WorldWideScience

Sample records for include environmental modification

  1. Modification of ASTM Standard E1681 on Environmental Cracking to Include Bolt-Load Specimen Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Underwood, Jean D. M

    1997-01-01

    Benet Laboratories experience with environmental cracking of cannon components has been combined with the technical expertise of various participants at ASTM technical meetings and symposia to develop...

  2. Should Trade Agreements Include Environmental Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which environmental and trade policies should be treated equally, or symmetrically, in international negotiations. It reviews the recent economics literature on trade and the environment to address two questions. First, should trade negotiations include negotiations over environmental policies and the setting of binding environmental standards? Second, if there are grounds for international environmental negotiations, should environmental agreements b...

  3. Environmental modifications for improved grassland production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most important environmental limitations to grassland production are set by the moisture regime, the physiography, soil conditions, temperature, vegetation present, entomological and microbiological factors of the environment. The significant features of these factors are discussed. Modification which can be applied to ...

  4. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  5. Including environmental concerns in energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, Michel

    2014-05-01

    In this article, the author comments the different impacts on the environment and risks related to energy, provided that all energies have an impact on the environment (renewable energies are generally cleaner than fossil energies) and these impacts can be on human health, ecosystems, buildings, crops, landscapes, and climate change. He comments the efforts made in the search for a higher energetic efficiency, and proposes an overview of the various available tools implemented by environmental policies in the energy sector: regulatory instruments, economic instruments, negotiated agreements, and informational instruments. He comments the implementation of an energetic taxing aimed at developing a greater respect of the environment

  6. Effects of environmental stressors on histone modifications and their relevance to carcinogenesis: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, S.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Godderis, L.

    2012-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is a complex process involving both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The cellular molecular epigenetic machinery, including histone modifications, is associated with changes in gene expression induced by exposure to environmental agents. In this paper, we systematically reviewed

  7. Final Environmental Assessment for Minuteman III Modification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huynh, Thomas; Kriz, Joseph; Lindman, Terry; Ramanujam, Ram

    2004-01-01

    .... The locations covered in this EA include: FE Warren Air Force Base (AFB), WY; Hill AFB, UT; Malmstrom AFB, MT; Minot AFB, ND; Vandenberg AFB, CA; and US Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands.

  8. Application of radiation chemistry in materials modification and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    thermoshrinkable tubes and types possessing '' memory effect ''. Through radiation, grafting metal adsorbents and ion exchange membranes can be developed. Radiation is early applied tool in the area of nanomaterials engineering; arrangement of atoms and ions has been performed using ion or electron beams for many years. New trends concern surface curing and development of ion track membranes and controlled release drug-delivery systems. Finally, radiation processing concerns gem stones colorization, development of high temperature resistant fibers (SiC) and semiconductor modification. Over the past few years, radiation processing technologies aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment have been developed. It has been demonstrated that radiation processing based technologies for flue gas treatment (SO X and NO X removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Electron beam technology is among the most promising advanced technologies of new generation. This is a dry-scrubbing process of simultaneous SO 2 and NO x removal, where no waste except the fertilizer by-product are generated.The other possibility is application of the process for VOC removal. Tests at the pilot plant constructed at a coal-fired power station were performed with the purpose of estimating the influence of electron beam on VOCs present in flue gas, during SO 2 and NO x removal. The removal efficiencies have been ranged from 40% up to 98%. The chlorocarbons including dioxins may be removed with high efficiency as well [57, 58]. During the radiolysis of water reactive radicals of strong oxidizing or reducing properties are formed that can transform the pollutants in the liquids wastes. A large number of substances such as hard surfactants, lignin, pesticides cannot be degraded by conventional biochemical methods and thus escape from decomposition in biological treatment. Research and

  9. Environmental site assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most site assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more lenders and state governments likely to follow this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and site assessment to protect the parties involved from any legal liabilities

  10. Radiation and nuclear safety included in the environmental health programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.

    1996-01-01

    Finland is currently preparing a national environmental health programme, the objective of which is to chart the main environmental health problems in Finland, to identify means for securing a healthy environment, and to draw up a practical action programme for preventing and rectifying problems pertaining to environmental health. Radiation and nuclear safety form an essential part of preventive health care. The action programme is based on decisions and programmes approved at the WHO Conference on the Environment and Health, held in Helsinki in June 1994. In addition to the state of the Finnish environment and the health of the Finnish population, the programme addresses the relevant international issues, in particular in areas adjacent to Finland. The Committee on Environmental Health is expected to complete its work by the end of the year. A wide range of representatives from various branches of administration have contributed to the preparation of the programme. Besides physical, biological and chemical factors, the environmental factors affecting health also include the physical environment and the psychological, social and aesthetic features of the environment. Similarly, environmental factors that have an impact on the health of present or future generations, on the essential preconditions of life and on the quality of life are investigated. The serious risk to nature caused by human actions is also considered as a potential risk to human health. (orig.)

  11. Transient Response Dynamic Module Modifications to Include Static and Kinetic Friction Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misel, J. E.; Nenno, S. B.; Takahashi, D.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology that supports forced transient response dynamic solutions when both static and kinetic friction effects are included in a structural system model is described. Modifications that support this type of nonlinear transient response solution are summarized for the transient response dynamics (TRD) NASTRAN module. An overview of specific modifications for the NASTRAN processing subroutines, INITL, TRD1C, and TRD1D, are described with further details regarding inspection of nonlinear input definitions to define the type of nonlinear solution required, along with additional initialization requirements and specific calculation subroutines to successfully solve the transient response problem. The extension of the basic NASTRAN nonlinear methodology is presented through several stages of development to the point where constraint equations and residual flexibility effects are introduced into the finite difference Newmark-Beta recurrsion formulas. Particular emphasis is placed on cost effective solutions for large finite element models such as the Space Shuttle with friction degrees of freedom between the orbiter and payloads mounted in the cargo bay. An alteration to the dynamic finite difference equations of motion is discussed, which allows one to include friction effects at reasonable cost for large structural systems such as the Space Shuttle. Data are presented to indicate the possible impact of transient friction loads to the payload designer for the Space Shuttle. Transient response solution data are also included, which compare solutions without friction forces and those with friction forces for payloads mounted in the Space Shuttle cargo bay. These data indicate that payload components can be sensitive to friction induced loads.

  12. Modification of TOUGH2 to Include the Dusty Gas Model for Gas Diffusion; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, STEPHEN W.

    2001-01-01

    The GEO-SEQ Project is investigating methods for geological sequestration of CO(sub 2). This project, which is directed by LBNL and includes a number of other industrial, university, and national laboratory partners, is evaluating computer simulation methods including TOUGH2 for this problem. The TOUGH2 code, which is a widely used code for flow and transport in porous and fractured media, includes simplified methods for gas diffusion based on a direct application of Fick's law. As shown by Webb (1998) and others, the Dusty Gas Model (DGM) is better than Fick's Law for modeling gas-phase diffusion in porous media. In order to improve gas-phase diffusion modeling for the GEO-SEQ Project, the EOS7R module in the TOUGH2 code has been modified to include the Dusty Gas Model as documented in this report. In addition, the liquid diffusion model has been changed from a mass-based formulation to a mole-based model. Modifications for separate and coupled diffusion in the gas and liquid phases have also been completed. The results from the DGM are compared to the Fick's law behavior for TCE and PCE diffusion across a capillary fringe. The differences are small due to the relatively high permeability (k= 10(sup -11) m(sup 2)) of the problem and the small mole fraction of the gases. Additional comparisons for lower permeabilities and higher mole fractions may be useful

  13. Establishment of first engineering specifications for environmental modification to eliminate schistosomiasis epidemic foci in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shibo; Tan, Xiaodong; Deng, Zhiqing; Xie, Yaofei; Yang, Fen; Zheng, Zengwang

    2017-08-01

    Snail control is a key link in schistosomiasis control, but no unified methods for eliminating snails have been produced to date. This study was conducted to explore an engineering method for eliminating Oncomelania hupensis applicable to urban areas. The engineering specifications were established using the Delphi method. An engineering project based on these specifications was conducted in Hankou marshland to eliminate snails, including the transformation of the beach surface and ditches. Molluscicide was used as a supplement. The snail control effect was evaluated by field investigation. The engineering results fulfilled the requirements of the design. The snail density decreased to 0/0.11m 2 , and the snail area dropped to 0m 2 after the project. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of frames with snails before and after the project (Pengineering specifications for environmental modification were successfully established. Environmental modification, mainly through beach and ditch remediation, can completely change the environment of Oncomelania breeding. This method of environmental modification combined with mollusciciding was highly effective at eliminating snails. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Local Staff (LS) - Proposal by the Management, Including related Modifications to the Staff Rules And Regulations

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The issue of Local Staff (LS) has been discussed since May 2002 at successive meetings of TREF and the Committees, leading to a proposal document by the Management, which was examined at TREF last November. As reported by the Chairman of TREF to the Finance Committee in December, the Management has now revised its proposal in the light of discussions at the Forum. This document summarises the background, the main aims, scope and features of LS, as well as estimated consequences of implementing the Management's proposal, including those indicated in the Human Resources Plan submitted last December. Related modifications of the Staff Rules and Regulations required to implement the Management's proposal are set out in Annex 8. After discussion at TREF in February 2003, the Management hereby submits its proposal for approval by the Finance Committee and the Council, for entry into force as of 1 April 2003. This time-scale would permit gradual implementation of LS starting this year, which is consistent with the f...

  15. A vastly increased chemical variety of RNA modifications that includes a thioacetal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Magro, Christina; Keller, Patrick; Kotter, Annika; Werner, Stephan; Duarte, Victor; Marchand, Virginie; Ignarski, Michael; Freiwald, Anja; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Dieterich, Christoph; Motorin, Yuri; Butter, Falk; Atta, Mohammed; Helm, Mark

    2018-04-06

    Recently discovered new chemical entities in RNA modifications have provided surprises with respect to functional groups that enlarge the chemical space of RNA. Using LC-MS, we found over one hundred signals of RNA constituents that contained a ribose moiety in tRNAs from E. coli. Feeding experiments with variegated stable isotope labeled compounds identified 37 compounds, representing new structures of RNA modifications. One structure was elucidated by deuterium exchange and high resolution mass spectrometry. The structure of msms2i6A (2-methylthiomethylenethio-N6-isopentenyl-adenosine) was confirmed by methione-D3 feeding experiments and finally by synthesis of the nucleobase. The msms2i6A contains a thioacetal, which we demonstrated in vitro to be biosynthetically derived from ms2i6A by the action of the radical-SAM enzyme MiaB. This enzyme performs thiomethylation, forming ms2i6A from i6A in a first turnover. The newly discovered thioacetal is formed by a second turnover, now involving hydrogen abstraction from the previously introduced methyl group. Not only are thioacetals extremely rare in natural product chemistry, but also does this constitute a novel enzymatic mechanism for their formation. In conjunction with the pool of 36 new modification, this work describes a new layer of RNA modification chemistry. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Evolution of environmental impact assessment as applied to watershed modification projects in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirschl, Herman J.; Novakowski, Nicholas S.; Sadar, M. Husain

    1993-07-01

    This article reviews the application of environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedures and practices to three watershed modification projects situaled in western Canada. These ventures were justified for accelerating regional economic development, and cover the period during which public concerns for protecting the environment rapidly made their way into the national political agenda. An historical account and analysis of the situation, therefore, seems desirable in order to understand the development of EIA processes, practices, and methodologies since the start of construction of the first project in 1961. This study concludes that there has been good progress in predicting and evaluating environmental and related social impacts of watershed modification proposals. However, a number of obstacles need to be overcome before EIA can firmly establish itself as an effective planning tool. These difficulties include jurisdictional confusions and conflicts, division of authority and responsibility in designing and implementing appropriate mitigative and monitoring measures, lack of tested EIA methodologies, and limited availability of qualified human resources. A number of conclusions and suggestions are offered so that future watershed modification proposals may be planned and implemented in a more environmentally sustainable fashion. These include: (1) EIA processes must be completed before irrevocable decisions are made. (2) Any major intrusion into a watershed is likely to impact on some major components of the ecosystem(s). (3) Mitigation costs must form part of the benefit-cost analysis of any project proposal. (4) Interjurisdictional cooperation is imperative where watersheds cross political boundaries. (5) The EIA process is a public process, hence public concerns must be dealt with fairly. (6) The role of science in the EIA process must be at arms length from project proponents and regulators, and allowed to function in the interest of the protection of the

  17. The Role of Sulforaphane in Epigenetic Mechanisms, Including Interdependence between Histone Modification and DNA Methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman-Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Majewski, Grzegorz; Lubecka-Pietruszewska, Katarzyna; Fabianowska-Majewska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis as well as cancer progression result from genetic and epigenetic changes of the genome that leads to dysregulation of transcriptional activity of genes. Epigenetic mechanisms in cancer cells comprise (i) post-translation histone modification (i.e., deacetylation and methylation); (ii) DNA global hypomethylation; (iii) promoter hypermethylation of tumour suppressor genes and genes important for cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation and apoptosis; and (iv) posttranscription...

  18. Thematic report: Macroeconomic models including specifically social and environmental aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kratena, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    WWWforEurope Deliverable No. 8, 30 pages A significant reduction of the global environmental consequences of European consumption and production activities are the main objective of the policy simulations carried out in this paper. For this purpose three different modelling approaches have been chosen. Two macroeconomic models following the philosophy of consistent stock-flow accounting for the main institutional sectors (households, firms, banks, central bank and government) are used for...

  19. Evaluation of fatigue data including reactor water environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Nickell, R.E.; Van Der Sluys, W.A.; Yukawa, S.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory data have been gathered in the past decade indicating a significant reduction in component fatigue life when reactor water environmental effects are experimentally simulated. However, these laboratory data have not been supported by nuclear power plant component operating experience. The laboratory data under simulated operating conditions are being used to support arguments for revising the design-basis fatigue curves in the ASME Code Section III, Division 1, for Class 1 components. A thorough review of available laboratory fatigue data and their applicability to actual component operating conditions was performed. The evaluation divided the assembly, review and assessment of existing laboratory fatigue data and its applicability to plant operating conditions into four principal tasks: (1) review of available laboratory data relative to thresholds for environmental parameters, such as temperature, reactor water oxidation potential, strain rate, strain amplitude, reactor water flow rate, and component metal sulfur content; (2) determination of the relevance of the laboratory data to actual plant operating conditions; (3) review of laboratory S-N data curve-fitting models; and (4) assessment of existing ASME Code Section III Class 1 margins This paper summarizes the results of the data review. In addition, recommendations are made for additional laboratory testing intended to improve the applicability of laboratory test results under simulated reactor water environmental conditions. (authors)

  20. Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, M.; Avci, H.I.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF 6 that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE's current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997

  1. [Bioindication of environmental quality based on plant mutational and modification variability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedova, A O

    2009-01-01

    The level of mutations (aberrations of chromosomes, gene mutations) and modifications (bilateral asymmetry of the leaves) induced with NG (N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitro-zoguanidine) and granozane, as well as with environmental pollutants have been studied on Vicia faba, Triticum aestivum, Arabidopsis thaliana, Ligustrum japonicum, Olea europea. The tested xenobiotic increased the level of mutations and modifications. The bilateral asymmetry is suggested as a test for environmental quality assessment.

  2. The Role of Sulforaphane in Epigenetic Mechanisms, Including Interdependence between Histone Modification and DNA Methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kaufman-Szymczyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcinogenesis as well as cancer progression result from genetic and epigenetic changes of the genome that leads to dysregulation of transcriptional activity of genes. Epigenetic mechanisms in cancer cells comprise (i post-translation histone modification (i.e., deacetylation and methylation; (ii DNA global hypomethylation; (iii promoter hypermethylation of tumour suppressor genes and genes important for cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation and apoptosis; and (iv posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by noncoding microRNA. These epigenetic aberrations can be readily reversible and responsive to both synthetic agents and natural components of diet. A source of one of such diet components are cruciferous vegetables, which contain high levels of a number of glucosinolates and deliver, after enzymatic hydrolysis, sulforaphane and other bioactive isothiocyanates, that are involved in effective up-regulation of transcriptional activity of certain genes and also in restoration of active chromatin structure. Thus a consumption of cruciferous vegetables, treated as a source of isothiocyanates, seems to be potentially useful as an effective cancer preventive factor or as a source of nutrients improving efficacy of standard chemotherapies. In this review an attempt is made to elucidate the role of sulforaphane in regulation of gene promoter activity through a direct down-regulation of histone deacetylase activity and alteration of gene promoter methylation in indirect ways, but the sulforaphane influence on non-coding micro-RNA will not be a subject of this review.

  3. The Role of Sulforaphane in Epigenetic Mechanisms, Including Interdependence between Histone Modification and DNA Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman-Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Majewski, Grzegorz; Lubecka-Pietruszewska, Katarzyna; Fabianowska-Majewska, Krystyna

    2015-12-12

    Carcinogenesis as well as cancer progression result from genetic and epigenetic changes of the genome that leads to dysregulation of transcriptional activity of genes. Epigenetic mechanisms in cancer cells comprise (i) post-translation histone modification (i.e., deacetylation and methylation); (ii) DNA global hypomethylation; (iii) promoter hypermethylation of tumour suppressor genes and genes important for cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation and apoptosis; and (iv) posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by noncoding microRNA. These epigenetic aberrations can be readily reversible and responsive to both synthetic agents and natural components of diet. A source of one of such diet components are cruciferous vegetables, which contain high levels of a number of glucosinolates and deliver, after enzymatic hydrolysis, sulforaphane and other bioactive isothiocyanates, that are involved in effective up-regulation of transcriptional activity of certain genes and also in restoration of active chromatin structure. Thus a consumption of cruciferous vegetables, treated as a source of isothiocyanates, seems to be potentially useful as an effective cancer preventive factor or as a source of nutrients improving efficacy of standard chemotherapies. In this review an attempt is made to elucidate the role of sulforaphane in regulation of gene promoter activity through a direct down-regulation of histone deacetylase activity and alteration of gene promoter methylation in indirect ways, but the sulforaphane influence on non-coding micro-RNA will not be a subject of this review.

  4. A cost-analysis of complex workplace nutrition education and environmental dietary modification interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Sarah; Kirby, Ann; Murphy, Aileen; Geaney, Fiona; Perry, Ivan J

    2017-01-09

    The workplace has been identified as a priority setting to positively influence individuals' dietary behaviours. However, a dearth of evidence exists regarding the costs of implementing and delivering workplace dietary interventions. This study aimed to conduct a cost-analysis of workplace nutrition education and environmental dietary modification interventions from an employer's perspective. Cost data were obtained from a workplace dietary intervention trial, the Food Choice at Work Study. Micro-costing methods estimated costs associated with implementing and delivering the interventions for 1 year in four multinational manufacturing workplaces in Cork, Ireland. The workplaces were allocated to one of the following groups: control, nutrition education alone, environmental dietary modification alone and nutrition education and environmental dietary modification combined. A total of 850 employees were recruited across the four workplaces. For comparison purposes, total costs were standardised for 500 employees per workplace. The combined intervention reported the highest total costs of €31,108. The nutrition education intervention reported total costs of €28,529. Total costs for the environmental dietary modification intervention were €3689. Total costs for the control workplace were zero. The average annual cost per employee was; combined intervention: €62, nutrition education: €57, environmental modification: €7 and control: €0. Nutritionist's time was the main cost contributor across all interventions, (ranging from 53 to 75% of total costs). Within multi-component interventions, the relative cost of implementing and delivering nutrition education elements is high compared to environmental modification strategies. A workplace environmental modification strategy added marginal additional cost, relative to the control. Findings will inform employers and public health policy-makers regarding the economic feasibility of implementing and scaling dietary

  5. Environmental assessment for operations, upgrades, and modifications in SNL/NM Technical Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The proposed action for this EA for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Technical Area IV, includes continuing existing operations, modification of an existing accelerator (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II) to support defnese-related Z-pinch experiments, and construction of two transformer oil storage tanks to support the expansion of the Advanced Pulsed Power Research Module, a single pulse accelerator. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE believes that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA and CEQ NEPA implementing regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and a Finding of No Significant Impact is issued.

  6. Environmental assessment for operations, upgrades, and modifications in SNL/NM Technical Area IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The proposed action for this EA for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Technical Area IV, includes continuing existing operations, modification of an existing accelerator (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II) to support defnese-related Z-pinch experiments, and construction of two transformer oil storage tanks to support the expansion of the Advanced Pulsed Power Research Module, a single pulse accelerator. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE believes that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA and CEQ NEPA implementing regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and a Finding of No Significant Impact is issued

  7. Modification of a fire drought index for tropical wetland ecosystems by including water table depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taufik, Muh; Setiawan, B.I.; Lanen, van H.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how an existing empirical drought index, i.e. the Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) that is commonly used for assessing forest fire danger, has been adjusted and modified for improved use in tropical wetland ecosystems. The improvement included: (i) adjustment of the

  8. Environmental Projects. Volume 8: Modifications of wastewater evaporation ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 45 miles north of Barstow, California, and about 160 miles northeast of Pasadena, is part of NASA's Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. The Goldstone Complex is managed, technically directed, and operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of seven parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to environmental hazards: use of hazardous chemicals, asbestos, and underground storage tanks as well as the generation of hazardous wastes and the disposal of wastewater. Federal, state, and local laws governing the management of hazardous substances, asbestos, underground storage tanks and wastewater disposal have become so complex there is a need to devise specific programs to comply with the many regulations that implement these laws. In support of the national goal of the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, JPL, and the GDSCC have adopted a position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance with these laws. One of the environmental problems at the GDSCC involved four active, operational, wastewater evaporation ponds designed to receive and evaporate sewage effluent from upstream septic tank systems. One pair of active wastewater evaporation ponds is located at Echo Site, while another operational pair is at Mars Site.

  9. Remembering the ultimate goal of environmental protection: including protection of impoverished citizens in China's environmental policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixiong; Chen, Li; Zhu, Qingke

    2010-01-01

    The life of impoverished people can be damaged by adverse environmental conditions, but these people can also be harmed by environmental conservation programs, particularly when the guiding policy ignores their needs. To improve the social and economic effectiveness of environmental protection, governments must understand that the ultimate goal of environmental protection is to improve human livelihoods, not just restore vegetation. The elimination of poverty by the development of sustainable, long-term enterprises is a precondition for successful ecological restoration.

  10. 75 FR 29359 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Tamiami Trail Modifications: Next Steps Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Tamiami Trail (U.S. Highway 41.... Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to construct modifications to U.S. Highway 41 (Tamiami Trail) that were... within the Park and the ecological connectivity between the Park and the Water Conservation Areas'' (2009...

  11. The IAEA transport regulations: main modifications included in the 1996 edition and the possible impact of its adoption in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vietri, J.R.; Novo, R.G.; Bianchi, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: This paper points out a comparative analysis between the requirements of the 1985 edition (as Amended 1990), in-force in almost all countries included Argentina, and the 1996 edition, that is foresee to put in-force 1st January 2001, of the Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material, published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The English version of the 1996 edition was published in December 1996 and the Spanish one in September 1997. Such edition was the culmination of a difficult consensus and harmonisation reached after an analysis process of the-years cycle between the IAEA Member Sates and related international organisations (United Nations, International Civil Aviation Organisation, International Air Transport Association, International Federation of Air Lines Pilots Associations, International Maritime Organisation) as well as regional organisations (Economic Commission for Europe, Commission of the European Communities). Both editions of the Regulations include a set of design, operational and administrative requirements that substantially do not differ as for their safety basic philosophy. However, the 1996 edition introduces numerous modifications of different magnitude, which will derive in technological, economic and operative consequences. Of such modifications the paper only analysed the relevant ones which update the state of art in the subject and allow the Regulations continue maintaining an acceptable level of control of the radiation, criticality and thermal hazards to persons, property and the environment during the transport of radioactive material. In addition, the paper briefly describes the possible impact that the main modifications induced in the 1996 edition of the Regulations should have, depending on the type of user considered either in Argentina or in other Latin America countries. However, it is desirable that the personal of competent authorities of each country involved in transport

  12. 47 CFR 1.1311 - Environmental information to be included in the environmental assessment (EA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a residential area, the EA must also address the impact of this lighting upon the residents. (2) A... concerning the proposal's environmental impact, if any. The EA shall deal specifically with any feature of... land utilized (e.g., deforestation, water diversion, wetland fill, or other extensive change of surface...

  13. Specific Sensory Techniques and Sensory Environmental Modifications for Children and Youth With Sensory Integration Difficulties: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodison, Stefanie C; Parham, L Diane

    This systematic review examined the effectiveness of specific sensory techniques and sensory environmental modifications to improve participation of children with sensory integration (SI) difficulties. Abstracts of 11,436 articles published between January 2007 and May 2015 were examined. Studies were included if designs reflected high levels of evidence, participants demonstrated SI difficulties, and outcome measures addressed function or participation. Eight studies met inclusion criteria. Seven studies evaluated effects of specific sensory techniques for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Qigong massage, weighted vests, slow swinging, and incorporation of multisensory activities into preschool routines. One study of sensory environmental modifications examined adaptations to a dental clinic for children with ASD. Strong evidence supported Qigong massage, moderate evidence supported sensory modifications to the dental care environment, and limited evidence supported weighted vests. The evidence is insufficient to draw conclusions regarding slow linear swinging and incorporation of multisensory activities into preschool settings. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  14. Environmentally Benign and Permanent Modifications to Prevent Biofouling on Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Zhang

    2012-04-19

    Semprus Biosciences is developing environmentally benign and permanent modifications to prevent biofouling on Marine and Hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. Biofouling, including growth on external surfaces by bacteria, algae, barnacles, mussels, and other marine organisms, accumulate quickly on MHK devices, causing mechanical wear and changes in performance. Biofouling on crucial components of hydrokinetic devices, such as rotors, generators, and turbines, imposes substantial mass and hydrodynamic loading with associated efficiency loss and maintenance costs. Most antifouling coatings leach toxic ingredients, such as copper and tributyltin, through an eroding process, but increasingly stringent regulation of biocides has led to interest in the development of non-biocidal technologies to control fouling. Semprus Biosciences research team is developing modifications to prevent fouling from a broad spectrum of organisms on devices of all shapes, sizes, and materials for the life of the product. The research team designed and developed betaine-based polymers as novel underwater coatings to resist the attachment of marine organisms. Different betaine-based monomers and polymers were synthesized and incorporated within various coating formulations. The formulations and application methods were developed on aluminum panels with required adhesion strength and mechanical properties. The coating polymers were chemically stable under UV, hydrolytic and oxidative environments. The sulfobetaine formulations are applicable as nonleaching and stable underwater coatings. For the first time, coating formulations modified with highly packed sulfobetaine polymers were prepared and demonstrated resistance to a broad spectrum of marine organisms. Assays for comparing nonfouling performance were developed to evaluate protein adsorption and bacteria attachment. Barnacle settlement and removal were evaluated and a 60-day field test was performed. Silicone substrates including a commercial

  15. Stroke rehabilitation: assistive technology devices and environmental modifications following primary rehabilitation in hospital--a therapeutic perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne Vinkel; Lendal, Susie; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the need for assistive devices and environmental modifications among long-living stroke survivors and to investigate if the need is continued and growing over time. The study sample of 155 consecutive stroke patients with stroke-related impairment, discharged...... home from three hospitals in Copenhagen from 1996 through 1998, constituted 20% of the total population of stroke survivors in this area. The results showed that 75% of these patients were provided with assistive devices and/or environmental modifications at discharge. Six months after discharge...... be required in order to target stroke survivors' changing needs for assistive devices and environmental modifications....

  16. Human and Environmental Dangers Posed by Ongoing Global Tropospheric Aerosolized Particulates for Weather Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2016-01-01

    U.S. military perception of nuclear warfare led to countless unethical nuclear experiments performed on unsuspecting individuals without their informed consent. As evidenced here, subsequent perception of weather warfare has led to exposing millions of unsuspecting individuals to toxic coal fly ash with no public disclosure, no informed consent, and no health warnings. Three methods were used: (1) comparison of eight elements analyzed in rainwater samples, thought to have leached from aerosolized coal fly ash, with corresponding coal fly ash laboratory leachate; (2) comparison of 14 elements analyzed in air filter dust with corresponding elements in coal fly ash; and (3) comparison of 23 elements analyzed in fibrous mesh found after snow melted with corresponding elements in coal fly ash. The rainwater element ratios show that the aerial particulate matter has essentially the same water-leach characteristics as coal fly ash. The air filter dust element ratios occur in the same range of compositions as coal fly ash, as do element ratios in fibrous mesh found on grass after snow melted. The fibrous mesh provides an inferred direct connection with the aerosolizing jet aircraft via coal fly ash association with the jet combustion environment. Strong evidence for the correctness of the hypothesis: coal fly ash is likely the aerosolized particulate emplaced in the troposphere for geoengineering, weather modification, and/or climate alteration purposes. The documented public health associations for ≤2.5 μm particulate pollution are also applicable to aerosolized coal fly ash. The ability of coal fly ash to release aluminum in a chemically mobile form upon exposure to water or body moisture has potentially grave human and environmental consequences over a broad spectrum, including implications for neurological diseases and biota debilitation. The ability of coal fly ash to release heavy metals and radioactive elements upon exposure to body moisture has potentially

  17. Metrics for the Human Proteome Project 2016: Progress on Identifying and Characterizing the Human Proteome, Including Post-Translational Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenn, Gilbert S; Lane, Lydie; Lundberg, Emma K; Beavis, Ronald C; Overall, Christopher M; Deutsch, Eric W

    2016-11-04

    The HUPO Human Proteome Project (HPP) has two overall goals: (1) stepwise completion of the protein parts list-the draft human proteome including confidently identifying and characterizing at least one protein product from each protein-coding gene, with increasing emphasis on sequence variants, post-translational modifications (PTMs), and splice isoforms of those proteins; and (2) making proteomics an integrated counterpart to genomics throughout the biomedical and life sciences community. PeptideAtlas and GPMDB reanalyze all major human mass spectrometry data sets available through ProteomeXchange with standardized protocols and stringent quality filters; neXtProt curates and integrates mass spectrometry and other findings to present the most up to date authorative compendium of the human proteome. The HPP Guidelines for Mass Spectrometry Data Interpretation version 2.1 were applied to manuscripts submitted for this 2016 C-HPP-led special issue [ www.thehpp.org/guidelines ]. The Human Proteome presented as neXtProt version 2016-02 has 16,518 confident protein identifications (Protein Existence [PE] Level 1), up from 13,664 at 2012-12, 15,646 at 2013-09, and 16,491 at 2014-10. There are 485 proteins that would have been PE1 under the Guidelines v1.0 from 2012 but now have insufficient evidence due to the agreed-upon more stringent Guidelines v2.0 to reduce false positives. neXtProt and PeptideAtlas now both require two non-nested, uniquely mapping (proteotypic) peptides of at least 9 aa in length. There are 2,949 missing proteins (PE2+3+4) as the baseline for submissions for this fourth annual C-HPP special issue of Journal of Proteome Research. PeptideAtlas has 14,629 canonical (plus 1187 uncertain and 1755 redundant) entries. GPMDB has 16,190 EC4 entries, and the Human Protein Atlas has 10,475 entries with supportive evidence. neXtProt, PeptideAtlas, and GPMDB are rich resources of information about post-translational modifications (PTMs), single amino acid

  18. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Priorities List (NPL) Sites Point Data with CIESIN Modifications, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Priorities List (NPL) Sites Point Data with CIESIN Modifications, 2008 is a modified version of the 2008 EPA...

  19. Integrating indicators in a national accounting matrix including environmental accounts (NAMEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Haan, M.; Keuning, S.J.; Bosch, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Five environmental indicators are conceptually and numerically integrated into a National Accounting Matrix including Environmental Accounts (NAMEA) for 1989. As a consequence, these estimates are directly comparable with outcomes of major macro-economic aggregates in the conventional accounts. In the NAMEA, emissions of all kinds of polluting agents are recorded by industry and by consumption purpose. Subsequently, these agents are grouped into five environmental themes: greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication and waste accumulation. The contributions of agents to certain themes are expressed in theme-related environmental stress equivalents. Per theme, these stress equivalents are confronted with policy norms set by the Netherlands government for the year 2000. This results in a statistical framework at a meso-level from which integrated economic and environmental indicators are derived. The NAMEA may also serve as a data base and analytical device for modelling interactions between the national economy and changes in the environment. 13 tabs., 2 app., 32 refs

  20. BALANCED SCORECARDS EVALUATION MODEL THAT INCLUDES ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  1. Radiation-curing of acrylate composites including carbon fibres: A customized surface modification for improving mechanical performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Arnaud; Pietras-Ozga, Dorota; Ponsaud, Philippe; Kowandy, Christelle; Barczak, Mariusz; Defoort, Brigitte; Coqueret, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The lower transverse mechanical properties of radiation-cured acrylate-based composites reinforced with carbon-fibre with respect to the thermosettable analogues was investigated from the viewpoint of chemical interactions at the interface between the matrix and the carbon material. XPS analysis of representative commercial carbon fibres revealed the presence of a significant amount of chemical functions potentially exerting an adverse effect on the initiation and propagation of the free radical polymerization initiated under high energy radiation. The EB-induced polymerization of n-butyl acrylate as a simple model monomer was conducted in the presence of various aromatic additives exhibiting a strong inhibiting effect, whereas thiols efficiently sensitize the initiation mechanism and undergo transfer reactions. A method based on the surface modification of sized fibres by thiomalic acid is proposed for overcoming the localized inhibition phenomenon and for improving the mechanical properties of the resulting acrylate-based composites. - Highlights: • Surface functions of C-fibres are analyzed for their effect on radical reaction. • Irradiation of nBu-acrylate in presence of aromatic additives reveals inhibition. • Thiol groups sensitize the radiation-initiated polymerization of nBu-acrylate. • Modification of C-fibres with thiomalic acid enhances composite properties

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL MODIFICATION CAUSED BY PERFORATED TRANSPARENT POLYETHYLENE LOW TUNNELS CULTIVATED WITH LETTUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Adeli Buriol

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental modifications caused by low tunnels made of perforated transparent polyethylene were determineted in an area alocated at the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS. The perforation densities were 100, 200, 300 and 400 perforations per square meter, corresponding respectively to 0.78% (T1, 1.57% CT2, 2.35% (T3 and 3.14% (T4 of area perforated. The results indicated that perforation density did not significantly affected solar energy availability. As perforation density increased there was a decrease on the average diurnal air temperature which demonstrated the viability of ventilating low tunnels with perforated plastic. It was also observed that inside the perforated tunnels the averages values for soil, air minimun and diurnal temperatures and air relative humidity were higher than on the external environment.

  3. Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1. Annual operation report: January-December 1977 (including environmental report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    Net electrical energy generated in 1977 was 2,922,683.7 MWH with the generator on line 6,959.8 hours. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, maintenance, changes, tests, experiments, occupational personnel radiation exposures, and primary coolant chemistry. Data on radioactive effluent releases, meteorology, environmental monitoring, and potential radiation doses to individuals for July 7, 1977 to December 31, 1977 are also included

  4. Proposed modifications to the Lower Mokelumne River Project, California: FERC Project No. 2916-004. Final environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This final environmental impact statement (FEIS) has been prepared for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) to consider modifications to the existing Lower Mokelumne River Project (LMRP) (FERC Project No. 2916-004) in California. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout populations in the lower Mokelumne River have experienced recent declines and fish kills associated, in part, with discharges from Camanche Dam. The California Department of Fish and Game and the California Sportfishing Protection Alliance have asked the Commission to investigate and correct these problems. A wide range of different mitigation actions has been proposed by parties participating in the scoping of this proceeding, and staff has evaluated these proposed actions in this assessment. The staff is recommending a combination of flow and non-flow modifications to the existing license, including new minimum flow and minimum pool elevation requirements at Camanche Reservoir, ramping rates on dam releases, interim attraction and out-migrant spike flows, instream habitat improvements, and a series of studies and monitoring to determine feasible means for solving off-site fish passage problems.

  5. Stroke rehabilitation: assistive technology devices and environmental modifications following primary rehabilitation in hospital--a therapeutic perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne Vinkel; Lendal, Susie; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the need for assistive devices and environmental modifications among long-living stroke survivors and to investigate if the need is continued and growing over time. The study sample of 155 consecutive stroke patients with stroke-related impairment, discharged...... the proportion was 81%. The aids most frequently prescribed were bath seats, aids for mobility, grab bars, and removal of door thresholds. At follow-up 3-5 years later, 74% of the survivors were seen (76 patients). Almost all of the survivors were dependent on assistive devices and/or environmental modifications...

  6. Novel approaches to alcohol rehabilitation: Modification of stress-responsive brain regions through environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Terence Y; Hannan, Anthony J; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2018-02-22

    Relapse remains the most prominent hurdle to successful rehabilitation from alcoholism. The neural mechanisms underlying relapse are complex, but our understanding of the brain regions involved, the anatomical circuitry and the modulation of specific nuclei in the context of stress and cue-induced relapse have improved significantly in recent years. In particular, stress is now recognised as a significant trigger for relapse, adding to the well-established impact of chronic stress to escalate alcohol consumption. It is therefore unsurprising that the stress-responsive regions of the brain have also been implicated in alcohol relapse, such as the nucleus accumbens, amygdala and the hypothalamus. Environmental enrichment is a robust experimental paradigm which provides a non-pharmacological tool to alter stress response and, separately, alcohol-seeking behaviour and symptoms of withdrawal. In this review, we examine and consolidate the preclinical evidence that alcohol seeking behaviour and stress-induced relapse are modulated by environmental enrichment, and these are primarily mediated by modification of neural activity within the key nodes of the addiction circuitry. Finally, we discuss the limited clinical evidence that stress-reducing approaches such as mindfulness could potentially serve as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of alcoholism. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Improvement on a science curriculum including experimental demonstration of environmental radioactivity for secondary school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kenji; Matsubara, Shizuo; Aiba, Yoshio; Eriguchi, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Saburo; Takeyama, Tetsuji.

    1988-01-01

    A science curriculum previously prepared for teaching environmental radioactivity was modified on the basis of the results of trial instructions in secondary schools. The main subject of the revised curriculum is an understanding of the natural radioactivity through the experimental demonstration about air-borne β and γ ray emitters. The other subjects included are the radioactive decay, the biological effects of radiation, the concept of risk-benefit balance (acceptable level) and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and radiation. The work sheets and reference data prepared as learning materials are in two levels corresponding to the ability of students for this curriculum. (author)

  8. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM...

  9. 78 FR 76288 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Dam Safety Modification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Dam Safety Modification Study Report for the Cherry Creek... Impact Statement (EIS) for the federal action to remediate dam safety concerns at Cherry Creek Dam. The dam safety concerns are primarily related to a hydrologic deficiency resulting from an extreme...

  10. Economic/Environmental power dispatch for power systems including wind farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen BEN JAOUED

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of the Economic/Environmental power Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind energies. The power flow model for a stall regulated fixed speed wind generator (SR-FSWG system is discussed to assess the steady-state condition of power systems with wind farms. Modified Newton-Raphson algorithm including SR-FSWG is used to solve the load flow equations in which the state variables of the wind generators are combined with the nodal voltage magnitudes and angles of the entire network. The EED problem is a nonlinear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, two competing fuel cost and pollutant emission objectives should be minimized simultaneously while satisfying certain system constraints. In this paper, the resolution is done by the algorithm multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus test system and using MATLAB software package.

  11. [A case of occlusal support reconstruction with modification of occlusal plane by fixed prosthetic restoration including dental implant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Yoshihiro

    2006-04-01

    A 54-year-old female patient visited our dental office July 1997. The patient's chief complaint was difficulty of chewing due to loss of the right mandibular molars. She had a collapsed occlusal plane with loss extended over a long period of time. This case report describes restoration of the occlusal plane and occlusal supporting area by fixed prosthesis including implant-supported crowns. Anterior guidance and provisional restoration are useful for reconstruction of the occlusal plane. In a dental arch with implant-supported and tooth-supported crowns, periodical dental checkup and occlusal equilibration are very important due to the existence of biomechanically different factors. The patient was very satisfied with the fixed prosthesis including implant-supported crowns. It is thought that implant treatment improves the quality of life of free-end partially edentulous patients.

  12. Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Emily; Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Lane, Anna; Baum, Fran

    2018-05-10

    Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs) is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW) projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA). We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health only at the EIA stage may be a significant

  13. Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Riley

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. Methods We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. Results We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA. We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Conclusion Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health

  14. Information management for global environmental change, including the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    1994-06-01

    The issue of global change is international in scope. A body of international organizations oversees the worldwide coordination of research and policy initiatives. In the US the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) was established in November of 1993 to provide coordination of science, space, and technology policies throughout the federal government. NSTC is organized into nine proposed committees. The Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources (CERN) oversees the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). As part of the USGCRP, the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program aims to improve the understanding of Earth systems and to strengthen the scientific basis for the evaluation of policy and government action in response to potential global environmental changes. This paper examines the information and data management roles of several international and national programs, including Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) global change information programs. An emphasis will be placed on the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which also serves as the World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases.

  15. Environmental assessment of passenger transportation should include infrastructure and supply chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, Mikhail V; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-01-01

    To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy use and emissions. Most current decision-making relies on analysis at the tailpipe, ignoring vehicle production, infrastructure provision, and fuel production required for support. We present results of a comprehensive life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and selected criteria air pollutant emissions inventory for automobiles, buses, trains, and airplanes in the US, including vehicles, infrastructure, fuel production, and supply chains. We find that total life-cycle energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions contribute an additional 63% for onroad, 155% for rail, and 31% for air systems over vehicle tailpipe operation. Inventorying criteria air pollutants shows that vehicle non-operational components often dominate total emissions. Life-cycle criteria air pollutant emissions are between 1.1 and 800 times larger than vehicle operation. Ranges in passenger occupancy can easily change the relative performance of modes.

  16. Surface Modification of Graphene Oxides by Plasma Techniques and Their Application for Environmental Pollution Cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangxue; Fan, Qiaohui; Chen, Zhongshan; Wang, Qi; Li, Jiaxing; Hobiny, Aatef; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Wang, Xiangke

    2016-02-01

    Graphene oxides (GOs) have come under intense multidisciplinary study because of their unique physicochemical properties and possible applications. The large amount of oxygen-containing functional groups on GOs leads to a high sorption capacity for the removal of various kinds of organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solutions in environmental pollution cleanup. However, the lack of selectivity results in difficulty in the selective removal of target pollutants from aqueous solutions in the presence of other coexisting pollutants. Herein, the surface grafting of GOs with special oxygen-containing functional groups using low-temperature plasma techniques and the application of the surface-modified GOs for the efficient removal of organic and inorganic pollutants in environmental pollution are reviewed. This paper gives an account of our research on the application of GO-based nanomaterials in environmental pollution cleanup, including: (1) the synthesis and surface grafting of functional groups on GOs, summarizing various types of low-temperature plasma techniques for the synthesis of graphene/GOs; and (2) the application of graphene/GOs and their composites for the efficient removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solutions, including the interaction mechanism according to recently published results. © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. 40 CFR 262.105 - What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to detect the presence or release of a hazardous substance; (ii) The chemical and physical hazards... its compliance with the Environmental Management Plan and applicable federal and state hazardous waste... hazardous waste receive appropriate training. (iii) The Environmental Management Plan is reviewed at least...

  18. Functional Materials Based on Surface Modification of Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical and Environmental Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mashat, Afnan

    2015-05-01

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), they have gained much interest in many science and engineering fields. The modification of CNTs by introducing different functional groups to their surface is important for CNTs to be tailored to fit the need of specific applications. This dissertation presents several CNT-based systems that can provide biomedical and environmental advantages. In this research, polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used to coat CNTs through hydrogen bonding. The release of doxorubicin (DOX, an anticancer drug) from this system was controlled by temperature. This system represents a promising method for incorporating stimuli triggered polymer-gated CNTs in controlled release applications. To create an acid responsive system CNTs were coated with 1,2-Distearoyl-snglycero- 3-Phosphoethanolamine-N-[Amino(Polyethylene glycol)2000]-(PE-PEG) and Poly(acrylic acid) modified dioleoy lphosphatidyl-ethanolamine (PE-PAA). An acidlabile linker was used to cross-link PAA, forming ALP@CNTs, thus making the system acid sensitive. The release of DOX from ALP@CNTs was found to be higher in an acidic environment. Moreover, near infrared (NIR) light was used to enhance the release of DOX from ALP@CNTs. A CNT-based membrane with controlled diffusion was prepared in the next study. CNTs were used as a component of a cellulose/gel membrane due to their optical property, which allows them to convert NIR light into heat. Poly(Nisopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) was used due to its thermo-sensitivity. The properties of both the CNTs and PNIPAm’s were used to control the diffusion of the cargo from the system, under the influence of NIR. CNTs were also used to fabricate an antibacterial agent, for which they were coated with polydopamine (PDA) and decorated with silver particles (Ag). Galactose (Gal) terminated with thiol groups conjugated with the above system was used to strengthen the bacterial targeting ability. The antibacterial activity of

  19. Biochemical modifications in Pinus pinaster Ait. as a result of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, Rosaria; Vanella, Luca; Sorrenti, Valeria; Santangelo, Rosa; Iauk, Liliana; Russo, Alessandra; Savoca, Francesca; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Di Giacomo, Claudia

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to chemical pollution can cause significant damage to plants by imposing conditions of oxidative stress. Plants combat oxidative stress by inducing antioxidant metabolites, enzymatic scavengers of activated oxygen and heat shock proteins. The accumulation of these proteins, in particular heat shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase, is correlated with the acquisition of thermal and chemical adaptations and protection against oxidative stress. In this study, we used Pinus pinaster Ait. collected in the areas of Priolo and Aci Castello representing sites with elevated pollution and reference conditions, respectively. The presence of heavy metals and the levels of markers of oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxide levels, thiol groups, superoxide dismutase activity and expression of heat shock protein 70, heme oxygenase and superoxide dismutase) were evaluated, and we measured in field-collected needles the response to environmental pollution. P. pinaster Ait. collected from a site characterized by industrial pollution including heavy metals had elevated stress response as indicated by significantly elevated lipid hydroperoxide levels and decreased thiol groups. In particular, we observed that following a chronic chemical exposure, P. pinaster Ait. showed significantly increased expression of heat shock protein 70, heme oxygenase and superoxide dismutase. This increased expression may have protective effects against oxidative stress and represents an adaptative cellular defence mechanism. These results suggest that evaluation of heme oxygenase, heat shock protein 70 and superoxide dismutase expression in P. pinaster Ait. could represent a useful tool for monitoring environmental contamination of a region and to better understand mechanisms involved in plant defence and stress tolerance.

  20. An Overview of Seabed Mining Including the Current State of Development, Environmental Impacts, and Knowledge Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A. Miller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising demand for minerals and metals, including for use in the technology sector, has led to a resurgence of interest in exploration of mineral resources located on the seabed. Such resources, whether seafloor massive (polymetallic sulfides around hydrothermal vents, cobalt-rich crusts (CRCs on the flanks of seamounts or fields of manganese (polymetallic nodules on the abyssal plains, cannot be considered in isolation of the distinctive, in some cases unique, assemblages of marine species associated with the same habitats and structures. In addition to mineral deposits, there is interest in extracting methane from gas hydrates on continental slopes and rises. Many of the regions identified for future seabed mining are already recognized as vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs. Since its inception in 1982, the International Seabed Authority (ISA, charged with regulating human activities on the deep-sea floor beyond the continental shelf, has issued 27 contracts for mineral exploration, encompassing a combined area of more than 1.4 million km2, and continues to develop rules for commercial mining. At the same time, some seabed mining operations are already taking place within continental shelf areas of nation states, generally at relatively shallow depths, and with others at advanced stages of planning. The first commercial enterprise, expected to target mineral-rich sulfides in deeper waters, at depths between 1,500 and 2,000 m on the continental shelf of Papua New Guinea, is scheduled to begin early in 2019. In this review, we explore three broad aspects relating to the exploration and exploitation of seabed mineral resources: (1 the current state of development of such activities in areas both within and beyond national jurisdictions, (2 possible environmental impacts both close to and more distant from mining activities and (3 the uncertainties and gaps in scientific knowledge and understanding which render baseline and impact assessments

  1. Specialists meeting on properties of primary circuit structural materials including environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Specialists Meeting on Properties of Primary Circuit Structural Materials of LMFBRs covered the following topics: overview of materials program in different countries; mechanical properties of materials in air; fracture mechanics studies - component related activities; impact of environmental influences on mechanical properties; relationship of material properties and design methods. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on structural materials behaviour in primary circuit of fast breeder reactors. Special emphasis was placed on environmental effects such as influence of sodium and irradiation on mechanical properties of reactor materials

  2. Some environmental problems and their satellite monitoring. [anthropogenic modifications of earth surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterman, J.

    1975-01-01

    Anthropogenic modification of the earth's surface is discussed in two problem areas: (1) land use changes and overgrazing, and how it affects albedo and land surface-atmosphere interactions, and (2) water and land surface pollution, especially oil slicks. A literature survey evidences the importance of these problems. The need for monitoring is stressed, and it is suggested that with some modifications to the sensors, ERTS (Landsat) series satellites can provide approximate monitoring information. The European Landsat receiving station in Italy will facilitate data collection for the tasks described.

  3. Benefits of a 12-week lifestyle modification program including diet and combined aerobic and resistance exercise on albuminuria in diabetic and non-diabetic Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Kabasawa, Keiko; Hosojima, Michihiro; Yata, Yusuke; Saito, Mariko; Tanaka, Noriko; Tanaka, Junta; Tanabe, Naohito; Narita, Ichiei; Arakawa, Masaaki; Saito, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    Albuminuria is a biomarker for chronic kidney disease and an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. A recent meta-analysis concluded that these risks increase with urinary albumin concentration, even when below the microalbuminuria threshold. Thus, minimizing urinary albumin may be a valuable therapeutic goal regardless of disease status. We investigated the benefits and safety of a 12-week lifestyle modification program including diet and combined aerobic and resistance exercise for reducing albuminuria in 295 normoalbuminuric or microalbuminuric Japanese adults, including 30 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 104 with metabolic syndrome (MS), and 145 with hypertension (HT). In the study population, the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) was reduced significantly (ΔUACR -3.8 ± 16.8 mg/g, P < 0.001) with no change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (ΔeGFR -0.4 ± 7.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.343). The reduction in UACR was associated with decreased fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.05). The UACR was also reduced in the T2DM, MS, and HT groups with no change in eGFR. Reduced UACR was associated with decreased fasting plasma glucose in the MS group and decreased systolic blood pressure in the HT group. The UACR was also reduced in 46 subjects using renin-angiotensin system inhibitors with no change in eGFR. Our 12-week lifestyle modification program reduced UACR, maintained eGFR, and improved multiple fitness findings in Japanese subjects including T2DM, MS, and HT patients.

  4. Calculations of environmental benefits from using geothermal energy must include the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    and energy production patterns are simulated using data from countries with similar environmental conditions but do not use geothermal or hydropower to the same extent as Iceland. Because of the rapid shift towards renewable energy and exclusion of external energy provision, the country is considered...

  5. Mobility Modification Alleviates Environmental Influence on Incident Mobility Difficulty among Community-Dwelling Older People: A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portegijs, Erja; Viljanen, Anne; Iwarsson, Susanne; Rantanen, Taina

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental barriers increase risk for mobility difficulties in old age. Mobility difficulty is preceded by a phase where people try to postpone a difficulty through mobility modification. We studied whether perceived environmental mobility barriers outdoors correlate with mobility modification and mobility difficulty, predict development of mobility difficulty over a two-year follow-up, and whether mobility modification alleviates the risk for difficulty. Methods At baseline, 848 people aged 75–90 were interviewed face-to-face. Telephone follow-up interviews were conducted one (n = 816) and two years (n = 761) later. Environmental barriers to mobility were self-reported using a15-item structured questionnaire at baseline, summed and divided into tertiles (0, 1 and 2 or more barriers). Mobility difficulty was assessed as self-reported ability to walk 2 km at all assessment points and categorized into ‘no difficulty’, ‘no difficulty but mobility modifications’ (reducing frequency, stopping walking, using an aid, slowing down or resting during the performance) and ‘difficulty’. Results At baseline, 212 participants reported mobility modifications and 356 mobility difficulties. Those reporting one or multiple environmental barriers had twice the odds for mobility modifications and up to five times the odds for mobility difficulty compared to those reporting no environmental barriers. After multiple adjustments for health and functioning, reporting multiple environmental barriers outdoors continued to predict the development of incident mobility difficulty over the two-year follow-up. Mobility modifications attenuated the association. Conclusion For older people who successfully modify their performance, environmental influence on incident mobility difficulty can be diminished. Older people use mobility modification to alleviate environmental press on mobility. PMID:27104750

  6. Environmental radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Chen, Q.J.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Nielsen, S.P.; Buch, E.; Christensen, G.C.; Holm, E.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland are reported. Strontium-90, cesium-137 and cesium-134 were determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, various foodstuffs (including milk in the Faroes), and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in human diet in the Faroes and Greenland in 1988 and 1989. 99 Tc data on marine samples, in particular sea water from the Greenland Sea, are reported. (au) (91 taps., 51 ills., 7 refs.)

  7. Environmental radioactivity in the North Atlantic region. The Faroe Islands and Greenland included. 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boelskifte, S.; Buch, E.; Christensen, G.C.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hallstadius, L.; Hansen, H.; Holm, E.

    1985-12-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland are reported. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, various foodstuffs (including milk in the Faroes) and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in human diet in the Faroes and Greenland in 1984. Results from samplings of surface sea water and seaweed in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas and along the Norwegian and Greenland west coasts are reported. Beside radiocesium and 90 Sr some of these samples have also been anlysed for tritium, polonium, plutonium and americium. Finally technetium-99 data on seaweed samples collected in the North Atlantic region since the beginning of the sixties are presented. (author)

  8. Environmental radioactivity in the North Atlantic region. The Faroe Islands and Greenland included. 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boelskifte, S.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Buch, E.; Christensen, G.C.; Hallstadius, L.; Rioseco, J.; Holm, E.

    1987-06-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland are reported. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water vegetation, various foodstuffs (including milk in the Faroes) and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr a 137 Cs in human diet in the Faroes and Greenland in 1985. Results from samplings of surface sea water and seaweed in the English Channel, the Fram Strait and along the Norwegian and Greenland coast are reported. Beside radiocesium and 90 Sr some of these samples have also been analysed for tritium, plutonium and americium. Finally technetium-99 data on seaweed and sea water samples collected in the North Atlantic region are presented. 14 refs. (author)

  9. Supplement analysis 2 of environmental impacts resulting from modifications in the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project, located in western New York, has approximately 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in storage in underground tanks. While corrosion analysis has revealed that only limited tank degradation has taken place, the failure of these tanks could release HLW to the environment. Congress requires DOE to demonstrate the technology for removal and solidification of HLW. DOE issued the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) in 1982. The purpose of this second supplement analysis is to re-assess the 1982 Final Environmental Impact Statement's continued adequacy. This report provides the necessary and appropriate data for DOE to determine whether the environmental impacts presented by the ongoing refinements in the design, process, and operations of the Project are considered sufficiently bounded within the envelope of impacts presented in the FEIS and supporting documentation

  10. Environmental performance of gasified willow from different lands including land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez de Bikuna Salinas, Koldo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Pilegaard, Kim

    2017-01-01

    additional agricultural expansion, in areas with historical deforestation) and occupation (as delayed relaxation, DR, in areas with historical land abandonment) impacts. A biophysical approach was followed to determine the iLUCfeed emissions factor from marginal grassland. Land transformation impacts were...... derived from latest world deforestation statistics, while a commercial feed mix of equivalent nutritive value was assumed to substitute the displaced grass as fodder. Intensification effects were included in both iLUC factors as additional N-fertilizer consumption. Finally, DR impacts were considered...... for abandoned farmland, as a relative C stock loss compared to natural regeneration. ILUC results show that area related GHG emissions are dominant (93% of iLUCfood and 80% of iLUCfeed), transformation being more important (82% of iLUCfood) than occupation (11%) impacts. LCA results show that CHP from willow...

  11. Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading...... of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry...... in fire. Finally a definition is suggested for a nature preservation willingness index, which by an invariance postulate leads to a rational format for allocating means to avoid pollution accidents....

  12. Active control of environmental noise, VIII: increasing the response to primary source changes including unpredictable noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S. E.; Atmoko, H.; Vuksanovic, B.

    2004-07-01

    Conventional adaptive cancellation systems using traditional transverse finite impulse response (FIR) filters, together with least mean square (LMS) adaptive algorithms, well known in active noise control, are slow to adapt to primary source changes. This makes them inappropriate for cancelling rapidly changing noise, including unpredictable noise such as speech and music. Secondly, the cancelling structures require considerable computational processing effort to adapt to primary source and plant changes, particularly for multi-channel systems. This paper describes methods to increase the adaptive speed to primary source changes in large enclosed spaces and outdoor environments. A method is described that increases the response to time varying periodic noise using traditional transverse FIR filters. Here a multi-passband filter, with individual variable adaptive step sizes for each passband is automatically adjusted according to the signal level in each band. This creates a similar adaptive response for all frequencies within the total pass-band, irrespective of amplitude, minimizing the signal distortion and increasing the combined adaptive speed. Unfortunately, there is a limit to the adaptive speed using the above method as classical transverse FIR filters have a finite adaptive speed given by the stability band zero bandwidth. For rapidly changing periodic noise and unpredictable non-stationary noise, a rapid to instantaneous response is required. In this case the on-line adaptive FIR filters are dispensed with and replaced by a time domain solution that gives virtually instantaneous cancellation response (infinite adaptive speed) to primary source changes, and is computationally efficient.

  13. Medication for Behavior Modification in Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    The use of behavior modifying drugs may be considered in birds with behavior problems, especially those refractory to behavior modification therapy and environmental management. To accomplish behavior change, a variety of drugs can be used, including psychoactive drugs, hormones, antihistamines,

  14. ESI GIS Data and PDF Maps: Environmental Sensitivity Index including GIS Data and Maps (for the U.S. Shorelines, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  15. 78 FR 27196 - Modification of Permit Application and Intent for Additional Public Scoping for an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... be affected by the proposed project include geological, chemical, biological, physical, socioeconomic... identified for analysis in the EIS. This list was developed during preliminary internal scoping, through... and flows; sediment transport and currents; threatened and endangered species (including critical...

  16. Environmental Assessment for the proposed modification and continued operation of the DIII-D facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The EA evaluates the proposed action of modifying the DIII-D fusion facility and conducting related research activities at the GA San Diego site over 1995-1999 under DOE contract number DE-ACO3-89ER51114. The proposed action is need to advance magnetic fusion research for future generation fusion devices such as ITER and TPX. It was determined that the proposed action is not a major action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment according to NEPA; therefore a finding of no significant impact is made and an environmental impact statement is not required.

  17. Environmental Assessment for the proposed modification and continued operation of the DIII-D facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The EA evaluates the proposed action of modifying the DIII-D fusion facility and conducting related research activities at the GA San Diego site over 1995-1999 under DOE contract number DE-ACO3-89ER51114. The proposed action is need to advance magnetic fusion research for future generation fusion devices such as ITER and TPX. It was determined that the proposed action is not a major action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment according to NEPA; therefore a finding of no significant impact is made and an environmental impact statement is not required

  18. Preparation of hydrophobic polyvinyl alcohol aerogel via the surface modification of boron nitride for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiyang; Wan, Wenchao; Qiu, Lijuan; Wang, Yonghua; Zhou, Ying

    2017-10-01

    Macroscopic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) aerogel is of great interest in environmental remediation due to its low cost and easy fabrication. However, the hydrophily of PVA aerogel limited its application in oil-water separation. In this work, boron nitride (BN)-modified PVA aerogel has been successfully prepared by a cost-effective frozen-drying method. PVA plays a role as a scaffold of aerogel to support BN nanosheets which can modify the surface properties of PVA aerogel, resulting in a dramatic change of wettability from hydrophily (0°) to hydrophobicity (94.9°-100.8°). Moreover, the obtained BN-modified PVA aerogel possesses a favorable porous structure, low density (41.8-60.0 mg/cm3) and good adsorption capacity (12-38 g/g), which make it a promising wastewater treatment material. Importantly, PVA aerogel with other functions can be easily fabricated through coupling with other inorganic materials by this strategy, which can provide various promising applications for environmental remediation.

  19. A mixed modeling approach to predict the effect of environmental modification on species distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cozzoli

    Full Text Available Human infrastructures can modify ecosystems, thereby affecting the occurrence and spatial distribution of organisms, as well as ecosystem functionality. Sustainable development requires the ability to predict responses of species to anthropogenic pressures. We investigated the large scale, long term effect of important human alterations of benthic habitats with an integrated approach combining engineering and ecological modelling. We focused our analysis on the Oosterschelde basin (The Netherlands, which was partially embanked by a storm surge barrier (Oosterscheldekering, 1986. We made use of 1 a prognostic (numerical environmental (hydrodynamic model and 2 a novel application of quantile regression to Species Distribution Modeling (SDM to simulate both the realized and potential (habitat suitability abundance of four macrozoobenthic species: Scoloplos armiger, Peringia ulvae, Cerastoderma edule and Lanice conchilega. The analysis shows that part of the fluctuations in macrozoobenthic biomass stocks during the last decades is related to the effect of the coastal defense infrastructures on the basin morphology and hydrodynamics. The methodological framework we propose is particularly suitable for the analysis of large abundance datasets combined with high-resolution environmental data. Our analysis provides useful information on future changes in ecosystem functionality induced by human activities.

  20. Outcome Evaluation of a Policy-Mandated Lifestyle and Environmental Modification Program in a National Job Training Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Harris, Amanda; Luna, Donald; Velasquez, Daniel; Slovik, Jonathan; Kong, Alberta

    2017-06-01

    Excess weight gain is common when adolescents become young adults, but there are no obesity prevention or weight management interventions that have been tested for emerging adults who follow non-traditional post-secondary paths, such as enrolling in job training programs. We evaluated Healthy Eating & Active Lifestyles (HEALs), a policy-mandated lifestyle education/environmental modification program, at a job training center for low-income 16-24 year olds. We examined average change in body mass index (BMI) z-score from baseline to 6 months for emerging adults (aged 16-24 years) in pre-HEALs implementation (n = 125) and post-HEALs implementation (n = 126) cohorts living at the job training center, by baseline weight status. In both cohorts, average BMI z-score significantly increased from baseline to 6 months for students with BMI < 25. Average BMI z-score significantly decreased for the overweight (BMI 25 to <30; -0.11, p = .03) and obese (BMI ≥ 30; -0.11, p = .001) students only within the post-HEALs cohort; changes within the pre-HEALs cohort and between cohorts were not significant. HEALs may promote positive weight-related trends for overweight/obese students, but prevention efforts for non-overweight/obese students need to be improved.

  1. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction Includes a Broad Spectrum of Inflammatory Responses and Epithelial Repair ProcessesSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsheng Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED, a chronic diffuse inflammation of the small intestine, is associated with stunting in children in the developing world. The pathobiology of EED is poorly understood because of the lack of a method to elucidate the host response. This study tested a novel microarray method to overcome limitation of RNA sequencing to interrogate the host transcriptome in feces in Malawian children with EED. Methods: In 259 children, EED was measured by lactulose permeability (%L. After isolating low copy numbers of host messenger RNA, the transcriptome was reliably and reproducibly profiled, validated by polymerase chain reaction. Messenger RNA copy number then was correlated with %L and differential expression in EED. The transcripts identified were mapped to biological pathways and processes. The children studied had a range of %L values, consistent with a spectrum of EED from none to severe. Results: We identified 12 transcripts associated with the severity of EED, including chemokines that stimulate T-cell proliferation, Fc fragments of multiple immunoglobulin families, interferon-induced proteins, activators of neutrophils and B cells, and mediators that dampen cellular responses to hormones. EED-associated transcripts mapped to pathways related to cell adhesion, and responses to a broad spectrum of viral, bacterial, and parasitic microbes. Several mucins, regulatory factors, and protein kinases associated with the maintenance of the mucous layer were expressed less in children with EED than in normal children. Conclusions: EED represents the activation of diverse elements of the immune system and is associated with widespread intestinal barrier disruption. Differentially expressed transcripts, appropriately enumerated, should be explored as potential biomarkers. Keywords: Environmental Enteropathy, Fecal Transcriptome, Stunting, Intestinal Inflammation

  2. Co-ordination of federal and provincial environmental assessment processes for the Point Lepreau Generating Station Solid Radioactive Waste Management Facility modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, C.; Thompson, P.D.; Barnes, J.

    2006-01-01

    Modification of the Solid Radioactive Waste Management Facility at Point Lepreau Generating Station is required to accommodate waste generated during and after an 18-month maintenance outage during which the station would be Refurbished. The modification of the facility triggered both federal and provincial environmental assessment requirements, and these assessments were conducted in a 'coordinated' and cooperative fashion. In this project, the coordinated approach worked well, and provided some significant advantages to the proponent, the public and the regulators. However, there are opportunities for further improvement in future projects, and this paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of this 'co-ordinated' approach. As part of this exploration, there is a discussion of administrative and regulatory changes that the province is considering for the environmental assessment process, and a discussion of the need for a formal 'harmonization' agreement. (author)

  3. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a means to include environmental knowledge in decision making in the case of an aluminium reduction plant in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2011-01-01

    assessments. As there was no conflict between economic and environmental recommendations, and hence no visible proof of SEA’s influence on the outcome of the decision, it is discussed whether environmental knowledge, in this decision making process, equals influence. The investigation was carried out...... environmental knowledge in a decision-making process. It is concluded that the SEA secured inclusion of environmental knowledge in three out of four key decision arenas, which determined the direction and outcome of the process. The results from the SEA did not oppose the recommendations based on the economic...

  4. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Barry M. Goldwater Range East Range Enhancements (Including First and Second Record of Decision)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    quality and environmental management. Mary Harclerode Production A.A. Business Administration with 2 years experience. Rachel Healey ...Manned Range 3, Barry M Goldwater Range East, Arizona. EcoPlan Associates Mesa, Arizona. Neuzil, Anna, Jill Hjeilman, Jason Sperinck, Daniel

  5. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Central California (Including Monterey Bay Sanctuary), maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps have been developed for the coastal areas of Central California from Point Conception to Point Reyes National Seashore....

  6. ESI PDF Maps: Environmental Sensitivity Index PDF Maps (for the U.S. Shorelines, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  7. Populus GT43 family members group into distinct sets required for primary and secondary wall xylan biosynthesis and include useful promoters for wood modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratke, Christine; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Balasubramanian, Vimal K; Naumann, Marcel; Duncranz, Mathilda Lönnäs; Derba-Maceluch, Marta; Gorzsás, András; Endo, Satoshi; Ezcurra, Ines; Mellerowicz, Ewa J

    2015-01-01

    The plant GT43 protein family includes xylosyltransferases that are known to be required for xylan backbone biosynthesis, but have incompletely understood specificities. RT-qPCR and histochemical (GUS) analyses of expression patterns of GT43 members in hybrid aspen, reported here, revealed that three clades of the family have markedly differing specificity towards secondary wall-forming cells (wood and extraxylary fibres). Intriguingly, GT43A and B genes (corresponding to the Arabidopsis IRX9 clade) showed higher specificity for secondary-walled cells than GT43C and D genes (IRX14 clade), although both IRX9 and IRX14 are required for xylosyltransferase activity. The remaining genes, GT43E, F and G (IRX9-L clade), showed broad expression patterns. Transient transactivation analyses of GT43A and B reporters demonstrated that they are activated by PtxtMYB021 and PNAC085 (master secondary wall switches), mediated in PtxtMYB021 activation by an AC element. The high observed secondary cell wall specificity of GT43B expression prompted tests of the efficiency of its promoter (pGT43B), relative to the CaMV 35S (35S) promoter, for overexpressing a xylan acetyl esterase (CE5) or downregulating REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION (RWA) family genes and thus engineering wood acetylation. CE5 expression was weaker when driven by pGT43B, but it reduced wood acetyl content substantially more efficiently than the 35S promoter. RNAi silencing of the RWA family, which was ineffective using 35S, was achieved when using GT43B promoter. These results show the utility of the GT43B promoter for genetically engineering properties of wood and fibres. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Toxicity of tetracyclines and tetracycline degradation products to environmentally relevant bacteria, including selected tetracycline-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, B.; Sengeløv, G.; Tjørnelund, J.

    2002-01-01

    solution were theoretically identified at various environmental conditions, such as pH, presence of chelating, metals, and fight. Their potency was assessed on sludge bacteria, tetracycline-sensitive soil bacteria, and tetracycline-resistant strains. Several of the degradation products had potency...

  9. Individual differences in plasma ALT, AST and GGT: contributions of genetic and environmental factors, including alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, J B; Martin, N G

    1985-01-01

    The causes of individuality of the plasma enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT; EC 2.6.1.2), aspartate aminotransferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT; EC 2.3.2.2) were investigated in a study of 206 pairs of twins. Between-person variance was greater in men than women, while within-person variation was similar in both sexes. Plasma ALT and AST levels were affected by genetic factors, while GGT was affected by some environmental factor shared by co-twins. In the men, alcohol intake had a significant but small effect on all three enzyme levels, and since alcohol consumption was highly heritable, this appeared as a genetic influence on enzyme activities. The major factors involved in the observed correlations between these enzymes were a non-shared environmental factor other than alcohol affecting ALT, AST and GGT, and a genetic factor affecting only ALT and AST.

  10. Interim staff position on environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment: including staff responses to public comments. Regulatory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szukiewicz, A.J.

    1981-07-01

    This document provides the NRC staff positions regarding selected areas of environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment, in the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-24, 'Qualification of Class IE Safety-Related Equipment.' The positions herein are applicable to plants that are or will be in the construction permit (CP) or operating license (OL) review process and that are required to satisfy the requirements set forth in either the 1971 or the 1974 version of IEEE-323 standard

  11. Variations in Carabidae assemblages across the farmland habitats in relation to selected environmental variables including soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Baranová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The variations in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae assemblages across the three types of farmland habitats, arable land, meadows and woody vegetation were studied in relation to vegetation cover structure, intensity of agrotechnical interventions and selected soil properties. Material was pitfall trapped in 2010 and 2011 on twelve sites of the agricultural landscape in the Prešov town and its near vicinity, Eastern Slovakia. A total of 14,763 ground beetle individuals were entrapped. Material collection resulted into 92 Carabidae species, with the following six species dominating: Poecilus cupreus, Pterostichus melanarius, Pseudoophonus rufipes, Brachinus crepitans, Anchomenus dorsalis and Poecilus versicolor. Studied habitats differed significantly in the number of entrapped individuals, activity abundance as well as representation of the carabids according to their habitat preferences and ability to fly. However, no significant distinction was observed in the diversity, evenness neither dominance. The most significant environmental variables affecting Carabidae assemblages species variability were soil moisture and herb layer 0-20 cm. Another best variables selected by the forward selection were intensity of agrotechnical interventions, humus content and shrub vegetation. The other from selected soil properties seem to have just secondary meaning for the adult carabids. Environmental variables have the strongest effect on the habitat specialists, whereas ground beetles without special requirements to the habitat quality seem to be affected by the studied environmental variables just little.

  12. Method Modification for the AtlasListeriaEnvironmental LE Detection Assay Using FoodChek ActeroListeriaEnrichment Media and Half-Fraser Media for the Detection ofListeriaspp. from Environmental Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Brett; Lopez, Tucker; Neal, Cambria; Verver, Sarah; Puente, Celina; Lauffer, Jannelle; Garcia, Joseph; Groschel, Bettina; Dreyling, Erin; Chaney, W Evan; Bastin, Ben; Bird, Patrick; Benzinger, M Joseph; Agin, James; Goins, David; Hariram, Upasana; Chen, Yi; Ryser, Elliot; Brodsky, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Two candidate method modifications for the Atlas Listeria Environmental LE Detection Assay were compared with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook 8.09 (MLG 8.09) method for detection of Listeria spp. on stainless steel, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and sealed concrete surfaces. For LE candidate method 1, samples were enriched in FoodChek Actero Listeria Enrichment Media [ALEM; Performance Tested MethodSM (PTM) 111201] at 35 ± 2°C for 18 to 24 h and evaluated for a range of analytical sample volumes. For LE candidate method 2, the current Roka PTM using 90 mL of Half-Fraser broth for enrichment at 35 ± 2°C was evaluated at 24 h with a reduced sample volume. These comparisons were made in multiple studies across the three environmental surfaces. Within each method and study, a total of 5 samples were uninoculated, 20 samples were inoculated with Listeria spp. at a low level to target fractional positivity, and 5 samples were inoculated with Listeria spp. at a high level to approach a probability of detection of 1. Inclusivity and exclusivity studies were also conducted for the LE method in combination with Half-Fraser and ALEM. The Atlas Listeria Environmental LE Detection Assay detected all 50 inclusive organisms, including 25 strains of L. monocytogenes and 5 strains of each of the other five common species of Listeria (L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri, and L. grayi) and none of the 30 exclusive organisms across all media and with both 200 and 2000 µL sample volumes. For the LE candidate method 1 studies, no significant differences were observed within the Roka ALEM method at 18, 20, or 24 h and for both the 200 and 2000 µL sample volumes as compared with the paired culture outcome. However, the ALEM method performed significantly better as compared with the unpaired reference method for sealed concrete and stainless steel. For the LE candidate method 2 studies, no

  13. Environmental impact assessment required in case of a modification of nuclear power plant operation. BVerwG, decision of 23 April 1996 - Az. 11 B 96/95 (Munich)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses a ruling of the Federal Administrative Court, relating to a complaint by an individual person against an essential modification of the operation of a nuclear reactor station, raising the question of whether a citizen affected by this essential modification can claim on the basis of the EC Council Directive on environmental impact statements to be filed for defined private or public projects, that prior to this essential modification, an environmental impact assessment be carried out, the results to be taken into account by the licensing authority. The complaint was dismissed. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Emission and costs up to and including 2030 for the current environmental policy. Background information for the National Environmental Outlook 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wee, G.P.; Kuijpers-Linde, M.A.J.; Van Gerwen, O.J.

    2001-03-01

    Every four years the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) publishes an Environmental Outlook in preparation for the National Environmental Policy Plan (NEPP). The fifth National Environmental Outlook (NEOS) describes developments in the quality of the environment in the Netherlands for 2000-2030 against a background of developments on the European and global scales. The two macro-economic scenarios of the Netherlands Bureau for Economic and Policy Analysis (CPB) used are the European Coordination (EC) scenario and the Global Competition scenario (GC). Consequences for public health, nature and the human physical environment are also indicated. 'Fixed policy' scenarios are used in the Environmental Outlook for the Netherlands. In 'fixed policy' scenarios it is assumed that all policy measures agreed on by the year 2000 will be implemented, but no new measures taken. In this way the Outlook offers baseline scenarios that can be compared with targets and objectives to facilitate the development of new policy. The Fifth National Environmental Outlook was realised with the assistance of many other Dutch research institutes. This background document to NEOS presents estimated levels of energy use, emissions and costs of environmental measures for the 1995-2020 period. The main conclusions are: The environmental problems most difficult to tackle are climate change and noise nuisance. These problems are highly related to energy use and transportation; The policy as presented in the 'Uitvoeringsnota Klimaatbeleid', a document describing the Dutch Kyoto-related climate policy, results in a reduction of greenhouse gases of 15 Mton CO2 equivalents (GS scenario) with respect to the pre-Kyoto policy in 2010. To meet the Kyoto agreements a further reduction of approximately 45 Mton CO2 equivalents is needed. If policies in the 'Uitvoeringsnota Klimaatbeleid' are further instrumentalised and made concrete, an extra reduction of 10 Mton is possible

  15. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  16. Environmental Profile of the Swiss Supply Chain for French Fries: Effects of Food Loss Reduction, Loss Treatments and Process Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Mouron

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of food is responsible for major environmental impacts. Bearing this in mind, it is even worse when food is lost rather than consumed. In Switzerland, 46% of all processing potatoes and 53% of all fresh potatoes are lost on their way from field to fork. Our study therefore compares the environmental impacts of losses of fresh potatoes with those of French fries. With the aid of a Life Cycle Assessment, we assessed the impact categories “demand for nonrenewable energy resources”, “global warming potential”, “human toxicity”, “terrestrial ecotoxicity” and “aquatic ecotoxicity”. Our results show that 1 kg of potatoes consumed as French fries causes 3–5 times more environmental impacts than the same quantity of fresh potatoes, but also that the proportion of impacts relating to losses is considerably lower for French fries (5%–10% vs. 23%–39%. The great majority of processing potato losses occur before the resource-intensive, emission-rich frying processes and therefore the environmental “backpack” carried by each lost potato is still relatively small. Nonetheless, appropriate loss treatment can substantially reduce the environmental impact of potato losses. In the case of French fries, the frying processes and frying oil are the main “hot spots” of environmental impacts, accounting for a considerably higher proportion of damage than potato losses; it is therefore also useful to look at these processes.

  17. Shaping of macroinvertebrate structures in a small fishless lowland stream exposed to anthropopressure, including the environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krepski Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In studies of abiotic and biotic factors influencing macroinvertebrate assemblages, there is always the problem of which factor – fish predation or environmental conditions – has the strongest impact on the invertebrates and whether the impact is positive or negative. The aim of our study was to determine the impact on the structures of macrozoobenthos in a small field watercourse exerted by abiotic conditions, with the concurrent lack of predators and varied intensity of anthropopressure. During the entire study period, the presence of 49 taxa of macroinvertebrates was recorded. The highest number of taxa and value of biodiversity was observed in the upper part of the watercourse, and subsequently decreased down the stream, reaching the lowest value at the sites located near the outlet. The tributaries significantly differed between each other in the number of taxa. In the tributary carrying water from wetland, a much higher number of taxa was noted than in the tributary carrying municipal water where the density achieved a significantly higher value of individuals than the remaining sites. The most limiting factors for the abundance of the investigated taxa were the oxygen concentration, nutrients and ammonia.

  18. Environmental assessment of bioenergy technologies application in Russia, including their impact on the balance of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Irina; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, Russia adopted a policy towards increasing of the share of renewable energy in total amount of used energy, albeit with some delay comparing to the EU countries and the USA. It was expected that the use of biofuels over time will reduce significantly the dependency of Russian economy on fossil fuels, increase its competitiveness, and increase Russian contribution to the prevention of global climate changes. Russia has significant bio-energy potential and resources which are characterized by great diversity due to the large extent of the territory, which require systematic studies and environmental assessment of used bio-energy technologies. Results of research carried at the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, modeling and prediction of ecosystems RSAU-MTAA demonstrated significant differences in the assessment of the environmental, economic and social effects of biofuel production and use, depending on the species of bio-energy crops, regional soil-ecological and agro-climatic characteristics, applied farming systems and production processes. The total area of temporarily unused and fallow land, which could be allocated to the active agricultural use in Russia, according to various estimates, ranges from 20 to 33 million hectares, which removes the problem, typical of most European countries, of adverse agro-ecological changes in land use connected with the expansion of bio-energy crops cultivation. However, the expansion of biofuel production through the use of fallow land and conversion of natural lands has as a consequence the problem of greenhouse gas emissions due to land use changes, which, according to FAO, could be even higher than CO2 emission from fossil fuels for some of bio-energy raw materials and production systems. Assessment of the total impacts of biofuels on greenhouse gas emissions in the Russian conditions should be based on regionally adapted calculations of flows throughout the entire life cycle of production, taking

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance gene transfer analysis of foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria spp. isolates including Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, David; Muelli, Mirjam; Weller, Monika; Uruty, Anaïs; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess antibiotic resistance pheno- and genotypes in foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria isolates, as well as to elucidate the horizontal gene transfer potential of detected resistance genes. A small fraction of in total 524 Listeria spp. isolates (3.1%) displayed acquired antibiotic resistance mainly to tetracycline (n = 11), but also to clindamycin (n = 4) and trimethoprim (n = 3), which was genotypically confirmed. In two cases, a tetracycline resistance phenotype was observed together with a trimethoprim resistance phenotype, namely in a clinical L. monocytogenes strain and in a foodborne L. innocua isolate. Depending on the applied guidelines, a differing number of isolates (n = 2 or n = 20) showed values for ampicillin that are on the edge between intermediate susceptibility and resistance. Transferability of the antibiotic resistance genes from the Listeria donors, elucidated in vitro by filter matings, was demonstrated for genes located on transposons of the Tn916 family and for an unknown clindamycin resistance determinant. Transfer rates of up to 10(-5) transconjugants per donor were obtained with a L. monocytogenes recipient and up to 10(-7) with an Enterococcus faecalis recipient, respectively. Although the prevalence of acquired antibiotic resistance in Listeria isolates from this study was rather low, the transferability of these resistances enables further spread in the future. This endorses the importance of surveillance of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in terms of antibiotic susceptibility. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Environmental Assessment for Modification to Coalition Village and Construction of Permanent Parking Lots MacDill AFB, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    health of “sensitive” populations such as asthmatics, children , and the elderly. Secondary standards define levels of air quality necessary to protect...Environmental Assesment on paving parking lot to support USCENTCOM operation due construction of Coalition Village. The EA is legally sufficient, no

  1. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  2. Permit application modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils

  3. RCRA Part B permit modifications for cost savings and increased flexibility at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jierree, C.; Ticknor, K.

    1996-10-01

    With shrinking budgets and downsizing, a need for streamlined compliance initiatives became evident at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Therefore, Rocky Mountain Remediation Services (RMRS) at the RFETS successfully and quickly modified the RFETS RCRA Part B Permit to obtain significant cost savings and increased flexibility. This 'was accomplished by requesting operations personnel to suggest changes to the Part B Permit which did not diminish overall compliance and which would be most. cost beneficial. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) subsequently obtained approval of those changes from the Colorado Department of Public Health and the Environment (CDPHE)

  4. Developmental variations in environmental influences including endocrine disruptors on pubertal timing and neuroendocrine control: Revision of human observations and mechanistic insight from rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Gérard, Arlette; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Puberty presents remarkable individual differences in timing reaching over 5 years in humans. We put emphasis on the two edges of the age distribution of pubertal signs in humans and point to an extended distribution towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final pubertal stages. Such distortion of distribution is a recent phenomenon. This suggests changing environmental influences including the possible role of nutrition, stress and endocrine disruptors. Our ability to assess neuroendocrine effects and mechanisms is very limited in humans. Using the rodent as a model, we examine the impact of environmental factors on the individual variations in pubertal timing and the possible underlying mechanisms. The capacity of environmental factors to shape functioning of the neuroendocrine system is thought to be maximal during fetal and early postnatal life and possibly less important when approaching the time of onset of puberty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Agronomic and environmental soil test phosphorus method comparisons and diet modification impacts on poultry litter phosphorus composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Branly

    Phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields to freshwater ecosystems is of increasing concern due to elevated soil P levels brought on by long term and excessive application rates of manure and commercial fertilizers. Both Bray P1 and Mehlich-3 P (PM3) soil tests are used in Indiana to make fertilizer recommendations and to limit manure application rates. The Mehlich-3 P Saturation Ratio (PSRM3) has been proposed as an alternative to PM3 and the ammonium oxalate degree of P saturation (DPSOX) for assessing the risk of soluble P loss from soils. We assessed the correlations among agronomic soil test methods (PM3 and Bray P1), environmental soil test methods (soluble P: deionized water, DW; artificial rainwater, ARW; dilute salt extractable P, DSEP), ammonium oxalate P (POX), total P (TP), and P saturation methods from 565 Indiana surface soil samples. Significant correlations were found among the various STP methods evaluated, and Bray P1 and PM3 displayed the strongest coefficient of correlation (r = 0.93, p highly significant ( p diets containing different amounts of DDGS and dietary fumeric acid on P excretion and P transformations during litter storage. Total P and phytate P were significantly (pdiets. Phytate P, on the other hand, was reduced by 38, 37, and 47% for day 0, 7, and 14 of storage, respectively. Overall, DDGS influenced the forms of P in poultry litter with phytate P being the most impacted. The inclusion of DDGS in poultry diets seems promising as it can potentially decrease the levels of phytate P in poultry litters, which is of may be of environmental significance as phytate P can desorb inorganic P in soils.

  6. Does temporal variation of mercury levels in Arctic seabirds reflect changes in global environmental contamination, or a modification of Arctic marine food web functioning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, Jérôme; Grémillet, David; Traisnel, Gwendoline; Amélineau, Françoise; Bustamante, Paco

    2016-01-01

    Studying long-term trends of contaminants in Arctic biota is essential to better understand impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the exposure of sensitive species and marine ecosystems. We concurrently measured temporal changes (2006–2014) in mercury (Hg) contamination of little auks (Alle alle; the most abundant Arctic seabird) and in their major zooplankton prey species (Calanoid copepods, Themisto libellula, Gammarus spp.). We found an increasing contamination of the food-chain in East Greenland during summer over the last decade. More specifically, bird contamination (determined by body feather analyses) has increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Conversely, bird exposure to Hg during winter in the northwest Atlantic (determined by head feather analyses) decreased over the study period (at a rate of 1.5% per year), although winter concentrations remained consistently higher than during summer. By combining mercury levels measured in birds and zooplankton to isotopic analyses, our results demonstrate that inter-annual variations of Hg levels in little auks reflect changes in food-chain contamination, rather than a reorganization of the food web and a modification of seabird trophic ecology. They therefore underline the value of little auks, and Arctic seabirds in general, as bio-indicators of long-term changes in environmental contamination. - Highlights: • We examined temporal trends of Hg in Arctic seabirds and major zooplankton species. • We investigated the role of underlying ecological drivers in seabird contamination. • Hg contamination of the East Greenland marine food web increased over the last decade. • Hg levels in Arctic seabirds reflect changes in the food-chain contamination. • Little auks are bio-indicators of long-term changes in environmental contamination. - Temporal increase of seabird exposure to Hg reflects changes in Arctic environmental contamination.

  7. Validation of a modification to Performance-Tested Method 010403: microwell DNA hybridization assay for detection of Listeria spp. in selected foods and selected environmental surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alles, Susan; Peng, Linda X; Mozola, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    A modification to Performance-Tested Method 010403, GeneQuence Listeria Test (DNAH method), is described. The modified method uses a new media formulation, LESS enrichment broth, in single-step enrichment protocols for both foods and environmental sponge and swab samples. Food samples are enriched for 27-30 h at 30 degrees C, and environmental samples for 24-48 h at 30 degrees C. Implementation of these abbreviated enrichment procedures allows test results to be obtained on a next-day basis. In testing of 14 food types in internal comparative studies with inoculated samples, there were statistically significant differences in method performance between the DNAH method and reference culture procedures for only 2 foods (pasteurized crab meat and lettuce) at the 27 h enrichment time point and for only a single food (pasteurized crab meat) in one trial at the 30 h enrichment time point. Independent laboratory testing with 3 foods showed statistical equivalence between the methods for all foods, and results support the findings of the internal trials. Overall, considering both internal and independent laboratory trials, sensitivity of the DNAH method relative to the reference culture procedures was 90.5%. Results of testing 5 environmental surfaces inoculated with various strains of Listeria spp. showed that the DNAH method was more productive than the reference U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) culture procedure for 3 surfaces (stainless steel, plastic, and cast iron), whereas results were statistically equivalent to the reference method for the other 2 surfaces (ceramic tile and sealed concrete). An independent laboratory trial with ceramic tile inoculated with L. monocytogenes confirmed the effectiveness of the DNAH method at the 24 h time point. Overall, sensitivity of the DNAH method at 24 h relative to that of the USDA-FSIS method was 152%. The DNAH method exhibited extremely high specificity, with only 1% false

  8. The influence of environmental exposure to complex mixtures including PAHs and lead on genotoxic effects in children living in Upper Silesia, Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielzynska, Danuta; Siwinska, Ewa; Kapka, Lucyna

    2006-01-01

    Environmental exposure is a complex mixture of hazardous compounds with different mechanisms of toxicity. In case of concomitant exposure to carcinogenic substances--such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)--and to heavy metals--such as lead (Pb)--the level of DNA damage may be enhanced...... and to investigate their relation with the environmental exposure to PAHs and Pb. The examined population included 74 children 5-14-year-old who lived in two cities located in the most polluted centre of the Silesia province. Individual exposure to lead was assessed for each child by measuring lead in blood (Pb....... Emissions from coal-burning stoves are important contributors to the total exposure to PAHs and Pb in Silesian children....

  9. Environmental Baseline Survey for Proposed Land Use Permit Modification for Expansion of the Dynamic Explosive Test Site (DETS) 9940 Main Complex Parking Lot.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W.

    2016-02-01

    The approach was to perform a document search, supplemented by a visual site inspection, to identify potential environmental contamination associated with the property. Factors evaluated included hazardous substances; petroleum products and derivatives; environmental restoration sites; areas of concern; storage tanks; oil/water separators; grease traps; wash racks; waste tanks; pesticides; military munitions/ordnance; medical or bio-hazardous waste; radioactive waste; solid/municipal waste; indoor air quality; groundwater; wastewater treatment, collection, and disposal/discharge; drinking water quality; utilities; asbestos; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); radon; lead-based paint; cultural resources; floodplains; and natural/biological resources.

  10. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Ralstonia pickettii and Ralstonia insidiosa isolates from clinical and environmental sources including High-purity Water.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Michael P

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background Ralstonia pickettii is a nosocomial infectious agent and a significant industrial contaminant. It has been found in many different environments including clinical situations, soil and industrial High Purity Water. This study compares the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of a selection of strains of Ralstonia collected from a variety of sources. Results Ralstonia isolates (fifty-nine) from clinical, industrial and environmental origins were compared genotypically using i) Species-specific-PCR, ii) PCR and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA Interspatial region (ISR) iii) the fliC gene genes, iv) RAPD and BOX-PCR and v) phenotypically using biochemical testing. The species specific-PCR identified fifteen out of fifty-nine designated R. pickettii isolates as actually being the closely related species R. insidiosa. PCR-ribotyping of the 16S-23S rRNA ISR indicated few major differences between the isolates. Analysis of all isolates demonstrated different banding patterns for both the RAPD and BOX primers however these were found not to vary significantly. Conclusions R. pickettii species isolated from wide geographic and environmental sources appear to be reasonably homogenous based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. R. insidiosa can at present only be distinguished from R. pickettii using species specific PCR. R. pickettii and R. insidiosa isolates do not differ significantly phenotypically or genotypically based on environmental or geographical origin.

  11. Environmental Impact Assessment of a School Building in Iceland Using LCA-Including the Effect of Long Distance Transport of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargessadat Emami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the key components of urban areas and society as a complex system. A life cycle assessment was applied to estimate the environmental impacts of the resources applied in the building envelope, floor slabs, and interior walls of the Vættaskóli-Engi building in Reykjavik, Iceland. The scope of this study included four modules of extraction and transportation of raw material to the manufacturing site, production of the construction materials, and transport to the building site, as described in the standard EN 15804. The total environmental effects of the school building in terms of global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, human toxicity, acidification, and eutrophication were calculated. The total global warming potential impact was equal to 255 kg of CO2 eq/sqm, which was low compared to previous studies and was due to the limited system boundary of the current study. The effect of long-distance overseas transport of materials was noticeable in terms of acidification (25% and eutrophication (31% while it was negligible in other impact groups. The results also concluded that producing the cement in Iceland caused less environmental impact in all five impact categories compared to the case in which the cement was imported from Germany. The major contribution of this work is that the environmental impacts of different plans for domestic production or import of construction materials to Iceland can be precisely assessed in order to identify effective measures to move towards a sustainable built environment in Iceland, and also to provide consistent insights for stakeholders.

  12. Does temporal variation of mercury levels in Arctic seabirds reflect changes in global environmental contamination, or a modification of Arctic marine food web functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Jérôme; Grémillet, David; Traisnel, Gwendoline; Amélineau, Françoise; Bustamante, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Studying long-term trends of contaminants in Arctic biota is essential to better understand impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the exposure of sensitive species and marine ecosystems. We concurrently measured temporal changes (2006-2014) in mercury (Hg) contamination of little auks (Alle alle; the most abundant Arctic seabird) and in their major zooplankton prey species (Calanoid copepods, Themisto libellula, Gammarus spp.). We found an increasing contamination of the food-chain in East Greenland during summer over the last decade. More specifically, bird contamination (determined by body feather analyses) has increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Conversely, bird exposure to Hg during winter in the northwest Atlantic (determined by head feather analyses) decreased over the study period (at a rate of 1.5% per year), although winter concentrations remained consistently higher than during summer. By combining mercury levels measured in birds and zooplankton to isotopic analyses, our results demonstrate that inter-annual variations of Hg levels in little auks reflect changes in food-chain contamination, rather than a reorganization of the food web and a modification of seabird trophic ecology. They therefore underline the value of little auks, and Arctic seabirds in general, as bio-indicators of long-term changes in environmental contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Single particle ICP-MS as a tool for determining the stability of silver nanoparticles in aquatic matrixes under various environmental conditions, including treatment by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telgmann, Lena; Nguyen, Michael Thanh Khoa; Shen, Li; Yargeau, Viviane; Hintelmann, Holger; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2016-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in a large number of consumer products due to their antimicrobial and antifungal properties, and these materials may be discharged into municipal wastewater. Wastewater treatment, including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), may modify the forms of silver in wastewater before they are discharged into surface waters. In addition, little is known about the changes in AgNPs that occur in natural waters under different environmental conditions. In this project, we utilized single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analytical techniques to evaluate changes in the number and size of AgNPs in laboratory experiments with milliQ water under different environmental conditions, as well as during ozonation. Changes in the number and size of AgNPs determined by spICP-MS were evidence of altered stability of the nanoparticles. Increased rates of dissolution occurred under extremes of pH. Lower temperature decreased the rate of dissolution of AgNP relative to the dissolution in treatments at room temperature. The addition of chloride resulted in the loss of AgNPs from suspension due to agglomeration and precipitation. Ozonation led to a rapid decline in the number and size of AgNPs, as indicated by both spICP-MS and DLS analysis. An increase in the concentration of dissolved silver in the ozone treatments was evidence that changes in particle size were a result of oxidative dissolution of AgNPs to silver ion. Graphical abstract Single particle ICP-MS is used to evaluate dissolution of silver nanoparticles under different environmental conditions, including water treatment by ozonation.

  14. Validation of a modification to Performance-Tested Method 070601: Reveal Listeria Test for detection of Listeria spp. in selected foods and selected environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alles, Susan; Peng, Linda X; Mozola, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    A modification to Performance-Tested Method (PTM) 070601, Reveal Listeria Test (Reveal), is described. The modified method uses a new media formulation, LESS enrichment broth, in single-step enrichment protocols for both foods and environmental sponge and swab samples. Food samples are enriched for 27-30 h at 30 degrees C and environmental samples for 24-48 h at 30 degrees C. Implementation of these abbreviated enrichment procedures allows test results to be obtained on a next-day basis. In testing of 14 food types in internal comparative studies with inoculated samples, there was a statistically significant difference in performance between the Reveal and reference culture [U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM) or U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS)] methods for only a single food in one trial (pasteurized crab meat) at the 27 h enrichment time point, with more positive results obtained with the FDA/BAM reference method. No foods showed statistically significant differences in method performance at the 30 h time point. Independent laboratory testing of 3 foods again produced a statistically significant difference in results for crab meat at the 27 h time point; otherwise results of the Reveal and reference methods were statistically equivalent. Overall, considering both internal and independent laboratory trials, sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture procedures in testing of foods was 85.9% at 27 h and 97.1% at 30 h. Results from 5 environmental surfaces inoculated with various strains of Listeria spp. showed that the Reveal method was more productive than the reference USDA-FSIS culture procedure for 3 surfaces (stainless steel, plastic, and cast iron), whereas results were statistically equivalent to the reference method for the other 2 surfaces (ceramic tile and sealed concrete). An independent laboratory trial with ceramic tile inoculated with L

  15. Evaluating the potential for site-specific modification of LiDAR DEM derivatives to improve environmental planning-scale wetland identification using Random Forest classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Gina L.; Goodall, Jonathan L.; Watson, Layne T.

    2018-04-01

    Wetlands are important ecosystems that provide many ecological benefits, and their quality and presence are protected by federal regulations. These regulations require wetland delineations, which can be costly and time-consuming to perform. Computer models can assist in this process, but lack the accuracy necessary for environmental planning-scale wetland identification. In this study, the potential for improvement of wetland identification models through modification of digital elevation model (DEM) derivatives, derived from high-resolution and increasingly available light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, at a scale necessary for small-scale wetland delineations is evaluated. A novel approach of flow convergence modelling is presented where Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), curvature, and Cartographic Depth-to-Water index (DTW), are modified to better distinguish wetland from upland areas, combined with ancillary soil data, and used in a Random Forest classification. This approach is applied to four study sites in Virginia, implemented as an ArcGIS model. The model resulted in significant improvement in average wetland accuracy compared to the commonly used National Wetland Inventory (84.9% vs. 32.1%), at the expense of a moderately lower average non-wetland accuracy (85.6% vs. 98.0%) and average overall accuracy (85.6% vs. 92.0%). From this, we concluded that modifying TWI, curvature, and DTW provides more robust wetland and non-wetland signatures to the models by improving accuracy rates compared to classifications using the original indices. The resulting ArcGIS model is a general tool able to modify these local LiDAR DEM derivatives based on site characteristics to identify wetlands at a high resolution.

  16. Environmental Toxin Acrolein Alters Levels of Endogenous Lipids, Including TRP Agonists: A Potential Mechanism for Headache Driven by TRPA1 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Emma; Kunkler, Phillip E; Manchanda, Meera; Sangani, Kishan; Stuart, Jordyn M; Oxford, Gerry S; Hurley, Joyce H; Bradshaw, Heather B

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to airborne toxins can trigger headaches, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Some environmental toxins, such as acrolein, activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a receptor involved in pain sensation that is highly expressed in the trigeminovascular system. It has been shown in rat models that repeated exposure to acrolein induces trigeminovascular sensitization to both TRPA1 and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonists, a phenomenon linked to headache. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the sensitization of trigeminovascular responses in rats after acrolein exposure via inhalation is associated with changes in levels of endogenous lipids, including TRPV1 agonists, in the trigeminal ganglia, trigeminal nucleus, and cerebellum. Lipidomics analysis of 80 lipids was performed on each tissue after acute acrolein, chronic acrolein, or room air control. Both acute and chronic acrolein exposure drove widespread alterations in lipid levels. After chronic acrolein exposure, levels of all 6 N -acyl ethanolamines in the screening library, including the endogenous cannabinoid and TRPV1 agonist, N -arachidonoyl ethanolamine, were elevated in trigeminal tissue and in the cerebellum. This increase in TRPV1 ligands by acrolein exposure may indicate further downstream signaling, in that we also show here that a combination of these TRPV1 endogenous agonists increases the potency of the individual ligands in TRPV1-HEK cells. In addition to these TRPV1 agonists, 3 TRPV3 antagonists, 4 TRPV4 agonists, and 25 orphan lipids were up and down regulated after acrolein exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lipid signaling may represent a mechanism by which repeated exposure to the TRPA1 agonist and environmental toxin, acrolein, drives trigeminovascular sensitization.

  17. Environmental toxin acrolein alters levels of endogenous lipids, including TRP agonists: A potential mechanism for headache driven by TRPA1 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leishman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to airborne toxins can trigger headaches, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Some environmental toxins, such as acrolein, activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1, a receptor involved in pain sensation that is highly expressed in the trigeminovascular system. It has been shown in rat models that repeated exposure to acrolein induces trigeminovascular sensitization to both TRPA1 and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 agonists, a phenomenon linked to headache. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the sensitization of trigeminovascular responses in rats after acrolein exposure via inhalation is associated with changes in levels of endogenous lipids, including TRPV1 agonists, in the trigeminal ganglia, trigeminal nucleus, and cerebellum. Lipidomics analysis of 80 lipids was performed on each tissue after acute acrolein, chronic acrolein, or room air control. Both acute and chronic acrolein exposure drove widespread alterations in lipid levels. After chronic acrolein exposure, levels of all 6 N-acyl ethanolamines in the screening library, including the endogenous cannabinoid and TRPV1 agonist, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine, were elevated in trigeminal tissue and in the cerebellum. This increase in TRPV1 ligands by acrolein exposure may indicate further downstream signaling, in that we also show here that a combination of these TRPV1 endogenous agonists increases the potency of the individual ligands in TRPV1-HEK cells. In addition to these TRPV1 agonists, 3 TRPV3 antagonists, 4 TRPV4 agonists, and 25 orphan lipids were up and down regulated after acrolein exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lipid signaling may represent a mechanism by which repeated exposure to the TRPA1 agonist and environmental toxin, acrolein, drives trigeminovascular sensitization. Keywords: Lipidomics, Endogenous cannabinoid, TRPA1, TRPV1, Lipoamine, Acrolein, Migraine

  18. Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications - including criteria for Sb and As; Miljoeriktlinjer foer askanvaendning i anlaeggningsbyggande - inklusive haltkriterier foer Sb och As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, David; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden)); Jones, Celia; Pettersson, Michael; Elert, Mark (Kemakta, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-07-15

    exposure scenarios including exposure pathways and points of compliance. Risk evaluation becomes an issue of comparing the estimated (-modeled) increased concentrations at specified target points with general human and environmental toxicological criteria. Guidelines have been calculated for two different types of constructions, with or without an impermeable (asphalt-) pavement that prevents rain water from infiltrating into the road. Also the possible exposure of intruding ground water has been taken into account. A set of ashes, for which data on total content and leachability was available in the ALLASKA and MALTE database, have been classified according to three categories of applications/situations. The results show that due to lack of data it could not be assessed whether naphthalene, bens(a)pyren and selen in ashes imply an insignificant risk or not. Cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, molybdenum, nickel and zinc generally shows a large margin to the calculated guidelines for total content and leachability for most ashes. Thus, ashes in constructions constitute an acceptable risk with respect to these elements. Antimony and lead in ashes fall above the guideline values for leaching in some cases. The total content of arsenic in many ashes exceeds the guideline values when used in an unpaved construction even when taking the oral bioavailabity of arsenic in ashes in consideration. To a lesser extent this also holds for total content of lead. Accordingly, it can not be excluded that the reuse of some ashes in some applications may imply a certain risk. Spreading as dust, deposition on vegetables and the subsequent intake has reveled itself as an important exposure pathway. Little data, theory and models are available on dust generation and transport, the calculations made here are rough and conservative. Also, guidelines for the ash construction left in place in the post use phase are difficult to determine. The health risk associated with intake of vegetables and

  19. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  20. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  1. Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey for Proposed Land Use Permit Modification for Expansion of the Dynamic Explosive Test Site (DETS) 9940 Main Complex Parking Lot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The “subject property” is comprised of a parcel of land within the Kirtland Military Reservation, Bernalillo County, New Mexico, as shown on the map in Appendix B of this document. The land requirement for the parking lot addition to the 9940 Main Complex is approximately 2.7 acres. The scope of this Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey (SEBS) is for the parking lot addition land transfer only. For details on the original 9940 Main Complex see Environmental Baseline Survey, Land Use Permit Request for the 9940 Complex PERM/0-KI-00-0001, August 21, 2003, and for details on the 9940 Complex Expansion see Environmental Baseline Survey, Proposed Land Use Permit Expansion for 9940 DETS Complex, June 24, 2009. The 2.7-acre parcel of land for the new parking lot, which is the subject of this EBS (also referred to as the “subject property”), is adjacent to the southwest boundary of the original 12.3- acre 9940 Main Complex. No testing is known to have taken place on the subject property site. The only activity known to have taken place was the burial of overhead utility lines in 2014. Adjacent to the subject property, the 9940 Main Complex was originally a 12.3-acre site used by the Department of Energy (DOE) under a land use permit from the United States Air Force (USAF). Historical use of the site, dating from 1964, included arming, fusing, and firing of explosives and testing of explosives systems components. In the late 1970s and early 1980s experiments at the 9940 Main Complex shifted toward reactor safety issues. From 1983 to 1988, fuel coolant interaction (FCI) experiments were conducted, as were experiments with conventional high explosives (HE). Today, the land is used for training of the Nuclear Emergency Response community and for research on energetic materials. In 2009, the original complex was expanded to include four additional 20-acre areas: 9940 Training South, 9940 Training East, T-Range 6, and Training West Landing Zone. The proposed use of

  2. Understanding Environmental Change and Biodiversity in a Dryland Ecosystem through Quantification of Climate Variability and Land Modification: The Case of the Dhofar Cloud Forest, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletti, Christopher S.

    The Dhofar Cloud Forest is one of the most diverse ecosystems on the Arabian Peninsula. As part of the South Arabian Cloud Forest that extends from southern Oman to Yemen, the cloud forest is an important center of endemism and provides valuable ecosystem services to those living in the region. There have been various claims made about the health of the cloud forest and its surrounding region, the most prominent of which are: 1) variability of the Indian Summer Monsoon threatens long-term vegetation health, and 2) human encroachment is causing deforestation and land degradation. This dissertation uses three independent studies to test these claims and bring new insight about the biodiversity of the cloud forest. Evidence is presented that shows that the vegetation dynamics of the cloud forest are resilient to most of the variability in the monsoon. Much of the biodiversity in the cloud forest is dominated by a few species with high abundance and a moderate number of species at low abundance. The characteristic tree species include Anogeissus dhofarica and Commiphora spp. These species tend to dominate the forested regions of the study area. Grasslands are dominated by species associated with overgrazing (Calotropis procera and Solanum incanum). Analysis from a land cover study conducted between 1988 and 2013 shows that deforestation has occurred to approximately 8% of the study area and decreased vegetation fractions are found throughout the region. Areas around the city of Salalah, located close to the cloud forest, show widespread degradation in the 21st century based on an NDVI time series analysis. It is concluded that humans are the primary driver of environmental change. Much of this change is tied to national policies and development priorities implemented after the Dhofar War in the 1970's.

  3. Medication for Behavior Modification in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    The use of behavior modifying drugs may be considered in birds with behavior problems, especially those refractory to behavior modification therapy and environmental management. To accomplish behavior change, a variety of drugs can be used, including psychoactive drugs, hormones, antihistamines, analgesics, and anticonvulsants. Because their prescription to birds is off-label, these drugs are considered appropriate only when a sound rationale can be provided for their use. This requires a (correct) behavioral diagnosis to be established. In addition, regular monitoring and follow-up are warranted to determine the efficacy of the treatment and evaluate the occurrence of potential adverse side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Short- and medium-term efficacy of a Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention for adults including cognitive and environmental feedback: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springvloet, Linda; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein; Candel, Math J J M; Oenema, Anke

    2015-01-19

    Web-based, computer-tailored nutrition education interventions can be effective in modifying self-reported dietary behaviors. Traditional computer-tailored programs primarily targeted individual cognitions (knowledge, awareness, attitude, self-efficacy). Tailoring on additional variables such as self-regulation processes and environmental-level factors (the home food environment arrangement and perception of availability and prices of healthy food products in supermarkets) may improve efficacy and effect sizes (ES) of Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education interventions. This study evaluated the short- and medium-term efficacy and educational differences in efficacy of a cognitive and environmental feedback version of a Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention on self-reported fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake compared to generic nutrition information in the total sample and among participants who did not comply with dietary guidelines (the risk groups). A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a basic (tailored intervention targeting individual cognition and self-regulation processes; n=456), plus (basic intervention additionally targeting environmental-level factors; n=459), and control (generic nutrition information; n=434) group. Participants were recruited from the general population and randomly assigned to a study group. Self-reported fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake were assessed at baseline and at 1- (T1) and 4-months (T2) postintervention using online questionnaires. Linear mixed model analyses examined group differences in change over time. Educational differences were examined with group×time×education interaction terms. In the total sample, the basic (T1: ES=-0.30; T2: ES=-0.18) and plus intervention groups (T1: ES=-0.29; T2: ES=-0.27) had larger decreases in high-energy snack intake than the control group. The basic version resulted in a larger decrease in

  5. Measurement of Pyrethroids and Their Environmental Degradates in Fruits and Vegetables using a Modification of the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe (QuEChERS) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used extensively in agriculture and they, as well as their environmental degradates, may remain as residues on food products such as fruits and vegetables. Since pyrethroid degradates can be identical to the urinary markers used in human biomonitoring ...

  6. Positive environmental modification of depressive phenotype and abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in female C57BL/6J mice during abstinence from chronic ethanol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Y Pang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a commonly reported co-morbidity during rehabilitation from alcohol use disorders and its presence is associated with an increased likelihood of relapse. Interventions which impede the development of depression could be of potential benefit if incorporated into treatment programs. We previously demonstrated an ameliorative effect of physical exercise on depressive behaviours in a mouse model of alcohol abstinence. Here, we show that environmental enrichment (cognitive and social stimulation has a similar beneficial effect. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is a key physiological system regulating stress responses and its dysregulation has been separably implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and addiction disorders. We performed a series of dexamethasone challenges and found that mice undergoing 2 weeks of alcohol abstinence had significantly greater corticosterone and ACTH levels following a DEX-CRH challenge compared to water controls. Environmental enrichment during alcohol abstinence corrected the abnormal DEX-CRH corticosterone response despite a further elevation of ACTH levels. Examination of gene expression revealed abstinence-associated alterations in glucocorticoid receptor (Gr, corticotrophin releasing hormone (Crh and pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc1 mRNA levels which were differentially modulated by environmental enrichment. Overall, our study demonstrates a benefit of environmental enrichment on alcohol abstinence-associated depressive behaviours and HPA axis dysregulation.

  7. Chemical Protein Modification through Cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnoo, Smita B; Madder, Annemieke

    2016-04-01

    The modification of proteins with non-protein entities is important for a wealth of applications, and methods for chemically modifying proteins attract considerable attention. Generally, modification is desired at a single site to maintain homogeneity and to minimise loss of function. Though protein modification can be achieved by targeting some natural amino acid side chains, this often leads to ill-defined and randomly modified proteins. Amongst the natural amino acids, cysteine combines advantageous properties contributing to its suitability for site-selective modification, including a unique nucleophilicity, and a low natural abundance--both allowing chemo- and regioselectivity. Native cysteine residues can be targeted, or Cys can be introduced at a desired site in a protein by means of reliable genetic engineering techniques. This review on chemical protein modification through cysteine should appeal to those interested in modifying proteins for a range of applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Surface modification of materials to encourage beneficial biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amreeta Sarjit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are communities of sessile microorganisms that grow and produce extrapolymeric substances on an abiotic or biotic surface. Although biofilms are often associated with negative impacts, the role of beneficial biofilms is wide and include applications in bioremediation, wastewater treatment and microbial fuel cells. Microbial adhesion to a surface, which is highly dependent on the physicochemical properties of the cells and surfaces, is an essential step in biofilm formation. Surface modification therefore represents an important way to modulate microbial attachment and ultimately biofilm formation by microorganisms. In this review different surface modification processes such as organosilane surface modification, plasma treatment, and chemical modification of carbon nanotubes, electro-oxidation and covalent-immobilization with neutral red and methylene blue molecules are outlined. The effectiveness of these modifications and their industrial applications are also discussed. There is inadequate literature on surface modification as a process to enhance beneficial biofilm formation. These methods need to be safe, economically viable, scalable and environmental friendly and their potential to fulfil these criteria for many applications has yet to be determined.

  9. Effects of Cd and Ni toxicity to Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions in soft and hard water including a German lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Elisa, E-mail: Elisa.Andresen@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Opitz, Judith, E-mail: Daniela.Opitz@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Thomas, George, E-mail: George.Thomas@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Stärk, Hans-Joachim, E-mail: Ha-Jo.Staerk@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Dienemann, Holger, E-mail: Holger.Dienemann@smul.sachsen.de [Saxon State Company for Environment and Agriculture, Business Domain 5 (Laboratory), Department 53, Bitterfelder Str. 25, D-04849 Bad Düben (Germany); Jenemann, Kerstin, E-mail: Kerstin.Jenemann@smul.sachsen.de [Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Abteilung Wasser, Boden, Wertstoffe, Zur Wetterwarte 11, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Dickinson, Bryan C., E-mail: Bryan.Dickinson@gmail.com [Harvard University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Küpper, Hendrik, E-mail: Hendrik.Kuepper@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Institute of Physical Biology, Branišovská 31, CZ-370 05 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Hardly any macrophytic growth occurred in an oligotrophic hard water lake in Germany. •All parameters were optimal, besides elevated, nanomolar concentrations of Ni and Cd. •We cultivated submerged macrophytes in real and simulated hard and soft lake water. •Nanomolar Cd and Ni inhibited the plants’ photosynthetic light reactions in soft water. •The inhibition was synergistic, i.e. stronger than the addition of Cd and Ni effects. -- Abstract: Even essential trace elements are phytotoxic over a certain threshold. In this study, we investigated whether heavy metal concentrations were responsible for the nearly complete lack of submerged macrophytes in an oligotrophic lake in Germany. We cultivated the rootless aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions like sinusoidal light and temperature cycles and a low plant biomass to water volume ratio. Experiments lasted for six weeks and were analysed by detailed measurements of photosynthetic biophysics, pigment content and hydrogen peroxide production. We established that individually non-toxic cadmium (3 nM) and slightly toxic nickel (300 nM) concentrations became highly toxic when applied together in soft water, severely inhibiting photosynthetic light reactions. Toxicity was further enhanced by phosphate limitation (75 nM) in soft water as present in many freshwater habitats. In the investigated lake, however, high water hardness limited the toxicity of these metal concentrations, thus the inhibition of macrophytic growth in the lake must have additional reasons. The results showed that synergistic heavy metal toxicity may change ecosystems in many more cases than estimated so far.

  10. Planned development and evaluation protocol of two versions of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention aimed at adults, including cognitive and environmental feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springvloet, Linda; Lechner, Lilian; Oenema, Anke

    2014-01-17

    Despite decades of nutrition education, the prevalence of unhealthy dietary patterns is still high and inequalities in intake between high and low socioeconomic groups still exist. Therefore, it is important to innovate and improve existing nutrition education interventions. This paper describes the development, design and evaluation protocol of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention for adults targeting fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack and fat intake. This intervention innovates existing computer-tailored interventions by not only targeting motivational factors, but also volitional and self-regulation processes and environmental-level factors. The intervention development was guided by the Intervention Mapping protocol, ensuring a theory-informed and evidence-based intervention. Two versions of the intervention were developed: a basic version targeting knowledge, awareness, attitude, self-efficacy and volitional and self-regulation processes, and a plus version additionally addressing the home environment arrangement and the availability and price of healthy food products in supermarkets. Both versions consist of four modules: one for each dietary behavior, i.e. fruit, vegetables, high-energy snacks and fat. Based on the self-regulation phases, each module is divided into three sessions. In the first session, feedback on dietary behavior is provided to increase awareness, feedback on attitude and self-efficacy is provided and goals and action plans are stated. In the second session goal achievement is evaluated, reasons for failure are explored, coping plans are stated and goals can be adapted. In the third session, participants can again evaluate their behavioral change and tips for maintenance are provided. Both versions will be evaluated in a three-group randomized controlled trial with measurements at baseline, 1-month, 4-months and 9-months post-intervention, using online questionnaires. Both versions will be compared with a generic

  11. Hydraulic testing of Type Q septifoils including modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.; Fowley, M.D.; Guerrero, H.N.

    1992-09-01

    On May 25, 1992 a leak of moderator was detected as K Reactor was approaching initial criticality. The partial length control rods were being withdrawn when the leak detectors in the Process Room alarmed. The apparent location of the moderator leak was the top of the guide tubes which are positioned over the new Type Q septifoils. The reactor was shut down immediately. In response, a testing program was begun at the Heat Transfer Laboratory (HTL). The goals of the program were to determine the cause of the septifoil leak and to test methods for preventing future leaks. These tests are described in this report

  12. Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dong; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Every year more than 13 million deaths worldwide are due to environmental pollutants, and approximately 24% of diseases are caused by environmental exposures that might be averted through preventive measures. Rapidly growing evidence has linked environmental pollutants with epigenetic variations, including changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Environ mental chemicals and epigenetic changes All of these mechanisms are likely to play important roles in disease aetiology, and their modifications due to environmental pollutants might provide further understanding of disease aetiology, as well as biomarkers reflecting exposures to environmental pollutants and/or predicting the risk of future disease. We summarize the findings on epigenetic alterations related to environmental chemical exposures, and propose mechanisms of action by means of which the exposures may cause such epigenetic changes. We discuss opportunities, challenges and future directions for future epidemiology research in environmental epigenomics. Future investigations are needed to solve methodological and practical challenges, including uncertainties about stability over time of epigenomic changes induced by the environment, tissue specificity of epigenetic alterations, validation of laboratory methods, and adaptation of bioinformatic and biostatistical methods to high-throughput epigenomics. In addition, there are numerous reports of epigenetic modifications arising following exposure to environmental toxicants, but most have not been directly linked to disease endpoints. To complete our discussion, we also briefly summarize the diseases that have been linked to environmental chemicals-related epigenetic changes. PMID:22253299

  13. Modification of Lipid Profile in Commercial Cow Milk Samples before and after Their Expiration Date: Evaluation of Storage Crucial Parameters and Possible Environmentally Friendly Disposal Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sommella

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk waste is considered a highly polluting material and its disposal is an economic and environmental problem for the dairy sector. Despite this, it can be turned into a source of nutraceutical products and biodiesel substrate. The objective of this study was to determine the qualitative and quantitative variation of single fatty acids in cow milk samples before expiration date and within 28 days after expiration date in order to monitor how the profile of the lipid fraction is influenced by different physicochemical parameters. It was shown that lipolysis in milk is a process independent of time but dependent on the values of pH and total titratable acidity, while crucial parameters for the lipid oxidation are temperature and time of exposure to atmospheric oxygen. All of these factors are at the basis of the efficacy of milk storage conditions. Moreover, our data demonstrate that milk, several weeks after its expiry date, is a rich source of fatty acids that may be recovered as potential substrates for the formulation of economically viable products and eco-friendly diesel-like fuels.

  14. Modifications to the Patient Rule-Induction Method that utilize non-additive combinations of genetic and environmental effects to define partitions that predict ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyson, Greg; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2009-01-01

    This article extends the Patient Rule-Induction Method (PRIM) for modeling cumulative incidence of disease developed by Dyson et al. (Genet Epidemiol 31:515-527) to include the simultaneous consideration of non-additive combinations of predictor variables, a significance test of each combination,...

  15. Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Intake Diversion Dam Modification Lower Yellowstone Project, Montana Draft Supplement to the 26 April 2010 Environmental Assessment and Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    drop structures, embankments, and low-head dams for water diversion and flood control, including flood control projects in Contra Costa and Napa... counties , California. He has been a principal consultant on more than 150 small, earth-fill dams and reservoirs for the Vineyard Development Water...Intake Diversion Dam is located along the Lower Yellowstone River, approximately 18 miles downstream from the City of Glendive, Dawson County

  16. Behavior Modification in Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Annette Rutt; Stillman, Stephen M.

    1979-01-01

    An example of behavior modification used in athletic coaching is presented. The case study involves a member of a women's basketball team and details the use of behavior modification for both weight reduction and skill improvement. (JMF)

  17. Transversalidad de conceptos de educación ambiental para un desarrollo sostenible presentes en la legislación argentina Environmental education as a crosscutting issue for sustainable developement concepts included in Argentine regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Giuffré

    2007-07-01

    instituciones de educación superior. Se asegura el derecho a la información, todo habitante podrá obtener de las autoridades la información ambiental que administren y que no se encuentre contemplada legalmente como reservada. Los aspectos más importantes acerca de la educación ambiental y el desarrollo sostenible son ejes transversales de leyes de distinta jurisdicción, pero deberá bregarse por el cumplimiento y control de dichos principios, debido a las características con las que se percibe al derecho ambiental, de baja eficacia y eficiencia.Population environmental education must be conveyed in all educational levels, in order to contribute to a deep knowledge of environmental protection laws. These include contents about environmental education, but with scarce diffusion and low adhesion. If environmental education could force a detailed knowledge about regulations, its application could be demanded by community actions. Moreover, environmental education is considered in regulations as a fundamental tool for sustainable development. There is a profuse legislation in Argentina, with more than 3,000 legal instruments of different hierarchical order and jurisdictional level. Three argentine laws were studied and compared: Environmental General Law (national: Law 25,675; La Pampa Environmental Law (province order: Law 1,914; and Environmental Education Law of Buenos Aires (city order: Law 1,687. These laws regulate the incorporation of environmental education in formal system (public and private schools and institutions, for all levels: initial, primary, secondary and university studies, non formal system (extra-curricular activities and/or extension inside the institutions, and non formal education (by means of massive instruments of communication and information. Environmental education is considered as the basic tool to generate values, behavior and attitudes according to a balanced environment, tending to the preservation of natural resources and their sustainable

  18. Final Environmental Assessment for Minuteman III Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-30

    imbricata E - Loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta T - Olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys oliveacea T - Leatherback sea turtle Dermochelys... olivacea T Leatherback Sea Turtle Dermochelys coriacea E Hawksbill Sea Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata E Mollusks Observed at Illeginni Island Top-Snail

  19. RNA modifications by oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik E; Specht, Elisabeth; Broedbaek, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    to encompass various classes of novel regulatory RNAs, including, e.g., microRNAs. It is well known that DNA is constantly oxidized and repaired by complex genome maintenance mechanisms. Analogously, RNA also undergoes significant oxidation, and there are now convincing data suggesting that oxidation......, and the consequent loss of integrity of RNA, is a mechanism for disease development. Oxidized RNA is found in a large variety of diseases, and interest has been especially devoted to degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer disease, in which up to 50-70% of specific mRNA molecules are reported oxidized, whereas...... other RNA molecules show virtually no oxidation. The iron-storage disease hemochromatosis exhibits the most prominent general increase in RNA oxidation ever observed. Oxidation of RNA primarily leads to strand breaks and to oxidative base modifications. Oxidized mRNA is recognized by the ribosomes...

  20. Chemical biology approaches for studying posttranslational modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aerin; Cho, Kyukwang; Park, Hee-Sung

    2017-09-13

    Posttranslational modification (PTM) is a key mechanism for regulating diverse protein functions, and thus critically affects many essential biological processes. Critical for systematic study of the effects of PTMs is the ability to obtain recombinant proteins with defined and homogenous modifications. To this end, various synthetic and chemical biology approaches, including genetic code expansion and protein chemical modification methods, have been developed. These methods have proven effective for generating site-specific authentic modifications or structural mimics, and have demonstrated their value for in vitro and in vivo functional studies of diverse PTMs. This review will discuss recent advances in chemical biology strategies and their application to various PTM studies.

  1. Tyrosine Modifications in Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Feeney, Maria B.; Schöneich, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Significance: The understanding of physiological and pathological processes involving protein oxidation, particularly under conditions of aging and oxidative stress, can be aided by proteomic identification of proteins that accumulate oxidative post-translational modifications only if these detected modifications are connected to functional consequences. The modification of tyrosine (Tyr) residues can elicit significant changes in protein structure and function, which, in some cases, may cont...

  2. Behavior Modification: A Classroom Clockwork Orange?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jeffry; Kiraly, John, Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Behavior modification, if used properly, is a powerful and useful tool. As with many tools, improper use can cause temporary or permanent damage. The educational program might include behavior modification as one tool in a battery of many tools used to promote healthy change in behavior. (CS)

  3. Licensing by modification Licensing by modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneeta Dayal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper looks at the phenomena of licensing by modification, whereby an unacceptable noun phrase is redeemed by the presence of a modifier or an unavailable reading for a noun phrase is made available with the addition of a modifier. It argues that an optimal account of such phenomena should derive these effects from the interaction of the meanings of individual expressions in the sentence rather than by positing a formal licensing relation between the modifier and the noun it modifies. The general approach is explicated by considering the distribution of bare plurals in Italian and the availability of generic readings for plural definites in English. The overall goal is a modest one. It seeks to draw attention to properties of modification that go beyond set intersection by focusing on phenomena that have not so far been closely scrutinized in the literature. It uses the particular results to draw some conclusions about questions of general interest.Licensing by modification Abstract: This paper looks at the phenomena of licensing by modification, whereby an unacceptable noun phrase is redeemed by the presence of a modifier or an unavailable reading for a noun phrase is made available with the addition of a modifier. It argues that an optimal account of such phenomena should derive these effects from the interaction of the meanings of individual expressions in the sentence rather than by positing a formal licensing relation between the modifier and the noun it modifies. The general approach is explicated by considering the distribution of bare plurals in Italian and the availability of generic readings for plural definites in English. The overall goal is a modest one. It seeks to draw attention to properties of modification that go beyond set intersection by focusing on phenomena that have not so far been closely scrutinized in the literature. It uses the particular results to draw some conclusions about questions of general

  4. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the direct problem of determing the new response of a system, after some modifications are introduced into the sestem, is analysed using two different databases: the modal database and the frequency response function database. The limitaions of the modal database are discussed. Structural modifications ...

  5. Design and verification of computer-based reactor control system modification at Bruce-A candu nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.; Webb, N.

    1995-01-01

    The Reactor Control System at Bruce-A Nuclear Generating Station is going through some design modifications, which involve a rigorous design process including independent verification and validation. The design modification includes changes to the control logic, alarms and annunciation, hardware and software. The design (and verification) process includes design plan, design requirements, hardware and software specifications, hardware and software design, testing, technical review, safety evaluation, reliability analysis, failure mode and effect analysis, environmental qualification, seismic qualification, software quality assurance, system validation, documentation update, configuration management, and final acceptance. (7 figs.)

  6. Modifications to POISSON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    At MSU we have used the POISSON family of programs extensively for magnetic field calculations. In the presently super-saturated computer situation, reducing the run time for the program is imperative. Thus, a series of modifications have been made to POISSON to speed up convergence. Two of the modifications aim at having the first guess solution as close as possible to the final solution. The other two aim at increasing the convergence rate. In this discussion, a working knowledge of POISSON is assumed. The amount of new code and expected time saving for each modification is discussed

  7. Post-Polymerization Modifications of Polymeric Monolithic Columns: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinéad Currivan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The vast cache of methods used in polymeric monolithic column modification is presented herein, with specific attention to post-polymerization modification reactions. The modification of polymeric monolithic columns is defined and can include the modification of pre-existing surface groups, the addition of polymeric chains or indeed the addition of structures such as nano-particles and nano-structures. The use of these modifications can result in the specific patterning of monoliths, useful in microfluidic device design or in the investigation of modification optimization.

  8. Modification Semantics in Now-Relative Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Most real-world databases record time-varying information. In such databases, the notion of ??the current time,?? or NOW, occurs naturally and prominently. For example, when capturing the past states of a relation using begin and end time columns, tuples that are part of the current state have some...... past time as their begin time and NOW as their end time. While the semantics of such variable databases has been described in detail and is well understood, the modification of variable databases remains unexplored. This paper defines the semantics of modifications involving the variable NOW. More...... specifically,  the problems with modifications in the presence of NOW are explored, illustrating that the main problems are with modifications of tuples that reach into the future. The paper defines the semantics of modifications?including insertions, deletions, and updates?of databases without NOW, with NOW...

  9. The RNA modification landscape in human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkhout, Nicky; Tran, Julia; Smith, Martin A; Schonrock, Nicole; Mattick, John S; Novoa, Eva Maria

    2017-12-01

    RNA modifications have been historically considered as fine-tuning chemo-structural features of infrastructural RNAs, such as rRNAs, tRNAs, and snoRNAs. This view has changed dramatically in recent years, to a large extent as a result of systematic efforts to map and quantify various RNA modifications in a transcriptome-wide manner, revealing that RNA modifications are reversible, dynamically regulated, far more widespread than originally thought, and involved in major biological processes, including cell differentiation, sex determination, and stress responses. Here we summarize the state of knowledge and provide a catalog of RNA modifications and their links to neurological disorders, cancers, and other diseases. With the advent of direct RNA-sequencing technologies, we expect that this catalog will help prioritize those RNA modifications for transcriptome-wide maps. © 2017 Jonkhout et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  10. End Group Modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnsen, Rasmus O; Sandberg-Schaal, Anne; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2015-01-01

    modification with hydrophobic moieties led to increased activity towards the Gram-negative Acinetobacter baumannii. Despite increased cytotoxicity against murine fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the optimized peptide analogues exhibited significantly improved cell selectivity. Overall...

  11. Antimicrobial Modifications of Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlarik, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is focused on antimicrobial modifications of polymer materials intended for medical devices production. Firstly, a brief introduction into the field of medical application of polymers is presented. Considering the fact that polymer medical devices are often connected with occurrence of nosocomial infections, the next part refers to this phenomenon and its causes. One of the possibilities of reducing of the infection occurrence is aimed at polymer modification. It is a key topic o...

  12. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5th Int. Modal Anal. Conf. (London) 2: 1538±1544. Sestieri A, D'Ambrogio W 1988 Why be model: i.e. how to avoid the use of modes in the modification of vibrating systems. Proc. 6th Int. Modal Anal. Conf. (Orlando) 2: 1100±1106. Sestieri A, D'Ambrogio W 1989 A modification method for vibration control of structures. Mech.

  13. Modification of JRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Yasuhiko

    1978-01-01

    This report gives an outline of some of the main modifications carried out around the Reactor Core on the Research Reactor JRR-2, at the Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI. The JRR-2 was shut down in December 1973, to improve it in heavy water leakage from the metal packing between core tank and support ring, corrosion of the lower shielding plug, and fault in the control-rod mechanism. Main modifications were a standing seal weld at the support ring to stop heavy water leakage, replacement of the reactor top shield and improvement of the helium system. The control-rod assemblies and the refueling devices were replaced by the newly designed ones also. In addition to the modification plan, the irradiated air exhaust system was improved to reduce radioactive argon gas release through the stack. Works were completed successfully in September 1975. But a light water leakage occurred at the stand pipe below the light water tank on November 11, 1975, which was repaired in about 4 months. When considering the operation of above 5,000 hours after the modification, however, the quality of the modification work may be said to be quite satisfactory. The present report in which works to the completion are described may be valuable as a record of reactor modification which is a new experience at JAERI. (auth.)

  14. Tyrosine modifications in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Maria B; Schöneich, Christian

    2012-12-01

    The understanding of physiological and pathological processes involving protein oxidation, particularly under conditions of aging and oxidative stress, can be aided by proteomic identification of proteins that accumulate oxidative post-translational modifications only if these detected modifications are connected to functional consequences. The modification of tyrosine (Tyr) residues can elicit significant changes in protein structure and function, which, in some cases, may contribute to biological aging and age-related pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and cataracts. Studies characterizing proteins in which Tyr has been modified to 3-nitrotyrosine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, 3,3'-dityrosine and other cross-links, or 3-chlorotyrosine are reviewed, with an emphasis on structural and functional consequences. Distinguishing between inconsequential modifications and functionally significant ones requires careful biochemical and biophysical analysis of target proteins, as well as innovative methods for isolating the effects of the multiple modifications that often occur under oxidizing conditions. The labor-intensive task of isolating and characterizing individual modified proteins must continue, especially given the expanding list of known modifications. Emerging approaches, such as genetic and metabolic incorporation of unnatural amino acids, hold promise for additional focused studies of this kind.

  15. Impact investigations of access channel modifications of Cochin harbour, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    Though the modernization projects over the decades for harbour development also brought about several severe environmental modifications in Cochin harbour, along the west coast of India, so far, the physical processes involved are seldom...

  16. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  17. Environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, J.R.

    1989-05-01

    The results of the 1988 environmental monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. Two of three tokamak machines, the Princeton Beta Experiment Modification (PBX-M) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), were in operation during the year. The Environmental Committee, which is a standing committee of the Executive Safety Board (ESB), continued to review items of environmental importance. During CY88 no adverse effects to the environment or public resulted from any operational program activities at PPPL, and the Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental regulations. Over the last two years the Department of Energy conducted major environmental audits at all of its facilities, including PPPL. No significant environmental concerns were noted as a result of the inspection and sampling at PPPL. 43 refs., 25 figs., 33 tabs

  18. Environmental management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guicherit, R.

    1996-01-01

    Elements of a national environmental management system include: • monitoring networks to establish the prevailing environmental quality; • emission inventories, and projected emission inventories based on population growth, increase of traffic density, and economie growth; taking into account

  19. Administering stuttering modification therapy in school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dale F; Dugan, Peter M

    2002-08-01

    Stuttering modification techniques can be used effectively in the school setting. In fact, speech-language pathologists can use this environment to their advantage to address not only disfluency but also the emotional and behavioral aspects of stuttering. Toward this end, stuttering modification goals and techniques are outlined, with a discussion of how to adapt them to school environments. Specific topics include writing clear, measurable IEP goals, taking advantage of the school setting to implement these goals, administering stuttering modification within a group therapy mode, involving parents and teachers, and monitoring progress.

  20. Physical modification of polyetheretherketone for orthopedic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ya-Wei; Zhang, Li-Nan; Hou, Zeng-Tao; Ye, Xin; Gu, Hong-Sheng; Yan, Guo-Ping; Shang, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is regarded as one of the most potential candidates for replacing current implant applications. To obtain good bone-implant interfaces, many modification methods have been developed to enable PEEK and PEEK-based composites from bio-inert to bioactive. Among them, physical methods have aroused significant attention and been widely used to modify PEEK for orthopedic implants. This review summarizes current physical modification techniques of PEEK for orthopedic applications, which include composite strategies, surface coating methods and irradiation treatments. The positive consequences of those modification methods will encourage continuing investigations and stimulate the wide range of applications of PEEK-based implants in orthopedics.

  1. Modifications of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skordis, Constantinos

    2011-12-28

    General relativity (GR) is a phenomenologically successful theory that rests on firm foundations, but has not been tested on cosmological scales. The deep mystery of dark energy (and possibly even the requirement of cold dark matter (CDM)) has increased the need for testing modifications to GR, as the inference of such otherwise undetected fluids depends crucially on the theory of gravity. Here, I discuss a general scheme for constructing consistent and covariant modifications to the Einstein equations. This framework is such that there is a clear connection between the modification and the underlying field content that produces it. I argue that this is mandatory for distinguishing modifications of gravity from conventional fluids. I give a non-trivial example, a simple metric-based modification of the fluctuation equations for which the background is exact ΛCDM, but differs from it in the perturbations. I show how this can be generalized and solved in terms of two arbitrary functions. Finally, I discuss future prospects and directions of research.

  2. Mobility questionnaire of the Federal Environmental Agency 2009. Updating and modification of the mobility questionnaire taken in 2006; Mobilitaetsumfrage des Umweltbundesamtes 2009. Aktualisierung und Modifizierung der Mobilitaetsumfrage aus dem Jahr 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johaenning, Katja [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Stadtbauwesen und Stadtverkehr

    2010-05-15

    The efficient, environmentally compatible and safe handling of the operational procedure and associated traffic is very important for the Federal Environmental Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany). In order to reduce the environmental effects of the traffic, the Federal Environmental Agency formed a mobility management in the year 2006 as a part of the environmental management. Thus, co-workers are to be informed about different aspects of the mobility management. Additionally, proposals for the reduction of environmental effects due to the traffic are to be compiled. In the spring of 2009, the Federal Environmental Agency planned a renewed execution of the mobility inquiry. By means of a questionnaire, the effectiveness of the past measures should be analyzed. Thus, the adjustment of the operational mobility concept can be adapted to the actual objectives.

  3. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    Ion bombardment-induced modification of surfaces may be considered one of the significant scientific and technological developments of the last two decades. The understanding acquired concerning the underlying mechanisms of several phenomena occurring during ion-surface interactions has led to applications within different modern technologies. These include microelectronics, surface acoustical and optical technologies, solar energy conversion, thin film technology, ion implantation metallurgy, nuclear track technology, thermonuclear fusion, vacuum technology, cold welding technology, biomedicine (implantology). It has become clear that information on many relevant advances, regarding ion bombardment modification of surfaces is dispersed among journals involving fields sometimes not clearly related. This may result, in some cases, in a loss of the type of interdisciplinary exchange of ideas, which has proved to be so fruitful for the advancement of science and technology. This book has been planned in an attempt to collect at least some of today's relevant information about the experimental and theoretical knowledge related to surface modification and its application to technology. (Auth.)

  4. BIOCHAR MODIFICATION, THERMAL STABILITY AND TOXICITY OF PRODUCTS MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana FRIEDRICHOVÁ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar is a product obtained from processing of waste biomass. The main application of biochar is in soil and environment remediation. Some new applications of this carbonaceous material take advantage of its adsorption capacity use it as a heterogeneous catalyst for energy storage and conversion etc. This contribution describes thermal stability of the original biochar. It discusses biochar modified by chemical and physical methods including a new compound of biochar-graphene oxide. The purpose of the modifications is to increase its active surface to introduce active functional groups into the carbon structure of biochar in relation to fire safety and toxicity of those products.

  5. Behavior Modification: Education's Watergate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrison, Muriel Paskin

    Several of the theoretical and experimental assumptions relating to behavior modification are examined and criticized: (1) the human mind can only be understood by observing and measuring the functional behavior it causes, (2) performance can be equated with learning, (3) reward systems and token economies improve intrinsic learning, and (4) all…

  6. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for are lumped masses, springs, dampers and dynamic absorbers. Keywords. Structural dynamic modification; structural design; dynamic design; SDM using FRF. 1. Introduction. The problem of varying the dynamic behaviour of structures to reduce the vibration response or control the noise radiated by vibrating surfaces is ...

  7. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  8. Modification Semantics in Now-Relative Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    specifically,  the problems with modifications in the presence of NOW are explored, illustrating that the main problems are with modifications of tuples that reach into the future. The paper defines the semantics of modifications?including insertions, deletions, and updates?of databases without NOW, with NOW......, and with values of the type NOW + D, where D is a non-variable time duration. To accommodate these semantics, three new timestamp values are introduced. Finally, implementation is explored. We show how to represent the variable NOW with columns of standard SQL data types and give a mapping from SQL on NOW......-relative  data to standard SQL on these columns. The paper thereby completes the semantics, the querying, and the modification of now-relative databases.   Udgivelsesdato: DEC...

  9. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Voolstra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role.

  10. Environmental challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility

  11. Epigenetic modification of nucleic acids: from basic studies to medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuqi; Hong, Tingting; Wang, Shaoru; Mo, Jing; Tian, Tian; Zhou, Xiang

    2017-05-22

    The epigenetic modification of nucleic acids represents one of the most significant areas of study in the field of nucleic acids because it makes gene regulation more complex and heredity more complicated, thus indicating its profound impact on aspects of heredity, growth, and diseases. The recent characterization of epigenetic modifications of DNA and RNA using chemical labelling strategies has promoted the discovery of these modifications, and the newly developed single-base or single-cell resolution mapping strategies have enabled large-scale epigenetic studies in eukaryotes. Due to these technological breakthroughs, several new epigenetic marks have been discovered that have greatly extended the scope and impact of epigenetic modifications in nucleic acids over the past few years. Because epigenetics is reversible and susceptible to environmental factors, it could potentially be a promising direction for clinical medicine research. In this review, we have comprehensively discussed how these epigenetic marks are involved in disease, including the pathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease. These findings have revealed that the epigenetic modification of nucleic acids has considerable significance in various areas from methodology to clinical medicine and even in biomedical applications.

  12. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... it is considered a clean and energy saving technology. This thesis aimed to investigate the effect of using reaction conditions, simulating an industrial process, for enzymatic treatment of starch with branching enzyme (BE) from Rhodothermus obamensis. Thus treatements were conducted at 70°C using very high...... substrate concentration (30-40% dry matter (DM)) and high enzyme activity (750-2250 BE units (BEU)/g sample). Starches from various botanical sources, representing a broad range of properties, were used as substrates. The effects of the used conditions on the BE-reaction were evaluated by characterization...

  13. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... it is considered a clean and energy saving technology. This thesis aimed to investigate the effect of using reaction conditions, simulating an industrial process, for enzymatic treatment of starch with branching enzyme (BE) from Rhodothermus obamensis. Thus treatements were conducted at 70°C using very high...... of the obtained products and were correlated to properties of the starch substrates. It was found that the obtained products differed depending on both the conditions used and the properties of the starch. Products of starch from certain origins completely lost their granular structure during the enzyme treatment...

  14. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  15. Behavior Modification in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Mryon; Whitman, Joan

    1971-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical rationale for behavior modification, principally through its comparison with traditional psychotherapies, and suggests some behavior modification techniques for the classroom management of maladaptive behavior. (Author)

  16. Development of an Improved Permeability Modification Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, H.W.; Elphnick, J.

    1999-03-09

    This report describes the development of an improved permeability modification simulator performed jointly by BDM Petroleum Technologies and Schlumberger Dowell under a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with the US Department of Energy. The improved simulator was developed by modifying NIPER's PC-GEL permeability modification simulator to include a radial model, a thermal energy equation, a wellbore simulator, and a fully implicit time-stepping option. The temperature-dependent gelation kinetics of a delayed gel system (DGS) is also included in the simulator.

  17. Epigenetic modifications and diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marpadga A. Reddy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a major complication associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Conventional therapeutic strategies are not fully efficacious in the treatment of DN, suggesting an incomplete understanding of the gene regulation mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. Furthermore, evidence from clinical trials has demonstrated a “metabolic memory” of prior exposure to hyperglycemia that continues to persist despite subsequent glycemic control. This remains a major challenge in the treatment of DN and other vascular complications. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, nucleosomal histone modifications, and noncoding RNAs control gene expression through regulation of chromatin structure and function and post-transcriptional mechanisms without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Emerging evidence indicates that multiple factors involved in the etiology of diabetes can alter epigenetic mechanisms and regulate the susceptibility to diabetes complications. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of histone lysine methylation in the regulation of key fibrotic and inflammatory genes related to diabetes complications including DN. Interestingly, histone lysine methylation persisted in vascular cells even after withdrawal from the diabetic milieu, demonstrating a potential role of epigenetic modifications in metabolic memory. Rapid advances in high-throughput technologies in the fields of genomics and epigenomics can lead to the identification of genome-wide alterations in key epigenetic modifications in vascular and renal cells in diabetes. Altogether, these findings can lead to the identification of potential predictive biomarkers and development of novel epigenetic therapies for diabetes and its associated complications.

  18. Cytosine modifications in the honey bee (Apis mellifera worker genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Magne Koscielniak Rasmussen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic changes enable genomes to respond to changes in the environment, such as altered nutrition, activity, or social setting. Epigenetic modifications, thereby, provides a source of phenotypic plasticity in many species. The honey bee (Apis mellifera uses nutritionally sensitive epigenetic control mechanisms in the development of the royal caste (queens and the workers. The workers are functionally sterile females that can take on a range of distinct physiological and/or behavioral phenotypes in response to environmental changes. Honey bees have a wide repertoire of epigenetic mechanisms which, as in mammals, includes cytosine methylation, hydroxymethylated cytosines, together with the enzymatic machinery responsible for these cytosine modifications. Current data suggests that honey bees provide an excellent system for studying the social repertoire of the epigenome. In this review, we elucidate what is known so far about the honey bee epigenome and its mechanisms. Our discussion includes what may distinguish honey bees from other model animals, how the epigenome can influence worker behavioral task separation, and how future studies can answer central questions about the role of the epigenome in social behavior.

  19. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  20. 1998 Annual Study Report. Surveys on seeds for global environmental technologies, including those for energy saving; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Sho energy nado chikyu kankyo taisaku gijutsu no seeds ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The energy-saving and other global environmental technologies are surveyed by collecting relevant information from various institutes, both abroad and domestic, to contribute to development of ceramic gas turbines. USA has announced a climate change plan, based on the five principles, to promote utilization of high-efficiency technologies and development of new clean technologies. UK is promoting to improve energy efficiency, along with liberalization of its energy markets. Germany concentrates its efforts in the 'Program for Energy Research and Energy Technologies.' France places emphasis on prevention of air pollution and rational use of energy. The R and D trends at public institutes, e.g., universities, for global environmental technologies are surveyed, from which a total of 14 themes are extracted as the seed technologies. At the same time, a total of 9 techniques potentially applicable to the seeds are extracted by mainly reviewing JICST and patent information, and assessed. The R&D trends of the IPCC-related researchers are also surveyed, but provide no theme directly applicable to the seeds. Most of the related themes at the private and public institutes surveyed, both domestic and abroad, are concentrated on carbon dioxide. (NEDO)

  1. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-25

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan was prepared as a characterization and closure report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357, Mud Pits and Waste Dump, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The CAU consists of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All of the CASs are found within Yucca Flat except CAS 25-15-01 (Waste Dump). Corrective Action Site 25-15-01 is found in Area 25 in Jackass Flat. Of the 14 CASs in CAU 357, 11 are mud pits, suspected mud pits, or mud processing-related sites, which are by-products of drilling activities in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing done on the NTS. Of the remaining CASs, one CAS is a waste dump, one CAS contains scattered lead bricks, and one CAS has a building associated with Project 31.2. All 14 of the CASs are inactive and abandoned. Clean closure with no further action of CAU 357 will be completed if no contaminants are detected above preliminary action levels. A closure report will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for review and approval upon completion of the field activities. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3/2004.

  2. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  3. Chironomidae larvae from the lower Athabasca River, AB, Canada and its tributaries including macroscopic subfamily and tribe keys, indices for environmental tolerance and trait-based information for biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Namayandeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 2011 the Joint Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM program has been conducted in the lower Athabasca River by the Governments of Canada and Alberta to assess the freshwater health in areas associated with oil sands development. The majority of the benthic invertebrate assemblage of the Athabasca River and its tributaries are Chironomidae larvae. Assessments of such benthic assemblages are made difficult because the identification of Chironomidae larvae is costly and time consuming. To facilitate this identification process, we aimed to develop a simple taxonomic key for Chironomidae larvae of this region. This taxonomic reference and identification key makes use of the known taxonomic details on these Chironomidae species. Moreover, we provide details on their geographical distribution, ecology, habitats, environmental tolerance values for species, and traitbased morphological characters. Our main goal was to make this information readily available to both non-specialists and specialists so that biomonitoring programs can more readily utilize these organisms in biomonitoring.

  4. Modifications to nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA's programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Section 7 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which establishes the safety requirements for the modification of nuclear power plants. Reasons for carrying out modifications to nuclear power plants may include: (1) maintaining or strengthening existing safety provisions and thus maintaining consistency with or improving on the current design. (2) recovering from plant faults. (3) improving the thermal performance or increasing the power rating of the plant. (4) increasing the maintainability of the plant, reducing the radiation exposure of personnel or reducing the costs of plant maintenance. And (5) extending the design life of the plant. Most modifications, made on the basis of operating experience, are intended to improve on the design or to improve operational performance and flexibility. Some are rendered necessary by new regulatory requirements, ageing of the plant or obsolescence of equipment. However, the benefits of regularly updating the plant design can be jeopardized if modifications are not kept under rigorous control throughout the lifetime of the plant. The need to reduce costs and improve efficiency, in combination with changes to the structure of the electricity generation sector of the economy in many countries, has led many companies to make changes in the structure of the operating organization for nuclear power plants. Whatever the reason for such organizational changes, consideration should be given to the effects of those changes with the aim of ensuring that they would have no impacts that would compromise the safety of the plant. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on controlling activities relating to modifications at nuclear power plants in order to reduce risk and to ensure that the configuration of the plant is at all times under

  5. Measurement of pyrethroids and their environmental degradation products in fresh fruits and vegetables using a modification of the quick easy cheap effective rugged safe (QuEChERS) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used extensively in agriculture, and they, as well as their environmental degradates, may remain as residues on foods such as fruits and vegetables. Since pyrethroid degradates can be identical to the urinary markers used in human biomonitoring, it is ...

  6. Structural dynamic modification using additive damping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In order to control dynamic response in structures and machines, modofications using additive viscoelastic damping materials are highlighted. The techniques described for analysis include analytical methods for structural elements, FEM and perturbation methods for reanalysis or structural dynamic modifications for ...

  7. Safety of modifications at nuclear power plants - the role of minor modifications and human and organisational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Operating experience repeatedly shows that changes and modifications at nuclear power plants (NPPs) may lead to safety significant events. At the same time, modifications are necessary to ensure a safe and economic functioning of the NPPs. To ensure safety in all plant configurations it is important that modification processes are given proper attention both by the utilities and the regulators. The operability, maintainability and testability of every modification should be thoroughly assessed from different points of view to ensure that no safety problems are introduced. The OECD/NEA Committee on Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has recently addressed the issue of modifications by organising a 'Workshop on Modifications at Nuclear Power Plants Operating Experience, Safety Significance and Role of Human Factors'. This workshop was undertaken as a joint effort of the Working Group on Operating Experience (WGOE) and the Special Experts Group on Human and Organisational Factors (SEGHOF), and it was held at the OECD Headquarters in Paris on October 6 to 8, 2003. The initiative to organise the workshop was taken by the WGOE and the SEGHOF based on findings from events and incidents due to modifications at nuclear power plants in the world and weaknesses experienced in modification processes. During the workshop, the WGOE focused on the theme of 'Minor Modifications and their Safety Significance', while the SEGHOF focused on the topic 'Human and Organisational Factors in NPP Modifications'. This report is based on material collected before the workshop, the workshop proceedings, discussions of the group of experts responsible for the arrangement of the workshop, and additional material collected by a consultant. The workshop was preceded by extensive preparations, which included collection of national surveys in response to questionnaires on modifications at the NPPs. Not all of these surveys were available at the workshop, but their findings have now been included

  8. Identification and Interrogation of Combinatorial Histone Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R Karch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone proteins are dynamically modified to mediate a variety of cellular processes including gene transcription, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis. Regulation of these processes occurs through the recruitment of non-histone proteins to chromatin by specific combinations of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs. Mass spectrometry has emerged as an essential tool to discover and quantify histone PTMs both within and between samples in an unbiased manner. Developments in mass spectrometry that allow for characterization of large histone peptides or intact protein has made it possible to determine which modifications occur simultaneously on a single histone polypeptide. A variety of techniques from biochemistry, biophysics, and chemical biology have been employed to determine the biological relevance of discovered combinatorial codes. This review first describes advancements in the field of mass spectrometry that have facilitated histone PTM analysis and then covers notable approaches to probe the biological relevance of these modifications in their nucleosomal context.

  9. Detecting inter-aquifer leakage in areas with limited data using hydraulics and multiple environmental tracers, including 4He, 36Cl/Cl, 14C and 87Sr/86Sr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Stacey C.; Wohling, Daniel L.; Keppel, Mark N.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Love, Andrew J.; Shand, Paul; Tyroller, Lina; Kipfer, Rolf

    2017-11-01

    The investigation of regionally extensive groundwater systems in remote areas is hindered by a shortage of data due to a sparse observation network, which limits our understanding of the hydrogeological processes in arid regions. The study used a multidisciplinary approach to determine hydraulic connectivity between the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) and the underlying Arckaringa Basin in the desert region of Central Australia. In order to manage the impacts of groundwater abstraction from the Arckaringa Basin, it is vital to understand its connectivity with the GAB (upper aquifer), as the latter supports local pastoral stations and groundwater-dependent springs with unique endemic flora and fauna. The study is based on the collation of available geological information, a detailed analysis of hydraulic data, and data on environmental tracers. Enhanced inter-aquifer leakage in the centre of the study area was identified, as well as recharge to the GAB from ephemeral rivers and waterholes. Throughout the rest of the study area, inter-aquifer leakage is likely controlled by diffuse inter-aquifer leakage, but the coarse spatial resolution means that the presence of additional enhanced inter-aquifer leakage sites cannot be excluded. This study makes the case that a multi-tracer approach along with groundwater hydraulics and geology provides a tool-set to investigate enhanced inter-aquifer leakage even in a groundwater basin with a paucity of data. A particular problem encountered in this study was the ambiguous interpretation of different age tracers, which is attributed to diffusive transport across flow paths caused by low recharge rates.

  10. Final Environmental Assessment (EA) for Modification of Airspace Units R-3008A/B/C from Visual Flight Rules (VFR) to VFR-Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    moody-afb.htm on August 28, 2014. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , 2007. Climate Change 2007 The Physical Science Basis. IPCC Geneva...Proposed Action would change or affect current land use designations and usage. There would be no change in land use designations or effects on usage...human health or environmental effects under certain conditions. 3.4.2 Existing Conditions Climate Moody AFB is located within the interior climate

  11. Enzymatic Modification of Sphingomyelin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due to its major role in maintaining the water-retaining properties of the epidermis, ceramide is of great commercial potential in cosmetic and pharmaceuticals such as hair and skin care products. Currently, chemical synthesis of ceramide is a costly process, and developments of alternative cost......-efficient, high yield production methods are of great interest. In the present study, the potential of producing ceramide through the enzymatic hydrolysis of sphingomyelin have been studied. sphingomyelin is a ubiquitous membrane-lipid and rich in dairy products or by-products. It has been verified...... that sphingomyelin modification gives a feasible approach to the potential production of ceramide. The reaction system has been improved through system evaluation and the optimization of several important factors, and phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens shows higher activity towards the hydrolysis reaction...

  12. (Environmental technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  13. Mechanisms of behavior modification in clinical behavioral medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyin; Su, Zhonghua; Ji, Feng; Zhu, Min; Bai, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Behavior modification, as the core of clinical behavioral medicine, is often used in clinical settings. We seek to summarize behavior modification techniques that are commonly used in clinical practice of behavioral medicine in China and discuss possible biobehavioral mechanisms. We reviewed common behavior modification techniques in clinical settings in China, and we reviewed studies that explored possible biobehavioral mechanisms. Commonly used clinical approaches of behavior modification in China include behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, health education, behavior management, behavioral relaxation training, stress management intervention, desensitization therapy, biofeedback therapy, and music therapy. These techniques have been applied in the clinical treatment of a variety of diseases, such as chronic diseases, psychosomatic diseases, and psychological disorders. The biobehavioral mechanisms of these techniques involve the autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine system, neurobiochemistry, and neuroplasticity. Behavior modification techniques are commonly used in the treatment of a variety of somatic and psychological disorders in China. Multiple biobehavioral mechanisms are involved in successful behavior modification.

  14. Thermal biology mediates responses of amphibians and reptiles to habitat modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, A Justin; Watling, James I; Thompson, Michelle E; Brusch, George A; Catenazzi, Alessandro; Whitfield, Steven M; Kurz, David J; Suárez-Mayorga, Ángela; Aponte-Gutiérrez, Andrés; Donnelly, Maureen A; Todd, Brian D

    2018-03-01

    Human activities often replace native forests with warmer, modified habitats that represent novel thermal environments for biodiversity. Reducing biodiversity loss hinges upon identifying which species are most sensitive to the environmental conditions that result from habitat modification. Drawing on case studies and a meta-analysis, we examined whether observed and modelled thermal traits, including heat tolerances, variation in body temperatures, and evaporative water loss, explained variation in sensitivity of ectotherms to habitat modification. Low heat tolerances of lizards and amphibians and high evaporative water loss of amphibians were associated with increased sensitivity to habitat modification, often explaining more variation than non-thermal traits. Heat tolerances alone explained 24-66% (mean = 38%) of the variation in species responses, and these trends were largely consistent across geographic locations and spatial scales. As habitat modification alters local microclimates, the thermal biology of species will likely play a key role in the reassembly of terrestrial communities. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  15. Environmental Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmarcke, H

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on environmental restoration are (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharge; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported.

  16. Jet modification in the next decade: A pedestrian outlook

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-07

    May 7, 2015 ... In this review, we recount the current status of the theory of jet modification in dense matter. We commence with an outline of the 'traditional' observables which may be calculated without recourse to event generators. These include single- and double-hadron suppression, nuclear modification factor vs.

  17. Jet modification in the next decade: A pedestrian outlook

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-07

    May 7, 2015 ... Abstract. In this review, we recount the current status of the theory of jet modification in dense matter. We commence with an outline of the 'traditional' observables which may be calculated without recourse to event generators. These include single- and double-hadron suppression, nuclear modification ...

  18. Building 12-42F modification, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Environment Assessment (EA) has been prepared pursuant to the implementing regulations to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which require federal agencies to assess the environmental impacts of a proposed action to determine whether that action requires the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or if a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) can be issued. NEPA requires that an EA provide an interdisciplinary review of the proposed action in order to identify possible preferable alternatives and to identify mitigative measures that will prevent environmental impacts. If it is determined that the proposed action will have unavoidable significant environmental impact, then as EIS shall be prepared. The proposed project is to modify Building 12-42F and entry into the Sandia Pantex Weapons Evaluation Test Laboratory. The modification's primary function is to provide additional space for testing and monitoring equipment to support the activities in the existing Building 12-42F. The modification will also facilitate the reconfiguration of the personnel offices, break room and conference area. The proposed Building 12-42F modification relates to the interiors of Buildings 12-42F and 12-42A. These buildings contain a centrifuge and associated testing and monitoring equipment. The proposed addition will encompass the existing entry into Building 12-42A. Building 12-42A will be accessed through the proposed Building 12-42F modification

  19. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental Studies and Internal Dosimetry projects include: Environmental Protection; 1977 Environmental Monitoring Report; Sewage Sludge Disposal on the Sanitary Landfill; Radiological Analyses of Marshall Islands Environmental Samples, 1974 to 1976; External Radiation Survey and Dose Predictions for Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik, Ailuk, and Wotje Atolls; Marshall Islands - Diet and Life Style Study; Dose Reassessment for Populations on Rongelap and Utirik Following Exposure to Fallout from BRAVO Incident (March 1, 1954); Whole Body Counting Results from 1974 to 1979 for Bikini Island Residents; Dietary Radioactivity Intake from Bioassay Data, a Model Applied to 137 Cs Intake by Bikini Island Residents; and External Exposure Measurements at Bikini Atoll

  20. Proposed amendment for Presidential Permit PP-63 and associated modifications to 500 kV international transmission line, Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada Northern States Power Company. Final Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    Northern States Power Company, (NSP), a Minnesota investor owned utility has applied to the Office of Fossil Energy, United States Department of Energy, to amend Presidential Permit PP-63 to allow for alterations to the 500 kV transmission line and as sedated facilities currently regulated by this permit. The alterations proposed for the 500 kV line owned by NSP are part of a long term effort sponsored by NSP to upgrade the existing NSP transmission system to allow for increased exchange of electricity with the Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board. Presidential Permit PP-63 authorized NSP to construct, connect, operate and maintain a 500 kV line at the United States/Canadian border approximately seven-and-a-half miles west of Warroad in Roseau County, Minnesota. This line connects with a 500 kV line owned and operated by the Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board (MHEB), which extends from Dorsey, Manitoba, Canada to the United States/Canadian border. NSP proposes to increase the electricity transfer capability of this transmission facility by constructing a new 80-acre substation on the existing 500 kV line in Roseau County, Minnesota, and upgrading the existing substation at Forbes, Minnesota. The proposed Roseau substation would contain two 41.5 ohm series capacitor banks. In addition, static VAR compensators are to be installed at the existing Forbes Substation. Approximately 5 acres would be added to the 30-acre Forbes site to house the additional equipment. No new lines would enter or exit the facility. NSP proposes to place the new Roseau Substation in service in May 1993 and to complete the upgrading of the Forbes Substation in March 1994. The primary, initial purpose of these modifications is to enable NSP to import 400 megawatts of electric power from MHEB during the summer months to meet peak electrical demand in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. It is expected that this power transfer would begin in 1993.

  1. Organic light emitting diode with surface modification layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, John D.; Bhandari, Abhinav; Buhay, Harry; Arbab, Mehran; Marietti, Gary J.

    2017-09-12

    An organic light emitting diode (10) includes a substrate (12) having a first surface (14) and a second surface (16), a first electrode (32), and a second electrode (38). An emissive layer (36) is located between the first electrode (32) and the second electrode (38). The organic light emitting diode (10) further includes a surface modification layer (18). The surface modification layer (18) includes a non-planar surface (30, 52).

  2. The Carbon Cycle and the Earth Systems--Studying the Carbon Cycle in Multidisciplinary Environmental Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudovitch, Yossi; Orion, Nir

    This paper describes a method that attempts to confront the challenges of developing an environmentally-based earth sciences program. The research scheme includes five stages: (1) predevelopment study; (2) curriculum development; (3) implementation; (4) formative evaluation; and (5) curriculum modification. The research results indicate that the…

  3. Early environmental planning: A process for power line corridor selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haagenstad, T.; Bare, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted an environmental planning study in the fall of 1997 to help determine the best alternative for upgrading the Laboratory's electrical power system. Alternatives considered included an on-site power generation facility and two corridors for a 10-mile-long 115-kV power line. This planning process was conducted prior to the formal National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review. The goals were to help select the best proposed action, to recommend modifications and mitigation measures for each alternative for a more environmentally sound project, and to avoid potential delays once the formal Department of Energy review process began. Significant constraints existed from a planning perspective, including operational issues such as existing outdoor high explosives testing areas, as well as environmental issues including threatened and endangered species habitats, multiple archeological sites, contaminated areas, and aesthetics. The study had to be completed within 45 days to meet project schedule needs. The process resulted in a number of important recommendations. While the construction and operation of the on-site power generation facility could have minimal environmental impacts, the need for a new air quality permit would create severe cost and schedule constraints for the project. From an environmental perspective, construction and operation of a power line within either corridor was concluded to be a viable alternative. However, impacts with either corridor would have to be reduced through specific recommended alignment modifications and mitigation measures

  4. Environmental protection by cost minimization: Least Cost Planning for traffic. Includes a guide for the application in local communities; Umweltentlastung durch Kostenminimierung: Least Cost Planning im Verkehr. Mit Leitfaden fuer die Anwendung in Kommunen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracher, T.; Diegmann, V.; Eckart, C.F.; Liwicki, M.; Lobenberg, G.; Wetzel, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Informatik, Verkehrs- und Umweltplanung mbH (IVU), Berlin (Germany); Bergmann, M.; Uricher, A.; Lueers, A. [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Becker, U.; Karl, G.; Karl, B.; Voellings, A. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verkehrsoekologie

    1999-08-01

    An intermodal approach for the evaluation of transportation services on the municipal level was developed. Both non-motorised and motorised transportation were included. The approach aims at helping communities to provide an economically and ecologically viable transport policy. Least Cost Transportation Planning (LCTP) was developed to transfer the successful concept of Least Cost Planning from the energy sector to transportation. The conclusion from an analysis of LCTP literature and present evaluation methods was that an improved approach should be intermodal and integrate users, public bodies and transport companies as well as all planning sectors. An approach was developed firstly to identify and clarify transportation expenditures and incomes of a city within a year, and secondly for the evaluation of planning alternatives. This was illustrated for the access system of an industrial area with adjacent railway services in the town of Freiburg. Three alternatives were compared: the extension of a tramway line, the upgrading of the present bus system, and the development of a service and bicycle provision concept for rail stations and companies. Besides income and expenditure for each alternative, the effects on transport demand, the impact on air pollution and noise and on space consumption were presented. As a result, the bicycle concept is in most items better than its alternatives. The final report has three volumes and there is an extra guideline for implementing the method within municipalities. It includes a set of excel sheet tables for an easy application (all in German). (orig.) [German] Fuer die Verkehrsplanung wurde ein verkehrstraegeruebergreifendes Bewertungsverfahren fuer Kommunen entwickelt, das motorisierte und nicht motorisierte Verkehrstraeger einbezieht. Das Verfahren soll Gemeinden unterstuetzen, eine oekonomische und oekologisch vertraegliche Verkehrspolitik zu verfolgen. Least Cost Transportation Planning (LCTP) zielt darauf ab, das fuer

  5. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  6. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Saavedra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders.

  7. Surface modification of bioceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkawa, Akira

    Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAp] is a major inorganic component of bone and teeth tissues and has the excellent biocompatibility and high osteoconductivity. The interactions between HAp and protein or cell have been studied. The HAp related bioceramics such as bone substitute, coating substance of metal implants, inorganic-polymer composites, and cell culture. We described two methods; (1) surface modification of HAp using organosilane; (2) fabrication of HAp ultra-thin layer on gold surface for protein adsorption analyzed with QCM-D technique. The interfacial interaction between collagen and HAp in a nano-region was controlled by depositing the organosilane of n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODS: -CH3) or aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS: -NH2) with a chemical vapor deposition method. The morphologies of collagen adsorbed on the surfaces of HAp and HAp deposited with APTS were similar, however that of the surface with ODS was apparently different, due to the hydrophobic interaction between the organic head group of -CH3 and residual groups of collagen. We present a method for coating gold quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) sensor with ultra-thin layer of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals evenly covering and tightly bound to the surface. The hydroxyapatite sensor operated in liquid with high stability and sensitivity. The in-situ adsorption mechanism and conformational change of fibrinogen on gold, titanium and hydroxyapatite surfaces were investigated by QCM-D technique and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The study indicates that the hydroxyapatite sensor is applicable for qualitative and conformational analysis of protein adsorption.

  8. Research report for fiscal 1998 including researches into global environmental problems. Business report on the promotion of interaction of scientists over environmental problems in the Asia-Pacific region; 1998 nendo Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Global environmental problems are growing quite serious in developing countries, yet they are requested to properly deal with them without making light of sustainable development, for which international cooperation and diffusion of technologies for the development of environmental technologies are mandatory. Japan, utilizing what it learned from pollution within in the past and making the best use of its technologies and knowledge for environmental improvement in developing countries in Asia, has been hosting since fiscal 1997 a function of Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia-Pacific Region function. In fiscal 1998, a fifth international symposium was convened at Science City Center at the foot of Mt. Suzuka on November 26 and 27. The central theme was the development of environmental technologies and international cooperation for developing nations, and the event attracted 180 participants from inside Japan and abroad. A number of concrete themes came out of working groups on water quality, air quality, and energy/waste, which concerned the drafting of propositions for international collaborative researches. As for researches abroad, four typical Malaysian institutes were visited. (NEDO)

  9. The modification of the Rossendorf Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehre, G.; Hieronymus, W.; Kampf, T.; Ringel, V.; Robbander, W.

    1990-01-01

    The Rossendorf Research Reactor is of the WWR-SM type. It is a heterogeneous water moderated and cooled tank reactor with a thermal power of 10 MW, which was in operation from 1957 to 1986. It was shut down in 1987 for comprehensive modifications to increase its safety and to improve the efficiency of irradiation and experimentals. The modifications will be implemented in two steps. The first one to be finished in 1989 comprises: 1) the replacement of the reactor tank and its components, the reactor cooling system, the ventilation system and the electric power installation; 2) the construction of a new reactor control room and of filtering equipment; 3) the renewal of process instrumentation and control engineering equipment for reactor operation, equipment for radiation protection monitoring, and reactor operation and safety documentation. The second step, to be implemented in the nineties, is to comprise: 1) the enlargement of the capacity for storage of spent fuel; 2) the modernization of reactor operations by computer-aided control; 3) the installation of an automated measuring systems for accident and environmental monitoring. Two objects of the modification, the replacement of the reactor tank and the design of a new and safer one as well as the increase of the redundancy of the core emergency cooling system are described in detail. For the tank replacement the exposure data are also given. Furthermore, the licensing procedures based on national ordinances and standards as well as on international standards and recommendations and the mutual responsibilities and activities of the licensing authority and of the reactor manager are presented. Finally, the present state of the modifications and the schedule up to the reactor recommissioning and test operation at full power is outlined

  10. Posttranslational Modification Biology of Glutamate Receptors and Drug Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min eMao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Posttranslational covalent modifications of glutamate receptors remain a hot topic. Early studies have established that this family of receptors, including almost all ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes, undergoes active phosphorylation at serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues on their intracellular domains. Recent evidence identifies several glutamate receptor subtypes to be direct substrates for palmitoylation at cysteine residues. Other modifications such as ubiquitination and sumoylation at lysine residues also occur to certain glutamate receptors. These modifications are dynamic and reversible in nature and are regulatable by changing synaptic inputs. The regulated modifications significantly impact the receptor in many ways, including interrelated changes in biochemistry (synthesis, subunit assembling and protein-protein interactions, subcellular redistribution (trafficking, endocytosis, synaptic delivery and clustering, and physiology, usually associated with changes in synaptic plasticity. Glutamate receptors are enriched in the striatum and cooperate closely with dopamine to regulate striatal signaling. Emerging evidence shows that modification processes of striatal glutamate receptors are sensitive to addictive drugs, such as psychostimulants (cocaine and amphetamines. Altered modifications are believed to be directly linked to enduring receptor/synaptic plasticity and drug-seeking. This review summarizes several major types of modifications of glutamate receptors and analyzes the role of these modifications in striatal signaling and in the pathogenesis of psychostimulant addiction.

  11. Tipping the balance by manipulating posttranslational modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Christopher A.; Orth, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Summary Bacteria use a variety of mechanisms during infection to ensure their survival including the delivery of virulence factors via a type III secretion system into the infected cell. The factors exhibit diverse activities that in many cases mimic eukaryotic mechanisms used by the host to defend against infection. Herein we describe a class of effectors that use posttranslational modifications, some reversible and others irreversible, to manipulate host signaling systems to subvert the host response. PMID:20071215

  12. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  13. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985

  14. 76 FR 50815 - TSCA Inventory Update Reporting Modifications; Chemical Data Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ..., 710, and 711 TSCA Inventory Update Reporting Modifications; Chemical Data Reporting; Final Rule #0;#0... TSCA Inventory Update Reporting Modifications; Chemical Data Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection...) section 8(a) Inventory Update Reporting (IUR) rule and changing its name to the Chemical Data Reporting...

  15. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The question of environment protection related to the use of nuclear energy aiming to power generation, based on the harmonic concept of economic and industrial development, preserving the environment, is discussed. A brief study of environmental impacts for some energy sources, including nuclear energy, to present the systems of a nuclear power plant which aim at environmental protection, is done. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. U.S. EPA National Priorities List (NPL) Sites Point Data with CIESIN Modifications, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Priorities List (NPL) Sites Point Data with CIESIN Modifications, Version 2 is a modified version of the 2014...

  17. Nursing researchers' modifications of Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singsuriya, Pagorn

    2015-12-01

    Paul Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology has proved to be very helpful in guiding nursing researchers' qualitative analysis of interview transcripts. Modifying Ricoeur's philosophy, a number of nursing researchers have developed their own interpretive methods and shared them, along with their experience, with research community. Major contributors who published papers directly presenting their modifications of Ricoeur's theory include Rene Geanellos (2000), Lena Wiklund, Lisbet Lindholm and Unni Å. Lindström (2002), Anders Lindseth and Astrid Norberg (2004) and Pia Sander Dreyer and Birthe D Pedersen (2009). The aim of this article was to delineate differences among these methods. Descriptive presentation of each method side by side makes clear the differences among them. In addition, Ricoeur's hermeneutic theory is portrayed and compared with the modifications. It is believed that differences that are found can stimulate further thoughts on how to apply Ricoeur's theory in qualitative research in nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Tissue modification with feedback: the smart scalpel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebern, Elizabeth L.; Brenan, Colin J. H.; Anderson, R. Rox; Hunter, Ian W.

    1998-10-01

    While feedback control is widespread throughout many engineering fields, there are almost no examples of surgical instruments that utilize a real-time detection and intervention strategy. This concept of closed loop feedback can be applied to the development of autonomous or semi- autonomous minimally invasive robotic surgical systems for efficient excision or modification of diseased tissue. Spatially localized regions of the tissue are first probed to distinguish pathological from healthy tissue based on differences in histochemical and morphological properties. Energy is directed to only the diseased tissue, minimizing collateral damage by leaving the adjacent healthy tissue intact. Continuous monitoring determines treatment effectiveness and, if needed, enables real-time treatment modifications to produce optimal therapeutic outcomes. The present embodiment of this general concept is a microsurgical instrument we call the Smart Scalpel, designed to treat skin angiodysplasias such as port wine stains. Other potential Smart Scalpel applications include psoriasis treatment and early skin cancer detection and intervention.

  19. Including Exceptional Students in Your Instrumental Music Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the method and adaptations used by the author in including students with special needs in an instrumental music program. To ensure success in the program, the author shares the method he uses to include exceptional students and enumerates some possible adaptations. There are certainly other methods and modifications that…

  20. Land cover modification geoindicator applied in a tropical coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio-Aponte, Gerardo

    2014-09-01

    Environmental changes due to natural processes and anthropic modifications can be characterized by the degree of land cover modification and its environmental implications over time. The main goal of the present study was to propose and apply a land cover modification geoindicator in order to assess the environmental condition of the territory per landscape units. It was designed to interpret diffuse information and transform it into a synthetic indicator that will be useful for environmental managers. The geoindicator evaluation was performed through a multi-temporal analysis of medium resolution Landsat satellite images and their unsupervised classification according to the direction of land use transitions. A change detection analysis between image pairs from 1973, 1991 and 2001 was made to detect unaffected areas and the areas in which positive or negative land cover changes could be observed. The proposed methodology was applied in the coastal palustrine area; specifically, in the marine-terrestrial ecotone of Campeche, Mexico. Geoindicator values during the 1974-1991 and 1991-2001 periods were low, 46.5% and 40.9%, respectively, due to the intrinsic limitations of coastal wetlands for productive activities. Urban and suburban transition areas showed high degrees of modification of about 39.5% and 32.1% for the first and the second period, respectively. Moderate modification, 4.9% in the first period and 5.7% in the second, was observed in isolated landscape units with recovering vegetation. The proposed geoindicator showed physiognomic and functional evidence of affectation levels from human activities, regeneration patterns and alteration of the landscape structure, modulated by the historical-economic process in the studied area.

  1. The continual fuel management modification in Qinshan project II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Guodong; Pan Zefei; Zhang Xingtian

    2010-01-01

    The fuel management strategy is the basis of the nuclear power plants. The performance of the fuel management strategy affects the plants' safety and economy indicators directly. The paper summarizes all the modifications on the fuel management work in Qinshan Project II since the plant was established. It includes the surveillance system of physics tests, fetching in high performance fuel assemblies, reloading pattern optimization, and the modifications of the final safety analysis report. At the same time, it evaluates the benefit of the modifications in the few years. The experience in this paper is much helpful and could be implemented on the same type plants. (authors)

  2. Epigenetic modifications as novel therapeutic targets for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengli; Fischhaber, Paula L; Guo, Caixia; Tang, Tie-Shan

    2014-06-01

    Huntington's disease is a late-onset, autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptomatology. The earliest stage of Huntington's disease is marked by alterations in gene expression, which partially results from dysregulated epigenetic modifications. In past decades, altered epigenetic markers including histone modifications (acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation and phosphorylation) and DNA modifications (cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation) have been reported as important epigenetic features in patients and multiple animal models of Huntington's disease. Drugs aimed to correct some of those alterations have shown promise in treating Huntington's disease. This article discusses the field of epigenetics for potential Huntington's disease interventions and presents the most recent findings in this area.

  3. Optimizing natural fertility: the role of lifestyle modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Mamie; Wellons, Melissa F

    2012-12-01

    Preconception counseling provides an opportunity for health care providers to promote maternal and neonatal health, and to make recommendations regarding the optimization of natural fertility. While educating patients on the negative impact of maternal obesity on fertility and maternal and neonatal health; many health care providers recommend weight loss to reduce these negative outcomes. The recommendations start with lifestyle modifications, including diet and exercise. This article focuses on the available evidence regarding lifestyle modifications and fertility, and on the type of lifestyle modifications that health care providers should recommend to patients seeking to optimize their natural fertility. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Environmental monitoring master sampling schedule, January--December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for calendar year 1990 for the Environment Surveillance and Ground-Water Monitoring Projects. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. This schedule includes ground-water sampling performed by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  5. Numerical simulation of spark ignition including ionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, M; Selle, S; Riedel, U; Warnatz, J; Maas, U

    2000-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the processes associated Midi spark ignition, as a first step during combustion, is of great importance fur clean operation of spark ignition engines. In the past 10 years. a growing concern for environmental protection, including low emission of pollutants, has increased

  6. 78 FR 37528 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Supplement to the December 2009 Final Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Supplement to the December 2009 Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Relocation of New River... modification request includes the consolidation of Phases II-V into one phase (in a single dredging event), the... has reevaluated its financial status and seeks to modify their DA authorization. A key component in...

  7. Epigenetic Modifications and Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu A. Kowluru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy remains one of the most debilitating chronic complications, but despite extensive research in the field, the exact mechanism(s responsible for how retina is damaged in diabetes remains ambiguous. Many metabolic pathways have been implicated in its development, and genes associated with these pathways are altered. Diabetic environment also facilitates epigenetics modifications, which can alter the gene expression without permanent changes in DNA sequence. The role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy is now an emerging area, and recent work has shown that genes encoding mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 are epigenetically modified, activates of epigenetic modification enzymes, histone lysine demethylase 1 (LSD1, and DNA methyltransferase are increased, and the micro RNAs responsible for regulating nuclear transcriptional factor and VEGF are upregulated. With the growing evidence of epigenetic modifications in diabetic retinopathy, better understanding of these modifications has potential to identify novel targets to inhibit this devastating disease. Fortunately, the inhibitors and mimics targeted towards histone modification, DNA methylation, and miRNAs are now being tried for cancer and other chronic diseases, and better understanding of the role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy will open the door for their possible use in combating this blinding disease.

  8. Plazma modification of threading tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Савелійович Самотугін

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive model of the threading tool hardening on high-speed plasma heating has been presented as well as the mathematical description of the heating process. The reproduction of the model by means of computer simulation, based on the use of the finite elements method, including structural and physical parameters of the tool has been offered. The heat distribution in the heat-affected zone, and the relationship that makes it possible to determine the temperature at any point of the body, bringing the simulation results closer to the actual physical characteristics of the process have been shown. The analysis conducted in this article shows the prospects of using surface hardening methods to improve performance of thread-cutting tools. However, due to the complex profile of the working surface of the tools, application of any hardening method involves difficulties. On the strength of the above-said, with due regard to the established requirements for geometrical parameters of the thread-cutting tools and their loading conditions, as well as well-known recommendations for other types of tools, the technological processes for plasma processing of various types of thread-cutting tools have been developed. In developing the technology of plasma modification it is very important to select the optimum mode of heating, which ensures the formation of the modified zones of required size. This problem is solved by means of the analysis of thermal fields in the tool during plasma heating. The experience of using plasma hardening shows that the thermal cycle of heating and cooling materials can be controlled by varying such parameters as arc current and the speed of the plasma torch movement at a constant optimum level of the other parameters (plasma gas flow and the cooling water, the distance of the nozzle exit to the surface being machined

  9. Modifications to the INSPECT model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The prediction of iodine behaviour in the containment of a PWR following a loss of coolant accident requires a reliable model of the chemistry of iodine in aqueous solution. The INSPECT model, which was developed several years ago, contains a large number of the relevant chemical reactions of iodine and water radiation chemistry. Since the reactions set was first assembled, however, new data on rate constants and mechanisms have become available. In addition, the application of the model to various small-scale experiments has revealed problems in the modelling of some reactions, leading to an under-prediction of the iodine volatility at high pH, although the experiments have demonstrated that the high pH volatility remains satisfactory low. This paper describes the modifications which have been made to the INSPECT model to take account of new data and to improve the modelling where appropriate. The main changes which have been made to the reaction set are as follows: - The rate constants and activation energies for the reactions describing the radiolysis of water have been updated in with recent assessments, and the temperature dependence of the G value for the primary species have been accordance taken into account, - The mechanism and rates of I{sub 2} hydrolysis have been modified in accordance with the latest assessments of this reaction, - The mechanism for the reaction of I{sub 2} with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been changed to a form which produces a more realistic pH dependence under neutral and alkaline conditions, - An addition mechanism for the disproportionation of the O{sub 2} ion has been included, reflecting experimental observations that this reaction has a significant first-order component under all but the purest conditions, - Atomic I is treated as a volatile species, with a partition coefficient of 1.9 at 298 K. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. The Human Factors Engineering in Process Design Modifications CNAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foronda Delgado, A.; Almeida Parra, P.; Bote Moreno, J.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution presents the process followed at the Almaraz and Trillo Nuclear Power Plants in order to integrate Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in the Design Modifications. This includes the applicable rules and regulations, the classification criteria used to categorize the modification, the activities that are to be carried out in each case, as well as recent examples where the full HFE program model was applied at Almaraz (Alternate Shutdown Panel) and Trillo (Primary Bleed and Feed).

  11. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, targets, tools, processes. Results of research show that the beginning of the XXI century is distinguished by the development of new types of political concepts that explain interaction of elements in modern international relations in the area of environmental protection. The reason of these changes lies in the phenomena of environmentalism integration into Three paradigms of international relations. However, we cannot say that any of the examined paradigms accumulated all features of environmentalism without their modification. Better to say, it's rather similar to adaptation of environmental ideas. Therefore, to understand modern international relations processes, it is necessary to take into account their environmental element. Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-4

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN AND ENVIRONMENTALLY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, environmental concern has been conceptualised as the manifestation of attitudes that are directed at behavioural intentions of active personal involvement in caring about environmental matters. Based on a critique of theoretical approaches towards understanding the formation of environmental attitudes, ...

  13. Client-centred home modifications improve daily activity performance of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Susan; Landsbaum, Amanda; Palmer, Janice L; Somerville, Emily K; Morris, John C

    2009-07-01

    Remaining at home is a high priority for many older adults, but the capacity to "age in place" often is threatened by environmental barriers. To describe a client-centred occupational therapy home modification intervention program and examine the impact of the intervention on daily activity performance over time. Using a competence-environmental press framework, a client-centred home modification program for older adults was implemented. In this quasiexperimental, single group prospective study, participants'subjective ratings of daily activity performance were evaluated before and after the intervention (baseline/post/post). After home modification, participants'perception of their daily activity performance at home improved significantly and was maintained 2 years post-modification. Home modification may benefit older adults attempting to age in place.

  14. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  15. Inorganic Surface Modification of Nonwoven Polymeric Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbur, Jonathan Chandler

    In this study, atomic layer deposition (ALD), a vapor phase inorganic thin film deposition technique, is used to modify the surface of a range of industrially relevant polymers to enhance surface properties or impart additional functionalities. Several unique demonstrations of polymer surface modification are presented including uniform nanomaterial photodeposition to the surface of nonowoven fabrics and the first application of photocatalytic thin film coated nonwovens for advanced filtration of heavy metals from solution. Recent advances in polymer synthesis and processing technologies have resulted in the production of novel polymer systems with unique chemistries and sub-micron scale dimensions. As a result, advanced fiber systems have received much attention for potential use in a wide range of industrially and medically important applications such as advanced and selective filtration, catalysis, flexible electronics, and tissue engineering. However, tailoring the surface properties of the polymer is still needed in order to realize the full range of advanced applications, which can be difficult given the high complexity and non-uniformity of nonwoven polymeric structures. Uniform and controllable inorganic surface modification of nonwovens allows the introduction or modification of many crucial polymer properties with a wide range of application methods.

  16. Epigenetic chromatin modifications in barley after mutagenic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braszewska-Zalewska, Agnieszka; Tylikowska, Marta; Kwasniewska, Jolanta; Szymanowska-Pulka, Joanna

    2014-11-01

    In addition to their normal developmental processes, plants have evolved complex genetic and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms to cope with various environmental stresses. It has been shown that both DNA methylation and histone modifications are involved in DNA damage response to various types of stresses. In this study, we focused on the involvement of two mutagenic agents, chemical (maleic acid hydrazide; MH) and physical (gamma rays), on the global epigenetic modifications of chromatin in barley. Our results indicate that both mutagens strongly influence the level of histone methylation and acetylation. Moreover, we found that gamma irradiation, in contrast to MH, has a more robust influence on the DNA methylation level. This is the first study that brings together mutagenic treatment along with its impact at the level of epigenetic modifications examined using the immunohistochemical method.

  17. Modification and characterization of microcrystalline cellulose with succinic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Clecio M.R.; Santos, Douglas C.; Freitas, Gizele B.; Cardoso, Giselia

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose is a natural polymer, non-toxic, biodegradable and renewable source. With increasing global attention to environmental problems, the chemical modification of cellulose has been evaluated with increasing applicability in various industrial sectors. The cellulose can be chemical modified through the hydroxyl present in their molecules. This paper aims to present the main results in the modification of microcrystalline cellulose. The sample was pure and modified chemically and morphologically characterized by absorption spectroscopy in the infrared (IR) and showed the band in the 1551cm -1 characterization modification made, X-ray diffraction (XRD) where it was observed that the change led to a reduction significant crystallinity, and determination of average pore radius through the analyzer porosity and surface area resulting in values of 6.97 angstrom for pure sample and 8.62 angstrom for the modified. In addition to these tests we determined the average degree of substitution finding the value of 1.67. (author)

  18. The multitude and diversity of environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belpomme, D.; Irigaray, P.; Hardell, L.; Clapp, R.; Montagnier, L.; Epstein, S.; Sasco, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We have recently proposed that lifestyle-related factors, screening and aging cannot fully account for the present overall growing incidence of cancer. In order to propose the concept that in addition to lifestyle related factors, exogenous environmental factors may play a more important role in carcinogenesis than it is expected, and may therefore account for the growing incidence of cancer, we overview herein environmental factors, rated as certainly or potentially carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). We thus analyze the carcinogenic effect of microorganisms (including viruses), radiations (including radioactivity, UV and pulsed electromagnetic fields) and xenochemicals. Chemicals related to environmental pollution appear to be of critical importance, since they can induce occupational cancers as well as other cancers. Of major concerns are: outdoor air pollution by carbon particles associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; indoor air pollution by environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds such as benzene and 1,3 butadiene, which may particularly affect children, and food pollution by food additives and by carcinogenic contaminants such as nitrates, pesticides, dioxins and other organochlorines. In addition, carcinogenic metals and metalloids, pharmaceutical medicines and cosmetics may be involved. Although the risk fraction attributable to environmental factors is still unknown, this long list of carcinogenic and especially mutagenic factors supports our working hypothesis according to which numerous cancers may in fact be caused by the recent modification of our environment

  19. Modifications in Ginkgo biloba L. in response to environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.K. (Univ. to Tennessee, Martin (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (maidenhair tree) was studied in polluted and relatively clean habitats of West Tennessee. In spite of its known resistance to smog and automobile exhaust fumes, it exhibited a decrease in leaf length, leaf width, and petiole length in polluted habitats. Furthermore, there was a definite trend towards lower stomatal density along the pollution gradient in selected habitats.

  20. Final Environmental Impact Statement on Modifications to Monroe Harbor, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    INVOLVED IF THE PROPOSED ACTION SHOULD BE IMPLEMENTED 8.01 The labor , materials and fuel commited for the dredging, dike construction and disposal...political ;ressure intervenes to force a diecision. We do not believe -a decisions reached in such a clima ~te arec cocucive to sound natural resource r

  1. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  2. Structural dynamic modifications via models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2nd Int. Modal Analysis Conference (Orlando) 2: 930±936. Natke H G (ed.) 1982 Identification of vibrating structures (New York: Springer Verlag, Wein). Rao S S 1989 Optimum design of structures under shock and vibration environment. Shock Vibr. Dig. 21(7):. Ravi S S A 1994 Structural dynamic modifications and design ...

  3. Superhydrophobic cotton by fluorosilane modification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available the treatment with fluorinated or silicon compounds)1-4 and by enhancing the surface roughness with a fractal structure5-8. Cotton, a cellulose-based material, that is greatly hydrophilic, is more benefited when made hydrophobic. Modification of cotton...

  4. Modification of the Argonne tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yntema, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    For nuclear structure experiments with heavy ions it is necessary to have ion energies in excess of 5 MeV per nucleon. At the Argonne tandem FN accelerator this was accomplished by the addition of a superconducting linac. Modifications of the FN tandem to improve the performance of the pair is described

  5. Ethical Considerations in Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, James

    1976-01-01

    Article discusses use of behavior modification techniques to further needs of those in positions of power at expense of the individual. As the implications of this abuse of knowledge become wider through the technology of computers and electronic surveillance systems, psychologists must instruct themselves in methods of countercontrol. (RW)

  6. A NEW "PROCESSABLE" POLYACETYLENE MODIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hocker, J.; Schneider, G.

    1983-01-01

    Using a special catalyst on the Ziegler-Natta basis and special reaction conditions it is possible to polymerize acetylene for obtaining a new polyacetylene modification with burr- or fibre-shaped particles which can be processed to foils, non-wovens and coatings.

  7. A review of the chemical modification techniques of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masina, Nonhlanhla; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Govender, Mershen; Indermun, Sunaina; Pillay, Viness

    2017-02-10

    Starch is a naturally occurring storage copolymer with unique physicochemical properties. There are, however, some key structural properties of starch that can be modified in order to functionalize the copolymer to meet specific requirements. Specifically, the chemical modification of starch provides a variety of physicochemical benefits, some of which have been used previously to functionalize preformed drug delivery systems. Of the three main chemical modification methods reviewed (namely: oxidation, esterification and etherification), surface chemical oxidation introduces more pertinent physicochemical properties that increase overall drug delivery system efficacy and applicability. Surface oxidation evidently is the more preferable chemical modification method of pre-formed starch particles and has the greatest potential for further development when compared to the other reviewed chemical modification methods. The use of modified starch in clinical trials as well as the potential future implications of these systems is also included in this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of epigenetic modifications in luminal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafiz, Hany A; Horwitz, Kathryn B

    2015-08-01

    Luminal breast cancers represent approximately 75% of cases. Explanations into the causes of endocrine resistance are complex and are generally ascribed to genomic mechanisms. Recently, attention has been drawn to the role of epigenetic modifications in hormone resistance. We review these here. Epigenetic modifications are reversible, heritable and include changes in DNA methylation patterns, modification of histones and altered microRNA expression levels that target the receptors or their signaling pathways. Large-scale analyses indicate distinct epigenomic profiles that distinguish breast cancers from normal and benign tissues. Taking advantage of the reversibility of epigenetic modifications, drugs that target epigenetic modifiers, given in combination with chemotherapies or endocrine therapies, may represent promising approaches to restoration of therapy responsiveness in these cases.

  9. Environmental problems and environmental preferences in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Lin

    2006-01-01

    This is the summary of my research and thesis done here at the University of Oslo on the environmental problems and environmental preferences in China. This thesis begins with a description on the environmental problems along with the economic development. Even though GDP total in China increases each year, environment becomes worse and worse. Local environmental problems include air pollution, water pollution, solid waste and noise pollution. Particles, dust, SO2, CO, NOX from coal burn...

  10. Epigenetic modifications by dietary phytochemicals: implications for personalized nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Sharmila; Kumar, Dhruv; Srivastava, Rakesh K

    2013-04-01

    In the last two decades, the study of epigenetic modification emerged as one of the major areas of cancer treatment targeted by dietary phytochemicals. Recent studies with various types of cancers revealed that the epigenetic modifications are associated with the food source corresponds to dietary phytochemicals. The dietary phytochemicals have been used in Asian countries for thousands of years to cure several diseases including cancer. They have been reported to modulate the several biological processes including histone modification, DNA methylation and non-coding microRNA expression. These events play a vital role in carcinogenesis. Various studies suggest that a number of dietary compounds present in vegetables, spices and other herbal products have epigenetic targets in cancer cells. Dietary phytochemicals have been reported to repair DNA damage by enhancing histone acetylation that helps to restrain cell death, and also alter DNA methylation. These phytochemicals are able to modulate epigenetic modifications and their targets to cure several cancers. Epigenetic aberrations dynamically contribute to cancer pathogenesis. Given the individualized traits of epigenetic biomarkers, the personalized nutrition will help us to prevent various types of cancer. In this review, we will discuss the effect of dietary phytochemicals on genetic and epigenetic modifications and how these modifications help to prevent various types of cancers and improve health outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH) [de

  12. Environmental Reality Check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manicone, Santo

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the importance of educational facilities conducting "reality check" self-audits to uncover the real truth behind underlying environmental problems. An environmental compliance multimedia checklist is included. (GR)

  13. Environmental microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briški, Felicita; Vuković Domanovac, Marija

    2017-10-01

    For most people, microorganisms are out of sight and therefore out of mind but they are large, extremely diverse group of organisms, they are everywhere and are the dominant form of life on planet Earth. Almost every surface is colonized by microorganisms, including our skin; however most of them are harmless to humans. Some microorganisms can live in boiling hot springs, whereas others form microbial communities in frozen sea ice. Among their many roles, microorganisms are necessary for biogeochemical cycling, soil fertility, decomposition of dead plants and animals and biodegradation of many complex organic compounds present in the environment. Environmental microbiology is concerned with the study of microorganisms in the soil, water and air and their application in bioremediation to reduce environmental pollution through the biological degradation of pollutants into non-toxic or less toxic substances. Field of environmental microbiology also covers the topics such as microbially induced biocorrosion, biodeterioration of constructing materials and microbiological quality of outdoor and indoor air.

  14. Solar Passive Modification Increase Radiation Safety Standards Inside Accelerator Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, A. F.; Keshk, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation processing by accelerated electrons is considering one of the most important and useful industrial irradiation treatments. It is depending on two principle attachment elements which are architecture of irradiation building and the accelerator characteristic that was arranged inside irradiation building. Negative environmental measurements were recorded inside the main building and were exceeded the international standards (humidity, air speed, high thermal effects and ozone concentration). The study showed that it is essential to improve the natural environmental standards inside the main irradiation building in order to improve the work environment and to reduce ozone concentration from 220 ppb to international standard. The main goals and advantages were achieved by using environmental architecture (desert architecture) indoor the irradiation building. The work depends on passive solar system which is economic, same architectural elements, comfort / health, and radiation safety, and without mechanical means. The experimental work was accomplished under these modifications. The registered results of various environmental concentrations have proved their normal standards.

  15. Statistics for environmental science and management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manly, B.F.J

    2009-01-01

    .... Additional topics covered include environmental monitoring, impact assessment, censored data, environmental sampling, the role of statistics in environmental science, assessing site reclamation...

  16. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    An historical overview of the main advances in the understanding of bombardment-induced surface topography is presented. The implantation and sputtering mechanisms which are relevant to ion bombardment modification of surfaces and consequent structural, electronic and compositional changes are described. Descriptions of plasma and ion-beam sputtering-induced film formation, primary ion-beam deposition, dual beam techniques, cluster of molecule ion-beam deposition, and modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition are presented. A detailed account is given of the analytical and computational modelling of topography from the viewpoint of first erosion theory. Finally, an account of the possible application and/or importance of textured surfaces in technologies and/or experimental techniques not considered in previous chapters is presented. refs.; figs.; tabs

  17. Lentiviral modification of enriched populations of bovine male gonocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K-J; Cho, C M; Kim, B-G; Lee, Y-A; Kim, B-J; Kim, Y-H; Kim, C G; Schmidt, J A; Ryu, B-Y

    2014-01-01

    Undifferentiated germ cells have the capacity to develop into sperm capable of fertilizing oocytes and contributing genetic material to subsequent generations. The most primitive prepubertal undifferentiated germ cells include gonocytes and undifferentiated spermatogonia, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSC). Gonocytes, present in the testis at birth, differentiate into SSC, which maintain spermatogenesis for the remainder of the male's life. Because of their capacity to contribute to lifelong spermatogenesis, undifferentiated germ cells are attractive targets for genetic modification to produce transgenic animals, including cattle. To maximize the efficiency of genetic modification of bovine gonocytes and SSC, effective enrichment techniques need to be developed. Selection of bovine gonocytes using differential plating was improved 8-fold (P green fluorescent protein. Transduction efficiency was 17%. Collectively, these data demonstrate effective methods for the selection and genetic modification of bovine undifferentiated germ cells.

  18. Cradle modification for hydraulic ram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70 degrees and 90 degrees)

  19. Excimer laser surface modification: Process and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hirvonen, J.P. [Technical Research Institute, Espoo (Finland). Metallurgy Lab.

    1992-12-01

    Surface modification can improve materials for structural, tribological, and corrosion applications. Excimer laser light has been shown to provide a rapid means of modifying surfaces through heat treating, surface zone refining, and mixing. Laser pulses at modest power levels can easily melt the surfaces of many materials. Mixing within the molten layer or with the gas ambient may occur, if thermodynamically allowed, followed by rapid solidification. The high temperatures allow the system to overcome kinetic barriers found in some ion mixing experiments. Alternatively, surface zone refinement may result from repeated melting-solidification cycles. Ultraviolet laser light couples energy efficiently to the surface of metallic and ceramic materials. The nature of the modification that follows depends on the properties of the surface and substrate materials. Alloying from both gas and predeposited layer sources has been observed in metals, semiconductors, and ceramics as has surface enrichment of Cr by zone refinement of stainless steel. Rapid solidification after melting often results in the formation of nonequilibrium phases, including amorphous materials. Improved surface properties, including tribology and corrosion resistance, are observed in these materials.

  20. Attention bias modification reduces neural correlates of response monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brady D; Jackson, Felicia; Amir, Nader; Hajcak, Greg

    2017-10-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is an electrophysiological response to errors. Individual differences in the ERN have been posited to reflect sensitivity to threat and linked with risk for anxiety disorders. Attention bias modification is a promising computerized intervention that has been shown to decrease threat biases and anxiety symptoms. In the present study, we examined the impact of a single session of attention bias modification, relative to a control task, on the neural correlates of response monitoring, including the ERN, correct response negativity (CRN), and their difference (i.e., the ERN - CRN or ΔERN). The final sample included 60 participants who first completed a flanker task to elicit the ERN and CRN, and were then randomly assigned to attention bias modification (n=30) or a control task (n=30). After completing the attention bias modification or control task, participants completed the same flanker task to again elicit the ERN and CRN. Among participants who completed attention bias modification training, the ERN, CRN, and ΔERN decreased from the pre- to post-training assessment. In contrast, in participants who completed the control task, the CRN, ERN, and ΔERN did not differ between the pre- and post-training assessment. The presents study suggests that a single session of attention bias modification reduces neural correlates of response monitoring, including error-related brain activity. These results also support attention bias modification as a potential mechanistic-based intervention for the prevention and treatment of anxiety pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthetic fuels and the environment: an environmental and regulatory impacts analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Since July 1979 when DOE/EV-0044 report Environmental Analysis of Synthetic Liquid fuels was published the synthetic fuels program proposals of the Administration have undergone significant modifications. The program year for which the development goal of 1.5 million barrels per day is to be reached has been changed from 1990 to 1995. The program plan is now proposed to have two stages to ensure, among other things, better environmental protection: an initial stage emphasizing applied research and development (R and D), including environmental research, followed by a second stage that would accelerate deployment of those synthetic fuel technologies then judged most ready for rapid deployment and economic operation within the environmental protection requirements. These program changes have significantly expanded the scope of technologies to be considered in this environmental analysis and have increased the likelihood that accelerated environmental R and D efforts will be successful in solving principal environmental and worker safety concerns for most technologies prior to the initiation of the second stage of the accelerated deployment plan. Information is presented under the following section headings: summary; study description; the technologies and their environmental concerns (including, coal liquefaction and gasification, oil shale production, biomass and urban waste conversion); regulatory and institutional analyses; and environmental impacts analysis (including air and water quaility analyses, impacts of carbon dioxide and acid rain, water availability, solid and hazardous wastes, coal mining environmental impacts, transportation issues, community growth and change, and regional impacts). Additional information is presented in seventeen appendixes. (JGB)

  2. Trophic interaction modifications: an empirical and theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, J Christopher D; Morris, Rebecca J; Bonsall, Michael B

    2017-10-01

    Consumer-resource interactions are often influenced by other species in the community. At present these 'trophic interaction modifications' are rarely included in ecological models despite demonstrations that they can drive system dynamics. Here, we advocate and extend an approach that has the potential to unite and represent this key group of non-trophic interactions by emphasising the change to trophic interactions induced by modifying species. We highlight the opportunities this approach brings in comparison to frameworks that coerce trophic interaction modifications into pairwise relationships. To establish common frames of reference and explore the value of the approach, we set out a range of metrics for the 'strength' of an interaction modification which incorporate increasing levels of contextual information about the system. Through demonstrations in three-species model systems, we establish that these metrics capture complimentary aspects of interaction modifications. We show how the approach can be used in a range of empirical contexts; we identify as specific gaps in current understanding experiments with multiple levels of modifier species and the distributions of modifications in networks. The trophic interaction modification approach we propose can motivate and unite empirical and theoretical studies of system dynamics, providing a route to confront ecological complexity. © 2017 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Biosynthesis and functions of sulfur modifications in tRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki eShigi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur is an essential element for a variety of cellular constituents in all living organisms. In tRNA molecules, there are many sulfur-containing nucleosides, such as the derivatives of 2‑thiouridine (s2U, 4-thiouridine (s4U, 2-thiocytidine (s2C, and 2-methylthioadenosine (ms2A. Earlier studies established the functions of these modifications for accurate and efficient translation, including proper recognition of the codons in mRNA or stabilization of tRNA structure. In many cases, the biosynthesis of these sulfur modifications starts with cysteine desulfurases, which catalyze the generation of persulfide (an activated form of sulfur from cysteine. Many sulfur-carrier proteins are responsible for delivering this activated sulfur to each biosynthesis pathway. Finally, specific modification enzymes activate target tRNAs and then incorporate sulfur atoms. Intriguingly, the biosynthesis of 2-thiouridine in all domains of life is functionally and evolutionarily related to the ubiquitin-like post-translational modification system of cellular proteins in eukaryotes. This review summarizes the recent characterization of the biosynthesis of sulfur modifications in tRNA and the novel roles of this modification in cellular functions in various model organisms, with a special emphasis on 2-thiouridine derivatives. Each biosynthesis pathway of sulfur-containing molecules is mutually modulated via sulfur trafficking, and 2-thiouridine and codon usage bias have been proposed to control the translation of specific genes.

  4. Lateral Thinking: How Histone Modifications Regulate Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Moyra; Daujat, Sylvain; Schneider, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The DNA of each cell is wrapped around histone octamers, forming so-called 'nucleosomal core particles'. These histone proteins have tails that project from the nucleosome and many residues in these tails can be post-translationally modified, influencing all DNA-based processes, including chromatin compaction, nucleosome dynamics, and transcription. In contrast to those present in histone tails, modifications in the core regions of the histones had remained largely uncharacterised until recently, when some of these modifications began to be analysed in detail. Overall, recent work has shown that histone core modifications can not only directly regulate transcription, but also influence processes such as DNA repair, replication, stemness, and changes in cell state. In this review, we focus on the most recent developments in our understanding of histone modifications, particularly those on the lateral surface of the nucleosome. This region is in direct contact with the DNA and is formed by the histone cores. We suggest that these lateral surface modifications represent a key insight into chromatin regulation in the cell. Therefore, lateral surface modifications form a key area of interest and a focal point of ongoing study in epigenetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Matthias; Jensen, Ole N

    2003-01-01

    Post-translational modifications modulate the activity of most eukaryote proteins. Analysis of these modifications presents formidable challenges but their determination generates indispensable insight into biological function. Strategies developed to characterize individual proteins are now...

  6. Histone modifications: Cycling with chromosomal replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thon, Genevieve

    2008-01-01

    Histone modifications tend to be lost during chromosome duplication. Several recent studies suggest that the RNA interference pathway becomes active during the weakened transcriptional repression occurring at centromeres in S phase, resulting in the re-establishment of histone modifications...

  7. Surface modification agents for lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil; Belharouak, Ilias

    2017-11-21

    An active material for an electrochemical device wherein a surface of the active material is modified by a surface modification agent, wherein the surface modification agent is an organometallic compound.

  8. Targeting post-translational modifications of histones for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y-C; Hsieh, Y-H; Liao, C-C; Chong, L-W; Lee, C-Y; Yu, Y-L; Chou, R-H

    2015-10-30

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones including acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, citrullination, ubiquitination, ADP ribosylation, and sumoylation, play important roles in different biological events including chromatin dynamics, DNA replication, and transcriptional regulation. Aberrant histones PTMs leads to abnormal gene expression and uncontrolled cell proliferation, followed by development of cancers. Therefore, targeting the enzymes required for specific histone PTMs holds a lot of potential for cancer treatment. In this review article, we retrospect the latest studies in the regulations of acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation of histones. We also summarize inhibitors/drugs that target these modifications for cancer treatment.

  9. Including social impacts in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Louise Camilla; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Schierbeck, Jens

    2004-01-01

    environmental impacts and, therefore, recommendations based on LCA fail to address both social and economic concerns. This has raised questions about LCA's ability to support sustainable development decisions. In a research project carried out at Brødrene Hartmann A/S and the Technical University of Denmark...... a frameowork for social LCA is currently being developed. The project quantifies social impacts and makes them operational in the traditional LCIA framework by developing measureable indicators. These indicators are selected to provide a meaningful and sufficient overall description of social impacts of all...

  10. Alternatives in Environmental Health Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ahraf, Amer; Hanson, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The role environmental health should play in management of the environment is examined. Four major environmental health administration models presently available and possible alternatives are presented. A basic set of environmental health principles is included. (BT)

  11. Evaluation of proposed panel closure modifications at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Lawrence E.; Silva, Matthew K.; Channell, James K.; Abel, John F.; Morgan, Dudley R.

    2001-12-31

    A key component in the design of the WIPP repository is the installation of concrete structures as panel seals in the intake and exhaust drifts after a panel has been filled with waste containers. As noted in the EPA final rule, the panel seal closure system is intended to block brine flow between the waste panels at the WIPP. On April 17, 2001, the DOE proposed seven modifications to the EPA concerning the design of the panel closure system. EPA approval of these modifications is necessary since the details of the panel design are specified in EPA’s final rule as a condition for WIPP certification. However, the EPA has not determined whether a rulemaking would be required for these proposed design modifications. On September 4, 2001, the DOE withdrew the request, noting that it would be resubmitted on a future date. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) contracted with two engineers, Dr. John Abel and Dr. Rusty Morgan, to evaluate the proposed modifications. The EEG has accepted the conclusions and recommendations from these two experts: 1) replacement of Salado Mass Concrete with a generic salt-based concrete; 2) replacement of the explosion wall with a construction wall; 3) replacement of freshwater grouting with salt-based grouting; 4) option to allow surface or underground mixing; and 5) option to allow up to one year for completion of closure. The proposed modification to allow local carbonate river rock as aggregate is acceptable pending demonstration that no problems will exist in the resulting concrete. The proposed modification to give the contractor discretion in removal of steel forms is not supported. Instead, several recommendations are made to specifically reduce the number of forms left, thereby reducing potential migration pathways.

  12. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  13. Environmental Impacts of Plant-Based Diets: How Does Organic Food Consumption Contribute to Environmental Sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Camille; Seconda, Louise; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Langevin, Brigitte; Pointereau, Philippe; Lairon, Denis; Baudry, Julia; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2018-01-01

    Studies investigating diet-related environmental impacts have rarely considered the production method of the foods consumed. The objective of the present study, based on the NutriNet-Santé cohort, was to investigate the relationship between a provegetarian score and diet-related environmental impacts. We also evaluated potential effect modifications on the association between a provegetarian score and the environmental impacts of organic food consumption. Food intake and organic food consumption ratios were obtained from 34,442 French adults using a food frequency questionnaire, which included information on organic food consumption for each group. To characterize the overall structure of the diets, a provegetarian score was used to identify preferences for plant-based products as opposed to animal-based products. Moreover, three environmental indicators were used to assess diet-related environmental impacts: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, cumulative energy demand (CED), and land occupation. Environmental impacts were assessed using production life cycle assessment (LCA) at the farm level. Associations between provegetarian score quintiles, the level of organic food consumption, and environmental indicators were analyzed using ANCOVAs adjusted for energy, sex, and age. Participants with diets rich in plant-based foods (fifth quintile) were more likely to be older urban dwellers, to hold a higher degree in education, and to be characterized by an overall healthier lifestyle and diet. A higher provegetarian score was associated with lower environmental impacts (GHG emissions Q5vsQ1  = 838/1,664 kg CO 2eq /year, -49.6%, P  Organic food consumption was also an important modulator of the relationship between provegetarian dietary patterns and environmental impacts but only among participants with diets rich in plant-based products. Future field studies should endeavor to integrate all the components of a sustainable diet, i.e., both diet composition and

  14. International environmental legislation; Internationales Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book on international environmental legislation includes the following contributions: Development, sources and actors concerning the international environmental legislation, cross-national environmental justice, principles of the international environmental legislation, environmental protection by lawsuit, environmental protection and human right, environmental protection and trading, responsibility and liability, peaceful settlement of disputes, climatic change, preservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity, protection of air and space, oceanic protection, protection of inland waters, protection of the Antarctic and Arctic environment, waste and hazardous materials legislation.

  15. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. Subject areas include: the effects of environmental pollutants on homeostasis of the hematopoietic system; pollutant effects on steroid metabolism; pollutant effects on pulmonary macrophages; effects of toxic gases on lung cells; the development of immunological methods for assessing lung damage at the cellular level; the response of erythropoietin concentration to various physiological changes; and the study of actinide metabolism in monkey skeletons

  16. An integrative analysis of post-translational histone modifications in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    KAUST Repository

    Veluchamy, Alaguraj

    2015-05-20

    Background: Nucleosomes are the building blocks of chromatin where gene regulation takes place. Chromatin landscapes have been profiled for several species, providing insights into the fundamental mechanisms of chromatin-mediated transcriptional regulation of gene expression. However, knowledge is missing for several major and deep-branching eukaryotic groups, such as the Stramenopiles, which include the diatoms. Diatoms are highly diverse and ubiquitous species of phytoplankton that play a key role in global biogeochemical cycles. Dissecting chromatin-mediated regulation of genes in diatoms will help understand the ecological success of these organisms in contemporary oceans. Results: Here, we use high resolution mass spectrometry to identify a full repertoire of post-translational modifications on histones of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, including eight novel modifications. We map five histone marks coupled with expression data and show that P. tricornutum displays both unique and broadly conserved chromatin features, reflecting the chimeric nature of its genome. Combinatorial analysis of histone marks and DNA methylation demonstrates the presence of an epigenetic code defining activating or repressive chromatin states. We further profile three specific histone marks under conditions of nitrate depletion and show that the histone code is dynamic and targets specific sets of genes. Conclusions: This study is the first genome-wide characterization of the histone code from a stramenopile and a marine phytoplankton. The work represents an important initial step for understanding the evolutionary history of chromatin and how epigenetic modifications affect gene expression in response to environmental cues in marine environments. © 2015 Veluchamy et al.

  17. Surface Modifications in Adhesion and Wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Jonathan

    Advances in surface modification are changing the world. Changing surface properties of bulk materials with nanometer scale coatings enables inventions ranging from the familiar non-stick frying pan to advanced composite aircraft. Nanometer or monolayer coatings used to modify a surface affect the macro-scale properties of a system; for example, composite adhesive joints between the fuselage and internal frame of Boeing's 787 Dreamliner play a vital role in the structural stability of the aircraft. This dissertation focuses on a collection of surface modification techniques that are used in the areas of adhesion and wetting. Adhesive joints are rapidly replacing the familiar bolt and rivet assemblies used by the aerospace and automotive industries. This transition is fueled by the incorporation of composite materials into aircraft and high performance road vehicles. Adhesive joints have several advantages over the traditional rivet, including, significant weight reduction and efficient stress transfer between bonded materials. As fuel costs continue to rise, the weight reduction is accelerating this transition. Traditional surface pretreatments designed to improve the adhesion of polymeric materials to metallic surfaces are extremely toxic. Replacement adhesive technologies must be compatible with the environment without sacrificing adhesive performance. Silane-coupling agents have emerged as ideal surface modifications for improving composite joint strength. As these coatings are generally applied as very thin layers (compression of a water drop between two gradient surfaces. This inchworm type motion is studied in detail and offers an alternative method to surface vibration for moving drops in microfluidic devices. The final surface modification considered is the application of a thin layer of rubber to a rigid surface. While this technique has many practical uses, such as easy release coatings in marine environments, it is applied herein to enable spontaneous

  18. Organisational change: Deliberation and modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Schut, M.C.; Treur, J.

    2003-01-01

    For an information-agent-based system to support virtual (Internet-supported) organisations, changes in environmental conditions often demand changes in organisational behaviour, i.e., organisational changes. As organisational behaviour relates to organisational structure, rethinking the structure

  19. Born-Infeld inspired modifications of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán Jiménez, Jose; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, Diego

    2018-01-01

    General Relativity has shown an outstanding observational success in the scales where it has been directly tested. However, modifications have been intensively explored in the regimes where it seems either incomplete or signals its own limit of validity. In particular, the breakdown of unitarity near the Planck scale strongly suggests that General Relativity needs to be modified at high energies and quantum gravity effects are expected to be important. This is related to the existence of spacetime singularities when the solutions of General Relativity are extrapolated to regimes where curvatures are large. In this sense, Born-Infeld inspired modifications of gravity have shown an extraordinary ability to regularise the gravitational dynamics, leading to non-singular cosmologies and regular black hole spacetimes in a very robust manner and without resorting to quantum gravity effects. This has boosted the interest in these theories in applications to stellar structure, compact objects, inflationary scenarios, cosmological singularities, and black hole and wormhole physics, among others. We review the motivations, various formulations, and main results achieved within these theories, including their observational viability, and provide an overview of current open problems and future research opportunities.

  20. Exploring oxidative modifications of tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houée-Lévin, C; Bobrowski, K; Horakova, L

    2015-01-01

    residues are oxidised in vivo with impact on cellular homeostasis and redox signalling pathways. A notable example is tyrosine, which can undergo a number of oxidative post-translational modifications to form 3-hydroxy-tyrosine, tyrosine crosslinks, 3-nitrotyrosine and halogenated tyrosine, with different...... effects on cellular functions. Tyrosine oxidation has been studied extensively in vitro, and this has generated detailed information about the molecular mechanisms that may occur in vivo. An important aspect of studying tyrosine oxidation both in vitro and in biological systems is the ability to monitor...... processes are important in vivo and can contribute to cellular pathology....

  1. Polymers modifications induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, M.C.R.; Nakahija, H.K.; Araujo, E.P.

    1990-01-01

    The use of gamma and electron radiation on polymers modifications is one of the industrials applications of radiation that presents the most commercial interest. Nowadays, the graft copolymerization, i.e., the addition of monomer onto a polymer, is one of the most exploraded technique. In this present paper the hydrophilization of polyethylene and polypropylene films by grafting of hydrophilic monomers such as acrylic and methacrylic acids were studied. The radiation induced graft copolymerization by simultaneous irradiation and preirradiation method and the reaction parameters were also investigated. (author) [pt

  2. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de

  3. A probabilistic generative model for quantification of DNA modifications enables analysis of demethylation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Äijö, Tarmo; Huang, Yun; Mannerström, Henrik; Chavez, Lukas; Tsagaratou, Ageliki; Rao, Anjana; Lähdesmäki, Harri

    2016-03-14

    We present a generative model, Lux, to quantify DNA methylation modifications from any combination of bisulfite sequencing approaches, including reduced, oxidative, TET-assisted, chemical-modification assisted, and methylase-assisted bisulfite sequencing data. Lux models all cytosine modifications (C, 5mC, 5hmC, 5fC, and 5caC) simultaneously together with experimental parameters, including bisulfite conversion and oxidation efficiencies, as well as various chemical labeling and protection steps. We show that Lux improves the quantification and comparison of cytosine modification levels and that Lux can process any oxidized methylcytosine sequencing data sets to quantify all cytosine modifications. Analysis of targeted data from Tet2-knockdown embryonic stem cells and T cells during development demonstrates DNA modification quantification at unprecedented detail, quantifies active demethylation pathways and reveals 5hmC localization in putative regulatory regions.

  4. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Kubota

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility.

  5. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takeo; Mochizuki, Kazuki

    2016-05-14

    Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility.

  6. Disease modification in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymowych, Walter P

    2010-02-01

    The concept of disease modification in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) incorporates aspects of inflammation, bone destruction and new bone formation. The degree to which inflammation and new bone formation are linked remains conjectural, but data from MRI studies of spinal inflammation support the concept of such coupling; however, these studies also suggest a role for the involvement of noninflammatory pathways, such as those involving bone morphogenetic proteins, wingless proteins and Dickkopf-1, in the formation of new bone. The main clinical outcome that reflects disease modification is the modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score, which assesses abnormalities in the anterior vertebral corners of the cervical and lumbar spine. However, radiographic progression can only be reliably detected using this method after at least 2 years, and this delay precludes the conduct of placebo-controlled trials on ethical grounds. Preliminary data using this scoring tool suggest that cyclooxygenase-2-selective NSAIDs might reduce disease progression if used continuously over 2 years. By contrast, three different anti-tumor necrosis factor therapies have shown no impact on radiographic progression. Therapeutic trials recruiting patients early in their disease course and at high risk of radiographic progression constitute a high priority for clinical research in AS.

  7. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, J.; Hanif, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The third proceedings of National Symposium on Modern Trends in Contemporary Chemistry was held in Islamabad, Pakistan from February 24-26, 1997. In this symposium more than 220 scientists, engineers and technologist were registered from 11 universities, 17 research organisations and 8 non-governmental organisation including some commercial establishments. The symposium was divided into five technical sessions on hydro spheric pollution, atmospheric pollution, bio spheric pollution, lithospheric pollution and impact assessment and environmental education. Environmental and ecology are so interdependent that any change in the balance due to natural and man made cause may result in a disaster, flood, fire, earthquake, epidemic, population explosion etc. are the natural ways of unbalancing our ecosystem. The scope of this symposium includes: 1) Review the chemistry and the chemical techniques like polarography, coulometry, HPLC, GC-MS, NAA, XRF, AAS, AES etc. involved in the assessment monitoring and control of various pollutions. 2) Propose sampling, transportation, measurement and standardization procedures. 3) Collaboration in scientific data collection. 4) Mutual consultation for management of the pollution problem in a cost effective manner. 5) sharing knowledge and experience with various environmental protection groups both in public and private sector. (A.B.)

  8. The new environmental accounting: A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiel, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses the incorporation of environmental externalities into the cost of generating electricity. The topics include traditional environmental accounting, new environmental accounting, the impetus for environmental accounting, the public willingness to pay, internalizing is not setting new environmental standards, comparing externality values, non-monetized environmental preferences, environmental accounting for planning, acquisition, operation and pricing, and the international perspective

  9. Environmental education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulhaye, F.

    2005-01-01

    The environment is an intricate mixture of natural, built and social components. The natural environment includes air, water, land, climate, flora and fauna, while the built environment consists of the fabric of building infrastructure and open space. The social component of the environment embraces the aesthetics, amenity quality, architectural style, heritages, law behavior, values and traditions of the society. In ecological terms the environment is a distortion of natural ecosystems or an ecosystem in its own right. A characteristic of the urban area is their fast changing nature with respect to their size, form, density and activity. This dynamism stems out of the basic functions of economic, social and cultural developments. The complexity and multiplicity of urban activities gives rise to a variety of environmental problems. Given their different level of economic and social development and the geography, not all the cities have identical problems, yet they have much in common. While the large cities of developed countries have long suffered the problem of pollution, inner city decay and neighborhood collapse, those in the less developed countries face more varied complex problems due to their overpopulation, poverty, inadequacy and poor quality of urban services, infrastructure, transportation, and changing life style. However the increasing pollution is common to the most of the cities and is the major cause of environmental degradation. Given the very serious nature of this problem it is essential to tackle this issue by incorporating the environmental concerns in the education system of Pakistan. This paper would give a brief overview of the environmental problems, and a detailed analysis of the status environmental issues in Pakistan. (author)

  10. Restriction-modification systems in Mycoplasma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Brocchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Restriction and Modification (R-M systems are present in all Mycoplasma species sequenced so far. The presence of these genes poses barriers to gene transfer and could protect the cell against phage infections. The number and types of R-M genes between different Mycoplasma species are variable, which is characteristic of a polymorphism. The majority of the CDSs code for Type III R-M systems and particularly for methyltransferase enzymes, which suggests that functions other than the protection against the invasion of heterologous DNA may exist. A possible function of these enzymes could be the protection against the invasion of other but similar R-M systems. In Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain J, three of the putative methyltransferase genes were clustered in a region forming a genomic island. Many R-M CDSs were mapped in the vicinity of transposable elements suggesting an association between these genes and reinforcing the idea of R-M systems as mobile selfish DNA. Also, many R-M genes present repeats within their coding sequences, indicating that their expression is under the control of phase variation mechanisms. Altogether, these data suggest that R-M systems are a remarkable characteristic of Mycoplasma species and are probably involved in the adaptation of these bacteria to different environmental conditions.

  11. Dietary Risk Factors and Their Modification in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diet sodium intake for hypertension and dietary fat and cholesterol for hypercholesterolemia, exacerbation of these conditions by obesity, and intervention strategies for their modification. Describes clinical strategies for modifying diet: education, skills…

  12. Surface modification on PMMA: PVDF polyblend: hardening under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The influence of chemical environment on polymers include the surface alteration as well as other deep modifications in surface layers. The surface hardening, as an effect of organic liquids on poly(methyl methacrylate): poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PMMA: PVDF), which is one of the few known miscible blends, has been ...

  13. 47 CFR 74.1251 - Technical and equipment modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and the terms of the station authorization. (2) A change in the transmitting antenna system, including.... FM translator and booster stations may decrease ERP on a modification of license application provided... application may not propose to eliminate the authorized horizontally polarized ERP, if a horizontally...

  14. 77 FR 65164 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications AGENCY: Office of the... the PRA's procedural requirements. Today, the Department is correcting this omission by including discussion of the Uniform Report collection and providing the public with 60 days from today to comment both...

  15. Cuticular features as indicators of environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. K. Sharma

    1976-01-01

    Several leaf cuticular features such as stomatal frequency, stomatal size, trichome length, type, and frequency, and subsidiary cell complex respond to environmental pollution in different ways and hence can be used as indicators of environmental pollution in an area. Several modifications in cuticular features under polluted environments seem to indicate ecotypic or...

  16. Molecular targets of epigenetic regulation and effectors of environmental influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhuri, Supratim; Cui Yue; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-01-01

    The true understanding of what we currently define as epigenetics evolved over time as our knowledge on DNA methylation and chromatin modifications and their effects on gene expression increased. The current explosion of research on epigenetics and the increasing documentation of the effects of various environmental factors on DNA methylation, chromatin modification, as well as on the expression of small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have expanded the scope of research on the etiology of various diseases including cancer. The current review briefly discusses the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic regulation and expands the discussion with examples on the role of environment, such as the immediate environment during development, in inducing epigenetic changes and modulating gene expression.

  17. Mitochondrial Modification Techniques and Ethical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Gómez-Tatay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Current strategies for preventing the transmission of mitochondrial disease to offspring include techniques known as mitochondrial replacement and mitochondrial gene editing. This technology has already been applied in humans on several occasions, and the first baby with donor mitochondria has already been born. However, these techniques raise several ethical concerns, among which is the fact that they entail genetic modification of the germline, as well as presenting safety problems in relation to a possible mismatch between the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, maternal mitochondrial DNA carryover, and the “reversion” phenomenon. In this essay, we discuss these questions, highlighting the advantages of some techniques over others from an ethical point of view, and we conclude that none of these are ready to be safely applied in humans.

  18. Fault diagnosis based on controller modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Detection and isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop systems will be considered in this paper. A major problem is that a feedback controller will in general reduce the effects from variations in the systems including parametric faults on the controlled output from the system. Parametric...... faults can be detected and isolated using active methods, where an auxiliary input is applied. Using active methods for the diagnosis of parametric faults in closed-loop systems, the amplitude of the applied auxiliary input need to be increased to be able to detect and isolate the faults in a reasonable......-parameterization (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) for the controller, it is possible to modify the feedback controller with a minor effect on the closed-loop performance in the fault-free case and at the same time optimize the detection and isolation in a faulty case. Controller modification in connection...

  19. Edible lipids modification processes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Shamma, M Najeeb

    2017-01-02

    Lipid is the general name given to fats and oils, which are the basic components of cooking oils, shortening, ghee, margarine, and other edible fats. The chosen term depends on the physical state at ambient temperature; fats are solids and oils are liquids. The chemical properties of the lipids, including degree of saturation, fatty acid chain length, and acylglycerol molecule composition are the basic determinants of physical characteristics such as melting point, cloud point, solid fat content, and thermal behavior. This review will discuss the major lipid modification strategies, hydrogenation, and chemical and enzymatic interesterification, describing the catalysts used mechanisms, kinetics, and impacts on the health-related properties of the final products. Enzymatic interesterification will be emphasized as method that produces a final product with good taste, zero trans fatty acids, and a low number of calories, requires less contact with chemicals, and is cost efficient.

  20. Description of Multimedia Environment Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) version 3.2 modification for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, J.W.; Strenge, D.L.; Hoopes, B.L. [and others

    1997-11-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is a software tool developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to allow DOE to conduct human health risk analyses nation-wide. This report describes modifications to the MEPAS to meet the requirements of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff in their analyses of Site Decommissioning Management Plan sites. In general, these modifications provide the MEPAS, Version 3.2, with the capability of calculating and reporting annual dose/risk information. Modifications were made to the exposure pathway and health impact modules and the water and atmospheric transport modules. Several example cases used to test the MEPAS, Version 3.2, are also presented. The MEPAS, Version 3.2, also contains a new source-term release component that includes models for estimating contaminant loss from three different types of source zones (contaminated aquifer, contaminated pond/surface impoundment, and contaminated vadose zone) due to decay/degradation, leaching, wind suspension, water erosion, overland flow, and/or volatilization. When multiple loss routes are assumed to occur simultaneously, the models account for their interaction and calculate an appropriate pollutant mass budget to each loss route over time.

  1. TEXTILE SURFACE MODIFICATION BY PYHSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION – (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUCE Ismail

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Textile products are used in various branches of the industry from automotive to space products. Textiles produced for industrial use are generally referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles are nowadays applied to several areas including transportation, medicine, agriculture, protection, sports, packaging, civil engineering and industry. There are rapid developments in the types of materials used in technical textiles. Therefore, modification and functionalization of textile surfaces is becoming more crucial. The improvements of the properties such as anti-bacterial properties, fire resistivity, UV radiation resistance, electrical conductivity, self cleaning, and super hydrophobic, is getting more concern with respect to developments in textile engineering. The properties of textile surfaces are closely related to the fiber structure, the differences in the polymer composition, the fiber mixture ratio, and the physical and chemical processes applied. Textile surface modifications can be examined in four groups under the name mechanical, chemical, burning and plasma. Surface modifications are made to improve the functionality of textile products. Textile surface modifications affect the properties of the products such as softness, adhesion and wettability. The purpose of this work is to reveal varieties of vapor deposition modifications to improve functionality. For this purpose, the pyhsical vapor deposition methods, their affects on textile products and their end-uses will be reviewed.

  2. Posttranslational modifications of proopiomelanocortin in vertebrates and their biological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi eTakahashi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Proopiomelanocortin (POMC is the precursor of several peptide hormones generated in the pituitary gland. After biosynthesis, POMC undergoes several posttranslational modifications, including proteolytic cleavage, acetylation, amidation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, and disulfide linkage formation, which generate mature POMC-derived peptides. Therefore, POMC is a useful model for the investigation of posttranslational modifications. These processes have been extensively investigated in mammals, primarily in rodents. In addition, over the last decade, much information has been obtained about the posttranslational processing of POMC in non-mammalian animals such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds through sequencing and peptide identification by mass spectrometry. One POMC modification, acetylation, is known to modulate the biological activities of POMC-derived alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH having an acetyl group at N-terminal through potentiation or inhibition. This bidirectional regulation depends on its intrinsic roles in the tissue or cell; for example, alpha-MSH, as well as desacety-alpha-MSH, stimulates pigment dispersion in the xanthophores of a flounder. In contrast, alpha-MSH does not stimulate pigment dispersion in the melanophores of the same species, whereas desacetyl-alpha-MSH does. Regulation of pigment-dispersing activities may be associated with the subtle balance in the expression of receptor genes. In this review, we consider the posttranslational modifications of POMC in vertebrates from an evolutionary aspect, with a focus on the relationship between acetylation and the biological activities of alpha-MSH as an important consequence of posttranslational modification.

  3. The superposition strategy for arm trajectory modification in robotic manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat-Falik, T; Flash, T

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the problem of end-effector trajectory modification for a robot manipulator when it must respond to unexpected changes in target location. Trajectory modification and corrections are particularly important in dealing with dynamic tasks. In this paper, we present and discuss the superposition strategy derived from the study of arm trajectory modification in human subjects. According to this strategy, the motion toward the initial target location continues unmodified as planned from its beginning to its end even after the target location has unexpectedly changed. However, a trajectory leading from the first target to the final one is added vectorially to the initial one to yield the combined modified motion. A method for choosing the temporal parameters of this trajectory modification scheme is suggested so as to minimize the total travelling time under existing kinematic constraints (including both joint and hand space constraints). Then, a variant of this strategy is presented, dealing with trajectory modification in the case that the targets (both the initial and final ones) specify the desired end-point orientation rather than position.

  4. Enzyme Technology of Peroxidases: Immobilization, Chemical and Genetic Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoria, Adriana; Tinoco, Raunel; Torres, Eduardo

    An overview of enzyme technology applied to peroxidases is made. Immobilization on organic, inorganic, and hybrid supports; chemical modification of amino acids and heme group; and genetic modification by site-directed and random mutagenesis are included. Different strategies that were carried out to improve peroxidase performance in terms of stability, selectivity, and catalytic activity are analyzed. Immobilization of peroxidases on inorganic and organic materials enhances the tolerance of peroxidases toward the conditions normally found in many industrial processes, such as the presence of an organic solvent and high temperature. In addition, it is shown that immobilization helps to increase the Total Turnover Number at levels high enough to justify the use of a peroxidase-based biocatalyst in a synthesis process. Chemical modification of peroxidases produces modified enzymes with higher thermostability and wider substrate variability. Finally, through mutagenesis approaches, it is possible to produce modified peroxidases capable of oxidizing nonnatural substrates with high catalytic activity and affinity.

  5. Macrostructure of IN-713C superalloy after volume modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the results of the preliminary investigations of the process of volume modification of nickel and cobaltsuperalloys. The investigations were carried out on an IN-713C alloy. As an inoculant, cobalt aluminate CoAl2O4 in composition withaluminium powder and zircon flour was used. Experiments included the use of inoculant-coated filters and inoculant placed on andbetween the filters. As a criterion for evaluation of the modification effect, the macrostructure produced in a stepped test casting was used. It has been concluded that the modification effect depends, first of all, on the pouring temperature and on the time of contact between the liquid alloy and inoculant. Compared with the non-modified alloy, which has columnar grains in its structure, the refining treatment gave very fine and equiaxial grains. The higher was the cooling rate (or the smaller was the thickness of the step, the finer were the equiaxial grains.

  6. Y-12 Industrial Landfill V. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the modifications in operations and design to meet the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conversation (TDEC) July 10, 1993, amendments to the regulations for Class 2 landfills. These modifications, though extensive in design and construction cost, are considered minor revisions and should not require a processing fee. Area 1 of ILF V, comprising approximately 20% of the ILF V footprint, was designed and submitted to TDEC prior to the implementation of current regulations. This initial area was constructed with a compacted clay liner and leachate collection system, and became operational in April 1994. The current regulations require landfills to have a composite liner with leachate collection system and closure cap. Modifications to upgrade Areas 2 and 3 of ILF V to meet the current TDEC requirements are included.

  7. Y-12 Industrial Landfill V. Permit application modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the modifications in operations and design to meet the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conversation (TDEC) July 10, 1993, amendments to the regulations for Class 2 landfills. These modifications, though extensive in design and construction cost, are considered minor revisions and should not require a processing fee. Area 1 of ILF V, comprising approximately 20% of the ILF V footprint, was designed and submitted to TDEC prior to the implementation of current regulations. This initial area was constructed with a compacted clay liner and leachate collection system, and became operational in April 1994. The current regulations require landfills to have a composite liner with leachate collection system and closure cap. Modifications to upgrade Areas 2 and 3 of ILF V to meet the current TDEC requirements are included

  8. Method Modification Study for the Thermo Scientific SureTect™ Listeria Species Assay-Matrix Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Simpson, Helen; Holopainen, Jani; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko; Leon-Velarde, Carlos; Larson, Nathan; Dave, Keron; Chen, Yi; Ryser, Elliot; Carter, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific™ SureTect™ Listeria species assay is a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of all species of Listeria in food and environmental samples. The assay was originally certified as Performance Tested Methods(SM) (PTM) 071304 in 2013. This report details the method modification study undertaken to extend the performance claims of the assay for matrixes of raw ground turkey, raw ground pork, bagged lettuce, raw pork sausages, pasteurized 2% fat milk, raw cod, pasteurized brie cheese, and ice cream. The method modification study was conducted using the AOAC Research Institute (RI) PTM program to validate the SureTect PCR assay in comparison to the reference method detailed in ISO 11290-1:1996 including amendment 1:2004. All matrixes were tested by Thermo Fisher Scientific (Basingstoke, United Kingdom). In addition, three matrixes (raw cod, bagged lettuce, and pasteurized brie cheese) were analyzed independently as part of the AOAC RI-controlled independent laboratory study by the University of Guelph, Canada. Using probability of detection statistical analysis, there was no significant difference in the performance between the SureTect assay and the International Organization for Standardization reference method for any of the matrixes analyzed in this study.

  9. Proposed modifications to the Lower Mokelumne River Project, California: FERC Project No. 2916-004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This final environmental impact statement (FEIS) has been prepared for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) to consider modifications to the existing Lower Mokelumne River Project (LMRP) (FERC Project No. 2916-004) in California. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout populations in the lower Mokelumne River have experienced recent declines and fish kills associated, in part, with discharges from Camanche Dam. The California Department of Fish and Game and the California Sportfishing Protection Alliance have asked the Commission to investigate and correct these problems. A wide range of different mitigation actions has been proposed by parties participating in the scoping of this proceeding, and staff has evaluated these proposed actions in this assessment. The staff is recommending a combination of flow and non-flow modifications to the existing license, including new minimum flow and minimum pool elevation requirements at Camanche Reservoir, ramping rates on dam releases, interim attraction and out-migrant spike flows, instream habitat improvements, and a series of studies and monitoring to determine feasible means for solving off-site fish passage problems

  10. Bio-inspired hydrophobic modification of cellulose nanocrystals with castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qianqian; Liu, Chengguo; Hu, Yun; Jia, Puyou; Hu, Lihong; Zhou, Yonghong

    2018-07-01

    This work presents an efficient and environmentally friendly approach to generate hydrophobic cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) using thiol-containing castor oil (CO-SH) as a renewable hydrophobe with the assist of bio-inspired dopamine at room temperature. The modification process included the formation of the polydopamine (PDA) buffer layer on CNC surfaces and the Michael addition reaction between the catechol moieties of PDA coating and thiol groups of CO-SH. The morphology, crystalline structure, surface chemistry, thermal stability and hydrophobicity of the modified CNC were charactered by TEM, XRD, FT-IR, solid-state 13 C NMR, XPS, TGA and contact angle analysis. The modified CNC preserved cellulose crystallinity, displayed higher thermal stability than unmodified CNC, and was highly hydrophobic with a water contact angle of 95.6°. The simplicity and versatility of the surface modification strategy inspired by adhesive protein of mussel may promote rapid development of hydrophobic bio-based nanomaterials for various applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tuning the Photocatalytic Activity of Graphitic Carbon Nitride by Plasma-Based Surface Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xueqiang; Yuan, Xiaohong; Wu, Jiajie; Yu, Lan; Guo, Huiyun; Wang, Hannian; Zhang, Haiquan; Yu, Dongli; Zhao, Yuanchun

    2017-07-26

    In this study, we demonstrate that plasma treatment can be a facile and environmentally friendly approach to perform surface modification of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN), leading to a remarkable modulation on its photocatalytic activity. The bulk properties of g-CN, including the particle size, structure, composition, and electronic band structures, have no changes after being treated by oxygen or nitrogen plasma; however, its surface composition and specific surface area exhibit remarkable differences corresponding to an oxygen functionalization induced by the plasma post-treatment. The introduced oxygen functional groups play a key role in reducing the recombination rate of the photoexcited charge carries. As a consequence, the oxygen-plasma-treated sample shows a much superior photocatalytic activity, which is about 4.2 times higher than that of the pristine g-CN for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation, while the activity of nitrogen-plasma-treated sample exhibits a slight decrease. Furthermore, both of the plasma-treated samples are found to possess impressive photocatalytic stabilities. Our results suggest that plasma treatment could be a conventional strategy to perform surface modification of g-CN in forms of both powders and thin films, which holds broad interest not only for developing g-CN-based high-performance photocatalysts but also for constructing photoelectrochemical cells and photoelectronic devices with improved energy conversion efficiencies.

  12. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  13. Summary of studies supporting cumulative effects analysis of upper Yellowstone River channel modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auble, Gregor T.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Bovee, Ken D.; Farmer, Adrian H.; Sexton, Natalie R.; Waddle, Terry J.

    2004-01-01

    During the last several decades, portions of the upper Yellowstone River have been modified for flood control and erosion prevention. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for administration of a permit program for evaluating construction activities affecting rivers, streams, and wetlands. The Corps regulates activities under the authority of Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act and Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. Since assumption of jurisdiction in the mid-1970’s, the Corps has processed a total of 156 permit actions for the upper Yellowstone River. Over two-thirds of the permit actions occurred during or after two consecutive large floods during 1996 and 1997. In response to concern regarding the potential environmental and ecological consequences of channel modification, the Corps, in conjunction with State and local government agencies, initiated a series of scientific studies to better understand the effects of channel modification in the upper Yellowstone River (Figure 1). These included preparation of wetland and riparian inventory maps (Bon, 2001); hydraulic modeling and flood-plain delineation; watershed land-cover assessment (Pick and Potter, 2003); historic bottomland use analysis (Brelsford and others, 2003); analysis of channel modification effects on fish habitat (Bowen and others, 2003); comparison of juvenile salmonid use of modified and unmodified habitats (Zale and Rider, 2003); analysis of riparian vegetation and flood-plain turnover (Merigliano and Polzin, 2003); study of the relations between riparian habitat and bird communities (Hansen and others, 2003); analyses of geomorphology and historical channel changes (Dalby and Robinson, 2003); socioeconomic assessment (BBC Research and Consulting, 2002); and sediment transport investigations and modeling (Holnbeck, 2003).

  14. Soy protein modification: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barać Miroljub B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy protein products such as flour, concentrates and isolates are used in food formulation because of their functionality, nutritional value and low cost. To obtain their optimal nutritive and functional properties as well as desirable flavor different treatments are used. Soybean proteins can be modified by physical, chemical and enzymatic treatments. Different thermal treatments are most commonly used, while the most appropriate way of modifying soy proteins from the standpoint of safety is their limited proteolysis. These treatments cause physical and chemical changes that affect their functional properties. This review discusses three principal methods used for modification of soy protein products, their effects on dominant soy protein properties and some biologically active compounds.

  15. Surface Modification for Microreactor Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladyslaw Torbicz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, methods of surface modification of different supports, i.e. glass andpolymeric beads for enzyme immobilisation are described. The developed method ofenzyme immobilisation is based on Schiff’s base formation between the amino groups onthe enzyme surface and the aldehyde groups on the chemically modified surface of thesupports. The surface of silicon modified by APTS and GOPS with immobilised enzymewas characterised by atomic force microscopy (AFM, time-of-flight secondary ion massspectroscopy (ToF-SIMS and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The supports withimmobilised enzyme (urease were also tested in combination with microreactors fabricatedin silicon and Perspex, operating in a flow-through system. For microreactors filled withurease immobilised on glass beads (Sigma and on polymeric beads (PAN, a very high andstable signal (pH change was obtained. The developed method of urease immobilisationcan be stated to be very effective.

  16. Ion beam modification of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofield, C.J.; Sugden, S.; Ing, J.; Bridwell, L.B.; Wang, Y.Q.

    1993-01-01

    The implantation of polymers has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily to examine doping of conducting polymers and to increase the surface conductivity (by many orders of magnitude) of highly insulating polymers. The interest in these studies was partly motivated by possible applications to microelectronic device fabrication. More recently it has been observed that ion implantation can under some conditions lead to the formation of a hard (e.g. as hard as steel, ca. 3 MPa) and conducting surface layer. This paper will review the ion beam modification of polymers resulting from ion implantation with reference to fundamental ion-solid interactions. This leads us to examine whether or not implantation of polymers is a contradiction in terms. (Author)

  17. Engineered/designer biochar for contaminant removal/immobilization from soil and water: Potential and implication of biochar modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Chen, Season S; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhang, Ming; Vithanage, Meththika; Mandal, Sanchita; Gao, Bin; Bolan, Nanthi S; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-04-01

    The use of biochar has been suggested as a means of remediating contaminated soil and water. The practical applications of conventional biochar for contaminant immobilization and removal however need further improvements. Hence, recent attention has focused on modification of biochar with novel structures and surface properties in order to improve its remediation efficacy and environmental benefits. Engineered/designer biochars are commonly used terms to indicate application-oriented, outcome-based biochar modification or synthesis. In recent years, biochar modifications involving various methods such as, acid treatment, base treatment, amination, surfactant modification, impregnation of mineral sorbents, steam activation and magnetic modification have been widely studied. This review summarizes and evaluates biochar modification methods, corresponding mechanisms, and their benefits for contaminant management in soil and water. Applicability and performance of modification methods depend on the type of contaminants (i.e., inorganic/organic, anionic/cationic, hydrophilic/hydrophobic, polar/non-polar), environmental conditions, remediation goals, and land use purpose. In general, modification to produce engineered/designer biochar is likely to enhance the sorption capacity of biochar and its potential applications for environmental remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of Solidification Parameters and Macrostructure of IN-713C Castings after Complex Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binczyk F.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research results concerning impact of volume modification (ceramic filter containning cobalt aluminate and hafnium powder and simultaneous surface and volume modification on solidification and stereological parameters of macrostructure of castings made from post-production scrap of nickel superalloy IN-713C. Research included investigation of the influence of chemical composition on the temperature Tliq i Tsol and evaluation of following macrostructure parameters: the number of grains per mm2, average grain area and shape coefficient. Results indicate high influence of carbon content on Tliq. Macrostructure of sample castings indicate positive effect of surface and volume modification, however impact of surface modification is more pronounced.

  19. Trafficking and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: a complex network of posttranslational modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Michelle L.; Barnes, Stephen; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications add diversity to protein function. Throughout its life cycle, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) undergoes numerous covalent posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including glycosylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, phosphorylation, and palmitoylation. These modifications regulate key steps during protein biogenesis, such as protein folding, trafficking, stability, function, and association with protein partners and therefore may serve as targets for therapeutic manipulation. More generally, an improved understanding of molecular mechanisms that underlie CFTR PTMs may suggest novel treatment strategies for CF and perhaps other protein conformational diseases. This review provides a comprehensive summary of co- and posttranslational CFTR modifications and their significance with regard to protein biogenesis. PMID:27474090

  20. Polymer surface modification by plasmas and photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C.-M.; Ko, T.-M.; Hiraoka, H.

    1996-05-01

    Polymers have been applied successfully in fields such as adhesion, biomaterials, protective coatings, friction and wear, composites, microelectronic devices, and thin-film technology. In general, special surface properties with regard to chemical composition, hydrophilicity, roughness, crystallinity, conductivity, lubricity, and cross-linking density are required for the success of these applications. Polymers very often do not possess the surface properties needed for these applications. However, they have excellent bulk physical and chemical properties, are inexpensive, and are easy to process. For these reasons, surface modification techniques which can transform these inexpensive materials into highly valuable finished products have become an important part of the plastics and many other industries. In recent years, many advances have been made in developing surface treatments to alter the chemical and physical properties of polymer surfaces without affecting bulk properties. Common surface modification techniques include treatments by flame, corona, plasmas, photons, electron beams, ion beams, X-rays, and γ-rays. Plasma treatment is probably the most versatile surface treatment technique. Different types of gases such as argon, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, carbon dioxide, and water can produce the unique surface properties required by various applications. For example, oxygen-plasma treatment can increase the surface energy of polymers, whereas fluorine-plasma treatment can decrease the surface energy and improve the chemical inertness. Cross-linking at a polymer surface can be introduced by an inert-gas plasma. Modification by plasma treatment is usually confined to the top several hundred ångströms and does not affect the bulk properties. The main disadvantage of this technique is that it requires a vacuum system, which increases the cost of operation. Thin polymer films with unique chemical and physical properties are produced by plasma polymerization

  1. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  2. Multilateral environmental agreements and the WTO: Platform for mutual support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-08

    The purpose of this report is to identify elements of conflict in the relation between the Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) and the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Potential modifications of the trade framework are discussed together with some indicative solutions. The trade framework should be adapted to allow more extensive and effective use of MEAs. This may be accomplished through an agreed interpretation of the exception clauses contained in Art. XX of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). An interpretive agreement should include specific criteria concerning the conditions under which derogations from the main principles of GATT may apply

  3. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Lewicka, Kamila; Siemion, Przemysław; Kurcok, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation ...

  4. Property transfer assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most environmental assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures and affect single family, multifamily, and commercial properties. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for protection from long term legal liabilities in the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more banks and state governments following this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and environmental assessments to protect the parties involved from any long term legal liabilities

  5. Environmental Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Ekelund, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical subfield environmental aesthetics can contribute to the design of sustainable futures. Environmental aesthetics provides a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between nature and culture. Current positions in environmental aesthetics are lined out and used...

  6. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lewicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation are discussed. Properties of microwave radiation and its impact on starch (with particular regard to modifications described in literature are characterized.

  7. Bobcat (Lynx rufus) breeding in captivity: the importance of environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollá, María I; Quevedo, Miguel A; Castro, Francisca

    2011-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is an improvement in the biological functioning of nonhuman animals in captivity resulting from modifications to their environment; however, specifying appropriate and practical measures of enrichment is problematic. This study analyzes the behavior of 4 bobcats (Lynx rufus) in the Jerez Zoo before and after the application of a global program of environmental enrichment that included (a) changes in the size and complexity of their installations, (b) the introduction of new objects into compounds, (c) changes in diet, and (d) modifications in the grouping of animals. A factorial correspondence analysis showed a highly significant relationship among individual animals, behavior, and experimental design. Behaviors such as locomotion, repeated pacing, vigilance, and grooming more often occurred before enrichment, whereas exploratory and food behaviors were more often associated with the enrichment phase. After the implementation of the enrichment program, the bobcats bred successfully for the first time since their arrival in the zoo. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  8. Biomolecular Modification of Inorganic Crystal Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Yoreo, J J

    2007-04-27

    The fascinating shapes and hierarchical designs of biomineralized structures are an inspiration to materials scientists because of the potential they suggest for biomolecular control over materials synthesis. Conversely, the failure to prevent or limit tissue mineralization in the vascular, skeletal, and urinary systems is a common source of disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which organisms direct or limit crystallization has long been a central challenge to the biomineralization community. One prevailing view is that mineral-associated macromolecules are responsible for either inhibiting crystallization or initiating and stabilizing non-equilibrium crystal polymorphs and morphologies through interactions between anionic moieties and cations in solution or at mineralizing surfaces. In particular, biomolecules that present carboxyl groups to the growing crystal have been implicated as primary modulators of growth. Here we review the results from a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling (MM) studies to investigate the effect of specific interactions between carboxylate-rich biomolecules and atomic steps on crystal surfaces during the growth of carbonates, oxalates and phosphates of calcium. Specifically, we how the growth kinetics and morphology depend on the concentration of additives that include citrate, simple amino acids, synthetic Asp-rich polypeptides, and naturally occurring Asp-rich proteins found in both functional and pathological mineral tissues. The results reveal a consistent picture of shape modification in which stereochemical matching of modifiers to specific atomic steps drives shape modification. Inhibition and other changes in growth kinetics are shown to be due to a range of mechanisms that depend on chemistry and molecular size. Some effects are well described by classic crystal growth theories, but others, such as step acceleration due to peptide charge and hydrophylicity, were previously unrealized

  9. Modification of the submandibular gland transfer procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouki, Hani Z; Elkhalidy, Youness; Jha, Naresh; Scrimger, Rufus; Debenham, Brock J; Harris, Jeffrey R; O'Connell, Daniel A; Seikaly, Hadi

    2016-11-01

    The treatment for most advanced head and neck cancers (stage III and IV) usually includes radiation, and the most common side effect of this treatment modality is a permanent decrease in salivary production. Xerostomia is a devastating complication that significantly affects patients' quality of life by interfering with functions of taste, mastication, deglutition, and speech production. Treatment of xerostomia is varied, but one of the strategies developed by our group was to preserve one submandibular gland by surgically transferring it to the submental space and shielding it from the full dose of radiation. This procedure is proven to reduce the rate of radiation-induced xerostomia, but its main disadvantage is that it is contraindicated in oral cavity cancer. This study describes and evaluates a modification of the submandibular gland transfer (SGT) procedure, where the submandibular gland contralateral to the disease process is relocated to the parotid region. This modification has the potential of expanding the benefits of submandibular gland transfer procedures to patients with oral cavity cancers. Prospective feasibility study. This study involved nine patients with a new diagnosis of advanced head and neck cancer undergoing major head and neck cancer resection with postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy. The new modified salivary gland transfer procedure was performed on all nine patients, and the glands total dose received with radiation therapy was assessed. All the modified SGT procedures were successful with no post-operative complications. The radiation oncology team has been able to successfully localize the transferred submandibular glands and shield them from the radiation beam postoperatively. We have successfully demonstrated that surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the parotid region is feasible, surgically viable, oncologically sound, and does not interfere with radiation therapy. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2492-2496, 2016.

  10. Intelligent environmental sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2015-01-01

    Developing environmental sensing and monitoring technologies become essential especially for industries that may cause severe contamination. Intelligent environmental sensing uses novel sensor techniques, intelligent signal and data processing algorithms, and wireless sensor networks to enhance environmental sensing and monitoring. It finds applications in many environmental problems such as oil and gas, water quality, and agriculture. This book addresses issues related to three main approaches to intelligent environmental sensing and discusses their latest technological developments. Key contents of the book include:   Agricultural monitoring Classification, detection, and estimation Data fusion Geological monitoring Motor monitoring Multi-sensor systems Oil reservoirs monitoring Sensor motes Water quality monitoring Wireless sensor network protocol  

  11. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  12. The SOFIA Aircraft and its Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Nans

    2002-01-01

    The primary focus of this paper is to describe the challenges involved in creating this highly modified aircraft that carries a twenty ton telescope to the Stratosphere and then loiters at this desired altitude to act as the observatory "dome" or platform. When the aircraft has reached its nominal cruise condition in the stratosphere of Mach 0.84, a large cavity door opens (the dome opens), exposing a large portion of the interior of the fuselage containing the telescope optics, directly to the Universe. The breadth of topics covered in this paper includes; the relevant criteria and the evaluation process that resulted in the selection of a Boeing 747-SP, the evolution of the design concept, a description of the structural modification including the analysis methods and tools, the aerodynamic issues associated with an open port cavity and how they were addressed, the aero-loads/disturbances imparted to the telescope and how they were measured in the wind tunnel and extrapolated to full size. For completeness, this paper also provides a brief overview of the SOFIA project including the joint project arrangement between NASA and DLR, a top level overview of the science objectives and the resulting requirements, and finally the current project status.

  13. Environmental conditions analysis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, J.

    1991-01-01

    The PC-based program discussed in this paper has the capability of determining the steady state temperatures of environmental zones (rooms). A program overview will be provided along with examples of formula use. Required input and output from the program will also be discussed. Specific application of plant monitored temperatures and utilization of this program will be offered. The presentation will show how the program can project individual room temperature profiles without continual temperature monitoring of equipment. A discussion will also be provided for the application of the program generated data. Evaluations of anticipated or planned plant modifications and the use of the subject program will also be covered

  14. Environmental protection law of the European Community (EU). Source index and content index including the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice with actual jurisdiction service and special literature according to the individual legal regulations. 34. ed.; Umweltschutzrecht der Europaeischen Union (EU). Fundstellen- und Inhaltsnachweis, einschliesslich der Rechtsprechung des Europaeischen Gerichtshofes - EuGH; mit aktuellem Rechtsprechungsdienst und Spezialliteratur zu den einzelnen Rechtsvorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Bernd

    2009-07-01

    The 34th edition of the source index of the environment law of the European Union contains the documentary evidence of the total jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice (Luxemburg) with respect to the following topics: (a) General infrastructure / integral environment law; (b) Nature protection, landscape protection as well as protection of species; (c) Dangerous materials and preparations; (d) Waste management law; (e) Water legislation; (f) environmental traffic law; (g) law of air pollution control of climate protection; (h) noise control; (i) environmental commercial law; (j) environmental law of energy.

  15. Surface modification and enhanced photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction performance of TiO{sub 2}: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Jingxiang; Cheng, Bei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Jiaguo, E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Application of modified TiO{sub 2} for photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction is summarized. • Different surface modification strategies of TiO{sub 2} are highlighted. • Summary and future perspectives in photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction are presented. - Abstract: Recently, the excessive consumption of fossil fuels has caused high emissions of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2} into atmosphere and global energy crisis. Mimicking the natural photosynthesis by using semiconductor materials to achieve photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction into valuable solar fuels such as CH{sub 4}, HCO{sub 2}H, CH{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 3}OH is known as one of the best solutions for addressing the aforementioned issue. Among various proposed photocatalysts, TiO{sub 2} has been extensively studied over the past several decades for photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction because of its cheapness and environmental friendliness. Particularly, surface modification of TiO{sub 2} has attracted numerous interests due to its capability of enhancing the light absorption ability, facilitating the electron-hole separation, tuning the CO{sub 2} reduction selectivity and increasing the CO{sub 2} adsorption and activation ability of TiO{sub 2} for photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction. In this review, recent approaches of the surface modification of TiO{sub 2} for photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction, including impurity doping, metal deposition, alkali modification, heterojunction construction and carbon-based material loading, are presented. The photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction mechanism and pathways of TiO{sub 2} are discussed. The future research direction and perspective of photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction over surface-modified TiO{sub 2} are also presented.

  16. Weather and Climate Modifications Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R. L.; Slinn, W. G.N.; Laulainen, N. S.; Kleckner, E. W.; Thorp, J. M.; Wolf, M. A.

    1976-03-01

    This section is comprised of seven papers. Human activity can change the average atmospheric temperature and humidity values, as well as the chemical composition of the air. These changes affect local and regional weather and climate, and may have a significant influence on global climate. Examples of human activity that produce these changes are the increase of CO/sub 2/ content of the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuel; the production of aerosols by industry, automobiles, home heating units and agricultural practices; the releases of large quantities of heat and water vapor from the cooling facilities of large fossil and nuclear power plants; and t modification of the earth's albedo due to urbanization, agricullture, deforestation reservoirs and soil spills. Research activities have resulted in an overview of the important natural and anthropogenic perturbations of weather and climate, and the resulting need for further climatic research; a theoretical study that may contribute to a better understanding of atmospheric electricity; atmospheric turbidity data at the Hanford site and their relationships to changes in the aerosol size distribution; initial efforts in determining the optical properties of aerosols such that we can better understand the radiative properties of the atmosphere; and the characterization of large power plant cooling tower plumes through the use of long exposure photography and instrumented aircraft. (auth)

  17. 76 FR 1063 - Modifications of Debt Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Modifications of Debt Instruments AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulation. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations relating to the modification of debt instruments. The... into account to determine whether a modified debt instrument will be recharacterized as an instrument...

  18. 75 FR 31736 - Modifications of Debt Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Modifications of Debt Instruments AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed... modification of debt instruments. The regulations clarify the extent to which the deterioration in the financial condition of the issuer is taken into account to determine whether a modified debt instrument will...

  19. The Modification of Compounds by Attributive Adjectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the modification of nominal compounds by attributive adjectives in English. It draws on a distinction between compound-external (i.e. syntactic) and compound-internal (i.e. morphological) modification. An analysis is presented of more than 1000 pertinent cases, which are roughly equally divided into two-, three- and four-noun…

  20. Attention bias modification: the Emperor's new suit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    A series of primarily laboratory-based studies found attention bias modification in socially anxious participants to lead to reduced anxiety. It is argued that the failure to replicate the positive results of attention bias modification in the study of Carlbring et al. may be due to reasons other

  1. Regulatory protein modification: techniques and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hemmings, Hugh C

    1997-01-01

    ... important roles in cellular regulation. The techniques used to analyze various forms of posttranslational protein modification are described, along with current protocols, discussion of the methodological limitations, and relevant examples from recent publications. This collection should be of use to investigators of protein modification who work i...

  2. Securing a Future: Cree Hunters' Resistance and Flexibility to Environmental Changes, Wemindji, James Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse S. Sayles

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Accounts of the adaptive responses of northern aboriginal peoples include examples of purposive modification and management of ecologically favorable areas to increase resource productivity. Practices include clearing of trees, burning of berry patches and construction of fish weirs. This paper examines the adaptive capacity of the northern aboriginal community of Wemindji, east coast James Bay, in relation to long term landscape changes induced by coastal uplift processes. Associated changes are noticeable within a human lifetime and include the infilling of bays, the merger of islands with the mainland, as well as shifts in vegetative and wildlife communities. In response, generations of Cree hunters have actively modified the landscape using a variety of practices that include the construction of mud dykes and the cutting of tuuhiikaan, which are corridors in the coastal forest, to retain and enhance desirable conditions for goose hunting. We provide an account of the history, construction, and design of these features as well as the motivations and social learning that inform them. We reveal a complex and underappreciated dynamic between human resistance and adaptation to environmental change. While landscape modifications are motivated by a desire to increase resource productivity and predictability, they also reflect an intergenerational commitment to the maintenance of established hunting places as important connections with the past. Our findings support a revised perspective on aboriginal human agency in northern landscape modification and an enhanced role for aboriginal communities in adaptive planning for environmental change.

  3. Preparation and Surface Modification of Silica Nanoparticles for Superhydrophopic Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hadi Aysa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Silica  nanoparticles are well-known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic compounds which are widely used in medical applications. The aim of this study is to prepare the particles of nano silica oxide with particle size ranging from 20-25 nm. In the present study, surface modification of Silica nanoparticles was performed, and influence of modification on the structure and morphological properties was investigated. The resulting  nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM.  Silica nanoparticles with the average diameter of about 20 nm were modified with oleic acid, as coupling agents, in order to modify their surface properties and make them more waterproof dispersible in the organic area. Among the results is that the  surface modification of the   Silica nano-particles leads to more dispersion in the organic medium which indicates better organic synthesis.One of the results obtained,is that modified silica-nanoparticles can be used effectively in environmental and safety applications and can be used in future medical applications as wound stick that prevent water from reaching the wound and then prevent  an inflamation.

  4. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; King, S.J.; Day, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of 26 Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 59 Ni and 129 I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs

  5. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  6. Methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions. An accident modification function is a mathematical function describing systematic variation in the effects of road safety measures. The paper describes ten guidelines. An example is given of how to use...... limitations in developing accident modification functions are the small number of good evaluation studies and the often huge variation in estimates of effect. It is therefore still not possible to develop accident modification functions for very many road safety measures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...... the guidelines. The importance of exploratory analysis and an iterative approach in developing accident modification functions is stressed. The example shows that strict compliance with all the guidelines may be difficult, but represents a level of stringency that should be strived for. Currently the main...

  7. Application of radiation technology in starch modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huiyuan; Peng Zhigang; Ding Zhongmin; Lu Jiajiu

    2007-01-01

    In order to commercialize the radiation modification of starch, corn starch was irradiated with different dose of 60 Co gamma radiations. Some basic physical and chemical properties of the resulted modified starch paste were measured with emphasis on the viscosity stability and tensile strength. The results indicate that irradiation of corn starch with a dose of 4-10 kGy can decrease its viscosity to 5-14 mPa·s, and the tensile strength can meet the standard set up for textile paste. In comparison with chemical modification for starch, radiation modification is simpler in technology, more convenient in operation, more stable in modification quality, and easier to control. The mechanism of radiation modification of starch was also discussed. (authors)

  8. Influences of the Gut Microbiota on DNA Methylation and Histone Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianzhong; Wu, Wenrui; Li, Yating; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-05-01

    The gut microbiota is a vast ensemble of microorganisms inhabiting the mammalian gastrointestinal tract that can impact physiologic and pathologic processes. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanism for the dynamic interaction between host and gut microbiota is still in its infancy. The highly evolved epigenetic modifications allow hosts to reprogram the genome in response to environmental stimuli, which may play a key role in triggering multiple human diseases. In spite of increasing studies in gut microbiota and epigenetic modifications, the correlation between them has not been well elaborated. Here, we review current knowledge of gut microbiota impacts on epigenetic modifications, the major evidence of which centers on DNA methylation and histone modification of the immune system.

  9. Watershed management program. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    Under the Northwest Power Act, BPA is responsible for mitigating the loss of fish and wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian tribes, state agencies property owners, private conservation groups, and Federal agencies. Future watershed management actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include in-channel modifications and fish habitat enhancement structures; riparian restoration and other vegetation management techniques; agricultural management techniques for crop irrigation, animal facilities, and grazing; road, forest, urban area, and recreation management techniques; mining reclamation; and similar watershed conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual watershed management projects are planned and carried out with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as over time

  10. REVIEW OF RULE MODIFICATION IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Arias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this qualitative review was to analyze the state of the bibliography about rule modification in sport. In the literature reviewed, there are few studies of rule modification and related aspects. Most studies omit mentioning the purpose of the modifications, but they do refer to the goals of their analysis (improving players' performance, attracting spectators and athletes, attending to commercial pressure, adapting the sport to children's needs and interests, preventing injuries. Eighty percent of the studies did not report the outcome of the previous modifications they analyzed. More than half of the studies (60% achieved the proposed goals. Nearly two-thirds (63.83% analyzed the effect of rule modification on game actions occurring during the game or through a test. Most of the studies (91.5% did not consult the participants. Three-fourths of the studies (74.46% examined the effect of rule modification without any knowledge of a previous analysis or without any previous analysis, and 74.47% studied rule modification related to internal logic. Modifications to be introduced in a sport should be analyzed through a reflective process before their final introduction. The following points should be considered: establishing goals, respecting the basic rules without modifying them, becoming familiar with players' and coaches' opinions, determining the effect of the modification on a wide spectrum of variables, elaborating useful proposals for the organizations that are responsible for competitions, using more than one type of data, modifying the internal logic and, preferably, the functional rules, and following some basic stages to consolidate rule modification.

  11. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive......Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...

  12. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  13. 40 CFR 85.1509 - Final admission of modification and test vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... test vehicles. 85.1509 Section 85.1509 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1509 Final admission of modification and test vehicles. (a) Except...

  14. 75 FR 26025 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Part IV Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 80 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program; Final Rule and Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2005-0161; FRL-9147-6] RIN 2060-AQ31 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel...

  15. Proteomic Approaches to Quantify Cysteine Reversible Modifications in Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liqing; Robinson, Renã A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Cysteine is a highly reactive amino acid and is subject to a variety of reversible post-translational modifications (PTMs), including nitrosylation, glutathionylation, palmitoylation, as well as formation of sulfenic acid and disulfides. These modifications are not only involved in normal biological activities, such as enzymatic catalysis, redox signaling and cellular homeostasis, but can also be the result of oxidative damage. Especially in aging and neurodegenerative diseases, oxidative stress leads to aberrant cysteine oxidations that affect protein structure and function leading to neurodegeneration as well as other detrimental effects. Methods that can identify cysteine modifications by type, including the site of modification, as well as the relative stoichiometry of the modification can be very helpful for understanding the role of the thiol proteome and redox homeostasis in the context of disease. Cysteine reversible modifications however, are challenging to investigate as they are low abundant, diverse, and labile especially under endogenous conditions. Thanks to the development of redox proteomic approaches, large-scale quantification of cysteine reversible modifications is possible. These approaches cover a range of strategies to enrich, identify, and quantify cysteine reversible modifications from biological samples. This review will focus on nongel-based redox proteomics workflows that give quantitative information about cysteine PTMs and highlight how these strategies have been useful for investigating the redox thiol proteome in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27666938

  16. Radiation and environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This book is written based on 25 years authors experience especially in scientifc research of radiation and environmental radioactivity field at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia). Interestingly, from the authors experience in managing the services and consultancies for radiological environmental monitoring, it is also helpful in preparing the ideas for this book. Although this book focuses on Malaysian radiation information environmental radioactivity, but the data collected by the international bodies are also included in this book.

  17. Site environmental report summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In this summary of the Fernald 1992 Site Environmental Report the authors will describe the impact of the Fernald site on man and the environment and provide results from the ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included is a summary of the data obtained from sampling conducted to determine if the site complies with DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA) requirements. These requirements are set to protect both man and the environment

  18. Epigenetic modification and inheritance in sexual reversal of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Changwei; Li, Qiye; Chen, Songlin; Zhang, Pei; Lian, Jinmin; Hu, Qiaomu; Sun, Bing; Jin, Lijun; Liu, Shanshan; Wang, Zongji; Zhao, Hongmei; Jin, Zonghui; Liang, Zhuo; Li, Yangzhen; Zheng, Qiumei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Guojie

    2014-01-01

    Environmental sex determination (ESD) occurs in divergent, phylogenetically unrelated taxa, and in some species, co-occurs with genetic sex determination (GSD) mechanisms. Although epigenetic regulation in response to environmental effects has long been proposed to be associated with ESD, a systemic analysis on epigenetic regulation of ESD is still lacking. Using half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) as a model—a marine fish that has both ZW chromosomal GSD and temperature-dependent ESD—we investigated the role of DNA methylation in transition from GSD to ESD. Comparative analysis of the gonadal DNA methylomes of pseudomale, female, and normal male fish revealed that genes in the sex determination pathways are the major targets of substantial methylation modification during sexual reversal. Methylation modification in pseudomales is globally inherited in their ZW offspring, which can naturally develop into pseudomales without temperature incubation. Transcriptome analysis revealed that dosage compensation occurs in a restricted, methylated cytosine enriched Z chromosomal region in pseudomale testes, achieving equal expression level in normal male testes. In contrast, female-specific W chromosomal genes are suppressed in pseudomales by methylation regulation. We conclude that epigenetic regulation plays multiple crucial roles in sexual reversal of tongue sole fish. We also offer the first clues on the mechanisms behind gene dosage balancing in an organism that undergoes sexual reversal. Finally, we suggest a causal link between the bias sex chromosome assortment in the offspring of a pseudomale family and the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of sexual reversal in tongue sole fish. PMID:24487721

  19. Modifications to standard forms of contract: the impact on readability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raufdeen Rameezdeen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lack of clarity in contract documents can lead to disputes between contracting parties. Standard form contracts have evolved due to construction business becoming increasingly complex and the difficulty in drafting bespoke conditions of contract for each project. Numerous advantages have been identified in using standard forms of contract. However, clients often modify some clauses in order to include specific requirements for a project. While the consequences of ill-modifications to standard forms have been researched, no study has been done on the impact of these modifications on the clarity and readability of the document. Using 281 modified clauses from large infrastructure projects implemented in Sri Lanka, this study found that on balance modifications generally make the document more difficult to read; 60% of the sample clauses were more difficult to read compared to 40% becoming easier. More than 50% of the original and modified clauses were still at the ‘very difficult’ level of readability, which requires the equivalent of post-graduate level to understand. The study contends that modifications have not resulted in improved readability. The study highlights the necessity of clear and plain language when modifying contract documents.

  20. Fast Multi-blind Modification Search through Tandem Mass Spectrometry*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Seungjin; Bandeira, Nuno; Paek, Eunok

    2012-01-01

    With great biological interest in post-translational modifications (PTMs), various approaches have been introduced to identify PTMs using MS/MS. Recent developments for PTM identification have focused on an unrestrictive approach that searches MS/MS spectra for all known and possibly even unknown types of PTMs at once. However, the resulting expanded search space requires much longer search time and also increases the number of false positives (incorrect identifications) and false negatives (missed true identifications), thus creating a bottleneck in high throughput analysis. Here we introduce MODa, a novel “multi-blind” spectral alignment algorithm that allows for fast unrestrictive PTM searches with no limitation on the number of modifications per peptide while featuring over an order of magnitude speedup in relation to existing approaches. We demonstrate the sensitivity of MODa on human shotgun proteomics data where it reveals multiple mutations, a wide range of modifications (including glycosylation), and evidence for several putative novel modifications. Based on the reported findings, we argue that the efficiency and sensitivity of MODa make it the first unrestrictive search tool with the potential to fully replace conventional restrictive identification of proteomics mass spectrometry data. PMID:22186716

  1. Environmental Compliance Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownson, L.W.; Krsul, T.; Peralta, R.A.; Knudson, D.A.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing the Environmental Compliance Management System (ECMS) as a comprehensive, cost-effective tool to ensure (1) that the Laboratory complies with all applicable federal and state environmental laws and regulations, (2) that environmental issues and concerns are recognized and considered in the early phases of projects; and (3) that Laboratory personnel conduct Laboratory operations in the most environmentally acceptable manner. The ECMS is an expert computer system which is designed to allow project engineers to perform an environmental evaluation of their projects. The system includes a Master Program which collects basic project information, provide utility functions, and access the environmental expert modules, environmental expert system modules for each federal and state environmental law which allows the user to obtain specific information on how an individual law may affect his project; and site-specific databases which contain information necessary for effective management of the site under environmental regulations. The ECMS will have the capability to complete and print many of the necessary environmental forms required by federal and state agencies, including the Department of Energy

  2. Pinellas Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report presents a comprehensive summary of the results of the Environmental Monitoring, Waste Management, and Environmental Restoration Programs at the Pinellas Plant, in Pinellas County, Florida for 1994. This report also includes the plant`s performance in the areas of compliance with applicable regulatory requirements and standards and identifies major Environmental, Safety and Health Program initiatives and accomplishments for 1994. As a result of the end of Department of Energy Defense Programs mission production on September 30, 1994, considerable changes at the Pinellas Plant occurred. These changes, which included transitioning the plant toward alternate use in support of economic development and safe shutdown, both increased and heightened Environmental, Safety and Health responsibilities. In December 1994, the Department of Energy announced it had reached an agreement to sell the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council in March 1995. The plant is being leased back by the Department of Energy through September 1997 to complete safe shutdown, reconfiguration, transfer of equipment to other Department of Energy production facilities, and transition to commercial ventures. Permit modifications and transfers will be completed during 1995 to reflect the new ownership by the Pinellas County Industry Council and to include new tenants as needed.

  3. Pinellas Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report presents a comprehensive summary of the results of the Environmental Monitoring, Waste Management, and Environmental Restoration Programs at the Pinellas Plant, in Pinellas County, Florida for 1994. This report also includes the plant's performance in the areas of compliance with applicable regulatory requirements and standards and identifies major Environmental, Safety and Health Program initiatives and accomplishments for 1994. As a result of the end of Department of Energy Defense Programs mission production on September 30, 1994, considerable changes at the Pinellas Plant occurred. These changes, which included transitioning the plant toward alternate use in support of economic development and safe shutdown, both increased and heightened Environmental, Safety and Health responsibilities. In December 1994, the Department of Energy announced it had reached an agreement to sell the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council in March 1995. The plant is being leased back by the Department of Energy through September 1997 to complete safe shutdown, reconfiguration, transfer of equipment to other Department of Energy production facilities, and transition to commercial ventures. Permit modifications and transfers will be completed during 1995 to reflect the new ownership by the Pinellas County Industry Council and to include new tenants as needed

  4. Environmental Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, G.; Bertoldo, N.A.; Campbell, C.G.; Cerruti, S.; Dibley, V.; Doman, J.L.; Grayson, A.R.; Jones, H.E.; Kumamoto, G.; MacQueen, D.H.; Nelson, J.C.; Paterson, L.; Revelli, M.A.; Wegrecki, A.M.; Wilson, K.; Woollett, J.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2008 are to record Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) compliance with environmental standards and requirements, describe LLNL's environmental protection and remediation programs, and present the results of environmental monitoring at the two LLNL sites - the Livermore site and Site 300. The report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by LLNL's Environmental Protection Department. Submittal of the report satisfies requirements under DOE Order 231.1A, Environmental Safety and Health Reporting, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. The report is distributed electronically and is available at https://saer.lln.gov/, the website for the LLNL annual environmental report. Previous LLNL annual environmental reports beginning in 1994 are also on the website. Some references in the electronic report text are underlined, which indicates that they are clickable links. Clicking on one of these links will open the related document, data workbook, or website that it refers to. The report begins with an executive summary, which provides the purpose of the report and an overview of LLNL's compliance and monitoring results. The first three chapters provide background information: Chapter 1 is an overview of the location, meteorology, and hydrogeology of the two LLNL sites; Chapter 2 is a summary of LLNL's compliance with environmental regulations; and Chapter 3 is a description of LLNL's environmental programs with an emphasis on the Environmental Management System including pollution prevention. The majority of the report covers LLNL's environmental monitoring programs and monitoring data for 2008: effluent and ambient air (Chapter 4); waters, including wastewater, storm water runoff, surface water, rain, and groundwater (Chapter 5); and terrestrial, including soil, sediment, vegetation, foodstuff, ambient radiation, and special status

  5. Epigenetic modifications as regulatory elements of autophagy in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xinbing; Zhu, Jing; Zhou, Jichun; Wang, Xian; Li, Da; Han, Weidong; Fang, Yong; Pan, Hongming

    2015-05-01

    Epigenetic modifications have been considered as hallmarks of cancer and play an important role in tumor initiation and development. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs, may regulate cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy). Autophagy, as a crucial cellular homeostatic mechanism, performs a dual role, having pro-survival or pro-death properties. A variety of signaling pathways including epigenetic control have been implicated in the upregulation or downregulation of autophagy. However, the role of epigenetic regulation in autophagy is still less well acknowledged. Recent studies have linked epigenetic control to the autophagic process. Some epigenetic modifiers are also involved in the regulation of autophagy and potentiate the efficacy of traditional therapeutics. Thus, understanding the novel functions of epigenetic control in autophagy may allow us to develop potential therapeutic approaches for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental management in public hospitals: Environmental management in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez-Miranda

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Hospitals can apply broader environmental management instruments, including life cycle analysis of their products and services and monitoring of the carbon footprint; they may also take into account the different areas of environmental impact of their operation.

  7. Environmental pollution and kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Nie, Sheng; Ding, Hanying; Hou, Fan Fan

    2018-05-01

    The burden of disease and death attributable to environmental pollution is becoming a public health challenge worldwide, especially in developing countries. The kidney is vulnerable to environmental pollutants because most environmental toxins are concentrated by the kidney during filtration. Given the high mortality and morbidity of kidney disease, environmental risk factors and their effect on kidney disease need to be identified. In this Review, we highlight epidemiological evidence for the association between kidney disease and environmental pollutants, including air pollution, heavy metal pollution and other environmental risk factors. We discuss the potential biological mechanisms that link exposure to environmental pollutants to kidney damage and emphasize the contribution of environmental pollution to kidney disease. Regulatory efforts should be made to control environmental pollution and limit individual exposure to preventable or avoidable environmental risk. Population studies with accurate quantification of environmental exposure in polluted regions, particularly in developing countries, might aid our understanding of the dose-response relationship between pollutants and kidney diseases.

  8. Epigenetic Modifications: Therapeutic Potential in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sachan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications and alterations in chromatin structure and function contribute to the cumulative changes observed as normal cells undergo malignant transformation. These modifications and enzymes (DNA methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, and demethylases related to them have been deeply studied to develop new drugs, epigenome-targeted therapies and new diagnostic tools. Epigenetic modifiers aim to restore normal epigenetic modification patterns through the inhibition of epigenetic modifier enzymes. Four of them (azacitidine, decitabine, vorinostat and romidepsin are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This article provides an overview about the known functional roles of epigenetic enzymes in cancer development.

  9. Modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.M.E.; Cuomo, J.J.; Gambino, R.J.; Kaufman, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Deposition methods involving ion bombardment are described, and the basic processes with which film properties are modified by ion bombardment are summarized. Examples of thin film property modification by ion bombardment during deposition, including effects which are primarily compositional as well as those which are primarily structural are presented. The examples demonstrate the usefulness of ion beam techniques in identifying and controlling the fundamental deposition parameters. 68 refs.; 15 figs.; 1 table

  10. Protein modification by acrolein: Formation and stability of cysteine adducts

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jian; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Pierce, William M.

    2009-01-01

    The toxicity of the ubiquitous pollutant and endogenous metabolite, acrolein, is due in part to covalent protein modifications. Acrolein reacts readily with protein nucleophiles via Michael addition and Schiff base formation. Potential acrolein targets in protein include the nucleophilic side chains of cysteine, histidine, and lysine residues as well as the free amino terminus of proteins. Although cysteine is the most acrolein-reactive residue, cysteine-acrolein adducts are difficult to iden...

  11. Modifications to standard forms of contract: the impact on readability

    OpenAIRE

    Raufdeen Rameezdeen; Anushi Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Lack of clarity in contract documents can lead to disputes between contracting parties. Standard form contracts have evolved due to construction business becoming increasingly complex and the difficulty in drafting bespoke conditions of contract for each project. Numerous advantages have been identified in using standard forms of contract. However, clients often modify some clauses in order to include specific requirements for a project. While the consequences of ill-modifications to standard...

  12. Master schedule for CY-1982 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided does not include samples which are planned to be collected during FY-1982 in support of special studies or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results. Sampling schedules are presented for the following: air; Columbia River; sanitary water; surface water; ground water; foodstuffs; wildlife; soil and vegetation; external radiation measurements; portable instrument surveys; and surveillance of waste disposal sites. (ATT)

  13. Master schedule for CY-1982 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided does not include samples which are planned to be collected during FY-1982 in support of special studies or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results. Sampling schedules are presented for the following: air; Columbia River; sanitary water; surface water; ground water; foodstuffs; wildlife; soil and vegetation; external radiation measurements; portable instrument surveys; and surveillance of waste disposal sites

  14. Environmental law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    Modern Danish environmental law has a strong international dimension due to membership of EU and participation in global and regional agreements. The concept of transnational law that includes EU environmental law that has vertical as well as horizontal effects across jurisdictions binding national...

  15. Maintaining an Environmental Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A recent conference of the National Environmental Development Association focused on the concepts of environment, energy and economy and underscored the necessity for balancing the critical needs embodied in these issues. Topics discussed included: nuclear energy and wastes, water pollution control, federal regulations, environmental technology…

  16. Operational Area Environmental Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey-White, Brenda Eileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagy, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wagner, Katrina Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goodman, Thomas Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herring, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catechis, Christopher S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kinghorn, Aubrianna Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Ellie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barthel, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casaus, Benito [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Operational Area Environmental Evaluation update provides a description of activities that have the potential to adversely affect natural and cultural resources, including soil, air, water, biological, ecological, and historical resources. The environmental sensitivity of an area is evaluated and summarized, which may facilitate informed management decisions as to where development may be prohibited, restricted, or subject to additional requirements.

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TREATIES: TREND ANALYSIS OF TREATY-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS

    OpenAIRE

    CHENAZ B. SEELARBOKUS

    2005-01-01

    The literature on environmental regime effectiveness has shown a predilection for behaviour modification studies, whereby effectiveness is associated with a change in the behaviour of relevant actors. There has not been a systematic endeavour to link the implementation of international environmental agreements (IEAs) with improvement in environmental conditions. This article shifts away from the paradigm of behavioural analysis and focuses instead on linking IEA effectiveness with positive en...

  18. Protein Modifications as Manifestations of Hyperglycemic Glucotoxicity in Diabetes and Its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and its complications are hyperglycemic toxicity diseases. Many metabolic pathways in this array of diseases become aberrant, which is accompanied with a variety of posttranslational protein modifications that in turn reflect diabetic glucotoxicity. In this review, we summarize some of the most widely studied protein modifications in diabetes and its complications. These modifications include glycation, carbonylation, nitration, cysteine S-nitrosylation, acetylation, sumoylation, ADP-ribosylation, O-GlcNAcylation, and succination. All these posttranslational modifications can be significantly attributed to oxidative stress and/or carbon stress induced by diabetic redox imbalance that is driven by activation of pathways, such as the polyol pathway and the ADP-ribosylation pathway. Exploring the nature of these modifications should facilitate our understanding of the pathological mechanisms of diabetes and its associated complications.

  19. A survey of Type III restriction-modification systems reveals numerous, novel epigenetic regulators controlling phase-variable regulons; phasevarions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atack, John M; Yang, Yuedong; Jennings, Michael P

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Many bacteria utilize simple DNA sequence repeats as a mechanism to randomly switch genes on and off. This process is called phase variation. Several phase-variable N6-adenine DNA-methyltransferases from Type III restriction-modification systems have been reported in bacterial pathogens. Random switching of DNA methyltransferases changes the global DNA methylation pattern, leading to changes in gene expression. These epigenetic regulatory systems are called phasevarions — phase-variable regulons. The extent of these phase-variable genes in the bacterial kingdom is unknown. Here, we interrogated a database of restriction-modification systems, REBASE, by searching for all simple DNA sequence repeats in mod genes that encode Type III N6-adenine DNA-methyltransferases. We report that 17.4% of Type III mod genes (662/3805) contain simple sequence repeats. Of these, only one-fifth have been previously identified. The newly discovered examples are widely distributed and include many examples in opportunistic pathogens as well as in environmental species. In many cases, multiple phasevarions exist in one genome, with examples of up to 4 independent phasevarions in some species. We found several new types of phase-variable mod genes, including the first example of a phase-variable methyltransferase in pathogenic Escherichia coli. Phasevarions are a common epigenetic regulation contingency strategy used by both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. PMID:29554328

  20. Environmental Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  1. Environmental Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's modeling community is working to gain insights into certain parts of a physical, biological, economic, or social system by conducting environmental assessments for Agency decision making to complex environmental issues.

  2. Environmental Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Geophysics website features geophysical methods, terms and references; forward and inverse geophysical models for download; and a decision support tool to guide geophysical method selection for a variety of environmental applications.

  3. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

  4. Perioperative modifications of respiratory function.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, Michelle

    2012-01-31

    Postoperative pulmonary complications contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality, especially after major thoracic or abdominal surgery. Clinically relevant pulmonary complications include the exacerbation of underlying chronic lung disease, bronchospasm, atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory failure with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications include patient-related risk factors (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking and increasing age) as well as procedure-related risk factors (e.g., site of surgery, duration of surgery and general vs. regional anaesthesia). Careful history taking and a thorough physical examination may be the most sensitive ways to identify at-risk patients. Pulmonary function tests are not suitable as a general screen to assess risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. Strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications include smoking cessation, inspiratory muscle training, optimising nutritional status and intra-operative strategies. Postoperative care should include lung expansion manoeuvres and adequate pain control.

  5. PLMD: An updated data resource of protein lysine modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haodong; Zhou, Jiaqi; Lin, Shaofeng; Deng, Wankun; Zhang, Ying; Xue, Yu

    2017-05-20

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) occurring at protein lysine residues, or protein lysine modifications (PLMs), play critical roles in regulating biological processes. Due to the explosive expansion of the amount of PLM substrates and the discovery of novel PLM types, here we greatly updated our previous studies, and presented a much more integrative resource of protein lysine modification database (PLMD). In PLMD, we totally collected and integrated 284,780 modification events in 53,501 proteins across 176 eukaryotes and prokaryotes for up to 20 types of PLMs, including ubiquitination, acetylation, sumoylation, methylation, succinylation, malonylation, glutarylation, glycation, formylation, hydroxylation, butyrylation, propionylation, crotonylation, pupylation, neddylation, 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation, phosphoglycerylation, carboxylation, lipoylation and biotinylation. Using the data set, a motif-based analysis was performed for each PLM type, and the results demonstrated that different PLM types preferentially recognize distinct sequence motifs for the modifications. Moreover, various PLMs synergistically orchestrate specific cellular biological processes by mutual crosstalks with each other, and we totally found 65,297 PLM events involved in 90 types of PLM co-occurrences on the same lysine residues. Finally, various options were provided for accessing the data, while original references and other annotations were also present for each PLM substrate. Taken together, we anticipated the PLMD database can serve as a useful resource for further researches of PLMs. PLMD 3.0 was implemented in PHP + MySQL and freely available at http://plmd.biocuckoo.org. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modification of surfaces and surface layers by non equilibrium processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamson, G.; Brennan, W.J.; Clark, D.T.; Howard, J.

    1988-01-01

    Plasmas are examples of non-equilibrium phenomena which are being used increasingly for the synthesis and modification of materials impossible by conventional routes. This paper introduces methods available by describing the construction and characteristics of some equipment used for the production of different types of plasmas and other non-equilibrium phenomena. This includes high energy ion beams. The special features, advantages and disadvantages of the techniques will be described. There are a multitude of potential application relevant to electronic, metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials. However, scale-up from the laboratory to production equipment depends on establishing a better understanding of both the physics and chemistry of plasma as well as plasma-solid interactions. Examples are given of how such an understanding can be gained. The chemical analysis of polymer surfaces undergoing modification by inert gas, hydrogen or oxygen plasmas is shown to give physical information regarding the relative roles of diffusion of active species, and direct and radiative energy transfer from the plasma. Surface modification by plasma depositing a new material onto an existing substrate is discussed with particular reference to the deposition of amorphous carbon films. Applications of the unique properties of these films are outlined together with our current understanding of these properties based on chemical and physical methods of analysis of both the films and the plasmas producing them. Finally, surface modification by ion beams is briefly illustrated using examples from the electronics and metals industries where the modification has had a largely physical rather than chemical effect on the starting material. (orig.)

  7. Environmental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering's environmental control study is assisted by NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center's programs in environmental analyses. Company is engaged primarily in design of such facilities as electrical utilities, industrial plants, wastewater treatment systems, dams and reservoirs and aviation installations. Company also conducts environmental engineering analyses and advises clients as to the environmental considerations of a particular construction project. Company makes use of many COSMIC computer programs which have allowed substantial savings.

  8. Site Environmental Report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Program.'' This 1993 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site's ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site's progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in the Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here

  9. Environmental pollution studies

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Gerry

    1999-01-01

    This book examines a number of important contemporary environmental issues in an informative and easy-to-read style. The topics covered include sewage treatment, eutrophication, air pollution, acid rain, global warming and pollution from farming. A particularly valuable section of the book describes a range of tests that can be carried out on various environmental parameters. The procedures require relatively simple equipment and they have been pre-tested in a school laboratory. "Environmental Pollution Studies" will be of value to senior school pupils and students at college or university embarking on courses in environmental science.

  10. Site Environmental Report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program.`` This 1993 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in the Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here.

  11. Modification of chitin as substrates for chitinase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2015-05-06

    Illankovan et al., 2007). The swelling of chitin powder process is expected to help the enzymatic reaction between chitinase and chitin. Possible modification of chitin-chitin can cause structural changes to become more open due to ...

  12. Similarity Arguments in the Genetic Modification Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In the ethical debate on genetic modification (GM), it is common to encounter the claim that some anti-GM argument would also apply an established, ethically accepted technology, and that the anti-GM argument is therefore unsuccessful. The paper discusses whether this argumentative strategy...... transferability of reasons from one case to another; and (iii) it runs the risk of equivocations, especially in cases where the anti-genetic-modification argument relies on gradable features. The paper then shows how these issues play out in three specific Similarity Arguments that can be found in the literature....... Finally, the paper discusses what conclusions we can draw from the fact that genetic modification and established technologies are similar for the ethical status of genetic modification....

  13. The computational nature of memory modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J; Monfils, Marie-H; Norman, Kenneth A; Niv, Yael

    2017-03-15

    Retrieving a memory can modify its influence on subsequent behavior. We develop a computational theory of memory modification, according to which modification of a memory trace occurs through classical associative learning, but which memory trace is eligible for modification depends on a structure learning mechanism that discovers the units of association by segmenting the stream of experience into statistically distinct clusters (latent causes). New memories are formed when the structure learning mechanism infers that a new latent cause underlies current sensory observations. By the same token, old memories are modified when old and new sensory observations are inferred to have been generated by the same latent cause. We derive this framework from probabilistic principles, and present a computational implementation. Simulations demonstrate that our model can reproduce the major experimental findings from studies of memory modification in the Pavlovian conditioning literature.

  14. Male genital modification : A sexual selection interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowanchilde, R

    1996-06-01

    By modifying the body in meaningful ways, human beings establish their identity and social status. Lip plugs, ear plugs, penis sheaths, cosmetics, ornaments, scarification, body piercings, and genital modifications encode and transmit messages about age, sex, social status, health, and attractiveness from one individual to another. Through sociocultural sexual selection, male genital modification plays an important role as a sociosexual signal in both male competition and female mate choice. The reliability of the signal correlates with the cost of acquiring the trait. Women use a variety of cues to assess male quality. Male genital modification is one way that some women assess their mates. Extreme male genital modifications not only honestly advertise status, sexual potency, and ability to provide sexual satisfaction, they may provide a reliable index of male-female cooperation through the male's commitment to endure pain and risk.

  15. Formal Design Review Foot Clamp Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OTEN, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Design Review performed for the foot clamp modification. The report documents the acceptability of the design, identifies the documents that were reviewed, the scope of the review and the members of the review team

  16. Chemical modifications and reactions in DNA nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-01-01

    provides rich opportunity to incorporate molecules, biomolecules, and a variety of nanomaterials in specific positions on DNA nanostructures. Several standard modifications for oligonucleotides are available commercially, such as dyes, biotin, and chemical handles, and such modified oligonucleotides can...

  17. Diagonal chromatography to study plant protein modifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walton, Alan; Tsiatsiani, Liana; Jacques, Silke; Stes, Elisabeth; Messens, Joris; Van Breusegem, Frank; Goormachtig, Sofie; Gevaert, Kris

    An interesting asset of diagonal chromatography, which we have introduced for contemporary proteome research, is its high versatility concerning proteomic applications. Indeed, the peptide modification or sorting step that is required between consecutive peptide separations can easily be altered and

  18. Environmental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The European Bank has pledged in its Agreement to place environmental management at the forefront of its operations to promote sustainable economic development in central and eastern Europe. The Bank's environmental policy is set out in the document titled, Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach. This document, Environmental Procedures, presents the procedures which the European Bank has adopted to implement this policy approach with respect to its operations. The environmental procedures aim to: ensure that throughout the project approval process, those in positions of responsibility for approving projects are aware of the environmental implications of the project, and can take these into account when making decisions; avoid potential liabilities that could undermine the success of a project for its sponsors and the Bank; ensure that environmental costs are estimated along with other costs and liabilities; and identify opportunities for environmental enhancement associated with projects. The review of environmental aspects of projects is conducted by many Bank staff members throughout the project's life. This document defines the responsibilities of the people and groups involved in implementing the environmental procedures. Annexes contain Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach, examples of environmental documentation for the project file and other ancillary information

  19. Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Glover, Bhim Adhikari and Isabelle Proulx

    The Environmental Economics program aims to identify the underlying causes of environmental degradation and design responses that are effective, efficient, and equitable. Finding solutions to environmental problems is an interdisciplinary task, but economists can contribute to this work by estimating the monetary value of ...

  20. Chemical modification of flax reinforced polypropylene composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available loadings the friction between the fibres may also contribute to the fracture process. This results in lower energy dissipation and hence impact strength decreases. 5. Chemical Modification of Nonwovens 5.1 Zein modification of flax nonwovens Zein... Damping is an important parameter related to the study of dynamic behaviour of fibre reinforced composite material. The major contribution to damping in composite is due to (a) nature of matrix and fibre (b) nature of interphase (c) frictional damping...

  1. Covalent Surface Modifications of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavia Sanders, Adriana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); O' Bryan, Greg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    A report meant to document the chemistries investigated by the author for covalent surface modification of CNTs. Oxidation, cycloaddition, and radical reactions were explored to determine their success at covalently altering the CNT surface. Characterization through infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermo gravimetric analysis was performed in order to determine the success of the chemistries employed. This report is not exhaustive and was performed for CNT surface modification exploration as it pertains to the "Next Gen" project.

  2. Pseudouridine andN6-methyladenosine modifications weaken PUF protein/RNA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Pavanapuresan P; AlSadhan, Ishraq; Merriman, Dawn K; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M; Herschlag, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    RNA modifications are ubiquitous in biology, with over 100 distinct modifications. While the vast majority were identified and characterized on abundant noncoding RNA such as tRNA and rRNA, the advent of sensitive sequencing-based approaches has led to the discovery of extensive and regulated modification of eukaryotic messenger RNAs as well. The two most abundant mRNA modifications-pseudouridine (Ψ) and N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A)-affect diverse cellular processes including mRNA splicing, localization, translation, and decay and modulate RNA structure. Here, we test the hypothesis that RNA modifications directly affect interactions between RNA-binding proteins and target RNA. We show that Ψ and m 6 A weaken the binding of the human single-stranded RNA binding protein Pumilio 2 (hPUM2) to its consensus motif, with individual modifications having effects up to approximately threefold and multiple modifications giving larger effects. While there are likely to be some cases where RNA modifications essentially fully ablate protein binding, here we see modest responses that may be more common. Such modest effects could nevertheless profoundly alter the complex landscape of RNA:protein interactions, and the quantitative rather than qualitative nature of these effects underscores the need for quantitative, systems-level accounting of RNA:protein interactions to understand post-transcriptional regulation. © 2017 Vaidyanathan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  3. Environmental toxicants, incidence of degenerative diseases, and therapies from the epigenetic point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodjat, Mahshid; Rahmani, Soheila; Khan, Fazlullah; Niaz, Kamal; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Mohammadi Nejad, Solmaz; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    Epigenotoxicology is an emerging field of study that investigates the non-genotoxic epigenetic effects of environmental toxicants resulting in alteration of normal gene expression and disruption of cell function. Recent findings on the role of toxicant-induced epigenetic modifications in the development of degenerative diseases have opened up a promising research direction to explore epigenetic therapy approaches and related prognostic biomarkers. In this review, we presented comprehensive data on epigenetic alterations identified in various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, pulmonary conditions as well as cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and bone disease. Although data on abnormalities of DNA methylation and their role in the development of diseases are abundant, less is known about the impact of histone modifications and microRNA expressions. Further, we discussed the effects of selected common environmental toxicants on epigenetic modifications and their association with particular abnormalities. A number of different environmental toxicants have been identified for their role in aberrant DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNA expression. Such epigenetic effects were shown to be tissue-type specific and highly associated with the level and duration of exposure. Finally, we described present and future therapeutic strategies, including medicines and dietary compounds for combating the toxicant-induced epigenetic alterations. There are currently seven histone deacetylase inhibitors and two DNA methyltransferase inhibitors approved for clinical use and many other promising candidates are in preclinical and clinical testing. Dietary compounds are thought to be the effective and safe strategies for treating and prevention of epigenetic pathophysiological conditions. Still more concentrated epigenetic researches are required for evaluation of chemical toxicity and identifying the causal association between key epigenetic alteration and

  4. Forestry sector environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Steiguer, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on environmental economics that has made some important advances in the past two decades, a significant portion of which has relevance to forestry and related activities. The time has come, however, for the forest economics community to vigorously apply principles of environmental economics (especially empirical investigations) to a variety of environmental problems of importance to the nation's forestry sector. Strategic research directions of considerable merit include determination of the economic consequences of externalities imposed on, by, and within the forestry sector. Also important is furthering the forestry community's understanding of policy instruments appropriate to the management of environmental externalities and the consequences of population and economic growth as a source of forestry-related environmental concerns. Focusing economics research on strategic directions of such a nature could lead to an information base that will further public interest in environmentally sound management of the nation's forests

  5. Environmental Performance Report 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Environmental Performance Report provides a description of the laboratory's environmental management activities for 2015, including information on environmental and sustainability performance, environmental compliance activities and status, and environmental protection programs, highlights, and successes. The purpose of this report is to ensure that U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public receive timely, accurate information about events that have affected or could adversely affect the health, safety, and security of the public or workers; the environment; or the operations of DOE facilities. This report meets the requirements of the Annual Site Environmental Report and is prepared in accordance with the DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.

  6. Environmental Performance Report 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braus, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Environmental Performance Report provides a description of the laboratory's environmental management activities for 2016, including information on environmental and sustainability performance, environmental compliance activities and status, and environmental protection programs, highlights, and successes. The purpose of this report is to ensure that U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public receive timely, accurate information about events that have affected or could adversely affect the health, safety, and security of the public or workers; the environment; or the operations of DOE facilities. This report meets the requirements of the Annual Site Environmental Report and is prepared in accordance with the DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.

  7. Environmental Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site on Environmental Management Systems (EMS) provides information and resources related to EMS for small businesses and private industry, as well as local, state and federal agencies, including all the EPA offices and laboratories.

  8. Indoor environmental health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor Environmental Health (IEH) is a comprehensive term that includes the effects of quantity of air, light and noise in a space and the physical, physiological and psychological aspects from colours, aesthetics, services, outdoor climate...

  9. Indoor environmental health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, SA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor Environmental Health (IEH) is a comprehensive term that includes the effects of quantity of air, light and noise in a space and the physical, physiological and psychological aspects from colours, aesthetics, services, outdoor climate...

  10. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  11. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K.

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST) [de

  12. Environmental research and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    At the request of the Ministry for Research and Technology, the 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Grossforschungseinrichtungen' (AGF) presented in 1972 an information brochure called 'Activities in the field of environmental research and environmental protection', closely associated with the environmental programme of the Federal government (1971). The information brochure reports on those activities of the working group's members which are closely, or less closely, connected with questions concerning environmental research and protection, however, investments for the protection of the individual facilities in internal operation are excluded. The AGF programme 'Environmental research and environmental protection' comprises contributions, brought up to date, of member companies. From the 'AGF programme survey 1974' it contains 'Environmental research' as well as aspects of nuclear development with environmental relevance. Technologies not harmful to the environment developed by the research facilities are only mentioned very briefly. (orig.) [de

  13. Characterization and modification of selected bioplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liqing

    Bioplastics are becoming increasingly prominent mainly due to the growing environmental pollutions caused by non-biodegradable plastics. Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV), the major copolymer of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) family, was biosynthesized (by mixed microbial culture fed with fermented diary manure) and characterized. The monomeric composition (HV% ~ 40%) was determined by GC-MS and NMR. ESI-MSn and NMR analyses showed these PHBVs had random co-monomeric sequence distribution; meantime, they showed characteristic properties (crystallinity, single melting, and tensile properties) as studied by DSC and DMA. The homopolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), usually shows interesting properties such as high crystallinity and multiple melting behaviors. The effect of thermal history, such as crystallization (isothermal (temepratures = 80 to 140 °C) and nonisothermal (cooling rates = 2 to 50 °C/min)) and melting (heating rates = 5 to 50 °C/min), on the multiple melting behavior of PHB has been studied using conventional and temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) techniques. Results showed PHB multiple melting was ascribed to the melting-recrystallization-remelting mechanism and its crystallization kinetics varied with crystallization temperatures and cooling rates. The brittleness and poor melt strength properties of the bioplastics PHB and poly L-lactic acid (PLLA) were imporved by two strategies: (i) to modify polymer structures by cross-linking, (ii) to introduce an external component by grafting, which were initiated by dicumyl peroxide (DCP) via reactive extrusion, have been developed. In method (i), rheological measurements showed cross-linked PHB and PLLA (0.25 to 1 wt% DCP) separately had higher melting strength than their linear polymers due to the formation of long chain branching. Their brittleness was reduced because smaller crystal sizes were observed by hot-stage polarized microscope (HS-POM), meanwhile the reduction of crystallinity was

  14. Environmental performance reviews. Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The ECE Committee on Environmental Policy included the Environmental Performance Review of Latvia in its work programme in May 1997. The review team prepared a report on the environmental performance of Latvia before, during and after the review mission in Riga in April 1998. The report by the review team, including draft recommendations for the solution of existing problems in national environmental policy and management, was submitted for evaluation to the ECE Committee on Environmental Policy at its annual session in Geneva, on 1 October 1998. A high-level delegation from Latvia attended this session. It was headed by the State Minister for Environmental Protection and also included representatives of the Ministry of Transport and the Ministry of Welfare. The evaluation by the Committee was based on the in-depth preparation by two reviewing countries, Portugal and Ukraine. At the end of its evaluation, the Committee agreed on a final set of recommendations for inclusion in this publication. The consideration of the EPR report confirmed the strategy that has been applied to Latvian environmental policy and management during the transition period. The inherited acute environmental problems have been tackled essentially on a case by case basis. The long-term solution of the problems will have to be accompanied also by strategic orientations for environmental policy. The development of such orientations in co-operation with both governmental and non-governmental partners is a need also related to the efforts by Latvia to approach European practices of environmental management. The Latvian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development is fully aware of the considerable resources that are required at all levels for the full transformation to such practices

  15. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  16. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers Geor...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on.......Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...

  17. Loss and modification of habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemckert, Francis; Hecnar, Stephen; Pilliod, David S.; Wilkinson, John W.; Heatwole, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians live in a wide variety of habitats around the world, many of which have been modified or destroyed by human activities. Most species have unique life history characteristics adapted to specific climates, habitats (e.g., lentic, lotic, terrestrial, arboreal, fossorial, amphibious), and local conditions that provide suitable areas for reproduction, development and growth, shelter from environmental extremes, and predation, as well as connectivity to other populations or habitats. Although some species are entirely aquatic or terrestrial, most amphibians, as their name implies, lead a dual life and require a mosaic of habitats in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. With over 6 billion people on Earth, most species are now persisting in habitats that have been directly or indirectly influenced by human activities. Some species have disappeared where their habitats have been completely destroyed, reduced, or rendered unsuitable. Habitat loss and degradation are widely considered by most researchers as the most important causes of amphibian population decline globally (Barinaga 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991; Alford and Richards 1999). In this chapter, a background on the diverse habitat requirements of amphibians is provided, followed by a discussion of the effects of urbanization, agriculture, livestock grazing, timber production and harvesting, fire and hazardous fuel management, and roads on amphibians and their habitats. Also briefly discussed is the influence on amphibian habitats of natural disturbances, such as extreme weather events and climate change, given the potential for human activities to impact climate in the longer term. For amphibians in general, microhabitats are of greater importance than for other vertebrates. As ectotherms with a skin that is permeable to water and with naked gelatinous eggs, amphibians are physiologically constrained to be active during environmental conditions that provide appropriate body temperatures and adequate

  18. Modification of a CAM Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    systams came from the large automotive and aerospace industries . Only those companies possessed sutficient capital for 1 the investment in large-scale...DATE OF PVBLICATION fmnwth and year of pulication of 6& NO. OF PAGES hotal 6b. NO. OF REFS (total citee in document) containing ,nf ormtation., Include

  19. Field Expedient Armor Modifications to US Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boal, Matthew A

    2006-01-01

    .... Some of the specific types of modifications analyzed are hedgerow cutters, sand bagging, addition or modification of ancillary weapons, communications improvements, camouflage, rocket propelled...

  20. High performance integrated solar combined cycles with minimum modifications to the combined cycle power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manente, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Off-design model of a 390 MW e three pressure combined cycle developed and validated. • The off-design model is used to evaluate different hybridization schemes with solar. • Power boosting and fuel saving with different design modifications are considered. • Maximum solar share of total electricity is only 1% with the existing equipment. • The maximum incremental solar radiation-to-electrical efficiency approaches 29%. - Abstract: The integration of solar energy into natural gas combined cycles has been successfully demonstrated in several integrated solar combined cycles since the beginning of this decade in many countries. There are many motivations that drive investments on integrated solar combined cycles which are primarily the repowering of existing power plants, the compliance with more severe environmental laws on emissions and the mitigation of risks associated with large solar projects. Integrated solar combined cycles are usually developed as brownfield facilities by retrofitting existing natural gas combined cycles and keeping the existing equipment to minimize costs. In this work a detailed off-design model of a 390 MW e three pressure level natural gas combined cycle is built to evaluate different integration schemes of solar energy which either keep the equipment of the combined cycle unchanged or include new equipment (steam turbine, heat recovery steam generator). Both power boosting and fuel saving operation strategies are analyzed in the search for the highest annual efficiency and solar share. Results show that the maximum incremental power output from solar at design solar irradiance is limited to 19 MW e without modifications to the existing equipment. Higher values are attainable only including a larger steam turbine. High solar radiation-to-electrical efficiencies in the range 24–29% can be achieved in the integrated solar combined cycle depending on solar share and extension of tube banks in the heat recovery

  1. Implication of Posttranslational Histone Modifications in Nucleotide Excision Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shisheng Li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Histones are highly alkaline proteins that package and order the DNA into chromatin in eukaryotic cells. Nucleotide excision repair (NER is a conserved multistep reaction that removes a wide range of generally bulky and/or helix-distorting DNA lesions. Although the core biochemical mechanism of NER is relatively well known, how cells detect and repair lesions in diverse chromatin environments is still under intensive research. As with all DNA-related processes, the NER machinery must deal with the presence of organized chromatin and the physical obstacles it presents. A huge catalogue of posttranslational histone modifications has been documented. Although a comprehensive understanding of most of these modifications is still lacking, they are believed to be important regulatory elements for many biological processes, including DNA replication and repair, transcription and cell cycle control. Some of these modifications, including acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination on the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 or the histone H2A variant H2AX, have been found to be implicated in different stages of the NER process. This review will summarize our recent understanding in this area.

  2. "Quadrangular-construct" modification of Sauve-Kapandji procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi K Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subluxation of ulna in distal radioulnar joint disorders causes pain on motion, loss of grip strength, and a restriction of forearm rotation. Several procedures have been described to salvage DRUJ disorders including the Darrach procedure, the matched distal ulnar resection, the hemiresection interposition arthroplasty (Bowers procedure and the Sauve-Kapandji (S-K procedure. All these procedures are associated with either loss of grip, pain over proximal ulnar stump or instability. We describe our modification of S-K procedure with good functional outcome. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients, 12 male and 8 female, underwent S-K procedure, with our modification, were included in this study. Patients were evaluated preoperatively, postoperatively, and on followup visits using Modified Mayo Wrist Score and wrist radiographs. Average followup period was 34.55 months (range 24-64 months. Results: Excellent results were found in one patient, good in 15 patients, and fair in four patients. Mean Modified Mayo Wrist Score improved from 32 to 79.75, which was statistically significant. Conclusions: Our modification of S-K procedure provides good functional outcome with stable ulnar stump and without significant procedure-related complications.

  3. Modification of species-based differential evolution for multimodal optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Said Iskandar Al; Syahputra, Hermawan; Firdaus, Muliawan

    2015-12-01

    At this time optimization has an important role in various fields as well as between other operational research, industry, finance and management. Optimization problem is the problem of maximizing or minimizing a function of one variable or many variables, which include unimodal and multimodal functions. Differential Evolution (DE), is a random search technique using vectors as an alternative solution in the search for the optimum. To localize all local maximum and minimum on multimodal function, this function can be divided into several domain of fitness using niching method. Species-based niching method is one of method that build sub-populations or species in the domain functions. This paper describes the modification of species-based previously to reduce the computational complexity and run more efficiently. The results of the test functions show species-based modifications able to locate all the local optima in once run the program.

  4. Post isolation modification of exosomes for nanomedicine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles. They innately possess ideal structural and biocompatible nanocarrier properties. Exosome components can be engineered at the cellular level. Alternatively, when exosome source cells are unavailable for customized exosome production, exosomes derived from a variety of biological origins can be modified post isolation which is the focus of this article. Modification of exosome surface structures allows for exosome imaging and tracking in vivo. Exosome membranes can be loaded with hydrophobic therapeutics to increase drug stability and efficacy. Hydrophilic therapeutics such as RNA can be encapsulated in exosomes to improve cellular delivery. Despite advances in post isolation exosome modification strategies, many challenges to effectively harnessing their therapeutic potential remain. Future topics of exploration include: matching exosome subtypes with nanomedicine applications, optimizing exosomal nanocarrier formulation and investigating how modified exosomes interface with the immune system. Research into these areas will greatly facilitate personalized exosome-based nanomedicine endeavors. PMID:27348448

  5. Modification of feeding circuits in the evolution of social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Eva K; O'Connell, Lauren A

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive trade-offs between foraging and social behavior intuitively explain many aspects of individual decision-making. Given the intimate connection between social behavior and feeding/foraging at the behavioral level, we propose that social behaviors are linked to foraging on a mechanistic level, and that modifications of feeding circuits are crucial in the evolution of complex social behaviors. In this Review, we first highlight the overlap between mechanisms underlying foraging and parental care and then expand this argument to consider the manipulation of feeding-related pathways in the evolution of other complex social behaviors. We include examples from diverse taxa to highlight that the independent evolution of complex social behaviors is a variation on the theme of feeding circuit modification. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. A status report on weather modification research in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul L.; Orville, Harold D.; Boe, Bruce A.; Stith, Jeffrey L.

    An overview of the status of weather modification research in North and South Dakota (USA) is presented. The operational North Dakota Cloud Modification Projects has, since 1976, been seeding summer convective clouds for the dual objectives of hail suppression and rainfall enhancement. Research being carried out as part of a Federal/State cooperative program, in coordination with the operational activities, has included physical and statistical evaluation studies as well as numerical cloud modeling investigations. The statistical analyses provide some indications that the intended seeding effects are being obtained. The physical studies involve aircraft and radar observations and emphasize tracer experiments to study the transport and dispersion of seeding agents and the activation of ice nuclei. The modeling studies simulate the experiments and aid in investigation of the process involved and the effects of seeding. The 1989 North Dakota Thunderstorm Project, a major field study emphasizing physical and numerical modeling studies, is described briefly.

  7. Chiral reagents in glycosylation and modification of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yuan; Blaszczyk, Stephanie A; Xiao, Guozhi; Tang, Weiping

    2018-02-05

    Carbohydrates play a significant role in numerous biological events, and the chemical synthesis of carbohydrates is vital for further studies to understand their various biological functions. Due to the structural complexity of carbohydrates, the stereoselective formation of glycosidic linkages and the site-selective modification of hydroxyl groups are very challenging and at the same time extremely important. In recent years, the rapid development of chiral reagents including both chiral auxiliaries and chiral catalysts has significantly improved the stereoselectivity for glycosylation reactions and the site-selectivity for the modification of carbohydrates. These new tools will greatly facilitate the efficient synthesis of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates. In this tutorial review, we will summarize these advances and highlight the most recent examples.

  8. Post isolation modification of exosomes for nanomedicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joshua L

    2016-07-01

    Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles. They innately possess ideal structural and biocompatible nanocarrier properties. Exosome components can be engineered at the cellular level. Alternatively, when exosome source cells are unavailable for customized exosome production, exosomes derived from a variety of biological origins can be modified post isolation which is the focus of this article. Modification of exosome surface structures allows for exosome imaging and tracking in vivo. Exosome membranes can be loaded with hydrophobic therapeutics to increase drug stability and efficacy. Hydrophilic therapeutics such as RNA can be encapsulated in exosomes to improve cellular delivery. Despite advances in post isolation exosome modification strategies, many challenges to effectively harnessing their therapeutic potential remain. Future topics of exploration include: matching exosome subtypes with nanomedicine applications, optimizing exosomal nanocarrier formulation and investigating how modified exosomes interface with the immune system. Research into these areas will greatly facilitate personalized exosome-based nanomedicine endeavors.

  9. Environmental reporting as a strategic issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn

    1997-01-01

    Organisations are facing ever increasing demands or pressures from various stakeholder to raise their environmental standards. Raising the environmental standards includes improving and documenting the environmental performance in relation to production processes, products and logistics.This pape...... adresses environmental reporting as an important issue in strategic management, since many of environmental management are related to the availability of environmental information both inside and outside the company.......Organisations are facing ever increasing demands or pressures from various stakeholder to raise their environmental standards. Raising the environmental standards includes improving and documenting the environmental performance in relation to production processes, products and logistics.This paper...

  10. Lost in Translation: Defects in Transfer RNA Modifications and Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bednářová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Transfer RNAs (tRNAs are key molecules participating in protein synthesis. To augment their functionality they undergo extensive post-transcriptional modifications and, as such, are subject to regulation at multiple levels including transcription, transcript processing, localization and ribonucleoside base modification. Post-transcriptional enzyme-catalyzed modification of tRNA occurs at a number of base and sugar positions and influences specific anticodon–codon interactions and regulates translation, its efficiency and fidelity. This phenomenon of nucleoside modification is most remarkable and results in a rich structural diversity of tRNA of which over 100 modified nucleosides have been characterized. Most often these hypermodified nucleosides are found in the wobble position of tRNAs, where they play a direct role in codon recognition as well as in maintaining translational efficiency and fidelity, etc. Several recent studies have pointed to a link between defects in tRNA modifications and human diseases including neurological disorders. Therefore, defects in tRNA modifications in humans need intensive characterization at the enzymatic and mechanistic level in order to pave the way to understand how lack of such modifications are associated with neurological disorders with the ultimate goal of gaining insights into therapeutic interventions.

  11. Use of the environmental resource management and analysis system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erjavec, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    In the past, hazardous waste site characterization and remediation using computer-based technologies has been a difficult and time-consuming process because of the need to analyze data using non-interfaced computer and software environments. The Environmental Resource Management and Analysis System (ERMA) was developed as an innovative approach to the management, analyses and depiction of data collected during a hazardous site remediation. A modular, multi-disciplined software package, ERMA integrates an environmental database management system with variety of Geographic Information System technologies. ERMA capabilities include spatial analysis, three-dimensional subsurface geologic interpretation and modeling, terrain modeling, and groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling. ERMA's data management is provided through a set of user-modifiable, graphic interface tools that permit complex data queries, data modification and reporting. An ERMA prototype has been implemented at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (a Department of Energy cleanup site) using groundwater monitoring and elevation data collected over the last few years. ERMA has enabled the precision posting of data from the 853 groundwater monitoring wells at the site. Data from these wells have ben used to define the piezometric surface of the Great Miami Aquifer and correlate it with the uranium concentration contours of an identified groundwater plume. Using spatial query capabilities, radioactive sampling results from monitoring wells have been compared to contour maps defining the extent of the plume to determine the validity of those maps and the need for additional well locations

  12. Environmental Impacts of Plant-Based Diets: How Does Organic Food Consumption Contribute to Environmental Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Lacour

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundStudies investigating diet-related environmental impacts have rarely considered the production method of the foods consumed. The objective of the present study, based on the NutriNet-Santé cohort, was to investigate the relationship between a provegetarian score and diet-related environmental impacts. We also evaluated potential effect modifications on the association between a provegetarian score and the environmental impacts of organic food consumption.MethodsFood intake and organic food consumption ratios were obtained from 34,442 French adults using a food frequency questionnaire, which included information on organic food consumption for each group. To characterize the overall structure of the diets, a provegetarian score was used to identify preferences for plant-based products as opposed to animal-based products. Moreover, three environmental indicators were used to assess diet-related environmental impacts: greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, cumulative energy demand (CED, and land occupation. Environmental impacts were assessed using production life cycle assessment (LCA at the farm level. Associations between provegetarian score quintiles, the level of organic food consumption, and environmental indicators were analyzed using ANCOVAs adjusted for energy, sex, and age.ResultsParticipants with diets rich in plant-based foods (fifth quintile were more likely to be older urban dwellers, to hold a higher degree in education, and to be characterized by an overall healthier lifestyle and diet. A higher provegetarian score was associated with lower environmental impacts (GHG emissionsQ5vsQ1 = 838/1,664 kg CO2eq/year, −49.6%, P < 0.0001; CEDQ5vsQ1 = 4,853/6,775 MJ/year, −26.9%, P < 0.0001; land occupationQ5vsQ1 = 2,420/4,138 m2/year, −41.5%, P < 0.0001. Organic food consumption was also an important modulator of the relationship between provegetarian dietary patterns and environmental impacts but only

  13. The Human Thioredoxin System: Modifications and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Isaac Hashemy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The thioredoxin system, comprising thioredoxin (Trx, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR and NADPH, is one of the major cellular antioxidant systems, implicated in a large and growing number of biological functions. Trx acts as an oxidoreductase via a highly conserved dithiol/disulfide motif located in the active site (-Trp-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-Lys-. Different factors are involved in the regulation of Trx activity, including its expression level, localization, protein-protein interactions, post-translational modifications and some chemical inhibitors. Mammalian TrxRs are selenoproteins which have a –Cys-Val-Asn-Val-Gly-Cys- N-terminal active site, as well as a C-terminal selenium-containing active site. Besides two Cys-residues in the redox-regulatory domain of cytosolic Trx (Trx1, human Trx1 has three additional Cys-residues. Post-translational modifications of human Trx1 which are involved in the regulation of its activity can happen via modification of Cys-residues including thiol oxidation, glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation or via modification of other amino acid residues such as nitration of Tyr-49. Because of the numerous functions of the thioredoxin system, its inhibition (mainly happens via the targeting TrxR can result in major cellular consequences, which are potentially pro-oxidant in nature, leading to cell death via necrosis or apoptosis if overexpression of Trx and other antioxidative enzymes can not recuperate cell response. Considering this feature, several anticancer drugs have been used which can inhibit TrxR. Elevated levels of Trx and/or TrxR have been reported in many different human malignancies, positively correlated with aggressive tumor growth and poor prognosis. Moreover, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects of Trx are reasons to study its clinical application as a drug.

  14. Hanford Environmental Management Program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Management Program (HEMP) was established to facilitate compliance with the applicable environmental statues, regulations, and standards on the Hanford Site. The HEMP provides a structured approach to achieve environmental management objectives. The Hanford Environmental Management Program Plan (HEMP Plan) was prepared as a strategic level planning document to describe the program management, technical implementation, verification, and communications activities that guide the HEMP. Four basic program objectives are identified in the HEMP Plan as follows: establish ongoing monitoring to ensure that Hanford Site operations comply with environmental requirements; attain regulatory compliance through the modification of activities; mitigate any environmental consequences; and minimize the environmental impacts of future operations at the Hanford Site. 2 refs., 24 figs., 27 tabs

  15. Impact of Lifestyle Modification on Diabetic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyenwenyi, Chijoke

    2016-01-01

    Kidney disease is common in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and is associated with adverse health outcomes, including progression to end-stage renal disease. In the general population, adherence to a healthy lifestyle is known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and death. Among individuals with diabetic kidney disease, modifications in lifestyle factors, including diet, physical activity, smoking habits and body mass index, represent a promising cost-effective therapeutic adjunct to pharmacologic treatment of kidney disease incidence and progression. PMID:26194155

  16. Common sense behavior modification: a guide for practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Debra F; Pike, Amy L

    2014-05-01

    Behavior problems are often given as a reason for pet relinquishment to shelters. When presented with any behavior problem, veterinarians should perform a thorough physical examination (including neurologic and orthopedic examination) and a minimum database, including a complete blood cell count, chemistry panel, and total T4 and free T4 by equilibrium dialysis if values are low to rule out any medical contributions. Veterinarians should be a source of information regarding management, safety, and basic behavior modification for common behavior problems. Additionally, various control devices offer pet owners the ability to better manage their pets in difficult situations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. REBASE--enzymes and genes for DNA restriction and modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richard J; Vincze, Tamas; Posfai, Janos; Macelis, Dana

    2007-01-01

    REBASE is a comprehensive database of information about restriction enzymes, DNA methyltransferases and related proteins involved in the biological process of restriction-modification. It contains fully referenced information about recognition and cleavage sites, isoschizomers, neoschizomers, commercial availability, methylation sensitivity, crystal and sequence data. Experimentally characterized homing endonucleases are also included. All newly sequenced genomes are analyzed for the presence of putative restriction systems and these data are included within the REBASE. The contents or REBASE may be browsed from the web (http://rebase.neb.com/rebase/rebase.ftp.html) and selected compilations can be downloaded by ftp (ftp.neb.com). Additionally, monthly updates can be requested via email.

  18. Trends in environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.E. [Arthur D. Little of Canada Limited, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    Changes wrought by environmental regulations in the way companies produce, develop, and deliver their products and services were discussed. Some `tell-tale` signs of a vacuum of industry leadership in environmental affairs were identified. These included: lack of a `visible` corporate environmental policy, role confusion, limited action in response to plans, process myopia, poorly utilized data, hidden accomplishments, and an adversarial relationship with the regulatory bodies. Key trends in environmental management, and the necessary attributes for effective environmental management expected of the next generation of industry leaders were briefly described, including (1) the incorporation of environmental plans into the core of the business process, and into corporate strategy; (2) the formation of business-led, line-driven, rather than staff driven plans; and (3) increased measurement and broad dissemination of environmental successes, and their incorporation into the company`s strategic leverage. The overwhelming importance of commitment at the highest level, and the value of a business-oriented approach over a functional approach for effective environmental management were stressed.

  19. 40 CFR 1508.10 - Environmental document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental document. 1508.10 Section 1508.10 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.10 Environmental document. Environmental document includes the documents specified in § 1508.9 (environmental...

  20. Modifications at operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, T.J.; Gazda, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications at operating nuclear power plants offer the structural engineer many challenges in the areas of scheduling of work, field adjustments, and engineering staff planning. The scheduling of structural modification work for operating nuclear power plants is normally closely tied to planned or unplanned outages of the plant. Coordination between the structural engineering effort, the operating plant staff, and the contractor who will be performing the modifications is essential to ensure that all work can be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inaccessibility of some areas in operating nuclear power plants or the short time available to perform the structural engineering in the case of an unscheduled outrage, field verification of a design is not always possible prior to initiating the construction of the modification. This requires the structural engineer to work closely with the contractor to promptly resolve problems due to unanticipated interferences or material procurement problems that may arise during the course of construction. The engineering staff planning for structural modifications at an operating nuclear power plant must be flexible enough to permit rapid response to the common ''fire drills,'' but controlled enough to ensure technically correct designs and to minimize the expenditure of man-hours and the resulting engineering cost

  1. Modification of the TSI 3081 differential mobility analyzer to include three monodisperse outlets : Comparison between experimental and theoretical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezantakos, S; Giamarelou, M; Huang, L.; Olfert, J.; Biskos, G.

    2016-01-01

    Differential mobility analyzers (DMAs) are widely used to determine the size of aerosol particles, and to probe their size-dependent physicochemical properties when two are employed in tandem. A limitation of tandem DMA (TDMA) systems is their long measuring cycle when the properties of more than

  2. ENDF/B-5 Standards Data Library (including modifications made in 1986). Summary of contents and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DayDay, N.; Lemmel, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    This document summarizes the contents and documentation of the ENDF/B-5 Standards Data Library (EN5-ST) released in September 1979. The library contains complete evaluations for all significant neutron reactions in the energy range 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV for H-1, He-3, Li-6, B-10, C-12, Au-197 and U-235 isotopes. In 1986 the files for C-12, Au-197 and U-235 were slightly modified. The entire library or selective retrievals from it can be obtained free of charge from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  3. 78 FR 20345 - Modification and Expansion of CBP Centers of Excellence and Expertise Test To Include Six...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... & Textiles CEE; the Base Metals CEE; the Consumer Products & Mass Merchandising CEE; the Industrial... & Prepared Products CEE; the Apparel, Footwear & Textiles CEE; and the Consumer Products & Mass Merchandising..., Florida; the Apparel, Footwear & Textiles CEE in San Francisco, California; the Base Metals CEE in Chicago...

  4. Environmental Tritium.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Environmental tritium was first observed in a helium fraction at a liquid air production facility in Germany in 1949. During the 1950s and early 1960s, huge amounts of artificial tritium were released into the atmosphere by nuclear testing. The environmental tritium level increased to more than 200 times the natural tritium level. Since the signing of a test ban treaty in 1963, the environmental tritium level has decreased, and analysis of recent Japanese rain samples has shown that the envir...

  5. Progressive IRP Models for Power Resources Including EPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the view of optimizing regional power supply and demand, the paper makes effective planning scheduling of supply and demand side resources including energy efficiency power plant (EPP, to achieve the target of benefit, cost, and environmental constraints. In order to highlight the characteristics of different supply and demand resources in economic, environmental, and carbon constraints, three planning models with progressive constraints are constructed. Results of three models by the same example show that the best solutions to different models are different. The planning model including EPP has obvious advantages considering pollutant and carbon emission constraints, which confirms the advantages of low cost and emissions of EPP. The construction of progressive IRP models for power resources considering EPP has a certain reference value for guiding the planning and layout of EPP within other power resources and achieving cost and environmental objectives.

  6. A review of different behavior modification strategies designed to reduce sedentary screen behaviors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1-12 years). Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50%) significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (-0.44 to -3.1 h/day) and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  7. Quantitative proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications of human histones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian; Nielsen, Eva C; Matthiesen, Rune

    2006-01-01

    Histone proteins are subject to a range of post-transcriptional modifications in living cells. The combinatorial nature of these modifications constitutes the "histone code" that dictates chromatin structure and function during development, growth, differentiation, and homeostasis of cells....... Deciphering of the histone code is hampered by the lack of analytical methods for monitoring the combinatorial complexity of reversible multisite modifications of histones, including acetylation and methylation. To address this problem, we used LC-MSMS technology and Virtual Expert Mass Spectrometrist...... software for qualitative and quantitative proteomic analysis of histones extracted from human small cell lung cancer cells. A total of 32 acetylations, methylations, and ubiquitinations were located in the human histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, including seven novel modifications. An LC-MSMS-based method...

  8. Environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannone, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focusses on one of the basic points of EU (European Union) regulation 1863/1993, namely the disclosure of information via an environmental statement. The author examines the uses to which the data may be put, emphasizes the importance of the environmental statement's contents and addressee, and describes the key function of external data control by an environmental verifier. Lastly, the author shows that the environmental statement could replace a number of documents that companies are now required to file with various agencies; this would reduce their administrative burden

  9. Environmental Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Identified Sites coverage, used to support the environmental quality program, references types and concentrations of contaminants, contaminated media and...

  10. Epigenetic Modifications and Potential New Treatment Targets in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Perrone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy is a debilitating vascular complication of diabetes. As with other diabetic complications, diabetic retinopathy (DR is characterized by the metabolic memory, which has been observed both in DR patients and in DR animal models. Evidences have provided that after a period of poor glucose control insulin or diabetes drug treatment fails to prevent the development and progression of DR even when good glycemic control is reinstituted (glucose normalization, suggesting a metabolic memory phenomenon. Recent studies also underline the role of epigenetic chromatin modifications as mediators of the metabolic memory. Indeed, epigenetic changes may lead to stable modification of gene expression, participating in DR pathogenesis. Moreover, increasing evidences suggest that environmental factors such as chronic hyperglycemia are implicated DR progression and may also affect the epigenetic state. Here we review recent findings demonstrating the key role of epigenetics in the progression of DR. Further elucidation of epigenetic mechanisms, acting both at the cis- and trans-chromatin structural elements, will yield new insights into the pathogenesis of DR and will open the way for the discovery of novel therapeutic targets to prevent DR progression.

  11. Environmental Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, S.; Gallegos, G.; Berg, L.L.; Bertoldo, N.A; Campbell, C.G.; Cerruti, S.; Doman, J.L; Ferry, L.S.; Grayson, A.R; Jones, H.E.; Kumamoto, G.; Larson, J.; MacQueen, D.H; Paterson, L.; Revelli, M.A.; Ridley, M.; Rueppel, D.; Wegrecki, A.M.; Wilson, K.; Woollett, J.

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of the 'Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2007' are to record Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) compliance with environmental standards and requirements, describe LLNL's environmental protection and remediation programs, and present the results of environmental monitoring at the two LLNL sites--the Livermore site and Site 300. The report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by LLNL's Environmental Protection Department. Submittal of the report satisfies requirements under DOE Order 231.1A, Environmental Safety and Health Reporting, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. The report is distributed electronically and is available at https://saer.lln.gov/, the website for the LLNL annual environmental report. Previous LLNL annual environmental reports beginning in 1994 are also on the website. Some references in the electronic report text are underlined, which indicates that they are clickable links. Clicking on one of these links will open the related document, data workbook, or website that it refers to. The report begins with an executive summary, which provides the purpose of the report and an overview of LLNL's compliance and monitoring results. The first three chapters provide background information: Chapter 1 is an overview of the location, meteorology, and hydrogeology of the two LLNL sites; Chapter 2 is a summary of LLNL's compliance with environmental regulations; and Chapter 3 is a description of LLNL's environmental programs with an emphasis on the Environmental Management System including pollution prevention. The majority of the report covers LLNL's environmental monitoring programs and monitoring data for 2007: effluent and ambient air (Chapter 4); waters, including wastewater, storm water runoff, surface water, rain, and groundwater (Chapter 5); and terrestrial, including soil, sediment, vegetation, foodstuff, ambient radiation, and special status

  12. Environmental Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, S; Gallegos, G; Berg, L L; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Cerruti, S; Doman, J L; Ferry, L S; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Kumamoto, G; Larson, J; MacQueen, D H; Paterson, L; Revelli, M A; Ridley, M; Rueppel, D; Wegrecki, A M; Wilson, K; Woollett, J

    2008-09-24

    The purposes of the 'Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2007' are to record Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) compliance with environmental standards and requirements, describe LLNL's environmental protection and remediation programs, and present the results of environmental monitoring at the two LLNL sites--the Livermore site and Site 300. The report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by LLNL's Environmental Protection Department. Submittal of the report satisfies requirements under DOE Order 231.1A, Environmental Safety and Health Reporting, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. The report is distributed electronically and is available at https://saer.lln.gov/, the website for the LLNL annual environmental report. Previous LLNL annual environmental reports beginning in 1994 are also on the website. Some references in the electronic report text are underlined, which indicates that they are clickable links. Clicking on one of these links will open the related document, data workbook, or website that it refers to. The report begins with an executive summary, which provides the purpose of the report and an overview of LLNL's compliance and monitoring results. The first three chapters provide background information: Chapter 1 is an overview of the location, meteorology, and hydrogeology of the two LLNL sites; Chapter 2 is a summary of LLNL's compliance with environmental regulations; and Chapter 3 is a description of LLNL's environmental programs with an emphasis on the Environmental Management System including pollution prevention. The majority of the report covers LLNL's environmental monitoring programs and monitoring data for 2007: effluent and ambient air (Chapter 4); waters, including wastewater, storm water runoff, surface water, rain, and groundwater (Chapter 5); and terrestrial, including soil, sediment, vegetation

  13. Characteristic measurements of JRR-2 after modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    JRR-2 was shut down in December 1973, to improve it in heavy water leakage from the metal packing between core tank and support ring, corrosion of the lower shielding plug, and fault in the control-rod mechanism. Modification was on a standing seal to stop heavy water leakage at the support ring, replacement of the reactor top shield, replacement of the control-rod mechanism, improvement of the helium system, improvement of the irradiated air system to reduce radioactive argon gas release from the stack. Works were completed in September 1975. Functional tests and characteristic measurements then followed, to show good results of the modification. Described are; modification, critical experiments, calibration of the control rods, reactor thermal power, measurements of the neutron flux distribution, core heavy water flow distribution, heavy water decomposition rate, helium leak rate and tritium concentration in the thermal shielding light water, radioactive argon gas release from the stack, and effect of the reactor top shield. (auth.)

  14. [Lead compound optimization strategy (3)--Structure modification strategies for improving water solubility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeng; Wang, Jiang; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Hong

    2014-09-01

    Water solubility is an essential physical chemistry property of organic small molecule drug and is also a very important issue in drug discovery. Good water solubility often leads to a good drug potency and pleasant pharmacokinetic profiles. To improve water solubility, structure modification is a straight and effective way based on the theory of water solubility. This review summarized valid structure modification strategies for improving water solubility including salt formation, polar group introduction, liposolubility reduction, conformation optimization and prodrug.

  15. The impact of genetic modification of human foods in the 21st century: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzogara, S G

    2000-05-01

    Genetic engineering of food is the science which involves deliberate modification of the genetic material of plants or animals. It is an old agricultural practice carried on by farmers since early historical times, but recently it has been improved by technology. Many foods consumed today are either genetically modified (GM) whole foods, or contain ingredients derived from gene modification technology. Billions of dollars in U.S. food exports are realized from sales of GM seeds and crops. Despite the potential benefits of genetic engineering of foods, the technology is surrounded by controversy. Critics of GM technology include consumer and health groups, grain importers from European Union (EU) countries, organic farmers, environmentalists, concerned scientists, ethicists, religious rights groups, food advocacy groups, some politicians and trade protectionists. Some of the specific fears expressed by opponents of GM technology include alteration in nutritional quality of foods, potential toxicity, possible antibiotic resistance from GM crops, potential allergenicity and carcinogenicity from consuming GM foods. In addition, some more general concerns include environmental pollution, unintentional gene transfer to wild plants, possible creation of new viruses and toxins, limited access to seeds due to patenting of GM food plants, threat to crop genetic diversity, religious, cultural and ethical concerns, as well as fear of the unknown. Supporters of GM technology include private industries, research scientists, some consumers, U.S. farmers and regulatory agencies. Benefits presented by proponents of GM technology include improvement in fruit and vegetable shelf-life and organoleptic quality, improved nutritional quality and health benefits in foods, improved protein and carbohydrate content of foods, improved fat quality, improved quality and quantity of meat, milk and livestock. Other potential benefits are: the use of GM livestock to grow organs for transplant

  16. Disassembling and modification of RA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarizzo, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the partial disassembling and modification of RA-3, called the Modernization Project. It comprises all the technical and administrative steps directly related with this task. The improvement of RA-3 is a result of the lack of 90% enriched uranium obliging a change over to 20% enriched uranium. This brought about design modifications both in fuel elements and the reactor. The presentation of documents for the licensing authority as well as are detailed separately. The modernization project was divided in 25 tasks: 1) changing fuel element support table, 2) changing heat exchanger, 3) repairing of cooling towers, 4) repairing of primary circuit valves, 5) repairing of irradiation channels, 6) construction of a new sampler, 7) changing tangential channel, 8) cleaning and disassembling of reactor (inside), 9) changing continuous demineralizer (ion exchange column), 10) detection of failure in fuel elements, 11) modification of nuclear instrumentation, 12) modification of conventional instrumentation, 13) modification of electrical system, 14) changing telemanipulators, 15) construction of mechanism bridge, 16) changing a primary circuit valve when the heat exchanger is changed too, 17) painting ground floor, hall floor, and pump room floor with epoxy resin levelling, 18) installation of fire alarm system, 19) radioactive liquid discharge, 20) modification of secondary circuit (This task involves: a) installation of a third secondary pump, b) extension of this piping, c) installation of two 12 inch valves to the present cooling towers pools independent, d) installation of filtering system), 21) optimization hot water bed, 22) changing detector support table, 23) removal, decontamination and reinstallation of shielding, 25) changing pneumatic system

  17. Adaptation of EVIAVE methodology for monitoring and follow-up when evaluating the environmental impact of landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta, Gabriela; Requena, Ignacio; Toro, Javier; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Treatment and final disposal of Municipal Solid Waste can have a significant role in the generation of negative environmental impacts. As a prevention strategy, such activities are subjected to the process of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Still, the follow-up of Environmental Management Plans or mitigation measures is limited, for one due to a lack of methodological approaches. In searching for possibilities, the University of Granada (Spain) developed a diagnostic methodology named EVIAVE, which allows one to quantify, by means of indexes, the environmental impact of landfills in view of their location and the conditions of exploitation. EVIAVE is applicable within the legal framework of the European Union and can be adapted to the environmental and legal conditions of other countries. This study entails its adaptation in Colombia, for the follow-up and control of the EIA process for landfills. Modifications involved inclusion of the environmental elements flora and fauna, and the evaluation of the environmental descriptors in agreement with the concept of vulnerability. The application of the modified EVIAVE in Colombian landfills allowed us to identify the elements affected by the operating conditions and maintenance. It may be concluded that this methodology is viable and effective for the follow-up and environmental control of EIA processes for landfills, and to analyze the associated risks, as it takes into account related environmental threats and vulnerabilities. - Highlights: • A modified methodology is used to monitor and follow-up environmental impacts in landfills. • The improved methodology includes the Vulnerability of Flora and Fauna to evaluate environmental impact of landfills. • The methodology serves to identify and evaluate the sources of risk generated in the construction and siting of landfills. • Environmental vulnerability indicators improve effectiveness of the control and follow-up phases of landfill management. • The

  18. Adaptation of EVIAVE methodology for monitoring and follow-up when evaluating the environmental impact of landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, Gabriela, E-mail: tonina1903@hotmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada (Spain); Requena, Ignacio, E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es [Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada (Spain); Toro, Javier, E-mail: jjtoroca@unal.edu.co [Universidad Nacional de Colombia — Sede Bogotá, Instituto de Estudios Ambientales (Colombia); Zamorano, Montserrat, E-mail: zamorano@ugr.es [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Treatment and final disposal of Municipal Solid Waste can have a significant role in the generation of negative environmental impacts. As a prevention strategy, such activities are subjected to the process of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Still, the follow-up of Environmental Management Plans or mitigation measures is limited, for one due to a lack of methodological approaches. In searching for possibilities, the University of Granada (Spain) developed a diagnostic methodology named EVIAVE, which allows one to quantify, by means of indexes, the environmental impact of landfills in view of their location and the conditions of exploitation. EVIAVE is applicable within the legal framework of the European Union and can be adapted to the environmental and legal conditions of other countries. This study entails its adaptation in Colombia, for the follow-up and control of the EIA process for landfills. Modifications involved inclusion of the environmental elements flora and fauna, and the evaluation of the environmental descriptors in agreement with the concept of vulnerability. The application of the modified EVIAVE in Colombian landfills allowed us to identify the elements affected by the operating conditions and maintenance. It may be concluded that this methodology is viable and effective for the follow-up and environmental control of EIA processes for landfills, and to analyze the associated risks, as it takes into account related environmental threats and vulnerabilities. - Highlights: • A modified methodology is used to monitor and follow-up environmental impacts in landfills. • The improved methodology includes the Vulnerability of Flora and Fauna to evaluate environmental impact of landfills. • The methodology serves to identify and evaluate the sources of risk generated in the construction and siting of landfills. • Environmental vulnerability indicators improve effectiveness of the control and follow-up phases of landfill management. • The

  19. Environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra Cardeno, William

    2000-01-01

    The association among hypersensibility to the inhaled allergens and the asthma in children, it is recognized. There is enough evidence about the nature of the exposed allergen and the immune inflammatory answer of the lung; sustained with a direct relationship among the exhibition to these allergens and the asthma. This association becomes evident in the children, until after the three years of age, what suggests that other factors have bigger importance in the precipitation of the sibilance in the childhood and the early childhood. This answer is limited those children that develop answer of antibodies IgE. Every year, in the world, figures of more morbid-mortality are reported for asthma, what could be explained by the increase in the exhibition to the allergens, and it is probable that the increase of the heat and the humidity in our houses improve the environmental conditions significantly for the growth of the acarus. The children have also increased the permanency in the houses, exposed to these pollutants, due to diverse attractions like the television, the Nintendo and games in the home. The paper includes some intra-domiciliary allergens

  20. Environmental control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillace, S P

    1992-12-01

    Environmental control measures help eliminate triggers that initiate the allergic reaction and reduce the conditions that sustain it. The most frequent offenders are the ubiquitous dust mites, which are ideally suited to living in the home environment. Control measures consist of minimizing their reservoirs in the patient's bedding, carpets, and upholstered furniture; decreasing humidity; and using acaricides. Cats are the source of another important indoor allergen that becomes and stays airborne as small particles. Removal of the animal (or washing it weekly) and the use of high-efficiency particulate air filters for air ducts and vacuum cleaners are useful in reducing dust mite and cat allergens. Dogs and rodents also produce allergens offensive to the sensitized patient and should be removed or relegated outdoors. Cockroaches have become an increasingly prevalent source of allergens responsible for asthma and rhinitis. Their removal is the focus of research, because current control measures are usually inadequate. Molds, which thrive in any moist environment, produce allergens. Closed windows prevent further influx of outdoor molds and pollens, whereas those harbored indoors, including those residing on plants, should be eliminated.

  1. Genetic and environmental influences on infant sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Abigail; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Llewellyn, Clare H; Wardle, Jane

    2012-06-01

    Sleep duration is attracting increasing attention in relation to chronic disease risk, but few large-scale studies have investigated the determinants of sleep characteristics in early life. In this study we used data from a large, population-based twin study to examine genetic and environmental influences on sleep duration and sleep difficulties in infancy. Participants were 1931 pairs of young twins (3862 children) from the Gemini twin birth cohort. Sleep patterns were assessed at 15 months by using a modification of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire completed by parents. Outcomes included nighttime and daytime sleep duration and frequency of night waking. Twin analyses showed that nighttime sleep duration was predominantly influenced by the shared environment (66%, confidence interval [CI] 63%-70%) with a modest genetic effect (26%, CI 22%-30%). A similar pattern was observed for daytime nap duration (shared environment: 57%, CI 53%-62%; genetic effect: 37%, CI 33%-41%) and sleep disturbance (shared environment: 55%, 44%-64%) with a genetic effect of 40% (30%-51%). These estimates were similar for boys and girls. These results indicate an important contribution of the shared family environment as well as genes to children's sleep behavior. There is a need for research to identify specific environmental determinants that could provide targets for interventions to improve sleep quality.

  2. Genetically engineered microbial biosensors for in situ monitoring of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae Ja

    2011-02-01

    Microbial biosensors are compact, portable, cost effective, and simple to use, making them seem eminently suitable for the in situ monitoring of environmental pollution. One promising approach for such applications is the fusion of reporter genes with regulatory genes that are dose-dependently responsive to the target chemicals or physiological signals. Their biosensor capabilities, such as target range and sensitivity, could be improved by modification of regulatory genes. Recent uses of such genetically engineered microbial biosensors include the development of portable biosensor kits and high-throughput cell arrays on chips, optic fibers, or other platforms for on-site and on-line monitoring of environmental pollution. This mini-review discusses recent advances in microbial biosensors and their future prospects, with a focus on the development and application of genetically modified microbial biosensors for in situ environmental monitoring.

  3. Modification of computational auditory scene analysis (CASA) for noise-robust acoustic feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Minseok

    While there have been many attempts to mitigate interferences of background noise, the performance of automatic speech recognition (ASR) still can be deteriorated by various factors with ease. However, normal hearing listeners can accurately perceive sounds of their interests, which is believed to be a result of Auditory Scene Analysis (ASA). As a first attempt, the simulation of the human auditory processing, called computational auditory scene analysis (CASA), was fulfilled through physiological and psychological investigations of ASA. CASA comprised of Zilany-Bruce auditory model, followed by tracking fundamental frequency for voice segmentation and detecting pairs of onset/offset at each characteristic frequency (CF) for unvoiced segmentation. The resulting Time-Frequency (T-F) representation of acoustic stimulation was converted into acoustic feature, gammachirp-tone frequency cepstral coefficients (GFCC). 11 keywords with various environmental conditions are used and the robustness of GFCC was evaluated by spectral distance (SD) and dynamic time warping distance (DTW). In "clean" and "noisy" conditions, the application of CASA generally improved noise robustness of the acoustic feature compared to a conventional method with or without noise suppression using MMSE estimator. The intial study, however, not only showed the noise-type dependency at low SNR, but also called the evaluation methods in question. Some modifications were made to capture better spectral continuity from an acoustic feature matrix, to obtain faster processing speed, and to describe the human auditory system more precisely. The proposed framework includes: 1) multi-scale integration to capture more accurate continuity in feature extraction, 2) contrast enhancement (CE) of each CF by competition with neighboring frequency bands, and 3) auditory model modifications. The model modifications contain the introduction of higher Q factor, middle ear filter more analogous to human auditory system

  4. Transgenerational epigenetics and environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A; Harrell, Heather L; Marchant, Gary E

    2017-07-01

    Human transmission to offspring and future generations of acquired epigenetic modifications has not been definitively established, although there are several environmental exposures with suggestive evidence. This article uses three examples of hazardous substances with greater exposures in vulnerable populations: pesticides, lead, and diesel exhaust. It then considers whether, if there were scientific evidence of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, there would be greater attention given to concerns about environmental justice in environmental laws, regulations, and policies at all levels of government. To provide a broader perspective on environmental justice the article discusses two of the most commonly cited approaches to environmental justice. John Rawls's theory of justice as fairness, a form of egalitarianism, is frequently invoked for the principle that differential treatment of individuals is justified only if actions are designed to benefit those with the greatest need. Another theory, the capabilities approach of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, focuses on whether essential capabilities of society, such as life and health, are made available to all individuals. In applying principles of environmental justice the article considers whether there is a heightened societal obligation to protect the most vulnerable individuals from hazardous exposures that could adversely affect their offspring through epigenetic mechanisms. It concludes that unless there were compelling evidence of transgenerational epigenetic harms, it is unlikely that there would be a significant impetus to adopt new policies to prevent epigenetic harms by invoking principles of environmental justice.

  5. Environmental audit guidelines for pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Environmental auditing is a form of management control which provides an objective basis by which a company can measure the degree of compliance with environmental regulations. Other benefits of this type of auditing include improved environmental management, furthering communication on environmental issues of concern within the company, and provision of documentation on environmental diligence. A series of environmental audit guidelines for pipelines is presented in the form of lists of questions to be asked during an environmental audit followed by recommended actions in response to those questions. The questions are organized into seven main categories: environmental management and planning; operating procedures; spill prevention; management of wastes and hazardous materials; environmental monitoring; construction of pipelines; and pipeline abandonment, decommissioning and site reclamation

  6. Histone modifications in response to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, Mohammed; Saksouk, Nehme; Cote, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The packaging of the eukaryotic genome into highly condensed chromatin makes it inaccessible to the factors required for gene transcription, DNA replication, recombination and repair. Eukaryotes have developed intricate mechanisms to overcome this repressive barrier imposed by chromatin. Histone modifying enzymes and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes play key roles here as they regulate many nuclear processes by altering the chromatin structure. Significantly, these activities are integral to the process of DNA repair where histone modifications act as signals and landing platforms for various repair proteins. This review summarizes the recent developments in our understanding of histone modifications and their role in the maintenance of genome integrity

  7. X-ray studies on piroxicam modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reck, G.; Bannier, G.; Hoehne, E.

    1988-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam, 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(2-pyridyl)2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-car-boxamide-1,1-dioxide, crystallizes in three different forms, two anhydrates and one monohydrate. Crystal structure analyses of the monohydrate and one of the anhydrate were carried out by Bordner et al. and Kojic-Prodic et al., respectively. The results of the analysis of the third piroxicam modification and of an independently performed structure determination of the monohydrate are reported. Molecular structures and hydrogen bonding of all modifications are discussed. (author)

  8. Epigenetic Modifications in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Burke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant epigenetic modifications are well-recognized drivers for oncogenesis. Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is no exception and serves as a model toward the significant impact these heritable alterations can have in leukemogenesis. In this brief review, we will focus on the main aspects of epigenetics which control leukemogenesis in pediatric ALL, mainly DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA alterations. As we continue to gain better understanding of the driving mechanisms for pediatric ALL at both diagnosis and relapse, therapeutic interventions directed toward these pathways and mechanisms can be harnessed and introduced into clinical trials for pediatric ALL.

  9. Lifestyle modification in the management of the metabolic syndrome: achievements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Dalle Grave

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Riccardo Dalle Grave1, Simona Calugi1, Elena Centis2, Rebecca Marzocchi2, Marwan El Ghoch1, Giulio Marchesini21Department of Eating & Weight Disorder, Villa Garda Hospital, Garda (VR, Italy; 2Unit of Metabolic Diseases & Clinical Dietetics, Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Lifestyle modification based on behavior therapy is the most important and effective strategy to manage the metabolic syndrome. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioral and cognitive strategies. The intervention may be delivered face-to-face or in groups, or in groups combined with individual sessions. The main challenge of treatment is helping patients maintain healthy behavior changes in the long term. In the last few years, several strategies have been evaluated to improve the long-term effect of lifestyle modification. Promising results have been achieved by combining lifestyle modification with pharmacotherapy, using meals replacement, setting higher physical activity goals, and long-term care. The key role of cognitive processes in the success/failure of weight loss and maintenance suggests that new cognitive procedures and strategies should be included in the traditional lifestyle modification interventions, in order to help patients build a mind-set favoring long-term lifestyle changes. These new strategies raise optimistic expectations for an effective treatment of metabolic syndrome with lifestyle modifications, provided public health programs to change the environment where patients live support them.Keywords: metabolic syndrome, obesity, lifestyle modification, cognitive behavior therapy

  10. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, B.; Sparwasser, R.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental law is discussed exhaustively in this book. Legal and scientific fundamentals are taken into account, a systematic orientation is given, and hints for further information are presented. The book covers general environmental law, plan approval procedures, protection against nuisances, atomic law and radiation protection law, water protection law, waste management law, laws on chemical substances, conservation law. (HSCH) [de

  11. Environmental Cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Elizabeth H.; Goodkind, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes editorial cartoons from 1972-87 to determine extent and type of attention to environmental issues. Explores cartoons' direct and indirect messages regarding outdoors. Describes cartoons about energy, environment, pollution, space. Discusses artists' use of animals, vegetation, and outdoor activities. Identifies environmental issues as…

  12. Environmental occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the onsite and offsite releases of radioactive and regulated materials. The specific agencies notified of the releases depended on the type, amount, and location of the individual occurrences. The more significant of these off-normal environmental occurrences are summarized in this section

  13. Environmental Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and their impacts on the environment and the biota. Parts 4 and 5 explain the system dynamics. Parts 6 and 7 deal with the different habitats, the communities they support and the environmental- setting. Parts 8 and 9 highlight the environmental problems and strategies to deal with them. A glossary enhances its value.

  14. The environmental science and law II. The short development of the environmental science and environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.

    1998-01-01

    This book contains the basic documents about environmental laws and related documents approved in the world and in the Slovak Republic. The system of the environmental laws and organizations in the world and in the Slovak Republic are reviewed. A review of a selected environmental laws of the Slovak Republic are included. The significant world acts (declarations, charters and other documents) are reviewed

  15. Institutionalizing environmental due diligence as part of the organization's culture: The Suncor Oil Sands Group experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.; Klym, D.

    1992-01-01

    The Suncor Oil Sands Group produces ca 22 million bbl/y of synthetic crude oil from oil sands in northern Alberta. Initiatives taken by the Group to install environmental due diligence as an integral part of Suncor culture are reviewed. Environmental due diligence means taking all reasonable care to safeguard the environment. To practice environmental due diligence, the organization and its members must have an environmental consciousness that can be observed, measured, and monitored through daily practices. In the period from startup of the oil sands plant in 1967 to the mid-1970s, Suncor culture could be described as research oriented, oriented toward examination of the viability of extracting oil from the oil sands and the development of new extraction processes. Management then moved toward a more production-based culture, in which environmental issues were sometimes perceived to be in conflict with production goals. External factors toward the end of the 1980s created a culture shift to an integration of production culture with social entities including environmental consciousness. A corporate push toward a new environmental culture was first concretized when the management's Health and Safety Policy was changed in 1990 to the Health, Safety and Environment Policy. A new Environmental Diligence Program was implemented in three phases, including planning, development of a comprehensive environmental management system, and implementation. Installation of the Program in the first phase is described, focusing on employee and management training, and results of the installation process are presented. Modifications of Suncor's loss control management program to integrate with the environmental diligence program are also noted. 2 refs

  16. Environmental medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steneberg, A.

    1996-01-01

    'Environmental medicine' deals with the manifold health problems from environmental factors of chemical, physical and psychosocial origin that are possible or have been observed. The book gives insight into the current state of knowledge of environmental medicine institutions, possibilities of diagnosis and therapeutic methods. It offers a systematic overview of pollutant sources and pollutant effects and points out, inter alia, syndromes that are discussed in connection with environmental factors: not only allergies and carcinogenous diseases but also symptom complexes that are hard to diagnose by ordinary methods such as the sick-building syndrome, multiple sensitivity to chemicals, electrosensitivity, amalgam intoxications, disorders due to wood preservatives and fungal diseases. The lingering course of a disease and a set of symptoms varying from one patient to another are the rule, not the exception, because environmental diseases are due above all to the chronic uptake of low pollutant doses (orig./MG) [de

  17. The environmental survey manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the Survey and Sampling and Analysis teams that conduct the one-time Environmental Survey of the major US Department of Energy (DOE) operating facilities. This manual includes a discussion of DOE's policy on environmental issues, a review of statutory guidance as it applies to the Survey, the procedures and protocols to be used by the Survey teams, criteria for the use of the Survey teams in evaluating existing environmental data for the Survey effort, generic technical checklists used in every Survey, health and safety guidelines for the personnel conducting the Survey, including the identification of potential hazards, prescribed protective equipment, and emergency procedures, the required formats for the Survey reports, guidance on identifying environmental problems that need immediate attention by the Operations Office responsible for the particular facility, and procedures and protocols for the conduct of sampling and analysis

  18. Environmental Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, Gretchen M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bertoldo, Nicholas A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Campbell, Christopher G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cerruti, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Coty, Jessie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dibley, Valerie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Domain, Jennifer L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grayson, Allen R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jones, Henry E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kumamoto, Gene [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); MacQueen, Donald H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nelson, Jennifer C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Paterson, Lisa [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Revelli, Michael A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wegrecki, Anthony M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wilson, Kent [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Woollett, Jim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-09-22

    The purposes of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2009 are to record Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL’s) compliance with environmental standards and requirements, describe LLNL’s environmental protection and remediation programs, and present the results of environmental monitoring at the two LLNL sites—the Livermore site and Site 300. The report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by LLNL’s Environmental Protection Department. Submittal of the report satisfies requirements under DOE Order 231.1A, Environmental Safety and Health Reporting, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. The report is distributed electronically and is available at https://saer.lln.gov/, the website for the LLNL annual environmental report. Previous LLNL annual environmental reports beginning in 1994 are also on the website. Some references in the electronic report text are underlined, which indicates that they are clickable links. Clicking on one of these links will open the related document, data workbook, or website that it refers to. The report begins with an executive summary, which provides the purpose of the report and an overview of LLNL’s compliance and monitoring results. The first three chapters provide background information: Chapter 1 is an overview of the location, meteorology, and hydrogeology of the two LLNL sites; Chapter 2 is a summary of LLNL’s compliance with environmental regulations; and Chapter 3 is a description of LLNL’s environmental programs with an emphasis on the Environmental Management System including pollution prevention. The majority of the report covers LLNL’s environmental monitoring programs and monitoring data for 2009: effluent and ambient air (Chapter 4); waters, including wastewater, storm water runoff, surface water, rain, and groundwater (Chapter 5); and terrestrial, including soil, sediment, vegetation, foodstuff, ambient radiation, and

  19. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    been undertaken through an investigative approach applying a web-scan framework which included the analysis of web sites and publicly published documents such as annual reports and corporate social responsibility reports. Findings – The authors identified 34 environmental sustainability initiatives...... which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...

  20. Elementary Environmental Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert J.

    This guide presents suggestions for field trips, out-of-doors activities, material for centers, and individualized activities in the teaching of elementary school science and particularly environmental education at the elementary level. The guide includes a section on preparation and procedures for conducting field trips, including sample…

  1. Environmental chemistry. Seventh edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1999-11-01

    This book presents a basic understanding of environmental chemistry and its applications. In addition to providing updated materials in this field, the book emphasizes the major concepts essential to the practice of environmental chemistry. Topics of discussion include the following: toxicological chemistry; toxicological chemistry of chemical substances; chemical analysis of water and wastewater; chemical analysis of wastes and solids; air and gas analysis; chemical analysis of biological materials and xenobiotics; fundamentals of chemistry; and fundamentals of organic chemistry.

  2. Ranger uranium environmental enquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    The submission is divided into three sections. Section A considers the international implications of the development of uranium resources including economic and resource aspects and environmental and social aspects. Section B outlines the government's position on export controls over uranium and its effect on the introduction of nuclear power in Australia. Section C describes the licensing and regulatory functions that would be needed to monitor the environmental and health aspects of the Ranger project. (R.L.)

  3. 40 CFR 72.81 - Permit modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance deadline extension; and (5) Changes in a thermal energy plan that result in any addition or... replacement of thermal energy. (c)(1) Permit modifications shall follow the permit issuance requirements of... projects under § 72.44(g)(1)(i) and (2) of this part. (b) The following permit revisions shall follow, at...

  4. Modification of Behavior: Application in Classroom Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ille, Sister Janiece; Bezzi, D. R.

    The emphasis of this research report was on modification of classroom behavior. After a brief introduction, the two main learning theories of Gestalt-field psychology and stimulus-response association were investigated. The importance of the individual in modifying his own behavior was stressed in Gestalt-field psychology. The importance of…

  5. Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci, Huseyin; Singh, Virendra; Kizito, John P; Rini, Daniel P; Seal, Sudipta; Chow, Louis C

    2013-10-09

    In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 μm for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 μm for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process.

  6. MILD MODIFICATION METHOD FOR THE GENERATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    2014-05-08

    bInstituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, CSIC, c/Marie Curie 2, 28049 Madrid, Spain. (Received May 8, 2014; ... All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission .... Mild modification method for generation of mesoporosity in synthetic and natural mordenite. Bull. Chem.

  7. 40 CFR 35.6750 - Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Other Administrative Requirements for Cooperative Agreements § 35.6750 Modifications. The recipient must comply with the requirements regarding changes to the Cooperative Agreement described in 40 CFR 31.30. ...

  8. Cooling tower modification for intermittent operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midkiff, W.S.

    1975-03-01

    One of the cooling towers at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is being operated intermittently. The cooling tower has been modified to restrict air flow and to keep the tower from drying out. The modifications are relatively inexpensive, simple to operate, and have proved effective. (U.S.)

  9. Histone modifications and nuclear architecture: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártová, Eva; Kroupová, Jana; Harničarová, Andrea; Galiová-Šustáčková, Gabriela; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 8 (2008), s. 711-721 ISSN 0722-186X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/06/0978; GA MŠk(CZ) LC535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : histones * histone modifications * nuclear architecture Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  10. Hexagonal metal modifications and thin film ferromagnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueger, E.; Wormeester, Herbert; Bauer, E.

    1999-01-01

    Epitaxial strain-stabilized hexagonal modifications can occur in many metal films grown on (100) surfaces of cubic crystals and can have a strong influence on their magnetic properties. The necessary conditions for the formation of hcp crystals, identification criteria, examples and implications for

  11. Epigenetics: from covalent modifications to small RNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaij, L.J.T.

    2013-01-01

    The role of epigenetic modifications, for instance DNA methylation, in cell fate transition is tremendous. In this thesis we present two studies in which we present genome wide in vivo methylomes of the small intestinal (SI) stem cell, a close descendent and villus and of 4 stages during zebrafish

  12. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  13. Proposal for a modification of SPICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobeldijk, C.; Goedbloed, J.P.; Griffioen, A.C.; D'Ippolito, D.A.

    1978-10-01

    Results and conclusions of recent experimental and theoretical screw-pinch research at Jutphaas are summarized. Based on these conclusions a modification of the toroidal vacuum chamber and the conducting shell of SPICA is proposed. The physics objectives of the modified experiment (SPICA II) as well as the planning are described. More detailed information can be obtained from the appendices. (Auth.)

  14. Embryonic Stem Cells and their Genetic Modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 2. Embryonic Stem Cells and their Genetic Modification - The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007. Mitradas M Panicker. General Article Volume 13 Issue 2 February 2008 pp 172-180 ...

  15. Structural modifications leading to changes in supramolecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1347–1356. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Structural modifications leading to changes in supramolecular aggregation of thiazolo[3, 2-a]pyrimidines: Insights into their conformational features. H NAGARAJAIAH and NOOR SHAHINA BEGUM. ∗. Department of Studies in Chemistry, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 001, ...

  16. O-GlcNAc modification: why so intimately associated with phosphorylation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ande Sudharsana R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Post-translational modification of proteins at serine and threonine side chains by β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc mediated by the enzyme β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase has been emerging as a fundamental regulatory mechanism encompassing a wide range of proteins involved in cell division, metabolism, transcription and cell signaling. Furthermore, an extensive interplay between O-GlcNAc modification and serine/threonine phosphorylation in a variety of proteins has been reported to exist. However, our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in O-GlcNAc modification and its interplay with serine/threonine phosphorylation in proteins is still elusive. Recent success in the mapping of O-GlcNAc modification sites in proteins as a result of technological advancement in mass spectrometry have revealed two important clues which may be inherently connected to the regulation of O-GlcNAc modification and its interplay with phosphorylation in proteins. First, almost all O-GlcNAc modified proteins are known phospho proteins. Second, the prevalence of tyrosine phosphorylation among O-GlcNAc modified proteins is exceptionally higher (~68% than its normal occurrence (~2% alone. We hypothesize that phosphorylation may be a requisite for O-GlcNAc modification and tyrosine phosphorylation plays a role in the interplay between O-GlcNAc modification and serine/threonine phosphorylation in proteins. In other words, the interplay between O-GlcNAc modification and phosphorylation is not limited to serine/threonine phosphorylation but also includes tyrosine phosphorylation. Our hypothesis provides an opportunity to understand the underlying mechanism involved in O-GlcNAc modification and its interplay with serine/threonine phosphorylation in proteins. Furthermore, implication of our hypothesis extends to tyrosine kinase signaling.

  17. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, M.

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST) [de

  18. Environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Program on Environmental Science and Technology developed at the Chemical and Environmental Technology Center comprehends environmental chemistry (water, soil and atmospheric chemistry), clean technologies (desulfurization of diesel and oil, biodegradable polymers and structural modification of polymers, recycling, pyrolysis of dangerous chemicals by molten salt technology), nanotechnology (magnetic nanoparticles, dendrimers, nano biomarkers, catalysts) and chemical characterization of nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel cycle waste (chemical and isotopic characterization). The Chemical and Environmental Technology Center was established in 1995, as an evolution of the former Department of Chemistry Engineering (1970). The program on environment science and technology was structured as consequence of the continuous growth of environmental activities on areas related to nuclear programs of IPEN. Moreover, it was an answer to the society concerning the climate changes and biodiversity preservation. All activities of research and development, services, supervision of graduate and under graduated students and courses performance at the center were related to the development, improvement and establishment of new technologies. The highlights of this period (2011 - 2013) were: - Development and use of modern analytical technology for the characterization of persistent pollutants and endocrine disrupters (metals, PAHA’s, PCBs, Pesticides, hormones, surfactants, plasticizer and human pharmaceuticals) in order to evaluate water quality and/or sediments; - Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases: Evaluating an estimation of surface trace gas fluxes from aircraft measurements above the Amazon; - Cooperation with SABESP (Water and Sewage Company) and CETESB (State Environment Agency) in program for the development of public policies; - Studies and development in biodegradable polymers, polyolefins and advanced methods for polymer and rubber recycling and re-use; - Studies

  19. Environmental science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Program on Environmental Science and Technology developed at the Chemical and Environmental Technology Center comprehends environmental chemistry (water, soil and atmospheric chemistry), clean technologies (desulfurization of diesel and oil, biodegradable polymers and structural modification of polymers, recycling, pyrolysis of dangerous chemicals by molten salt technology), nanotechnology (magnetic nanoparticles, dendrimers, nano biomarkers, catalysts) and chemical characterization of nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel cycle waste (chemical and isotopic characterization). The Chemical and Environmental Technology Center was established in 1995, as an evolution of the former Department of Chemistry Engineering (1970). The program on environment science and technology was structured as consequence of the continuous growth of environmental activities on areas related to nuclear programs of IPEN. Moreover, it was an answer to the society concerning the climate changes and biodiversity preservation. All activities of research and development, services, supervision of graduate and under graduated students and courses performance at the center were related to the development, improvement and establishment of new technologies. The highlights of this period (2011 - 2013) were: - Development and use of modern analytical technology for the characterization of persistent pollutants and endocrine disrupters (metals, PAHA’s, PCBs, Pesticides, hormones, surfactants, plasticizer and human pharmaceuticals) in order to evaluate water quality and/or sediments; - Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases: Evaluating an estimation of surface trace gas fluxes from aircraft measurements above the Amazon; - Cooperation with SABESP (Water and Sewage Company) and CETESB (State Environment Agency) in program for the development of public policies; - Studies and development in biodegradable polymers, polyolefins and advanced methods for polymer and rubber recycling and re-use; - Studies

  20. Environmental/chemical thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, C.R.; Dailey, N.S.; Jordan, A.C.; Miller, K.C.; Owens, E.T.; Rickert, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus approaches scientific language control problems from a multidisciplinary view. The Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI) was used as a base for the present thesaurus. The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, used as its source of new terms those major terms found in 13 Environmental Protection Agency data bases. The scope of this thesaurus includes not only environmental and biomedical sciences, but also the physical sciences with emphasis placed on chemistry. Specific chemical compounds are not included; only classes of chemicals are given. To adhere to this level of classification, drugs and pesticides are identified by class rather than by specific chemical name. An attempt was also made to expand the areas of sociology and economics. Terminology dealing with law, demography, and geography was expanded. Proper names of languages and races were excluded. Geographic terms were expanded to include proper names for oceans, continents, major lakes, rivers, and islands. Political divisions were added to allow for proper names of countries and states. With such a broad scope, terminology for specific sciences does not provide for indexing to the lowest levels in plant, animal, or chemical classifications.