health and 1 being prayer in combination with meditation or Bible study. Frequency scores ranged from 3 to 1 with 3 being twice daily or more and 0 when frequency was not assessed. Studies were ranked from 8 to 1 based on the sum of Prayer and Frequency Scores. Twenty-one studies had Prayer-Frequency scores of 5 to 8, indicating that they evaluated private prayer (praying for one's own health) of suitable frequency in association with health conditions. Nine of 11 studies indicated that private prayer was associated with a significantly lower prevalence of depression (P value, prayer in four studies (P value, P prayer (P prayer did not have a significant effect on physical health or blood pressure. The reported observational studies suggest that frequent private prayer is associated with a significant benefit for depression, optimism, coping, and other mental health conditions such as anxiety. Controlled clinical trials are required to critically assess the associations of private prayer and health conditions.

  15. EVALUATION OF LABOR CONDITIONS BY PUBLIC HEALTH WORKERS IN THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Kirik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze the conditions and organization of work of public health workers of state medical organizations in the Far East of Russia according to a medical and sociological survey. Materials and methods. A questionnaire survey was chosen. There are 835 people took part in the poll. To gather social information, three groups of respondents were selected: 1 senior and middle managers, 2 heads of structural units; 3 doctors, various clinical specialties, included in the reserve of management personnel. The collection of statistical data was conducted in 2015- 2017. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using the methods of calculating relative values, calculating the average values, and ANOVA. Results. According to the obtained results, all groups of respondents believe that present healthcare industry in Russia is developed satisfactorily. Participants in the survey estimate the current state of resources of public health institutions rather low. According to the survey results, health workers give an unsatisfactory assessment of the technical condition of the buildings of medical organizations, of the provision of doctors and middle medical personnel. Among the proposed motivational factors of labor activity, healthcare workers and give a satisfactory assessment of such factors as: the discipline of work, the amount of work, the safety in the workplace, the stability of the workplace and interpersonal relations with colleagues. Opinion of medical workers does not coincide in the assessment of factors: wages, technical support of the workplace, the volume of document circulation, the opportunity for professional development, self-realization and career growth. Senior and middle managers assess these factors as «satisfactory», doctors give an assessment of «unsatisfactory». Heads of structural subdivisions assess the factors of technical support for the workplace, the size of wages and volume of document

  16. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into 'pre-action' and 'action'. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1-12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. NCT01315756.

  17. The Population Impact of Childhood Health Conditions on Dropout from Upper-Secondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Janne; Moustgaard, Heta; Remes, Hanna; Martikainen, Pekka

    2018-05-01

    To quantify how large a part of educational dropout is due to adverse childhood health conditions and to estimate the risk of dropout across various physical and mental health conditions. A registry-based cohort study was conducted on a 20% random sample of Finns born in 1988-1995 (n = 101 284) followed for school dropout at ages 17 and 21. Four broad groups of health conditions (any, somatic, mental, and injury) and 25 specific health conditions were assessed from inpatient and outpatient care records at ages 10-16 years. We estimated the immediate and more persistent risks of dropout due to health conditions and calculated population-attributable fractions to quantify the population impact of childhood health on educational dropout, while accounting for a wide array of sociodemographic confounders and comorbidity. Children with any health condition requiring inpatient or outpatient care at ages 10-16 years were more likely to be dropouts at ages 17 years (risk ratio 1.71, 95% CI 1.61-1.81) and 21 years (1.46, 1.37-1.54) following adjustment for individual and family sociodemographic factors. A total of 30% of school dropout was attributable to health conditions at age 17 years and 21% at age 21 years. Mental disorders alone had an attributable fraction of 11% at age 21 years, compared with 5% for both somatic conditions and injuries. Adjusting for the presence of mental disorders reduced the effects of somatic conditions. More than one fifth of educational dropout is attributable to childhood health conditions. Early-onset mental disorders emerge as key targets in reducing dropout. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stress, Health Behavior, and Sleep as Mediators of the Association between Loneliness and Adverse Health Conditions among Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Julie

    was significantly associated with poor self-rated health, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and migraine. In addition, high perceived stress, physical inactivity, problems with alcohol, and poor sleep demonstrated an indirect effect on the association between loneliness and adverse health conditions. The findings......Prior research has established an association between loneliness and a variety of negative health conditions among older people. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the association. The Loneliness Model seeks to explain the mechanisms through which chronic loneliness might...... affect the development of adverse health conditions. The present study was designed to test the explanation proposed by the Loneliness Model. The sample consisted of 8.593 elderly ranging from 65 to 103 years participating in the 2013 Public Health Survey; “How are you?”. Results showed that loneliness...

  19. Nonrandomized studies are not always found even when selection criteria for health systems intervention reviews include them: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Mayhew, Alain; Scheel, Inger; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Systematic reviews within the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) can include both randomized and nonrandomized study designs. We explored how many EPOC reviews consider and identify nonrandomized studies, and whether the proportion of nonrandomized studies identified is linked to the review topic. We recorded the study designs considered in 65 EPOC reviews. For reviews that considered nonrandomized studies, we calculated the proportion of identified studies that were nonrandomized and explored whether there were differences in the proportion of nonrandomized studies according to the review topic. Fifty-one (78.5%) reviews considered nonrandomized studies. Forty-six of these reviews found nonrandomized studies, but the proportion varied a great deal (median, 33%; interquartile range, 25--50%). Reviews of health care delivery interventions had lower proportions of nonrandomized studies than those of financial and governance interventions. Most EPOC reviews consider nonrandomized studies, but the degree to which they find them varies. As nonrandomized studies are believed to be at higher risk of bias and their inclusion entails a considerable effort, review authors should consider whether the benefits justify the inclusion of these designs. Research should explore whether it is more useful to consider nonrandomized studies in reviews of some intervention types than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The post-millennium development goals agenda: include 'end to all wars' as a public health goal!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2014-09-01

    The process of identifying global post-millennium development goals (post-MDGs) has begun in earnest. Consensus is emerging in certain areas (e.g. eliminating poverty) and conflicts and violence are recognized as key factors that retard human development. However, current discussions focus on tackling intra-state conflicts and individual-based violence and hardly mention eliminating wars as a goal. Wars create public health catastrophes. They kill, maim, displace and affect millions. Inter-state wars fuel intra-state conflicts and violence. The peace agenda should not be the monopoly of the UN Security Council, and the current consensus-building process setting the post-MDG agenda is a rallying point for the global community. The human rights approach will not suffice to eliminate wars, because few are fought to protect human rights. The development agenda should therefore commit to eliminating all wars by 2030. Targets to reduce tensions and discourage wars should be included. We should act now. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Use of health care claims data to study patients with ophthalmologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Joshua D; Lum, Flora; Lee, Paul P; Rich, William L; Coleman, Anne L

    2014-05-01

    To describe what information is or is not included in health care claims data, provide an overview of the main advantages and limitations of performing analyses using health care claims data, and offer general guidance on how to report and interpret findings of ophthalmology-related claims data analyses. Systematic review. Not applicable. A literature review and synthesis of methods for claims-based data analyses. Not applicable. Some advantages of using claims data for analyses include large, diverse sample sizes, longitudinal follow-up, lack of selection bias, and potential for complex, multivariable modeling. The disadvantages include (a) the inherent limitations of claims data, such as incomplete, inaccurate, or missing data, or the lack of specific billing codes for some conditions; and (b) the inability, in some circumstances, to adequately evaluate the appropriateness of care. In general, reports of claims data analyses should include clear descriptions of the following methodological elements: the data source, the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the specific billing codes used, and the potential confounding factors incorporated in the multivariable models. The use of claims data for research is expected to increase with the enhanced availability of data from Medicare and other sources. The use of claims data to evaluate resource use and efficiency and to determine the basis for supplementary payment methods for physicians is anticipated. Thus, it will be increasingly important for eye care providers to use accurate and descriptive codes for billing. Adherence to general guidance on the reporting of claims data analyses, as outlined in this article, is important to enhance the credibility and applicability of findings. Guidance on optimal ways to conduct and report ophthalmology-related investigations using claims data will likely continue to evolve as health services researchers refine the metrics to analyze large administrative data sets. Copyright

  2. Lesbian, gay, & bisexual older adults: linking internal minority stressors, chronic health conditions, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to: (1) test whether the minority stressors disclosure of sexual orientation; and (2) internalized heterosexism are predictive of chronic physical health conditions; and (3) depression; (4) to test direct and indirect relationships between these variables; and (5) whether chronic physical health conditions are further predictive of depression, net of disclosure of sexual orientation and internalized heterosexism. Secondary analysis of national, community-based surveys of 2349 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 50 and older residing in the US utilizing structural equation modeling. Congruent with minority stress theory, disclosure of sexual orientation is indirectly associated with chronic physical health conditions and depression, mediated by internalized heterosexism with a suppressor effect. Internalized heterosexism is directly associated with chronic physical health conditions and depression, and further indirectly associated with depression mediated by chronic physical health conditions. Finally, chronic physical health conditions have an additional direct relationship with depression, net of other predictor variables. Minority stressors and chronic physical health conditions independently and collectively predict depression, possibly a synergistic effect. Implications for depression among older sexual minority adults are discussed.

  3. Changes in working conditions and physical health functioning among midlife and ageing employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mänty, Minna; Kouvonen, Anne; Lallukka, Tea; Lahti, Jouni; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2015-11-01

    The aim this study was to examine the effect of changes in physical and psychosocial working conditions on physical health functioning among ageing municipal employees. Follow-up survey data were collected from midlife employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, at three time points: wave 1 (2000-2002), wave 2 (2007), and wave 3 (2012). Changes in physical and psychosocial working conditions were assessed between waves 1 and 2. Physical health functioning was measured by the physical component summary (PCS) of the Short-Form 36 questionnaire at each of the three waves. In total, 2784 respondents (83% women) who remained employed over the follow-up were available for the analyses. Linear mixed-effect models were used to assess the associations and adjust for key covariates (age, gender, obesity, chronic diseases, and health behaviors). Repeated and increased exposure to adverse physical working conditions was associated with greater decline in physical health functioning over time. In contrast, decrease in exposures reduced the decline. Of the psychosocial working conditions, changes in job demands had no effects on physical health functioning. However, decreased job control was associated with greater decline and repeated high or increased job control reduced the decline in physical health functioning over time. Adverse changes in physical working conditions and job control were associated with greater decline in physical health functioning over time, whereas favorable changes in these exposures reduced the decline. Preventing deterioration and promoting improvement of working conditions are likely to help maintain better physical health functioning among ageing employees.

  4. Health condition of juvenile Chelonia mydas related to fibropapillomatosis in southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renan de Deus Santos, Marcello; Silva Martins, Agnaldo; Baptistotte, Cecília; Work, Thierry M.

    2015-01-01

    Packed cell volume (PCV), plasma biochemistry, visual body condition (BC), and calculated body condition index (BCI) were evaluated in 170 wild juvenile green sea turtles Chelonia mydas from an aggregation in the effluent canal of a steel mill in Brazil. Occurrence of cutaneous fibropapillomatosis (FP) was observed in 44.1% of the animals examined. BCI alone did not differ significantly between healthy animals and those afflicted with FP. However, all turtles with low BCI were severely afflicted and were uremic, hypoglycemic, and anemic in relation to healthy animals. Severe FP was not always reflected by a poor health condition of the individual. Clinical evaluation and plasma biochemistry indicated that most animals afflicted with FP were in good health condition. Differences in FP manifestations and associated health conditions in different geographic regions must be assessed by long-term health monitoring programs to help define priorities for conservation efforts.

  5. Development of a versatile enrichment analysis tool reveals associations between the maternal brain and mental health disorders, including autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A recent study of lateral septum (LS) suggested a large number of autism-related genes with altered expression in the postpartum state. However, formally testing the findings for enrichment of autism-associated genes proved to be problematic with existing software. Many gene-disease association databases have been curated which are not currently incorporated in popular, full-featured enrichment tools, and the use of custom gene lists in these programs can be difficult to perform and interpret. As a simple alternative, we have developed the Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET), a minimal tool that enables one to easily evaluate expression data for enrichment of any conceivable gene list of interest. Results The MSET approach was validated by testing several publicly available expression data sets for expected enrichment in areas of autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and arthritis. Using nine independent, unique autism gene lists extracted from association databases and two recent publications, a striking consensus of enrichment was detected within gene expression changes in LS of postpartum mice. A network of 160 autism-related genes was identified, representing developmental processes such as synaptic plasticity, neuronal morphogenesis, and differentiation. Additionally, maternal LS displayed enrichment for genes associated with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, ADHD, and depression. Conclusions The transition to motherhood includes the most fundamental social bonding event in mammals and features naturally occurring changes in sociability. Some individuals with autism, schizophrenia, or other mental health disorders exhibit impaired social traits. Genes involved in these deficits may also contribute to elevated sociability in the maternal brain. To date, this is the first study to show a significant, quantitative link between the maternal brain and mental health disorders using large scale gene expression data. Thus, the

  6. Use of electronic health records and administrative data for public health surveillance of eye health and vision-related conditions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Amanda F; Davidson, Arthur; Lum, Flora; Chiang, Michael F; Saaddine, Jinan B; Zhang, Xinzhi; Crews, John E; Chou, Chiu-Fang

    2012-12-01

    To discuss the current trend toward greater use of electronic health records and how these records could enhance public health surveillance of eye health and vision-related conditions. Perspective, comparing systems. We describe 3 currently available sources of electronic health data (Kaiser Permanente, the Veterans Health Administration, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services) and how these sources can contribute to a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system. Each of the 3 sources of electronic health data can contribute meaningfully to a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system, but none currently provide all the information required. The use of electronic health records for vision and eye health surveillance has both advantages and disadvantages. Electronic health records may provide additional information needed to create a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system. Recommendations for incorporating electronic health records into such a system are presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Atopic conditions and mental health problems: a 3-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Lars; Green, Kristian; Thoresen, Magne; Bjertness, Espen

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that atopic conditions at 15/16 years of age affect both internalized and externalized mental health problems 3 years later. Combined school and postal survey was conducted in urban and rural settings. A total of 3,674 adolescents (70.1% response rate) were followed at two time points and interviewed with similar questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-10) was used to assess internalized problems, and two subscales (conduct problems and hyperactivity) from the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire to measure externalized mental health problems. The atopic conditions investigated were asthma, hay fever and eczema by asking the adolescents whether these conditions were present or not. There was an increase in the prevalence of internalized mental health problems from about 17-25% and a decrease in externalized mental health problems and number of atopic conditions in the follow-up period. Of the atopic conditions, hay fever was most prevalent with about 34% at 15 years of age and 20% at 18. The asthma prevalence was at 10 and 5% and eczema at 25 and 10%, respectively. Internalized mental health problems among girls were significantly associated with atopic conditions 3 years earlier, also after controlling for confounding variables. To live with atopic conditions seem to affect the mood and level of anxiety among adolescent girls. This should be kept in mind by health professionals treating young girls with atopic conditions.

  8. The Role of School Health Services in Addressing the Needs of Students with Chronic Health Conditions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Zanie C.; Wallin, Robin; Lee, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States spend many hours in school. Students with chronic health conditions (CHCs) may face lower academic achievement, increased disability, fewer job opportunities, and limited community interactions as they enter adulthood. School health services provide safe and effective management of CHCs, often for…

  9. Forest health conditions on the Allegheny National Forest (1989-1999): Analysis of forest health monitoring surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Morin; A.M. Liebhold; K.W. Gottschalk; D.B. Twardus; R.E. Acciavatti; R.L. White; S.B. Horsley; W.D. Smith; E.R. Luzader

    2001-01-01

    This publication describes the forest vegetation and health conditions of the Allegheny National Forest (ANF). During the past 15 years, the ANF has experienced four severe droughts, several outbreaks of exotic and native insect defoliators, and the effects of other disturbance agents. An increase in tree mortality has raised concerns about forest health. Historical...

  10. Environmental, health and economic conditions perceived by 50 rural communities in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Ryutaro; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Moji, Kazuhiko; Karim, Enamul; Yoshinaga, Mari

    2002-12-01

    For randomly selected 50 villages in Bangladesh, an interview survey with a structured questionnaire was conducted to reveal their perception on the environmental, health and economic conditions at present and for the past 10-year change. The eight following items were analyzed in this paper: air pollution and water pollution, which represent environmental conditions with close relation to health conditions, soil degradation and deforestation, which represent environmental conditions with close relation to economic conditions, epidemic diseases and malnutrition, which represent health conditions, and poverty and jobless, which represent economic conditions. Among the 50 villages, deforestation was most frequently perceived serious at present and worsened in the past 10 years. Of the remaining seven items, those related to economic conditions were more seriously perceived than those related to health and environmental conditions. As revealed by the cluster analysis for the inter-item relations, epidemic diseases, which formed the same cluster with the environmental items, were recognized less serious whereas malnutrition, which formed the same cluster with the economic items, was recognized more serious. These findings are useful not only for rural development programs but also for mitigation programs toward health and environmental hazards in Bangladesh.

  11. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  12. 77 FR 24628 - World Trade Center Health Program Requirements for the Addition of New WTC-Related Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ...; and a physician experienced with treating WTC-related health conditions requested that a mental... likely to be a significant factor in aggravating, contributing to, or causing the illness or condition... specified in the statute. We agree with commenters who pointed out that we neglected to specify a time frame...

  13. Health, work and working conditions: a review of the European economic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnay, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Economists have traditionally been very cautious when studying the interaction between employment and health because of the two-way causal relationship between these two variables: health status influences the probability of being employed and, at the same time, working affects the health status. Because these two variables are determined simultaneously, researchers control endogeneity skews (e.g., reverse causality, omitted variables) when conducting empirical analysis. With these caveats in mind, the literature finds that a favourable work environment and high job security lead to better health conditions. Being employed with appropriate working conditions plays a protective role on physical health and psychiatric disorders. By contrast, non-employment and retirement are generally worse for mental health than employment, and overemployment has a negative effect on health. These findings stress the importance of employment and of adequate working conditions for the health of workers. In this context, it is a concern that a significant proportion of European workers (29 %) would like to work fewer hours because unwanted long hours are likely to signal a poor level of job satisfaction and inadequate working conditions, with detrimental effects on health. Thus, in Europe, labour-market policy has increasingly paid attention to job sustainability and job satisfaction. The literature clearly invites employers to take better account of the worker preferences when setting the number of hours worked. Overall, a specific "flexicurity" (combination of high employment protection, job satisfaction and active labour-market policies) is likely to have a positive effect on health.

  14. Do unfavourable working conditions explain mental health inequalities between ethnic groups? Cross-sectional data of the HELIUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Schene, Aart H; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2015-08-20

    Ethnic inequalities in mental health have been found in many high-income countries. The purpose of this study is to test whether mental health inequalities between ethnic groups are mediated by exposure to unfavourable working conditions. Workers (n = 6278) were selected from baseline data of the multi-ethnic HELIUS study. Measures included two indices of unfavourable working conditions (lack of recovery opportunities, and perceived work stress), and two mental health outcomes (generic mental health: MCS-12 and depressive symptoms: PHQ-9). Mediation of the relationships between ethnicity and mental health by unfavourable working conditions was tested using the bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals technique. Linear models with and without the mediators included, and adjusted for gender and age. Attenuation was calculated as the change in B between the models with and without mediators. The sample comprised Dutch (1355), African Surinamese (1290), South-Asian Surinamese (1121), Turkish (1090), Ghanaian (729), and Moroccan (693) workers. After controlling for age and gender, all ethnic minorities had a higher risk of mental health problems as compared to the Dutch host population, with the exception of Ghanaians in the case of depressive symptoms, and African Surinamese workers with regard to both outcomes. The Turkish group stands out with the lowest mental health on both mental health indices, followed by Moroccan and South-Asian Surinamese workers. A lack of recovery opportunities mediated the relationship between ethnic group and a higher risk of mental health problems. Perceived work stress did not contribute to the explanation of ethnic inequalities. The higher risk of mental health problems in ethnic minority groups can be partly accounted for by a lack of recovery opportunities at work, but not by perceived work stress. This may imply that workplace prevention targeting recovery opportunities have the potential to reduce ethnic inequalities, but

  15. [Chronic health conditions related to quality of life for federal civil servants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Luciana Eduardo Fernandes; Medeiros, Lays Pinheiro de; Melo, Marjorie Dantas Medeiros; Tiburcio, Manuela Pinto; Costa, Isabelle Katherinne Fernandes; Torres, Gilson de Vasconcelos

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to correlate the QOL domains of the civil servants to the type and number of chronic health conditions. A transversal, quantitative study, conducted at the Department of Civil Servant Assistance of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte with 215 civil servants, during the period from March to May 2011. Among the chronic health conditions studied, there was significant relationship between non-communicable chronic disease and QOL scores, correlating weakly (r civil servants is negatively influenced by chronic health conditions, compromising, in general, their daily work and life activities.

  16. Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions and quality of primary care: their relation with socioeconomic and health care variables in the Madrid regional health service (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magán, Purificación; Alberquilla, Angel; Otero, Angel; Ribera, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSH) have been proposed as an indirect indicator of the effectiveness and quality of care provided by primary health care. To investigate the association of ACSH rates with population socioeconomic factors and with characteristics of primary health care. Cross-sectional, ecologic study. Using hospital discharge data, ACSH were selected from the list of conditions validated for Spain. All 34 health districts in the Region of Madrid, Spain. Individuals aged 65 years or older residing in the region of Madrid between 2001 and 2003, inclusive. Age- and gender-adjusted ACSH rates in each health district. The adjusted ACSH rate per 1000 population was 35.37 in men and 20.45 in women. In the Poisson regression analysis, an inverse relation was seen between ACSH rates and the socioeconomic variables. Physician workload was the only health care variable with a statistically significant relation (rate ratio of 1.066 [95% CI; 1.041-1.091]). These results were similar in the analyses disaggregated by gender. In the multivariate analyses that included health care variables, none of the health care variables were statistically significant. ACSH may be more closely related with socioeconomic variables than with characteristics of primary care activity. Therefore, other factors outside the health system must be considered to improve health outcomes in the population.

  17. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfortmueller, Carmen Andrea; Schwetlick, Miriam; Mueller, Thomas; Lehmann, Beat; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria. Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an "asylum seeker" or "refugee" from the Middle East. In total, 880 patients were included in the study. Of these, 625 (71.0%) were male and 255 (29.0%) female. The median age was 34 (range 16-84). 222 (25.2%) of our patients were from Syria. The most common reason for presentation was surgical (381, 43.3%), followed by medical (321, 36.5%) and psychiatric (137, 15.6%). In patients with surgical presentations, trauma-related problems were most common (n = 196, 50.6%). Within the group of patients with medical presentation, acute infectious diseases were most common (n = 141, 43.9%), followed by neurological problems (n = 70, 21.8%) and gastrointestinal problems (n = 47, 14.6%). There were no differences between Syrian and non-Syrian refugees concerning surgical or medical admissions. The most common chronic disorder of unclear significance was chronic gastrointestinal problems (n = 132, 15%), followed by chronic musculoskeletal problems (n = 108, 12.3%) and chronic headaches (n = 78, 8.9%). Patients from Syria were significantly younger and more often suffered from a post-traumatic stress disorder than patients of other nationalities (pSyria when compared to other nationalities of asylum seekers from the Middle East.

  18. Current and emerging occupational safety and health (OSH) issues in the healthcare sector, including home and community care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, T. de; Bos, E.; Pawlowska-Cyprysiak, K.; Hildt-Ciupinska, K.; Malinska, M.; Nicolescu, G.; Trifu, A.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the current and emerging OSH issues for health- and social care workers and how these affect their safety and health at work and influence the quality of care they provide. It combines a literature review and the responses received to a questionnaire sent to OSH

  19. Health effects of 'Juntos', a conditional cash transfer programme in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lu, José E; Cárcamo, Cesar; Nandi, Arijit; Kaufman, Jay S

    2017-07-01

    In some countries, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes show an impact on maternal and child health. Juntos, the CCT programme in Peru, has been evaluated several times operationally, but seldom for maternal and child health outcomes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of Juntos on children under 6 years, pregnant women and mothers of children under 17 years. Outcomes evaluated included (1) anaemia in women and children; (2) acute malnutrition in children; (3) post-partum complications in mothers; and (4) underweight and overweight in mothers. We identified Juntos eligible respondents from the Demographic and Health Surveys of Peru for years 2007 to 2013. Propensity score matching was used to identify comparable treatment and control groups, including eligible respondents enrolled in Juntos vs. those not enrolled in Juntos (individual-level analysis), as well as eligible respondents living in Juntos districts vs. those not residing in Juntos districts (district-level analysis). We then used generalized linear models to estimate prevalence ratios. Individual level analysis showed that Juntos reduced underweight in women (PR:0.39, 95%CI:0.18 - 0.85) and anaemia in children (PR:0.93, 95%CI:0.86 - 1.00). In the district level analysis, the programme was associated with a reduction of overweight in women (PR:0.94, 95%CI:0.90 - 0.98) and acute malnutrition in children (PR:0.49, 95%CI:0.32 - 0.73), but an increase in the prevalence of anaemia in children (PR:1.09, 95%CI:1.01 - 1.17). We found that Juntos had an effect on maternal and child health indicators, but further studies are required to overcome some limitations encountered here. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Factors Associated With the Likelihood of Hospitalization Following Emergency Department Visits for Behavioral Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jane E; Desai, Pratikkumar V; Hoot, Nathan R; Gearing, Robin E; Jeong, Shin; Meyer, Thomas D; Soares, Jair C; Begley, Charles E

    2016-11-01

    Behavioral health-related emergency department (ED) visits have been linked with ED overcrowding, an increased demand on limited resources, and a longer length of stay (LOS) due in part to patients being admitted to the hospital but waiting for an inpatient bed. This study examines factors associated with the likelihood of hospital admission for ED patients with behavioral health conditions at 16 hospital-based EDs in a large urban area in the southern United States. Using Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use for guidance, the study examined the relationship between predisposing (characteristics of the individual, i.e., age, sex, race/ethnicity), enabling (system or structural factors affecting healthcare access), and need (clinical) factors and the likelihood of hospitalization following ED visits for behavioral health conditions (n = 28,716 ED visits). In the adjusted analysis, a logistic fixed-effects model with blockwise entry was used to estimate the relative importance of predisposing, enabling, and need variables added separately as blocks while controlling for variation in unobserved hospital-specific practices across hospitals and time in years. Significant predisposing factors associated with an increased likelihood of hospitalization following an ED visit included increasing age, while African American race was associated with a lower likelihood of hospitalization. Among enabling factors, arrival by emergency transport and a longer ED LOS were associated with a greater likelihood of hospitalization while being uninsured and the availability of community-based behavioral health services within 5 miles of the ED were associated with lower odds. Among need factors, having a discharge diagnosis of schizophrenia/psychotic spectrum disorder, an affective disorder, a personality disorder, dementia, or an impulse control disorder as well as secondary diagnoses of suicidal ideation and/or suicidal behavior increased the likelihood of hospitalization

  1. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Out-of-Pocket Expenditures on Complementary Health Approaches Associated with Painful Health Conditions in a Nationally Representative Adult Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahin, Richard L.; Stussman, Barbara J.; Herman, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    National surveys suggest that millions of adults in the United States use complementary health approaches such as acupuncture, chiropractic manipulation, and herbal medicines to manage painful conditions such as arthritis, back pain and fibromyalgia. Yet, national and per person out-of-pocket (OOP) costs attributable to this condition-specific use are unknown. In the 2007 National Health Interview Survey, use of complementary health approaches, reasons for this use, and associated OOP costs were captured in a nationally representative sample of 5,467 adults. Ordinary least square regression models that controlled for co-morbid conditions were used to estimate aggregate and per person OOP costs associated with 14 painful health conditions. Individuals using complementary approaches spent a total of $14.9 billion (S.E. $0.9 billion) OOP on these approaches to manage these painful conditions. Total OOP expenditures seen in those using complementary approaches for their back pain ($8.7 billion, S.E. $0.8 billion) far outstripped that of any other condition, with the majority of these costs ($4.7 billion, S.E. $0.4 billion) resulting from visits to complementary providers. Annual condition-specific per-person OOP costs varied from a low of $568 (SE $144) for regular headaches, to a high of $895 (SE $163) for fibromyalgia. PMID:26320946

  3. Employment conditions and maternal postpartum mental health: results from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Canterford, Louise; Strazdins, Lyndall; Nicholson, Jan M

    2011-06-01

    Maternal postpartum mental health is influenced by a broad range of risk and protective factors including social circumstances. Forty percent of Australian women resume employment in the first year postpartum, yet poor quality employment (without security, control, flexibility or leave) has not been investigated as a potential social determinant of maternal psychological distress. This paper examines whether poor quality jobs are associated with an increased risk of maternal postpartum psychological distress. Data were collected from employed mothers of infants ≤12 months (n = 1,300) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Logistic regression analyses estimated the association between job quality and maternal psychological distress, adjusting for prior depression, social support, quality of partner relationship, adverse life events and sociodemographic characteristics. Only 21% of women reported access to all four optimal job conditions. After adjustment for known risk factors for poor maternal mood, mothers were significantly more likely to report psychological distress (adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.09, 1.77) with each reduction in the number of optimal employment conditions. Interventions for maternal postpartum affective disorders are unlikely to be successful if major risk factors are not addressed. These results provide strong evidence that employment conditions are associated with maternal postpartum mood, and warrant consideration in psychosocial risk assessments and interventions.

  4. Assessing the health condition profile in the freshwater fish Astyanax aeneus in Champoton River, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Jiménez, Patricia; Sedeño-Díaz, Jacinto Elías; López-López, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomarkers for monitoring aquatic environmental quality has gained considerable interest worldwide. The effects of the environmental conditions of Río Champotón, México, in the hotspot of Mesoamerica, were assessed in Astyanax aeneus, a native fish of the tropics of southwestern México. Pollution from agrochemical residues is a major problem in Río Champotón. Three study sites along the freshwater portion of the river were monitored in April, July, and November 2007 and February 2008. This study includes a water quality index, a set of biomarkers (hepatic glycogen levels and lipid peroxidation in liver, gills, and muscle) to assess the integrated biomarker response, and population bioindicators (gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices and Fulton's condition factor). Although the water quality index suggested low level of contamination in the Río Champotón, biomarkers indicated that A. aeneus is exposed to stressors that impair biological responses. The integrated biomarker response showed stress periods with higher biomarker response and recovery periods with decreasing biomarker values. The somatic indices did not indicate severe effects at the population level. This study illustrates the usefulness of lipid peroxidation evaluation in the assessment of aquatic health conditions and corroborates the suitability of A. aeneus as a sentinel species.

  5. Privilege and status in an unequal society: shifting the focus of health promotion research to include the maintenance of advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christine

    2010-10-01

    There has been a great deal of social policy and health promotion practice directed toward the inclusion of underprivileged groups with the aim of improving their health. This focus on disadvantaged people and poor communities, to help them empower themselves and improve their lot, often fails because it ignores the role of the broader society. We neglect to note the crucial part that the advantaged play in perpetuating inequalities. Theory and empirical work from sociology and anthropology points to the everyday ways in which privileged people are able to maintain their advantage and even hi-jack the benefits of public health programmes designed to improve the health of the poor. Some examples from these other disciplines suggest ways in which a social psychological perspective can contribute to an understanding of how inequalities and poverty are perpetuated in everyday life. These understandings will inform the effectiveness of social programmes to reduce inequalities.

  6. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Andrea Pfortmueller

    Full Text Available Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria.Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an "asylum seeker" or "refugee" from the Middle East.In total, 880 patients were included in the study. Of these, 625 (71.0% were male and 255 (29.0% female. The median age was 34 (range 16-84. 222 (25.2% of our patients were from Syria. The most common reason for presentation was surgical (381, 43.3%, followed by medical (321, 36.5% and psychiatric (137, 15.6%. In patients with surgical presentations, trauma-related problems were most common (n = 196, 50.6%. Within the group of patients with medical presentation, acute infectious diseases were most common (n = 141, 43.9%, followed by neurological problems (n = 70, 21.8% and gastrointestinal problems (n = 47, 14.6%. There were no differences between Syrian and non-Syrian refugees concerning surgical or medical admissions. The most common chronic disorder of unclear significance was chronic gastrointestinal problems (n = 132, 15%, followed by chronic musculoskeletal problems (n = 108, 12.3% and chronic headaches (n = 78, 8.9%. Patients from Syria were significantly younger and more often suffered from a post-traumatic stress disorder than patients of other nationalities (p<0.0001, and p = 0.05, respectively.Overall a remarkable number of our very young group of patients suffered from psychiatric disorders and unspecified somatic symptoms. Asylum seekers should be carefully evaluated when presenting to a medical facility and physicians should be aware of the high incidence of unspecified somatic symptoms in this patient population

  7. Enterprising health: creating the conditions for entrepreneurial behaviour as a strategy for effective and sustainable change in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exton, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate conditions under which entrepreneurs emerge as agents of effective and sustainable change in UK National Health Service Trusts. The research synthesises literature on changing regulatory structures ("post-bureaucracy") and entrepreneurial behaviour to understand how individual identity construction is informed both by context and by individual attributes. Thematic analysis of interview data involving managers from 11 NHS Trusts, including detailed analysis of six transcripts, focuses on regulatory processes, the emergence of entrepreneurial behaviour and outcome variations in workplace innovation and improvement. This study identifies co-existing modes of regulation, which interact with individual behaviour, generating strategies differentiated as entrepreneurial or conformist. Four ideal types are identified: organisational entrepreneurship, resisted or dissonant entrepreneurship, conformity, and symbolic entrepreneurship. Analysis reinforces those literature findings, which suggest that the interaction of regulatory structures and the identity work of individuals influence the emergence of entrepreneurial behaviour and the effectiveness of change. The ability to achieve effective and sustainable outcomes varies considerably even between NHS Trusts faced with comparable challenges in implementing nationally prescribed targets. This variance is explained in terms of the organisation's ability to generate the structures, processes, individual competence and motivation which enable employees at all levels to act entrepreneurially with the ability and legitimacy to achieve strategic goals by working creatively in the spaces between formal organisational structures. The study identifies specific conditions, which stimulate the emergence of entrepreneurs as agents of effective and sustainable change in the NHS, identifying factors that policymakers should consider when implementing change.

  8. Income-related inequalities in diseases and health conditions over the business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey; Hildur Margrét, Jóhannsdóttir

    2017-01-01

    How business cycles affect income-related distribution of diseases and health disorders is largely unknown. We examine how the prevalence of thirty diseases and health conditions is distributed across the income spectrum using survey data collected in Iceland in 2007, 2009 and 2012. Thus, we are able to take advantage of the unusually sharp changes in economic conditions in Iceland during the Great Recession initiated in 2008 and the partial recovery that had already taken place by 2012 to an...

  9. Experience in health care organization for victims of Chernobyl accident under conditions of spatial hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadezhina, N.M.

    1990-01-01

    Experience in organization of health care for victims of Chernobyl accidents under conditions of spatial hospitals are discussed taking into account patients with residual contamination of skin and clothe. A necessity of well-adjusted organization activites, including an inpatient clinic with well-equipped reception, dosimetric, haryological and bacteriological laboratories, an intensive care department, a surgical (burn) department, a blood transfusion laboratory and equipment for plasmopheresis and hemosorption is marked. Therapy of such patients should be developed along the following lines: 1) prevention and therapy of infectious complications; 2) blood cell substitution therapy; 3) bone marrow transplantation; 4) detoxicating therapy; 5) correction of water-electrolyte metabolism; 6) therapy of local radiation injuries

  10. Health care autonomy in children with chronic conditions: implications for self-care and family management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacham, Barbara L; Deatrick, Janet A

    2013-06-01

    Health care autonomy typically occurs during late adolescence but health care providers and families often expect children with chronic health conditions to master self-care earlier. Few studies have examined the development of health care autonomy as it pertains to self-care and family management. This review links the 3 concepts and discusses the implications for families and health care providers. Case studies are provided as exemplars to highlight areas where intervention and research is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A review of health utilities across conditions common in paediatric and adult populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopkins Robert B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-utility analyses are commonly used in economic evaluations of interventions or conditions that have an impact on health-related quality of life. However, evaluating utilities in children presents several challenges since young children may not have the cognitive ability to complete measurement tasks and thus utility values must be estimated by proxy assessors. Another solution is to use utilities derived from an adult population. To better inform the future conduct of cost-utility analyses in paediatric populations, we reviewed the published literature reporting utilities among children and adults across selected conditions common to paediatric and adult populations. Methods An electronic search of Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to November 2008 was conducted to identify studies presenting utility values derived from the Health Utilities Index (HUI or EuroQoL-5Dimensions (EQ-5D questionnaires or using time trade off (TTO or standard gamble (SG techniques in children and/or adult populations from randomized controlled trials, comparative or non-comparative observational studies, or cross-sectional studies. The search was targeted to four chronic diseases/conditions common to both children and adults and known to have a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Results After screening 951 citations identified from the literature search, 77 unique studies included in our review evaluated utilities in patients with asthma (n = 25, cancer (n = 23, diabetes mellitus (n = 11, skin diseases (n = 19 or chronic diseases (n = 2, with some studies evaluating multiple conditions. Utility values were estimated using HUI (n = 33, EQ-5D (n = 26, TTO (n = 12, and SG (n = 14, with some studies applying more than one technique to estimate utility values. 21% of studies evaluated utilities in children, of those the majority being in the area of oncology. No utility values for children were reported in skin

  12. Health Inequalities among Workers with a Foreign Background in Sweden: Do Working Conditions Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Rostila

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Employment and working conditions are key social determinants of health, yet current information is lacking regarding relationships between foreign background status, working conditions and health among workers in Sweden. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU and the Level of Living Survey for Foreign Born Persons and their Children (LNU-UFB to assess whether or not health inequalities exist between native Swedish and foreign background workers and if exposure to adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions contributes to the risk for poor health among foreign background workers. A sub-sample of 4,021 employed individuals aged 18–65 was analyzed using logistic regression. Eastern European, Latin American and Other Non-Western workers had an increased risk of both poor self-rated health and mental distress compared to native Swedish workers. Exposure to adverse working conditions only minimally influenced the risk of poor health. Further research should examine workers who are less integrated or who have less secure labor market attachments and also investigate how additional working conditions may influence associations between health and foreign background status.

  13. [Differences in living conditions and health between cities: construction of a composite indicator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Heimann, Luiza Sterman; Boaretto, Roberta Cristina; Pacheco, Adriana Galvão; Pessoto, Umberto Catarino; Ibanhes, Lauro Cesar; Castro, Iracema Ester do Nascimento; Kayano, Jorge; Junqueira, Virginia; Rocha, Jucilene Leite da; Cortizo, Carlos Tato; Telesi Junior, Emílio

    2009-02-01

    To describe an index to identify inequities in living conditions and health and its relationship with health planning. Variables and indicators that would reflect demographic, economic, environment and education processes as well as supply and production of health services were applied for nondimensional scaling and clustering of 5,507 Brazilian municipalities. Data sources were the 2000 Census and the Brazilian Ministry of Health information systems. Z-score test statistic and cluster analysis were performed allowing to defining 4 groups of municipalities by living conditions. There was seen a polarization between the group with the best living conditions and health (Group 1) and the group with the worst living conditions (Group 4). Group 1 consisted of municipalities with larger populations while Group 4 comprised mainly the smallest municipalities. As for Brazilian macroregions, municipalities in Group 1 are clustered in the south and southeast and those in Group 4 are in the Northeast. The living conditions and health index comprises reality dimensions such as housing, environment and health which allows to identifying the most vulnerable municipalities and can provide input for setting priorities, and developing criteria for more equitable financing and resource allocation.

  14. Utilization of emergency medical transports and hospital admissions among persons with behavioral health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddeback, Gary; Patterson, P Daniel; Moore, Charity Galena; Brice, Jane H

    2010-04-01

    Emergency medical services transport and emergency department misuse among persons with behavioral health conditions is a concern. Administrative data were used to examine medical transports and hospital admissions among persons with behavioral health conditions. Data on 70,126 medical transports to emergency departments in three southeastern counties were analyzed. Compared with general medical transports, fewer behavioral health transports resulted in a hospital admission. Among behavioral health transports, persons with schizophrenia were 2.62 times more likely than those with substance use disorders to be admitted, and persons with mood disorders were 4.36 times more likely than those with substance use disorders to be admitted. Also, among behavioral health transports, rural transports were less likely than more urban transports to result in a hospital admission. More training of emergency medical services personnel and more behavioral health crisis resources, especially targeting rural areas and substance use disorders, are needed.

  15. Health-related quality of life and hand eczema--a comparison of two instruments, including factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhammar, Lena-Marie; Nyfjäll, Mats; Lindberg, Magnus; Meding, Birgitta

    2004-06-01

    Hand eczema is a disease of long duration, affecting the individual and society. The purpose of this study of 100 patients (51 females and 49 males) at an occupational dermatology clinic was to investigate whether the generic questionnaire Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the dermatology-specific Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) are appropriate for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with hand eczema, and whether gender differences in HRQL could be detected. HRQL was affected by hand eczema, measured with both SF-36 and DLQI. The SF-36 showed more impaired HRQL for females than for males, in the mental health dimension, whereas no gender-related differences were detected with the DLQI. To compare the instruments we used factor analysis, with a polychoric correlation matrix as input, thus taking the ordinal aspect of the data into account. There was a high correlation between the instruments for physical health, but lower for mental health. In this context our interpretation of the factor analysis is that the SF-36 measures mental health better than the DLQI. The SF-36 therefore appears suitable for use in future studies for measuring HRQL, and gender differences in HRQL, in persons with reported hand eczema.

  16. Learning to Promote Health at an Emergency Care Department: Identifying Expansive and Restrictive Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Maria; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a planned workplace health promotion intervention, and the aim is to identify conditions that facilitated or restricted the learning to promote health at an emergency care department in a Swedish hospital. The study had a longitudinal design, with interviews before and after the intervention and follow-up…

  17. Introduction to the Special Section: Sustainability of Work with Chronic Health Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaw, W.S.; Tveito, T.H.; Boot, C.R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of older workers and chronic health conditions represents a growing occupational health concern. More research is needed to understand risk factors, apply and adapt theories, and test workplace-focused interventions that might prevent work disability and

  18. Motivational factors in discussing sexual health with young people with chronic conditions or disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Visser; Dr. A.L. van Staa; Dr. H.A. van der Stege; Dr. S.R. Hilberink

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify determinants of professionals’ intention to use the new board game SeCZ TaLK to facilitate sexual health discussions with young people with chronic health conditions and disabilities, and to gauge whether intention led to actual use. A cross-sectional

  19. Introduction to the special section: Sustainability of work with chronic health conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaw, W.S.; Tveito, T.H.; Boot, C.R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of older workers and chronic health conditions represents a growing occupational health concern. More research is needed to understand risk factors, apply and adapt theories, and test workplace-focused interventions that might prevent work disability and

  20. Perceptions of housing conditions among migrant farmworkers and their families: implications for health, safety and social policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Spears Johnson, Chaya R; Quandt, Sara A; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    In the USA, migrant farmworkers are a vulnerable group due to their low socioeconomic status, risk of occupational exposures and injury, lack of social mobility, lack of adequate access to health services and dependency on employer for provided housing. Previous reports have documented migrant farmworker housing conditions to be variable, but poor overall. This paper explores the perceptions of housing conditions among migrant farmworkers in rural North Carolina, and develops an understanding of potential impacts of their housing on health and safety. This study used qualitative descriptive data and directed content analysis to analyse semi-structured interviews and photographs that were data elements of a larger community-based participatory research study designed to document housing quality and health among North Carolina farmworkers. Many of the study participants described poor housing conditions that were reflected in the photographic analysis of the houses and camps. Specific problems described by the participants include exposure to pesticides, safety issues, pests, water supply and air quality, temperature and moisture. This study describes migrant farmworkers' perceptions of housing quality and numerous potential impacts on health and safety. Research, social policy and practice-based implications derived from this research could serve to improve the health status of these individuals and their families. This study suggests there is much room for sustained advocacy and action, given that many of the farmworkers' descriptions and photographs depicted housing conditions below accepted standards of living. Access to adequate and safe employer-provided housing for migrant farmworkers should be considered a basic human right.

  1. Adults with an epilepsy history fare significantly worse on positive mental and physical health than adults with other common chronic conditions-Estimates from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey and Patient Reported Outcome Measurement System (PROMIS) Global Health Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobau, Rosemarie; Cui, Wanjun; Zack, Matthew M

    2017-07-01

    Healthy People 2020, a national health promotion initiative, calls for increasing the proportion of U.S. adults who self-report good or better health. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Global Health Scale (GHS) was identified as a reliable and valid set of items of self-reported physical and mental health to monitor these two domains across the decade. The purpose of this study was to examine the percentage of adults with an epilepsy history who met the Healthy People 2020 target for self-reported good or better health and to compare these percentages to adults with history of other common chronic conditions. Using the 2010 National Health Interview Survey, we compared and estimated the age-standardized prevalence of reporting good or better physical and mental health among adults with five selected chronic conditions including epilepsy, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and hypertension. We examined response patterns for physical and mental health scale among adults with these five conditions. The percentages of adults with epilepsy who reported good or better physical health (52%) or mental health (54%) were significantly below the Healthy People 2020 target estimate of 80% for both outcomes. Significantly smaller percentages of adults with an epilepsy history reported good or better physical health than adults with heart disease, cancer, or hypertension. Significantly smaller percentages of adults with an epilepsy history reported good or better mental health than adults with all other four conditions. Health and social service providers can implement and enhance existing evidence-based clinical interventions and public health programs and strategies shown to improve outcomes in epilepsy. These estimates can be used to assess improvements in the Healthy People 2020 Health-Related Quality of Life and Well-Being Objective throughout the decade. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) for individuals with self-reported chronic physical and/or mental health conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayliss, Martha; Rendas-Baum, Regina; White, Michelle K

    2012-01-01

    In the US, approximately 53% of adults have at least one chronic condition. Comorbid physical and mental health conditions often have an incremental negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Primary study objectives were to quantify the impact on HRQL of a) ≥ 1 physical condition...... , b) ≥ 1 comorbid mental health conditions added to a physical one, c) ≥ 1 mental health condition, and d) ≥ 1 comorbid physical conditions added to at least one related to mental health. Decrements were based on a "Healthy" reference group reporting no chronic conditions....

  3. Effects of a Self-Directed Nutrition Intervention among Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Jake-Schoffman, Danielle E.; Schlaff, Rebecca A.; Goldufsky, Tatum M.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic diseases are common among adults. A healthy diet may be beneficial for managing the consequences of such conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a self-directed nutrition program on dietary behaviors among adults with chronic health conditions. As part of a larger trial examining the effects of a self-directed…

  4. Catalogue of systems for the monitoring of working conditions relating to health and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, R.; Verboon, F.

    1991-01-01

    In this Catalogue a number of systems or instruments for Monitoring Working Conditions and workers Health and Safety have been described. The general aim of the project was three-fold: - to obtain an overall assessment of the existing instruments for identifying risk factors and working conditions

  5. Air conditioning systems as non-infectious health hazards inducing acute respiratory symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Alexander; Fischer, Axel; Willig, Karl-Heinz; Groneberg, David A

    2006-04-01

    Chronic and acute exposure to toxic aerosols belongs to frequent causes of airway diseases. However, asthma attacks due to long-distance inhalative exposure to organic solvents, transmitted via an air condition system, have not been reported so far. The present case illustrates the possibility of air conditioning systems as non-infectious health hazards in occupational medicine. So far, only infectious diseases such as legionella pneumophila pneumonia have commonly been associated to air-conditioning exposures but physicians should be alert to the potential of transmission of toxic volatile substances via air conditioning systems. In view of the events of the 11th of September 2001 with a growing danger of large building terrorism which may even use air conditioning systems to transmit toxins, facility management security staff should be alerted to possible non-infectious toxic health hazards arising from air-conditioning systems.

  6. Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggebø, Kristian; Dahl, Espen

    2015-11-04

    Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 european countries. People with ill health tend to be overrepresented among the unemployment population. The relationship between health and unemployment might, however, be sensitive to the overall economic condition. Specifically, the health composition of the unemployment population could change dramatically when the economy takes a turn for the worse. Using EU-SILC cross sectional data from 2007 (pre-crisis) and 2011 (during crisis) and linear regression models, this paper investigates the relationship between health and unemployment probabilities under differing economic conditions in 28 European countries. The countries are classified according to (i) the level of and (ii) increase in unemployment rate (i.e. >10 percent and doubling of unemployment rate = crisis country). Firstly, the unemployment likelihood for people with ill health is remarkably stable over time in Europe: the coefficients are very similar in pre-crisis and crisis years. Secondly, people with ill health have experienced unemployment to a lesser extent than those with good health status in the crisis year (when we pool the data and compare 2007 and 2011), but only in the countries with a high and rising unemployment rate. The health composition of the unemployment population changes significantly for the better, but only in those European countries that have been severely hit by the current economic crisis.

  7. Family vulnerability index to disability and dependence (FVI-DD), by social and health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Fernanda; Alvarenga, Márcia Regina Martins; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos

    2017-06-01

    The Family Vulnerability Index to Disability and Dependence (FVI-DD) aims to summarize the dimensions of vulnerability to disability and dependence using family data monitored by Family Health Strategy (ESF) teams. This study aims to analyze the FVI-DD according to the social and health vulnerability, to validate and extract a cutoff point for each dimension. The FVI-DD was built with a sample of 248 families living in a region of São Paulo. The dimension related to health conditions was validated with good internal consistency, with respect to the Katz Index and the Lawton Scale, whereas the dimension related to social conditions was only validated in relation to Lawton Scale. Thus, a vulnerable family was defined as one with 15 or more points in the Total FVI-DD, and a vulnerable family in health conditions that with a score of 6 or more points in that dimension. Therefore, it is possible to classify families as not vulnerable, vulnerable in the social aspects, vulnerable in the health aspects and the more vulnerable family (social and health) using social indicators of empowerment and wear and health indicators related not only to the biological sphere, but also in the access to health services, health self-assessment and existing vulnerable groups.

  8. Longitudinal associations between mental health conditions and overactive bladder in women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Catherine S; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Hillis, Stephen L; Torner, James C; Sadler, Anne G

    2017-10-01

    One in 5 recently deployed US women veterans report overactive bladder symptoms. Mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety commonly co-occur in women with overactive bladder, but temporal relationships between these outcomes have not been well studied, and the mechanism behind this association is unknown. The Women Veterans Urinary Health Study, a nationwide longitudinal study in recently deployed women veterans, was designed to better understand relationships between overactive bladder and mental health conditions. We sought to estimate the 1-year incidence and remission of overactive bladder and to identify the impact of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and prior sexual assault on 1-year overactive bladder incidence and remission rates. Participants of this 1-year prospective cohort study were female veterans separated from military service who had returned from Iraq or Afghanistan deployment within the previous 2 years. Eligible women were identified through the Defense Manpower Data Center and recruited by mail and telephone. Telephone screening confirmed participants were ambulatory, community-dwelling veterans and excluded those with urinary tract fistula, congenital abnormality, or cancer; pelvic radiation; spinal cord injury; multiple sclerosis; Parkinson disease; stroke; or current/recent pregnancy. Data collection included computer-assisted telephone interviews performed at enrollment and 1 year later. The interview assessed demographic and military service characteristics; urinary symptoms and treatment; depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and treatment; and a lifetime history of sexual assault. Overactive bladder was identified if at least moderately bothersome urgency urinary incontinence and/or urinary frequency symptoms were reported on Urogenital Distress Inventory items. Exposures included depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and lifetime sexual assault, assessed at

  9. Comparative Study of Children's Current Health Conditions and Health Education in New Zealand and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kanae; Dickinson, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand (NZ) and Japan, despite comprehensive national health and physical education (HPE) curriculums in schools, there continues to be significant health issues for children. A qualitative interpretative descriptive research method was used to compare how primary school teachers taught HPE in both countries. In NZ, there is some freedom…

  10. Gender inequalities in occupational health related to the unequal distribution of working and employment conditions: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Gender inequalities exist in work life, but little is known about their presence in relation to factors examined in occupation health settings. The aim of this study was to identify and summarize the working and employment conditions described as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health in studies related to occupational health published between 1999 and 2010. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken of studies available in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Sociological Abstracts, LILACS, EconLit and CINAHL between 1999 and 2010. Epidemiologic studies were selected by applying a set of inclusion criteria to the title, abstract, and complete text. The quality of the studies was also assessed. Selected studies were qualitatively analysed, resulting in a compilation of all differences between women and men in the prevalence of exposure to working and employment conditions and work-related health problems as outcomes. Results Most of the 30 studies included were conducted in Europe (n=19) and had a cross-sectional design (n=24). The most common topic analysed was related to the exposure to work-related psychosocial hazards (n=8). Employed women had more job insecurity, lower control, worse contractual working conditions and poorer self-perceived physical and mental health than men did. Conversely, employed men had a higher degree of physically demanding work, lower support, higher levels of effort-reward imbalance, higher job status, were more exposed to noise and worked longer hours than women did. Conclusions This systematic review has identified a set of working and employment conditions as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health from the occupational health literature. These results may be useful to policy makers seeking to reduce gender inequalities in occupational health, and to researchers wishing to analyse these determinants in greater depth. PMID:23915121

  11. Gender inequalities in occupational health related to the unequal distribution of working and employment conditions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Serna, Javier; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Artazcoz, Lucia; Moen, Bente E; Benavides, Fernando G

    2013-08-05

    Gender inequalities exist in work life, but little is known about their presence in relation to factors examined in occupation health settings. The aim of this study was to identify and summarize the working and employment conditions described as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health in studies related to occupational health published between 1999 and 2010. A systematic literature review was undertaken of studies available in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Sociological Abstracts, LILACS, EconLit and CINAHL between 1999 and 2010. Epidemiologic studies were selected by applying a set of inclusion criteria to the title, abstract, and complete text. The quality of the studies was also assessed. Selected studies were qualitatively analysed, resulting in a compilation of all differences between women and men in the prevalence of exposure to working and employment conditions and work-related health problems as outcomes. Most of the 30 studies included were conducted in Europe (n=19) and had a cross-sectional design (n=24). The most common topic analysed was related to the exposure to work-related psychosocial hazards (n=8). Employed women had more job insecurity, lower control, worse contractual working conditions and poorer self-perceived physical and mental health than men did. Conversely, employed men had a higher degree of physically demanding work, lower support, higher levels of effort-reward imbalance, higher job status, were more exposed to noise and worked longer hours than women did. This systematic review has identified a set of working and employment conditions as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health from the occupational health literature. These results may be useful to policy makers seeking to reduce gender inequalities in occupational health, and to researchers wishing to analyse these determinants in greater depth.

  12. Addressing individual behaviours and living conditions: Four Nordic public health policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2011-01-01

    : Analyses of recent public health programmes in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Results: Focus is on either, or both, individual behaviour and living conditions as causes of ill health; the remedies are classical liberal as well as social democratic policies. None of the programmes is consistent...... approach to public health exists. All programmes contain contradictory policies and ideological statements with differences regarding the emphasis on individual behaviour versus choice and living conditions and political responsibility. The policies are not entirely predictable from the political stance...

  13. Dr Google and the consumer: a qualitative study exploring the navigational needs and online health information-seeking behaviors of consumers with chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth; Hoti, Kreshnik; Hughes, Jeffery David; Emmerton, Lynne

    2014-12-02

    The abundance of health information available online provides consumers with greater access to information pertinent to the management of health conditions. This is particularly important given an increasing drive for consumer-focused health care models globally, especially in the management of chronic health conditions, and in recognition of challenges faced by lay consumers with finding, understanding, and acting on health information sourced online. There is a paucity of literature exploring the navigational needs of consumers with regards to accessing online health information. Further, existing interventions appear to be didactic in nature, and it is unclear whether such interventions appeal to consumers' needs. Our goal was to explore the navigational needs of consumers with chronic health conditions in finding online health information within the broader context of consumers' online health information-seeking behaviors. Potential barriers to online navigation were also identified. Semistructured interviews were conducted with adult consumers who reported using the Internet for health information and had at least one chronic health condition. Participants were recruited from nine metropolitan community pharmacies within Western Australia, as well as through various media channels. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and then imported into QSR NVivo 10. Two established approaches to thematic analysis were adopted. First, a data-driven approach was used to minimize potential bias in analysis and improve construct and criterion validity. A theory-driven approach was subsequently used to confirm themes identified by the former approach and to ensure identified themes were relevant to the objectives. Two levels of analysis were conducted for both data-driven and theory-driven approaches: manifest-level analysis, whereby face-value themes were identified, and latent-level analysis, whereby underlying concepts were identified. We conducted 17

  14. Policy and system strategies in promoting child health information systems, including the role of Medicaid, the state children's health insurance program, and public financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacTaggart, Patricia; Bagley, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Government, through its unique roles as regulator, purchaser, provider, and facilitator, has an opportunity and an obligation to play a major role in accelerating the implementation of electronic health record systems and electronic health information exchange. Providers, who are expected to deliver appropriate care at designated locations at an appropriate cost, are dependent on health information technology for efficient effective health care. As state and federal governments move forward with health care purchasing reforms, they must take the opportunity to leverage policy and structure and to align incentives that enhance the potential for provider engagement in electronic health record adoption.

  15. The effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave therapy in common lower limb conditions: a systematic review including quantification of patient-rated pain reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korakakis, Vasileios; Whiteley, Rodney; Tzavara, Alexander; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in treating Achilles tendinopathy (AT), greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), patellar tendinopathy (PT) and proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT). Systematic review. Randomised and non-randomised studies assessing ESWT in patients with AT, GTPS, MTSS, PT and PHT were included. Risk of bias and quality of studies were evaluated. Moderate-level evidence suggests (1) no difference between focused ESWT and placebo ESWT at short and mid-term in PT and (2) radial ESWT is superior to conservative treatment at short, mid and long term in PHT. Low-level evidence suggests that ESWT (1) is comparable to eccentric training, but superior to wait-and-see policy at 4 months in mid-portion AT; (2) is superior to eccentric training at 4 months in insertional AT; (3) less effective than corticosteroid injection at short term, but ESWT produced superior results at mid and long term in GTPS; (4) produced comparable results to control treatment at long term in GTPS; and (5) is superior to control conservative treatment at long term in PT. Regarding the rest of the results, there was only very low or no level of evidence. 13 studies showed high risk of bias largely due to methodology, blinding and reporting. Low level of evidence suggests that ESWT may be effective for some lower limb conditions in all phases of the rehabilitation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Styrene-spaced copolymers including anthraquinone and β-O-4 lignin model units: synthesis, characterization and reactivity under alkaline pulping conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megiatto, Jackson D; Cazeils, Emmanuel; Ham-Pichavant, Frédérique; Grelier, Stéphane; Gardrat, Christian; Castellan, Alain

    2012-05-14

    A series of random copoly(styrene)s has been synthesized via radical polymerization of functionalized anthraquinone (AQ) and β-O-4 lignin model monomers. The copolymers were designed to have a different number of styrene spacer groups between the AQ and β-O-4 lignin side chains aiming at investigating the distance effects on AQ/β-O-4 electron transfer mechanisms. A detailed molecular characterization, including techniques such as size exclusion chromatography, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and (1)H, (13)C, (31)P NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies, afforded quantitative information about the composition of the copolymers as well as the average distribution of the AQ and β-O-4 groups in the macromolecular structures. TGA and DSC thermal analysis have indicated that the copolymers were thermally stable under regular pulping conditions, revealing the inertness of the styrene polymer backbone in the investigation of electron transfer mechanisms. Alkaline pulping experiments showed that close contact between the redox active side chains in the copolymers was fundamental for an efficient degradation of the β-O-4 lignin model units, highlighting the importance of electron transfer reactions in the lignin degradation mechanisms catalyzed by AQ. In the absence of glucose, AQ units oxidized phenolic β-O-4 lignin model parts, mainly by electron transfer leading to vanillin as major product. By contrast, in presence of glucose, anthrahydroquinone units (formed by reduction of AQ) reduced the quinone-methide units (issued by dehydration of phenolic β-O-4 lignin model part) mainly by electron transfer leading to guaiacol as major product. Both processes were distance dependent.

  17. Condition Monitoring for Roller Bearings of Wind Turbines Based on Health Evaluation under Variable Operating States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring (CM is used to assess the health status of wind turbines (WT by detecting turbine failure and predicting maintenance needs. However, fluctuating operating conditions cause variations in monitored features, therefore increasing the difficulty of CM, for example, the frequency-domain analysis may lead to an inaccurate or even incorrect prediction when evaluating the health of the WT components. In light of this challenge, this paper proposed a method for the health evaluation of WT components based on vibration signals. The proposed approach aimed to reduce the evaluation error caused by the impact of the variable operating condition. First, the vibration signal was decomposed into a set of sub-signals using variational mode decomposition (VMD. Next, the sub-signal energy and the probability distribution were obtained and normalized. Finally, the concept of entropy was introduced to evaluate the health condition of a monitored object to provide an effective guide for maintenance. In particular, the health evaluation for CM was based on a performance review over a range of operating conditions, rather than at a certain single operating condition. Experimental investigations were performed which verified the efficiency of the evaluation method, as well as a comparison with the previous method.

  18. Smartphone ownership and interest in mobile applications to monitor symptoms of mental health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Friedman, Rohn; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2014-01-21

    Patient retrospective recollection is a mainstay of assessing symptoms in mental health and psychiatry. However, evidence suggests that these retrospective recollections may not be as accurate as data collection though the experience sampling method (ESM), which captures patient data in "real time" and "real life." However, the difficulties in practical implementation of ESM data collection have limited its impact in psychiatry and mental health. Smartphones with the capability to run mobile applications may offer a novel method of collecting ESM data that may represent a practical and feasible tool for mental health and psychiatry. This paper aims to provide data on psychiatric patients' prevalence of smartphone ownership, patterns of use, and interest in utilizing mobile applications to monitor their mental health conditions. One hundred psychiatric outpatients at a large urban teaching hospital completed a paper-and-pencil survey regarding smartphone ownership, use, and interest in utilizing mobile applications to monitor their mental health condition. Ninety-seven percent of patients reported owning a phone and 72% reported that their phone was a smartphone. Patients in all age groups indicated greater than 50% interest in using a mobile application on a daily basis to monitor their mental health condition. Smartphone and mobile applications represent a practical opportunity to explore new modalities of monitoring, treatment, and research of psychiatric and mental health conditions.

  19. EMAP/NOAA 2003 SURVEY OF ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE WESTERN U.S. CONTINENTAL SHELF, INCLUDING GULF OF FARALLONES NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June of 2003 a partnership between EPA, NOAA, and the western coastal states conducted a joint survey of ecological condition of aquatic resources along the U.S. western continental shelf (30-120 m), using multiple indicators of ecological condition. The study is an element o...

  20. Evaluation of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) to Monitor Forest Health Conditions in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P. W.; Hatfield, M. C.; Heutte, T. M.; Winton, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    US Forest Service Alaska Region Forest Health Protection (FHP) and University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) are evaluating the capability of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS, "drone" informally) to monitor forest health conditions in Alaska's Interior Region. On July 17-20 2017, FHP and ACUASI deployed two different UAS at permanent forest inventory plots managed by the UAF programs Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) and Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory (CAFI). The purpose of the mission was to explore capabilities of UAS for evaluating aspen tree mortality at inaccessible locations and at a scale and precision not generally achievable with currently used ground- or air-based methods. Drawing from experience gained during the initial 2016 campaign, this year emphasized the efficient use of UAS to accomplish practical field research in a variety of realistic situations. The vehicles selected for this years' effort included the DJI Matrice quadcopter with the Zenmuse-X3 camera to quickly capture initial video of the site and tree conditions; followed by the ING Responder (single rotor electric helicopter based on the Gaui X7 airframe) outfitted with a Nikon D810 camera to collect high-resolution stills suitable for construction of orthomosaic models. A total of 12 flights were conducted over the campaign, with two full days dedicated to the Delta Junction Gerstle River Intermediate (GRI) sites and the remaining day at the Bonanza Creek site. In addition to demonstrating the ability of UAS to operate safely and effectively in various canopy conditions, the effort also validated the ability of teams to deliver UAS and scientific payloads into challenging terrain using all-terrain vehicles (ATV) and foot traffic. Analysis of data from the campaign is underway. Because the permanent plots have been recently evaluated it is known that nearly all aspen mortality is caused by an aggressive canker

  1. Air-conditioning and antibiotics: Demand management insights from problematic health and household cooling practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, Larissa; Strengers, Yolande

    2014-01-01

    Air-conditioners and antibiotics are two technologies that have both been traditionally framed around individual health and comfort needs, despite aspects of their use contributing to social health problems. The imprudent use of antibiotics is threatening the capacity of the healthcare system internationally. Similarly, in Australia the increasing reliance on air-conditioning to maintain thermal comfort is contributing to rising peak demand and electricity prices, and is placing an inequitable health and financial burden on vulnerable heat-stressed households. This paper analyses policy responses to these problems through the lens of social practice theory. In the health sector, campaigns are attempting to emphasise the social health implications of antibiotic use. In considering this approach in relation to the problem of air-conditioned cooling and how to change the ways in which people keep cool during peak times, our analysis draws on interviews with 80 Australian households. We find that the problem of peak electricity demand may be reduced through attention to the social health implications of air-conditioned cooling on very hot days. We conclude that social practice theory offers a fruitful analytical route for identifying new avenues for research and informing policy responses to emerging health and environmental problems. - Highlights: • Over-use of antibiotics and air-conditioning has social health implications. • Focusing on financial incentives limits the potential of demand management programs. • Explaining peak demand to households shifts the meanings of cooling practices. • Emphasising the social health implications of antibiotics and air-conditioning may resurrect alternative practices. • Analysing policy with social practice theory offers insights into policy approaches

  2. Diet quality: associations with health messages included in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, personal attitudes and social factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Groth, Margit Velsing; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To Study the association between diet quality and the new health messages in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, i.e. 'Eat a varied diet', 'Engage in regular physical activity' and 'Maintain a healthy body weight'. Design/setting/subjects: The study was cross-sectional, comprising a ra...... with healthy eating. The dietary habits reported were strongly influenced by personal intentions. Thus, the biggest challenge for public health nutritionists will be to reach non-compliers who seldom have intentions to eat healthily.......Objective: To Study the association between diet quality and the new health messages in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, i.e. 'Eat a varied diet', 'Engage in regular physical activity' and 'Maintain a healthy body weight'. Design/setting/subjects: The study was cross-sectional, comprising...... a random sample of 3151 Danish adults aged 18-75 years. Dietary intake was estimated using a 7 d pre-coded food diary. information on social background, leisure-time physical activity, height, body weight and intention to eat healthily was Obtained by in-person interviews. Logistic regression models Were...

  3. Early Developmental Conditioning of Later Health and Disease: Physiology or Pathophysiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, M. A.; Gluckman, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive experimental animal studies and epidemiological observations have shown that environmental influences during early development affect the risk of later pathophysiological processes associated with chronic, especially noncommunicable, disease (NCD). This field is recognized as the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). We discuss the extent to which DOHaD represents the result of the physiological processes of developmental plasticity, which may have potential adverse consequences in terms of NCD risk later, or whether it is the manifestation of pathophysiological processes acting in early life but only becoming apparent as disease later. We argue that the evidence suggests the former, through the operation of conditioning processes induced across the normal range of developmental environments, and we summarize current knowledge of the physiological processes involved. The adaptive pathway to later risk accords with current concepts in evolutionary developmental biology, especially those concerning parental effects. Outside the normal range, effects on development can result in nonadaptive processes, and we review their underlying mechanisms and consequences. New concepts concerning the underlying epigenetic and other mechanisms involved in both disruptive and nondisruptive pathways to disease are reviewed, including the evidence for transgenerational passage of risk from both maternal and paternal lines. These concepts have wider implications for understanding the causes and possible prevention of NCDs such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, for broader social policy and for the increasing attention paid in public health to the lifecourse approach to NCD prevention. PMID:25287859

  4. The Relationship Between Aerobic Activity Health Conditions and Medical Visits Among Men and Women Serving Aboard Navy Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Linda

    2002-01-01

    .... Contingency tables were computed for amount of self-reported aerobic activity and prevalence rate of adverse health conditions, number of adverse health conditions, number of medical visits, and gender...

  5. Representation of Health Conditions on Facebook: Content Analysis and Evaluation of User Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathipati, Akhilesh S; Zan, Shiyi; Jethwani, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background A sizable majority of adult Internet users report looking for health information online. Social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook represent a common place to seek information, but very little is known about the representation and use of health content on SNS. Objective Our goal in this study was to understand the role of SNS in health information seeking. More specifically, we aimed to describe how health conditions are represented on Facebook Pages and how users interact with these different conditions. Methods We used Google Insights to identify the 20 most searched for health conditions on Google and then searched each of the resulting terms on Facebook. We compiled a list of the first 50 Facebook “Pages” results for each health condition. After filtering results to identify pages relevant to our research, we categorized pages into one of seven categories based on the page’s primary purpose. We then measured user engagement by evaluating the number of “Likes” for different conditions and types of pages. Results The search returned 50 pages for 18 of the health conditions, but only 48 pages were found for “anemia” and 5 pages were found for “flu symptoms”, yielding a total of 953 pages. A large number of pages (29.4%, 280/953) were irrelevant to the health condition searched. Of the 673 relevant pages, 151 were not in English or originated outside the United States, leaving 522 pages to be coded for content. The most common type of page was marketing/promotion (32.2%, 168/522) followed by information/awareness (20.7%, 108/522), Wikipedia-type pages (15.5%, 81/522), patient support (9.4%, 49/522), and general support (3.6%, 19/522). Health conditions varied greatly by the primary page type. All health conditions had some marketing/promotion pages and this made up 76% (29/38) of pages on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The largest percentage of general support pages were cancer (19%, 6/32) and stomach (16%, 4/25). For

  6. Representation of health conditions on Facebook: content analysis and evaluation of user engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Timothy M; Pathipati, Akhilesh S; Zan, Shiyi; Jethwani, Kamal

    2014-08-04

    A sizable majority of adult Internet users report looking for health information online. Social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook represent a common place to seek information, but very little is known about the representation and use of health content on SNS. Our goal in this study was to understand the role of SNS in health information seeking. More specifically, we aimed to describe how health conditions are represented on Facebook Pages and how users interact with these different conditions. We used Google Insights to identify the 20 most searched for health conditions on Google and then searched each of the resulting terms on Facebook. We compiled a list of the first 50 Facebook "Pages" results for each health condition. After filtering results to identify pages relevant to our research, we categorized pages into one of seven categories based on the page's primary purpose. We then measured user engagement by evaluating the number of "Likes" for different conditions and types of pages. The search returned 50 pages for 18 of the health conditions, but only 48 pages were found for "anemia" and 5 pages were found for "flu symptoms", yielding a total of 953 pages. A large number of pages (29.4%, 280/953) were irrelevant to the health condition searched. Of the 673 relevant pages, 151 were not in English or originated outside the United States, leaving 522 pages to be coded for content. The most common type of page was marketing/promotion (32.2%, 168/522) followed by information/awareness (20.7%, 108/522), Wikipedia-type pages (15.5%, 81/522), patient support (9.4%, 49/522), and general support (3.6%, 19/522). Health conditions varied greatly by the primary page type. All health conditions had some marketing/promotion pages and this made up 76% (29/38) of pages on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The largest percentage of general support pages were cancer (19%, 6/32) and stomach (16%, 4/25). For patient support, stroke (67%, 4/6), lupus (33%, 10

  7. The impact of conditional cash transfers on child health in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer; Cross, Ruth

    2014-08-01

    The review aimed to assess the effectiveness of conditional cash transfers (CCTs) in improving child health in low- and middle-income countries. Seven electronic databases were searched for papers: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, PsychINFO, BIOSIS Previews, Academic Search Complete, and CSA Sociological Abstracts. The included studies comprised of randomised controlled trials and controlled before-and-after studies evaluating the impact of CCTs on child health. Due to the substantial heterogeneity of the studies, a narrative synthesis was conducted on the extracted data. Sixteen studies predominantly from Latin American countries met the inclusion criteria. The outcomes reported by the studies in relation to CCTs' effectiveness in improving child health were reduction in morbidity risk, improvement in nutritional outcomes, health services utilisation, and immunisation coverage. The review suggests that to a large extent, CCTs are effective in improving child health by addressing child health determinants such as access to health care, child and maternal nutrition, morbidity risk, immunisation coverage, and household poverty in developing countries particularly middle-income countries. Of importance to both policy and practice, it appears that CCTs require effective functioning of health care systems to effectively promote child health.

  8. Managing the demands of the preregistration mental health nursing programme: The views of students with mental health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramluggun, Pras; Lacy, Mary; Cadle, Martha; Anjoyeb, Mahmood

    2018-05-30

    An increasing number of students with a pre-existing mental health condition are enrolling on preregistration mental health nursing programmes. The challenges faced by these students in managing the demands of the programme have not been fully explored. Mental health and well-being is an integral part of providing a healthy university in which students can flourish. The purpose of the study was to explore how students with an underlying mental health issue manage the demands of the mental health nursing programme. The outcomes of the study are aimed at informing inclusive teaching and learning and current student support provision. Ethics approval was given. Students from two universities in South East England who met the criterion of having a pre-existing mental health condition when enrolling on the mental health preregistration nursing programme were invited to take part. Nine students took part in the study. Using an interpretative descriptive design, 1:1 face-to-face, audio-taped, semistructured interviews were undertaken. The data were analysed using a framework approach, and this revealed four main themes: timing of disclosure; managing lived experience in learning environments; students' coping mechanisms, and experience of support. Recommendations for practice was that approved education institutes (AEIs) should ensure they have a robust, inclusive practice by implementing strategies to develop these students' resilience, and enhance their learning and the current support provisions. This will ensure the barriers to disclosing their mental health conditions are recognized and minimized to enable these students to fully contribute to their own learning and teaching experience. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  9. Effectiveness of Telephone-Based Health Coaching for Patients with Chronic Conditions: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Härter

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases, like diabetes mellitus, heart disease and cancer are leading causes of death and disability. These conditions are at least partially preventable or modifiable, e.g. by enhancing patients' self-management. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of telephone-based health coaching (TBHC in chronically ill patients.This prospective, pragmatic randomized controlled trial compares an intervention group (IG of participants in TBHC to a control group (CG without TBHC. Endpoints were assessed two years after enrolment. Three different groups of insurees with 1 multiple conditions (chronic campaign, 2 heart failure (heart failure campaign, or 3 chronic mental illness conditions (mental health campaign were targeted. The telephone coaching included evidence-based information and was based on the concepts of motivational interviewing, shared decision-making, and collaborative goal setting. Patients received an average of 12.9 calls. Primary outcome was time from enrolment until hospital readmission within a two-year follow-up period. Secondary outcomes comprised the probability of hospital readmission, number of daily defined medication doses (DDD, frequency and duration of inability to work, and mortality within two years. All outcomes were collected from routine data provided by the statutory health insurance. As informed consent was obtained after randomization, propensity score matching (PSM was used to minimize selection bias introduced by decliners. For the analysis of hospital readmission and mortality, we calculated Kaplan-Meier curves and estimated hazard ratios (HR. Probability of hospital readmission and probability of death were analysed by calculating odds ratios (OR. Quantity of health service use and inability to work were analysed by linear random effects regression models. PSM resulted in patient samples of 5,309 (IG: 2,713; CG: 2,596 in the chronic campaign, of 660 (IG: 338; CG: 322 in the heart failure campaign, and of

  10. [Psychosocial working conditions and mental health status of the German babyboomer generation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tophoven, S; Tisch, A; Rauch, A; Burghardt, A

    2015-04-01

    The baby boomers are the first to be available to the German labour market up to the age of 67. A crucial premise for a long working life is good health. However, there is evidence that psychosocial working conditions are related to health. More and more employees report psychosocial stress at work. In addition, mental illness has become one of the main reasons for the entry into disability pension. Against this background this study considers the relationship between psychosocial work conditions and mental health exemplarily for two birth cohorts of the German baby boomers. For the analysis of the assumed relationships data of the lidA study "lidA - leben in der Arbeit - German Cohort Study on Work, Age and Health" is used (N=6 057). Mental health is assessed by the mental health scale of the SF-12. In addition, the items and the scales quantitative job requirements, work pace and support from colleagues from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) are used. As further control variables cohort affiliation, level of education, occupational status and partnership are considered. Multivariate analyses of the relations between quantitative job requirements, work pace and the experienced support from colleagues show significant relationship to mental health. The increasing frequency of the requirement to work quickly and increasing quantitative job demands are negatively associated to mental health. However, support of colleagues shows a positive relationship to mental health. These results are similarly observed for women and men. For the regarded group of the German babyboomers, employees at the threshold to higher working age, it is clearly shown that psychosocial working conditions are related to mental health. Since this group still has to work up to 18 years given a statutory retirement age of 67, psychosocial working conditions should rather be in the focus of occupational safety. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Potential role of coenzyme Q10 in health and disease conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodick TC

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Taylor C Rodick,1 Donna R Seibels,2 Jeganathan Ramesh Babu,1 Kevin W Huggins,1 Guang Ren,3 Suresh T Mathews2 1Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, & Hospitality Management, Auburn University, Auburn, 2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Samford University, 3Medicine-Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, an endogenously produced compound, is found in all human cells. Within the mitochondria, it plays a substantial role in energy production by acting as a mobile electron carrier in the electron transport chain. Outside the mitochondria, it acts as an excellent antioxidant by sequestering free radicals and working synergistically with other antioxidants, including vitamin E. Dietary contribution is limited, making endogenous production the primary source for optimal function. Now widely available as an over-the-counter supplement, CoQ10 has gained attention for its possible therapeutic use in minimizing the outcomes of certain metabolic diseases, notably cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. Research has shown positive results in subjects supplemented with CoQ10, especially in relation to upregulating antioxidant capability. Emerging research suggests beneficial effects of CoQ10 supplementation in individuals on statin medications. CoQ10 supplementation in individuals participating in strenuous exercise seems to exert some beneficial effects, although the data are conflicting with other types of physical activity. This broad review of current CoQ10 literature, while outlining its physiological/functional significance in health and disease conditions, also offers a dietitian’s perspective on its potential use as a supplement in the promotion of health and management of disease conditions. Keywords: coenzyme Q, antioxidant, oxidative stress, dietary supplement, statin

  12. Prescription for natural cures: a self-care guide for treating health problems with natural remedies including diet, nutrition, supplements, and other holistic methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balch, James F; Stengler, Mark; Young-Balch, Robin

    2011-01-01

    .... You'll find easy-to-understand discussions of the symptoms and root causes of each health problem along with a proven, natural, customized prescription that may include supplements, herbal medicine...

  13. Health conditions and lifestyle risk factors of adults living in Puerto Rico: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Josiemer; Tamez, Martha; Ríos-Bedoya, Carlos F; Xiao, Rui S; Tucker, Katherine L; Rodríguez-Orengo, José F

    2018-04-12

    Puerto Rico is experiencing an economic and healthcare crisis, yet there are scarce recent and comprehensive reports on the population's health profile. We aimed to describe prevalent risk factors and health conditions of adults living in Puerto Rico and assess their interrelationship. Participants (n = 380) aged 30-75y recruited from a 2015 convenience sample in primary care clinics in the San Juan, Puerto Rico metropolitan area answered cross-sectional interviewer-administered questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors, self-reported medically-diagnosed diseases, health services, and psychosocial factors. Anthropometric measures were obtained. Logistic regression models assessed factors associated with having ≥2 cardiometabolic conditions or ≥ 2 chronic diseases. Most participants had completed ≥college education (57%), had household income diabetes (21%). Higher odds of having ≥2 cardiometabolic conditions (37%) was observed among participants aged ≥50y, with sedentary physical activity, and self-rated fair/poor diet. Odds of having ≥2 chronic diseases (62%) were higher among ≥50y, sleeping difficulties, > 2 h/day television, and self-rated fair/poor diet. Participants obtained (79%) and trusted (92%) health information from physicians. While most participants with a cardiometabolic condition reported receiving medical recommendations on diet (> 73%) and physical activity (> 67%), fewer followed them ( 73%). Participants following medical recommendations were more likely to report healthy vs. poor behaviors (90% vs. 75%, self-rated diet); (73% vs. 56%, physical activity). Adults living in Puerto Rico have multiple lifestyles risk factors and high prevalence of chronic diseases, namely cardiometabolic and psychological conditions. Comprehensive epidemiological studies are needed to identify contributors to chronic disease, including lifestyle behaviors. Concerted multi-level public health and clinical

  14. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in children taking part in an oral health programme including fluoride tablet supplements from the age of 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersten, Charlotte; Pylvänen, Lena; Schröder, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years.......To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years....

  15. [Health and working conditions of high school and university teachers in Mendoza: between commitment and emotional distress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Patricia Alejandra; Soria, Cecilia Beatriz; Canafoglia, Eliana; Collado, Sandra Alicia

    2016-01-01

    With the objective of analyzing aspects related to the perception of working conditions and their impact on health in the teachers and professors who work for the Universidad Nacional de Cuyo (UNCuyo) in Mendoza, Argentina, this work analyzes the results of the Primer Censo de Condiciones y Salud Laboral [First Census on Health and Working Conditions]. The census was conducted in late 2013 in two academic units (one at the high school level and the other at the university level), including 193 educators. The exploration set out to characterize the teaching staff and the conditions affecting their health, primarily with respect to psycho-social health. In order to do, so a self-administered questionnaire was applied, the dimensions of which were discussed in sensitivity workshops with educators who helped to formulate the data collection instrument. Among the primary results emerge the physical and emotional burnout of these highly skilled workers, owing to the combined effect of their committed response to the demands of their work and the deterioration (both material and symbolic) of the conditions in which they carry out that work.

  16. Job Burnout, Work Engagement and Self-reported Treatment for Health Conditions in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Leon T; Pienaar, Jaco; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study being reported here was to investigate the relationship of job burnout and work engagement with self-reported received treatment for health conditions (cardiovascular condition, high cholesterol, depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome), while controlling for age, gender, smoking and alcohol use. The sample comprised 7895 employees from a broad range of economic sectors in the South African working population. A cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. Structural equation modelling methods were implemented with a weighted least squares approach. The results showed that job burnout had a positive relationship with self-reported received treatment for depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome. Work engagement did not have any significant negative or positive relationships with the treatment for these health conditions. The results of this study make stakeholders aware of the relationship between job burnout, work engagement and self-reported treatment for health conditions. Evidence for increased reporting of treatment for ill-health conditions due to burnout was found. Therefore, attempts should be made to manage job burnout to prevent ill-health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The Relationship Between Sociodemographic Characteristics, Work Conditions, and Level of "Mobbing" of Health Workers in Primary Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picakciefe, Metin; Acar, Gulcihan; Colak, Zehra; Kilic, Ibrahim

    2015-06-19

    Mobbing is a type of violence which occurs in workplaces and is classified under the community violence subgroup of interpersonal violence. The aim of this study is to examine health care workers who work in primary health care in the city of Mugla and to determine whether there is a relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, work conditions, and their level of mobbing. A cross-sectional analysis has been conducted in which 130 primary health care workers were selected. Of the 130, 119 health workers participated, yielding a response rate of 91.5%; 83.2% of health workers are female, 42.9% are midwives, 27.7% are nurses, and 14.3% are doctors. In all, 31.1% of health workers have faced with "mobbing" in the last 1 year, and the frequency of experiencing "mobbing" of those 48.6% of them is 1 to 3 times per year. A total of 70.3% of those who apply "mobbing" are senior health workers, and 91.9% are female. The frequency of encountering with "mobbing" was found significantly in married health workers, in those 16 years and above according to examined total working time, in those who have psychosocial reactions, and in those who have counterproductive behaviors. It has been discovered that primary health care workers have high prevalence of "mobbing" exposure. To avoid "mobbing" at workplace, authorities and responsibilities of all employees have to be clearly determined. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Gender differences of the influential factors on the mental health condition of teachers in the A university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Mika; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Tanioka, Tetsuya; Okuda, Kikuko; Chiba, Shinichi; Tomotake, Masahito; King, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the gender differences of the influential factors on the mental health condition among university teachers in the A university in Japan. A questionnaire survey was mailed to 924 university teachers in Japan, with a survey return rate of 43.8% (N=405). The General Health Questionnaire 28 (GHQ-28), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), the Japanese version of the Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) and the Work Situation Questionnaire (WSQ) developed by the authors were administered to subjects. The GHQ-28 total score and all of sub-score of the woman was significantly higher than men. In the correlated factor of mental health, level of job satisfaction and job control, social support of significant others was observed in the both sexes. However, gender differences was observed in the coping style. Some copings including self-distraction and self-blame were related to the men, but the woman was related to the substance use. University teachers had some gender differences in the factors affecting their mental health condition. In order to improve university teacher's mental health condition, it is necessary to increase their level of job satisfaction and feeling of job control in the workplace. Especially, it was considered women's coping using substance use was important.

  19. Health plan utilization and costs of specialty drugs within 4 chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Patrick P; Alexander, G Caleb; Starner, Catherine I; Ritter, Stephen T; Van Houten, Holly K; Gunderson, Brent W; Shah, Nilay D

    2013-09-01

    Drugs are most typically defined as specialty because they are expensive; however, other criteria used to define a drug as specialty include biologic drugs, the need to inject or infuse the drug, the requirement for special handling, or drug availability only via a limited distribution network. Specialty drugs play an increasingly important role in the treatment of chronic conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), yet little is known regarding the comprehensive medical and pharmacy benefit utilization and cost trends for these conditions. To describe MS, RA, psoriasis, and IBD trends for condition prevalence, treatment with specialty drugs, specialty costs, nonspecialty costs, and total direct costs of care within the medical and pharmacy benefits. This was a descriptive analysis of a commercially insured population made up of 1 million members, using integrated medical and pharmacy administrative claims data from 2008 to 2010. Analyses were limited to continuously enrolled commercially insured individuals less than 65 years of age. Condition-specific cohorts for MS, RA, psoriasis, and IBD were defined using standardized criteria. Trends in condition prevalence, specialty drug use for the conditions, and direct total cost of care were analyzed. The direct costs were subcategorized into the following: medical benefit specialty drug costs, medical benefit all other costs, pharmacy benefit specialty drug costs, and pharmacy benefit all other costs. Trends and compound annual growth rates were calculated for the total cost of care and subcategory costs from 2008 through 2010. Condition prevalence ranged from a low of 1,720 per million members for MS to a high of 4,489 per million members for RA. Psoriasis and MS condition prevalence rates were unchanged over the 3 years; however, IBD prevalence increased 7.0%, and RA prevalence increased 9.7%. The rate of specialty drug use was lowest for IBD

  20. Relevance feature selection of modal frequency-ambient condition pattern recognition in structural health assessment for reinforced concrete buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-Qing Mu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modal frequency is an important indicator for structural health assessment. Previous studies have shown that this indicator is substantially affected by the fluctuation of ambient conditions, such as temperature and humidity. Therefore, recognizing the pattern between modal frequency and ambient conditions is necessary for reliable long-term structural health assessment. In this article, a novel machine-learning algorithm is proposed to automatically select relevance features in modal frequency-ambient condition pattern recognition based on structural dynamic response and ambient condition measurement. In contrast to the traditional feature selection approaches by examining a large number of combinations of extracted features, the proposed algorithm conducts continuous relevance feature selection by introducing a sophisticated hyperparameterization on the weight parameter vector controlling the relevancy of different features in the prediction model. The proposed algorithm is then utilized for structural health assessment for a reinforced concrete building based on 1-year daily measurements. It turns out that the optimal model class including the relevance features for each vibrational mode is capable to capture the pattern between the corresponding modal frequency and the ambient conditions.

  1. Perspectives of Patients, Clinicians, and Health System Leaders on Changes Needed to Improve the Health Care and Outcomes of Older Adults With Multiple Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Rosie; Blaum, Caroline; Kiwak, Eliza; Austin, Janet; Esterson, Jessica; Harkless, Gene; Oftedahl, Gary; Parchman, Michael; Van Ness, Peter H; Tinetti, Mary E

    2018-06-01

    To ascertain perspectives of multiple stakeholders on contributors to inappropriate care for older adults with multiple chronic conditions. Perspectives of 36 purposively sampled patients, clinicians, health systems, and payers were elicited. Data analysis followed a constant comparative method. Structural factors triggering burden and fragmentation include disease-based quality metrics and need to interact with multiple clinicians. The key cultural barrier identified is the assumption that "physicians know best." Inappropriate decision making may result from inattention to trade-offs and adherence to multiple disease guidelines. Stakeholders recommended changes in culture, structure, and decision making. Care options and quality metrics should reflect a focus on patients' priorities. Clinician-patient partnerships should reflect patients knowing their health goals and clinicians knowing how to achieve them. Access to specialty expertise should not require visits. Stakeholders' recommendations suggest health care redesigns that incorporate patients' health priorities into care decisions and realign relationships across patients and clinicians.

  2. Health Complaints Associated with Poor Rental Housing Conditions in Arkansas: The Only State without a Landlord's Implied Warranty of Habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Ashley E; Stewart, M Kate; Felix, Holly C; Sealy, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Arkansas is the only U.S. state that does not have a landlord's implied warranty of habitability, meaning tenants have a requirement for maintaining their rental properties at certain habitability standards, but landlords are not legally required to contribute to those minimum health and safety standards. This project assessed the possibility that this lack of landlord responsibility affects tenants' perceived health. Using surveys and interviews, we collected self-reported data on the prevalence and description of problems faced by renters who needed household repairs from their landlords. Of almost 1,000 renters, one-third of them had experienced a problem with their landlord making needed repairs; and one-quarter of those had a health issue they attributed to their housing conditions. Common issues included problems with plumbing, heating, or cooling systems, and pest or rodent control. Reported health problems included elevated stress levels, breathing problems, headaches, high blood pressure, and bites or infections. Hispanic respondents and those with less than a high school education were both significantly more likely to report problems with their landlords not making repairs as requested. These data suggest that the lack of landlord requirements may negatively impact the condition of rental properties and, therefore, may negatively impact the health of Arkansas renters.

  3. Maternal pre- and postnatal mental health and infant development in war conditions: The Gaza Infant Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Diab, Safwat Y; Isosävi, Sanna; Kuittinen, Saija; Qouta, Samir R

    2018-03-01

    Women and their infants need special protection in war context, as traumatic events can risk maternal mental and obstetric health and compromise infant development. This prospective study examined, first, how exposure to war trauma is associated with maternal mental health in pregnancy and postpartum, obstetric and newborn health, and infant development. Second, it tested the role of maternal mental health and obstetric risks in mediating between war trauma and infant development. Palestinian women (N = 511) from the Gaza strip participated during pregnancy (T1) and at 4 (T2) and 12 (T3) months postpartum. They reported PTSD, depressive, anxiety, and dissociative symptoms, as well as pregnancy complications, newborn health risks such as prematurity, and infant sensorimotor and language development. First, exposure to war trauma was associated with high levels of maternal mental health and complications at pregnancy, and with increased postpartum mental health symptoms, but exposure was not directly associated with newborn health risks or problems in infant development. Second, maternal mental health both in pregnancy and postpartum, but not pregnancy complications or newborn health, mediated the negative impact of war trauma on infant sensorimotor and language development at 12 months. Interventions to protect early child development in war conditions should be tailored to support maternal mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Perceived unfairness in working conditions: The case of public health services in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massay Deodatus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The focus on the determinants of the quality of health services in low-income countries is increasing. Health workers' motivation has emerged as a topic of substantial interest in this context. The main objective of this article is to explore health workers' experience of working conditions, linked to motivation to work. Working conditions have been pointed out as a key factor in ensuring a motivated and well performing staff. The empirical focus is on rural public health services in Tanzania. The study aims to situate the results in a broader historical context in order to enhance our understanding of the health worker discourse on working conditions. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit detailed information on health workers' experience of their working conditions. The data comprise focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews (IDIs with administrators, clinicians and nursing staff in the public health services in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in the same part of Tanzania. Results The article provides insights into health workers' understanding and assessment of their working conditions. An experience of unsatisfactory working conditions as well as a perceived lack of fundamental fairness dominated the FGDs and IDIs. Informants reported unfairness with reference to factors such as salary, promotion, recognition of work experience, allocation of allowances and access to training as well as to human resource management. The study also revealed that many health workers lack information or knowledge about factors that influence their working conditions. Conclusions The article calls for attention to the importance of locating the discourse of unfairness related to working conditions in a broader historical/political context. Tanzanian history has been characterised by an ambiguous and shifting landscape of state regulation

  5. Occurrence and impact of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse, in men attending UK primary care health clinics: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, M; Ferrari, G; Jones, S K; Williamson, E; Bacchus, L J; Peters, T J; Feder, G

    2015-05-19

    To measure the experience and perpetration of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse (DVA), and investigate its associations with health conditions and behaviours in men attending general practice. Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted between September 2010 and June 2011. 16 general practices in the south west of England. Male patients aged 18 or older, attending alone, who could read and write English. A total of 1403 of eligible patients (58%) participated in the survey and 1368 (56%) completed the questions relevant to this paper. 97% of respondents reported they were heterosexual. Lifetime occurrence of negative behaviour consistent with DVA, perceived health impact of negative behaviours, associations with anxiety and depression symptoms, and cannabis use in the past 12 months and binge drinking. 22.7% (95% CI 20.2% to 24.9%) of men reported ever experiencing negative behaviour (feeling frightened, physically hurt, forced sex, ask permission) from a partner. All negative behaviours were associated with a twofold to threefold increased odds of anxiety and depression symptoms in men experiencing or perpetrating negative behaviours or both. 34.9% (95% CI 28.7% to 41.7%) of men who reported experiencing negative behaviour from a partner, and 30.8% (95% CI 23.7% to 37.8%) of men who perpetrated negative behaviours said they had been in a domestically violent or abusive relationship. No associations with problematic drinking were found; there was a weak association with cannabis use. DVA is experienced or perpetrated by a large minority of men presenting to general practice, and these men were more likely to have current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Presentation of anxiety or depression to clinicians may be an indicator of male experience or perpetration of DVA victimisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Occurrence and impact of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse, in men attending UK primary care health clinics: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, M; Ferrari, G; Jones, S K; Williamson, E; Bacchus, L J; Peters, T J; Feder, G

    2015-01-01

    Objective To measure the experience and perpetration of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse (DVA), and investigate its associations with health conditions and behaviours in men attending general practice. Design Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted between September 2010 and June 2011. Setting 16 general practices in the south west of England. Participants Male patients aged 18 or older, attending alone, who could read and write English. A total of 1403 of eligible patients (58%) participated in the survey and 1368 (56%) completed the questions relevant to this paper. 97% of respondents reported they were heterosexual. Main outcome measures Lifetime occurrence of negative behaviour consistent with DVA, perceived health impact of negative behaviours, associations with anxiety and depression symptoms, and cannabis use in the past 12 months and binge drinking. Results 22.7% (95% CI 20.2% to 24.9%) of men reported ever experiencing negative behaviour (feeling frightened, physically hurt, forced sex, ask permission) from a partner. All negative behaviours were associated with a twofold to threefold increased odds of anxiety and depression symptoms in men experiencing or perpetrating negative behaviours or both. 34.9% (95% CI 28.7% to 41.7%) of men who reported experiencing negative behaviour from a partner, and 30.8% (95% CI 23.7% to 37.8%) of men who perpetrated negative behaviours said they had been in a domestically violent or abusive relationship. No associations with problematic drinking were found; there was a weak association with cannabis use. Conclusions DVA is experienced or perpetrated by a large minority of men presenting to general practice, and these men were more likely to have current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Presentation of anxiety or depression to clinicians may be an indicator of male experience or perpetration of DVA victimisation. PMID:25991450

  7. The assessment of chronic health conditions on work performance, absence, and total economic impact for employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James J; Baase, Catherine M; Sharda, Claire E; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Nicholson, Sean; Billotti, Gary M; Turpin, Robin S; Olson, Michael; Berger, Marc L

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and estimate total costs for chronic health conditions in the U.S. workforce for the Dow Chemical Company (Dow). Using the Stanford Presenteeism Scale, information was collected from workers at five locations on work impairment and absenteeism based on self-reported "primary" chronic health conditions. Survey data were merged with employee demographics, medical and pharmaceutical claims, smoking status, biometric health risk factors, payroll records, and job type. Almost 65% of respondents reported having one or more of the surveyed chronic conditions. The most common were allergies, arthritis/joint pain or stiffness, and back or neck disorders. The associated absenteeism by chronic condition ranged from 0.9 to 5.9 hours in a 4-week period, and on-the-job work impairment ranged from a 17.8% to 36.4% decrement in ability to function at work. The presence of a chronic condition was the most important determinant of the reported levels of work impairment and absence after adjusting for other factors (P < 0.000). The total cost of chronic conditions was estimated to be 10.7% of the total labor costs for Dow in the United States; 6.8% was attributable to work impairment alone. For all chronic conditions studied, the cost associated with performance based work loss or "presenteeism" greatly exceeded the combined costs of absenteeism and medical treatment combined.

  8. Robust Machine Learning Variable Importance Analyses of Medical Conditions for Health Care Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Sherri

    2018-03-11

    To propose nonparametric double robust machine learning in variable importance analyses of medical conditions for health spending. 2011-2012 Truven MarketScan database. I evaluate how much more, on average, commercially insured enrollees with each of 26 of the most prevalent medical conditions cost per year after controlling for demographics and other medical conditions. This is accomplished within the nonparametric targeted learning framework, which incorporates ensemble machine learning. Previous literature studying the impact of medical conditions on health care spending has almost exclusively focused on parametric risk adjustment; thus, I compare my approach to parametric regression. My results demonstrate that multiple sclerosis, congestive heart failure, severe cancers, major depression and bipolar disorders, and chronic hepatitis are the most costly medical conditions on average per individual. These findings differed from those obtained using parametric regression. The literature may be underestimating the spending contributions of several medical conditions, which is a potentially critical oversight. If current methods are not capturing the true incremental effect of medical conditions, undesirable incentives related to care may remain. Further work is needed to directly study these issues in the context of federal formulas. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  9. Essential conditions for the implementation of comprehensive school health to achieve changes in school culture and improvements in health behaviours of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E. Storey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive School Health (CSH is an internationally recognized framework that holistically addresses school health by transforming the school culture. It has been shown to be effective in enhancing health behaviours among students while also improving educational outcomes. Despite this effectiveness, there is a need to focus on how CSH is implemented. Previous studies have attempted to uncover the conditions necessary for successful operationalization, but none have described them in relation to a proven best practice model of implementation that has demonstrated positive changes to school culture and improvements in health behaviours. Methods The purpose of this research was to identify the essential conditions of CSH implementation utilizing secondary analysis of qualitative interview data, incorporating a multitude of stakeholder perspectives. This included inductive content analysis of teacher (n = 45, principal (n = 46, and school health facilitator (n = 34 viewpoints, all of whom were employed within successful CSH project schools in Alberta, Canada between 2008 and 2013. Results Many themes were identified, here called conditions, that were divided into two categories: ‘core conditions’ (students as change agents, school-specific autonomy, demonstrated administrative leadership, dedicated champion to engage school staff, community support, evidence, professional development and ‘contextual conditions’ (time, funding and project supports, readiness and prior community connectivity. Core conditions were defined as those conditions necessary for CSH to be successfully implemented, whereas contextual conditions had a great degree of influence on the ability for the core conditions to be obtained. Together, and in consideration of already established ‘process conditions’ developed by APPLE Schools (assess, vision, prioritize; develop and implement an action plan; monitor, evaluate, celebrate

  10. Occupational class inequalities in health across employment sectors: the contribution of working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko; Aittomäki, Akseli

    2009-01-01

    While health inequalities among employees are well documented, their variation and determinants among employee subpopulations are poorly understood. We examined variations in occupational class inequalities in health within four employment sectors and the contribution of working conditions to these inequalities. Cross-sectional data from the Helsinki Health Study in 2000-2002 were used. Each year, employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years, received a mailed questionnaire (n = 8,960, 80% women, overall response rate for 3 years 67%). The outcome was physical health functioning measured by the overall physical component summary of SF-36. The socioeconomic indicator was occupational social class. Employment sectors studied were health care, education, social welfare and administration (n = 6,557). Physical and mental workload, and job demands and job control were explanatory factors. Inequality indices from logistic regression analysis were calculated. Occupational class inequalities in physical health functioning were slightly larger in education (1.47) than in the other sectors (1.43-1.40). Physical workload explained 95% of inequalities in social welfare and 32-36% in the other sectors. Job control also partly explained health inequalities. However, adjusting for mental workload and job demands resulted in larger health inequalities. Inequalities in physical health functioning were found within each employment sector, with minor variation in their magnitude. Physical workload was the main explanation for these inequalities, but its contribution varied between the sectors. In contrast, considering psychosocial working conditions led to wider inequalities. Improving physical working conditions among the lower occupational classes would help reduce health inequalities within different employment sectors.

  11. Setting priorities in primary health care - on whose conditions? A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvidsson Eva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Sweden three key criteria are used for priority setting: severity of the health condition; patient benefit; and cost-effectiveness. They are derived from the ethical principles established by the Swedish parliament 1997 but have been used only to a limited extent in primary care. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse: 1 GPs', nurses', and patients' prioritising in routine primary care 2 The association between the three key priority setting criteria and the overall priority assigned by the GPs and nurses to individual patients. Methods Paired questionnaires were distributed to all patients and the GPs or nurses they had contact with during a 2-week period at four health centres in Sweden. The staff registered the health conditions or health problem, and the planned intervention. Then they estimated the severity of the health condition, the expected patient benefit, and the cost-effectiveness of the planned intervention. Both the staff and the patients reported their overall prioritisation of the patient. In total, 1851 paired questionnaires were collected. Results Compared to the medical staff, the patients assigned relatively higher priority to acute/minor conditions than to preventive check-ups for chronic conditions. Severity of the health condition was the priority setting criterion that had the strongest association with the overall priority for the staff as a whole, but for the GPs it was cost-effectiveness. Conclusions The challenge for primary care providers is to balance the patients' demands with medical needs and cost-effectiveness. Transparent priority setting in primary care might contribute to a greater consensus between GPs and nurses on how to use the key priority setting criteria.

  12. Setting priorities in primary health care--on whose conditions? A questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Eva; André, Malin; Borgquist, Lars; Andersson, David; Carlsson, Per

    2012-11-26

    In Sweden three key criteria are used for priority setting: severity of the health condition; patient benefit; and cost-effectiveness. They are derived from the ethical principles established by the Swedish parliament 1997 but have been used only to a limited extent in primary care. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse: 1) GPs', nurses', and patients' prioritising in routine primary care 2) The association between the three key priority setting criteria and the overall priority assigned by the GPs and nurses to individual patients. Paired questionnaires were distributed to all patients and the GPs or nurses they had contact with during a 2-week period at four health centres in Sweden. The staff registered the health conditions or health problem, and the planned intervention. Then they estimated the severity of the health condition, the expected patient benefit, and the cost-effectiveness of the planned intervention. Both the staff and the patients reported their overall prioritisation of the patient. In total, 1851 paired questionnaires were collected. Compared to the medical staff, the patients assigned relatively higher priority to acute/minor conditions than to preventive check-ups for chronic conditions. Severity of the health condition was the priority setting criterion that had the strongest association with the overall priority for the staff as a whole, but for the GPs it was cost-effectiveness. The challenge for primary care providers is to balance the patients' demands with medical needs and cost-effectiveness. Transparent priority setting in primary care might contribute to a greater consensus between GPs and nurses on how to use the key priority setting criteria.

  13. Hygienic assessment of priority risk factors of environment and health condition of the population of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Andreeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of work on the dual hygienic assessment of priority risk factors of the environment and the health condition of the population of Moscow. It is shown that in the territory of the metropolis the impact of conditions of negative factors on human health is retained. These trends are confirmed by the excess of the hygienic standards of pollutants in ambient air (up to 6.6 TLVc.e., by the substantial increase (up to 65.8 % of share of the centralized sources of water supply, water quality does not meet the hygienic standards due to the high level of non-standard samples of soil (more than 50 % on a number of sanitary-chemical and microbiological parameters in the territories of certain administrative districts. At the same time there is a tendency to a decrease in non-standard drinking water samples taken from the distribution network of centralized drinking water supply (from 4.36 % to 2.45 %. It was established that the primary morbidity have a number of positive trends to decrease, but exceeds the average indicators for individual classes and nosology, including the classes of "Respiratory diseases", "Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue", "Neoplasms" and etc. by 4.1–68.3 %. Analysis of causality (about 50 significant biologically-based mathematical models were received on the system of "quality of habitat (a risk factor – health status (morbidity, mortality " showed that the impact of negative environmental factors probably shape up to 29.2 ‰ of additional cases and up to 0.056 ‰ of the additional deaths per year. The largest contribution to the formation of the probability of additional cases is made by the excess of morbidity by hygienic standards of air quality and soil, mortality and air quality. Risk factors are phenol, benzo a pyrene, nitrogen dioxide, suspended solids, ammonia, chlorine and its compounds, and sulfur dioxide, etc., coming from the atmospheric air, and cadmium

  14. Consumer health organisations for chronic conditions: why do some people access them and others don’t?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sav, Adem; McMillan, Sara S; Kelly, Fiona; Whitty, Jennifer A; Kendall, Elizabeth; King, Michelle A; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2014-10-01

    Consumer health organisations (CHOs), which operate outside the mainstream healthcare system with a specific focus on supporting people to self-manage their health conditions, have become widespread. Yet, there has been little systematic research into CHOs, including their perceived benefits and barriers, which encourage or deter their access by people with a variety of chronic health conditions. This study explored the benefits of CHOs in self-management and also the barriers that inhibit their access, from the perspective of people with chronic conditions and their unpaid carers. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were completed with 97 participants across four regions of Australia. The sample included a high representation of people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people as well as non-indigenous Australians. Three inter-related themes were identified that represented the benefits of involvement and participation in CHOs: knowledge and information, connection and support and experiential learning. However, limited access pathways emerged as a barrier that inhibited a person’s entry into CHOs. Furthermore, the person’s beliefs and experiences about their own health condition(s) also inhibited their continued participation in CHO programmes. Although our findings confirm that CHOs are a valuable resource in alleviating the ‘work of being a patient’ for some people, there seems to be some barriers that prevent their full access and utilisation.Structured integration systems to increase the reliable delivery and accessibility of CHOs are needed to ensure that people who would benefit from accessing them can do so.

  15. Deployment Related Risk of Incident Mental Health Conditions Among Aeromedical Evacuation Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    everyday life, and decreasing the stigma associated with a diagnosis of a mental health condition. The Holmes-Rehe Stress Scale is commonly used to...being fatigued. A crucial factor to consider with this study is the stigma related to receiving a mental health diagnosis. While the Office of the...Alliance on Mental Illness estimates that up to 33% of qualified individuals are turned down for a job due to a psychiatric label (Williamson & Mulhall

  16. Health inequities: lower socio-economic conditions and higher incidences of intestinal parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limoncu M Emin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections affect child health and development and slow down growth, while reducing adults' productivity and work capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the incidences of intestinal parasitic infections and the socio-economic status of two near primary school children in Manisa, a western city of Turkey. Methods A total of 352 children were involved a questionnaire study from a private school (Ülkem Primary School – ÜPS, 116 children and a community-based school (Şehzadeler Primary School – ŞPS, 236 children. Of these, stool samples could be obtained from a total of 294 students; 97 (83.6% from ÜPS, and 197 (83.5% from ŞPS. The wet mount preparations of the stool samples were examined; samples were also fixed in polyvinyl alcohol and examined with modified formalin ethyl acetate sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 10.0. The chi-squared test was used for the analytic assessment. Results The percentages of the students found to be infected with intestinal parasites, were 78 (39.6% and 13 (13.4% in ŞPS and ÜPS, respectively. Totally 91 (31.0% of the students from both schools were found to be infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most common pathogenic intestinal parasite and Blastocystis hominis was prevalent independently from the hygienic conditions. The factors which significantly (p Conclusion Intestinal parasitic infections in school children were found to be a public health problem that increased due to lower socio-economic conditions. We conclude that organization of education seminars including the topics such as prevention of the infectious diseases, improving general hygienic conditions, and application of supportive programs for the parents may be suggested not only to reduce intestinal parasitic infections, but also to elevate the socio

  17. The ethics of attaching research conditions to access to new health technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Stephen; Hope, Tony

    2012-06-01

    Decisions on which new health technologies to provide are controversial because of the scarcity of healthcare resources, the competing demands of payers, providers and patients and the uncertainty of the evidence base. Given this, additional information about new health technologies is often considered valuable. One response is to make access to a new health technology conditional on further research. Access can be restricted to patients who participate in a research study, such as a randomised controlled trial; alternatively, a new treatment can be made generally available, but only on condition that further evidence is collected (eg, on long-term outcomes and adverse events, in patient registries). The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), which provides guidance on which new health technologies to make available under the UK's NHS, for example, has made some research conditional recommendations, and the current interest in such options suggests that they are likely to become more prevalent in the future. This paper identifies and discusses the main ethical issues created by this distinctive range of recommendations. We argue that decisions to put research conditions on access to new technologies are compatible with widely accepted values, principles and practices relevant to resource allocation. However, there are important features of these distinctive judgements that must be taken into account by resource allocation decision-making bodies and research ethics committees, and that require new sorts of empirical data.

  18. Socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons of Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Moquillaza-Risco, Marlene; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.; León, Elsa; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.; Dongo, Mario; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.; Munayco, César V.; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Determine the socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment into the National Program “Vida Digna” and the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment. Materials ande methods. We performed a cross sectional study, reviewing all registration forms of the program in order to identify socio-demographic variables and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time ...

  19. Depression and Chronic Health Conditions Among Latinos: The Role of Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sandra; Arredondo, Elva M; Villodas, Miguel T; Elder, John P; Quintanar, Elena; Madanat, Hala

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the "buffering hypothesis" of social network characteristics in the association between chronic conditions and depression among Latinos. Cross-sectional self-report data from the San Diego Prevention Research Center's community survey of Latinos were used (n = 393). Separate multiple logistic regression models tested the role of chronic conditions and social network characteristics in the likelihood of moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms. Having a greater proportion of the network comprised of friends increased the likelihood of depression among those with high cholesterol. Having a greater proportion of women in the social network was directly related to the increased likelihood of depression, regardless of the presence of chronic health conditions. Findings suggest that network characteristics may play a role in the link between chronic conditions and depression among Latinos. Future research should explore strategies targeting the social networks of Latinos to improve health outcomes.

  20. Beyond urban penalty and urban sprawl: back to living conditions as the focus of urban health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2005-02-01

    Researchers have long studied urban health, both to describe the consequences of urban living and to design interventions to promote the health of people living in cities. Two approaches to understanding the impact of cities on health have been dominant, namely, urban health penalty and urban sprawl. The urban penalty approach posits that cities concentrate poor people and expose them to unhealthy physical and social environments. Urban sprawl focuses on the adverse health and environmental effects of urban growth into outlying areas. We propose a model that integrates these approaches and emphasizes urban living conditions as the primary determinant of health. The aim of the model is to move beyond describing the health-related characteristics of various urban populations towards identifying opportunities for intervention. Such a shift in framework enables meaningful comparisons that can inform public health activities at the appropriate level and evaluate their effectiveness in improving the health of urban populations. The model is illustrated with two examples from current urban public health practice.

  1. Health condition identification of multi-stage planetary gearboxes using a mRVM-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yaguo; Liu, Zongyao; Wu, Xionghui; Li, Naipeng; Chen, Wu; Lin, Jing

    2015-08-01

    Multi-stage planetary gearboxes are widely applied in aerospace, automotive and heavy industries. Their key components, such as gears and bearings, can easily suffer from damage due to tough working environment. Health condition identification of planetary gearboxes aims to prevent accidents and save costs. This paper proposes a method based on multiclass relevance vector machine (mRVM) to identify health condition of multi-stage planetary gearboxes. In this method, a mRVM algorithm is adopted as a classifier, and two features, i.e. accumulative amplitudes of carrier orders (AACO) and energy ratio based on difference spectra (ERDS), are used as the input of the classifier to classify different health conditions of multi-stage planetary gearboxes. To test the proposed method, seven health conditions of a two-stage planetary gearbox are considered and vibration data is acquired from the planetary gearbox under different motor speeds and loading conditions. The results of three tests based on different data show that the proposed method obtains an improved identification performance and robustness compared with the existing method.

  2. Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe, the PHEWE project: background, objectives, design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Hugh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe" (PHEWE had the aim of assessing the association between weather conditions and acute health effects, during both warm and cold seasons in 16 European cities with widely differing climatic conditions and to provide information for public health policies. Methods The PHEWE project was a three-year pan-European collaboration between epidemiologists, meteorologists and experts in public health. Meteorological, air pollution and mortality data from 16 cities and hospital admission data from 12 cities were available from 1990 to 2000. The short-term effect on mortality/morbidity was evaluated through city-specific and pooled time series analysis. The interaction between weather and air pollutants was evaluated and health impact assessments were performed to quantify the effect on the different populations. A heat/health watch warning system to predict oppressive weather conditions and alert the population was developed in a subgroup of cities and information on existing prevention policies and of adaptive strategies was gathered. Results Main results were presented in a symposium at the conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology in Paris on September 6th 2006 and will be published as scientific articles. The present article introduces the project and includes a description of the database and the framework of the applied methodology. Conclusion The PHEWE project offers the opportunity to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in 16 European cities, representing a wide range of climatic, socio-demographic and cultural characteristics; the use of a standardized methodology allows for direct comparison between cities.

  3. The evolution of health status and chronic conditions in Catalonia, 1994-2006: the paradox of health revisited using the Blinder - Oaxaca decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Altés, Anna; Pinilla, Jaime; Ortún, Vicente

    2011-05-23

    The paradox of health refers to the improvement in objective measures of health and the increase in the reported prevalence of chronic conditions. The objective of this paper is to test the paradox of health in Catalonia from 1994 to 2006. Longitudinal cross-sectional study using the Catalonia Health Interview Survey of 1994 and 2006. The approach used was the three-fold Blinder - Oaxaca decomposition, separating the part of the differential in mean visual analogue scale value (VAS) due to group differences in the predictors (prevalence effect), due to differences in the coefficients (severity effect), and an interaction term. Variables included were the VAS value, education level, labour status, marital status, all common chronic conditions over the two cross-sections, and a variable for non-common chronic conditions and other conditions. Sample weights have been applied. Results show that there is an increase in mean VAS for men aged 15-44, and a decrease in mean VAS for women aged 65-74 and 75 and more. The increase in mean VAS for men aged 15-44 could be explained by a decrease in the severity effect, which offsets the increase in the prevalence effect. The decrease in mean VAS for women aged 65-74 and 75 and more could be explained by an increase in the prevalence effect, which does not offset the decrease in the severity effect. The results of the present analysis corroborate the paradox of health hypothesis for the population of Catalonia, and highlight the need to be careful when measuring population health over time, as well as their usefulness to detect population's perceptions.

  4. An assessment of the relationships between overweight, obesity, related chronic health conditions and worker absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeffrey T; Potter, Lloyd B

    2014-01-01

    Worker absenteeism is an important area of study within the field of occupational health. Prior studies have linked the presence of obesity to higher rates of absenteeism, but have not examined whether or not the relationship is moderated by the presence of other chronic health conditions or whether or not the relationships have been stable over time. Data from the 2000 and 2010 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative sample of the US population, were analyzed to determine the extent to which the presence of 5 obesity-related chronic health conditions moderates the relationship between overweight/obesity and worker absenteeism, and whether or not these relationships are stable over time. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between overweight/obesity, the obesity-related chronic health conditions and worker absenteeism, while controlling for demographic, socio-economic, occupational, health related and behavioral variables. The findings suggest that obesity (p absenteeism, and that the effect is doubled for those with both class III obesity (BMI ≥ 40) and diabetes. The moderating effect between class III obesity and diabetes was observed only in 2010, indicating that this may be a relatively new phenomenon. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does Information Improve the Health Behavior of Adults Targeted by a Conditional Transfer Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Ciro

    2012-01-01

    We use data from the evaluation sample of Mexico's Food Assistance Program (PAL) to study whether including the attendance at health and nutrition classes among the requirements for receiving a transfer affects the health behavior of adults living in localities targeted by the program. The experimental trial has four different treatment types,…

  6. The characteristics of hospital emergency department visits made by people with mental health conditions who had dental problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalliah, Romesh P; Da Silva, John D; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2013-06-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge regarding nationally representative estimates of hospital-based emergency department (ED) visits for dental problems made by people with mental health conditions. The authors conducted a study to provide nationwide estimates of hospital-based ED visits attributed to dental caries, pulpal and periapical lesions, gingival and periodontal lesions and mouth cellulitis/abscess made by people with mental health conditions. The authors used the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, which is a component of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. ED visits attributable to dental caries, pulpal and periapical lesions, gingival and periodontal lesions and mouth cellulitis/abscess were identified by the emergency care provider by using diagnostic codes in International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. The authors examined outcomes, including hospital charges. They used simple descriptive statistics to summarize the data. In 2008, people with mental health conditions made 15,635,253 visits to hospital-based ED in the United States. A diagnosis of dental caries, pulpal and periapical lesions, gingival and periodontal lesions and mouth cellulitis/abscess represented 63,164 of these ED visits. The breakdown of the ED visits was 34,574 with dental caries, 25,352 with pulpal and periapical lesions, 9,657 with gingival and periodontal lesions, and 2,776 with mouth cellulitis/abscess. The total charge for ED visits in the United States was $55.46 million in 2008. In 2008, people with mental health conditions made 63,164 visits to hospital-based EDs and received a diagnosis of dental caries, pulpal and periapical lesions, gingival and periodontal lesions or mouth cellulitis/abscess. These ED visits incurred substantial hospital charges. Programs designed to reduce the number of ED visits made by this population for common dental problems could have a

  7. Characterisation of mental health conditions in social media using Informed Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gkotsis, George; Oellrich, Anika; Velupillai, Sumithra; Liakata, Maria; Hubbard, Tim J P; Dobson, Richard J B; Dutta, Rina

    2017-01-01

    The number of people affected by mental illness is on the increase and with it the burden on health and social care use, as well as the loss of both productivity and quality-adjusted life-years. Natural language\\ud processing of electronic health records is increasingly used to study mental health conditions and risk behaviours on a large scale. However, narrative notes written by clinicians do not capture first-hand\\ud the patients’ own experiences, and only record cross-sectional, professio...

  8. Associations between headache and stress, alcohol drinking, exercise, sleep, and comorbid health conditions in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Masako; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Funazu, Kazuo; Yamashita, Takeshi; Kondo, Shuji; Hosoai, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Akira; Nakamura, Haruo

    2009-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 12,988 subjects aged 20-79 years (5,908 men and 7,090 women) receiving health checkups at a Tokyo clinic. They filled out a self-administered structured questionnaire, and 5.4% of the men and 15.4% of the women reported having headaches. Younger subjects were more prone to having headaches. The likelihood of having headaches increased with stress level and decreased ability to relieve stress in both genders. There was an inverse dose-response relationship between having headaches and alcohol consumption, and less walking/exercise and sleep problems increased the likelihood of headaches in both genders. Headache sufferers of both genders were more likely to report multiple additional poor health conditions. A multivariate stepwise logistic analysis showed that age, self-estimated degree of stress, reported number of additional poor health conditions, and less alcohol consumption were independently correlated with having headaches. In conclusion, although women were more susceptible to headache, Japanese men and women in Tokyo shared factors associated with headache, including age, stress, having other poor health conditions, alcohol consumption, sleep, and exercise.

  9. To work despite chronic health conditions: a qualitative study of workers at the Swedish Public Employment Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjärtström, Carina; Lindahl Norberg, Annika; Johansson, Gun; Bodin, Theo

    2018-04-20

    Achieving a sustainable, healthy and long working life is key prerequisite for meeting the demographic challenge posed by an ageing population so that more people can work on into their later years. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between work and chronic health conditions in a group of employees aged 50-64 years with a focus on factors that enable them to continue to work. Ten white-collar workers with one or more chronic health conditions at the Swedish Public Employment Service participated in the study. A qualitative method with semistructured in-depth interviews was used to collect data. This study shows that factors enabling people with chronic health conditions to work include adaptation of the work situation by task-shifting as well as provision of physical aids. Our study suggest that the changes often come at the employee's initiative; hence, there is potential for greater involvement from the employer, healthcare agencies and the social insurance fund in making it easier for employees to adapt their work situation and in providing information regarding available support. It confirms findings in earlier studies that health plays an important part and also that self-confidence and motivation are significant factors contributing to workers being able and wanting to continue working. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. The relationship between social determinants of health, and rehabilitation of neurological conditions: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frier, Amanda; Barnett, Fiona; Devine, Sue

    2017-05-01

    This systematic literature review aims to explore the relationship between social determinants of health (SDH), and the rehabilitation of neurological conditions. In particular, the review will consider relationships between social determinants and peoples' attendance and sustained adherence to rehabilitation programs, and motivation regarding neurological rehabilitation. A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature from electronic databases; MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL and Informit health, was conducted. Papers published between 2004 and 2014 were considered. Eleven quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria. There was a lack of research addressing SDH and neurological rehabilitation simultaneously. Cardiac and cancer rehabilitation studies reported employment and income, social support, transport, housing and food security as the most frequent SDH factors influencing attendance, sustained adherence and motivation. Given this association, a similar relationship between neurological rehabilitation and SDH is plausible. Rehabilitation of neurological conditions can be a long and difficult process. To pursue optimal outcomes, an individual's social circumstances should be considered. Understanding how SDH interact with neurological rehabilitation may enhance service delivery, thus maximizing the possible rehabilitation outcomes for individuals. Future research that considers SDH and rehabilitation of neurological conditions jointly may benefit service providers and those requiring neurological rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Social determinants of health are important to consider in the rehabilitation of neurological conditions. Understanding the interplay between the social determinants of health and neurological rehabilitation may enhance the possible outcomes for those requiring rehabilitation. Increased awareness and capacity of health care professionals involved in neurological rehabilitation may hasten momentum towards decreased health

  11. Suicide and self-injury among children and youth with chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Andrew J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Resnick, Michael D

    2010-05-01

    Chronic conditions may be associated with suicide risk. This study aimed to specify the extent to which youth chronic conditions are at risk for suicidality and self-harm. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of self-harm, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in 10- to 19-year-olds with and without chronic physical and/or mental health conditions. Independent of race, socioeconomic status, absent parent, special education status, substance use, and emotional distress, youth with co-occurring chronic physical and mental conditions (n = 4099) had significantly higher odds of self-harm (odds ratio [OR]: 2.5 [99% confidence interval (CI): 2.3-2.8), suicidal ideation (OR: 2.5 [99% CI: 2.3-2.8), and suicide attempts (OR: 3.5 [99% CI: 3.1-3.9]) than healthy peers (n = 106,967), as did those with chronic mental conditions alone (n = 8752). Youth with chronic physical conditions alone (n = 12,554) were at slightly elevated risk for all 3 outcomes. Findings were similar among male and female youth, with a risk gradient by grade. Chronic physical conditions are associated with a slightly elevated risk for self-harm, suicidal thinking, and attempted suicide; chronic mental conditions are associated with an increased risk for all 3 outcomes. Co-occurring chronic physical and mental conditions are associated with an increased risk for self-harm and suicidal ideation that is similar to the risk in chronic mental conditions and with an attempted suicide risk in excess of that predicted by the chronic mental health conditions alone. Preventive interventions for these youth should be developed and evaluated.

  12. Happiness and life satisfaction prospectively predict self-rated health, physical health, and the presence of limiting, long-term health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matt; Singh, Gopal K

    2008-01-01

    To examine the effect of happiness and life satisfaction on health. Longitudinal data from waves 1 and 3, conducted in 2001 and 2004, respectively, of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. Australia. A total of 9981 respondents aged 18 years and older. Outcomes were self-reported health; the absence of long-term, limiting health conditions; and physical health. Happiness was assessed with the following question: "During the past 4 weeks, have you been a happy person"? Life satisfaction was determined with the following question: "All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life"? We used multiple regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs), beta coefficients (beta), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between baseline happiness or life satisfaction and health at wave 3. Baseline happiness and life satisfaction both were positively associated at wave 3 with excellent, very good, or good health (OR = 1.50, CI = 1.33-1.70, p < .0001; and OR = 1.62, CI = 1.27-2.08, p < .0001, respectively); with the absence of long-term, limiting health conditions (OR = 1.53, CI = 1.35-1.75, p < .0001; and OR = 1.51, CI = 1.25-1.82, p < .0001, respectively); and with higher physical health levels (beta = .99, CI = .60-1.39, p < .0001; and beta = .99, CI = .20-1.78, p < .0145, respectively). This study showed that happier people and those who were more satisfied with their lives at baseline reported better health (self-rated health; absence of limiting, long-term conditions; and physical health) at the 2-year follow-up when adjusted for baseline health and other relevant covariates.

  13. An Evaluation of Specialist Mentoring for University Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Mental Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rebecca; James, Alana I.

    2018-01-01

    Mentoring is often recommended to universities as a way of supporting students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and/or mental health conditions (MHC), but there is little literature on optimising this support. We used mixed-methods to evaluate mentees' and mentors' experiences of a specialist mentoring programme. Mentees experienced academic,…

  14. Allocation of Public Resources for Psychological Therapy between Types of Mental Health Condition: Towards Structural Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustin, Don

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses issues of allocating public resources efficiently between mental health conditions that are associated with different levels of disability, and presents an adaptation of an established framework to help decision-making in this area. The adapted framework refers to psychological interventions that are universal, indicated,…

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities in health in the working population: the contribution of working conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.Th.M. Schrijvers (Carola); H. van de Mheen (Dike); K. Stronks (Karien); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The aim was to study the impact of different categories of working conditions on the association between occupational class and self-reported health in the working population. METHODS: Data were collected through a postal survey conducted in 1991

  16. Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oredugba, Folakemi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…

  17. Sensitivity analysis of bridge health index to element failure and element conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Bridge Health Index (BHI) is a bridge performance measure based on the condition of the bridge elements. It : is computed as the ratio of remaining value of the bridge structure to the initial value of the structure. Since it : is expressed as a perc...

  18. Faculty Attitudes toward Addressing Mental Health Conditions and Substance Abuse among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor-Merrigan, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    The continued prevalence of mental health conditions and substance abuse among students enrolled in institutions of higher education is a significant and progressing concern, with marked impact on retention, academic success, graduation rate, and alarming personal consequences. Yet, many institutions struggle with successfully addressing these…

  19. After Some Breast Cancer Treatments, Risk for Other Health Conditions May Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Care Dining & Beverage Personal Care Services Sports & Outdoors Frequently Asked Questions 25th Anniversary Campaign Donors Share ... did not track how severe the co-existing health conditions were. What ... cases, the benefit of taking these treatments outweighs the potential risk ...

  20. The role of comorbid psychiatric conditions in health status in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeber, John E; Copeland, Laurel A; Amuan, Megan; Cramer, Joyce A; Pugh, Mary Jo V

    2007-06-01

    Comorbid psychiatric conditions are highly prevalent in patients with epilepsy, yet the long-term implications across multiple mental health conditions are poorly understood. We examined the association between psychiatric diagnoses and self-reported health status in veterans with epilepsy. ANCOVA models were used to derive adjusted SF-36V scores for individuals with epilepsy alone (N=7379) or with additional psychiatric conditions (N=6320): depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Compared with patients with epilepsy alone, scores of veterans with comorbid psychiatric diagnoses averaged 21% lower across all domains. Role Limitation scales exhibited the greatest decrement across domains. A PTSD diagnosis consistently corresponded to lower scores, followed by depression. Schizophrenia contributed the least detriment to perceived health status. Comorbid psychiatric conditions impart significant emotional and physical burdens, requiring timely recognition and treatment of these disorders. Patients with epilepsy are uniquely at risk for high physical-psychiatric comorbidity profiles, with concomitant losses in perceived health status.

  1. Hospital Admissions for Physical Health Conditions for People with Intellectual Disabilities: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kirsty; Hughes-McCormack, Laura; Cooper, Sally-Ann

    2018-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities may have inequalities in hospital admissions compared with the general population. The present authors aimed to investigate admissions for physical health conditions in this population. Methods: The present authors conducted a systematic review, searching six databases using terms on intellectual…

  2. Discourse versus practice: are traditional practices and beliefs in pregnancy and childbirth included or excluded in the Ecuadorian health care system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Carlos Andres; Waters, William F; Kuhlmann, Anne Sebert

    2017-03-01

    Traditional beliefs, knowledge and practices are formally integrated into the Ecuadorian health system. We sought to understand whether they are integrated in practice. Qualitative data were collected in two rural parishes in the central highlands of Ecuador through four focus group discussions (30 participants), eight key informant interviews, three participatory exercises (24 participants), structured observations of health facilities and analysis of official documents. We found different levels of integration, coexistence, tolerance, and intolerance of traditional health beliefs and practices in health facilities. One parish has undergone dramatic social and cultural transformation, and the role of traditional birth attendants is limited. In the other parish, traditional indigenous norms and values persist, and traditional birth attendants are sought during pregnancy and childbirth. The degree to which traditional birth attendants, indigenous women and their families are included or excluded from public health services depends largely on decisions taken by local health professionals. Formal policies in Ecuador stipulate that health care should be intercultural, but the role of traditional birth attendants is not necessarily incorporated in practice. The integration of culturally-informed beliefs and practices is critical for providing appropriate health services to members of vulnerable populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Working conditions in mid-life and mental health in older ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David; Bartley, Mel; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-03-01

    This article illustrates the importance of previous working conditions during mid-life (between 40 and 55) for mental health among older retired men and women (60 or older) across 13 European countries. We link information on health from the second wave (2006-2007) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) with information on respondents' working life collected retrospectively in the SHARELIFE interview (2008-2009). To measure working conditions, we rely on core assumptions of existing theoretical models of work stress (the demand-control-support and the effort-reward imbalance model) and distinguish four types of unhealthy working conditions: (1) a stressful psychosocial work environment (as assessed by the two work stress models) (2) a disadvantaged occupational position throughout the whole period of mid-life, (3) experience of involuntary job loss, and (4) exposure to job instability. Health after labour market exit is measured using depressive symptoms, as measured by the EURO-D depression scale. Main results show that men and women who experienced psychosocial stress at work or had low occupational positions during mid-life had significantly higher probabilities of high depressive symptoms during retirement. Additionally, men with unstable working careers and an involuntary job loss were at higher risks to report high depressive symptoms in later life. These associations remain significant after controlling for workers' health and social position prior mid-life. These findings support the assumption that mental health of retirees who experienced poor working conditions during mid-life is impaired. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modularising ontology and designing inference patterns to personalise health condition assessment: the case of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojic, Aleksandra; Terkaj, Walter; Contini, Giorgia; Sacco, Marco

    2016-05-04

    The public health initiatives for obesity prevention are increasingly exploiting the advantages of smart technologies that can register various kinds of data related to physical, physiological, and behavioural conditions. Since individual features and habits vary among people, the design of appropriate intervention strategies for motivating changes in behavioural patterns towards a healthy lifestyle requires the interpretation and integration of collected information, while considering individual profiles in a personalised manner. The ontology-based modelling is recognised as a promising approach in facing the interoperability and integration of heterogeneous information related to characterisation of personal profiles. The presented ontology captures individual profiles across several obesity-related knowledge-domains structured into dedicated modules in order to support inference about health condition, physical features, behavioural habits associated with a person, and relevant changes over time. The modularisation strategy is designed to facilitate ontology development, maintenance, and reuse. The domain-specific modules formalised in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) integrate the domain-specific sets of rules formalised in the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL). The inference rules follow a modelling pattern designed to support personalised assessment of health condition as age- and gender-specific. The test cases exemplify a personalised assessment of the obesity-related health conditions for the population of teenagers. The paper addresses several issues concerning the modelling of normative concepts related to obesity and depicts how the public health concern impacts classification of teenagers according to their phenotypes. The modelling choices regarding the ontology-structure are explained in the context of the modelling goal to integrate multiple knowledge-domains and support reasoning about the individual changes over time. The presented modularisation

  5. Disparities in chronic conditions and health status by type of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner-Johnson, Willi; Dobbertin, Konrad; Lee, Jae Chul; Andresen, Elena M

    2013-10-01

    Prior research has established health disparities between people with and without disabilities. However, disparities within the disability population, such as those related to type of disability, have been much less studied. To examine differences in chronic conditions and health status between subgroups of people with different types of disability. We analyzed Medical Expenditure Panel Survey annual data files from 2002 to 2008. Logistic regression analyses considered disparity from three perspectives: 1) basic differences, unadjusted for other factors; 2) controlling for key demographic and health covariates; and 3) controlling for a larger set of demographic variables and socioeconomic status as well as health and access to healthcare. Individuals with vision, physical, cognitive, or multiple disability types fared worse than people with hearing impairment on most health outcomes. This was most consistently true for people with multiple disabilities. Even when all covariates were accounted for, people with multiple types of disability were significantly more likely (p disability types were reduced when controlling for other factors, some differences remained significant. This argues for a more individualized approach to understanding and preventing chronic conditions and poor health in specific disability groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a kinetic model, including rate constant estimations, on iodine and caesium behaviour in the primary circuit of LWR's under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Buron, J.M.; Fernandez, S.

    1991-07-01

    In this report, a kinetic model has been developed with the aim to try to reproduce the chemical phenomena that take place in a flowing system containing steam, hydrogen and iodine and caesium vapours. The work is divided into two different parts. The first part consists in the estimation, through the Activited Complex Theory, of the reaction rate constants, for the chosen reactions, and the development of the kinetic model based on the concept of ideal tubular chemical reactor. The second part deals with the application of such model to several cases, which were taken from the Phase B 'Scoping Calculations' of the Phebus-FP Project (sequence AB) and the SFD-ST and SFD1.1 experiments. The main conclusion obtained from this work is that the assumption of instantaneous equilibrium could be inacurrate in order to estimate the iodine and caesium species distribution under severe accidents conditions

  7. A Design Study of the Inflated Sphere Landing Vehicle, Including the Landing Performance and the Effects of Deviations from Design Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E. Dale

    1961-01-01

    The impact motion of the inflated sphere landing vehicle with a payload centrally supported from the spherical skin by numerous cords has been determined on the assumption of uniform isentropic gas compression during impact. The landing capabilities are determined for a system containing suspension cords of constant cross section. The effects of deviations in impact velocity and initial gas temperature from the design conditions are studied. Also discussed are the effects of errors in the time at which the skin is ruptured. These studies indicate how the design parameters should be chosen to insure reliability of the landing system. Calculations have been made and results are presented for a sphere inflated with hydrogen, landing on the moon in the absence of an atmosphere. The results are presented for one value of the skin-strength parameter.

  8. [Study on the psychological health condition among junior and senior high school students in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Longxiang; Zhang, Qian; Du, Songming; Guo, Jing; Liu Weijia; Pan, Hui; Hu, Xiaoqi; Ma, Guansheng; Sun, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    To describe the status and difference of students' mental health in junior high school, ordinary high school and vocational high school in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. 135 schools and 14 473 students were randomly selected and stratified to draw the sample. Mental Health Test (MHT) was used to measure the status of students' mental health. Among 13 286 valid questionnaire, 2.1% students were mentally disabled, more females reported their mental problems (2.1%) than males (1.9%). Students from Shanghai (2.5%) and Beijing (2.3%) were more likely to report their mental problems than students from Guangzhou (1.6%), which were statistically significant. The top three mental problems includes anxiety (42.6%), physical condition (11.1%) and self - blame tendency (9.7%), etc. Students from Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou got different extend of mental problems.

  9. Working conditions and workplace health and safety promotion in home care: A mixed-method study from Swedish managers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Gunvor; Larsson, Agneta

    2017-11-02

    Today, we can see a trend toward increased psychosocial strain at work among home-care managers and staff. The aim of this study is to describe home care managers' views on their own psychosocial working conditions and on how to promote workplace health and safety in a municipality in northern Sweden. A mixed-methods design was used, including questionnaire and qualitative focus group data. The qualitative data were analyzed by manifest content analysis. The results indicate that most managers perceived increased variety in work and opportunities for development at work, but at the same time increased demands. The managers suggested that workplace health and safety could be improved by risk assessment and improved communication, a clear communication chain by a real as well as a virtual platform for communication. In summary, workplace health and safety could be improved by risk assessments and by a physical as well as a virtual platform for communication.

  10. Primary health care quality and hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in the public health system in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Marcelo Rodrigues; Hauser, Lisiane; Prestes, Isaías Valente; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Harzheim, Erno

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the relation of hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) with the quality of public primary care health services in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Cohort study constructed by probabilistic record linkage performed from August 2006 to December 2011 in a population ≥18 years of age that attended public primary care health services. The Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool-Brazil) was used for evaluation of primary care services. Of 1200 subjects followed, 84 were hospitalized for primary care sensitive conditions. The main causes of ACSC hospital admissions were cardiovascular (40.5%) and respiratory (16.2%) diseases. The PCATool average score was 5.3, a level considerably below that considered to represent quality care. After adjustment through Cox proportional hazard modelling for covariates, >60 years of age [hazard ratio (HR): 1.13; P = 0.001), lesser education (HR: 0.66; P = 0.02), ethnicity other than white (HR: 1.77; P = 0.01) and physical inactivity (HR: 1.65; P = 0.04) predicted hospitalization, but higher quality of primary health care did not. Better quality of health care services, in a setting of overwhelmingly low quality services not adapted to the care of chronic conditions, did not influence the rate of avoidable hospitalizations, while social and demographic characteristics, especially non-white ethnicity and lesser schooling, indicate that social inequities play a predominant role in health outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The effect of presenteeism-related health conditions on employee work engagement levels: A comparison between groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon T. de Beer

    2014-10-01

    Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to determine the differences in work engagement levels based on groups of presenteeism-related conditions in employees. Motivation for the study: Awareness of the impact of presenteeism-related conditions on work engagement levels can aid in the crafting of interventions to assist employees who suffer from these conditions, which in turn can boost work engagement levels. Research design, approach and method: Cross-sectional data was collected from an availability sample of employees in the manufacturing sector (N = 3387. Main findings: The results of the multi-group structural equation modelling revealed significant mean differences in work engagement levels between the groups. Practical significance tests revealed significant differences between all the groups. The largest difference was between the group who suffered from no presenteeism-related conditions and the group who suffered from all three conditions included in this study concurrently. Practical/managerial implications: Organisational stakeholders are encouraged to take note of the effects that presenteeism-related health conditions have on work engagement and to consider relevant strategies and interventions to address and alleviate symptoms in order to tend to employee health and obviate the effect on productivity. Contribution: This study found that there were clear practical differences between employees who suffer from the presenteeism-related conditions and those who suffer from none of the conditions. Furthermore, there was also a clear difference when comparing the ‘no condition’ group to a general random sample in which employees might experience some symptoms but not comorbidity.

  12. The relationship between local area labor market conditions and the use of Veterans Affairs health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Edwin S; Liu, Chuan-Fen

    2013-03-13

    In the U.S., economic conditions are intertwined with labor market decisions, access to health care, health care utilization and health outcomes. The Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system has served as a safety net provider by supplying free or reduced cost care to qualifying veterans. This study examines whether local area labor market conditions, measured using county-level unemployment rates, influence whether veterans obtain health care from the VA. We used survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in years 2000, 2003 and 2004 to construct a random sample of 73,964 respondents self-identified as veterans. VA health service utilization was defined as whether veterans received all, some or no care from the VA. Hierarchical ordered logistic regression was used to address unobserved state and county random effects while adjusting for individual characteristics. Local area labor market conditions were defined as the average 12-month unemployment rate in veterans' county of residence. The mean unemployment rate for veterans receiving all, some and no care was 5.56%, 5.37% and 5.24%, respectively. After covariate adjustment, a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate in a veteran's county of residence was associated with an increase in the probability of receiving all care (0.34%, p-value = 0.056) or some care (0.29%, p-value = 0.023) from the VA. Our findings suggest that the important role of the VA in providing health care services to veterans is magnified in locations with high unemployment.

  13. Including a Client Sexual Health Pathway in a National Youth Mental Health Early Intervention Service--Project Rationale and Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C. A.; Britton, M. L.; Jenkins, L.; Rickwood, D. J.; Gillham, K. E.

    2014-01-01

    Young people have higher rates of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) than the general population. Research has shown that there is a clear link between emotional distress, depression, substance abuse and sexual risk taking behaviours in young people. "headspace" is a youth mental health early intervention service operating in more…

  14. [Assessment of the technology of care relations in the health services: perception of the elderly included in the family health strategy in Bambuí, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Wagner Jorge dos; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-08-01

    In the health field, technologies of care relations are in the scope of the worker-user encounter, implying intersubjectivity with the development of relationships between subjects, resulting in action. Evaluation studies synthesize knowledge produced on the consequences of using these technologies for society. This anthropological study aims to understand the perception of the elderly regarding the resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts produced in health care relationships in the context of the Family Health Strategy (ESF). The group studied consisted of 57 elderly residents in Bambui, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The model of signs, meanings and actions was used for collecting and analyzing data and the semi-structured interview was applied as a research technique. Elderly individuals assess resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts of care in the ESF as negative, with relation to the quality of user and professional interaction. The ESF is not effective and the desired change in the health care model has not occurred in practice. It repeats the centrality of the medical-drug-procedure model that treats the disease rather than the patient, perceiving old age as a disease and illness as being related to aging.

  15. Young adults with mental health conditions and social networking websites: seeking tools to build community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Kris; Deschaine, Matthew; Gruttadara, Darcy; Markey, Dana

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ways that young adults with mental illnesses (1) currently use social networking; and (2) how they would like to use a social networking site tailored for them. The authors examined differences between those with mental health conditions and those without. An online survey was administered by the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) to 274 participants; of those, 207 reported being between 18 and 24 years old. The survey included questions about current social networking use, the key resources respondents believed young adults living with mental illness need, and the essential components that should be included in a social networking site specifically tailored to young adults living with mental illness. Pearson Chi-square analyses examined the differences between those who reported having a mental illness and those who did not. Results indicate that almost all (94%) participants with mental illnesses currently use social networking sites. Individuals living with a mental illness are more likely than those not living with a mental illness to report engaging in various social networking activities that promote connectivity and making online friends. Individuals living with mental illnesses are also more likely to report wanting resources on independent living skills and overcoming social isolation available on a social networking site. Young adults living with mental illnesses are currently using social networking sites and express high interest in a social networking site specifically tailored to their population with specific tools designed to decrease social isolation and help them live more independently. These results indicate that practitioners should themselves be aware of the different social networking sites frequented by their young adult clients, ask clients about their use of social networking, and encourage safe and responsible online behaviors.

  16. The impact of the Brazilian family health strategy on selected primary care sensitive conditions: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Lisboa Bastos

    Full Text Available Brazil has the largest public health-system in the world, with 120 million people covered by its free primary care services. The Family Health Strategy (FHS is the main primary care model, but there is no consensus on its impact on health outcomes. We systematically reviewed published evidence regarding the impact of the Brazilian FHS on selective primary care sensitive conditions (PCSC.We searched Medline, Web of Science and Lilacs in May 2016 using key words in Portuguese and English, without language restriction. We included studies if intervention was the FHS; comparison was either different levels of FHS coverage or other primary health care service models; outcomes were the selected PCSC; and results were adjusted for relevant sanitary and socioeconomic variables, including the national conditional cash transfer program (Bolsa Familia. Due to differences in methods and outcomes reported, pooling of results was not possible.Of 1831 records found, 31 met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 25 were ecological studies. Twenty-one employed longitudinal quasi-experimental methods, 27 compared different levels the FHS coverage, whilst four compared the FHS versus other models of primary care. Fourteen studies found an association between higher FHS coverage and lower post-neonatal and child mortality. When the effect of Bolsa Familia was accounted for, the effect of the FHS on child mortality was greater. In 13 studies about hospitalizations due to PCSC, no clear pattern of association was found. In four studies, there was no effect on child and elderly vaccination or low-birth weight. No included studies addressed breast-feeding, dengue, HIV/AIDS and other neglected infectious diseases.Among these ecological studies with limited quality evidence, increasing coverage by the FHS was consistently associated with improvements in child mortality. Scarce evidence on other health outcomes, hospitalization and synergies with cash transfer was found.

  17. Informing the development of services supporting self-care for severe, long term mental health conditions: a mixed method study of community based mental health initiatives in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Gillard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supporting self-care is being explored across health care systems internationally as an approach to improving care for long term conditions in the context of ageing populations and economic constraint. UK health policy advocates a range of approaches to supporting self-care, including the application of generic self-management type programmes across conditions. Within mental health, the scope of self-care remains poorly conceptualised and the existing evidence base for supporting self-care is correspondingly disparate. This paper aims to inform the development of support for self-care in mental health by considering how generic self-care policy guidance is implemented in the context of services supporting people with severe, long term mental health problems. Methods A mixed method study was undertaken comprising standardised psychosocial measures, questionnaires about health service use and qualitative interviews with 120 new referrals to three contrasting community based initiatives supporting self-care for severe, long term mental health problems, repeated nine months later. A framework approach was taken to qualitative analysis, an exploratory statistical analysis sought to identify possible associations between a range of independent variables and self-care outcomes, and a narrative synthesis brought these analyses together. Results Participants reported improvement in self-care outcomes (e.g. greater empowerment; less use of Accident and Emergency services. These changes were not associated with level of engagement with self-care support. Level of engagement was associated with positive collaboration with support staff. Qualitative data described the value of different models of supporting self-care and considered challenges. Synthesis of analyses suggested that timing support for self-care, giving service users control over when and how they accessed support, quality of service user-staff relationships and decision

  18. Relationships of working conditions, health problems and vehicle accidents in bus rapid transit (BRT) drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ortiz, Viviola; Cendales, Boris; Useche, Sergio; Bocarejo, Juan P

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate accident risk rates and mental health of bus rapid transit (BRT) drivers based on psychosocial risk factors at work leading to increased stress and health problems. A cross-sectional research design utilized a self-report questionnaire completed by 524 BRT drivers. Some working conditions of BRT drivers (lack of social support from supervisors and perceived potential for risk) may partially explain Bogota's BRT drivers' involvement in road accidents. Drivers' mental health problems were associated with higher job strain, less support from co-workers, fewer rewards and greater signal conflict while driving. To prevent bus accidents, supervisory support may need to be increased. To prevent mental health problems, other interventions may be needed such as reducing demands, increasing job control, reducing amount of incoming information, simplifying current signals, making signals less contradictory, and revising rewards. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Actual Condition of Paddy Field Levee Maintenance by Various Farm Households including Large-scale Farming in the Developed Land Renting Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Yasuyo

    The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.

  20. A pacemaker powered by an implantable biofuel cell operating under conditions mimicking the human blood circulatory system--battery not included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcott, Mark; MacVittie, Kevin; Halámek, Jan; Halámková, Lenka; Jemison, William D; Lobel, Robert; Katz, Evgeny

    2013-05-07

    Biocatalytic electrodes made of buckypaper were modified with PQQ-dependent glucose dehydrogenase on the anode and with laccase on the cathode and were assembled in a flow biofuel cell filled with serum solution mimicking the human blood circulatory system. The biofuel cell generated an open circuitry voltage, Voc, of ca. 470 mV and a short circuitry current, Isc, of ca. 5 mA (a current density of 0.83 mA cm(-2)). The power generated by the implantable biofuel cell was used to activate a pacemaker connected to the cell via a charge pump and a DC-DC converter interface circuit to adjust the voltage produced by the biofuel cell to the value required by the pacemaker. The voltage-current dependencies were analyzed for the biofuel cell connected to an Ohmic load and to the electronic loads composed of the interface circuit, or the power converter, and the pacemaker to study their operation. The correct pacemaker operation was confirmed using a medical device - an implantable loop recorder. Sustainable operation of the pacemaker was achieved with the system closely mimicking human physiological conditions using a single biofuel cell. This first demonstration of the pacemaker activated by the physiologically produced electrical energy shows promise for future electronic implantable medical devices powered by electricity harvested from the human body.

  1. Under-coding of secondary conditions in coded hospital health data: Impact of co-existing conditions, death status and number of codes in a record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mingkai; Southern, Danielle A; Williamson, Tyler; Quan, Hude

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the coding validity of hypertension, diabetes, obesity and depression related to the presence of their co-existing conditions, death status and the number of diagnosis codes in hospital discharge abstract database. We randomly selected 4007 discharge abstract database records from four teaching hospitals in Alberta, Canada and reviewed their charts to extract 31 conditions listed in Charlson and Elixhauser comorbidity indices. Conditions associated with the four study conditions were identified through multivariable logistic regression. Coding validity (i.e. sensitivity, positive predictive value) of the four conditions was related to the presence of their associated conditions. Sensitivity increased with increasing number of diagnosis code. Impact of death on coding validity is minimal. Coding validity of conditions is closely related to its clinical importance and complexity of patients' case mix. We recommend mandatory coding of certain secondary diagnosis to meet the need of health research based on administrative health data.

  2. Customers' perspectives on the impact of the Pathways to Work condition management programme on their health, well-being and vocational activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secker, Jenny; Pittam, Gail; Ford, Fiona

    2012-11-01

    Pathways to Work is a UK initiative aimed at supporting customers on incapacity benefits to return to work. This qualitative study complements previous evaluations of Pathways to Work by exploring customers' perceptions of the impact of the Condition Management Programme (CMP) offered to claimants with long-term health conditions. 39 customers took part in focus groups held at the seven sites where Pathways was originally piloted. The main focus of the discussions was on perceptions of the ways in which participation had impacted on health, well-being and return to work. The discussions were audio-recorded and fully transcribed for analysis using a text analysis framework to enable the development and refinement of categories and overarching patterns in the data. Perceived impacts on health and well-being included a more positive outlook, social contact, changed perceptions of conditions and improvements in health. Some customers also reported an increase in their vocational activity and others felt ready to embark on new activities. Factors associated with positive outcomes included the extent and quality of contact with CMP staff and practical advice about condition management. Factors impeding positive employment outcomes related mainly to obstacles to returning to work. The results indicated that CMP can assist customers to learn about and manage their health conditions and increase their vocational activity, and that CMP therefore provides a promising means of enabling people with long-term health conditions to regain a fulfilling, productive life.

  3. The impact of psychosocial and organizational working conditions on the mental health of female cleaning personnel in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamperiene, Migle; Nygård, Jan F; Sandanger, Inger; Waersted, Morten; Bruusgaard, Dag

    2006-11-01

    This study examined the association between psychosocial and organizational work conditions and mental health among women employed in the cleaning profession in Norway. Self-report questionnaires were mailed to 661 cleaning staff personnel from seven cleaning organizations in seven different cities across Norway. The response rate was 64%, of which 374 (88%) respondents were women. The questionnaires assessed socio-demographic information and employment history, work organization, and psychosocial working conditions. The Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25) was included to assess mental health. On average, respondents were 43 years old and reported 10.8 years of experience working in the cleaning industry. The proportion of women scoring a HSCL-25 equal to or above 1.75 was 17.5%, which was higher than the average prevalence of mental health problems among working Norwegian women (8.4%). A factor analysis of the questions specific to the psychosocial work environment identified the following four underlying dimensions: leadership, co-workers, time pressure/control, and information/knowledge. Two of these, poor satisfaction with leadership (OR = 3.6) and poor satisfaction with co-workers (OR = 2.3), were significantly related to mental health. In addition, having contact with colleagues less than once a day (OR = 2.4) and not being ethnically Norwegian (OR = 3.0) increased the risk for mental health problems. Mental health problems are frequent among female cleaning professionals in Norway. Our results indicate that quality of leadership, collaboration with co-workers, and ethnicity were significantly associated with mental health.

  4. The impact of psychosocial and organizational working conditions on the mental health of female cleaning personnel in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandanger Inger

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the association between psychosocial and organizational work conditions and mental health among women employed in the cleaning profession in Norway. Methods Self-report questionnaires were mailed to 661 cleaning staff personnel from seven cleaning organizations in seven different cities across Norway. The response rate was 64%, of which 374 (88% respondents were women. The questionnaires assessed socio-demographic information and employment history, work organization, and psychosocial working conditions. The Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25 was included to assess mental health. Results On average, respondents were 43 years old and reported 10.8 years of experience working in the cleaning industry. The proportion of women scoring a HSCL-25 equal to or above 1.75 was 17.5%, which was higher than the average prevalence of mental health problems among working Norwegian women (8.4%. A factor analysis of the questions specific to the psychosocial work environment identified the following four underlying dimensions: leadership, co-workers, time pressure/control, and information/knowledge. Two of these, poor satisfaction with leadership (OR = 3.6 and poor satisfaction with co-workers (OR = 2.3, were significantly related to mental health. In addition, having contact with colleagues less than once a day (OR = 2.4 and not being ethnically Norwegian (OR = 3.0 increased the risk for mental health problems. Conclusion Mental health problems are frequent among female cleaning professionals in Norway. Our results indicate that quality of leadership, collaboration with co-workers, and ethnicity were significantly associated with mental health.

  5. The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Conditions of Trust Among Leaders at the Kentucky Department for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Redmond Knight

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited leadership research on emotional intelligence and trust in governmental public health settings. The purpose of this study was to identify and seek to understand the relationship between trust and elements of emotional intelligence, including stress management, at the Kentucky Department for Public Health. The Kentucky Department for Public Health (KDPH serves as Kentucky’s state governmental health department. KDPH is led by a Commissioner and composed of seven primary divisions and 25 branches within those divisions. The study was a non-randomized cross-sectional study utilizing electronic surveys that evaluated conditions of trust among staff members and emotional intelligence among supervisors. Pearson correlation coefficients and corresponding p-values are presented to provide the association between emotional intelligence scales and the conditions of trust. Significant positive correlations were observed between supervisors' stress management and the staff members' trust or perception of supervisors' loyalty(r=0.6, p=0.01, integrity(r=0.5, p=0.03, receptivity(r=0.6, p=0.02, promise fulfillment(r=0.6, p=0.02 and availability (r=0.5, p=0.07. This research lays the foundation for emotional intelligence and trust research and leadership training in other governmental public health settings, such as local, other state, national or international organizations. This original research provides metrics to assess the public health workforce with attention to organizational management and leadership constructs. The survey tools could be used in other governmental public health settings in order to develop tailored training opportunities related to emotional intelligence and trust organizations.

  6. Country differences of psychosocial working conditions in Europe: the role of health and safety management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2017-10-01

    In times of demographic change, maintaining health and employability of older employees is important. In this context, studies show that stressful working conditions differ by countries. Yet, it is unclear if specific national management practices to deal with these conditions contribute towards explaining country differences. This study combines two different data sources. The first one provides detailed information on psychosocial working conditions in 17 European countries, based on 12,284 employees from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). We link this information to the second data source that provides information on health and safety management practices in each of the countries under study (collected among 17,477 managers at the level of companies in the Enterprise survey on new and emerging risks (ESENER)). We distinguish six different types of risk management procedures in the analysis. Results show that levels of psychosocial risks are generally lower in countries with more developed management practices, in particular if national management practices are marked by (1) procedures to deal with work stress, (2) information about whom to address in case of work-related psychosocial problems, and (3) health and safety services provided by psychologists. The findings underline the importance of a comprehensive psychosocial risk management approach in reducing work-related stress, as lower levels of psychosocial risks are linked to specific psychosocial risk management practices within companies, in particular those pointing to clear responsibilities and coordinated procedures in dealing with psychosocial risks.

  7. Theoretical Insights into Preconception Social Conditions and Perinatal Health: The Role of Place and Social Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jennifer B; Margerison-Zilko, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Recent efforts to explain the stark social and racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes that have persisted for decades in the U.S. have looked beyond prenatal factors, to explore preconception social conditions that may influence perinatal health via dysregulation of physiologic processes. The extant evidence supporting this link however remains limited, both due to a lack of data and theory. To address the latter, this manuscript generates a structured set of theoretical insights that further develop the link between two preconception social conditions - place and social relationships - and perinatal health. The insights propose the following. necessarily encompasses all social contexts to which females are exposed from infancy through young adulthood; encompasses a variety of related exposures that, when possible, should be jointly considered; and may compound the effect of poverty-in childhood, adolescence, or young adulthood-on perinatal health. Social relationships: span relationships from early life through adulthood, and extend to intergenerational associations; often involve (or induce) major changes in the lives of individuals and should be examined with an emphasis on the developmental stage in which the change occurred; and necessarily encompass a lack of social integration, or, social isolation. We also identify potential biological and social-structural mechanisms linking these preconception social conditions to perinatal health, and conclude by identifying promising directions for future research.

  8. Conditions for addressing environmental determinants of health behavior in intersectoral policy networks: A fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, D T J M; Verweij, S; Grêaux, K; Stronks, K; Harting, J

    2017-12-01

    Improving health requires changes in the social, physical, economic and political determinants of health behavior. For the realization of policies that address these environmental determinants, intersectoral policy networks are considered necessary for the pooling of resources to implement different policy instruments. However, such network diversity may increase network complexity and therefore hamper network performance. Network complexity may be reduced by network management and the provision of financial resources. This study examined whether network diversity - amidst the other conditions - is indeed needed to address environmental determinants of health behavior. We included 25 intersectoral policy networks in Dutch municipalities aimed at reducing overweight, smoking, and alcohol/drugs abuse. For our fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis we used data from three web-based surveys among (a) project leaders regarding network diversity and size (n = 38); (b) project leaders and project partners regarding management (n = 278); and (c) implementation professionals regarding types of environmental determinants addressed (n = 137). Data on budgets were retrieved from project application forms. Contrary to their intentions, most policy networks typically addressed personal determinants. If the environment was addressed too, it was mostly the social environment. To address environmental determinants of health behavior, network diversity (>50% of the actors are non-public health) was necessary in networks that were either small (policy networks in improving health behaviors by addressing a variety of environmental determinants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Effects of heavy metal exposure on the condition and health of adult great tits (Parus major)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauwe, Tom; Janssens, Ellen; Eens, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    We examined the possible effects of heavy metal exposure on the quality and health of adult great tits (Parus major) at four study sites along a pollution gradient near a non-ferrous smelter in Belgium. Tarsus length, wing length, body mass and condition of great tits were compared with respect to study site, age (first-year and older great tits), sex and season (birds caught in winter and during breeding). Tarsus length did not differ significantly among study sites. The wing length of great tits was larger at the study site furthest from the smelter, especially for older great tits. The length of the outermost tail feathers, however, did not differ significantly among study sites. We found no signs of loss of body mass or condition towards the pollution source. The body mass and condition was lowest for female great tits at the site furthest from the smelter, especially during winter. Haematocrit values did not differ significantly among sites. Overall, we found no clear significant effects of heavy metal pollution on morphological measurements and health parameters of great tits. - Heavy metal pollution had no clear effect on condition and health, but this may have been masked by habitat quality differences and gene flow

  10. The Frontlines of Medicine Project: a proposal for the standardized communication of emergency department data for public health uses including syndromic surveillance for biological and chemical terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthell, Edward N; Cordell, William H; Moorhead, John C; Handler, Jonathan; Feied, Craig; Smith, Mark S; Cochrane, Dennis G; Felton, Christopher W; Collins, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    The Frontlines of Medicine Project is a collaborative effort of emergency medicine (including emergency medical services and clinical toxicology), public health, emergency government, law enforcement, and informatics. This collaboration proposes to develop a nonproprietary, "open systems" approach for reporting emergency department patient data. The common element is a standard approach to sending messages from individual EDs to regional oversight entities that could then analyze the data received. ED encounter data could be used for various public health initiatives, including syndromic surveillance for chemical and biological terrorism. The interlinking of these regional systems could also permit public health surveillance at a national level based on ED patient encounter data. Advancements in the Internet and Web-based technologies could allow the deployment of these standardized tools in a rapid time frame.

  11. Behavior and failure of uniformly hydrided Zircaloy-4 fuel claddings between 25 C and 480 C under various stress states, including RIA loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Saux, M.; Carassou, S.; Averty, X.; Le Saux, M.; Besson, J.; Poussard, C.

    2010-01-01

    The anisotropic plastic behavior and the fracture of as-received and hydrided Cold-Worked Stress Relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes are investigated under thermal-mechanical loading conditions representative of Pellet-Clad Mechanical Interaction during Reactivity Initiated Accidents in Pressurized Water Reactors. In order to study the combined effects of temperature, hydrogen content, loading direction and stress state, Axial Tensile, Hoop Tensile, Expansion Due to Compression and hoop Plane Strain Tensile tests are performed at room temperature, 350 C and 480 C on the material containing various hydrogen contents up to 1200 wt. ppm (hydrides are circumferential and homogeneously distributed). These tests are combined with digital image correlation and metallographic and fractographic observations at different scales. The flow stress of the material decreases with increasing temperature. The material is either strengthened or softened by hydrogen depending on temperature and hydrogen content. Plastic anisotropy depends on temperature but not on hydrogen content. The ductility of the material decreases with increasing hydrogen content at room temperature due to damage nucleation by hydride cracking. The plastic strain that leads to hydride fracture at room temperature decreases with increasing hydrogen content. The influence of stress triaxiality on hydride cracking is negligible in the studied range. The influence of hydrogen on material ductility is negligible at 350 C and 480 C since hydrides do not crack at these temperatures. The ductility of the material increases with increasing temperature. The evolution of material ductility is associated with a change in both the macroscopic fracture mode of the specimens and the microscopic failure mechanisms. (authors)

  12. Effects of Cd and Ni toxicity to Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions in soft and hard water including a German lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Elisa, E-mail: Elisa.Andresen@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Opitz, Judith, E-mail: Daniela.Opitz@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Thomas, George, E-mail: George.Thomas@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Stärk, Hans-Joachim, E-mail: Ha-Jo.Staerk@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Dienemann, Holger, E-mail: Holger.Dienemann@smul.sachsen.de [Saxon State Company for Environment and Agriculture, Business Domain 5 (Laboratory), Department 53, Bitterfelder Str. 25, D-04849 Bad Düben (Germany); Jenemann, Kerstin, E-mail: Kerstin.Jenemann@smul.sachsen.de [Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Abteilung Wasser, Boden, Wertstoffe, Zur Wetterwarte 11, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Dickinson, Bryan C., E-mail: Bryan.Dickinson@gmail.com [Harvard University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Küpper, Hendrik, E-mail: Hendrik.Kuepper@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Institute of Physical Biology, Branišovská 31, CZ-370 05 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Hardly any macrophytic growth occurred in an oligotrophic hard water lake in Germany. •All parameters were optimal, besides elevated, nanomolar concentrations of Ni and Cd. •We cultivated submerged macrophytes in real and simulated hard and soft lake water. •Nanomolar Cd and Ni inhibited the plants’ photosynthetic light reactions in soft water. •The inhibition was synergistic, i.e. stronger than the addition of Cd and Ni effects. -- Abstract: Even essential trace elements are phytotoxic over a certain threshold. In this study, we investigated whether heavy metal concentrations were responsible for the nearly complete lack of submerged macrophytes in an oligotrophic lake in Germany. We cultivated the rootless aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions like sinusoidal light and temperature cycles and a low plant biomass to water volume ratio. Experiments lasted for six weeks and were analysed by detailed measurements of photosynthetic biophysics, pigment content and hydrogen peroxide production. We established that individually non-toxic cadmium (3 nM) and slightly toxic nickel (300 nM) concentrations became highly toxic when applied together in soft water, severely inhibiting photosynthetic light reactions. Toxicity was further enhanced by phosphate limitation (75 nM) in soft water as present in many freshwater habitats. In the investigated lake, however, high water hardness limited the toxicity of these metal concentrations, thus the inhibition of macrophytic growth in the lake must have additional reasons. The results showed that synergistic heavy metal toxicity may change ecosystems in many more cases than estimated so far.

  13. Effects of Cd and Ni toxicity to Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions in soft and hard water including a German lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Elisa; Opitz, Judith; Thomas, George; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Dienemann, Holger; Jenemann, Kerstin; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Küpper, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Hardly any macrophytic growth occurred in an oligotrophic hard water lake in Germany. •All parameters were optimal, besides elevated, nanomolar concentrations of Ni and Cd. •We cultivated submerged macrophytes in real and simulated hard and soft lake water. •Nanomolar Cd and Ni inhibited the plants’ photosynthetic light reactions in soft water. •The inhibition was synergistic, i.e. stronger than the addition of Cd and Ni effects. -- Abstract: Even essential trace elements are phytotoxic over a certain threshold. In this study, we investigated whether heavy metal concentrations were responsible for the nearly complete lack of submerged macrophytes in an oligotrophic lake in Germany. We cultivated the rootless aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions like sinusoidal light and temperature cycles and a low plant biomass to water volume ratio. Experiments lasted for six weeks and were analysed by detailed measurements of photosynthetic biophysics, pigment content and hydrogen peroxide production. We established that individually non-toxic cadmium (3 nM) and slightly toxic nickel (300 nM) concentrations became highly toxic when applied together in soft water, severely inhibiting photosynthetic light reactions. Toxicity was further enhanced by phosphate limitation (75 nM) in soft water as present in many freshwater habitats. In the investigated lake, however, high water hardness limited the toxicity of these metal concentrations, thus the inhibition of macrophytic growth in the lake must have additional reasons. The results showed that synergistic heavy metal toxicity may change ecosystems in many more cases than estimated so far

  14. Health-related quality of life and working conditions among nursing providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amanda Aparecida; Souza, José Maria Pacheco de; Borges, Flávio Notarnicola da Silva; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate working conditions associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL) among nursing providers. Cross-sectional study conducted in a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, during 2004-2005. The study sample comprised 696 registered nurses, nurse technicians and nurse assistants, predominantly females (87.8%), who worked day and/or night shifts. Data on sociodemographic information, working and living conditions, lifestyles, and health symptoms were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The following questionnaires were also used: Job Stress Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Ordinal logistic regression analysis using proportional odds model was performed to evaluate each dimension of the SF-36. Around 22% of the sample was found to be have high strain and 8% showed an effort-reward imbalance at work. The dimensions with the lowest mean scores in the SF-36 were vitality, bodily pain and mental health. High-strain job, effort-reward imbalance (ERI>1.01), and being a registered nurse were independently associated with low scores on the role emotional dimension. Those dimensions associated to mental health were the ones most affected by psychosocial factors at work. Effort-reward imbalance was more associated with health than high-strain (high demand and low control). The study results suggest that the joint analysis of psychosocial factors at work such as effort-reward imbalance and demand-control can provide more insight to the discussion of professional roles, working conditions and HRQL of nursing providers.

  15. Regional differences in infection control conditions in a sample of primary health care services in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de Abreu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available International guidelines have pointed out the importance of the physical environment of health care facilities in preventing and controlling infection. We aimed to describe the physical environment of dental care facilities in Brazil in 2014, focusing on characteristics designed to control infections. Exactly 16,202 dental offices in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS participated in this survey. Trained researchers extracted information about the infection control characteristics of health facilities by using a structured instrument. We used data from 12 dichotomous questions that evaluated the wall, floor, sink and tap conditions, and the presence and condition of sterilization equipment. We calculated a score by summing the number of characteristics handled appropriately for infection control, which could range from 0 to 12. Hierarchical cluster analyses were developed. None of the 12 criteria were met by all the oral health teams. Only 208 (1.3% dental offices correctly performed all 12-infection control practices. Two clusters, with different frequencies of structure for infection control in dental offices, were identified. South and Southeast regions had the highest frequencies for Cluster 1, with better structure of infection control in dental offices. Dental care facilities of oral health teams were not typically meeting the infection control guidelines regarding clinic design and equipment. Adherence to the guidelines varied among the Brazilian geographic regions.

  16. Health warnings on tobacco packaging in Italy: do they describe all possible smoking-related conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Colamesta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This report aims to evaluate the adherence between the health warnings on tobacco products in Italy and the smoking-related conditions known in the scientific literature. The Legislative Decree 2003 and 2012 established the general and the additional warnings on tobacco packaging. Regarding the smoking-related conditions, the health damages presented in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC report are reported. Also a narrative review was performed. Respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood neurobehavioral disorders are well reported in the textual health warning. Also there is at least one message indicating that the exposure of secondhand smoke is harmful. Conversely, several smoking-related cancers and other adverse health effects (diabetes, hip fractures, low bone density in postmenopausal women, rheumatoid arthritis, mental decline, acne and allergy, etc are not considered. The health warnings represent an important mean for communicating that may change smokers’ attitudes and behaviours, therefore, it’s important to implement them, also considering the introduction of graphical warnings, to maintain their effectiveness over time.

  17. Income-related inequalities in diseases and health conditions over the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Jóhannsdóttir, Hildur Margrét

    2017-12-01

    How business cycles affect income-related distribution of diseases and health disorders is largely unknown. We examine how the prevalence of thirty diseases and health conditions is distributed across the income spectrum using survey data collected in Iceland in 2007, 2009 and 2012. Thus, we are able to take advantage of the unusually sharp changes in economic conditions in Iceland during the Great Recession initiated in 2008 and the partial recovery that had already taken place by 2012 to analyze how income-related health inequality changed across time periods that can be described as a boom, crisis and recovery. The concentration curve and the concentration index are calculated for each disease, both overall and by gender. In all cases, we find a considerable income-related health inequality favoring higher income individuals, with a slight increase over the study period. Between 2007 and 2009, our results indicate increased inequality for women but decreased inequality for men. Between 2009 and 2012 on the contrary, men's inequality increases but women's decreases. The overarching result is thus that the economic hardship of the crisis temporarily increased female income-related health inequality, but decreased that of men.

  18. Technical issues and conservation conditions of medicines in the primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ediná Alves; Araújo, Patrícia Sodré; Pereira, Marcelo Tavares; Souto, Ana Cristina; Souza, Gisélia Santana; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Alvares, Juliana; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Leite, Silvana Nair

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize the technical issues and conditions of medicines conservation in Primary Health Care of Brazilian regions, responsible for pharmacy/dispensing unit profile; environmental, storage, and dose fractioning conditions; inventory control and waste management; fire and electrical failure safety items; transportation problems; advertising regulation; and pharmacovigilance. METHODS This article is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos – Serviços (National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines – Services)–, a cross-sectional and exploratory study, of evaluative nature, consisting of an information survey within a representative sample of municipalities, stratified by Brazilian regions, which constitute the study domains, and a sample of Primary Health Care services. Pharmaceutical services (PS) were directly observed with photographic record and face-to-face interviews with those responsible for the dispensing of medicines and over the telephone with those responsible for pharmaceutical services. Data were processed with the SPSS® software version 21. RESULTS The investigated dimensions showed relevant deficiencies and inequalities between the regions, generally more favorable in the Southeast and Midwest regions and weaker in the Northeast and North regions. We verified non-compliance with technical requirements and conditions essential to the conservation of medicines, which may interfere with the maintenance of stability and, thus, on their quality, efficacy, and safety. The regulation of advertising/promotion of medicines is still incipient and there is some progress in the structuring of mechanisms regarding pharmacovigilance. CONCLUSIONS The sanitary situation of medicines in Brazilian Primary Health Care is alarming due to the violation of the specific sanitary legislation for dispensing establishments and due to a wide range of

  19. Burnout: Interpreting the perception of Iranian primary rural health care providers from working and organizational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahrokh Keshvari

    2012-01-01

    Results: During the content analysis process, six themes were obtained; "instability and frequent changes", "involved in laws and regulations", "pressure and stress due to unbalanced workload and manpower", "helplessness in performing the tasks and duties", "sense of identity threat and low self-concept", and "deprivation of professional development". The mentioned themes indicate a main and more important theme called "burnout". Conclusions: Health services providers in the rural health centers are working in stressful and challenging work conditions and are suffered from deprivation of something for which are responsible to the community.

  20. The social gradient in work and health: a cross-sectional study exploring the relationship between working conditions and health inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Social inequalities in health are widely examined. But the reasons behind this phenomenon still remain unclear in parts. It is undisputed that the work environment plays a crucial role in this regard. However, the contribution of psychosocial factors at work is unclear and inconsistent, and most studies are limited with regard to work factors and health outcomes. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the role and contribution of various physical and psychosocial working conditions to explaining social inequalities in different self-reported health outcomes. Methods Data from a postal survey among the workforces of four medium-sized and large companies from diverse industries of the secondary sector in Switzerland were used and analysed. The study sample covered 1,846 employees aged 20 and 64 and included significant proportions of unskilled manual workers and highly qualified non-manual workers. Cross tabulations and logistic regression analyses were performed to study multiple associations between social status, work factors and health outcomes. Combinations of educational level and occupational position wee used as a measure of social status or class. Results Clear social gradients were observed for almost all adverse working conditions and poor health outcomes studied, but in different directions. While physical workloads and other typical blue-collar job characteristics not suprisingly, were found to be much more common among the lower classes, most psychosocial work demands and job resources were more prevalent in the higher classes. Furthermore, workers in lower classes, i.e. with lower educational and occupational status, were more likely to report poor self-rated health, limited physical functioning and long sickness absence, but at the same time were less likely to experience increased stress feelings and burnout symptoms showing a reversed health gradient. Finally, blue-collar job characteristics contributed substantially to the social

  1. A Transdiagnostic Minority Stress Treatment Approach for Gay and Bisexual Men’s Syndemic Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachankis, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Developing and deploying separate treatments for separate conditions seems ill-suited to intervening upon the co-occurring, and possibly functionally similar, psychosocial conditions facing gay and bisexual men. This article argues for the need to create transdiagnostic interventions that reduce multiple syndemic conditions facing gay and bisexual men at the level of their shared source in minority stress pathways. This article first reviews psychosocial syndemic conditions affecting gay and bisexual men, then suggests pathways that might link minority stress to psychosocial syndemics based on recent advancements in emotion science, psychiatric nosology, and cognitive-affective neuroscience, and finally suggests cross-cutting psychosocial treatment principles to reduce minority stress–syndemic pathways among gay and bisexual men. Because minority stress serves as a common basis of all psychosocial syndemic conditions reviewed here, locating the pathways through which minority stress generates psychosocial syndemics and employing overarching treatment principles capable of simultaneously alleviating these pathways will ultimately create a transdiagnostic approach to improving gay and bisexual men’s health. Clinical research and training approaches are suggested to further validate the pathways suggested here, establish the efficacy of treatment approaches tied to those pathways, and generate effective methods for disseminating a transdiagnostic minority stress treatment approach for gay and bisexual men’s psychosocial syndemic health. PMID:26123065

  2. Leisure as a resource for successful aging by older adults with chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Susan L; Nimrod, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the model of Selective Optimization with Compensation (SOC) (Baltes & Baltes, 1990), the purpose of this article is to examine leisure-related goals of older adults with chronic conditions and the strategies they use to not only successfully manage their chronic health conditions but live well with them. Semi-structured in-person interviews were conducted with 18 community-dwelling older adults (nine males, nine females, ages 58-87 years) with a variety of chronic conditions. Inductive and deductive within and cross-case thematic analyses resulted in descriptions of changes and continuity in participants' leisure participation following the onset of their chronic condition and construction of four themes: drawing on existing resources for continued involvement, setting leisure-based goals, using strategies to get more out of life, and more than managing: living a life of meaning. Implications for promoting successful aging are discussed, specifically the benefits of incorporating information and skill-building to help older adults recognize that leisure can be a resource for healthy aging and self-managing their chronic health condition.

  3. Benchmarking working conditions for health and safety in the frontline healthcare industry: Perspectives from Australia and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinton, Sarven S; Loh, May Young; Dollard, Maureen F; Tuckey, Michelle M R; Idris, Mohd Awang; Morton, Sharon

    2018-04-06

    To present benchmarks for working conditions in healthcare industries as an initial effort into international surveillance. The healthcare industry is fundamental to sustaining the health of Australians, yet it is under immense pressure. Budgets are limited, demands are increasing as are workplace injuries and all of these factors compromise patient care. Urgent attention is needed to reduce strains on workers and costs in health care, however, little work has been done to benchmark psychosocial factors in healthcare working conditions in the Asia-Pacific. Intercultural comparisons are important to provide an evidence base for public policy. A cross-sectional design was used (like other studies of prevalence), including a mixed-methods approach with qualitative interviews to better contextualize the results. Data on psychosocial factors and other work variables were collected from healthcare workers in three hospitals in Australia (N = 1,258) and Malaysia (N = 1,125). 2015 benchmarks were calculated for each variable and comparison was conducted via independent samples t tests. Healthcare samples were also compared with benchmarks for non-healthcare general working populations from their respective countries: Australia (N = 973) and Malaysia (N = 225). Our study benchmarks healthcare working conditions in Australia and Malaysia against the general working population, identifying trends that indicate the industry is in need of intervention strategies and job redesign initiatives that better support psychological health and safety. We move toward a better understanding of the precursors of psychosocial safety climate in a broader context, including similarities and differences between Australia and Malaysia in national culture, government occupational health and safety policies and top-level management practices. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Assessment of the use of xerogenic medications for chronic medical and dental conditions among adult day health participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Annie; Kiyak, Asuman; Gossett, Allison M; McCormick, Lawrence

    2009-10-01

    To describe the health conditions, dental problems, and use of xerogenic medications among dental patients in adult day health (ADH) centers. Cross-sectional descriptive study. ADH centers in King County, Washington. ADH clients who were patients of a mobile dental service. Pharmacist-conducted chart reviews and in-person medication reviews with patients. Demographic description, mean numbers of medical and dental problems, medications, xerogenic medications used per subject, and identification of xerogenic medications by therapeutic class. At five sites, 97 patients were interviewed (average age 73.8 +/- 11.8 years, 61% female); ethnicities included: Asian-American (37.1%), Caucasian (30.9%), Russian (29%), and African-American (3%). Mean numbers of chronic health problems, medications, and xerogenic medications per patient were 5.2 +/- 2.7, 10.9 +/- 4.4, and 3.3 +/- 1.8, respectively. Antidepressants were the most commonly used xerogenic medication, followed by antipsychotics, antiemetics, analgesics, and antihistamines. Among 74 patients who received dental treatment, 33 (44.6%) wore dentures. Among 58 patients with teeth, a mean number of 2.8 dental problems per patient was identified. Dental caries (51.7%) was the most prevalent problem, followed by periodontitis (29.3%), soft tissue lesions (10.3%), gingivitis (5.2%), and candidiasis (3.4%). Multiple systemic diseases, use of multiple xerogenic medications, and poor oral health were prevalent among the ADH clients in this study. However, self-reports of dry mouth were unrelated to number of xerogenic medications or oral conditions. Further research is needed to determine the association between self-reported dry mouth, chronic health conditions, use of xerogenic medications, tooth loss, and/or denture use.

  5. Supporting Accurate Interpretation of Self-Administered Medical Test Results for Mobile Health: Assessment of Design, Demographics, and Health Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Jess C; Baumer, Eric Ps; Reynolds, Lindsay; Murnane, Elizabeth L; O'Dell, Dakota; Lee, Seoho; Guha, Shion; Qi, Yu; Rieger, Erin; Gay, Geri

    2018-02-28

    Technological advances in personal informatics allow people to track their own health in a variety of ways, representing a dramatic change in individuals' control of their own wellness. However, research regarding patient interpretation of traditional medical tests highlights the risks in making complex medical data available to a general audience. This study aimed to explore how people interpret medical test results, examined in the context of a mobile blood testing system developed to enable self-care and health management. In a preliminary investigation and main study, we presented 27 and 303 adults, respectively, with hypothetical results from several blood tests via one of the several mobile interface designs: a number representing the raw measurement of the tested biomarker, natural language text indicating whether the biomarker's level was low or high, or a one-dimensional chart illustrating this level along a low-healthy axis. We measured respondents' correctness in evaluating these results and their confidence in their interpretations. Participants also told us about any follow-up actions they would take based on the result and how they envisioned, generally, using our proposed personal health system. We find that a majority of participants (242/328, 73.8%) were accurate in their interpretations of their diagnostic results. However, 135 of 328 participants (41.1%) expressed uncertainty and confusion about their ability to correctly interpret these results. We also find that demographics and interface design can impact interpretation accuracy, including false confidence, which we define as a respondent having above average confidence despite interpreting a result inaccurately. Specifically, participants who saw a natural language design were the least likely (421.47 times, P=.02) to exhibit false confidence, and women who saw a graph design were less likely (8.67 times, P=.04) to have false confidence. On the other hand, false confidence was more likely

  6. Obstetric Outcomes and Delivery-Related Health Care Utilization and Costs Among Pregnant Women With Multiple Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Tyler N. A.; Heisler, Michele; Dalton, Vanessa K.

    2018-01-01

    Our objective was to measure obstetric outcomes and delivery-related health care utilization and costs among pregnant women with multiple chronic conditions. We used 2013–2014 data from the National Inpatient Sample to measure obstetric outcomes and delivery-related health care utilization and costs among women with no chronic conditions, 1 chronic condition, and multiple chronic conditions. Women with multiple chronic conditions were at significantly higher risk than women with 1 chronic condition or no chronic conditions across all outcomes measured. High-value strategies are needed to improve birth outcomes among vulnerable mothers and their infants. PMID:29420168

  7. Association of Psychosocial Conditions, Oral Health, and Dietary Variety with Intellectual Activity in Older Community-Dwelling Japanese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the factors related to intellectual activity in community-dwelling elderly persons. Self-administered questionnaires mailed to all people aged ≥65 years in a dormitory suburb in Japan (n = 15,210). The response rate was 72.2%. Analytical subjects (n = 8,910) were those who lived independently and completely answered questions about independent and dependent variables and covariates. Independent variables included psychosocial conditions (i.e., social activities, hobbies, and a sense that life is worth living (ikigai)), oral health (i.e., dental health behaviors and oral function evaluated by chewing difficulties, swallowing difficulties, and oral dryness), and dietary variety measured using the dietary variety score (DVS). A dependent variable was intellectual activity measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Covariates included age, gender, family structure, pensions, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, medical history, self-rated health, medications, cognitive function, depression, and falling. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for poor intellectual activity. Poor intellectual activity was reported by 28.9% of the study population. After adjustment for covariates and independent variables, poor intellectual activity was significantly associated with nonparticipation in social activities (OR = 1.90, 95%CI = 1.61-2.24), having neither hobbies nor ikigai (3.13, 2.55-3.84), having neither regular dental visits nor daily brushing (1.70, 1.35-2.14), the poorest oral function (1.61, 1.31-1.98), and the lowest DVS quartile (1.96, 1.70-2.26). These results indicate that psychosocial conditions, oral health, and dietary variety are independently associated with intellectual activity in elderly persons. The factors identified in this study may be used in community health programs for maintaining the intellectual activity ability of the elderly.

  8. Association of Psychosocial Conditions, Oral Health, and Dietary Variety with Intellectual Activity in Older Community-Dwelling Japanese Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiko Tomioka

    Full Text Available This study examined the factors related to intellectual activity in community-dwelling elderly persons.Self-administered questionnaires mailed to all people aged ≥65 years in a dormitory suburb in Japan (n = 15,210. The response rate was 72.2%. Analytical subjects (n = 8,910 were those who lived independently and completely answered questions about independent and dependent variables and covariates. Independent variables included psychosocial conditions (i.e., social activities, hobbies, and a sense that life is worth living (ikigai, oral health (i.e., dental health behaviors and oral function evaluated by chewing difficulties, swallowing difficulties, and oral dryness, and dietary variety measured using the dietary variety score (DVS. A dependent variable was intellectual activity measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Covariates included age, gender, family structure, pensions, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, medical history, self-rated health, medications, cognitive function, depression, and falling. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR for poor intellectual activity.Poor intellectual activity was reported by 28.9% of the study population. After adjustment for covariates and independent variables, poor intellectual activity was significantly associated with nonparticipation in social activities (OR = 1.90, 95%CI = 1.61-2.24, having neither hobbies nor ikigai (3.13, 2.55-3.84, having neither regular dental visits nor daily brushing (1.70, 1.35-2.14, the poorest oral function (1.61, 1.31-1.98, and the lowest DVS quartile (1.96, 1.70-2.26.These results indicate that psychosocial conditions, oral health, and dietary variety are independently associated with intellectual activity in elderly persons. The factors identified in this study may be used in community health programs for maintaining the intellectual activity ability of the elderly.

  9. Association of Psychosocial Conditions, Oral Health, and Dietary Variety with Intellectual Activity in Older Community-Dwelling Japanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the factors related to intellectual activity in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods Self-administered questionnaires mailed to all people aged ≥65 years in a dormitory suburb in Japan (n = 15,210). The response rate was 72.2%. Analytical subjects (n = 8,910) were those who lived independently and completely answered questions about independent and dependent variables and covariates. Independent variables included psychosocial conditions (i.e., social activities, hobbies, and a sense that life is worth living (ikigai)), oral health (i.e., dental health behaviors and oral function evaluated by chewing difficulties, swallowing difficulties, and oral dryness), and dietary variety measured using the dietary variety score (DVS). A dependent variable was intellectual activity measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Covariates included age, gender, family structure, pensions, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, medical history, self-rated health, medications, cognitive function, depression, and falling. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for poor intellectual activity. Results Poor intellectual activity was reported by 28.9% of the study population. After adjustment for covariates and independent variables, poor intellectual activity was significantly associated with nonparticipation in social activities (OR = 1.90, 95%CI = 1.61–2.24), having neither hobbies nor ikigai (3.13, 2.55–3.84), having neither regular dental visits nor daily brushing (1.70, 1.35–2.14), the poorest oral function (1.61, 1.31–1.98), and the lowest DVS quartile (1.96, 1.70–2.26). Conclusion These results indicate that psychosocial conditions, oral health, and dietary variety are independently associated with intellectual activity in elderly persons. The factors identified in this study may be used in community health programs for maintaining the intellectual activity ability of the

  10. Crisis, Living Conditions and Health in Mexico: New Challenges for Social Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva López Arellano

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years, Mexico has faced major crises in its political, economic, and social life. These crises have affected living conditions and health. With the implementation in the 1980's of structural adjustment and economic stabilization policies, Mexico saw a rapid growth of poverty accelerating trends toward social polarization and social division. The current crisis, fueled by deregulation of the global financial markets, only deepens the tendency towards economic stagnation. It has led to an increase in unemployment, worsening income inequalities, and generalized inflation. The increase in food prices, in particular, has made life more difficult for the Mexican population. The crisis has had a palpable and concrete impact on living conditions, health status, and food security for diverse social groups.

  11. Relationships among employees' working conditions, mental health, and intention to leave in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; Gore, Rebecca

    2014-02-01

    Employee turnover is a large and expensive problem in the long-term care environment. Stated intention to leave is a reliable indicator of likely turnover, but actual predictors, especially for nursing assistants, have been incompletely investigated. This quantitative study identifies the relationships among employees' working conditions, mental health, and intention to leave. Self-administered questionnaires were collected with 1,589 employees in 18 for-profit nursing homes. A working condition index for the number of beneficial job features was constructed. Poisson regression modeling found that employees who reported four positive features were 77% less likely to state strong intention to leave (PR = 0.23, p employee mental health. Effective workplace intervention programs must address work organization features to reduce employee intention to leave. Healthy workplaces should build better interpersonal relationships, show respect for employee work, and involve employees in decision-making processes.

  12. Demand-specific work ability, poor health and working conditions in middle-aged full-time employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Thielen, Karsten; Nygaard, Else

    2014-01-01

    -sectional questionnaire data from 3381 full-time employees responding to questions about vocational education, job demands and social support (working conditions), musculoskeletal pain (MSP) and major depression (MD) (poor health) and seven questions about difficulty managing different job demands (reduced demand......We investigated the prevalence of reduced demand-specific work ability, its association with age, gender, education, poor health, and working conditions, and the interaction between poor health and working conditions regarding reduced demand-specific work ability. We used cross...... was associated with six measures of reduced demand-specific work ability. We found no interaction between working conditions and poor health regarding reduced demand-specific work ability....

  13. Clinical studies on health conditions of medical diagnostic X-ray workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liqun

    1984-01-01

    The results of investigations on general health conditions of 2484 medical X-ray workers and 1718 controls were reported. It was shown that the incidences of neurasthenic syndrome, loss of appetite, baldness etc. in X-ray workers were statistically higher than those in controls. Chronic rhinitis, pharyngitis, and paranasal sinusitis also occurred more frequently in the former group. The blood pressure, pulse rate, capillary resistance and past medical history showed no significant difference between these two groups. (Author)

  14. Haulage Methods in Different Areas of Nepal and the Health Condition of the Porters in Kathmandu

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneda, Eiko; Yamauchi, Masaki; Ohwatari, Nobu; Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kosaka, Mitsuo

    1999-01-01

    The complicated geographical features of Nepal make transport of goods difficult. People have to depend on human power even today, especially porters who use a number of different transport styles. The objectives of this study were to document (1) the characteristics of haulage methods in relation to the geographical conditions, and (2) the diurnal activities and health of porters in Kathmandu. The observed methods used by the porters in Nepal to carry loads were divided into four main classe...

  15. Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla M; Kritz, Eivor I K; Bogren, I Kristina

    2002-06-01

    Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females The aims of this study were to examine self-reported sleep quality, perceived strain and health in relation to working conditions; the prevalence and severity of sleep disturbances and daytime distress arising from poor sleep in women on different work shifts. Furthermore, to see whether females with gastrointestinal symptoms, joint-, back- or muscle-pain and who are dissatisfied with working hours differ with regard to the above aspects. Finally, degree of strain-related symptoms and sleep difficulties were tested as predictors of sleep quality and general health outcome. Important research questions are whether registered nurses and those on rotating work shifts have greater sleep problems than others. A total of 156 females, aged 20-59 years, working at three different casualty departments, answered structured questionnaires. The results showed a persistently high rate of psycho-physiological long-term effects of stress related to working conditions. Thirty-four per cent were dissatisfied with their working hours, and exhibited significantly more mental strain, fatigue/excessive tiredness and inability to relax after work because of involuntary thoughts, in relation to working conditions than others did. Sixty-two females (39.7%) complained of insufficient sleep. The sleep quality outcome was significantly predicted by difficulty falling asleep (odds ratio 8.4), difficulty in falling asleep after nocturnal awakening (odds ratio 3.4) and perceived exhaustion (odds ratio 2.6). Females suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms and joint-, back- and muscle symptoms for several days in a week or even everyday were especially sensitive to worse sleep quality. Independent of work shifts, registered nurses exhibited a higher degree of mental strain and prolonged recovery in comparison with others. In conclusions, sleep initiation difficulties, troubled sleep and

  16. Clinical studies on health conditions of medical diagnostic X-ray workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liqun, Liu

    1984-10-01

    The results of investigations on general health conditions of 2484 medical X-ray workers and 1718 controls were reported. It was shown that the incidences of neurasthenic syndrome, loss of appetite, baldness etc. in X-ray workers were statistically higher than those in controls. Chronic rhinitis, pharyngitis, and paranasal sinusitis also occurred more frequently in the former group. The blood pressure, pulse rate, capillary resistance and past medical history showed no significant difference between these two groups. (Author).

  17. Sustainability in Health Condition of the People Living in Rural Province of Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kon, Sayuri; Kubo, Harutaka

    2010-01-01

    In Zambia, located in southern part of Africa, drought is frequently happened in dry season but recently heavy rainfall seriously damages crops in rainy season. Life of the people depending on farming are liable to be greatly affected by environmental change, which decrease provision of food, furthermore it affects their nutritional and health conditions. We have conducted longitudinal body measurements for the people living in rural villages to reveal the variation of nutritional status whic...

  18. Global precarious employment and health inequalities: working conditions, social class, or precariat?

    OpenAIRE

    Muntaner,Carles

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Changes in employment conditions since the 1980s have been referred to as precarious employment, and terms like flexible, atypical, temporary, part-time, contract, self-employed, irregular, or non-standard employment have also been used. In this essay I review some of the current critiques to the precarious employment construct and advance some potential solutions for its use in epidemiology and public health.

  19. HEALTH CONDITIONS AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SATISFACTION WITH LIFE IN PHYSICAL THERAPY OF ACADEMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cerqueira Reis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Describe health conditions and self-reported factors associated with life satisfaction of Physiotherapy course students. cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study, the type census, where 167 students were enrolled. The data collection instrument used was Isaq-A and had the outcome variable "satisfaction with life". The independent variables correspond sociodemographic and self-reported health status characteristics. Of the 167 students interviewed, 128 (76.65% autorrelataram have a good general state of health, 123 (73.65% a lot of stress, 146 (87.43% good sleep quality and 94 (56.30% they were satisfied with life. In the inferential analysis, a statistically significant association between life satisfaction and the variables gender (PR = 1.20; CI = 1.009 to 1.445, work (PR = 0.20; CI = 0.044 to 0.978, state of self-report health (OR = 1.21, CI = 1.011 to 1.466 and sleep quality (PR = 1.17; CI = 1.031 to 1.337. The highest proportion of students autorrelataram present a good general state of health, too much stress, good sleep quality and life satisfaction. Sex, work, health and quality of sleep are associated with life satisfaction.

  20. Motives and perceptions regarding electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use among adults with mental health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Claire Adams; Jones, Dina M; Weaver, Scott R; Pechacek, Terry F; Eriksen, Michael P

    2018-05-01

    Smoking rates are disproportionately high among adults with mental health conditions (MHC), and recent research suggests that among former smokers, those with MHC are more likely to use electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). This study investigated reasons for ENDS use and related risk perceptions among individuals with versus without MHC. Among adult current ENDS users (n=550), associations between self-reported MHC diagnoses and motives for ENDS use and ENDS risk perceptions were examined, stratified by smoking status. There were no significant associations between MHC status and ENDS motives or perceptions in the overall sample. However, current smokers with MHC indicated thinking more about how ENDS might improve their health, and former smokers with MHC reported thinking less about how ENDS might harm their health, compared to their counterparts without MHC. Former smokers with MHC rated several reasons for ENDS use (e.g., less harmful than regular cigarettes; to quit smoking; appealing flavors) as more important than did those without MHC. Current and former smokers with MHC may be especially optimistic about health benefits of ENDS. However, they might also be prone to health risks of continued ENDS use or concurrent use with traditional cigarettes. It will be important for public health messaging to provide this population with accurate information about benefits and risks of ENDS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Bodies Politic: Chronic Health Conditions and Voter Turnout in the 2008 Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Rahn, Wendy M

    2015-12-01

    Health policy researchers often evaluate the social and economic consequences of chronic illness, but rarely have they considered the implications of chronic illness on one important form of political participation: voting. However, if chronic illnesses--already unequally distributed in society--are associated with differential rates of voter turnout, then these inequalities in democratic representation could, in turn, produce further health inequity. In this study, we use data from eight states from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey to examine the associations between having diagnoses of five chronic conditions and turnout in the 2008 US presidential election. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and some health-related confounding factors, we find that individuals with cancer diagnoses are more likely to vote, while those with heart disease diagnoses are less likely to vote. These associations differ by race and educational status; notably, African Americans and those with lower education with cancer are even more likely to turn out to vote than whites and those with more education with cancer. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of health social movements and the role of health organizations in shaping political processes, important directions for the study of health politics. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  2. Using patient reported outcome measures in health services: A qualitative study on including people with low literacy skills and learning disabilities

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    Jahagirdar Deepa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs are self-report measures of health status increasingly promoted for use in healthcare quality improvement. However people with low literacy skills or learning disabilities may find PROMs hard to complete. Our study investigated stakeholder views on the accessibility and use of PROMs to develop suggestions for more inclusive practice. Methods Taking PROMs recommended for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as an example, we conducted 8 interviews with people with low literacy skills and/or learning disabilities, and 4 focus groups with 20 health professionals and people with COPD. Discussions covered the format and delivery of PROMs using the EQ-5D and St George Respiratory Questionnaire as prompts. Thematic framework analysis focused on three main themes: Accessibility, Ease of Use, and Contextual factors. Results Accessibility included issues concerning the questionnaire format, and suggestions for improvement included larger fon