WorldWideScience

Sample records for include economic evaluations

  1. A framework for including family health spillovers in economic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Al-Janabi (Hareth); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); J. Coast (Joanna)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHealth care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these health spillovers? should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health

  2. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients’ family networks. It has been suggested that these “health spillovers” should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the “health care perspective”). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. PMID:26377370

  3. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Experiences of including costs of added life years in health economic evaluations in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pirhonen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is of importance to include the appropriate costs and outcomes when evaluating a health intervention. Sweden is the only country where the national guidelines of decisions on reimbursement explicitly state that costs of added life years should be accounted for when presenting health economic evaluations. The aim of this article is to, from a theoretical and empirical point of view, critically analyze the Swedish recommendations used by the Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV, when it comes to the use of costs of added life years in economic evaluations of health care. The aim is furthermore to analyze the numbers used in Sweden and discuss their impact on the incremental cost‑effectiveness ratios of assessed technologies. If following a societal perspective, based on welfare economics, there is strong support for the inclusion of costs of added life years in health economic evaluations. These costs have a large impact on the results. However this fact may be in conflict with ethical concerns of allocation of health care resources, such as favoring the younger part of the population over the older. It is important that the estimates of production and consumption reflect the true societal values, which is not the case with the values used in Sweden.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v15i2.925

  5. ADEME energy transition scenarios. Summary including a macro-economic evaluation 2030 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    fourfold reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is achievable. By supporting the green economy, which embraces business activities of the future such as renewable energy production, energy recovery from waste, recycling and eco-design - 'resources' that are all available within France - we can move towards robust and sustainable growth. The present economic crisis should not halt our efforts. Greater energy efficiency means higher employment. Breaking our dependency on fossil fuels is the way to anticipate future economic conditions - fossil energy prices will inevitably rise during the coming decades - and to reduce our vulnerability to imports that have become a significant burden (Euro 69 billion in 2012) and comply with our international commitments to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions. Acting now clearly has a cost, especially during the first years, but the macro-economic evaluation that accompanies the 2030-2050 Energy Transition scenarios show that in addition to environmental benefits, the energy transition could also have a beneficial impact on the French economy

  6. Economic evaluation of angiographic interventions including a whole-radiology in- and outpatient care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte-Ernsting, C.; Abel, K.; Krupski, G.; Lorenzen, J.; Adam, G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the economic efficiency of a whole-radiology in- and outpatient treatment with angiographic interventions performed as the main or sole therapy. Materials and Methods: The calculations represent the data of a university radiology department, including the following angiographic interventions (neuroradiology not considered): Vascular intervention (PTA, stent implantation) of kidneys and extremities, recanalization of hemodialysis access, chemoembolization, diagnostic arterioportal liver CT, port implantation, varicocele embolization, PTCD, percutaneous implantation of biliary stent. First, the different angiographic interventions are categorized with reference to the German DRG system 2005. Considering the example of a university hospital, the individual cost of each intervention is calculated and correlated with reimbursements by G-DRG2005 and so-called ''ambulant operation'' (EBM200plus). With these data, profits and losses are calculated for both in- and outpatient care. Results: Radiologic interventions of inpatients yield a profit in the majority of cases. With a base rate of 2900 Euro, the profits in our university hospital range between -872 Euro and +3411 Euro (mean: +1348 Euro). On the other hand, those angiographic interventions suitable for ''ambulant operation'' generate average profits of +372 Euro, if only direct costs are considered. The data of outpatient radiological interventions average between 381 Euro up to 1612 Euro lower than compared with profits obtained from in patient care. (orig.)

  7. Which Costs Matter? Costs Included in Economic Evaluation and their Impact on Decision Uncertainty for Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, James; Asaria, Miqdad; Bojke, Laura; Gale, Chris P; Richardson, Gerry; Walker, Simon

    2018-02-14

    Variation exists in the resource categories included in economic evaluations, and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance suggests the inclusion only of costs related to the index condition or intervention. However, there is a growing consensus that all healthcare costs should be included in economic evaluations for Health Technology Assessments (HTAs), particularly those related to extended years of life. We aimed to quantify the impact of a range of cost categories on the adoption decision about a hypothetical intervention, and uncertainty around that decision, for stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) based on a dataset comprising 94,966 patients. Three costing scenarios were considered: coronary heart disease (CHD) costs only, cardiovascular disease (CVD) costs and all costs. The first two illustrate different interpretations of what might be regarded as related costs. Employing a 20-year time horizon, the highest mean expected incremental cost was when all costs were included (£2468) and the lowest when CVD costs only were included (£2377). The probability of the treatment being cost effective, estimating health opportunity costs using a ratio of £30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), was different for each of the CHD (70%) costs, CVD costs (73%) and all costs (56%) scenarios. The results concern a hypothetical intervention and are illustrative only, as such they cannot necessarily be generalised to all interventions and diseases. Cost categories included in an economic evaluation of SCAD impact on estimates of both cost effectiveness and decision uncertainty. With an aging and co-morbid population, the inclusion of all healthcare costs may have important ramifications for the selection of healthcare provision on economic grounds.

  8. The whole story: a systematic review of economic evaluations of HPV vaccination including non-cervical HPV-associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suijkerbuijk, Anita W M; Donken, Robine; Lugnér, Anna K; de Wit, G Ardine; Meijer, Chris J L M; de Melker, Hester E; Bogaards, Johannes A

    2017-04-01

    Many economic evaluations of HPV vaccination have been published, but most have focused on the prevention of cervical disease as a primary health outcome. The cost-effectiveness of vaccination is likely to be underestimated if not all HPV-associated diseases are taken into account. In this review, we assess the influence of non-cervical HPV-associated diseases on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of preadolescent HPV vaccination. Areas covered: We systematically searched the literature and identified 18 studies that included non-cervical diseases in the estimates of cost-effectiveness of HPV-vaccination. When taking other HPV-related diseases into account compared to not including such other diseases, the mean ICERs were 2.85 times more favorable for girls only vaccination and 3.89 times for gender neutral vaccination. Expert commentary: Including non-cervical diseases in economic evaluations of HPV vaccination programs makes it more likely that the ICER falls beneath accepted cost-effectiveness thresholds and therefore increases the scope for gender neutral vaccination.

  9. Stakeholders' perception on including broader economic impact of vaccines in economic evaluations in low and middle income countries: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Putten, Ingeborg M; Evers, Silvia M A A; Deogaonkar, Rohan; Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond C W

    2015-04-10

    Current health economic evaluation guidelines mainly concentrate on immediate health gains and cost savings for the individual involved in the intervention. However, it has been argued that these guidelines are too narrow to capture the full impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries. The inclusion of broader economic impact of vaccines (BEIV) has therefore been proposed. Some examples of these are productivity-related gains, macro-economic impact, and different externalities. Despite their potency, the extent to which such benefits can and should be incorporated into economic evaluations of vaccination is still unclear. This mixed methods study aims to assess the relevance of BEIV to different stakeholders involved in the vaccine introduction decision making process. In this mixed method study an internet based survey was sent to attendees of the New and Underutilized Vaccines Initiative meeting in Montreux, Switzerland in 2011. Additionally, semi-structured interviews of 15 minutes each were conducted during the meeting. Study participants included decision makers, experts and funders of vaccines and immunization programs in low and middle income countries. Descriptive analysis of the survey, along with identification of common themes and factors extracted from the interviews and open survey questions was undertaken. Evidence on macro-economic impact, burden of disease and ecological effects were perceived as being most valuable towards aiding decision making for vaccine introduction by the 26 survey respondents. The 14 interviewees highlighted the importance of burden of disease and different types of indirect effects. Furthermore, some new interpretations of BEIVs were discussed, such as the potential negative impact of wastage during immunization programs and the idea of using vaccines as a platform for delivering other types of health interventions. Interviewees also highlighted the importance of using a broader perspective in connection to

  10. Adult vaccination strategies for the control of pertussis in the United States: an economic evaluation including the dynamic population effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Coudeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior economic evaluations of adult and adolescent vaccination strategies against pertussis have reached disparate conclusions. Using static approaches only, previous studies failed to analytically include the indirect benefits derived from herd immunity as well as the impact of vaccination on the evolution of disease incidence over time. METHODS: We assessed the impact of different pertussis vaccination strategies using a dynamic compartmental model able to consider pertussis transmission. We then combined the results with economic data to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of pertussis immunization strategies for adolescents and adults in the US. The analysis compares combinations of programs targeting adolescents, parents of newborns (i.e. cocoon strategy, or adults of various ages. RESULTS: In the absence of adolescent or adult vaccination, pertussis incidence among adults is predicted to more than double in 20 years. Implementing an adult program in addition to childhood and adolescent vaccination either based on 1 a cocoon strategy and a single booster dose or 2 a decennial routine vaccination would maintain a low level of pertussis incidence in the long run for all age groups (respectively 30 and 20 cases per 100,000 person years. These strategies would also result in significant reductions of pertussis costs (between -77% and -80% including additional vaccination costs. The cocoon strategy complemented by a single booster dose is the most cost-effective one, whereas the decennial adult vaccination is slightly more effective in the long run. CONCLUSIONS: By providing a high level of disease control, the implementation of an adult vaccination program against pertussis appears to be highly cost-effective and often cost-saving.

  11. The whole story : a systematic review of economic evaluations of HPV vaccination including non-cervical HPV-associated diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, Anita W M; Donken, Robine; Lugnér, Anna K; Wit, G Ardine de; Meijer, Chris J L M; de Melker, Hester E; Bogaards, Johannes A

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Many economic evaluations of HPV vaccination have been published, but most have focused on the prevention of cervical disease as a primary health outcome. The cost-effectiveness of vaccination is likely to be underestimated if not all HPV-associated diseases are taken into account. In

  12. Does including informal care in economic evaluations matter? A systematic review of inclusion and impact of informal care in cost-effectiveness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Marieke; Papenburg, Jocé; van Exel, Job

    2015-02-01

    Informal care makes an important contribution to societal welfare. However, it may involve substantial time costs and can have a considerable negative effect on the health and well-being of informal caregivers. These costs and effects of informal caregiving are often excluded in economic evaluations of healthcare interventions. The impact of this exclusion on the outcomes of these evaluations is largely unknown. This study aimed to explore the inclusion of informal care in economic evaluations and the potential impact of the costs and effects of informal caregiving on cost-effectiveness outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to identify economic evaluations of interventions in four distinct disease areas where informal care is potentially important: Alzheimer's disease, metastatic colorectal cancer, Parkinson's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. It was recorded how often economic evaluations included informal caregiving. Next, for the studies including informal care, the impact on cost-effectiveness outcomes was determined by removing informal care costs and effects of the cost-effectiveness calculations and recalculating the outcomes. The new cost-effectiveness outcomes were then compared with the original reported outcomes. The study identified 100 economic evaluations investigating interventions targeted at Alzheimer's disease (n = 25), metastatic colorectal cancer (n = 24), Parkinson's disease (n = 8) and rheumatoid arthritis (n = 43). Twenty-three of these evaluations (23 %) included costs and/or effects of informal caregiving: 64 % of the Alzheimer's disease studies, 0 % of the metastatic colorectal cancer studies, 13 % of Parkinson's disease studies and 14 % of rheumatoid arthritis studies. When informal care was included, this mostly concerned time costs. Studies rarely included both costs and effects. The effect of including or excluding informal care costs or effects on cost-effectiveness outcomes in most studies was modest, but in some studies the

  13. Should nutritional status evaluation be included in the initial needs assessment of leprosy patients with disability prior to socio-economic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, M; Diffey, B; Jacob, A J; Vaz, M

    2001-06-01

    Because of the large numbers of leprosy patients with disability and the limited resources available, it is important that socio-economic rehabilitation (SER) is targeted towards those who are most in need. Towards this purpose, current assessments of leprosy patients prior to initiating SER include the evaluation of income, assets and household possessions. Conspicuously absent is the nutritional assessment of the patient. In the absence of weight loss associated with illness, population studies indicate that undernutrition reflects poor socio-economic conditions. In this study of 151 cured leprosy patients with disability, 57% of the patients were found to be undernourished using body mass index (kg/m2) derived from body weight and height, and 10% of the patients were severely undernourished (grade III). Undernutrition in the patients was poorly though significantly correlated with personal income (r = 0.18, P nutritional status evaluation by anthropometry as part of the initial screening of leprosy patients prior to instituting SER. We believe that this simple and objective evaluation can add to the assessment of 'threat' of economic deprivation or actual economic 'dislocation', and thus help in the prioritization of leprosy patients for SER.

  14. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  15. Economic bid evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, T.

    1975-01-01

    When it is intended to install a new nuclear power station, the usual procedure is to invite for tenders. In due course, bids will be received from various manufacturers, out of which the most favourable one is then to be selected. Appraisal is concluded in the Economic Bid Evaluation, the purpose of which is to define the economically most favourable bid by comparing overall costs and benefits of the various alternatives. Thus, Economic Bid Evaluation is a most important instrument for deciding on award of contract. (orig.) [de

  16. Economic evaluation manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-09-01

    An economic analysis on oil or gas property is generally accompanied by a reservoir analysis which predicts the reserves and the performance of the reservoir, recommends the optimum economic method with which to recover the reserves, and through a performance prediction indicates a time schedule for future investments and income. The requirements for a reservoir evaluation are as follows: (1) good reservoir data; (2) oil in place; (3) reservoir energy, both primary and secondary; and (4) reserve calculation and performance predictions for giving both production schedule and selection of secondary recovery mechanisms. Given the above reservoir evaluation parameters, the following are requirements for a complete economic analysis: (1) lease exploration and purchase costs; (2) capital investments schedule dependent upon a reservoir performance prediction; and (3) factors affecting net income such as anticipated selling price of oil and gas and the availability of a market, operating costs and working interest, royalty schedule, depreciation methods, depletion methods and tax schedule. (71 refs.)

  17. Economic evaluation of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This paper presents a progress report of work undertaken relevant to the economic evaluation of reprocessing. It sets out the assumptions to be made for the preparation of the economic ''phase diagram'' - a plot of fast reactor premium against uranium (U 3 O 8 ) price. The paper discusses the assumptions to be made in respect of present worth methodology, LWR fuel logistics, U 3 O 8 price, enrichment tails, plutonium values, fast reactor premium and proposes a set of reference costs to be used for the preparation of the phase diagram

  18. Health economic evaluation in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovithis, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing volume of literature on health economic evaluation, with this form of analysis becoming increasingly influential at the decision-making level worldwide. The purpose of this study was to review the current state of health economic evaluation in Greece, with a view to uncovering reasons why its use in this country is limited. A search of the NHS Economic Evaluation Database was undertaken. The search included cost, cost-of-illness, cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness, cost-consequences, cost-utility, and cost-benefit analyses and was narrowed only to Greek authors undertaking solo or joint health economic evaluation in Greece. The search revealed that, in Greece, very little health economic evaluation has been undertaken. The main reason for the lack of interest is that the current chaotic healthcare system structure and financing does not provide the appropriate incentives to stimulate a powerful interest in this type of research. This condition is a result of the lack of a long-term national health policy and the hesitation of the present and past Greek governments to date to proceed to large-scale reforms because of political considerations. The Greek governments have also been content with the good health indicators being achieved. Even if it is accepted that good health prevails in Greece, slower economic growth rates, an ageing population, and the continuous immigration will place increasing pressure on healthcare resources and will necessitate a more rational use of these resources. Health economic evaluation, by weighing benefits against costs, therefore, has an important role to play.

  19. Health economic evaluation in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, James

    2014-01-01

    The 2010 National Health Service Constitution for England specified rights and responsibilities, including health economic evaluation for the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and the Joint Committee on Vaccinations and Immunisations. The National Screening Committee and the Health Protection Agency also provide advice to the Government based on health economic evaluation. Each agency largely follows the methods specified by NICE. To distinguish the methods from neoclassical economics they have been termed "extra-welfarist". Key differences include measurement and valuation of both benefits (QALYs) and costs (healthcare related). Policy on discounting has also changed over time and by agency. The debate over having NICE's methods align more closely with neoclassical economics has been prominent in the ongoing development of "value based pricing". The political unacceptability of some decisions has led to special funding for technologies not recommended by NICE. These include the 2002 Multiple Sclerosis Risk Sharing Scheme and the 2010 Cancer Drugs Fund as well as special arrangements for technologies linked to the end of life and for innovation. Since 2009 Patient Access Schemes have made price reductions possible which sometimes enables drugs to meet NICE's cost-effectiveness thresholds. As a result, the National Health Service in England has denied few technologies on grounds of cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Health economic evaluation: important principles and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke; Drummond, Michael

    2013-06-01

    To discuss health economic evaluation and improve the understanding of common methodology. This article discusses the methodology for the following types of economic evaluations: cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, cost-benefit, and economic modeling. Topics include health-state utility measures, the quality-adjusted life year (QALY), uncertainty analysis, discounting, decision tree analysis, and Markov modeling. Economic evaluation is the comparative analysis of alternative courses of action in terms of both their costs and consequences. With increasing health care expenditure and limited resources, it is important for physicians to consider the economic impact of their interventions. Understanding common methodology involved in health economic evaluation will improve critical appraisal of the literature and optimize future economic evaluations. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Health Economic Evaluation of Telehealthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udsen, Flemming Witt

    for decision making meant to inform adaptation of the health economic evaluation approach. Based on developments in realist evaluation and experiences with conducting the evaluation of TeleCare North, four principles for health economic evaluation of complex telehealthcare interventions is outlined in order....... The results from the TeleCare North trial were used directly in a national decision to implement the telehealthcare solution to patients with severe COPD in Denmark and lead to considerable debate nationally. This debate could be viewed as an actual account of the usefulness of health economic evaluation...... to facilitate future health economic designs of telehealthcare that should ultimately answer if telehealthcare is cost-effective, for whom, why and under what circumstances....

  2. Economic weights for maternal traits of sows, including sow longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, P R; Ludemann, C I; Hermesch, S

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a transparent, comprehensive, and flexible model for each trait for the formulation of breeding objectives for sow traits in swine breeding programs. Economic values were derived from submodels considering a typical Australian pig production system. Differences in timing and expressions of traits were accounted for to derive economic weights that were compared on the basis of their relative size after multiplication by their corresponding genetic standard deviation to account for differences in scale and genetic variability present for each trait. The number of piglets born alive had the greatest contribution (27.1%) to a subindex containing only maternal traits, followed by daily gain (maternal; 22.0%) and sow mature weight (15.0%). Other traits considered in the maternal breeding objective were preweaning survival (11.8%), sow longevity (12.5%), gilt age at puberty (8.7%), and piglet survival at birth (3.1%). The economic weights for number of piglets born alive and preweaning piglet survival were found to be highly dependent on the definition of scale of enterprise, with each economic value increasing by approximately 100% when it was assumed that the value of extra output per sow could be captured, rather than assuming a consequent reduction in the number of sows to maintain a constant level of output from a farm enterprise. In the context of a full maternal line index that must account also for the expression of direct genetic traits by the growing piglet progeny of sows, the maternal traits contributed approximately half of the variation in the overall breeding objective. Deployment of more comprehensive maternal line indexes incorporating the new maternal traits described would lead to more balanced selection outcomes and improved survival of pigs. Future work could facilitate evaluation of the economic impacts of desired-gains indexes, which could further improve animal welfare through improved sow and piglet

  3. Economic evaluation of KALIMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Kee Hwan

    1997-01-01

    The main results of this study are as follows. To estimate the economic feasibility of KALIMER, the cost estimate model has been developed by using MS Excel software. Two scenarios were considered in this study. Scenario-A is composed of KALIMER options, which have FC1B (first commercial plant with 1 block), FC3B (first commercial plant with 3 blocks), NOAK1B (Nth-of-a-kind plant with 1 block), NOAK3B(Nth-of-a-kind plant with 3 blocks). The size of each block is 333 MWe. Scenario-B is comprised of PWR options, which have existing PWRs and new concepts of advanced PWR (APWR) in order to compare with KALIMER options. According to the results, the specific capital cost ($/kWe) and the levelized busbar cost (mills/kWh) for the NOAK3B option are 11% and 12% lower than that of FC3B option, respectively. These results from learning effects, scaling factors and some reductions of material and labor requirements for the NOAK3B option. And the levelized capital cost of NOAK3B option is 17%, 6% lower than that of existing PWR and APWR option, respectively. These results form shorten of construction times and labor requirements, modularization and design simplications etc. Therefore, decision and policy maker related to KALIMER development must note through the results of this study that multi-blocks design concept for its commercial plant should be considered to get the economy of scale effects. KALIMER has high competitiveness comparing to the existing PWRs and APWR. Therefore, it should be considered as a power supply option in the future in Korea. (author). 7 refs., 17 tabs., 7 figs.

  4. Economic evaluation of KALIMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Kee Hwan.

    1997-01-01

    The main results of this study are as follows. To estimate the economic feasibility of KALIMER, the cost estimate model has been developed by using MS Excel software. Two scenarios were considered in this study. Scenario-A is composed of KALIMER options, which have FC1B (first commercial plant with 1 block), FC3B (first commercial plant with 3 blocks), NOAK1B (Nth-of-a-kind plant with 1 block), NOAK3B(Nth-of-a-kind plant with 3 blocks). The size of each block is 333 MWe. Scenario-B is comprised of PWR options, which have existing PWRs and new concepts of advanced PWR (APWR) in order to compare with KALIMER options. According to the results, the specific capital cost ($/kWe) and the levelized busbar cost (mills/kWh) for the NOAK3B option are 11% and 12% lower than that of FC3B option, respectively. These results from learning effects, scaling factors and some reductions of material and labor requirements for the NOAK3B option. And the levelized capital cost of NOAK3B option is 17%, 6% lower than that of existing PWR and APWR option, respectively. These results form shorten of construction times and labor requirements, modularization and design simplications etc. Therefore, decision and policy maker related to KALIMER development must note through the results of this study that multi-blocks design concept for its commercial plant should be considered to get the economy of scale effects. KALIMER has high competitiveness comparing to the existing PWRs and APWR. Therefore, it should be considered as a power supply option in the future in Korea. (author). 7 refs., 17 tabs., 7 figs

  5. Economic evaluation of medical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifan, Alon; Shemer, Joshua

    2005-02-01

    Innovation in medical science is progressing at a rapid pace. As a result, new medical technologies that offer to improve upon or completely replace existing alternatives are continually appearing. These technologies--which include pharmaceuticals, devices, equipment, supplies, medical and surgical procedures, and administrative and support systems--are changing the way medicine can be practiced and delivered, forcing healthcare providers and policymakers to consistently evaluate and adapt to new treatment options. Meanwhile, society is becoming more demanding of new medical technologies. Emerging medical technology, however, has been viewed as a significant factor in increasing the cost of healthcare. The abundance of new medical alternatives, combined with scarcity of resources, has led to priority setting, rationing and the need for more technology management and assessment. Economic evaluation of medical technologies is a system of analysis used to formally compare the costs and consequences of alternative healthcare interventions. EEMT can be used by many healthcare entities, including national policymakers, manufacturers, payers and providers, as a tool to aid in resource allocation decisions. This paper discusses the four current popular methodologies for EEMT (cost-minimization, cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility), and describes the industry environment that has shaped their development.

  6. Public health interventions: evaluating the economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Forster

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed much progress in the incorporation of economic considerations into the evaluation of public health interventions. In England, the Centre for Public Health Excellence within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence works to develop guidance for preventing illness and assessing which public health interventions are most effective and provide best value for money...

  7. Economic value evaluation in disease management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Reicher, Sima; Shani, Mordechai

    2008-05-01

    Chronic disease management has been a rapidly growing entity in the 21st century as a strategy for managing chronic illnesses in large populations. However, experience has shown that disease management programs have not been able to demonstrate their financial value. The objectives of disease management programs are to create quality benchmarks, such as principles and guidelines, and to establish a uniform set of metrics and a standardized methodology for evaluating them. In order to illuminate the essence of disease management and its components, as well as the complexity and the problematic nature of performing economic calculations of their profitability and value, we collected data from several reports that dealt with the economic intervention of disease management programs. The disease management economic evaluation is composed of a series of steps, including the following major categories: data/information technology, information generation, assessment/recommendations, actionable customer plans, and program assessment/reassessment. We demonstrate the elements necessary for economic analysis. Disease management is one of the most innovative tools in the managed care environment and is still in the process of being defined. Therefore, objectives should include the creation of quality measures, such as principles and guidelines, and the establishment of a uniform set of metrics and a standardized methodology for evaluating them.

  8. A comparative assessment of the economics of plutonium disposition including comparison with other nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.A.; Miller, J.W.; Reid, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    DOE has been evaluating three technologies for the disposition of approximately 50 metric tons of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs: reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting an early CY 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), a comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule has been conducted. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This paper discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results prior to ROD. Other objectives of the paper are to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact plutonium disposition cost and schedule. Also to compare the economics of a once-through weapons-derived MOX nuclear fuel cycle to other fuel cycles, such as those utilizing spent fuel reprocessing. To evaluate the economics of these technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This paper also includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs

  9. An economic evaluation of solar radiation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaheim, Asbjørn; Romstad, Bård; Wei, Taoyuan; Kristjánsson, Jón Egill; Muri, Helene; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke

    2015-01-01

    Economic evaluations of solar radiation management (SRM) usually assume that the temperature will be stabilized, with no economic impacts of climate change, but with possible side-effects. We know from experiments with climate models, however, that unlike emission control the spatial and temporal distributions of temperature, precipitation and wind conditions will change. Hence, SRM may have economic consequences under a stabilization of global mean temperature even if side-effects other than those related to the climatic responses are disregarded. This paper addresses the economic impacts of implementing two SRM technologies; stratospheric sulfur injection and marine cloud brightening. By the use of a computable general equilibrium model, we estimate the economic impacts of climatic responses based on the results from two earth system models, MPI-ESM and NorESM. We find that under a moderately increasing greenhouse-gas concentration path, RCP4.5, the economic benefits of implementing climate engineering are small, and may become negative. Global GDP increases in three of the four experiments and all experiments include regions where the benefits from climate engineering are negative

  10. Desalination Economic Evaluation Program (DEEP). User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    DEEP (formerly named ''Co-generation and Desalination Economic Evaluation'' Spreadsheet, CDEE) has been developed originally by General Atomics under contract, and has been used in the IAEA's feasibility studies. For further confidence in the software, it was validated in March 1998. After that, a user friendly version has been issued under the name of DEEP at the end of 1998. DEEP output includes the levelised cost of water and power, a breakdown of cost components, energy consumption and net saleable power for each selected option. Specific power plants can be modelled by adjustment of input data including design power, power cycle parameters and costs

  11. Understanding Economic Evaluation: A Policy Perspective for Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Giacomini

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhetoric of ‘efficiency’ frames much current debate about how limited health care resources should be used. Clinicians increasingly turn to economic evaluation literature to discern evidence-based claims of ‘efficiency’ or ‘cost effectiveness’ from empty ones. Economic evaluation research is designed to compare health services on the basis of their efficiency (eg, how well they produce health benefits relative to resource costs. Although economic studies appear throughout the respirology literature, relatively few are complete economic evaluations. Economic evaluation studies serve various purposes, including critical evaluation and persuasive marketing, which produce studies that vary in research agendas and scientific rigour. This paper is intended to serve clinicians and consumers of economic evaluation studies by: introducing economic evaluation research information as a policy making tool; describing the three basic elements and three basic types of economic evaluation (cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility analyses; and reviewing some limitations of economic evaluation information for policy decision making. The usefulness of economic evaluation research for policy making depends not only on the scientific merit of the analysis but also crucially on whose specific concerns the research questions address.

  12. How forest management affects ecosystem services, including timber production and economic return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncker, Philipp S.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Gundersen, Per

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems deliver multiple goods and services and, traditionally, forest owners tend to have a high interest in goods in the form of merchantable wood. As a consequence, forest management often aims to increase timber production and economic returns through intervention into natural...... processes. However, forests provide further services, including carbon sequestration, water quantity and quality, and preservation of biodiversity. In order to develop and implement strategies for sustainable forest management, it is important to anticipate the long-term effects of different forest...... management alternatives on the ability of the forest to provide ecosystem goods and services. Management objectives might emphasize economic interests at the expense of other services. Very few attempts have been made to illustrate and evaluate quantitatively the relationship between forest goods...

  13. Economic evaluation of damage caused by, and methods of control of, the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Maghreb. An analysis covering three control options, including the sterile insect technique. Report of an expert group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    Fruit and vegetable production is an important agricultural sector throughout the Mediterranean Basin, which is dependent on aerial or ground insecticide applications to protect commercial crops against the Mediterranean fruit fly. Pesticide applications are required up to twelve times a year, costing large sums of money. This study assesses for the four North African countries the economics of different pest control/eradication alternatives: insecticide application and the more environmentally friendly alternatives based on the Sterile Insect Technique. It is concluded that Sterile Insect Technique, not only very attractive from environmental point of view, but is also a feasible option from economic point of view. 40 refs, 3 figs, 37 tabs

  14. Economic evaluation of CISM : a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    air traffic controllers, critical incident stress management, CISM, critical incidents, critical incident stress, cost-benefit-analysis, economic evaluation, efficiency, return on investment......air traffic controllers, critical incident stress management, CISM, critical incidents, critical incident stress, cost-benefit-analysis, economic evaluation, efficiency, return on investment...

  15. ECONOMIC THEORY OF LOBBYING: EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Павел Александрович Толстых

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author continues to analyze lobbying with regards to economic paradigm. [The author has started discussing lobbying in terms of economic theory in the article Politico-economic theory of lobbying / / Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, culture and art. Theory and practice. Tambov: Gramota, 2013. No 1. Part 2. p. 177-189.] Researcher evaluates the cost effectiveness of the lobbying function. Lobbying is understood as activity of specifically authorized employees of corporations and lobbying firms representing their interests, trade associations. This activity is aimed at improving the profitability of integrated and sustainable business development by representing  long-term, comfortable, predictable system of relationships with the relevant field-specific political stakeholders of the federal and regional levels. The article presents an in-depth analysis of economic concepts of lobbying function.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-3

  16. ECONOMIC THEORY OF LOBBYING: EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolstyh Pavel Aleksandrovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author continues to analyze lobbying with regards to economic paradigm. [The author has started discussing lobbying in terms of economic theory in the article Politico-economic theory of lobbying / / Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, culture and art. Theory and practice. Tambov: Gramota, 2013. No 1. Part 2. p. 177-189.] Researcher evaluates the cost effectiveness of the lobbying function. Lobbying is understood as activity of specifically authorized employees of corporations and lobbying firms representing their interests, trade associations. This activity is aimed at improving the profitability of integrated and sustainable business development by representing long-term, comfortable, predictable system of relationships with the relevant field-specific political stakeholders of the federal and regional levels. The article presents an in-depth analysis of economic concepts of lobbying function.

  17. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: teacher's guide. Field test edition. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    An instructional aid is provided for home economics teachers who wish to integrate the subject of solar energy into their classroom activities. This teacher's guide was produced along with the student activities book for home economics by the US Department of Energy Solar Energy Education. A glossary of solar energy terms is included. (BCS)

  18. The economics of health information technology in medication management: a systematic review of economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Daria; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Goeree, Ron; Lokker, Cynthia; McKibbon, K Ann

    2012-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review and synthesis of the evidence surrounding the cost-effectiveness of health information technology (HIT) in the medication process. Peer-reviewed electronic databases and gray literature were searched to identify studies on HIT used to assist in the medication management process. Articles including an economic component were reviewed for further screening. For this review, full cost-effectiveness analyses, cost-utility analyses and cost-benefit analyses, as well as cost analyses, were eligible for inclusion and synthesis. The 31 studies included were heterogeneous with respect to the HIT evaluated, setting, and economic methods used. Thus the data could not be synthesized, and a narrative review was conducted. Most studies evaluated computer decision support systems in hospital settings in the USA, and only five of the studied performed full economic evaluations. Most studies merely provided cost data; however, useful economic data involves far more input. A full economic evaluation includes a full enumeration of the costs, synthesized with the outcomes of the intervention. The quality of the economic literature in this area is poor. A few studies found that HIT may offer cost advantages despite their increased acquisition costs. However, given the uncertainty that surrounds the costs and outcomes data, and limited study designs, it is difficult to reach any definitive conclusion as to whether the additional costs and benefits represent value for money. Sophisticated concurrent prospective economic evaluations need to be conducted to address whether HIT interventions in the medication management process are cost-effective.

  19. The total assessment profile, volume 2. [including societal impact, cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    Appendices are presented which include discussions of interest formulas, factors in regionalization, parametric modeling of discounted benefit-sacrifice streams, engineering economic calculations, and product innovation. For Volume 1, see .

  20. Economic evaluations in gastroenterology in Brazil: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva Haddad, Luciana Bertocco; Decimoni, Tassia Cristina; Turri, Jose Antonio; Leandro, Roseli; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2016-02-06

    To systematically review economic evaluations in gastroenterology, relating to Brazil, published between 1980 and 2013. We selected full and partial economic evaluations from among those retrieved by searching the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed); Excerpta Medica; the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database; the Scientific Electronic Library Online; the database of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination; the National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database; the NHS Health Technology Assessment database; the Health Economics database of the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health; Scopus; Web of Science; and the Brazilian Network for the Evaluation of Health Technologies. Two researchers, working independently, selected the studies and extracted the data. We identified 535 health economic evaluations relating to Brazil and published in the 1980-2013 period. Of those 535 articles, only 40 dealt with gastroenterology. Full and partial economic evaluations respectively accounted for 23 (57.5%) and 17 (42.5%) of the 40 studies included. Among the 23 full economic evaluations, there were 11 cost-utility analyses, seven cost-effectiveness analyses, four cost-consequence analyses, and one cost-minimization analysis. Of the 40 studies, 25 (62.5%) evaluated medications; 7 (17.5%) evaluated procedures; and 3 (7.5%) evaluated equipment. Most (55%) of the studies were related to viral hepatitis, and most (63.4%) were published after 2010. Other topics included gastrointestinal cancer, liver transplantation, digestive diseases and hernias. Over the 33-year period examined, the number of such economic evaluations relating to Brazil, especially of those evaluating medications for the treatment of hepatitis, increased considerably. Further studies are needed in order to ensure that expenditures on health care in Brazil are made as fairly and efficiently as possible.

  1. The New Economics of Evaluating Water Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Per-Olov Johansson; Bengt Kriström

    2011-01-01

    We review key developments in the cost-benefit analysis of water projects, including conceptual and empirical issues. We emphasize general equilibrium and dynamics, in particular the links between economic and ecological systems.

  2. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert R. Bock; Richard G. Rhudy; David E. Nichols

    2001-07-01

    In order to plan for potential CO{sub 2} mitigation mandates, utilities need better information on CO{sub 2} mitigation options, especially carbon sequestration options that involve non-utility operations. One of the major difficulties in evaluating CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies and practices, both geologic storage of captured CO{sub 2} and storage in biological sinks, is obtaining consistent, transparent, accurate, and comparable economics. This project is comparing the economics of major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} sequestration, including captured CO{sub 2} storage options such as active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of biological sinks such as forests and croplands. An international group of experts has been assembled to compare on a consistent basis the economics of this diverse array of CO{sub 2} sequestration options. Designs and data collection are nearly complete for each of the CO{sub 2} sequestration options being compared. Initial spreadsheet development has begun on concepts involving storage of captured CO{sub 2}. No significant problems have been encountered, but some additional outside expertise will be accessed to supplement the team's expertise in the areas of life cycle analysis, oil and gas exploration and production, and comparing CO{sub 2} sequestration options that differ in timing and permanence of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Plans for the next reporting period are to complete data collection and a first approximation of the spreadsheet. We expect to complete this project on time and on budget.

  3. Economics of resynchronization strategies including chemical tests to identify nonpregnant cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J O; Fricke, P M; Cabrera, V E

    2013-02-01

    Our objectives were to assess (1) the economic value of decreasing the interval between timed artificial insemination (TAI) services when using a pregnancy test that allows earlier identification of nonpregnant cows; and (2) the effect of pregnancy loss and inaccuracy of a chemical test (CT) on the economic value of a pregnancy test for dairy farms. Simulation experiments were performed using a spreadsheet-based decision support tool. In experiment 1, we assessed the effect of changing the interbreeding interval (IBI) for cows receiving TAI on the value of reproductive programs by simulating a 1,000-cow dairy herd using a combination of detection of estrus (30 to 80% of cows detected in estrus) and TAI. The IBI was incremented by 7d from 28 to 56 d to reflect intervals either observed (35 to 56 d) or potentially observed (28 d) in dairy operations. In experiment 2, we evaluated the effect of accuracy of the CT and additional pregnancy loss due to earlier testing on the value of reproductive programs. The first scenario compared the use of a CT 31 ± 3 d after a previous AI with rectal palpation (RP) 39 ± 3 d after AI. The second scenario used a CT 24 ± 3 d after AI or transrectal ultrasound (TU) 32 d after AI. Parameters evaluated included sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), questionable diagnosis (Qd), cost of the CT, and expected pregnancy loss. Sensitivity analysis was performed for all possible combinations of parameter values to determine their relative importance on the value of the CT. In experiment 1, programs with a shorter IBI had greater economic net returns at all levels of detection of estrus, and use of chemical tests available on the market today might be beneficial compared with RP. In experiment 2, the economic value of programs using a CT could be either greater or less than that of RP and TU, depending on the value for each of the parameters related to the CT evaluated. The value of the program using the CT was affected (in order) by (1) Se, (2

  4. Economic evaluation of vaccines in Canada: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chit, Ayman; Lee, Jason K H; Shim, Minsup; Nguyen, Van Hai; Grootendorst, Paul; Wu, Jianhong; Van Exan, Robert; Langley, Joanne M

    2016-05-03

    Economic evaluations should form part of the basis for public health decision making on new vaccine programs. While Canada's national immunization advisory committee does not systematically include economic evaluations in immunization decision making, there is increasing interest in adopting them. We therefore sought to examine the extent and quality of economic evaluations of vaccines in Canada. We conducted a systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccines in Canada to determine and summarize: comprehensiveness across jurisdictions, studied vaccines, funding sources, study designs, research quality, and changes over time. Searches in multiple databases were conducted using the terms "vaccine," "economics" and "Canada." Descriptive data from eligible manuscripts was abstracted and three authors independently evaluated manuscript quality using a 7-point Likert-type scale scoring tool based on criteria from the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). 42/175 articles met the search criteria. Of these, Canada-wide studies were most common (25/42), while provincial studies largely focused on the three populous provinces of Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia. The most common funding source was industry (17/42), followed by government (7/42). 38 studies used mathematical models estimating expected economic benefit while 4 studies examined post-hoc data on established programs. Studies covered 10 diseases, with 28/42 addressing pediatric vaccines. Many studies considered cost-utility (22/42) and the majority of these studies reported favorable economic results (16/22). The mean quality score was 5.9/7 and was consistent over publication date, funding sources, and disease areas. We observed diverse approaches to evaluate vaccine economics in Canada. Given the increased complexity of economic studies evaluating vaccines and the impact of results on public health practice, Canada needs improved, transparent and consistent processes

  5. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  6. [Systematic economic assessment and quality evaluation for traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Guo, Li-ping; Shang, Hong-cai; Ren, Ming; Lei, Xiang

    2015-05-01

    To learn about the economic studies on traditional Chinese medicines in domestic literatures, in order to analyze the current economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines and explore the existing problems. Efforts were made to search CNKI, VIP, Wanfang database and CBM by computer and include all literatures about economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines published on professional domestic journals in the systematic assessment and quality evaluation. Finally, 50 articles were included in the study, and the systematic assessment and quality evaluation were made for them in terms of titles, year, authors' identity, expense source, disease type, study perspective, study design type, study target, study target source, time limit, cost calculation, effect indicator, analytical technique and sensitivity analysis. The finally quality score was 0.74, which is very low. The results of the study showed insufficient studies on economics of traditional Chinese medicines, short study duration and simple evaluation methods, which will be solved through unremitting efforts in the future.

  7. Understanding the essentials of economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, G P

    1995-01-01

    Economic evaluation (EE) answers the following simple question: "From which course of action do we get the most value for our money?" We ask this question because resources are always limited, i.e., we never have enough money to do all the things we would like to do. Three types of economic evaluations are used: cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, and cost-benefit analysis. Although all involve a monetary and outcome comparison of two or more courses of action, the methodologies and outcomes of each type vary, making each one particularly suited for specific and different indications. Although the performance of an EE may be complex, its concept is intuitively simple. Understanding the basic elements of economic analysis is more and more important to all health-care providers because health-care policy makers at all levels are increasingly using EE for allocating resources.

  8. Economic evaluation studies in reproductive medicine: a systematic review of methodologic quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, Lobke M.; Vijgen, Sylvia M. C.; Hompes, Peter; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Opmeer, Brent C.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the methodologic quality of economic analyses published in the field of reproductive medicine. Systematic review. Centers for reproductive care. Infertility patients. We performed a Medline search to identify economic evaluation studies in reproductive medicine. We included studies that

  9. Engineering economic evaluations of trash segregation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Health physicists are becoming increasingly involved in the selection of equipment to segregate a contaminated trash from clean trash in the effort to reduce low level waste disposal costs. Although well qualified to evaluate the technical merits of different equipment, health physicists also need to be aware of the elements of economic comparisons of different alternatives that meet all technical requirements

  10. Economic evaluations of homeopathy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viksveen, Petter; Dymitr, Zofia; Simoens, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Economic evaluations of commonly used complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies such as homeopathy are needed to contribute to the evidence base on which policy makers, clinicians, health-care payers, as well as patients base their health-care decisions in an era of constrained resources. To review and assess existing economic evaluations of homeopathy. Literature search was made to retrieve relevant publications using AMED, the Cochrane Library, CRD (DARE, NHS EED, HTA), EMBASE, MEDLINE, and the journal Homeopathy (former British Homoeopathic Journal). A hand search of relevant publications was carried out. Homeopathy researchers were contacted. Identified publications were independently assessed by two authors. Fifteen relevant articles reported on 14 economic evaluations of homeopathy. Thirteen studies reported numbers of patients: a total of 3,500 patients received homeopathic treatment (median 97, interquartile range 48-268), and 10 studies reported on control group participants (median 57, IQR 40-362). Eight out of 14 studies found improvements in patients' health together with cost savings. Four studies found that improvements in homeopathy patients were at least as good as in control group patients, at comparable costs. Two studies found improvements similar to conventional treatment, but at higher costs. Studies were highly heterogeneous and had several methodological weaknesses. Although the identified evidence of the costs and potential benefits of homeopathy seemed promising, studies were highly heterogeneous and had several methodological weaknesses. It is therefore not possible to draw firm conclusions based on existing economic evaluations of homeopathy. Recommendations for future research are presented.

  11. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF BT CORN REFUGE INSURANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Paul D.; Hurley, Terrance M.; Hellmich, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    The EPA has imposed mandatory refuge requirements for Bt crops to prolong the efficacy of Bt. Growers have no economic incentive to plant the required refuge because refuge crops are on average less productive and more risky. This paper evaluates refuge insurance--insurance that pays indemnities for yield losses on refuge due to insect damage--as a tool to increase grower compliance incentives. We determine actuarially fair insurance premiums, then evaluate the feasibility of private provisio...

  12. Economic Evaluation Guide for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Percin, D.; Werner, J.F. Jr.

    1992-12-31

    The production of this Economic Evaluation Guide is one activity of AVFCAP. The guide is intended for use by project managers and fleet operators in the public sector. Public fleets have been identified as one of the most likely areas where ATFs will first gain widespread use, because of existing and impending state and federal legislative mandates, as well as for practical reasons such as centralized servicing and refueling. The purpose of this guide is to provide balanced decision-support information to project managers who are considering conducting, or currently managing, ATF demonstration programs. Information for this guide was gathered as part of a related AVFCAP activity, the development of an Information Resource Database. Economic issues related to the development and implementation of ATF programs at the local government level are extremely complex, and require an analysis of federal policies and national and international economics that is generally beyond the scope of local government project managers. The intent of this guide is to examine the information available on the economic evaluation of ATFs, and identify key elements that will help local governments realistically assess the potential costs and savings of an ATF program. The guide also discusses how these various economic factors are related, and how local government priorities affect how different factors are weighed.

  13. Importance of Economic Evaluation in Health Care: An Indian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Amit; Likhar, Nishkarsh; Alok, Utkarsh

    2016-05-01

    Health economic studies provide information to decision makers for efficient use of available resources for maximizing health benefits. Economic evaluation is one part of health economics, and it is a tool for comparing costs and consequences of different interventions. Health technology assessment is a technique for economic evaluation that is well adapted by developed countries. The traditional classification of economic evaluation includes cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, and cost-benefit analysis. There has been uncertainty in the conduct of such economic evaluations in India, due to some hesitancy with respect to the adoption of their guidelines. The biggest challenge in this evolutionary method is lack of understanding of methods in current use by all those involved in the provision and purchasing of health care. In some countries, different methods of economic evaluation have been adopted for decision making, most commonly to address the question of public subsidies for the purchase of medicines. There is limited evidence on the impact of health insurance on the health and economic well-being of beneficiaries in developing countries. India is currently pursuing several strategies to improve health services for its population, including investing in government-provided services as well as purchasing services from public and private providers through various schemes. Prospects for future growth and development in this field are required in India because rapid health care inflation, increasing rates of chronic conditions, aging population, and increasing technology diffusion will require greater economic efficiency into health care systems. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The total assessment profile, volume 1. [including societal impact cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology is described for the evaluation of societal impacts associated with the implementation of a new technology. Theoretical foundations for the methodology, called the total assessment profile, are established from both the economic and social science perspectives. The procedure provides for accountability of nonquantifiable factors and measures through the use of a comparative value matrix by assessing the impacts of the technology on the value system of the society.

  15. Preliminary economic evaluation of the Alkox process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.J.; Lilga, M.A.; Camaioni, D.M.; Snowden, L.J.

    1991-09-01

    A new chemical process has been invented at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories for converting alkanes to alcohols. This new chemistry has been named the ''Alkox Process.'' Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared a preliminary economic analysis for converting cyclohexane to cyclohexanol, which may be one of the most attractive applications of the Alkox process. A process flow scheme and a material balance were prepared to support rough equipment sizing and costing. The results from the economic analysis are presented in the non-proprietary section of this report. The process details, including the flow diagram and material balance, are contained in separate section of this report that is proprietary to Battelle. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Evaluating replicability of laboratory experiments in economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerer, Colin F; Dreber, Anna; Forsell, Eskil; Ho, Teck-Hua; Huber, Jürgen; Johannesson, Magnus; Kirchler, Michael; Almenberg, Johan; Altmejd, Adam; Chan, Taizan; Heikensten, Emma; Holzmeister, Felix; Imai, Taisuke; Isaksson, Siri; Nave, Gideon; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Razen, Michael; Wu, Hang

    2016-03-25

    The replicability of some scientific findings has recently been called into question. To contribute data about replicability in economics, we replicated 18 studies published in the American Economic Review and the Quarterly Journal of Economics between 2011 and 2014. All of these replications followed predefined analysis plans that were made publicly available beforehand, and they all have a statistical power of at least 90% to detect the original effect size at the 5% significance level. We found a significant effect in the same direction as in the original study for 11 replications (61%); on average, the replicated effect size is 66% of the original. The replicability rate varies between 67% and 78% for four additional replicability indicators, including a prediction market measure of peer beliefs. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. A Systematic Review of Health Economic Evaluations of Diagnostic Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhoff, Marije; van der Maas, Marloes E; Steuten, Lotte M G

    2016-02-01

    Diagnostic biomarkers have multiple applications along the care process and have a large potential in optimizing treatment decisions. However, many diagnostic biomarkers struggle to gain market access and obtain appropriate coverage because of a lack of evidence on their health economic impact. The aim was to review the (methodological) characteristics of recent economic evaluations on diagnostic biomarkers and examine whether these studies dealt with specific issues such as different payer perspectives, preference heterogeneity, and multiple applications in subpopulations. The PubMed database and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database were searched. Full economic evaluations published after 2009 assessing diagnostic biomarkers for the main non-communicable diseases in middle-income or high-income countries were considered eligible. Empirical and methodological study characteristics were summarized, as was the handling of specific issues related to the economic evaluation of personalized medicine. Thirty-three economic evaluations were included, of which 25 were model-based analyses. The number of strategies compared ranged from two to 17 per study, and was especially large in studies assessing genetic testing in patients and their relatives. Cost-effectiveness results were most sensitive to test accuracy and costs of the biomarker (N = 7), the relative risk of an event (N = 4), and the proportion of people accepting genetic testing (N = 2). One study incorporated patient preferences, and none of the studies considered different payer perspectives, cost sharing arrangements or variable opportunity costs due to population density variability. Published health economic evaluations of biomarkers used for diagnosing, staging diseases, and guiding treatment selection are characterized by a large number of comparators to model the potential clinical applications and to determine their value. Assessing outcomes beyond health as well as specific

  18. On the Economic Evaluation of Volatility Forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voev, Valeri

    We analyze the applicability of economic criteria for volatility forecast evaluation based on unconditional measures of portfolio performance. The main theoretical finding is that such unconditional measures generally fail to rank conditional forecasts correctly due to the presence of a bias term...... driven by the variability of the conditional mean and portfolio weights. Simulations and a small empirical study suggest that the bias can be empirically substantial and lead to distortions in forecast evaluation. An important implication is that forecasting superiority of models using high frequency...

  19. Multi-Objective Dynamic Economic Dispatch of Microgrid Systems Including Vehicle-to-Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of electric vehicles (EVs, this paper establishes the load models of EVs under the autonomous charging mode and the coordinated charging and discharging mode. Integrating the EVs into a microgrid system which includes wind turbines (WTs, photovoltaic arrays (PVs, diesel engines (DEs, fuel cells (FCs and a storage battery (BS, this paper establishes multi-objective economic dispatch models of a microgrid, including the lowest operating cost, the least carbon dioxide emissions, and the lowest pollutant treatment cost. After converting the multi-objective functions to a single objective function by using the judgment matrix method, we analyze the dynamic economic dispatch of the microgrid system including vehicle-to-grid (V2G with an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm under different operation control strategies. With the example system, the proposed models and strategies are verified and analyzed. Simulation results show that the microgrid system with EVs under the coordinated charging and discharging mode has better operation economics than the autonomous charging mode. Meanwhile, the greater the load fluctuation is, the higher the operating cost of the microgrid system is.

  20. Economic evaluation of investment in electricity conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Nir; Fishman, Yaron; Lavee, Doron

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents an economic study of the potential for energy conservation in Israel. We analyze energy conservation policies targeted at the household sector, focusing on the economic feasibility of scrapping old household electrical appliances, and considering the effect of such policies at both the household and the macro-economic level. The results of our analysis show that the appliance that provides the most potential conservation is the air conditioner (used for both heating and cooling). A scrapping program for old air conditioners passes a cost benefit analysis (CBA) even when external benefits are excluded from the calculation. When external benefits are included, scrapping programs for both washing machines and dishwashers pass the test as well. According to our findings, the annual economic benefit of a program involving the scrapping of 100,000 air conditioners, 45,000 washing machines and 15,000 dishwashers per annum over 10 years ranges from 246 million New Israeli Shekels (NIS) in the first year of implementation to 693 million in the tenth year. Most of the savings are derived from the scrapping of air conditioners

  1. Economic evaluation of information technology applications on dairy farms

    OpenAIRE

    Asseldonk, van, M.A.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focused on the economic evaluation of information technology (IT) applications on dairy farms in order to support investment decisions. The evaluation included a normative (deductive) approach and an empirical (positive) approach. The normative approach predicted potential benefits from a theoretical model of the investment, and investigated how farmers should deal with the applications. The empirical approach observed the actual effects of the i...

  2. Economic evaluation enhances public health decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Rabarison

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary public health professionals must address the health needs of a diverse population with constrained budgets and shrinking funds. Economic evaluation contributes to evidence-based decision making by helping the public health community identify, measure, and compare activities with the necessary impact, scalability, and sustainability to optimize population health. Asking how do investments in public health strategies influence or offset the need for downstream spending on medical care and /or social services? is important when making decisions about resource allocation and scaling of interventions.

  3. Productivity costs in economic evaluations: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Marieke; Brouwer, Werner; Rutten, Frans

    2013-07-01

    Productivity costs occur when the productivity of individuals is affected by illness, treatment, disability or premature death. The objective of this paper was to review past and current developments related to the inclusion, identification, measurement and valuation of productivity costs in economic evaluations. The main debates in the theory and practice of economic evaluations of health technologies described in this review have centred on the questions of whether and how to include productivity costs, especially productivity costs related to paid work. The past few decades have seen important progress in this area. There are important sources of productivity costs other than absenteeism (e.g. presenteeism and multiplier effects in co-workers), but their exact influence on costs remains unclear. Different measurement instruments have been developed over the years, but which instrument provides the most accurate estimates has not been established. Several valuation approaches have been proposed. While empirical research suggests that productivity costs are best included in the cost side of the cost-effectiveness ratio, the jury is still out regarding whether the human capital approach or the friction cost approach is the most appropriate valuation method to do so. Despite the progress and the substantial amount of scientific research, a consensus has not been reached on either the inclusion of productivity costs in economic evaluations or the methods used to produce productivity cost estimates. Such a lack of consensus has likely contributed to ignoring productivity costs in actual economic evaluations and is reflected in variations in national health economic guidelines. Further research is needed to lessen the controversy regarding the estimation of health-related productivity costs. More standardization would increase the comparability and credibility of economic evaluations taking a societal perspective.

  4. The added value of thorough economic evaluation of telemedicine networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff-Pronost, Myriam; Sicotte, Claude

    2010-02-01

    This paper proposes a thorough framework for the economic evaluation of telemedicine networks. A standard cost analysis methodology was used as the initial base, similar to the evaluation method currently being applied to telemedicine, and to which we suggest adding subsequent stages that enhance the scope and sophistication of the analytical methodology. We completed the methodology with a longitudinal and stakeholder analysis, followed by the calculation of a break-even threshold, a calculation of the economic outcome based on net present value (NPV), an estimate of the social gain through external effects, and an assessment of the probability of social benefits. In order to illustrate the advantages, constraints and limitations of the proposed framework, we tested it in a paediatric cardiology tele-expertise network. The results demonstrate that the project threshold was not reached after the 4 years of the study. Also, the calculation of the project's NPV remained negative. However, the additional analytical steps of the proposed framework allowed us to highlight alternatives that can make this service economically viable. These included: use over an extended period of time, extending the network to other telemedicine specialties, or including it in the services offered by other community hospitals. In sum, the results presented here demonstrate the usefulness of an economic evaluation framework as a way of offering decision makers the tools they need to make comprehensive evaluations of telemedicine networks.

  5. Building bridges between health economics research and public policy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrand, Thierry; Dourgnon, Paul

    2010-12-01

    The Institut de Recherche et Documentation en Economie de la Santé (IRDES) Workshop on Applied Health Economics and Policy Evaluation aims at disseminating health economic research's newest findings and enhancing the community's capacity to address issues that are relevant to public policy. The 2010 program consisted of 16 articles covering a vast range of topics, such as health insurance, social health inequalities and health services research. While most of the articles embedded theoretical material, all had to include empirical material in order to favor more applied and practical discussions and results. The 2010 workshop is to be the first of a series of annual workshops in Paris gathering together researchers on health economics and policy evaluation. The next workshop is to be held at IRDES in June 2011.

  6. Economic Evaluation and Impact Analysis of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K. H.; Kim, J. H.; Boo, K. D.; Park, S. B.

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the economic value and contribution to the national economy of the SMART project. This study tries to evaluate three kinds of values of the project separately; national economy contribution, the financial cost-benefit analysis and intangible social benefit of the project. The research methods are Net Present Valuation (NPT) for the first analysis, Input-Output (IO) model for the second analysis and Contingent Valuation Method(CVM) for the last analysis. This study tries to answer for the following questions: (1) how much does the project affect on Korean national economy in area of construction, electricity generation and export? (2) what is the financial cost - benefit assessment of the SMART project which is of the most interest to the private sector constructing the reactor? (3) how much is the project's intangible social gains in that it brings Korea's scientific development in area of nuclear generation and improves Korea's global standing? Main Results of Research are (1) Domestic Construction and Electricity Generation of the 1st Reactor A. Contribution to the National Economy Production inducing effect by the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor amounts to 1,801 ∼2,059 billion won, value added inducing effect amounts to 789∼919 billion won, and employment inducing effect amounts to 11,015∼12, 856 men. B. Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment Financial cost - benefit of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically non-profitable from the point of view of private companies participating the project, by having economic loss over all scenarios of construction costs. C. Combining Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contribution to the National Economy's Value-Added Combining financial cost - benefit and value added inducing effect of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically valid from the point of view of

  7. Economic/Environmental power dispatch for power systems including wind farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen BEN JAOUED

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of the Economic/Environmental power Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind energies. The power flow model for a stall regulated fixed speed wind generator (SR-FSWG system is discussed to assess the steady-state condition of power systems with wind farms. Modified Newton-Raphson algorithm including SR-FSWG is used to solve the load flow equations in which the state variables of the wind generators are combined with the nodal voltage magnitudes and angles of the entire network. The EED problem is a nonlinear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, two competing fuel cost and pollutant emission objectives should be minimized simultaneously while satisfying certain system constraints. In this paper, the resolution is done by the algorithm multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus test system and using MATLAB software package.

  8. Genetic testing in the European Union: does economic evaluation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Rodríguez-Ibeas, R; Hutter, M F; Lorente, R; Juárez, C; Pinillos, M

    2012-10-01

    We review the published economic evaluation studies applied to genetic technologies in the EU to know the main diseases addressed by these studies, the ways the studies were conducted and to assess the efficiency of these new technologies. The final aim of this review was to understand the possibilities of the economic evaluations performed up to date as a tool to contribute to decision making in this area. We have reviewed a set of articles found in several databases until March 2010. Literature searches were made in the following databases: PubMed; Euronheed; Centre for Reviews and Dissemination of the University of York-Health Technology Assessment, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, NHS Economic Evaluation Database; and Scopus. The algorithm was "(screening or diagnosis) and genetic and (cost or economic) and (country EU27)". We included studies if they met the following criteria: (1) a genetic technology was analysed; (2) human DNA must be tested for; (3) the analysis was a real economic evaluation or a cost study, and (4) the articles had to be related to any EU Member State. We initially found 3,559 papers on genetic testing but only 92 articles of economic analysis referred to a wide range of genetic diseases matched the inclusion criteria. The most studied diseases were as follows: cystic fibrosis (12), breast and ovarian cancer (8), hereditary hemochromatosis (6), Down's syndrome (7), colorectal cancer (5), familial hypercholesterolaemia (5), prostate cancer (4), and thrombophilia (4). Genetic tests were mostly used for screening purposes, and cost-effectiveness analysis is the most common type of economic study. The analysed gene technologies are deemed to be efficient for some specific population groups and screening algorithms according to the values of their cost-effectiveness ratios that were below the commonly accepted threshold of 30,000€. Economic evaluation of genetic technologies matters but the number of published studies is still

  9. Economic evaluation, human immunodeficiency virus infection and screening: a review and critical appraisal of economic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibosa-Osadolor, Onome; Roberts, Tracy

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review, systematically and critically, evidence used to derive estimates of cost-effectiveness of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening. A systematic review was conducted. Searched were three main electronic bibliographic databases from 1993 to 2008 using key words including HIV, mass screening, HAART, economic evaluation, cost-effectiveness analysis, modeling. We included studies of sexually transmitted HIV infection in both sexes, including studies comparing diagnostic testing protocols and partner notification. Outcomes included were cases of HIV infection detected, deterioration to the AIDS state, secondary transmission of HIV, the quality-adjusted life-years/survival, costs, and cost-effectiveness of HIV screening. Eighty-four papers were identified; ten of which were formal economic evaluations, one cost study, three effectiveness studies, and three systematic reviews of HIV prevention programs. The predominant assertion was that HIV screening is cost-effective; methodological problems, such as the preponderance of static models which are inappropriate for infectious diseases, varying perspectives from which the studies were analyzed, and arbitrary threshold incremental cost-effectiveness ratio levels, limited the validity of these findings, and their usefulness in informing health policy decisions. The majority of published economic evaluations are based on inappropriate static models. This flaw renders the results of these studies as inconclusive and the purported cost-effectiveness of HIV screening debatable. The results of this review could form a basis for consideration of further research and analysis by health economists into the cost-effectiveness of HIV screening.

  10. The economic benefits of malaria elimination: do they include increases in tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrek, Sepideh; Liu, Jenny; Gosling, Roland; Feachem, Richard G A

    2012-07-28

    Policy makers have speculated that one of the economic benefits of malaria elimination includes increases in foreign direct investment, particularly tourism. This study examines the empirical relationship between the demand for travel and malaria cases in two countries with large tourism industries around the time in which they carried out malaria-elimination campaigns. In Mauritius, this analysis examines historical, yearly tourist arrivals and malaria cases from 1978-1999, accounting for the background secular trend of increasing international travel. In Dominican Republic, a country embarking upon malaria elimination, it employs a time-series analysis of the monthly, international tourist arrivals from 1998-2010 to determine whether the timing of significant deviations in tourist arrivals coincides with malaria outbreaks. While naïve relationships exist in both cases, the results show that the relationships between tourist arrivals and malaria cases are relatively weak and statistically insignificant once secular confounders are accounted for. This suggests that any economic benefits from tourism that may be derived from actively pursuing elimination in countries that have high tourism potential are likely to be small when measured at a national level. Rather, tourism benefits are likely to be experienced with greater impact in more concentrated tourist areas within countries, and future studies should seek to assess these relationships at a regional or local level.

  11. Evaluating economic costs and benefits of climate resilient livelihood strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for international development is to assist the poorest regions to achieve development targets while taking climate change into account. Such ‘climate resilient development’ (CRD must identify and implement adaptation strategies for improving livelihoods while also being cost-effective. While the idea that climate resilience and development goals should be compatible is often discussed, empirical evaluations of the economic impacts of actual CRD investments are practically non-existent. This paper outlines a framework to evaluate economic returns to CRD and applies it in two adaptation strategies trialed in Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, eastern Indonesia. The evaluation framework is composed of three models: a household benefit cost model, a diffusion model, and a regional benefit cost model. The models draw upon the impact evaluation, technology diffusion, and risk assessment literatures, respectively. The analyzes are based on expert opinion and locally-derived information, and hence can be applied in data-poor situations typical of developing countries. Our results explore economic costs and benefits at the household and regional scale, and we identify key input variables that greatly influence the economic returns of the strategies. These variables should therefore be a focus of ongoing investment. We also discuss how the framework is more generally applicable, its limitations including challenges in accounting for less tangible social and ecosystem service benefits, potentially leading to the underestimation of impacts, and how the approach should be complemented by qualitative methods.

  12. Evaluation of Health Economics in Radiation Oncology: A Systematic Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Timothy K.; Goodman, Chris D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Boldt, R. Gabriel [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Warner, Andrew; Palma, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Rodrigues, George B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); Lock, Michael I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Mishra, Mark V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Zaric, Gregory S. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); Ivey Business School, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); Louie, Alexander V., E-mail: Dr.alexlouie@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: Despite the rising costs in radiation oncology, the impact of health economics research on radiation therapy practice analysis patterns is unclear. We performed a systematic review of cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) and cost-utility analyses (CUAs) to identify trends in reporting quality in the radiation oncology literature over time. Methods and Materials: A systematic review of radiation oncology economic evaluations up to 2014 was performed, using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards guideline informed data abstraction variables including study demographics, economic parameters, and methodological details. Tufts Medical Center CEA registry quality scores provided a basis for qualitative assessment of included studies. Studies were stratified by 3 time periods (1995-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2014). The Cochran-Armitage trend test and linear trend test were used to identify trends over time. Results: In total, 102 articles were selected for final review. Most studies were in the context of a model (61%) or clinical trial (28%). Many studies lacked a conflict of interest (COI) statement (67%), a sponsorship statement (48%), a reported study time horizon (35%), and the use of discounting (29%). There was a significant increase over time in the reporting of a COI statement (P<.001), health care payer perspective (P=.019), sensitivity analyses using multivariate (P=.043) or probabilistic methods (P=.011), incremental cost-effectiveness threshold (P<.001), secondary source utility weights (P=.010), and cost effectiveness acceptability curves (P=.049). There was a trend toward improvement in Tuft scores over time (P=.065). Conclusions: Recent reports demonstrate improved reporting rates in economic evaluations; however, there remains significant room for improvement as reporting rates are still suboptimal. As fiscal pressures rise, we will rely on economic assessments to guide our practice decisions

  13. Evaluation of Health Economics in Radiation Oncology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Timothy K; Goodman, Chris D; Boldt, R Gabriel; Warner, Andrew; Palma, David A; Rodrigues, George B; Lock, Michael I; Mishra, Mark V; Zaric, Gregory S; Louie, Alexander V

    2016-04-01

    Despite the rising costs in radiation oncology, the impact of health economics research on radiation therapy practice analysis patterns is unclear. We performed a systematic review of cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) and cost-utility analyses (CUAs) to identify trends in reporting quality in the radiation oncology literature over time. A systematic review of radiation oncology economic evaluations up to 2014 was performed, using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards guideline informed data abstraction variables including study demographics, economic parameters, and methodological details. Tufts Medical Center CEA registry quality scores provided a basis for qualitative assessment of included studies. Studies were stratified by 3 time periods (1995-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2014). The Cochran-Armitage trend test and linear trend test were used to identify trends over time. In total, 102 articles were selected for final review. Most studies were in the context of a model (61%) or clinical trial (28%). Many studies lacked a conflict of interest (COI) statement (67%), a sponsorship statement (48%), a reported study time horizon (35%), and the use of discounting (29%). There was a significant increase over time in the reporting of a COI statement (P<.001), health care payer perspective (P=.019), sensitivity analyses using multivariate (P=.043) or probabilistic methods (P=.011), incremental cost-effectiveness threshold (P<.001), secondary source utility weights (P=.010), and cost effectiveness acceptability curves (P=.049). There was a trend toward improvement in Tuft scores over time (P=.065). Recent reports demonstrate improved reporting rates in economic evaluations; however, there remains significant room for improvement as reporting rates are still suboptimal. As fiscal pressures rise, we will rely on economic assessments to guide our practice decisions and policies. We recommend improved adherence to

  14. Evaluation of Health Economics in Radiation Oncology: A Systematic Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Timothy K.; Goodman, Chris D.; Boldt, R. Gabriel; Warner, Andrew; Palma, David A.; Rodrigues, George B.; Lock, Michael I.; Mishra, Mark V.; Zaric, Gregory S.; Louie, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the rising costs in radiation oncology, the impact of health economics research on radiation therapy practice analysis patterns is unclear. We performed a systematic review of cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) and cost-utility analyses (CUAs) to identify trends in reporting quality in the radiation oncology literature over time. Methods and Materials: A systematic review of radiation oncology economic evaluations up to 2014 was performed, using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards guideline informed data abstraction variables including study demographics, economic parameters, and methodological details. Tufts Medical Center CEA registry quality scores provided a basis for qualitative assessment of included studies. Studies were stratified by 3 time periods (1995-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2014). The Cochran-Armitage trend test and linear trend test were used to identify trends over time. Results: In total, 102 articles were selected for final review. Most studies were in the context of a model (61%) or clinical trial (28%). Many studies lacked a conflict of interest (COI) statement (67%), a sponsorship statement (48%), a reported study time horizon (35%), and the use of discounting (29%). There was a significant increase over time in the reporting of a COI statement (P<.001), health care payer perspective (P=.019), sensitivity analyses using multivariate (P=.043) or probabilistic methods (P=.011), incremental cost-effectiveness threshold (P<.001), secondary source utility weights (P=.010), and cost effectiveness acceptability curves (P=.049). There was a trend toward improvement in Tuft scores over time (P=.065). Conclusions: Recent reports demonstrate improved reporting rates in economic evaluations; however, there remains significant room for improvement as reporting rates are still suboptimal. As fiscal pressures rise, we will rely on economic assessments to guide our practice decisions

  15. The IAEA desalination economic evaluation programme (DEEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.

    2009-01-01

    DEEP is derived from desalination cost evaluation package developed in the eighties by General Atomics on behalf of the IAEA. The old version, named 'Co-generation and Desalination Economic Evaluation' Spreadsheet, CDEE) was used for feasibility studies related to nuclear desalination in the IAEA and other Member States. Subsequently, with its increasing popularity, a user-friendly version was issued by the Agency towards the end of 1998 under the name of DEEP. Through the next years the software was updated constantly within DEEP-1 family (versions 1.0, 1.1, 1.2 and working version 1.7). Both the user interface and model structure were further developed and in 2000 a new upgrade - first version from the DEEP-2 family was released. Its salient feature was the complete modularization of various cases. As the user group enlarged, new ideas as well as criticisms of the DEEP models appeared. Some of them were implemented gradually in different working versions (versions 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.6). The four year period of continuous development culminated in the development of DEEP 3.0, released in August 2005. Following further development, the latest version of DEEP 3.1 is currently available for user to down load freely from the web site of the IAEA at no cost. This paper summarizes the salient features of DEEP software and echoes some of the information presented in the TECDOC draft prepared as a result of the CRP on 'Economic Research on, and Assessment of, Selected Nuclear Desalination Projects and Case Studies' which was closed at the end of 2006

  16. Solar energy system economic evaluation: Fern Tunkhannock, Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The economic performance of an Operational Test Site (OTS) is described. The long term economic performance of the system at its installation site and extrapolation to four additional selected locations to demonstrate the viability of the design over a broad range of environmental and economic conditions is reported. Topics discussed are: system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization, and technical and economical results of analysis. Data for the economic analysis are generated through evaluation of the OTS. The simulation is based on the technical results of the seasonal report simulation. In addition localized and standard economic parameters are used for economic analysis.

  17. Economic Dispatch for Power System Included Wind and Solar Thermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen BRINI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development of technologies of alternative energy, the electric power network can be composed of several renewable energy resources. The energy resources have various characteristics in terms of operational costs and reliability. In this study, the problem is the Economic Environmental Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind and solar thermal energies. Renewable energy resources depend on the data of the climate such as the wind speed for wind energy, solar radiation and the temperature for solar thermal energy. In this article it proposes a methodology to solve this problem. The resolution takes account of the fuel costs and reducing of the emissions of the polluting gases. The resolution is done by the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA method and the simulations have been made on an IEEE network test (30 nodes, 8 machines and 41 lines.

  18. Economic evaluation of genomic breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, S; Simianer, H; Willam, A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare a conventional dairy cattle breeding program characterized by a progeny testing scheme with different scenarios of genomic breeding programs. The ultimate economic evaluation criterion was discounted profit reflecting discounted returns minus discounted costs per cow in a balanced breeding goal of production and functionality. A deterministic approach mainly based on the gene flow method and selection index calculations was used to model a conventional progeny testing program and different scenarios of genomic breeding programs. As a novel idea, the modeling of the genomic breeding program accounted for the proportion of farmers waiting for daughter records of genotyped young bulls before using them for artificial insemination. Technical and biological coefficients for modeling were chosen to correspond to a German breeding organization. The conventional breeding program for 50 test bulls per year within a population of 100,000 cows served as a base scenario. Scenarios of genomic breeding programs considered the variation of costs for genotyping, selection intensity of cow sires, proportion of farmers waiting for daughter records of genotyped young bulls, and different accuracies of genomic indices for bulls and cows. Given that the accuracies of genomic indices are greater than 0.70, a distinct economic advantage was found for all scenarios of genomic breeding programs up to factor 2.59, mainly due to the reduction in generation intervals. Costs for genotyping were negligible when focusing on a population-wide perspective and considering additional costs for herdbook registration, milk recording, or keeping of bulls, especially if there is no need for yearly recalculation of effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Genomic breeding programs generated a higher discounted profit than a conventional progeny testing program for all scenarios where at least 20% of the inseminations were done by genotyped young bulls without

  19. Thermo economical evaluation of retrofitting strategies in air conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribess, Arlindo; Fiorelli, Flavio Augusto Sanzogo; Hernandez Neto, Alberto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: atribess@usp.br; fiorelli@usp.br; ahneto@usp.br

    2000-07-01

    In a building project, several subsystems are designed, among them the air conditioning system. Electrical energy consumption profiles show that this subsystem is responsible for 40 to 50% of total consumption in a commercial building. Besides the study of technical aspects that should be considered in order to assure the thermal comfort of the occupants as well the temperature and humidity conditions for an efficient equipment operation, an economical evaluation of this subsystem should be also made. In retrofit projects, the economical aspect is also critical for such projects in order to assure bigger efficiency in an economically attractive way. This paper analyses some strategies that might be adopted in retrofitting an air conditioning system installed in a commercial building with mixed occupation. By mixed we mean that some floors have a typical office occupation profile and other floors are mainly occupied by electronic equipment. This analysis includes both technical and economical evaluation. The proposed solutions performance are compared to the old system, which allows to verify the retrofitting impact in energy consumption reduction and its economical feasibility. (author)

  20. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: epidemiology, economics and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuichoud, Camille; Loughlin, Kevin R

    2015-10-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is arguably the most common benign disease of mankind. As men age, the prostate inexorably grows often causing troubling symptoms causing them to seek out care. While traditionally treated by transurethral resection or open surgical removal of the hypertrophied adenoma, today the urologist has numerous medical, surgical and minimally invasive techniques available. In this supplement The Canadian Journal of Urology provides a review of the various techniques and medications available today. As an introduction to the supplement, the aim of this article is to review the epidemiology and economy of BPH as well as its natural history and diagnosis. A systematic review of available literature was looking for articles on BPH and its epidemiology, economics, natural history and management using PubMed database. The prevalence of this condition is increasing with the population aging and so does the economic burden. The exact etiology of this condition is unknown, but some risk factors have been identified. The diagnostic and treatment of this very common disease should rely on a strong collaboration between primary care physician and urologist. There are multiple options in treating BPH including medical, surgical and newer minimally invasive options. The challenge with having a variety of options is to review them with the patient and help the patient select the best treatment option for their condition.

  1. [An economic evaluation of intimate partner violence in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nectoux, Marc; Mugnier, Claude; Baffert, Sandrine; Albagly, Maité; Thélot, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to carry out an economic evaluation of intimate partner violence in France. Using published data, institutional sources, field studies and expert opinions, the cost of intimate partner violence is estimated in terms of the overall cost to society. A range of different economic approaches are used (micro-economic, meso-economic and macro-economic approaches). The total cost of intimate partner violence in France is estimated at 2.5 billion Euros per year (between 1.7 and 3.5 billion Euros). The total cost of intimate partner violence includes healthcare costs (483 ? million), social and justice services (355 ? million), production losses as a result of deaths, imprisonments and absenteeism (1099 ? million), and the human costs of rape and prejudice (535 ? million). By increasing the budget allocated to the prevention of domestic violence by one euro, it is estimated that the state, health insurance and local authorities could make savings of up to 87 Euros of social spending, including 30 Euros of direct expenses.

  2. Simulation of electric power conservation strategies: model of economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinhel, A.C.C.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology for the economic evaluation model for energy conservation programs to be executed by the National Program of Electric Power Conservation is presented. From data as: forecasting of conserved energy, tariffs, energy costs and budget, the model calculates the economic indexes for the programs, allowing the evaluation of economic impacts in the electric sector. (C.G.C.)

  3. Methodology for evaluation of economic security of industrial enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Kopytko Marta Ivanovna

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the features of evaluation of ensuring economic security of industrial enterprises and the algorithm of complex evaluation of the economic security of industrial enterprises over time and the system of criteria and their limit values ​​and the dynamics of change to determine the level of economic security industrial enterprise in terms of its components.

  4. ECONOMIC ANALYSES FOR THE EVALUATION OF IS PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Ulukan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Information system projects usually have numerous uncertainties and several conditions of risk that make their economic evaluation a challenging task. Each year, several information system projects are cancelled before completion as a result of budget overruns at a cost of several billions of dollars to industry. Although engineering economic analysis offers tools and techniques for evaluating risky projects, the tools are not enough to place information system projects on a safe budget/selection track. There is a need for an integrative economic analysis model that will account for the uncertainties in estimating project costs benefits and useful lives of uncertain and risky projects. The fuzzy set theory has the capability of representing vague data and allows mathematical operators and programming to be applied to the fuzzy domain. The theory is primarily concerned with quantifying the vagueness in human thoughts and perceptions. In this article, the economic evaluation of information system projects using fuzzy present value and fuzzy B/C ratio is analyzed. A numerical illustration is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  5. ACCP: economic evaluations of clinical pharmacy services: 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alexandra; Doloresco, Fred; Hoffman, James M; Meek, Patrick D; Touchette, Daniel R; Vermeulen, Lee C; Schumock, Glen T

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this review were to summarize and evaluate studies that measured the economic impact of clinical pharmacy services published between 2001 and 2005 (inclusive) and to provide guidance on methodologic considerations to individuals performing such research in the future. A systematic literature search using the MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases was conducted to identify published economic evaluations of clinical pharmacy services. Studies were screened and then randomly assigned to reviewers, who reassessed inclusion and exclusion criteria and abstracted prespecified data from each study. Among the many characteristics examined in each study were study design and type of economic evaluation, setting and type of clinical pharmacy service, study quality, and results. Ninety-three articles were included in the final analysis. These studies were published in 43 different journals, most of which (68 [73.1%]) were pharmacy-based. Most studies were performed in hospitals (40 [43.0%]), ambulatory care clinics or physician's offices (20 [21.5%]), or community pharmacies (16 [17.2%]). The most common types of clinical pharmacy services evaluated were general pharmacotherapeutic monitoring services (32 [34.4%]), target drug programs (27 [29%]), and disease state-management services (21 [22.6%]). Full economic evaluations were performed in just less than half (45 [48.4%]) of the studies, and a positive economic benefit associated with clinical pharmacy services was noted in 31 (69%) of the 45 studies. Among 15 studies reporting data necessary to determine a benefit:cost ratio, the pooled median value was 4.81:1-meaning that for every $1 invested in clinical pharmacy services, $4.81 was achieved in reduced costs or other economic benefits. The quality of studies varied widely, with less than one half considered to be good to fair (40 [43.0%]); however, the proportion of studies using appropriate study designs increased compared with

  6. Economic evaluation of bids for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the guidebook is to assist an organisation responsible for a nuclear power project in evaluating and establishing an economic order of merit among competing bids. An approximate overall time schedule for a first nuclear power plant project is provided. A schematic outline of technical bid evaluation is given. The basic procedure of economic bid evaluation is outlined, e.g. evaluation of the present worth of all cost items of plant capital investment, of the nuclear cycle, of O and M costs (operation and maintenance costs), and of economic corrections. All these cost items are evaluated for the economic life of the plant and corrected for escalation where applicable

  7. An Evaluation of SMR Economic Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Boarin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear “renaissance” that is taking place worldwide concerns the new build of GW size reactor plants, but smaller GenIII+ NPP (Small Modular Reactors, SMR are on the verge to be commercially available and are raising increasing public interest. These reactor concepts rely on the pressurized water technology, capitalizing on thousands of reactor-years operations and enhancing the passive safety features, thanks to the smaller plant and equipment size. On the other hand, smaller plant size pays a loss of economy of scale, which might have a relevant impact on the generation costs of electricity, given the capital-intensive nature of nuclear power technology. The paper explores the economic advantages/disadvantages of multiple SMR compared to alternative large plants of the same technology and equivalent total power installed. The metrics used in the evaluation is twofold, as appropriate for liberalized markets of capital and electricity: investment profitability and investment risk are assessed, from the point of view of the plant owner. Results show that multiple SMR deployed on the same site may prove competitive with investment returns of larger plants, while offering, in addition, unique features that mitigate the investment risk.

  8. Economic evaluations in pain management: principles and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asche, Carl V; Seal, Brian; Jackson, Kenneth C; Oderda, Gary M

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how investigators may design, conduct, and report economic evaluations of pharmacotherapy for pain and symptom management. Because economic evaluation of therapeutic interventions is becoming increasingly important, there is a need for guidance on how economic evaluations can be optimally conducted. The steps required to conduct an economic evaluation are described to provide this guidance. Economic evaluations require two or more therapeutic interventions to be compared in relation to costs and effects. There are five types of economic evaluations, based on analysis of: (1) cost-effectiveness, (2) cost-utility, (3) cost-minimization, (4) cost-consequence, and (5) cost-benefit analyses. The six required steps are: identify the perspective of the study; identify the alternatives that will be compared; identify the relevant costs and effects; determine how to collect the cost and effect data; determine how to perform calculation for cost and effects data; and determine the manner in which to depict the results and draw comparisons.

  9. Economic evaluation of emergency obstetric care training: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi; Wilson-Jones, Megan; Madaj, Barbara; van den Broek, Nynke

    2017-12-04

    Training healthcare providers in Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) has been shown to be effective in improving their capacity to provide this critical care package for mothers and babies. However, little is known about the costs and cost-effectiveness of such training. Understanding costs and cost-effectiveness is essential in guaranteeing value-for-money in healthcare spending. This study systematically reviewed the available literature on cost and cost-effectiveness of EmOC trainings. Peer-reviewed and grey literature was searched for relevant papers published after 1990. Studies were included if they described an economic evaluation of EmOC training and the training cost data were available. Two reviewers independently searched, screened, and selected studies that met the inclusion criteria, with disagreements resolved by a third reviewer. Quality of studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards statement. For comparability, all costs in local currency were converted to International dollar (I$) equivalents using purchasing power parity conversion factors. The cost per training per participant was calculated. Narrative synthesis was used to summarise the available evidence on cost effectiveness. Fourteen studies (five full and nine partial economic evaluations) met the inclusion criteria. All five and two of the nine partial economic evaluations were of high quality. The majority of studies (13/14) were from low- and middle-income countries. Training equipment, per diems and resource person allowance were the most expensive components. Cost of training per person per day ranged from I$33 to I$90 when accommodation was required and from I$5 to I$21 when training was facility-based. Cost-effectiveness of training was assessed in 5 studies with differing measures of effectiveness (knowledge, skills, procedure cost and lives saved) making comparison difficult. Economic evaluations of EmOC training are limited. There is a

  10. Nuclear data evaluation methodology including estimates of covariances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith D.L.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluated nuclear data rather than raw experimental and theoretical information are employed in nuclear applications such as the design of nuclear energy systems. Therefore, the process by which such information is produced and ultimately used is of critical interest to the nuclear science community. This paper provides an overview of various contemporary methods employed to generate evaluated cross sections and related physical quantities such as particle emission angular distributions and energy spectra. The emphasis here is on data associated with neutron induced reaction processes, with consideration of the uncertainties in these data, and on the more recent evaluation methods, e.g., those that are based on stochastic (Monte Carlo techniques. There is no unique way to perform such evaluations, nor are nuclear data evaluators united in their opinions as to which methods are superior to the others in various circumstances. In some cases it is not critical which approaches are used as long as there is consistency and proper use is made of the available physical information. However, in other instances there are definite advantages to using particular methods as opposed to other options. Some of these distinctions are discussed in this paper and suggestions are offered regarding fruitful areas for future research in the development of evaluation methodology.

  11. Analysis of advanced european nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the transition from the existing Light Water Reactors (LWR) to the advanced reactors is analyzed, including Generation III+ reactors in a European framework. Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed. The first scenario (i.e., reference) is the current fleet using LWR technology and open fuel cycle. The second scenario assumes a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel. The third scenario is a modification of the second one introducing Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet. Finally, in the fourth scenario, the LWR fleet is replaced using FR with MOX fuel as well as Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for MA transmutation. All scenarios consider an intermediate period of GEN-III+ LWR deployment and they extend for a period of 200 years looking for equilibrium mass flows. The simulations were made using the TR-EVOL code, a tool for fuel cycle studies developed by CIEMAT. The results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand (U and Pu). Concerning to no transmutation cases, the second scenario reduces considerably the Pu inventory in repositories compared to the reference scenario, although the MA inventory increases. The transmutation scenarios show that elimination of the LWR MA legacy requires on one hand a maximum of 33% fraction (i.e., a peak value of 26 FR units) of the FR fleet dedicated to transmutation (MA in MOX fuel, homogeneous transmutation). On the other hand a maximum number of ADS plants accounting for 5% of electricity generation are predicted in the fourth scenario (i.e., 35 ADS units). Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE (Levelized cost of electricity) - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 21% and 29% for FR and FR with transmutation scenarios respectively, and 34% for the fourth scenario. (authors)

  12. Introduction course on the economical evaluation of energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.

    1992-06-01

    A theoretical course on the financial and economical evaluation of energy projects is presented. The course was organized by the Banque Mondiale in Bujumbura, Burundi, from 11 to 16 November 1991. Subsequently attention is paid to the basics of economic analysis, the financial and the economical analysis of an investment project, and finally the prices of energy products. 4 figs., 13 refs

  13. Evaluation of economic rent of hydropower projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Abeygunawardana, A.M.A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Existing studies have mostly estimated the ex post economic rent of hydropower for the hydroelectric system of a province or a country as a whole and have ignored the site- or project-specific variations in the economic rent of hydropower plants. Further, most of the existing studies have used simplified methods to calculate the rent ex post. This paper presents a rigorous methodology for estimation of site-specific (i.e., project specific) economic rent of hydropower ex ante. It applies the methodology in the case of a hydropower project and analyzes the sensitivity of the rent to variations in some key parameters.

  14. Economic evaluation of reprocessing. Indicative UK position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the final Working Group 4 report, forms part of the overall economic assessment of reprocessing. The indicative national position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for the United Kingdom is presented. Under conditions pertaining in the United Kingdom the diagram suggests that: if uranium prices rise rapidly the fast reactor would become economic in the decade 1990-2000, if uranium prices rise more slowly, the fast reactor would become economic in the decade 2000-2010

  15. [Basic principles and methodological considerations of health economic evaluations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, Cesar; Castillo-Portilla, Manuel; Rojas, José Luis; Huayanay, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    Health Economics is an essential instrument for health management, and economic evaluations can be considered as tools assisting the decision-making process for the allocation of resources in health. Currently, economic evaluations are increasingly being used worldwide, thus encouraging evidence-based decision-making and seeking efficient and rational alternatives within the framework of health services activities. In this review, we present an overview and define the basic types of economic evaluations, with emphasis on complete Economic Evaluations (EE). In addition, we review key concepts regarding the perspectives from which EE can be conducted, the types of costs that can be considered, the time horizon, discounting, assessment of uncertainty and decision rules. Finally, we describe concepts about the extrapolation and spread of economic evaluations in health.

  16. Economic evaluation of multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Ryuta; Kuno, Yusuke; Omoto, Akira; Tanaka, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    Recently previous works have shown that multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach has benefits not only of non-proliferation but also of cost effectiveness. This is because for most facilities in nuclear fuel cycle, there exist economies of scale, which has a significant impact on the costs of nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, the evaluation of economic rationality is required as one of the evaluation factors for the multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach. In this study, we consider some options with respect to multilateral approaches to nuclear fuel cycle in Asian-Pacific region countries that are proposed by the University of Tokyo. In particular, the following factors are embedded into each type: A) no involvement of assurance of services, B) provision of assurance of services including construction of new facility, without transfer of ownership, and C) provision of assurance of service including construction of new joint facilities with ownership transfer of facilities to multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach. We show the overnight costs taking into account install and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities for each option. The economic parameter values such as uranium price, scale factor, and market output expansion influences the total cost for each option. Thus, we show how these parameter values and economic risks affect the total overnight costs for each option. Additionally, the international facilities could increase the risk of transportation for nuclear material compared to national facilities. We discuss the potential effects of this transportation risk on the costs for each option. (author)

  17. Economic evaluation of coalbed methane production in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Dongkun; Dai Youjin

    2009-01-01

    Roaring natural gas demand, energy security and environment protection concerns coupled with stringent emission reduction requirement have made China's abundant coalbed methane (CBM) resource an increasingly valuable energy source. However, not all of China's CBM resource is economic to develop under current technological condition and economic situation. In order to locate the CBM resource with economic viability to develop in China, economic evaluation of CBM production is conducted by applying net present value (NPV) method. The results indicate that more than half of CBM resource in China is economic to develop. It shows that CBM price, production rate and operating costs are the three major factors with most impact on the economic viability of the CBM development in target areas in China. The result also demonstrates that the economic limit production is roughly 1200 cubic meters per day. These economic evaluation results provide important information for both CBM companies and China government.

  18. Monetary conversion factors for economic evaluations of substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollister, Kathryn; Yang, Xuan; Sayed, Bisma; French, Michael T; Leff, Jared A; Schackman, Bruce R

    2017-10-01

    Estimating the economic consequences of substance use disorders (SUDs) is important for evaluating existing programs and new interventions. Policy makers in particular must weigh program effectiveness with scalability and sustainability considerations in deciding which programs to fund with limited resources. This study provides a comprehensive list of monetary conversion factors for a broad range of consequences, services, and outcomes, which can be used in economic evaluations of SUD interventions (primarily in the United States), including common co-occurring conditions such as HCV and HIV. Economic measures were selected from standardized clinical assessment instruments that are used in randomized clinical trials and other research studies (e.g., quasi-experimental community-based projects) to evaluate the impact of SUD interventions. National datasets were also reviewed for additional SUD-related consequences, services, and outcomes. Monetary conversion factors were identified through a comprehensive literature review of published articles as well as targeted searches of other sources such as government reports. Eight service/consequence/outcome domains were identified containing more than sixty monetizable measures of medical and behavioral health services, laboratory services, SUD treatment, social services, productivity outcomes, disability outcomes, criminal activity and criminal justice services, and infectious diseases consequences. Unit-specific monetary conversion factors are reported, along with upper and lower bound estimates, whenever possible. Having an updated and standardized source of monetary conversion factors will facilitate and improve future economic evaluations of interventions targeting SUDs and other risky behaviors. This exercise should be repeated periodically as new sources of data become available to maintain the timeliness, comprehensiveness, and quality of these estimates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc

  19. The Social Effects of the Economic Transformation in India (An Attempt at Measurement and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bywalec Grzegorz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of significant and, at the same time, challenging research problems in Economics is measuring the social effect of economic growth (development. Economic growth should never be treated a goal per se. It is rational provided that it brings effects such as, generally speaking, an improvement in the standard of living. However, this is not always the case. Social sciences, including Economics, have not developed any uniform methods of measuring and evaluating such effects yet.

  20. The use of economic evaluation in CAM: an introductory framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Jon

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For CAM to feature prominently in health care decision-making there is a need to expand the evidence-base and to further incorporate economic evaluation into research priorities. In a world of scarce health care resources and an emphasis on efficiency and clinical efficacy, CAM, as indeed do all other treatments, requires rigorous evaluation to be considered in budget decision-making. Methods Economic evaluation provides the tools to measure the costs and health consequences of CAM interventions and thereby inform decision making. This article offers CAM researchers an introductory framework for understanding, undertaking and disseminating economic evaluation. The types of economic evaluation available for the study of CAM are discussed, and decision modelling is introduced as a method for economic evaluation with much potential for use in CAM. Two types of decision models are introduced, decision trees and Markov models, along with a worked example of how each method is used to examine costs and health consequences. This is followed by a discussion of how this information is used by decision makers. Conclusions Undoubtedly, economic evaluation methods form an important part of health care decision making. Without formal training it can seem a daunting task to consider economic evaluation, however, multidisciplinary teams provide an opportunity for health economists, CAM practitioners and other interested researchers, to work together to further develop the economic evaluation of CAM.

  1. INCLUDING RISK IN ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS:A STOCHASTIC SIMULATION MODEL FOR BLUEBERRY INVESTMENT DECISIONS IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERMÁN LOBOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The traditional method of net present value (NPV to analyze the economic profitability of an investment (based on a deterministic approach does not adequately represent the implicit risk associated with different but correlated input variables. Using a stochastic simulation approach for evaluating the profitability of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. production in Chile, the objective of this study is to illustrate the complexity of including risk in economic feasibility analysis when the project is subject to several but correlated risks. The results of the simulation analysis suggest that the non-inclusion of the intratemporal correlation between input variables underestimate the risk associated with investment decisions. The methodological contribution of this study illustrates the complexity of the interrelationships between uncertain variables and their impact on the convenience of carrying out this type of business in Chile. The steps for the analysis of economic viability were: First, adjusted probability distributions for stochastic input variables (SIV were simulated and validated. Second, the random values of SIV were used to calculate random values of variables such as production, revenues, costs, depreciation, taxes and net cash flows. Third, the complete stochastic model was simulated with 10,000 iterations using random values for SIV. This result gave information to estimate the probability distributions of the stochastic output variables (SOV such as the net present value, internal rate of return, value at risk, average cost of production, contribution margin and return on capital. Fourth, the complete stochastic model simulation results were used to analyze alternative scenarios and provide the results to decision makers in the form of probabilities, probability distributions, and for the SOV probabilistic forecasts. The main conclusion shown that this project is a profitable alternative investment in fruit trees in

  2. Economic evaluation of I and C modernization approach in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyeon Tae; Sung, Chan Ho; Lee, Jae Ki

    2009-01-01

    Utilities have recently been debating the respective pros and cons of implementation of a multi-phase modernization during several normal outages versus a single major modernization implementation during a prolonged outage. We have studied these approaches and have been developing the basic design of NPPs I and C modernization since early 2008. As part of this study, analyses of the NPPs I and C systems were conducted and the need for upgrading the systems was raised. One of the primary concerns regarding the system modernization is a cost-benefit implementation, which will influence the modernization approach. From this viewpoint, the I and C modernization must consider economic factors such as I and C vendor cost, architecture engineering cost, installation cost, utility cost, and other transition costs such as training and procedure development. This paper presents a comparison study of economical aspects including cost evaluation between the aforementioned modernization implementations and suggests a solution for the I and C modernization approach. (author)

  3. Environmental Economics And Policy: Course Evaluation Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Šauer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to outline the educational aspects of environmental economics referring to an example of a course taught at The University of Economics, Prague. A quantitative survey among students was conducted to describe their perceptions of the environmental topics and the diverse components of the course. This learners’ perspective is compared with students’ examination results and their level of activity in seminars. One of the main questions asked in this text is: do students interested in economic policy and regional economics consider the environmental orientation of the course important? And if yes what aspects of the course do they value, what benefits do they get from the course, what are their learning strategies and what role does this play with regards to students’ concern for environmental issues? Probably the most important finding of the research is the students’ advocacy of environmental economics as a beneficial part of curriculum both by those clustered as ‘environmentalists’ and ‘non-environmentalists’ (or even ‘anti-environmentalists’. Students appreciate having a chance to participate actively in the course. A well balanced proportion of lectures and seminars with enough space for deep discussion seem to be crucial for retaining students’ interest. The data doesn’t equip us with sufficient information to construct regression models with reasonable predictive power concerning exam results. A challenge for further research is to work with a better informed analysis of students’ learning strategies.

  4. Timely and complete publication of economic evaluations alongside randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Joanna C; Noble, Sian M; Hollingworth, William

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the extent and nature of publication bias in economic evaluations. Our objective was to determine whether economic evaluations are subject to publication bias by considering whether economic data are as likely to be reported, and reported as promptly, as effectiveness data. Trials that intended to conduct an economic analysis and ended before 2008 were identified in the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) register; a random sample of 100 trials was retrieved. Fifty comparator trials were randomly drawn from those not identified as intending to conduct an economic study. The trial start and end dates, estimated sample size and funder type were extracted. For trials planning economic evaluations, effectiveness and economic publications were sought; publication dates and journal impact factors were extracted. Effectiveness abstracts were assessed for whether they reached a firm conclusion that one intervention was most effective. Primary investigators were contacted about reasons for non-publication of results, or reasons for differential publication strategies for effectiveness and economic results. Trials planning an economic study were more likely to be funded by government (p = 0.01) and larger (p = 0.003) than other trials. The trials planning an economic evaluation had a mean of 6.5 (range 2.7-13.2) years since the trial end in which to publish their results. Effectiveness results were reported by 70 %, while only 43 % published economic evaluations (p economic results included the intervention being ineffective, and staffing issues. Funding source, time since trial end and length of study were not associated with a higher probability of publishing the economic evaluation. However, studies that were small or of unknown size were significantly less likely to publish economic evaluations than large studies (p journal impact factor was 1.6 points higher for effectiveness publications than for the

  5. The economic production lot size model extended to include more than one production rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    We study an extension of the economic production lot size model, where more than one production rate can be used during a cycle. Moreover, the production rates, as well as their corresponding runtimes are decision variables. We decompose the problem into two subproblems. First, we show that all...

  6. The economic production lot size model extended to include more than one production rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2001-01-01

    We study an extension of the economic production lot size model, where more than one production rate can be used during a cycle. Moreover, the production rates, as well as their corresponding runtimes are decision variables. First, we show that all production rates should be choosen in the interval...

  7. Economic evaluation of minimum flow at Rockton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlman, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Rockton Hydroelectric Project is a two-unit, 1,100 kW plant operated by South Beloit Water, Gas and Electric Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Wisconsin Power and Light Company. The project's 1,000-foot spillway directs water from the main stem of the Rock River, down a 5,000-foot power canal to the project. During relicensing of the project, state and federal resource agencies directed the licensee to propose an operations scheme for providing a protected minimum flow in the main stem of the river. As the prime relicensing consultant to Wisconsin Power and Light, Mead and Hunt conducted field studies to assess the environmental impact of various minimum flows. Mead and Hunt then conducted economic analyses to determine the economic impact of various minimum flows. The economic and environmental analyses were combined to develop a recommended minimum flow, which will be provided in the Draft Application for Subsequent License

  8. Economic evaluation of preconcentration of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The economics of two options for the preconcentration of low-grade uranium ores prior to hydrochloric acid leaching were studied. The first option uses flotation followed by wet high-intensity magnetic separation. The second option omits the flotation step. In each case it was assumed that most of the pyrite in the ore would be recovered by froth flotation, dewatered, and roasted to produce sulphuric acid and a calcine suitable for acid leaching. Savings in operating costs from preconcentration are offset by the value of uranium losses. However, a capital saving of approximately 6 million dollars is indicated for each preconcentration option. As a result of the capital saving, preconcentration appears to be economically attractive when combined with hydrochloric acid leaching. There appears to be no economic advantage to preconcentration in combination with sulphuric acid leaching of the ore

  9. Economic evaluation of intermediate operations in oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry H. Webster; John C., Jr. Meadows

    1971-01-01

    Economic evaluation of forest-management opportunities is a vital ingredient of effective forestry programs. Choices among management opportunities are necessary because opportunities inevitably exceed funds available, and they are important because opportunities commonly range from highly productive to decidedly unproductive. Economic evaluation in oak stands shows a...

  10. Evaluation of economics of spent fuel storage techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Kenji; Nagano, Koji

    1988-01-01

    Various spent fuel storage techniques are evaluated in terms of required costs. The unit storage cost for each spent fuel storage scenario is calculated based on the total cost required for the scenario including capital expenditure, operation cost, maintenance cost and transport cost. Intermediate storage may be performed in relatively small facilities in the plant or in independent large-scale facilities installed away from the plant. Dry casks or water pools are assumed to be used in in-plant storage facilities while vaults may also be employed in independent facilities. Evaluation is made for these different cases. In in-plant facilities, dry cask storage is found to be more economical in all cases than water pool storage, especially when large-sized casks are employed. In independent facilities, on the other hand, the use of vaults is the most desirable because the required capital expenditure is the lowest due to the effect of scale economics. Dry cask storage is less expensive than water pool storage also in independent facilities. The annual discount rate has relatively small influence on the unit cost for storage. An estimated unit cost for storage in independent storage facilities is shown separately for facilities with a capacity of 1,000 tons, 3,000 tons or 5,000 tons. The report also outlines the economics of spent fuel storage in overseas facilities (Finland, Sweden and U.S.A.). (Nogami, K.)

  11. Economic evaluation of antiepileptic drug therapy: a methodologic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Pierre

    2002-05-01

    The increasing number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) fostered the development of economic studies in epilepsy. We reviewed this literature to identify and discuss methodologic issues. We included all studies devoted to cost-based evaluation in epilepsy, published in English from 1989 to 2001, and identified via a Medline search. We identified a series of methodologic problems. First, we reconsidered heterogeneity of concepts and estimating methods, often cited as the most critical problem, as they do not necessarily result from a failure to apply standard methods. One must distinguish "natural" sources of heterogeneity arising from the many unconstrained choices left open in the implementation of economic evaluation on the one hand, and imperfect information and observation-based sources of heterogeneity leading to constrained choices on the other hand. By their very nature, cost-of-illness studies are subject to this variety of choices and were used to illustrate our purpose. Second, cost-minimization studies were reviewed, as they raise additional problems related to study design and choice of an outcome measure. Finally, deficiencies were also identified in cost-effectiveness and cost-utility studies concerning attempts to incorporate patient's point of view in outcome measurement. We agreed with previous reviews on the difficulty of compare results from economic studies in epilepsy due to heterogeneity in methods and concepts used. This is partly due to imperfect information and limits in observation as sources for data collection, as well as to unavailability of refined outcome measures. Therefore, improvements are possible in this field.

  12. Evaluation of fatigue data including reactor water environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Nickell, R.E.; Van Der Sluys, W.A.; Yukawa, S.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory data have been gathered in the past decade indicating a significant reduction in component fatigue life when reactor water environmental effects are experimentally simulated. However, these laboratory data have not been supported by nuclear power plant component operating experience. The laboratory data under simulated operating conditions are being used to support arguments for revising the design-basis fatigue curves in the ASME Code Section III, Division 1, for Class 1 components. A thorough review of available laboratory fatigue data and their applicability to actual component operating conditions was performed. The evaluation divided the assembly, review and assessment of existing laboratory fatigue data and its applicability to plant operating conditions into four principal tasks: (1) review of available laboratory data relative to thresholds for environmental parameters, such as temperature, reactor water oxidation potential, strain rate, strain amplitude, reactor water flow rate, and component metal sulfur content; (2) determination of the relevance of the laboratory data to actual plant operating conditions; (3) review of laboratory S-N data curve-fitting models; and (4) assessment of existing ASME Code Section III Class 1 margins This paper summarizes the results of the data review. In addition, recommendations are made for additional laboratory testing intended to improve the applicability of laboratory test results under simulated reactor water environmental conditions. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of undrilled prospects. Sensitivity to economic and geological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanrud, C.; Abrahamsen, K.; Vollset, J.; Nordahl, S.; Jourdan, C.

    1996-01-01

    Economic prospect evaluation at an early stage involves personnel with different skills, such as geoscientists, reservoir engineers, construction engineers and economists. Data are transferred between these groups of people who often have only a vague understanding of the accuracy of the data they receive. This lack of communication naturally limits the correctness of the results. To improve this communication, the complete process of prospect evaluation (including both geological and economical aspects) has been followed here in order to show the different data sets that are transferred and to comment upon their accuracy. Although this paper is based entirely on Statoil's methodology, it is nevertheless believed to be of general relevance. In Statoil's methodology, prospect volumes calculated by geoscientists are given as likelihood distributions. Post-drilling examination of such volume distributions show that historically they have been too optimistic. However, historical prospect risking has correctly identified the most important risk factors and has been able to separate low-risk from high-risk prospects in a satisfactory manner. The number of appraisal wells that are needed before the development of a field can be decided upon is often crucial to the economic evaluations. This number, however, is usually underestimated during the early stages of exploration, probably because data limitations mask reservoir heterogeneities. Reservoir performance is of utmost importance to early economic calculations as it influences both the drilling costs and the production of hydrocarbons vs. time. Of course, reservoir productivity is highly uncertain when judged prior to drilling the first well. Historical data show that reserve estimates of producing fields tend to be upgraded as reservoir depletion proceeds, although several fields have had their reserve estimates downgraded shortly after production start-up. The operational and investment costs are not generally

  14. Global economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccines: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotirum, Surachai; Vutipongsatorn, Naaon; Kongpakwattana, Khachen; Hutubessy, Raymond; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-06-08

    World Health Organization (WHO) recommends Rotavirus vaccines to prevent and control rotavirus infections. Economic evaluations (EE) have been considered to support decision making of national policy. Summarizing global experience of the economic value of rotavirus vaccines is crucial in order to encourage global WHO recommendations for vaccine uptake. Therefore, a systematic review of economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccine was conducted. We searched Medline, Embase, NHS EED, EconLit, CEA Registry, SciELO, LILACS, CABI-Global Health Database, Popline, World Bank - e-Library, and WHOLIS. Full economic evaluations studies, published from inception to November 2015, evaluating Rotavirus vaccines preventing Rotavirus infections were included. The methods, assumptions, results and conclusions of the included studies were extracted and appraised using WHO guide for standardization of EE of immunization programs. 104 relevant studies were included. The majority of studies were conducted in high-income countries. Cost-utility analysis was mostly reported in many studies using incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per DALY averted or QALY gained. Incremental cost per QALY gained was used in many studies from high-income countries. Mass routine vaccination against rotavirus provided the ICERs ranging from cost-saving to highly cost-effective in comparison to no vaccination among low-income countries. Among middle-income countries, vaccination offered the ICERs ranging from cost-saving to cost-effective. Due to low- or no subsidized price of rotavirus vaccines from external funders, being not cost-effective was reported in some high-income settings. Mass vaccination against rotavirus was generally found to be cost-effective, particularly in low- and middle-income settings according to the external subsidization of vaccine price. On the other hand, it may not be a cost-effective intervention at market price in some high-income settings. This systematic review provides

  15. Including health economic analysis in pilot studies: lessons learned from a cost-utility analysis within the PROSPECTIV pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richéal M. Burns

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo assess feasibility and health economic benefits and costs as part of a pilot study for a nurse-led, psychoeducational intervention (NPLI for prostate cancer in order to understand the potential for cost effectiveness as well as contribute to the design of a larger scale trial.MethodsMen with stable prostate cancer post-treatment were recruited from two cancer centres in the UK. Eighty-three men were randomised to the NLPI plus usual care or usual care alone (UCA (42 NLPI and 41 UCA; the NLPI plus usual care was delivered in the primary-care setting (the intervention and included an initial face-to-face consultation with a trained nurse, with follow-up tailored to individual needs. The study afforded the opportunity to undertake a short-term within pilot analysis. The primary outcome measure for the economic evaluation was quality of life, as measured by the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L instrument. Costs (£2014 assessed included health-service resource use, out-of-pocket expenses and losses from inability to undertake usual activities.ResultsTotal and incremental costs varied across the different scenarios assessed, with mean cost differences ranging from £173 to £346; incremental effect, as measured by the change in utility scores over the duration of follow-up, exhibited wide confidence intervals highlighting inconclusive effectiveness (95% CI: -0.0226; 0.0438. The cost per patient of delivery of the intervention would be reduced if rolled out to a larger patient cohort.ConclusionsThe NLPI is potentially cost saving depending on the scale of delivery; however, the results presented are not considered generalisable.

  16. Economic Evaluation of Road Traffic Safety Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Gul, Ejaz

    2013-01-01

    The number of road traffic casualties is still very lofty and the trend shows a boost with each passing day. The road traffic accidents involve fatalities due to which economic resources are damaged and the productivity of the economy is correspondingly impaired. Costs resulting from traffic accidents represent the largest single part of the overall cost of traffic to the economy. Knowledge about the harm of these traffic accidents to the economy is essential if measures to reduce road traffi...

  17. A Novel Water Supply Network Sectorization Methodology Based on a Complete Economic Analysis, Including Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Campbell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The core idea behind sectorization of Water Supply Networks (WSNs is to establish areas partially isolated from the rest of the network to improve operational control. Besides the benefits associated with sectorization, some drawbacks must be taken into consideration by water operators: the economic investment associated with both boundary valves and flowmeters and the reduction of both pressure and system resilience. The target of sectorization is to properly balance these negative and positive aspects. Sectorization methodologies addressing the economic aspects mainly consider costs of valves and flowmeters and of energy, and the benefits in terms of water saving linked to pressure reduction. However, sectorization entails other benefits, such as the reduction of domestic consumption, the reduction of burst frequency and the enhanced capacity to detect and intervene over future leakage events. We implement a development proposed by the International Water Association (IWA to estimate the aforementioned benefits. Such a development is integrated in a novel sectorization methodology based on a social network community detection algorithm, combined with a genetic algorithm optimization method and Monte Carlo simulation. The methodology is implemented over a fraction of the WSN of Managua city, capital of Nicaragua, generating a net benefit of 25,572 $/year.

  18. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 2, Togus, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system, is developed for Torgus and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f-chart design procedure with inputs taken on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life, life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results demonstrate that the solar energy system is economically viable at all of the five sites for which the analysis was conducted.

  19. Economic evaluation in the field of mental health: conceptual basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Barros da Silva Lima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Technological advances in medicine have given rise to a dilemma concerning the use of new health technologies in a context of limited financial resources. In the field of psychiatry, health economic evaluation is a recent method that can assist in choosing interventions with different cost and/or effectiveness for specific populations or conditions. This article introduces clinicians to the fundamental concepts required for critical assessment of health economic evaluations. Methods: The authors conducted a review with systematic methods to assess the essential theoretical framework of health economic evaluation and mental health in Brazil through textbooks and studies indexed in the PubMed, Cochrane Central, LILACS, NHS CRD, and REBRATS databases. A total of 334 studies were found using the specified terms (MeSH - Mental Health AND Economic, Medical and filters (Brazil AND Humans; however, only five Brazilian economic evaluations were found. Results and conclusions: Economic evaluation studies are growing exponentially in the medical literature. Publications focusing on health economics as applied to psychiatry are increasingly common, but Brazilian data are still very incipient. In a country where financial resources are so scarce, economic analyses are necessary to ensure better use of public resources and wider population access to effective health technologies.

  20. Evaluating the economic benefits of nonmotorized transportation : case studies and methods for the nonmotorized transportation pilot program communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report examines potential methods for evaluating the economic benefits from nonmotorized transportation investments. The variety of potential economic benefits of bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure and programming investments discussed includ...

  1. Economic Evaluation of Crop Farms Acquired for Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Evaluation of Crop Farms Acquired for Crude Oil Production Activities in Rivers State of Nigeria. ... of economic loss due to crude oil production activities was $165,287.10 out of which pipelines laying accounted for $43,741.25, flow stations ($36,387.92), oil well sites ($31,334.67), gas flaring sites ($10,485.63).

  2. Methodological Challenges to Economic Evaluations of Vaccines: Is a Common Approach Still Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2016-06-01

    Economic evaluation of vaccination is a key tool to inform effective spending on vaccines. However, many evaluations have been criticised for failing to capture features of vaccines which are relevant to decision makers. These include broader societal benefits (such as improved educational achievement, economic growth and political stability), reduced health disparities, medical innovation, reduced hospital beds pressures, greater peace of mind and synergies in economic benefits with non-vaccine interventions. Also, the fiscal implications of vaccination programmes are not always made explicit. Alternative methodological frameworks have been proposed to better capture these benefits. However, any broadening of the methodology for economic evaluation must also involve evaluations of non-vaccine interventions, and hence may not always benefit vaccines given a fixed health-care budget. The scope of an economic evaluation must consider the budget from which vaccines are funded, and the decision-maker's stated aims for that spending to achieve.

  3. Payment and economic evaluation of integrated care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Tsiachristas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases have an increasingly negative impact on (1 population health by increasing morbidity and mortality, (2 society by increasing health inequalities and burden to informal caregivers, and (3 economy by requiring enormous financial resources and jeopardising macro-economic development (e.g. consumption, capital accumulation, labour productivity and labour supply. Integrated care is the most promising concept in redesigning care to tackle the increasing threat of chronic diseases. Several European countries have experimented with models for integrating care, most frequently in the form of disease management programmes. These models were often supported by payment schemes to provide financial incentives to health care providers for implementing integrated care. This thesis aimed to investigate these payment schemes and assess their impact, explore the variability in costs of disease management programmes, and determine the costs and effects of disease management programmes.

  4. Economic evaluation of laser enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisawa, Takashi; Shiba, Koreyuki

    1983-08-01

    Operational characteristics of Laser Enrichment Plant are described based on the data available at present. And its economy is also discussed from the view point of investment and energy consumption. In the procedure of this estimation, the composition of the plant is firstly considered, secondly each component is designed, and thirdly the production cost of each component is estimated. Then the sensitivity of the component cost on the plant cost is analysed, which leads to the optimization of the product cost and the determination of the economic plant size, etc. The results shows that the power cost of the electric gun occupies the large majority of the total power cost, and that the capital cost of laser devices occupies most of the total capital cost. (author)

  5. Evaluating the economics of biodiesel in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulugetta, Yacob

    2009-01-01

    Road transport in Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to rise in the coming years. Paradoxically, this expansion is occurring at a time when oil prices have reached new heights. Unstable oil prices do indeed increase the vulnerability of importers. However, it also presents them with a unique opportunity to explore promising technical options to help reduce their over-reliance on imported petroleum fuels. This paper takes a closer look at the potential for biodiesel, with an emphasis on fuels produced from oil palm, castor oil and jatropha in Ghana, Kenya and Tanzania, respectively. The paper provides an economic appraisal of biodiesels from these feedstocks, and sets the context for further discussions on biofuels in Africa. (author)

  6. Global economic evaluation of oral cholera vaccine: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Siew Li; Kotirum, Surachai; Hutubessy, Raymond C W; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2018-02-01

    World Health Organization recommends oral cholera vaccine (OCV) to prevent and control cholera, but requires cost-effectiveness evidence. This review aimed to provide a critical appraisal and summary of global economic evaluation (EE) studies involving OCV to guide future EE study. Full EE studies, published from inception to December 2015, evaluating OCV against cholera disease were included. The included studies were appraised using WHO guide for standardization of EE of immunization programs. Out of 14 included studies, almost all (13/14) were in low- and middle-income countries. Most studies (11/14) evaluated mass vaccination program. Most of the studies (9/14) incorporated herd protective effect. The most common influential parameters were cholera incidence, OCV coverage, herd protection and OCV price. OCV vaccination is likely to be cost-effective when targeted at the population with high-risk of cholera and poor access to health care facilities when herd protection effect is incorporated and OCV price is low.

  7. Economic Evaluation of Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood: Methods, Limitations and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Nora; Mayer, Susanne; Rasmussen, Finn; Sonntag, Diana

    2016-09-13

    Despite methodological advances in the field of economic evaluations of interventions, economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood are seldom conducted. The aim of the present study was to explore existing methods and applications of economic evaluations, examining their limitations and making recommendations for future cost-effectiveness assessments. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Databases and EconLit. Eligible studies included trial-based or simulation-based cost-effectiveness analyses of obesity prevention programmes targeting preschool children and/or their parents. The quality of included studies was assessed. Of the six studies included, five were intervention studies and one was based on a simulation approach conducted on secondary data. We identified three main conceptual and methodological limitations of their economic evaluations: Insufficient conceptual approach considering the complexity of childhood obesity, inadequate measurement of effects of interventions, and lack of valid instruments to measure child-related quality of life and costs. Despite the need for economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood, only a few studies of varying quality have been conducted. Moreover, due to methodological and conceptual weaknesses, they offer only limited information for policy makers and intervention providers. We elaborate reasons for the limitations of these studies and offer guidance for designing better economic evaluations of early obesity prevention.

  8. An economic analysis methodology for project evaluation and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Economic analysis is a critical component of a comprehensive project or program evaluation methodology that considers all key : quantitative and qualitative impacts of highway investments. It allows highway agencies to identify, quantify, and value t...

  9. Hurdles that impede economic evaluations of welfare interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Janne; Annemans, Lieven; Simoens, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Compared with economic evaluations of healthcare interventions, less experience has been gained in the field of economic evaluation of welfare interventions. This review suggests possible approaches to address four previously identified hurdles in economic evaluations of welfare interventions. After literature was searched through MEDLINE and EMBASE, it was found that Health-Related-Quality-of-Life questionnaires related to the condition of the target population are needed, instead of generic instruments. These condition-specific instruments use a multidimensional approach. There are specific instruments needed to take account of influences on informal caregivers. Moreover, it was shown that several aspects, such as crime rates and employment should be considered to estimate the impact on societal costs. Finally, the intervention must be described in detail and well defined to reduce variability. In conclusion, economic evaluations of welfare interventions increase complexity. These must be accounted for to permit valid assessments of the value for money of welfare interventions.

  10. Technological and economic evaluation of the oxidizer for vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkashin, V.I.; Denisova, L.V.; Sklyar, A.V.; Khlopkov, L.P.

    1978-01-01

    Vanadium oxidizers, applied to processing vanadium-containing scrap resulted from titanium production are characterized and evaluated according to their technological properties and economic expenses. Advantages of potassium perchlorate, ammonium persulphate, and pyrolusite over sodium and calcium hypochlorites are shown

  11. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Seeco Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system that was installed at Lincoln, Nebraska is developed for this and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f chart design procedure with inputs based on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over projected twenty year life: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated.

  12. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 4, Clinton, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    An economic analysis of the solar energy system was developed for five sites, typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. The analysis was based on the technical and economic models in the F-chart design procedure, with inputs based on the characteristic of the installed system and local conditions. The results are of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a 20 year time span: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated.

  13. [Evaluation of economic forest ecosystem services in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Lu, Shao-Wei

    2009-02-01

    This paper quantitatively evaluated the economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China in 2003, based on the long-term and continuous observations of economic forest ecosystems in this country, the sixth China national forest resources inventory data, and the price parameter data from the authorities in the world, and by applying the law of market value, the method of substitution of the expenses, and the law of the shadow project. The results showed that in 2003, the total value of economic forest ecosystem services in China was 11763.39 x 10(8) yuan, and the total value of the products from economic forests occupied 19.3% of the total ecosystem services value, which indicated that the economic forests not only provided society direct products, but also exhibited enormous eco-economic value. The service value of the functions of economic forests was in the order of water storage > C fixation and O2 release > biodiversity conservation > erosion control > air quality purification > nutrient cycle. The spatial pattern of economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China had the same trend with the spatial distribution of water and heat resources and biodiversity. To understand the differences of economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China was of significance in alternating the irrational arrangement of our present forestry production, diminishing the abuses of forest management, and establishing high grade, high efficient, and modernized economic forests.

  14. Economic evaluation of caffeine for apnea of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovny, Dmitry; Lorch, Scott A; Schmidt, Barbara; Doyle, Lex W; Kok, Joke H; Roberts, Robin S; Kamholz, Karen L; Wang, Na; Mao, Wenyang; Zupancic, John A F

    2011-01-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of treatment with caffeine compared with placebo for apnea of prematurity in infants with birth weights less than 1250 g, from birth through 18 to 21 months' corrected age. We undertook a retrospective economic evaluation of the cost per survivor without neurodevelopmental impairment by using individual-patient data from the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity clinical trial (N = 1869). We included direct medical costs either to the insurance payer or the hospital but excluded costs to parents and society, such as lost productivity. We used a price of $0.21/mg of generic caffeine citrate for our base-case analysis. All costs were expressed in 2008 Canadian dollars and discounted at 3%. The time horizon for this analysis extended through 18 to 21 months' corrected age to match the clinical trial. The mean cost per infant was $124 466 in the caffeine group and $133 505 in the placebo group (difference: $9039 [-14 749 to -3375]; adjusted P = .014). Cost-effectiveness analysis showed caffeine to be a dominant or "win-win" therapy: in >99% of 1000 bootstrap replications of the analysis, caffeine-treated infants had simultaneously better outcomes and lower mean costs. These results were robust to a 1000% increase in the individual resource items, including the price of caffeine citrate. In comparison with placebo, caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity in infants weighing less than 1250 g is economically appealing for infants up to 18 to 21 months' corrected age.

  15. Economic evaluation of the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The economic impact of employing the highly ranked blankets in the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS) was evaluated in the context of both a tokamak and a tandem mirror power reactor (TMR). The economic evaluation criterion was determined to be the cost of electricity. The influencing factors that were considered are the direct cost of the blankets and related systems; the annual cost of blanket replacement; and the performance of the blanket, heat transfer, and energy conversion systems. The technical and cost bases for comparison were those of the STARFIRE and Mirror Advanced Reactor Study conceptual design power plants. The economic evaluation results indicated that the nitrate-salt-cooled blanket concept is an economically attractive concept for either reactor type. The water-cooled, solid breeder blanket is attractive for the tokamak and somewhat less attractive for the TMR. The helium-cooled, liquidlithium breeder blanket is the least economically desirable of higher ranked concepts. The remaining self-cooled liquid-metal and the helium-cooled blanket concepts represent moderately attractive concepts from an economic standpoint. These results are not in concert with those found in the other BCSS evaluation areas (engineering feasibility, safety, and research and development (R and D) requirements). The blankets faring well economically had generally lower cost components, lower pumping power requirements, and good power production capability. On the other hand, helium- and lithium-cooled systems were preferred from the standpoints of safety, engineering feasibility, and R and D requirements

  16. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF BEEKEEPING IN KARLOVACKA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janja Kezić

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Beekeeping in Croatia has a long tradition. There are favourable climate and vegetation conditions for development of beekeeping in Croatia. The number of registered beekeepers in Croatia is 3.404 with total of 313.978 beehives. Most of them are part–time beekeepers (53 %, hobby beekeepers comprise 37 % and professional beekeepers represent the smallest part with 11 % [3]. Beekeeping production is mainly organized on family farms [5]. Karlovačka county, in the cental part of Croatia, was chosen to analyse the economic attributes of beekeeping. The number of beekeepers in Karlovačka county in 2007. was 179 with total of 17.636 beehives [3]. Beekeepers were interviewed during the regular meeting of the Beekeepers Association. Forty–five beekeepers were interviewed which is a representative sample of beekeepers in Karlovacka county. Beekeepers were categorized as hobby beekeepers (<60, part–time (61–150 and professional beekeepers (>151 based on the number of beehives. There are 56 % of hobby beekeepers, 31 % of part–time beekeepers and 13 % are professional beekeepers. Fixed assets in beekeeping consist of equipment, beehives and vehicles used in beekeeping (trucks, trailers, personal car. Hobby beekeepers generate 5.031,55 € of total income per year with 52 average beehives per beekeeper. They achieve the highiest selling price an average of 3,20 € per kilo for their honey. Part–time beekeepers generate 9.875,74 € total income per year. The average number of beehives per part–time beekeeper is 110 and they achieve a selling price of 2,69 € per kilo. Professional beekeepers generate 26.681,36 € total income per year with an average number of 329 beehives per beekeeper. Their actual selling price, on average, is 2,07 €.

  17. Economic evaluation of the gaseous diffusion on uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Fujine, Sachio; Aochi, Tetsuo; Higashi, Kunio.

    1977-11-01

    A gaseous diffusion plant is a large multi-stage system, which is composed of about a thousand stages in cascade and other support facilities even to obtain the slightly enriched uranium for LWR. To design and construct such a reliable, versatile, economical plant, it is necessary to know the process characteristics and to make a techno-economic evaluation of the enrichment plant. A cascade optimization and a conceptual design of the diffusion plant are described, and the cost evaluation formulae based the 1970-1972 cost level in Japan are given. In parametric case studies with the economic evaluation program developed, technological and economic factors in the plant economy are presented. (auth.)

  18. Desalination Economic Evaluation Program (DEEP-3.0). User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    DEEP is a Desalination Economic Evaluation Program developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and made freely available for download, under a license agreement (www.iaea.org/nucleardesalination). The program is based on linked Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and can be useful for evaluating desalination strategies by calculating estimates of technical performance and costs for various alternative energy and desalination technology configurations. Desalination technology options modelled, include multi-stage flashing (MSF), multi-effect distillation (MED), reverse osmosis (RO) and hybrid options (RO-MSF, RO-MED) while energy source options include nuclear, fossil, renewables and grid electricity (stand-alone RO). Version 3 of DEEP (DEEP 3.0) features important changes from previous versions, including upgrades in thermal and membrane performance and costing models, the coupling configuration matrix and the user interface. Changes in the thermal performance model include a revision of the gain output ratio (GOR) calculation and its generalization to include thermal vapour compression effects. Since energy costs continue to represent an important fraction of seawater desalination costs, the lost shaft work model has been generalized to properly account for both backpressure and extraction systems. For RO systems, changes include improved modelling of system recovery, feed pressure and permeate salinity, taking into account temperature, feed salinity and fouling correction factors. The upgrade to the coupling technology configuration matrix includes a re-categorization of the energy sources to follow turbine design (steam vs. gas) and cogeneration features (dual-purpose vs. heat-only). In addition, cost data has also been updated to reflect current practice and the user interface has been refurbished and made user-friendlier

  19. Economic evaluation of the integrated SMART desalination plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Lee, Man Kye; Yeo, Ji Won; Kim, Hee Chul; Chang, Moon Hee

    2001-04-01

    In this study, an economic evaluation methodology of the integrated SMART desalination plant was established and the economic evaluation of SMART was performed. The plant economics was evaluated with electricity generation costs calculated using approximate estimates of SMART cost data and the result was compared with the result calculated using the SMART design data and estimated bulk materials. In addition, a series of sensitivity studies on the power generation cost was performed for the main economic parameters of SMART Power credit method was used for the economic analysis of the integrated SMART desalination plant. Power credit method is a widely used economic analysis method for the cogeneration plant when the major portion of the energy is used for the electricity generation. In the case of using SMART fot power generation only, the result shows that the electricity generation cost of SMART is higher than that of the alternative power options. However, it can be competitive with the other power options in the limited cases, especially with the gas fired combined plant. In addition, an economic analysis of the integrated SMART desalination plant coupled with MED was performed. The calculated water production cost is in the range of 0.56 approx. 0.88($/m{sup 3}) for the plant availability of 80% or higher, which is close to the study results presented by the various other countries. This indicates that SMART can be considered as a competitive choice for desalination among various alternative energy sources.

  20. Economic evaluation of the integrated SMART desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Lee, Man Kye; Yeo, Ji Won; Kim, Hee Chul; Chang, Moon Hee

    2001-04-01

    In this study, an economic evaluation methodology of the integrated SMART desalination plant was established and the economic evaluation of SMART was performed. The plant economics was evaluated with electricity generation costs calculated using approximate estimates of SMART cost data and the result was compared with the result calculated using the SMART design data and estimated bulk materials. In addition, a series of sensitivity studies on the power generation cost was performed for the main economic parameters of SMART Power credit method was used for the economic analysis of the integrated SMART desalination plant. Power credit method is a widely used economic analysis method for the cogeneration plant when the major portion of the energy is used for the electricity generation. In the case of using SMART fot power generation only, the result shows that the electricity generation cost of SMART is higher than that of the alternative power options. However, it can be competitive with the other power options in the limited cases, especially with the gas fired combined plant. In addition, an economic analysis of the integrated SMART desalination plant coupled with MED was performed. The calculated water production cost is in the range of 0.56 approx. 0.88($/m 3 ) for the plant availability of 80% or higher, which is close to the study results presented by the various other countries. This indicates that SMART can be considered as a competitive choice for desalination among various alternative energy sources

  1. Economic Evaluation in Global Perspective: A Bibliometric Analysis of the Recent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Catherine; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara

    2016-02-01

    We present a bibliometric analysis of recently published full economic evaluations of health interventions and reflect critically on the implications of our findings for this growing field. We created a database drawing on 14 health, economic, and/or general literature databases for articles published between 1 January 2012 and 3 May 2014 and identified 2844 economic evaluations meeting our criteria. We present findings regarding the sensitivity, specificity, and added value of searches in the different databases. We examine the distribution of publications between countries, regions, and health areas studied and compare the relative volume of research with disease burden. We analyse authors' country and institutional affiliations, journals and journal type, language, and type of economic evaluation conducted. More than 1200 economic evaluations were published annually, of which 4% addressed low-income countries, 4% lower-middle-income countries, 14% upper-middle-income countries, and 83% high-income countries. Across country income levels, 53, 54, 86, and 100% of articles, respectively, included an author based in a country within the income level studied. Biomedical journals published 74% of economic evaluations. The volume of research across health areas correlates more closely with disease burden in high-income than in low-income and middle-income countries. Our findings provide an empirical basis for further study on methods, research prioritization, and capacity development in health economic evaluation. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Measuring value for money: a scoping review on economic evaluation of health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Jesdeep; Lau, Francis

    2013-01-01

    To explore how key components of economic evaluations have been included in evaluations of health information systems (HIS), to determine the state of knowledge on value for money for HIS, and provide guidance for future evaluations. We searched databases, previously collected papers, and references for relevant papers published from January 2000 to June 2012. For selection, papers had to: be a primary study; involve a computerized system for health information processing, decision support, or management reporting; and include an economic evaluation. Data on study design and economic evaluation methods were extracted and analyzed. Forty-two papers were selected and 33 were deemed high quality (scores ≥ 8/10) for further analysis. These included 12 economic analyses, five input cost analyses, and 16 cost-related outcome analyses. For HIS types, there were seven primary care electronic medical records, six computerized provider order entry systems, five medication management systems, five immunization information systems, four institutional information systems, three disease management systems, two clinical documentation systems, and one health information exchange network. In terms of value for money, 23 papers reported positive findings, eight were inconclusive, and two were negative. We found a wide range of economic evaluation papers that were based on different assumptions, methods, and metrics. There is some evidence of value for money in selected healthcare organizations and HIS types. However, caution is needed when generalizing these findings. Better reporting of economic evaluation studies is needed to compare findings and build on the existing evidence base we identified.

  3. The Development Evaluation of Economic Zones in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Shi, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Zhe; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Zhai, Yuming; Chen, Quan; Wang, Jiangtao

    2018-01-02

    After the Chinese reform and opening up, the construction of economic zones, such as Special Economic Zones, Hi-tech Zones and Bonded Zones, has played an irreplaceable role in China's economic development. Currently, against the background of Chinese economic transition, research on development evaluation of economic zones has become popular and necessary. Similar research usually focuses on one specific field, and the methods that are used to evaluate it are simple. This research aims to analyse the development evaluation of zones by synthesis. A new hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) model that combines the DEMATEL technique and the DANP method is proposed. After establishing the evaluation criterion system and acquiring data, the influential weights of dimensions and criteria can be calculated, which will be a guide for forming measures of development. Shandong Peninsula Blue Economic Zone is used in the empirical case analysis. The results show that Transportation Conditions, Industrial Structure and Business Climate are the main influencing criteria and measures based on these criteria are proposed.

  4. The Development Evaluation of Economic Zones in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Zhe; Zhai, Yuming; Chen, Quan; Wang, Jiangtao

    2018-01-01

    After the Chinese reform and opening up, the construction of economic zones, such as Special Economic Zones, Hi-tech Zones and Bonded Zones, has played an irreplaceable role in China’s economic development. Currently, against the background of Chinese economic transition, research on development evaluation of economic zones has become popular and necessary. Similar research usually focuses on one specific field, and the methods that are used to evaluate it are simple. This research aims to analyse the development evaluation of zones by synthesis. A new hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) model that combines the DEMATEL technique and the DANP method is proposed. After establishing the evaluation criterion system and acquiring data, the influential weights of dimensions and criteria can be calculated, which will be a guide for forming measures of development. Shandong Peninsula Blue Economic Zone is used in the empirical case analysis. The results show that Transportation Conditions, Industrial Structure and Business Climate are the main influencing criteria and measures based on these criteria are proposed. PMID:29301304

  5. [Measurement and health economic evaluation of informal care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrubka, Zsombor

    2017-09-01

    Informal care is non-financed care outside the realm of formal healthcare, which represents an increasing challenge for aging societies. Informal care has frequently been neglected in health economic analyses, while in recent years its coverage has increased considerably in the international scientific literature. This review summarizes the methodology of the health-economic assessment of informal care, including the objective and subjective metrics of caregiver burden, its financial and non-financial valuation and practical applications, with special emphasis on the introduction of care-related quality of life instruments (e.g. Care Related Quality of Life - CarerQoL instrument). Care-related quality of life is a different entity from health-related quality of life, the two cannot be combined, so their joint evaluation requires multi-criteria decision analysis methods. Therefore, it is important to determine the societal preferences of care-related quality of life versus health-related quality of life, and map the relationship of care-related quality of life with time. The local validation of tools measuring care-related quality of life, its more widespread practical application and the analysis of its effect on decision making are also important part of the future research agenda. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(35): 1363-1372.

  6. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Solaron Akron, Akron, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system that was installed at Akron, Ohio is developed for this and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions. The analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f chart design procedure with inputs based on the characteristics of the installed parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results show that only in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where insolation is 1828 Btu/sq ft/day and the conventional energy cost is high, is this solar energy system marginally profitable.

  7. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bert R. Bock; Richard G. Rhudy; David E. Nichols

    2001-01-01

    In order to plan for potential CO(sub 2) mitigation mandates, utilities need better information on CO(sub 2) mitigation options, especially carbon sequestration options that involve non-utility operations. One of the major difficulties in evaluating CO(sub 2) sequestration technologies and practices, both geologic storage of captured CO(sub 2) and storage in biological sinks, is obtaining consistent, transparent, accurate, and comparable economics. This project is comparing the economics of major technologies and practices under development for CO(sub 2) sequestration, including captured CO(sub 2) storage options such as active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of biological sinks such as forests and croplands. An international group of experts has been assembled to compare on a consistent basis the economics of this diverse array of CO(sub 2) sequestration options. Designs and data collection are nearly complete for each of the CO(sub 2) sequestration options being compared. Initial spreadsheet development has begun on concepts involving storage of captured CO(sub 2). No significant problems have been encountered, but some additional outside expertise will be accessed to supplement the team's expertise in the areas of life cycle analysis, oil and gas exploration and production, and comparing CO(sub 2) sequestration options that differ in timing and permanence of CO(sub 2) sequestration. Plans for the next reporting period are to complete data collection and a first approximation of the spreadsheet. We expect to complete this project on time and on budget

  8. Conceptual Framework of Economic Evaluation on SMRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jin Sam; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Chang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) launched a project to develop an integral reactor in 1996. The reactor called as System Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor(SMART) which is a kind of small modular reactors (SMRs). Since the early 1990s, there has been renewed interest in the development and application of small and medium sized integral reactors. 2009 assessment by the IAEA under its Innovative Nuclear Power Reactor and Fuel Cycle (INPRO) program concluded that there could be 96 SMRs in operation around the world by 2030 in its 'high' case, and 43 units in the 'low' case, none of them in the USA. The reason of the increased demand mostly comes from the fact that SMRs are thought to be more suitable for developing countries with small electrical grid capacity, insufficient infrastructure and limited investment capability than developed ones. However, it has disadvantage in the point of scale of economy. So, it should be compared the amount of this advantage and disadvantage which differ from the circumstances of the countries. In this work, conceptual framework was built up for suitable evaluation model of SMRs to be utilized in the future detailed study

  9. Economic Evaluation pf Antibacterial Usage in Ear, Nose and Throat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out economic evaluation of antibacterial usage for Ear, Nose and Throat infections in a tertiary health care facility in Nigeria. Methods: Antibacterial utilisation evaluation was carried out retrospectively over one year period by reviewing 122 case notes containing 182 prescriptions of patient with Ear Nose ...

  10. [Principles of health economic evaluation for use by caregivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derumeaux-Burel, Hélène; Derancourt, Christian; Rambhojan, Christine; Branchard, Olivier; Hayes, Nathalie; Bénard, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    The aim of health economic evaluation is to maximize health gains from limited resources. By definition, health economic evaluation is comparative, based on average costs and outcomes of compared interventions. Incremental costs and outcomes are used to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio, which represents the average incremental cost per gained unit of effectiveness (i.e.: a year of life) with the evaluated intervention compared to the reference. The health economic rationale applies to all health domains. We cannot spend collective resources (health insurance) without asking ourselves about their potential alternative uses. This reasoning is useful to caregivers for understanding resources allocation decisions and healthcare recommandations. Caregivers should grab this field of expertise because they are central in this strategic reflection for defining the future French healthcare landscape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative economic evaluation of environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrascu, Roxana; Athanasovici, Victor; Raducanu, Cristian; Minciuc, Eduard; Bitir-Istrate, Ioan

    2004-01-01

    Cogeneration is one of the most powerful technologies for reduction of environmental pollution along with renewable energies. At the Kyoto Conference cogeneration has been identified as being the most important measure for reducing emissions of greenhouse effect gases. It has also been mentioned that cogeneration has a potential of reducing pollution with about 180 million tones per year. In order to promote new cogeneration technologies and evaluate the existing ones it is necessary to know and to be able to quantify in economical terms the environmental issues. When comparing different cogeneration technologies: steam turbine (TA), gas turbine (TG), internal combustion engine (MT), in order to choose the best one, the final decision implies an economic factor, which is even more important if it includes the environmental issues. The environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies is quantified using different criteria: depletion of non-renewable natural resources, eutrofisation, greenhouse effect, acidification etc. Environmental analysis using these criteria can be made using the 'impact with impact' methodology or the global one. The results of such an analysis cannot be quantified economically directly. Therefore there is a need of internalisation of ecological effects within the costs of produced energy: electricity and heat. In the energy production sector the externalizations represent the indirect effects on the environment. They can be materialised within different types of environmental impact: - Different buildings of mines, power plants etc; - Fuel losses during transportation and processing; - Effect of emissions in the air, water and soil. Introduction of the environmental impact costs in the energy price is called internalisation and it can be made using the direct and indirect methods. The paper discusses aspects regarding the emissions of cogeneration systems, the eco-taxes - method of 'internalisation' of environmental

  12. On the economic evaluation of bids for construction of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Osery, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    The work presented is a part of R and D program conducted by nuclear power plants authority and aiming at the development of the tools necessary for economic evaluation of bids for construction of nuclear power plants in Egypt. The paper describes the potential of economic evaluation of bids and the methods generally used for such purpose. The mathematical tools proposed for the calculation of the different cost items; involved in the economic evaluation, are presented. Account for expected changes in the economic environment is considered including exchange rate of foreign currency, price escalation, and inflation rates. The proposed model takes into consideration the financing terms and conditions. The proposed approach has already been incorporated in a computer program called ''ECONEV'' developed by the author for evaluation of the international bids for construction of the first nuclear power plant in Egypt at El-Dabaa site (160 Km west of Alexandria)

  13. A systematic review of economic evaluations of cardiac rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Wai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac rehabilitation (CR, a multidisciplinary program consisting of exercise, risk factor modification and psychosocial intervention, forms an integral part of managing patients after myocardial infarction (MI, revascularization surgery and percutaneous coronary interventions, as well as patients with heart failure (HF. This systematic review seeks to examine the cost-effectiveness of CR for patients with MI or HF and inform policy makers in Singapore on published cost-effectiveness studies on CR. Methods Electronic databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, NHS EED, PEDro, CINAHL were searched from inception to May 2010 for published economic studies. Additional references were identified through searching bibliographies of included studies. Two independent reviewers selected eligible publications based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Quality assessment of economic evaluations was undertaken using Drummond’s checklist. Results A total of 22 articles were selected for review. However five articles were further excluded because they were cost-minimization analyses, whilst one included patients with stroke. Of the final 16 articles, one article addressed both centre-based cardiac rehabilitation versus no rehabilitation, as well as home-based cardiac rehabilitation versus no rehabilitation. Therefore, nine studies compared cost-effectiveness between centre-based supervised CR and no CR; three studies examined that between centre- and home based CR; one between inpatient and outpatient CR; and four between home-based CR and no CR. These studies were characterized by differences in the study perspectives, economic study designs and time frames, as well as variability in clinical data and assumptions made on costs. Overall, the studies suggested that: (1 supervised centre-based CR was highly cost-effective and the dominant strategy when compared to no CR; (2 home-based CR was no different from centre-based CR; (3 no difference existed

  14. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Topical report: Economic evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the proposed research is to develop a technically and economically feasible process for biologically producing H{sub 2} from synthesis gas while, at the same time, removing harmful sulfur gas compounds. Six major tasks are being studied: culture development, where the best cultures are selected and conditions optimized for simultaneous hydrogen production and sulfur gas removal; mass transfer and kinetic studies in which equations necessary for process design are developed; bioreactor design studies, where the cultures chosen in Task 1 are utilized in continuous reaction vessels to demonstrate process feasibility and define operating conditions; evaluation of biological synthesis gas conversion under limiting conditions in preparation for industrial demonstration studies; process scale-up where laboratory data are scaled to larger-size units in preparation for process demonstration in a pilot-scale unit; and economic evaluation, where process simulations are used to project process economics and identify high cost areas during sensitivity analyses. The purpose of this report is to present economic evaluations for H{sub 2} production from synthesis gone by Rhodospirillum rubrum. Cases are presented with and without light requirements and in stirred tank and immobilized cell reactors. In addition, economic information is presented for isolate ERIH{sub 2} (from Engineering Resources, Inc.) in the two reactors with and without H{sub 2} recovery.

  15. Sustainability and economic evaluation of microalgae grown in brewery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Teresa M; Mendes, Adélio M; Caetano, Nídia S; Martins, António A

    2014-09-01

    This article evaluates the sustainability and economic potential of microalgae grown in brewery wastewater for biodiesel and biomass production. Three sustainability and two economic indicators were considered in the evaluation within a life cycle perspective. For the production system the most efficient process units were selected. Results show that harvesting and oil separation are the main process bottlenecks. Microalgae with higher lipid content and productivity are desirable for biodiesel production, although comparable to other biofuel's feedstock concerning sustainability. However, improvements are still needed to reach the performance level of fossil diesel. Profitability reaches a limit for larger cultivation areas, being higher when extracted biomass is sold together with microalgae oil, in which case the influence of lipid content and areal productivity is smaller. The values of oil and/or biomass prices calculated to ensure that the process is economically sound are still very high compared with other fuel options, especially biodiesel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Including capabilities of local actors in regional economic development: Empirical results of local seaweed industries in Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T.J. Vredegoor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stimson, et al. (2009 developed one of the most relevant and well known model for Regional Economic Development. This model covers the most important factors related to economic development question. However, this model excludes the social components of development. Local community should be included in terms of the development of a region. This paper introduced to the Stimson model “Skills” and “Knowledge” at the individual level for local actors indicating the capabilities at the individual level and introduced “Human Coordination” for the capabilities at the collective level. In our empirical research we looked at the Indonesian seaweed market with a specific focus on the region of Baubau. This region was chosen because there are hardly any economic developments. Furthermore this study focuses on the poorer community who are trying to improve their situation by the cultivation of Seaweed. Eighteen local informants was interviewed besides additional interviews of informants from educational and governmental institutions in the cities of Jakarta, Bandung and Yogyakarta. The informants selected had a direct or indirect relationship with the region of Baubau. With the support of the empirical data from this region we can confirm that it is worthwhile to include the local community in the model for regional economic development.  The newly added variables: at the individual level; Skills and Knowledge and at the level of the collective: Human Coordination was supported by the empirical material. It is an indication that including the new variables can give regional economic an extra dimension.  In this way we think that it becomes more explicit that “endogenous” means that the people, or variables closely related to them, should be more explicitly included in models trying to capture Regional Economic Development or rephrased as Local Economic Development Keywords:Regional and endogenous development; Fisheries and seaweed

  17. A systematic review of economic evaluations of treatments for patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Ben F M; van Mastrigt, Ghislaine A P G; Evers, Silvia M A A; Gershuni, Olga; Lambrechts, Danielle A J E; Majoie, Marian H J M; Postulart, Debby; Aldenkamp, Bert A P; de Kinderen, Reina J A

    2017-05-01

    The increasing number of treatment options and the high costs associated with epilepsy have fostered the development of economic evaluations in epilepsy. It is important to examine the availability and quality of these economic evaluations and to identify potential research gaps. As well as looking at both pharmacologic (antiepileptic drugs [AEDs]) and nonpharmacologic (e.g., epilepsy surgery, ketogenic diet, vagus nerve stimulation) therapies, this review examines the methodologic quality of the full economic evaluations included. Literature search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Econlit, Web of Science, and CEA Registry. In addition, Cochrane Reviews, Cochrane DARE and Cochrane Health Technology Assessment Databases were used. To identify relevant studies, predefined clinical search strategies were combined with a search filter designed to identify health economic studies. Specific search strategies were devised for the following topics: (1) AEDs, (2) patients with cognitive deficits, (3) elderly patients, (4) epilepsy surgery, (5) ketogenic diet, (6) vagus nerve stimulation, and (7) treatment of (non)convulsive status epilepticus. A total of 40 publications were included in this review, 29 (73%) of which were articles about pharmacologic interventions. Mean quality score of all articles on the Consensus Health Economic Criteria (CHEC)-extended was 81.8%, the lowest quality score being 21.05%, whereas five studies had a score of 100%. Looking at the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS), the average quality score was 77.0%, the lowest being 22.7%, and four studies rated as 100%. There was a substantial difference in methodology in all included articles, which hampered the attempt to combine information meaningfully. Overall, the methodologic quality was acceptable; however, some studies performed significantly worse than others. The heterogeneity between the studies stresses the need to

  18. REVIEWING TRANSFERABILITY in ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS ORIGINATING from EASTERN EUROPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Mandrik (Olena); S. Knies (Saskia); Z. Kaló (Zoltán); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objectives:__ The aim of this study is to analyze the quality and transferability issues reported in published peer-reviewed English-language economic evaluations based in healthcare settings of the Central and Eastern European (CEE) and former Soviet countries. __Methods:__ A

  19. Economic evaluation in stratified medicine: methodological issues and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joerg eFugel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stratified Medicine (SM is becoming a practical reality with the targeting of medicines by using a biomarker or genetic-based diagnostic to identify the eligible patient sub-population. Like any healthcare intervention, SM interventions have costs and consequences that must be considered by reimbursement authorities with limited resources. Methodological standards and guidelines exist for economic evaluations in clinical pharmacology and are an important component for health technology assessments (HTAs in many countries. However, these guidelines have initially been developed for traditional pharmaceuticals and not for complex interventions with multiple components. This raises the issue as to whether these guidelines are adequate to SM interventions or whether new specific guidance and methodology is needed to avoid inconsistencies and contradictory findings when assessing economic value in SM.Objective: This article describes specific methodological challenges when conducting health economic (HE evaluations for SM interventions and outlines potential modifications necessary to existing evaluation guidelines /principles that would promote consistent economic evaluations for SM.Results/Conclusions: Specific methodological aspects for SM comprise considerations on the choice of comparator, measuring effectiveness and outcomes, appropriate modelling structure and the scope of sensitivity analyses. Although current HE methodology can be applied for SM, greater complexity requires further methodology development and modifications in the guidelines.

  20. Economic evaluation of soil fertility management in groundnut fields ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides the economic evaluation of soil fertility replenishing technologies (use of inorganic fertilizers, organic manure, and rhizobium inoculant) that were tested and recommended. Data on groundnut technologies used, yields, resource availability and use, and farmers' characteristics were collected through ...

  1. Performance, Carcass Evaluation And Economics Of Production Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight-weeks feeding trial involving 162,8-week old goldline cockerel birds was carried out in a completely randomized design to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and economics of production of cockerels fed whole cassava plant meal (WCPM). Diet 1 was maize based and served as the control, diet 2 ...

  2. Economic evaluation of cocoyam ( Xanthosoma sp.) and maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On-farm testing at Sunyani, Sankore and Begoro in the forest ecology of Ghana evaluated the agronomic performance and economic productivity of both crops ... D' après l'analyse la meilleure entreprise agricole devrait être le taro seul mais pour quelques raisons socio-économiques comprenants utilisation ou la vente de ...

  3. Design and techno economic evaluation of biomass gasifier for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses the design, performance and economic evaluation of biomass based open core downdraft gasifier for industrial process heat application. The gasifier is having feed rate as 90 kg h-1 and producing about 850 MJ h-1 of heat. The gasifier has been installed in M/S Phosphate India Pvt. Limited, Udaipur ...

  4. nutritional and economic evaluation of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nutritional and economic evaluation of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as a dietary supplement in West African Dwarf goats. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Moringa oleifera leaves may have the potential to enhance nutritional status, growth performance, and health of ruminant animals when used as part of their ...

  5. Economic Evaluation of Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dukhovny, Dmitry; Lorch, Scott A.; Schmidt, Barbara; Doyle, Lex W.; Kok, Joke H.; Roberts, Robin S.; Kamholz, Karen L.; Wang, Na; Mao, Wenyang; Zupancic, John A. F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of treatment with caffeine compared with placebo for apnea of prematurity in infants with birth weights less than 1250 g, from birth through 18 to 21 months' corrected age. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective economic evaluation of the cost per

  6. Economic evaluation of national identification and recording systems for pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saatkamp, H.W.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Geers, R.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Goedseels, V.

    1997-01-01

    Four national identification and recording (I&R) systems for the Belgian pig industry were evaluated economically, using a computer simulation model. These systems were: (1) the previous system; (2) a revised system (based on the previous one); (3) a system based on electronic identification;

  7. Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the demographic variables and socio-economic status on the prevalence of health hazards amongst residents of Akure North Local Government, Ondo State, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive research design of the survey type. The population for this study was estimated to be 131,587 residents.

  8. Evaluation of fusion study from socio-economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, S.; Okano, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Nagumo, S.; Tokimatsu, K.; Tobita, K.

    2005-01-01

    A fusion research project was evaluated from the aspects of socio-economics and its possible economic benefit. Research project itself has large economic impacts and it appears in a different way in different time. Four categories were identified as such mechanisms; direct economic effect by purchase and employment, the growth of local community and its economy, an improvement of technical capability of the industry stimulated by the development, and fusion energy supply under environmental constraints. Industrial effects were analysed from actual R and D program and found to yield considerable economic outcome, although contribution by the research itself is far smaller than that required for industry before actual commercial products can be produced. Economic value of fusion energy could be huge, but appears several decades future, and should be reduced by discount rate and success probability. Its value is more important as a part of environmental policy. Value of the fusion research at present age cannot be estimated as actual benefit, but as the effectiveness in the policy, or benefit for public that is now regarded as a kind of Externality

  9. Evaluation of fusion study from socio-economic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, S. [Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)]. E-mail: s-konishi@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Okano, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (Japan); Ogawa, Y. [University of Tokyo (Japan); Nagumo, S. [Japan Research Institute (Japan); Tokimatsu, K. [Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (Japan); Tobita, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

    2005-11-15

    A fusion research project was evaluated from the aspects of socio-economics and its possible economic benefit. Research project itself has large economic impacts and it appears in a different way in different time. Four categories were identified as such mechanisms; direct economic effect by purchase and employment, the growth of local community and its economy, an improvement of technical capability of the industry stimulated by the development, and fusion energy supply under environmental constraints. Industrial effects were analysed from actual R and D program and found to yield considerable economic outcome, although contribution by the research itself is far smaller than that required for industry before actual commercial products can be produced. Economic value of fusion energy could be huge, but appears several decades future, and should be reduced by discount rate and success probability. Its value is more important as a part of environmental policy. Value of the fusion research at present age cannot be estimated as actual benefit, but as the effectiveness in the policy, or benefit for public that is now regarded as a kind of Externality.

  10. Economic evaluation of bids for nuclear power plants. 1999 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) in a country is a major undertaking for all entities involved. The necessary planning work and co-ordination of the different fields of interest, from the point of view of governments, authorities, industries, universities and of the general public, must be done on a long term basis. This IAEA report may help support the work of the utility in the bidding process, especially in the economic bid evaluation. The different methods, aspects and parameters described should be regarded as a guide. The report's target criterion of lowest levelised discounted electricity generation costs (LDEGC) is a very useful and practical way of ranking bids. In view of the huge investment needed, the owner's country must be fully committed to a nuclear programme. A nuclear programme also requires a guarantee of long term financing, which implies the provision of local and foreign contributions. The necessary staff for all of the various areas of a nuclear programme must be recruited and trained. Within the planning phase, the bid invitation specification (BIS) has to be prepared and sent out in order to receive bids for the scope of supply and services desired by the owner. The evaluation of the bids received from the suppliers in response to the BIS is a huge and long-term task. The evaluation process should lead to the selection of the best bidder and at least to the final decision on the partners constructing the NPP. The responsibility for the entire bidding process lies with the plant owner. For technology transfer, two requirements need to be satisfied: the owner needs a well established and experienced engineering capability, and the supplier must be ready to transfer the agreed technology in such a way as to support the project goals. During the bid evaluation process, all aspects of the technical, financial and contractual approaches must be considered. Nowadays, political, socioeconomic and public acceptance aspects play a

  11. Theoretical and methodological basis for the formation and evaluation of the level of the economic system's strategic economic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljushin Vladislav Vladimirovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current level of business activity of socio-economic systems of different scale and insufficient to increase their overall potential. To solve this problem, the first priority is the effective management of their strategic and economic potential. Managerial decision-making about the use of economic resources strategic socio-economic systems requires the development of a methodology to identify and evaluate strategic and economic potential.

  12. Vacuum boilers developed heating surfaces technic and economic efficiency evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodina, E. N.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Semenov, B. A.

    2018-01-01

    The vacuum boilers as manufacturing proto types application analysis was carried out, the possible directions for the heating surfaces development are identified with a view to improving the energy efficiency. Economic characteristics to evaluate the vacuum boilers application efficiency (Net Discounted Income (NDI), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Profitability Index (PI) and Payback Period) are represented. The given type boilers application technic and economic efficiency criteria were established. NDI changing curves depending on the finning coefficient and operating pressure were obtained as a result of the conducted calculation studies.

  13. Angra 3 - economic and financial evaluation of the enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Ronaldo Barata de

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an updated economic-financial evaluation of Angra 3 Nuclear Power Plant project and estimates the lowest power tariff value at which power potentially made available may be commercialized and yet ensures the project a profitability level agreeable to the interests of economic agents and shareholders. According to the project evaluation practice, Angra 3 power generation was considered separately from ELETRONUCLEAR operating plants (Angra 1 and Angra 2), thus preventing result distortions bound to occur if the economic-financial variables of the new project were analyzed associated with financial commitments and commercialization conditions resulting from the project implementation process and the generated power commercialization conditions, respectively. For this evaluation different technical and economic scenarios were devised, and the theory of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) for Own Capital cost and that of Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) were used in addition to the forecast of the Statement of Results and Free Cash flow of Shareholders throughout the power plant life, which is the estimate basis for the lowest power tariff value and the Internal Return Rate (IRR) of the project. (author)

  14. Integrated Emergy and Economic Evaluation of Lotus-Root ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotus (Neumbo nucifera, Gaertn) is the most important aquatic vegetable in China, with a cultivation history of over 3000 years. The emergy, energy, material, and money flows of three lotus root cultivation modes in Wanqingsha, Nansha District, Guangzhou, China were examined using Energy Systems Language models and emergy evaluation to better understand their ecological and economic characteristics on multiple spatial and temporal scales. The natural resource foundations, economic characteristics and sustainability of these modes were evaluated and compared. The results showed that although all three modes were highly dependent on purchased emergy inputs, their potential impacts as measured by the local (ELRL) and global (ELRW) environmental loading ratios were less than 1.2 and 0.7, respectively. The lotus-fish mode was the most sustainable with its emergy index of sustainable development (EISD) 2.09 and 2.13 times that of the pure lotus and lotus-shrimp modes, respectively. All three lotus-root production modes had superior economic viability, since their Output/Input ratio ranged from 2.56 to 4.95. The results indicated that agricultural systems may have different environmental impacts and sustainability characteristics at different spatial and temporal scales, and that these impacts and characteristics can be simultaneously explored using integrated emergy and economic evaluations. This study provides some major new insights about agriculture and its potenti

  15. Economic evaluations and randomized trials in spinal disorders: principles and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korthals-de Bos, Ingeborg; van Tulder, Maurits; van Dieten, Hiske; Bouter, Lex

    2004-02-15

    Descriptive methodologic recommendations. To help researchers designing, conducting, and reporting economic evaluations in the field of back and neck pain. Economic evaluations of both existing and new therapeutic interventions are becoming increasingly important. There is a need to improve the methods of economic evaluations in the field of spinal disorders. To improve the methods of economic evaluations in the field of spinal disorders, this article describes the various steps in an economic evaluation, using as example a study on the cost-effectiveness of manual therapy, physiotherapy, and usual care provided by the general practitioner for patients with neck pain. An economic evaluation is a study in which two or more interventions are systematically compared with regard to both costs and effects. There are four types of economic evaluations, based on analysis of: (1) cost-effectiveness, (2) cost-utility, (3) cost-minimization, and (4) cost-benefit. The cost-utility analysis is a special case of cost-effectiveness analysis. The first step in all these economic evaluations is to identify the perspective of the study. The choice of the perspective will have consequences for the identification of costs and effects. Secondly, the alternatives that will be compared should be identified. Thirdly, the relevant costs and effects should be identified. Economic evaluations are usually performed from a societal perspective and include consequently direct health care costs, direct nonhealth care costs, and indirect costs. Fourthly, effect data are collected by means of questionnaires or interviews, and relevant cost data with regard to effect measures and health care utilization, work absenteeism, travel expenses, use of over-the-counter medication, and help from family and friends, are collected by means of cost diaries, questionnaires, or (telephone) interviews. Fifthly, real costs are calculated, or the costs are estimated on the basis of real costs, guideline prices

  16. A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluations of Pacemaker Telemonitoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villegas, Antonio; Catalán-Matamoros, Daniel; Martín-Saborido, Carlos; Villegas-Tripiana, Irene; Robles-Musso, Emilio

    2016-02-01

    Over the last decade, telemedicine applied to pacemaker monitoring has undergone extraordinary growth. It is not known if telemonitoring is more or less efficient than conventional monitoring. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review analyzing the available evidence on resource use and health outcomes in both follow-up modalities. We searched 11 databases and included studies published up until November 2014. The inclusion criteria were: a) experimental or observational design; b) studies based on complete economic evaluations; c) patients with pacemakers, and d) telemonitoring compared with conventional hospital monitoring. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria, providing information on 2852 patients, with a mean age of 81 years. The main indication for device implantation was atrioventricular block. With telemonitoring, cardiovascular events were detected and treated 2 months earlier than with conventional monitoring, thus reducing length of hospital stay by 34% and reducing routine and emergency hospital visits as well. There were no significant intergroup differences in perceived quality of life or number of adverse events. The cost of telemonitoring was 60% lower than that of conventional hospital monitoring. Compared with conventional monitoring, cardiovascular events were detected earlier and the number or hospitalizations and hospital visits was reduced with pacemaker telemonitoring. In addition, the costs associated with follow-up were lower with telemonitoring. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Solar energy system economic evaluation: Contemporary Newman, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    An economic evaluation of performance of the solar energy system (based on life cycle costs versus energy savings) for five cities considered to be representative of a broad range of environmental and economic conditions in the United States is discussed. The considered life cycle costs are: hardware, installation, maintenance, and operating costs for the solar unique components of the total system. The total system takes into consideration long term average environmental conditions, loads, fuel costs, and other economic factors applicable in each of five cities. Selection criteria are based on availability of long term weather data, heating degree days, cold water supply temperature, solar insolation, utility rates, market potential, and type of solar system.

  18. Evaluation of the economic and financial management in Mexican microenterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malena Portal Boza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The exhibit features Mexican microenterprises today give evidence of the problems that they face in terms of managing their activities, where the role of economic-financial elements is perceived. Although the issue has been addressed in previous studies the contribution of this study is to evaluate in an integrated manner the level of economic and financial management (GEF in micro and impact on business results. To do an index is constructed from indicators synthetic methodology using the principal components factor analysis, accompanied by linear regression exercises. The results confirm the presence of elements of GEF in micro studied. Moreover, it was found that the extent to which GEF elements are incorporated in its activities, the impact on their business results will be positive. These observations constitute the prelude to the creation of public policies seeking to establish improvement strategies for such companies, besides that fosters future research for analysis but by sectors of economic activity.

  19. Economic evaluations of pharmacist-managed services in people with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Yeo, Q Q; Ko, Y

    2016-04-01

    To review and evaluate the most recent literature on the economic outcomes of pharmacist-managed services in people with diabetes. The global prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Although pharmacist-managed services have been shown to improve people's health outcomes, the economic impact of these programmes remains unclear. A systematic review was conducted of six databases. Study inclusion criteria were: (1) original research; (2) evaluation of pharmacist-managed services in people with diabetes; (3) an economic evaluation; (4) English-language publication; and (5) full-text, published between January 2006 and December 2014. The quality of the full economic evaluations reviewed was evaluated using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist. A total of 2204 articles were screened and 25 studies were selected. These studies were conducted in a community pharmacy (n = 10), a clinic- /hospital-based outpatient facility (n = 8), or others. Pharmacist-managed services included targeted education (n = 24), general pharmacotherapeutic monitoring (n = 21), health screening or laboratory testing services (n = 9), immunization services (n = 2) and pharmacokinetic monitoring (n = 1). Compared with usual care, pharmacist-managed services resulted in cost savings that varied from $7 to $65,000 ($8 to $85,000 in 2014 US dollars) per person per year, and generated higher quality-adjusted life years with lower costs. Benefit-to-cost ratios ranged from 1:1 to 8.5:1. Among the 25 studies reviewed, 11 were full economic evaluations of moderate quality. Pharmacist-managed services had a positive return in terms of economic viability. With the expanding role of pharmacists in the healthcare sector, alongside increasing health expenditure, future economic studies of high quality are needed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of these services. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  20. A systematic review of economic evaluations of health and health-related interventions in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koehlmoos Tracey P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic evaluation is used for effective resource allocation in health sector. Accumulated knowledge about economic evaluation of health programs in Bangladesh is not currently available. While a number of economic evaluation studies have been performed in Bangladesh, no systematic investigation of the studies has been done to our knowledge. The aim of this current study is to systematically review the published articles in peer-reviewed journals on economic evaluation of health and health-related interventions in Bangladesh. Methods Literature searches was carried out during November-December 2008 with a combination of key words, MeSH terms and other free text terms as suitable for the purpose. A comprehensive search strategy was developed to search Medline by the PubMed interface. The first specific interest was mapping the articles considering the areas of exploration by economic evaluation and the second interest was to scrutiny the methodological quality of studies. The methodological quality of economic evaluation of all articles has been scrutinized against the checklist developed by Evers Silvia and associates. Result Of 1784 potential articles 12 were accepted for inclusion. Ten studies described the competing alternatives clearly and only two articles stated the perspective of their articles clearly. All studies included direct cost, incurred by the providers. Only one study included the cost of community donated resources and volunteer costs. Two studies calculated the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER. Six of the studies applied some sort of sensitivity analysis. Two of the studies discussed financial affordability of expected implementers and four studies discussed the issue of generalizability for application in different context. Conclusion Very few economic evaluation studies in Bangladesh are found in different areas of health and health-related interventions, which does not provide a strong basis

  1. 20 CFR 416.929 - How we evaluate symptoms, including pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we evaluate symptoms, including pain. 416....929 How we evaluate symptoms, including pain. (a) General. In determining whether you are disabled, we consider all your symptoms, including pain, and the extent to which your symptoms can reasonably be...

  2. Economic evaluation of closure cap barrier materials study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M.G.; Bhutani, J.S.; Mead, S.M.

    1993-09-01

    Volume II of the Economic Evaluation of the Closure Cap Barrier Materials, Revision I contains detailed cost estimates for closure cap barrier materials. The cost estimates incorporate the life cycle costs for a generic hazardous waste seepage basin closure cap under the RCRA Post Closure Period of thirty years. The economic evaluation assessed six barrier material categories. Each of these categories consists of several composite cover system configurations, which were used to develop individual cost estimates. The information contained in this report is not intended to be used as a cost estimating manual. This information provides the decision makers with the ability to screen barrier materials, cover system configurations, and identify cost-effective materials for further consideration.

  3. New approaches to the economic evaluation of fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelrigg, G.A.; Lietzke, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    The economic evaluation of fusion research to date has focussed on the benefits of essentially unlimited energy for future generations. In this paper it is shown that energy research in general, and fusion research in particular, also provides benefits in the short term, benefitting us today as well as future generations. Short-term benefits are the result of two distinct aspects of fusion research. First, fusion research provides information for decision making on both the continuing fusion research efforts and on other energy research programs. Second, fusion research provides an expectation of a future energy source thereby promoting accelerated consumption of existing fossil fuels today. Both short-term benefits can be quantitatively evaluated and both are quite substantial. Together, these short-term benefits form the primary economic rationale for fusion research

  4. Economic evaluation of closure cap barrier materials study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrato, M.G.; Bhutani, J.S.; Mead, S.M.

    1993-09-01

    Volume II of the Economic Evaluation of the Closure Cap Barrier Materials, Revision I contains detailed cost estimates for closure cap barrier materials. The cost estimates incorporate the life cycle costs for a generic hazardous waste seepage basin closure cap under the RCRA Post Closure Period of thirty years. The economic evaluation assessed six barrier material categories. Each of these categories consists of several composite cover system configurations, which were used to develop individual cost estimates. The information contained in this report is not intended to be used as a cost estimating manual. This information provides the decision makers with the ability to screen barrier materials, cover system configurations, and identify cost-effective materials for further consideration

  5. Economic Evaluation in Stratified Medicine: Methodological Issues and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Fugel, Hans-Joerg; Nuijten, Mark; Postma, Maarten; Redekop, Ken

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Stratified Medicine (SM) is becoming a practical reality with the targeting of medicines by using a biomarker or genetic-based diagnostic to identify the eligible patient sub-population. Like any healthcare intervention, SM interventions have costs and consequences that must be considered by reimbursement authorities with limited resources. Methodological standards and guidelines exist for economic evaluations in clinical pharmacology and are an important component for...

  6. Economic evaluation method of new facilities for uranium ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The importance of economic evaluation in feasibility studies is underlined. Notions of discounting are recalled. Profits of a project are analyzed. Studies can be relatively simple for a first estimation if investment cost and production cost are available because profits of a new production unit or savings obtained by a new investment are determined. But for integrated projects mine-plant the studies are complex especially for complete exploitation account [fr

  7. A systematic review and overview of health economic evaluations of emergency laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Bampoe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the economic impact of emergency laparotomy (EL surgery in healthcare systems around the world. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the primary resource utilisation, healthcare economic and societal costs of EL in adults in different countries. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Central Register Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and CINAHL were searched for full and partial economic analyses of EL published between 1 January 1991 and 31 December 2015. Quality of studies was assessed using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria (CHEC checklist. Results Sixteen studies were included from a range of countries. One study was a full economic analysis. Fifteen studies were partial economic evaluations. These studies revealed that emergency abdominal surgery is expensive compared to similar elective surgery when comparing primary resource utilisation costs, with an important societal impact. Most contemporaneous studies indicate that in-hospital costs for EL are in excess of US$10,000 per patient episode, rising substantially when societal costs are considered. Discussion EL is a high-risk and costly procedure with a disproportionate financial burden for healthcare providers, relative to national funding provisions and wider societal cost impact. There is substantial heterogeneity in the methodologies and quality of published economic evaluations of EL; therefore, the true economic costs of EL are yet to be fully defined. Future research should focus on developing strategies to embed health economic evaluations within national programmes aiming to improve EL care, including developing the required measures and infrastructure. Conclusions Emergency laparotomy is expensive, with a significant cost burden to healthcare and systems and society worldwide. Novel strategies for reducing this econmic burden should urgently be explored if greater access to

  8. The European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURO NHEED) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, John; Ulmann, Philippe; Glanville, Julie; Boulenger, Stéphanie; Drummond, Michael; de Pouvourville, Gérard

    2004-06-01

    This paper provides a first outline of the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURO NHEED) project. The project is funded by the European Commission and will implement, in 7 European centres based in France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom, databases on the economic evaluation of healthcare interventions. The network will be based on two existing and well-established resources, namely the UK's NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), and France's Connaissances et Décision en EConomie de la Santé (CODECS) database. EURO NHEED will initially cover 17 European countries and will provide its users with bibliographic records, detailing the main characteristics of all included studies. In addition, structured abstracts will be provided for articles identified as full economic evaluations (cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness or cost-utility), which will offer a detailed critique of the findings and the methodology used. These databases will be accessible free of charge on the Internet. The EURO NHEED project is the first attempt to develop such a resource on a multi-national basis. The project will bring together Health Economists and Information Scientists from the European Union and beyond and is anticipated to facilitate a number of benefits and advances in the field of Health Economics. These include harmonisation and increased understanding of the theory and methodology of economic evaluation in healthcare, the interpretation of the generalisability of studies to target settings, and the influence of healthcare system variations among the European countries. The project will therefore advance the state of the art in collecting, summarising, critiquing and disseminating economic evaluations of healthcare conducted within Europe.

  9. A critique of recent economic evaluations of community water fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Lee; Thiessen, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although community water fluoridation (CWF) results in a range of potential contaminant exposures, little attention has been given to many of the possible impacts. A central argument for CWF is its cost-effectiveness. The U.S. Government states that $1 spent on CWF saves $38 in dental treatment costs. Objective: To examine the reported cost-effectiveness of CWF. Methods: Methods and underlying data from the primary U.S. economic evaluation of CWF are analyzed and corrected calculations are described. Other recent economic evaluations are also examined. Results: Recent economic evaluations of CWF contain defective estimations of both costs and benefits. Incorrect handling of dental treatment costs and flawed estimates of effectiveness lead to overestimated benefits. The real-world costs to water treatment plants and communities are not reflected. Conclusions: Minimal correction reduced the savings to $3 per person per year (PPPY) for a best-case scenario, but this savings is eliminated by the estimated cost of treating dental fluorosis. PMID:25471729

  10. Evaluation of economical at a uranium enrichment demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugitsue, Noritake

    2001-01-01

    In this report, the economy of technical achievement apply in the uranium enrichment demonstration plant is evaluated. From the evaluation, it can be concluded that the expected purpose was achieved because there was a definite economic prospect to commercial plant. The benefit analysis of thirteen years operation of the uranium enrichment demonstration plant also provides a financial aspect of the uranium enrichment business. Therefore, the performance, price and reliability of the centrifuge is an important factor in the uranium enrichment business. And the continuous development of a centrifuge while considering balance with the development cost is necessary for the business in the future. (author)

  11. Modeling companion diagnostics in economic evaluations of targeted oncology therapies: systematic review and methodological checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Brett; Tan, Marcus; Harris, Anthony; Lorgelly, Paula

    2015-02-01

    The successful use of a targeted therapy is intrinsically linked to the ability of a companion diagnostic to correctly identify patients most likely to benefit from treatment. The aim of this study was to review the characteristics of companion diagnostics that are of importance for inclusion in an economic evaluation. Approaches for including these characteristics in model-based economic evaluations are compared with the intent to describe best practice methods. Five databases and government agency websites were searched to identify model-based economic evaluations comparing a companion diagnostic and subsequent treatment strategy to another alternative treatment strategy with model parameters for the sensitivity and specificity of the companion diagnostic (primary synthesis). Economic evaluations that limited model parameters for the companion diagnostic to only its cost were also identified (secondary synthesis). Quality was assessed using the Quality of Health Economic Studies instrument. 30 studies were included in the review (primary synthesis n = 12; secondary synthesis n = 18). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios may be lower when the only parameter for the companion diagnostic included in a model is the cost of testing. Incorporating the test's accuracy in addition to its cost may be a more appropriate methodological approach. Altering the prevalence of the genetic biomarker, specific population tested, type of test, test accuracy and timing/sequence of multiple tests can all impact overall model results. The impact of altering a test's threshold for positivity is unknown as it was not addressed in any of the included studies. Additional quality criteria as outlined in our methodological checklist should be considered due to the shortcomings of standard quality assessment tools in differentiating studies that incorporate important test-related characteristics and those that do not. There is a need to refine methods for incorporating the characteristics

  12. Economic evaluation of dental sealants: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlotan, Marvellous; Chen, Bradley; Fontanilla, Tiana M; Chen, Annie; Fan, Victoria Y

    2018-02-01

    To systematically review the literature on economic evaluations of dental sealants and examine the costs and effectiveness of caries prevention using sealants. Of 21 full-text articles examined, a total of 13 were included in this study. These studies are grouped by the type of intervention as follows: (i) sealants compared with no sealants; (ii) sealants compared with other forms of caries prevention; (iii) resin-based sealants compared with glass-ionomer sealants; (iv) different sealing strategies in primary teeth; (v) different sealing strategies in permanent teeth; and (vi) sealants based on school- or clinic-based setting of delivery. All currency is reported in constant 2010 US$. Cost-effectiveness analyses differed due to varying study designs, assumptions, sealant delivery settings, outcomes, caries risk assessment and study durations. Findings varied on the cost-effectiveness of sealants compared with other caries-preventive strategies. Under the assumption of equal caries risk, always sealing primary molars appeared to be the most effective strategy, whereas risk-based sealing was the optimal strategy with differing caries risk. Studies that assessed sealing strategies in permanent teeth reported that risk-based sealing was more cost-effective than not sealing, but they differed on the cost-effectiveness of risk-based seal compared with non-risk-based seal. Sealants delivered in school settings had mixed results on costs but were as equally effective as sealants delivered in private practices. The cost-effectiveness of sealants is dependent on the conditions of delivery. The list of cost-effectiveness ratios for each intervention can support policy makers to estimate expected returns on their investments in dental sealants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Economic evaluation of radiation processing in urban solid wastes treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassiti, F.; Lacquaniti, L.; Liuzzo, G.

    During the last few years, quite a number of studies have been done, or are still in course, on disinfection of urban liquid wastes by means of ionizing radiations. The experience gained by SANDIA pilot plant of irradiation on dried sewage sludge, together with the recently presented conceptual design of another plant handling granular solids, characterized by high efficiency and simple running, have shown the possibility of extending this process to the treatment of urban solid wastes. As a matter of fact, the problems connected to the pathogenic aspects of sludge handling are often similar to those met during the disposal of urban solid wastes. This is even more so in the case of their reuse in agriculture and zootechny. The present paper introduces the results of an analysis carried out in order to evaluate the economical advantage of inserting irradiation treatment in some process scheme for management of urban solid wastes. Taking as an example a comprehensive pattern of urban solid wastes management which has been analysed and estimated economically in previous works, we first evaluated the extra capital and operational costs due to the irradiation and then analysed economical justification, taking into account the increasing commercial value of the by-products.

  14. [Performance of self-help groups and their economic evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, H D; Trojan, A; Nickel, S

    2009-01-01

    Hoffmann von Fallersleben is quoted with the sentence "Self-help is worthwhile, because it does not demand anything from others". This sounds catchy; it is, however, wrong: Self-help groups ask for support, particularly for financial resources for the work of either individual, highly organized self-help associations or for general support of self-help groups via local contact and information centers ("contact points for self-help groups"). With this request for economic "investments" in self-help, the question arises whether this is profitable for the country, the local authority or the social health insurance. In principle, the initial answer to this is: yes, the work of self-help groups is worthwhile for a single person, but also for the larger community, as various kinds of services are provided by self-help groups and organizations. Despite many surveys of members or co-operation partners which show positive effects of self-help groups, the question remains whether services of self-help groups can be measured and economically evaluated. The socio- political question regarding funding is closely connected to the idea of an economic evaluation of self-help groups. The aim of this article is to summarize and discuss which empiric approaches and findings are available on this subject. The monetary value for the work done per member of self-help groups and year lies between approximately 700 and 900 EUR.

  15. Economic evaluation of interventions designed to reduce Clostridium difficile infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brain

    Full Text Available Healthcare decision-makers are increasingly expected to balance increasing demand for health services with a finite budget. The role of economic evaluation in healthcare is increasing and this research provides decision-makers with new information about the management of Clostridium difficile infection, from an economic perspective.A model-based economic evaluation was undertaken to identify the most cost-effective healthcare intervention relating to the reduction of Clostridium difficile transmission. Efficacy evidence was synthesised from the literature and was used to inform the effectiveness of both bundled approaches and stand-alone interventions, where appropriate intervention combinations were coupled together. Changes in health outcomes were estimated by combining information about intervention effectiveness and its subsequent impact on quality of life.A bundled approach of improving hand hygiene and environmental cleaning produces the best combination of increased health benefits and cost-savings. It has the highest mean net monetary benefit when compared to all other interventions. This intervention remains the optimal decision under different clinical circumstances, such as when mortality rate and patient length of stay are increased. Bundled interventions offered the best opportunity for health improvements.These findings provide healthcare decision-makers with novel information about the allocation of scarce resources relating to Clostridium difficile. If investments are not made in interventions that clearly yield gains in health outcomes, the allocation and use of scarce healthcare resources is inappropriate and improvements in health outcomes will be forgone.

  16. Economic evaluation of HTRs as applied to an oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djokolelono, M.; Soedibjo, R.; Padmosoebroto, S.

    1989-01-01

    General design requirement pertinent to the applied oil field is presented. Economic calculation of HTRs application in the enhanced oil recovery was performed. It includes the consideration of the current structure as practised so far in the oil industry in Indonesia. Sensitivity studies were done to enlighten the influence of uncertainties related to the HTRs, i.e. capital costs, oil prices, depreciations, investment credits, domestic obligation, financing terms. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs

  17. Economic Evaluations of Strategies to Prevent Hospital-Acquired Pressure Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Wrechelle; Cheung, Amanda; Baylis, Barry; Clayden, Nancy; Conly, John M; Ghali, William A; Ho, Chester H; Kaufman, Jaime; Stelfox, Henry T; Hogan, David B

    2017-07-01

    To provide information from a review of literature about economic evaluations of preventive strategies for pressure injuries (PIs). This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Identify the purpose and methods used for this study.2. Compare costs and effectiveness related to preventative strategies for PIs. BACKGROUND: Pressure injuries (PIs) are a common and resource-intensive challenge for acute care hospitals worldwide. While a number of preventive strategies have the potential to reduce the cost of hospital-acquired PIs, it is unclear what approach is the most effective. The authors performed a narrative review of the literature on economic evaluations of preventive strategies to survey current findings and identify important factors in economic assessments. Ovid, MEDLINE, NHS Economic Evaluation Databases, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsSELECTION CRITERIA: Potentially relevant original research articles and systematic reviews were considered. Selection criteria included articles that were written in English, provided data on cost or economic evaluations of preventive strategies of PIs in acute care, and published between January 2004 and September 2015. Data were abstracted from the articles using a standardized approach to evaluate how the items on the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist were addressed. The searches identified 192 references. Thirty-three original articles were chosen for full-text reviews. Nineteen of these articles provided clear descriptions of interventions, study methods, and outcomes considered. Limitations in the available literature prevent firm conclusions from being reached about the relative economic merits of the various approaches to the prevention of PIs. The authors' review

  18. Economical evaluation of damaged vacuum insulation panels in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. M.; Lee, H. Y.; Choi, G. S.; Kang, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    In Korea, thermal insulation standard of buildings have been tightened annually to satisfy the passive house standard from the year 2009. The current domestic policies about disseminating green buildings are progressively conducted. All buildings should be the zero energy building in the year 2025, obligatorily. The method is applied to one of the key technologies for high-performance insulation for zero energy building. The vacuum insulation panel is an excellent high performance insulation. But thermal performance of damaged vacuum insulation panels is reduced significantly. In this paper, the thermal performance of damaged vacuum insulation panels was compared and analyzed. The measurement result of thermal performance depends on the core material type. The insulation of building envelope is usually selected by economic feasibility. To evaluate the economic feasibility of VIPs, the operation cost was analyzed by simulation according to the types and damaged ratio of VIPs

  19. Economic evaluations of personalized medicine: existing challenges and current developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabaruddin FH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatiha H Shabaruddin,1 Nigel D Fleeman,2 Katherine Payne3 1Department of Pharmacy, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group (LRiG, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; 3Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Personalized medicine, with the aim of safely, effectively, and cost-effectively targeting treatment to a prespecified patient population, has always been a long-time goal within health care. It is often argued that personalizing treatment will inevitably improve clinical outcomes for patients and help achieve more effective use of health care resources. Demand is increasing for demonstrable evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness to support the use of personalized medicine in health care. This paper begins with an overview of the existing challenges in conducting economic evaluations of genetics- and genomics-targeted technologies, as an example of personalized medicine. Our paper illustrates the complexity of the challenges faced by these technologies by highlighting the variations in the issues faced by diagnostic tests for somatic variations, generally referring to genetic variation in a tumor, and germline variations, generally referring to inherited genetic variation in enzymes involved in drug metabolic pathways. These tests are typically aimed at stratifying patient populations into subgroups on the basis of clinical effectiveness (response or safety (avoidance of adverse events. The paper summarizes the data requirements for economic evaluations of genetics and genomics-based technologies while outlining that the main challenges relating to data requirements revolve around the availability and quality of existing data. We conclude by discussing current developments aimed to address the challenges of assessing the cost-effectiveness of genetics and genomics-based technologies, which revolve around two central issues that are

  20. Economic evaluation studies in nuclear medicine. A methodological review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambhir, S.S.; Schwimmer, J.

    2000-01-01

    The growing need for evaluation of the utility of new nuclear medicine technologies has spawned a few economic studies ranging from preliminary indications of cost savings to complete decision analysis models incorporating costs and quality of life. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the methodological quality of economic analyses of nuclear medicine procedures which targeted cost-effectiveness or cost-utility issues published in the medical literature during the years 1985-1999. A computerized literature search was used to identify original investigations from the medical literature which included an economic analysis of a nuclear medicine procedure. Each economic analysis article was evaluated by two independent reviewers for adherence to ten accepted methodological criteria. Of the 29 articles meeting the search criteria, only six (21%) conformed to all ten methodological criteria. Published economic analyses of nuclear medicine procedures usually do not meet accepted methodological standards and could be significantly improved to achieve overall better quality relative to similar analyses in the literature from other medical fields. Continued improvement in the number and quality of economic studies is critically needed for the future competitiveness of nuclear medicine studies

  1. EVALUATION OF BARTIN CITY ECONOMIC CONSTRUCT WITH DIGITALIZED SWOT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NERMİN ÇELİK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, firstly besides weakness and strengths of Bartın economy, threats and opportunities were presented by means of SWOT analysis. Secondly obtained findings were evaluated in comparative way and priority weights of each one were calculated by means of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP which is an evaluation approach with multiple criteria. Finally, the weak aspects were taken attention on the basis of quantitative findings and the alternative strategies towards to economic development of the city were presented. The weakest side of the city is high unemployment ratio and immigration problem, the most strength side of the city is the using for trading of Bartın port. Besides preparing that study as a first for Bartın city which is within the Encouragement Law, offering the solutions by evaluating the current and potential situations can be described as original sides of this study.

  2. Genetic gain and economic values of selection strategies including semen traits in three- and four-way crossbreeding systems for swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Peña, D; Knox, R V; MacNeil, M D; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2015-03-01

    Four semen traits: volume (VOL), concentration (CON), progressive motility of spermatozoa (MOT), and abnormal spermatozoa (ABN) provide complementary information on boar fertility. Assessment of the impact of selection for semen traits is hindered by limited information on economic parameters. Objectives of this study were to estimate economic values for semen traits and to evaluate the genetic gain when these traits are incorporated into traditional selection strategies in a 3-tier system of swine production. Three-way (maternal nucleus lines A and B and paternal nucleus line C) and 4-way (additional paternal nucleus line D) crossbreeding schemes were compared. A novel population structure that accommodated selection for semen traits was developed. Three selection strategies were simulated. Selection Strategy I (baseline) encompassed selection for maternal traits: number of pigs born alive (NBA), litter birth weight (LBW), adjusted 21-d litter weight (A21), and number of pigs at 21 d (N21); and paternal traits: number of days to 113.5 kg (D113), backfat (BF), ADG, feed efficiency (FE), and carcass lean % (LEAN). Selection Strategy II included Strategy I and the number of usable semen doses per collection (DOSES), a function of the 4 semen traits. Selection Strategy III included Strategy I and the 4 semen traits individually. The estimated economic values of VOL, CON, MOT, ABN, and DOSES for 7 to 1 collections/wk ranged from $0.21 to $1.44/mL, $0.12 to $0.83/10 spermatozoa/mm, $0.61 to $12.66/%, -$0.53 to -$10.88/%, and $2.01 to $41.43/%, respectively. The decrease in the relative economic values of semen traits and DOSES with higher number of collections per wk was sharper between 1 and 2.33 collections/wk than between 2.33 and 7 collections/wk. The higher economic value of MOT and ABN relative to VOL and CON could be linked to the genetic variances and covariances of these traits. Average genetic gains for the maternal traits were comparable across strategies

  3. Synthesis studies as the basis for economic evaluations in health: the need for their quality appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Bolaños-Díaz, Rafael; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública, Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Escuela de Postgrado, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Médico especialista en Medicina Interna, Magíster en Epidemiología Clínica, Magíster en Economía de la Salud.; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública, Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Escuela de Medicina, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas. Lima, Perú. Médico Cirujano, Magíster en Epidemiología Clínica.; Gutiérrez-Aguado, Alfonso; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública, Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad César Vallejo, Lima - Norte. Lima, Perú. Médico Especialista en Gestión en Salud.; Málaga, Germán; Centro De Excelencia CRONICAS, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico especialista en Medicina Interna, Doctor en Medicina.

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis studies (SS): systematic review and meta-analysis are the basis for developing Health Economic Evaluations (HEE). SS allow us to obtain parameters for estimating probabilities and effectiveness from the combination of the results of primary studies, and, as they include in their methodology the selection, evaluation, systematization and synthesis processes, they are considered the first level of hierarchy in scientific evidence. Nevertheless, they can be prone to bias and methodolog...

  4. Systematic review of economic evaluation analyses of available vaccines in Spain from 1990 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Isabel; Pérez-Camarero, Santiago; Del Llano, Juan; Peña, Luz María; Hidalgo-Vega, Alvaro

    2013-08-02

    The objective of this survey was to describe the evolution of economic evaluation studies on vaccines available in Spain. We conducted a systematic review of the economic evaluations published by Spanish researchers in major bibliographic databases available online from 1990 to 2012. For all references identified, we limited them to full economic evaluation carried out in Spanish vaccine programs. The following variables were analyzed: type of study, year of publication, vaccine evaluated, the herd immunity and the main methodological aspects proposed by international guidelines. The type of vaccines studied were Hepatitis A and B, Rotavirus, Influenza, Varicella, Tetanus, Measles, Human papillomavirus, Streptococcus pneumoniae infection and Neisseria meningitides serogroup C infection. A total of 34 references was included in the study. The number of economic evaluations has been increasing over the years by 86%. For many of the vaccines there were no economic evaluations, while others such as the vaccine against S. pneumoniae infection took up most of the studies. The non-vaccinated comparison was the most used strategy. The cost-effectiveness model was selected in 60% of cases. The most common health outcome was "cost per case prevented" and in 82% of the studies did not consider herd immunity. The results showed a cost-effectiveness ratio which was below breakeven. It is clear that the existence of a huge gap in this kind of work compared to other countries. Although the quality of the work discussed here was significant, we found many areas which could be improved. The reviewed literature exposed the great benefit of vaccination for society by analysing the health outcomes achieved for decades since its implementation. However, the evidence on the efficiency and effectiveness vaccination is not very high, and there are few studies about economic evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Technical and economic evaluation of nuclear seawater desalination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechko, A.G.; Romenkov, A.A.; Shishkin, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    The IAEA Cogeneration/Desalination Cost Model spreadsheets were used for the economic evaluation of sea water desalination plants coupled with small and medium size nuclear reactors developed in RDIPE. The results of calculations have shown that the cost of potable water is equal to or even below 1$/m 3 . This is very close to similar indices of the best fossil driven desalination plants. For remote and difficult-to-access regions, where the transportation share contributes significantly to the product water cost at fossil plants, the nuclear power sources of these reactor types are cost-efficient and can successfully compete with fossil power sources. (author)

  6. Brazilian Alcohol Program (Proalcool): economic re-evaluation and demand adjustments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da; Rocha Ferreira, L. da

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the economic impact on the Brazilian National Alcohol Programme caused by changes in the energy scenery, in view of recent oil price fall in the international market, and evaluate the necessary adjustments of the Programme according to the new Brazilian economic reality. The economic analysis concludes that the alcohol production, considering current production capacity and its investments, could be economically feasible at international oil prices near US$ 30.00. Excluding investments, its feasibility would be between US$ 18.00 and US$ 20.00 per equivalent oil barrel. Based on these conclusions, proposals for adjusting the PROALCOOL are discussed, including alternative pricing, fiscal and credit policies to control the alcohol-fuel demand. (author)

  7. What is the quality of economic evaluations of non-drug therapies? A systematic review and critical appraisal of economic evaluations of radiotherapy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, M; Weatherly, H L A; Ara, R; Basarir, H; Sculpher, M; Adams, R; Ahmed, H; Coles, C; Guerrero-Urbano, T; Nutting, C; Powell, M

    2014-10-01

    Breast, cervical and colorectal cancers are the three most frequent cancers in women, while lung, prostate and colorectal cancers are the most frequent in men. Much attention has been given to the economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals for treatment of cancer by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK and similar authorities internationally, while economic analysis developed for other types of anti-cancer interventions, including radiotherapy and surgery, are less common. Our objective was to review methods used in published cost-effectiveness studies evaluating radiotherapy for breast, cervical, colorectal, head and neck and prostate cancer, and to compare the economic evaluation methods applied with those defined in the guidelines used by the NICE technology appraisal programme. A systematic search of seven databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CDSR, NHSEED, HTA, DARE, EconLit) as well as research registers, the NICE website and conference proceedings was conducted in July 2012. Only economic evaluations of radiotherapy interventions in individuals diagnosed with cancer that included quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) or life-years (LYs) were included. Included studies were appraised on the basis of satisfying essential, preferred and UK-specific methods requirements, building on the NICE Reference Case for economic evaluations and on other methods guidelines. A total of 29 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria (breast 14, colorectal 2, prostate 10, cervical 0, head and neck 3). Only two studies were conducted in the UK (13 in the USA). Among essential methods criteria, the main issue was that only three (10%) of the studies used clinical-effectiveness estimates identified through systematic review of the literature. Similarly, only eight (28%) studies sourced health-related quality-of-life data directly from patients with the condition of interest. Other essential criteria (e.g. clear description of comparators, patient group indication

  8. A reference case for economic evaluations in osteoarthritis: an expert consensus article from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Cooper, Cyrus; Guillemin, Francis; Hochberg, Marc C; Tugwell, Peter; Arden, Nigel; Berenbaum, Francis; Boers, Maarten; Boonen, Annelies; Branco, Jaime C; Maria-Luisa, Brandi; Bruyère, Olivier; Gasparik, Andrea; Kanis, John A; Kvien, Tore K; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Pinedo-Villanueva, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Reiter-Niesert, Susanne; Rizzoli, René; Rovati, Lucio C; Severens, Johan L; Silverman, Stuart; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2014-12-01

    General recommendations for a reference case for economic studies in rheumatic diseases were published in 2002 in an initiative to improve the comparability of cost-effectiveness studies in the field. Since then, economic evaluations in osteoarthritis (OA) continue to show considerable heterogeneity in methodological approach. To develop a reference case specific for economic studies in OA, including the standard optimal care, with which to judge new pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions. Four subgroups of an ESCEO expert working group on economic assessments (13 experts representing diverse aspects of clinical research and/or economic evaluations) were charged with producing lists of recommendations that would potentially improve the comparability of economic analyses in OA: outcome measures, comparators, costs and methodology. These proposals were discussed and refined during a face-to-face meeting in 2013. They are presented here in the format of the recommendations of the recently published Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement, so that an initiative on economic analysis methodology might be consolidated with an initiative on reporting standards. Overall, three distinct reference cases are proposed, one for each hand, knee and hip OA; with diagnostic variations in the first two, giving rise to different treatment options: interphalangeal or thumb-based disease for hand OA and the presence or absence of joint malalignment for knee OA. A set of management strategies is proposed, which should be further evaluated to help establish a consensus on the "standard optimal care" in each proposed reference case. The recommendations on outcome measures, cost itemisation and methodological approaches are also provided. The ESCEO group proposes a set of disease-specific recommendations on the conduct and reporting of economic evaluations in OA that could help the standardisation and comparability of studies that evaluate

  9. Early economic evaluation of emerging health technologies: protocol of a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The concept of early health technology assessment, discussed well over a decade, has now been collaboratively implemented by industry, government, and academia to select and expedite the development of emerging technologies that may address the needs of patients and health systems. Early economic evaluation is essential to assess the value of emerging technologies, but empirical data to inform the current practice of early evaluation is limited. We propose a systematic review of early economic evaluation studies in order to better understand the current practice. Methods/design This protocol describes a systematic review of economic evaluation studies of regulated health technologies in which the evaluation is conducted prior to regulatory approval and when the technology effectiveness is not well established. Included studies must report an economic evaluation, defined as the comparative analysis of alternatives with respect to their associated costs and health consequences, and must evaluate some regulated health technology such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, high-risk medical devices, or biomarkers. We will conduct the literature search on multiple databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Databases, and EconLit. Additional citations will be identified via scanning reference lists and author searching. We suspect that many early economic evaluation studies are unpublished, especially those conducted for internal use only. Additionally, we use a chain-referral sampling approach to identify authors of unpublished studies who work in technology discovery and development, starting out with our contact lists and authors who published relevant studies. Citation screening and full-text review will be conducted by pairs of reviewers. Abstracted data will include those related to the decision context and decision problem of the early evaluation, evaluation methods (e.g., data sources, methods, and assumptions used to

  10. CONCEPTUALIZATIONS OF THE SOCIETAL PERSPECTIVE WITHIN ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Ruben M W A; van der Putten, Ingeborg M; Ruwaard, Dirk; Evers, Silvia M A A; Paulus, Aggie T G

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the societal perspective is conceptualized in economic evaluations and to assess how intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs), that is, the costs and benefits pertaining to sectors outside the healthcare sector, impact their results. Based on a search in July 2015 using PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsychINFO, a systematic literature review was performed for economic evaluations which were conducted from a societal perspective. Conceptualizations were assessed in NVivo version 11 using conventional and directed content analysis. Trial-based evaluations in the fields of musculoskeletal and mental disorders were analyzed further, focusing on the way ICBs impact the results of economic evaluations. A total of 107 studies were assessed, of which 74 (69.1 percent) provided conceptualizations of the societal perspective. These varied in types of costs included and in descriptions of cost bearers. Labor productivity costs were included in seventy-two studies (67.3 percent), while only thirty-eight studies (35.5 percent) included other ICBs, most of which entailed informal care and/or social care costs. ICBs within the educational and criminal justice sectors were each included five times. Most of the trial-based evaluations analyzed further (n = 21 of 28) reported productivity costs. In nine, these took up more than 50 percent of total costs. In several studies, criminal justice and informal care costs were also important. There is great variety in the way the societal perspective is conceptualized and interpreted within economic evaluations. Use of the term "societal perspective" is often related to including merely productivity costs, while other ICBs could be relevant as well.

  11. Economics and the evaluation of publicly funded energy R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.; Paik, I.K.

    1998-10-19

    There are three major areas in which economics can contribute to the evaluation of federal R and D: assessment of net benefits, ex ante expected as well as ex post realized; tailoring of R and D portfolios to policy goals; and guiding the contractual organization of R and D production. Additionally, evaluation of R and D and scientific activity tend to be distinctly retrospective, principally because of the long lags between the initial production activity and the observability of consequences. Extending the purview of economic evaluation of R and D, they find ample opportunity for evaluation that can inform current R and D management practice. The conduct of R and D is organized through a series of explicit and implicit contracts designed to elicit long-term commitments by some agents while attempting to limit the commitment by others. It is natural to consider the efficiency with which R and D is conducted as a subject for economic inquiry, although in practice such inquiries generally are restricted to accounting exercises. In evaluating the efficiency with which R and D is done, the current ordinary practice is to look at labor rates and equipment and materials prices while considering quantities of those items as the principal instrument variables in an optimization problem (the authors conceptualization, not that of the typical review of an R and D project). The authors recommend the contractual structure and other elements of the incentive structure (pay and promotion) of R and D production as prime focal points for managerially useful economic evaluation. Non-economic motivations for funding public R and D, including energy R and D, are well known. The US will consider spending several billion dollars on an international space station, partly if not largely, to fund the peaceful employment of scientists from the Former Soviet Union. Nonetheless, it will be useful to understand the economics of the R and D programs even if other considerations play important

  12. Psoriasis treatment and management - a systematic review of full economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, M P; Ntais, D; Griffiths, C E M; Davies, L M

    2015-03-01

    Psoriasis frequently requires lifetime control and current therapies vary significantly in price. High-quality economic evaluations are necessary to determine if higher-cost treatments are value for money. This review aims to identify the cost-effectiveness of psoriasis care (whether more expensive interventions are associated with savings in health care and psoriasis management and/or improve patients' health); assess the level of uncertainty and transferability of this evidence to policy and practice; and, identify future research needs. Searches of electronic databases Embase, MEDLINE and NHS EED for full economic evaluations were conducted in January 2012 (updated April 2014). Included articles were screened, selected and critically appraised using predefined inclusion criteria and data extraction forms: 1355 articles were identified; 37 papers reporting 71 comparisons met the inclusion criteria. Treatments evaluated were systemic (n = 45), topical (n = 22), phototherapies (n = 14) and combination (n = 4). Despite a significant number of recent economic evaluations, the cost-effectiveness of all therapies remains unclear. This uncertainty arises from a diversity in settings, perspective and design. Economic evaluations were constrained by limited availability of high-quality short- and long-term head-to-head comparisons of the effectiveness, safety and adherence of different interventions. The economic evidence is dominated by comparisons of interventions to placebo, with implicit comparisons of different therapies. There is a lack of evaluations of service model innovations to deliver complex packages of care for psoriasis. Primary and secondary integrated clinical and economic research is needed to address the limitations and to identify patient preferences and barriers/facilitators to treatment. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Inclusion Of Safety/ADR-Related Outcomes In Economic Evaluations For Seasonal Influenza Vaccines : A Review Of Available Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fens, T.; Van Maanen, B.M.; De Boer, P.T.; Van Puijenbroek, E.P.; Postma, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: In this study we assessed how economic evaluations (EE) on seasonal influenza vaccines include Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) and what the impact of its inclusion on the health economic outcomes would be. MethOds: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library to identify full-text

  14. Improved fuel design economics - a new evaluation tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboudara, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced fuel design technology is now beginning to be implemented with new reload regions for large pressurized water reactors. Until recently there has not been an integrated computer modeling product that would allow easy assessment of the economics of various advanced fuel design alternatives now available to utilities. The Fuel Cycle Scoping System (FCSS) was designed to fill this need. The FCSS is a personnel computer (PC) software package that is used to evaluate alternative strategies for supplying and using nuclear fuel in nuclear power reactors. The FCSS is an extremely flexible package that permits evaluation of in-core and out-of-core fuel management strategy options. For each strategy option, unit and reactor operating assumptions and assumptions for uranium supply, conversion, enrichment, fabrication, and spent fuel disposal can be made

  15. Recommended Resources for Planning to Evaluate Program Improvement Efforts (Including the SSIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Systemic Improvement at WestEd, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a list of recommended existing resources for state Part C and Part B 619 staff and technical assistance (TA) providers to utilize to support evaluation planning for program improvement efforts (including the State Systemic Improvement Plan, SSIP). There are many resources available related to evaluation and evaluation…

  16. [Reasearch progress in health economic evaluation of colorectal cancer screening in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiyao; Shi, Jufang; Dai, Min

    2015-08-01

    Burden of colorectal cancer is rising in China. More attention and financial input have been paid to it by central government that colorectal cancer screening program has been carried out recently in many areas in China. Diversity of screening strategies and limited health resources render selecting the best strategy in a population-wide program a challenging task that economy was also required to be considered except safety and efficacy. To provide a reference for the subsequent further economic evaluation, here we reviewed the evidence available on the economic evaluation of colorectal cancer screening in China. Meanwhile, information related to screening strategies, participation and mid-term efficacy of screening, information and results on economic evaluation were extracted and summarized. Three of the four studies finally included evaluated strategies combining immunochemical fecel occult blood test (iFOBT) with high-risk factor questionnaire as initial screening, colonoscopy as diagnostic screening. There was a consensus regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of screening compared to no screening. Whereas the lack and poor comparability between studies, multi-perspective and multi-phase economic evaluation of colorectal cancer screening is needed, relying on current population-based screening program to conduct a comprehensive cost accounting.

  17. The methodological quality of economic evaluation studies in obstetrics and gynecology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijgen, Sylvia M C; Opmeer, Brent C; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the methodological quality of economic evaluation studies in the field of obstetrics and gynecology published in the last decade. A MEDLINE search was performed to find economic evaluation studies in obstetrics and gynecology from the years 1997 through 2009. We included full economic evaluation studies concerning tests or interventions in the field of obstetrics or gynecology. Each included study was evaluated by two reviewers using a quality checklist that was based on international guidelines for medical economic evaluation studies and a checklist used in a previous review. The mean number of quality criteria adhered to was 23 of 30 items, whereas five articles (3%) met all 30 criteria. Compliance was low for the description of the perspective (40%), the completeness of costs looking at the perspective (48%) or time horizon (48%), and reporting of quantities of resources (47%). Furthermore, if no discounting was applied, an explanation was infrequently given (14%). A comparison of study quality to that reported by Smith and Blackmore showed a considerable improvement in the following criteria: presentation perspective (from 19 to 40%), statement of primary outcome measure (from 72 to 81%), completeness costs looking at the time horizon (from 14 to 48%), the presentation of discount rates (from 10 to 54%), details of sensitivity analyses (from 21 to 61%), reporting incremental results (from 17 to 70%), and reporting a summary measure (from 57 to 74%). The quality of economic studies in obstetrics and gynecology has considerably improved in the last decade, but room for further improvement is present. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. A literature review of economic evaluations for a neglected tropical disease: human African trypanosomiasis ("sleeping sickness").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, C Simone; Yukich, Joshua; Goeree, Ron; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-02-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a disease caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense. It is transmitted to humans via the tsetse fly. Approximately 70 million people worldwide were at risk of infection in 1995, and approximately 20,000 people across Africa are infected with HAT. The objective of this review was to identify existing economic evaluations in order to summarise cost-effective interventions to reduce, control, or eliminate the burden of HAT. The studies included in the review were compared and critically appraised in order to determine if there were existing standardised methods that could be used for economic evaluation of HAT interventions or if innovative methodological approaches are warranted. A search strategy was developed using keywords and was implemented in January 2014 in several databases. The search returned a total of 2,283 articles. After two levels of screening, a total of seven economic evaluations were included and underwent critical appraisal using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) Methodology Checklist 6: Economic Evaluations. Results from the existing studies focused on the cost-effectiveness of interventions for the control and reduction of disease transmission. Modelling was a common method to forecast long-term results, and publications focused on interventions by category, such as case detection, diagnostics, drug treatments, and vector control. Most interventions were considered cost-effective based on the thresholds described; however, the current treatment, nifurtomix-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT), has not been evaluated for cost-effectiveness, and considerations for cost-effective strategies for elimination have yet to be completed. Overall, the current evidence highlights the main components that play a role in control; however, economic evaluations of HAT elimination strategies are needed to assist national decision makers, stakeholders, and

  19. Methodology for the economic evaluation of cogeneration/desalination options: A user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Methodology for the Economic Evaluation of Cogeneration/Desalination Options is suitable for economic evaluations and screening analyses of various desalination and energy source options. The methodology, based on the spreadsheet, includes simplified models of several types of nuclear/fossil power plants, nuclear/fossil heat sources, and both distillation and membrane desalination plants. Current cost and performance data have already been incorporated so that the spreadsheet can be quickly adapted to analyze a large variety of options with very little new input data required. The spreadsheet output includes the levelized cost of water and power, breakdowns of cost components, energy consumption and net saleable power for each selected option. Specific power plants can be modeled by adjustment of input data including design power, power cycle parameters and costs

  20. Economic evaluation of indirect use activities in a private natural heritage reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Lima Sanches

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the economic viability of indirect use activities as developed in a private natural heritage reserve (RPPN. Activities developed in the RPPN include Adventure Tourism and an Ecological Trail. Data were obtained relating to annual number of people visiting the reserve, prices paid to participate in activities, cost of land, maintenance costs and labor costs. Economic criteria used include Net Present Value (VPL and Equivalent Periodic Benefit (BPE. In the 1996-2008 period the number of visitors increased by 6% a year, and the average annual number of visitors to the RPPN was 8,889. It was concluded that indirect use activities in the RPPN are economically viable and can coexist with other direct soil use activities such as eucalyptus cultivation.

  1. Concepts of ‘personalization’ in personalized medicine: implications for economic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Wolf; Payne, Katherine; Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Manca, Andrea; Rochau, Ursula; Jahn, Beate; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Leidl, Reiner; Siebert, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Context This paper assesses if, and how, existing methods for economic evaluation are applicable to the evaluation of PM and if not, where extension to methods may be required. Method Structured workshop with a pre-defined group of experts (n=47), run using a modified nominal group technique. Workshop findings were recorded using extensive note taking and summarised using thematic data analysis. The workshop was complemented by structured literature searches. Results The key finding emerging from the workshop, using an economic perspective, was that two distinct, but linked, interpretations of the concept of PM exist (personalization by ‘physiology’ or ‘preferences’). These interpretations involve specific challenges for the design and conduct of economic evaluations. Existing evaluative (extra-welfarist) frameworks were generally considered appropriate for evaluating PM. When ‘personalization’ is viewed as using physiological biomarkers, challenges include: representing complex care pathways; representing spill-over effects; meeting data requirements such as evidence on heterogeneity; choosing appropriate time horizons for the value of further research in uncertainty analysis. When viewed as tailoring medicine to patient preferences, further work is needed regarding: revealed preferences, e.g. treatment (non)adherence; stated preferences, e.g. risk interpretation and attitude; consideration of heterogeneity in preferences; and the appropriate framework (welfarism vs. extra-welfarism) to incorporate non-health benefits. Conclusion Ideally, economic evaluations should take account of both interpretations of PM and consider physiology and preferences. It is important for decision makers to be cognizant of the issues involved with the economic evaluation of PM to appropriately interpret the evidence and target future research funding. PMID:25249200

  2. Experimental and economical evaluation of a novel biogas digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, Karthik; Aslanzadeh, Solmaz; Johansson, Fredrik; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Textile biogas digester was tested with synthetic nutrients and MSW. • Economical evaluation was made with replacement of LPG and kerosene. • The investment is positive until the price of fuel goes down. • Sensitivity analysis was performed to check the stability of the digester. - Abstract: Many developing countries face an energy demand to satisfy the daily needs of the people. Household biogas digesters are among the interesting solutions to meet the energy demands for cooking and lighting, and at the same time taking care of the kitchen wastes. In this study, a novel textile-based biogas digester was developed. The digester was evaluated for biogas production from a synthetic nutrient and an organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) as substrates for more than a year. The obtained biogas productivity in both experiments was 570 L/kgVS/day, which indicates that the digester is as efficient in handling of OFMSW as the synthetic nutrients. Based on the obtained biogas production data, the techno-economic evaluation and sensitivity analysis for the process were performed, replacing LPG and kerosene consumption with biogas in households. A 2-m 3 digester can supply the fuel needed for cooking for a family of 4–6 people. The sum of investment and 15-years operational costs of this digester was 656 USD, which can be compared with 1455 USD for subsidized-LPG and 975 USD for kerosene, respectively. The results from the sensitivity analysis show that it was a positive investment, unless the price of kerosene goes down to less than 0.18 USD/L

  3. A Systematic Review of the Level of Evidence in Economic Evaluations of Medical Devices: The Example of Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Martelli

    Full Text Available Economic evaluations are far less frequently reported for medical devices than for drugs. In addition, little is known about the quality of existing economic evaluations, particularly for innovative devices, such as those used in vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty.To assess the level of evidence provided by the available economic evaluations for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty.A systematic review of articles in English or French listed in the MEDLINE, PASCAL, COCHRANE and National Health Service Economic Evaluation databases, with limits on publication date (up to the date of the review, March 2014.We included only economic evaluations of vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. Editorial and methodological articles were excluded.Data were extracted from articles by two authors working independently and using two analysis grids to measure the quality of economic evaluations.Twenty-one studies met our inclusion criteria. All were published between 2008 and 2014. Eighteen (86% were full economic evaluations. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA was the most frequent type of economic evaluation, and was present in 11 (52% studies. Only three CEAs complied fully with the British Medical Journal checklist. The quality of the data sources used in the 21 studies was high, but the CEAs conforming to methodological guidelines did not use high-quality data sources for all components of the analysis.This systematic review shows that the level of evidence in economic evaluations of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty is low, despite the recent publication of a large number of studies. This finding highlights the challenges to be faced to improve the quality of economic evaluations of medical devices.

  4. Bibliometric trends of health economic evaluation in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Villafuerte, Karla; Li, Ryan; Hofman, Karen J

    2016-08-24

    Collaboration between Sub-Saharan African researchers is important for the generation and transfer of health technology assessment (HTA) evidence, in order to support priority-setting in health. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate collaboration patterns between countries. We conducted a rapid evidence assessment that included a random sample of health economic evaluations carried out in 20 countries (Angola, Botswana, Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Uganda). We conducted bibliometric network analysis based on all first authors with a Sub-Saharan African academic affiliation and their co-authored publications ("network-articles"). Then we produced a connection map of collaboration patterns among Sub-Saharan African researchers, reflecting the number of network-articles and the country of affiliation of the main co-authors. The sample of 119 economic evaluations mostly related to treatments of communicable diseases, in particular HIV/AIDS (42/119, 35.29 %) and malaria (26/119, 21.85 %). The 39 first authors from Sub-Saharan African institutions together co-authored 729 network-articles. The network analysis showed weak collaboration between health economic researchers in Sub-Saharan Africa, with researchers being more likely to collaborate with Europe and North America than with other African countries. South Africa stood out as producing the highest number of health economic evaluations and collaborations. The development and evaluation of HTA research networks in Sub-Saharan Africa should be supported, with South Africa central to any such efforts. Organizations and institutions from high income countries interested in supporting priority setting in Sub-Saharan Africa should include promoting collaboration as part of their agendas, in order to take advantage of the potential transferability of results and methods of the

  5. Operative and economic evaluation of a 'Laser Printer Multimodality' System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, G.; Moscatelli, G.; Maroldi, R.; Chiesa, A.

    1991-01-01

    The increasing application of digital techniques to diagnostic imaging is causing significant changes in several related activities, such as a reproduction of digital images on film. In the Department of Diagnostic Imaging of the University of Brescia, about 70% of the whole of images are produced by digital techniques; at present, most of these images are reproduced on film with a Multimodality System interfacing CT, MR, DSA, and DR units with a single laser printer. Our analysis evaluates the operative and economics aspects of image reproduction, by comparing the 'single cassette' multiformat Camera and the Laser Printer Multimodality SAystem. Our results point out the advantages obtained by reproducing images with a Laser Printer Multimodality System: outstanding quality, reproduction of multiple originals, and marked reduction in the time needed for both image archiving and film handling. The Laser Printer Multimodality System allows over 5 hours/day to be saved -that is to say the working day of an operator, who can be thus shifted to other functions. The important economic aspect of the reproduction of digital images on film proves the Laser Printer Multimodality System to have some advantage over Cameras

  6. Using Copulas in the Estimation of the Economic Project Value in the Mining Industry, Including Geological Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysa, Zbigniew; Pactwa, Katarzyna; Wozniak, Justyna; Dudek, Michal

    2017-12-01

    Geological variability is one of the main factors that has an influence on the viability of mining investment projects and on the technical risk of geology projects. In the current scenario, analyses of economic viability of new extraction fields have been performed for the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. underground copper mine at Fore Sudetic Monocline with the assumption of constant averaged content of useful elements. Research presented in this article is aimed at verifying the value of production from copper and silver ore for the same economic background with the use of variable cash flows resulting from the local variability of useful elements. Furthermore, the ore economic model is investigated for a significant difference in model value estimated with the use of linear correlation between useful elements content and the height of mine face, and the approach in which model parameters correlation is based upon the copula best matched information capacity criterion. The use of copula allows the simulation to take into account the multi variable dependencies at the same time, thereby giving a better reflection of the dependency structure, which linear correlation does not take into account. Calculation results of the economic model used for deposit value estimation indicate that the correlation between copper and silver estimated with the use of copula generates higher variation of possible project value, as compared to modelling correlation based upon linear correlation. Average deposit value remains unchanged.

  7. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE NATIVE EMPLOYMENT WORKS (NEW) PROGRAM...) Communication with any training, research, or educational agencies that have produced economic development plans...-sufficiency of program participants; (6) Surveys to collect information regarding client characteristics; and...

  8. Health economic evaluation in lumbar spinal fusion: a systematic literature review anno 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Rikke; Christensen, Finn B

    2006-01-01

    in clinical practice are present, economic evaluation is needed in order to facilitate the decision-makers' budget allocations. NHS Economic Evaluation Database, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched. Two independent reviewers (one clinical content expert and one economic content expert) applied...... that the clinical effects are statistically synonymous, it does not support the use of high-cost techniques. There is a great potential for improvement of methodological quality in economic evaluations of lumbar spinal fusion and further research is imperative....

  9. Economic evaluation of pediatric influenza immunization program compared with other pediatric immunization programs: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Edward; Begum, Najida; Sigmundsson, Birgir; Sackeyfio, Alfred; Hackett, Judith; Rajaram, Sankarasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study compared the economic value of pediatric immunisation programmes for influenza to those for rotavirus (RV), meningococcal disease (MD), pneumococcal disease (PD), human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B (Hep B), and varicella reported in recent (2000 onwards) cost-effectiveness (CE) studies identified in a systematic review of PubMed, health technology, and vaccination databases. The systematic review yielded 51 economic evaluation studies of pediatric immunisation — 10 (20%) for influenza and 41 (80%) for the other selected diseases. The quality of the eligible articles was assessed using Drummond's checklist. Although inherent challenges and limitations exist when comparing economic evaluations of immunisation programmes, an overall comparison of the included studies demonstrated cost-effectiveness/cost saving for influenza from a European-Union-Five (EU5) and United States (US) perspective; point estimates for cost/quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) from dominance (cost-saving with more effect) to ≤45,444 were reported. The economic value of influenza programmes was comparable to the other vaccines of interest, with cost/QALY in general considerably lower than RV, Hep B, MD and PD. Independent of the perspective and type of analysis, the economic impact of a pediatric influenza immunisation program was influenced by vaccine efficacy, immunisation coverage, costs, and most significantly by herd immunity. This review suggests that pediatric influenza immunisation may offer a cost effective strategy when compared with HPV and varicella and possibly more value compared with other childhood vaccines (RV, Hep B, MD and PD). PMID:26837602

  10. Comparison of economic evaluation methodology between levelized method and the evaluation system in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shengli

    2005-01-01

    Different methodology would bring different results. This paper includes an introduction of levelized discounted generation cost methodology as well as that of Chinese system, respectively. In general, there have two key indices in Chinese evaluation system, they are generation cost and electricity sales price to the grid. This paper contains a description of cost breakdown and calculation procedure for each index. Comparison between these two methods and the primary differences are also included. For the first time, equations for calculating generation cost and selling price to the grid based on Chinese system have been derived, and its accuracy has been shown through running the special computer program. The two systems are quite different in many aspects. Firstly, levelized generation cost is always calculated with discounted method that excluded in Chinese system. Secondly, levelized generation cost is a single and constant value that would not change over the economic life while generation cost in Chinese system is estimated on a year by year base. Thirdly, the makeup of generation cost in Chinese system is different from that of levelized system since taxes and dividend share removed. Finally, the electricity sales price in Chinese system is more similar to levelized generation cost. (authors)

  11. Technical and economical evaluation of tape drip and drip line irrigation systems in a strawberry greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra HOSSEINIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was done in a strawberry greenhouse to examine the technical and the economical evaluation of two drip irrigation systems including the tape and the drip line in the northern part of Iran. The result showed that all of the technical indices with tape were higher than drip line, and due to statistical analysis reveal a significant difference (P < 0.05. Yield and water productivity (WP with tape were higher than drip line (P < 0.05. Benefit per drop (BPD and net benefit per drop (NBPD with tape were higher than drip line. Net present value, internal rate of capital return and benefit to cost ratio in drip line were higher than tape. In general, regarding technical evaluation tape was better than drip line, besides according to the economical evaluation the drip ­lines were better than tape.

  12. Thermo-economic evaluation of ORCs for various working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Pardeep; Orosz, Matthew S.; Kumar, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    An inclusive component-level technical and economic assessment procedure for the general design and operating strategy of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) for use across major application categories (waste heat recovery, solar thermal, geothermal) and sub-MW scales can be an important tool for leveraging the cost-effective deployment of low and medium temperature power cycles. Previous analyses and design approaches tended to focus on thermodynamic efficiency rather than financial performance. To bridge this gap, a general thermo-economic optimization of sub 500 kWe ORCs is developed using a 7-dimensional design space with minimum investment cost per unit of nameplate electricity production as an objective function. Parameters used include working fluid, heat source temperature, pinch in condenser, boiler (HEX) and regenerator, expander inlet pressure and air cooled condenser area. Optimized power block configurations are presented for the application of ORCs with waste or “free” heat sources and solar heat input for power scales of 5, 50 and 500 kWe to facilitate rapid selection of design parameters across a wide range of thermal regimes. While R152a yields the lowest cost ORCs in the case of the former, isopentane is found to be more cost effective in the latter case for heat source temperatures between 125 and 275 °C.

  13. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Wormser Columbia, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at the sites considered. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  14. Integrated Evaluation Method-Based Technical and Economic Factors for International Oil Exploration Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Guo; Dongkun Luo; Xu Zhao; Jianliang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing international oil exploration projects is one of the main challenges for oil companies in obtaining investment benefits. This paper establishes an integrated evaluation model to maximize investment benefits within the constraints of technical and economic factors, including geological factors, resource quality, geographic conditions, the investment environment, and oil contracts. The paper also proposes a dynamic calculation method of indicators’ weight associated with oil prices. ...

  15. Guide to the Ex-Ante Socio-Economic Evaluation of Marine Protected Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Grafton, R. Quentin; Akter, Sonia; Kompas, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPA) potentially offer a wide range of use and non-use benefits. These include critical habitat protection, conservation of marine biodiversity, recovery of threatened and endangered marine species, and increased biomass of targeted marine species. To assess whether such benefits exceed the potential costs, we provide the first-ever comprehensive ex-ante, socio-economic guide to MPA evaluation. Our framework shows how to quantify four key values of MPAs: consumptive, n...

  16. Integrating social justice concerns into economic evaluation for healthcare and public health: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhanin, Vadim; Searle, Alexandra; Zwerling, Alice; Dowdy, David W; Taylor, Holly A; Merritt, Maria W

    2018-02-01

    Social justice is the moral imperative to avoid and remediate unfair distributions of societal disadvantage. In priority setting in healthcare and public health, social justice reaches beyond fairness in the distribution of health outcomes and economic impacts to encompass fairness in the distribution of policy impacts upon other dimensions of well-being. There is an emerging awareness of the need for economic evaluation to integrate all such concerns. We performed a systematic review (1) to describe methodological solutions suitable for integrating social justice concerns into economic evaluation, and (2) to describe the challenges that those solutions face. To be included, publications must have captured fairness considerations that (a) involve cross-dimensional subjective personal life experience and (b) can be manifested at the level of subpopulations. We identified relevant publications using an electronic search in EMBASE, PubMed, EconLit, PsycInfo, Philosopher's Index, and Scopus, including publications available in English in the past 20 years. Two reviewers independently appraised candidate publications, extracted data, and synthesized findings in narrative form. Out of 2388 publications reviewed, 26 were included. Solutions sought either to incorporate relevant fairness considerations directly into economic evaluation or to report them alongside cost-effectiveness measures. The majority of reviewed solutions, if adapted to integrate social justice concerns, would require their explicit quantification. Four broad challenges related to the implementation of these solutions were identified: clarifying the normative basis; measuring and determining the relative importance of criteria representing that basis; combining the criteria; and evaluating trade-offs. All included solutions must grapple with an inherent tension: they must either face the normative and operational challenges of quantifying social justice concerns or accede to offering incomplete policy

  17. Economic and environmental evaluation of nitrogen removal and recovery methods from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanzi; Guo, Miao; Shah, Nilay; Stuckey, David C

    2016-09-01

    The driver for waste-based economic growth is long-term strategic design, and a paradigm-shift from waste treatment to resource recovery. This study aims to use an integrated modelling approach to evaluate the holistic economic and environmental profiles of three alternative nitrogen removal and recovery methods integrated into wastewater treatment systems, including conventional nitrification-denitrification, Anammox, and the anaerobic ion exchange route, to provide insights into N recovery system designs which are key elements in building a sustainable circular economy. Our results suggest that ion exchange is a promising technology showing high N removal-recovery efficiency from municipal wastewater and delivering competitive sustainability scores. In comparison with the well-developed conventional route, ion exchange and Anammox are undergoing significant research and development; as highlighted in sensitivity analyses, there is considerable room for process design and optimisation of ion exchange systems to achieve economically and environmentally optimal performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ECOGEN - Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H

    2007-01-01

    commercialised in the US in 1998 and has been planted on millions of hectares worldwide since then. In the ecological assessment, the effects of Bt maize were assessed at three levels of increasing complexity: Laboratory tests on single species: the main groups of soil organisms covered were bacteria, protozoa......, nematodes, springtails, mites and earthworms; Green-house model ecosystem or mesocosm studies to analyse ecological interactions; Field studies in three climatic zones of Northern and Southern Europe where Bt-maize management was compared with conventional management (that included insecticides...... where non-GM conventional maize (8 different varieties) was planted. In addition, economic assessments of the GM crop were performed by quantifying the differences in variable costs, revenues and external effects in comparison with the conventional variety. The implications for the EU Common Agriculture...

  19. Fermentative production of butyric acid from wheat straw: Economic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, G. N.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Westermann, P.

    2017-01-01

    The economic feasibility of biochemical conversion of wheat straw to butyric acid was studied in this work. Basic process steps included physicochemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and saccharification, fermentation with in-situ acids separation by electrodialysis and product purification....... Two scenarios (S1 and S2) were examined assuming a plant with an annual capacity of 10,000 tonnes of product installed in India (due to significantly lower feedstock prices). S1 resulted in a product of 89% butyric acid mixed with acetic acid and S2 produced butyric acid of 99% purity. Unit production...... cost was estimated at 2.75 and 3.31 $ per kg product for S1 and S2 respectively. The main part of production cost was attributed to steam for the purification step and electricity for the in-situ acids separation. This unit production cost combined with an estimated butyric acid selling price (year...

  20. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Methods Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990–2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. Results We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. Conclusions In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may

  1. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Charles, Joanna Mary; Lloyd-Williams, Huw

    2013-10-24

    If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990-2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may find it useful to think in this broader

  2. Evaluation of water resource economics within the Pasco Basin, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaming, G.F.

    1981-01-01

    The Columbia River basalt beneath the Hanford Site in south-central Washington is being considered for possible use as a terminal repository medium for high-level nuclear waste. Such underground storage would require that the facility be contiguous to at least a portion of the ambient groundwater system of the Pasco Basin. This report attempts to evaluate the economic factors and conditions related to the water resources of the Pasco Basin and the probable economic effects associated with selected hypothetical changes in local water demand and supply as a basis for eventual selection of credible water supply alternatives and more detailed analyses of the consequences of such alternative selection. It is most likely that total demand for water for consumptive uses in the Pasco Basin will increase from nearly 2.0 million acre-feet per year in 1980 to almost 2.8 million acre-feet in 2010, with total demand slightly more than 3.6 million acre-feet per year in 2080. The Columbia River and other surface streams constitute the source of more than 99 percent of the water available each year for all uses, both consumptive and non-consumptive, in the Pasco Basin. It is estimated that pumped groundwater accounted for 3 percent of the value of all water supplied to consumers of water in the Pasco Basin in 1980. Groundwater's share of the total cost is proportionately higher than groundwater's share of total use because it is generally more costly to acquire than is surface water and the value of water is considered equivalent to its cost of acquisition. Because groundwater represents such a small part of the total water supply and demand within the Pasco Basin, it is concluded that if the development of a nuclear waste repository on the Hanford Site were to result in changes in the groundwater supply during the next 100 years, the economic impact on the overall water supply picture for the entire basin would be insignificant

  3. Economic development evaluation based on science and patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokanović, Bojana; Lalic, Bojan; Milovančević, Miloš; Simeunović, Nenad; Marković, Dusan

    2017-09-01

    Economic development could be achieved through many factors. Science and technology factors could influence economic development drastically. Therefore the main aim in this study was to apply computational intelligence methodology, artificial neural network approach, for economic development estimation based on different science and technology factors. Since economic analyzing could be very challenging task because of high nonlinearity, in this study was applied computational intelligence methodology, artificial neural network approach, to estimate the economic development based on different science and technology factors. As economic development measure, gross domestic product (GDP) was used. As the science and technology factors, patents in different field were used. It was found that the patents in electrical engineering field have the highest influence on the economic development or the GDP.

  4. BALANCED SCORECARDS EVALUATION MODEL THAT INCLUDES ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  5. Systematic mapping review about costs and economic evaluations of skin conditions and diseases in the aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichterfeld-Kottner, Andrea; Hahnel, Elisabeth; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Skin conditions and dermatological diseases associated with advanced age (e.g. fungal infection, dry skin and itch) receive increasingly attention in clinical practice and research. Cost and economic evaluations are important sources to inform priority setting and ressource allocation decisions in healthcare. The economics of skin conditions in aged populations has not been systematically reviewed so far. The aim of this mapping review was to summarize the economic evidence of selected skin conditions in the aged (65 + years). A mapping literature review and evidence summary was conducted. Searches were conducted in data bases Medline and Embase via OVID. Cinahl was searched using EBSCO. References lists of potential eligible studies, reviews, guidelines or other sources were screened for additional literature. For evaluation of methodological quality of full economic analyses the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria (CHEC) checklist was used. Database searches resulted in 1388 records. A total of 270 articles were read in full-text. Thirty-five publications were finally included in the data analysis reporting 38 economic analyses. Ten cost of illness analyses and 26 cost-effectiveness analyses reporting about pressure ulcers, skin tears, pressure ulcers, incontinence associated dermatitis and intertrigo/contact dermatitis/candidiasis treatment and prevention and onychomycosis testing were identified. Limited evidence indicated that low air loss beds were more cost effective than standard beds for prevention of pressure ulcers. Standardized skin care regimens seem to lower the incidence of pressure ulcers, skin tears and IAD but a cost saving effect was not always observed. Findings of this mapping review indicate that there is a paucity of high quality evidence regarding the economic impact of age-associated skin conditions and diseases. Substantial heterogeneity in terms of study design, evaluation perspective, time period, and way of cost estimation was

  6. Health economic evaluations of medical devices in the People's Republic of China: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongrong; Modaresi, Farhang; Borisenko, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify and review the methodological quality of health economic evaluations of medical devices performed in the People's Republic of China. To our knowledge, no such investigations have been performed to date. A systematic literature review involving searches of Medline, Medline In-Process, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry of the Tufts Medical Center, and the Wanfang Database was performed. The search spanned the period from 1990 to 2013. Studies on health economic evaluations of medical devices, in-vitro diagnostics, procedures, and the use of medical devices in Chinese health care settings were included. Full-text articles and conference abstracts in English and Chinese were included. Fifty-seven publications were included, 26 (46%) of which were in English and 31 (54%) of which were in Chinese. The included publications covered a wide range of clinical areas, such as surgery (n=23, 40%), screening (n=9, 16%), imaging use (n=6, 11%), kidney intervention (n=4, 7%), and nine other technological areas. Most of the studies (n=31, 54%) were cost analyses. Among the others, 13 (50%) studies used modeling, and another 13 (50%) were within-trial evaluations. Among studies that used modeling, eleven (85%) conducted sensitivity analyses, six of which had one-way sensitivity analysis, whereas one conducted both one-way and two-way sensitivity analyses; four of these eleven modeling-based analyses included probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was reported in ten (18%) studies, eight of which were screening studies. The remaining two modeling studies were in areas of imaging and oncology. This study indicates that there are major limitations and deficiencies in the health economic evaluations on medical devices performed in the People's Republic of China. Further efforts are required from different stakeholders - academic, governmental

  7. Economic evidence for the clinical management of major depressive disorder: a systematic review and quality appraisal of economic evaluations alongside randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyotaki, E; Tordrup, D; Buntrock, C; Bertollini, R; Cuijpers, P

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this systematic review of economic evaluations alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was to provide a comprehensive overview of the evidence concerning cost-effectiveness analyses of common treatment options for major depression. An existing database was used to identify studies reporting cost-effectiveness results from RCTs. This database has been developed by a systematic literature search in the bibliographic databases of PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase and Cochrane library from database inception to December 2014. We evaluated the quality of economic evaluations using a 10-item short version of the Drummond checklist. Results were synthesised narratively. The risk of bias of the included RCTs was assessed, based on the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. Fourteen RCTs were included from the 5580 articles screened on titles and abstracts. The methodological quality of the health economic evaluations was relatively high and the majority of the included RCTs had low risk of bias in most of Cochrane items except blinding of participants and personnel. Cognitive behavioural therapy was examined in seven trials as part of a variety of treatment protocols and seems cost-effective compared with pharmacotherapy in the long-term. However cost-effectiveness results for the combination of psychotherapy with pharmacotherapy are conflicting and should be interpreted with caution due to limited comparability between the examined trials. For several treatments, only a single economic evaluation was reported as part of a clinical trial. This was the case for comparisons between different classes of antidepressants, for several types of psychotherapy (behavioural activation, occupational therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, short-term psychotherapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, rational emotive behavioural therapy, solution focused therapy), and for transcranial magnetic stimulation v. electroconvulsive therapy. The limited evidence base for these interventions

  8. Semer: a simple calculational tool for the economic evaluations of reactor systems and associated innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.; Rouyer, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises part of our on-going investigations on the economic evaluations of various nuclear and fossil energy systems and related innovations. These investigations are principally concerned with the development of the code system SEMER and its validation. SEMER has been developed to furnish top management and project leaders a simple tool for cost evaluations enabling a choice between competitive technological options. The cost evaluation models, actually integrated in the SEMER system, already cover a very wide range of electricity producing systems and, where relevant, their associated fuel cycles: The ''global models'', allowing rapid but relatively approximate overall cost estimations (about 15 % error). These include: Almost all the electricity producing systems using fossil energies (Oil, Coal, Gas, including gas turbines with combined cycles); Nuclear reactor systems including all the French PWRs, HTRs, Compact PWRs, and PWRs for nuclear propulsion systems. (author)

  9. Evaluating the Performance of South African Economics Departments

    OpenAIRE

    John Luiz

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade economics departments in South Africa have seen major changes and a certain level of disruption. Much of this can be attributed to the integration of our discipline into the global arena after a period of academic isolation. This paper presents a survey of economics departments and covers everything from staff profiles and qualifications, to curricula, and research output. This paper indicates that there has been some improvement in the state of economics at South African...

  10. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Colt Pueblo, Pueblo, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at Pueblo, Colorado; Yosemite, California; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Fort Worth, Texas; and Washington, D.C. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  11. An Economic Evaluation of Binary Cycle Geothermal Electricity Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzgerald, Crissie

    2003-01-01

    .... Variables such as well flow rate, geothermal gradient and electricity prices were varied to study their influence on the economic payback period for binary cycle geothermal electricity production...

  12. CITRICULTURE ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL EVALUATION UNDER CONDITIONS OF UNCERTAINTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANILO SIMÕES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The citriculture consists in several environmental risks, as weather changes and pests, and also consists in considerable financial risk, mainly due to the period ofreturn on the initial investment. This study was motivated by the need to assess the risks of a business activity such as citriculture. Our objective was to build a stochastic simulation model to achieve the economic and financial analysis of an orange producer in the Midwest region of the state of Sao Paulo, under conditions of uncertainty. The parameters used were the Net Present Value (NPV, the Modified Internal Rate of Return(MIRR, and the Discounted Payback. To evaluate the risk conditions we built a probabilistic model of pseudorandom numbers generated with Monte Carlo method. The results showed that the activity analyzed provides a risk of 42.8% to reach a NPV negative; however, the yield assessed by MIRR was 7.7%, higher than the yield from the reapplication of the positive cash flows. The financial investment pays itself after the fourteenth year of activity.

  13. Economic evaluation of human papillomavirus vaccination in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Choi, Yoon Hong; Edmunds, W John

    2008-07-17

    To assess the cost effectiveness of routine vaccination of 12 year old schoolgirls against human papillomavirus infection in the United Kingdom. Economic evaluation. UK. Population Schoolgirls aged 12 or older. Costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental cost effectiveness ratios for a range of vaccination options. Vaccinating 12 year old schoolgirls with a quadrivalent vaccine at 80% coverage is likely to be cost effective at a willingness to pay threshold of pound30,000 (euro37,700; $59,163) per QALY gained, if the average duration of protection from the vaccine is more than 10 years. Implementing a catch-up campaign of girls up to age 18 is likely to be cost effective. Vaccination of boys is unlikely to be cost effective. A bivalent vaccine with the same efficacy against human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 costing pound13- pound21 less per dose (depending on the duration of vaccine protection) may be as cost effective as the quadrivalent vaccine although less effective as it does not prevent anogenital warts. Routine vaccination of 12 year old schoolgirls combined with an initial catch-up campaign up to age 18 is likely to be cost effective in the UK. The results are robust to uncertainty in many parameters and processes. A key influential variable is the duration of vaccine protection.

  14. Optimal planning and economic evaluation of cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Si-Doek; Lee, Ho-Jun; Jung, Jung-Yeul; Kwak, Ho-Young

    2007-01-01

    Cogeneration plants, which simultaneously produce electricity and heat energy, have been introduced increasingly for commercial and domestic applications in Korea because of their energy efficiency. The optimal plant configuration of a specific commercial building can be determined by selecting the sizes and the number of cogeneration systems and the auxiliary equipment based on the annual demands of electricity, heating and cooling. In this study, a mixed-integer, linear programming, utilizing the branch and bound algorithm was used to obtain the optimal solution. Both the optimal configuration system equipment and the optimal operational mode were determined based on the annual cost method for the installation of a cogeneration system to a hospital and a group of apartments in Seoul, Korea. In addition, the economic evaluation for the optimal cogeneration system depending on the fuel tariff system was calculated. A short payback period and higher internal rate of return on the initial investment were found to be essential for the adoption of cogeneration plants to hospitals and apartments

  15. Optimal planning and economic evaluation of cogeneration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Si-Doek; Lee, Ho-Jun [Hyosung Corporation, Bangbae B/D, 1006-2, Bangbae-Dong, Seocho-Ku, Seoul 137-850 (Korea); Jung, Jung-Yeul; Kwak, Ho-Young [Mechanical Engineering Department, Chung-Ang University, 221, Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea)

    2007-05-15

    Cogeneration plants, which simultaneously produce electricity and heat energy, have been introduced increasingly for commercial and domestic applications in Korea because of their energy efficiency. The optimal plant configuration of a specific commercial building can be determined by selecting the sizes and the number of cogeneration systems and the auxiliary equipment based on the annual demands of electricity, heating and cooling. In this study, a mixed-integer, linear programming, utilizing the branch and bound algorithm was used to obtain the optimal solution. Both the optimal configuration system equipment and the optimal operational mode were determined based on the annual cost method for the installation of a cogeneration system to a hospital and a group of apartments in Seoul, Korea. In addition, the economic evaluation for the optimal cogeneration system depending on the fuel tariff system was calculated. A short payback period and higher internal rate of return on the initial investment were found to be essential for the adoption of cogeneration plants to hospitals and apartments. (author)

  16. Economic Evaluation of Pollination Services Comparing Coffee Landscapes in Ecuador and Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Olschewski

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation through land-use systems on private land is becoming a pressing environmental policy issue. Agroforestry, such as shade-coffee production, contributes to biodiversity conservation. However, falling coffee prices force many coffee growers to convert their sites into economically more attractive land uses. We performed an economic evaluation of coffee pollination by bees in two distinct tropical regions: an area of low human impact with forests neighboring agroforestry in Indonesia and an area of high human impact with little remaining forest in Ecuador. We evaluated bee pollination for different forest-destruction scenarios, where coffee yields depend on forests to provide nesting sites for bees. We used two novel approaches. First, we examined how coffee net revenues depend on the pollination services of adjacent forests by considering berry weight in addition to fruit set, thereby providing a comprehensive evaluation. Second, we determined the net welfare effects of land-use changes, including the fact that former forestland is normally used for alternative crops. In both regions, crop revenues exceeded coffee pollination values, generating incentives to convert forests, even if owners would be compensated for pollination services. The promotion of certified "biodiversity-friendly" coffee is a feasible option to maintain shade-coffee systems. This is of special importance in high-impact areas where only small forest fragments remain. We conclude that a comprehensive economic analysis is necessary to adequately evaluate rainforest preservation for the enhancement of ecosystem services, such as pollination.

  17. Screening for atrial fibrillation in Canadian pharmacies: an economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarride, Jean-Eric; Dolovich, Lisa; Blackhouse, Gordon; Guertin, Jason Robert; Burke, Natasha; Manja, Veena; Grinvalds, Alex; Lim, Ting; Healey, Jeff S; Sandhu, Roopinder K

    2017-08-22

    Screening for undiagnosed atrial fibrillation may lead to treatment with oral anticoagulation therapy, which can decrease the risk of ischemic stroke. The objective of this study was to conduct an economic evaluation of the Program for the Identification of 'Actionable' Atrial Fibrillation in the Pharmacy Setting (PIAAF-Pharmacy), which screened 1145 participants aged 65 years or more at 30 community pharmacies in Ontario and Alberta between October 2014 and April 2015. We used a 2-part decision model to evaluate the short- and long-term costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of a pharmacy screening program for atrial fibrillation compared to no screening. Data from the PIAAF-Pharmacy study were used for the short-term model, and the relevant literature was used to extrapolate the benefits of the PIAAF-Pharmacy study in the long-term model. Costs and QALYs were calculated from a payer perspective over a lifetime horizon and were discounted at 1.5%/year. Screening for atrial fibrillation in pharmacies was associated with higher costs ($26) and more QALYs (0.0035) compared to no screening, yielding an incremental cost per QALY gained of $7480. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed that screening for atrial fibrillation in a pharmacy setting was a cost-effective strategy. Our results support screening for atrial fibrillation in Canadian pharmacies. Given this finding, efforts should be made by provincial governments and pharmacies to implement such programs in Canada. The addition of atrial fibrillation screening alongside screening and management of other cardiovascular conditions may help to reduce the burden of stroke. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  18. Economic evaluation of nurse practitioner and clinical nurse specialist roles: A methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, Elena; Donald, Faith; DiCenso, Alba; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Kilpatrick, Kelley; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Carter, Nancy; Reid, Kim; Marshall, Deborah A

    2017-07-01

    Advanced practice nurses (e.g., nurse practitioners and clinical nurse specialists) have been introduced internationally to increase access to high quality care and to tackle increasing health care expenditures. While randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews have demonstrated the effectiveness of nurse practitioner and clinical nurse specialist roles, their cost-effectiveness has been challenged. The poor quality of economic evaluations of these roles to date raises the question of whether current economic evaluation guidelines are adequate when examining their cost-effectiveness. To examine whether current guidelines for economic evaluation are appropriate for economic evaluations of nurse practitioner and clinical nurse specialist roles. Our methodological review was informed by a qualitative synthesis of four sources of information: 1) narrative review of literature reviews and discussion papers on economic evaluation of advanced practice nursing roles; 2) quality assessment of economic evaluations of nurse practitioner and clinical nurse specialist roles alongside randomised controlled trials; 3) review of guidelines for economic evaluation; and, 4) input from an expert panel. The narrative literature review revealed several challenges in economic evaluations of advanced practice nursing roles (e.g., complexity of the roles, variability in models and practice settings where the roles are implemented, and impact on outcomes that are difficult to measure). The quality assessment of economic evaluations of nurse practitioner and clinical nurse specialist roles alongside randomised controlled trials identified methodological limitations of these studies. When we applied the Guidelines for the Economic Evaluation of Health Technologies: Canada to the identified challenges and limitations, discussed those with experts and qualitatively synthesized all findings, we concluded that standard guidelines for economic evaluation are appropriate for economic

  19. Model-based economic evaluations in smoking cessation and their transferability to new contexts: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marrit L; Cheung, Kei Long; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Evers, Silvia; de Kinderen, Reina J A; Kulchaitanaroaj, Puttarin; Pokhrel, Subhash

    2017-06-01

    To identify different types of models used in economic evaluations of smoking cessation, analyse the quality of the included models examining their attributes and ascertain their transferability to a new context. A systematic review of the literature on the economic evaluation of smoking cessation interventions published between 1996 and April 2015, identified via Medline, EMBASE, National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The checklist-based quality of the included studies and transferability scores was based on the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURONHEED) criteria. Studies that were not in smoking cessation, not original research, not a model-based economic evaluation, that did not consider adult population and not from a high-income country were excluded. Among the 64 economic evaluations included in the review, the state-transition Markov model was the most frequently used method (n = 30/64), with quality adjusted life years (QALY) being the most frequently used outcome measure in a life-time horizon. A small number of the included studies (13 of 64) were eligible for EURONHEED transferability checklist. The overall transferability scores ranged from 0.50 to 0.97, with an average score of 0.75. The average score per section was 0.69 (range = 0.35-0.92). The relative transferability of the studies could not be established due to a limitation present in the EURONHEED method. All existing economic evaluations in smoking cessation lack in one or more key study attributes necessary to be fully transferable to a new context. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Models of economic geography : dynamics, estimation and policy evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, Thijs

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we look at economic geography models from a number of angles. We started by placing the theory in a context of preceding theories, both earlier work on spatial economics and other children of the monopolistic competition ‘revolution.’ Next, we looked at the theoretical properties of

  1. 192 inventory and economic evaluation of seedling species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-02

    Sep 2, 2010 ... This was accomplished through questionnaire administration and interviews with respondents. Descriptive statistics were utilized in analyzing the socio-economic variables, while Gross Income (GI), Net Income (NI), and Rate of Return on Investment (RORI) were adapted for economic analysis. The result.

  2. Economic evaluations and Randomized trials in spinal disorders: Principles and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korthals-de Bos, I; Van Tulder, M; Van Dieten, H

    2004-01-01

    Study Design. Descriptive methodologic recommendations. Objective. To help researchers designing, conducting, and reporting economic evaluations in the field of back and neck pain. Summary of Background Data. Economic evaluations of both existing and new therapeutic interventions are becoming...... increasingly important. There is a need to improve the methods of economic evaluations in the field of spinal disorders. Materials and Methods. To improve the methods of economic evaluations in the field of spinal disorders, this article describes the various steps in an economic evaluation, using as example...... a study on the cost-effectiveness of manual therapy, physiotherapy, and usual care provided by the general practitioner for patients with neck pain. Results. An economic evaluation is a study in which two or more interventions are systematically compared with regard to both costs and effects...

  3. Conversion of transuranic waste to low level waste by decontamination: a technical and economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1984-12-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of using in-situ decontamination techniques to convert glove boxes and other large TRU-contaminated components directly into LLW. The results of the technical evaluation indicate that in-situ decontamination of these types of components to non-TRU levels is technically feasible. Applicable decontamination techniques include electropolishing, hand scrubbing, chemical washes/sprays, strippable coatings and Freon spray-cleaning. The removal of contamination from crevices and other holdup areas remains a problem, but may be solved through further advances in decontamination technology. Also, the increase in the allowable maximum TRU level from 10 nCi/g to 100 nCi/g as defined in DOE Order 5820.2 reduces the removal requirement and facilitates measurement of the remaining quantities. The major emphasis of the study was on a cost/benefit evaluation that included a review and update of previous analyses and evaluations of TRU-waste volume reduction and conversion options. The results of the economic evaluation show, for the assumptions used, that there is a definite cost incentive to size reduce large components, and that decontamination of sectioned material has become cost competitive with the size reduction options. In-situ decontamination appears to be the lowest cost option when based on routine-type operations conducted by well-trained and properly equipped personnel. 16 references, 1 figure, 7 tables

  4. Socio-economic evaluation of selected biogas technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, F.; Martinsen, L.

    2013-05-15

    Financial and welfare economic analyses are conducted of 15 different biogas production scenarios that vary in terms of plant size and type of input. All considered scenarios lead to welfare economic losses. Overall welfare economic GHG reduction costs seem to increase with increasing crop/crop material share of input, and although the costs vary significantly across scenarios they are quite high for all scenarios. The financial analyses suggest that biogas production generally will be financially profitable for the agricultural sector and local CHP facilities but unprofitable for the biogas plants and the State. Seen from a policy perspective the results highlights the importance of designing regulatory instruments in a way that create incentives for private actors to engage in welfare economically desirable biogas production activities while discouraging the expansion of welfare economically undesirable activities. (Author)

  5. Economic Evaluations of Pharmacogenetic and Pharmacogenomic Screening Tests: A Systematic Review. Second Update of the Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J J Berm

    Full Text Available Due to extended application of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic screening (PGx tests it is important to assess whether they provide good value for money. This review provides an update of the literature.A literature search was performed in PubMed and papers published between August 2010 and September 2014, investigating the cost-effectiveness of PGx screening tests, were included. Papers from 2000 until July 2010 were included via two previous systematic reviews. Studies' overall quality was assessed with the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES instrument.We found 38 studies, which combined with the previous 42 studies resulted in a total of 80 included studies. An average QHES score of 76 was found. Since 2010, more studies were funded by pharmaceutical companies. Most recent studies performed cost-utility analysis, univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and discussed limitations of their economic evaluations. Most studies indicated favorable cost-effectiveness. Majority of evaluations did not provide information regarding the intrinsic value of the PGx test. There were considerable differences in the costs for PGx testing. Reporting of the direction and magnitude of bias on the cost-effectiveness estimates as well as motivation for the chosen economic model and perspective were frequently missing.Application of PGx tests was mostly found to be a cost-effective or cost-saving strategy. We found that only the minority of recent pharmacoeconomic evaluations assessed the intrinsic value of the PGx tests. There was an increase in the number of studies and in the reporting of quality associated characteristics. To improve future evaluations, scenario analysis including a broad range of PGx tests costs and equal costs of comparator drugs to assess the intrinsic value of the PGx tests, are recommended. In addition, robust clinical evidence regarding PGx tests' efficacy remains of utmost importance.

  6. Assessing the quality of economic evaluations of clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners: A systematic review of cost-effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Marshall

    Full Text Available A limited number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs including economic analysis have supported the cost-effectiveness of nurse practitioners and clinical nurse specialists delivering care in a variety of settings. Our objective was to examine the quality of economic evaluations in this body of literature using the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES tool, and highlight which questions of the quality assessment tool are being addressed adequately or require further attention within this body of literature. Of 43 RCTs included in our systematic review, the majority (77% fell in the poor study quality quartile with an average total QHES score of 39 (out of 100. Only three studies (7% were evaluated as high quality. Inter-rater agreement (prior to consensus process was high (83% agreement. Four criteria for the quality of economic evaluations were consistently addressed: specification of clear, measurable objectives; pre-specification of subgroups for subgroup analyses; justified conclusions based on study results; and disclosure of study funding source. A clear statement of the primary outcome measures, incremental analysis, and assessment of uncertainty were often unclear or missing. Due to poor methodological quality, we currently lack a solid evidence base to draw clear conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of nurse practitioners and clinical nurse specialists. Higher quality economic evaluations are required to inform these questions. Keywords: Clinical nurse specialists, Cost-effectiveness, Economic evaluation, Nurse practitioners, Review, systematic, Quality assessment

  7. The diffusion of health economics knowledge in Europe : The EURONHEED (European Network of Health Economics Evaluation Database) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pouvourville, Gérard; Ulmann, Philippe; Nixon, John; Boulenger, Stéphanie; Glanville, Julie; Drummond, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper overviews the EURONHEED (EUROpean Network of Health Economics Evaluation Databases) project. Launched in 2003, this project is funded by the EU. Its aim is to create a network of national and international databases dedicated to health economic evaluation of health services and innovations. Seven centres (France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK) are involved covering 17 countries. The network is based on two existing databases, the French CODECS (COnnaissance et Decision en EConomie de la Sante) database, created in 2000 by the French Health Economists Association (College des Economistes de la Sante), and the UK NHS-EED (NHS Economic Electronic Database), run by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York, England. The network will provide bibliographic records of published full health economic evaluation studies (cost-benefit, cost-utility and cost-effectiveness studies) as well as cost studies, methodological articles and review papers. Moreover, a structured abstract of full evaluation studies will be provided to users, allowing them access to a detailed description of each study and to a commentary stressing the implications and limits, for decision making, of the study. Access will be free of charge. The database features and its ease of access (via the internet: http://www.euronheed.org) should facilitate the diffusion of existing economic evidence on health services and the generalisation of common standards in the field at the European level, thereby improving the quality, generalisability and transferability of results across countries.

  8. Method of levelized discounted costs applied in economic evaluation of nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Li; Wang Yongqing; Liu Jingquan; Guo Jilin; Liu Wei

    2000-01-01

    The main methods of economic evaluation of bid which are in common use are introduced. The characteristics of levelized discounted cost method and its application are presented. The method of levelized discounted cost is applied to the cost calculation of a 200 MW nuclear heating reactor economic evaluation. The results indicate that the method of levelized discounted costs is simple, feasible and which is considered most suitable for the economic evaluation of various case. The method is suggested which is used in the national economic evaluation

  9. Methods for Health Economic Evaluation of Vaccines and Immunization Decision Frameworks: A Consensus Framework from a European Vaccine Economics Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultsch, Bernhard; Damm, Oliver; Beutels, Philippe; Bilcke, Joke; Brüggenjürgen, Bernd; Gerber-Grote, Andreas; Greiner, Wolfgang; Hanquet, Germaine; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark; Knol, Mirjam; von Kries, Rüdiger; Kuhlmann, Alexander; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Perleth, Matthias; Postma, Maarten; Salo, Heini; Siebert, Uwe; Wasem, Jürgen; Wichmann, Ole

    2016-03-01

    Incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses [health economic evaluations (HEEs)] of vaccines are routinely considered in decision making on immunization in various industrialized countries. While guidelines advocating more standardization of such HEEs (mainly for curative drugs) exist, several immunization-specific aspects (e.g. indirect effects or discounting approach) are still a subject of debate within the scientific community. The objective of this study was to develop a consensus framework for HEEs of vaccines to support the development of national guidelines in Europe. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify prevailing issues related to HEEs of vaccines. Furthermore, European experts in the field of health economics and immunization decision making were nominated and asked to select relevant aspects for discussion. Based on this, a workshop was held with these experts. Aspects on 'mathematical modelling', 'health economics' and 'decision making' were debated in group-work sessions (GWS) to formulate recommendations and/or--if applicable--to state 'pros' and 'contras'. A total of 13 different aspects were identified for modelling and HEE: model selection, time horizon of models, natural disease history, measures of vaccine-induced protection, duration of vaccine-induced protection, indirect effects apart from herd protection, target population, model calibration and validation, handling uncertainty, discounting, health-related quality of life, cost components, and perspectives. For decision making, there were four aspects regarding the purpose and the integration of HEEs of vaccines in decision making as well as the variation of parameters within uncertainty analyses and the reporting of results from HEEs. For each aspect, background information and an expert consensus were formulated. There was consensus that when HEEs are used to prioritize healthcare funding, this should be done in a consistent way across all interventions

  10. Economic evaluation of neutral streams and of river construction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donat, M.

    1998-12-01

    There are no current markets for the management and restoration of natural streams. However, economic elements tend to play an increasingly important role when it comes to decisions about river management activities. Although preference structures of market consumers can be analyzed using prices, there are several short-comings in using this technique for goods with no or an insufficient market. This is especially true for 'natural streams'. The non-existence of market prices for goods or their parts does not mean that they do not have a value or that there is no preference structure for them. After an introductory discussion of ethical and value issues, specific methods for evaluating and analyzing the willingness-to-pay for natural streams and theirs restoration are developed further. Using direct interview techniques, locals in three different watersheds in Upper Austria are ask for their preferences and social pricing of natural streams and river management options. The areas the interviews were conducted in, represent a watershed dominated by intensive agricultural and residential uses, another watershed typical for a rural community and a third representing a watershed of a relatively pristine river of the Northern Alpine limestone range mainly used by forestry and tourism. Demographic data, eco-morphological stream characteristics and preferences of the interviewed about elements of a natural stream, user and non-user values were linked and analyzed. The results of a personal interviewing technique conducted in these watersheds showed to be capable to capture the preference structure in small watersheds and may offer some help for decision-making concerning river management issues. (author)

  11. BUSINESS SURVEYS-EVALUATION INSTRUMENT OF THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC CLIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SECAREANU CONSTANTIN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Business surveys or conjuncture surveys are specific statiostical researches, but complementary to traditional, official statistics.While official statistics provide quantitive information regardin the level,structure and evolution of varied economic process and phenomena, business surveys offer quality information, essential to the short term evolutional analysis of economic indicators: the diagnosis of the current situation, the timely detection of inflexion points within the economic cycle and the rapid estimation of short term tendencies of the main macroeconomic indicators (the dynamics of the gross domestic product, the index of industrial production, etc.

  12. Evaluation of the susceptibility to pitting corrosion of structural steels, including steels with modified surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunarska, E.; Nikiforow, K.

    2001-01-01

    Although the low alloy ferrite-perlite and bainite-martensite steels mostly undergo the general corrosion, pitting corrosion occurring under certain conditions jeopardizes the safety of installations, causing perforation of walls or initiation of crack. On the basis of electrochemical, corrosion and microscopic examinations, the conditions simulating typical industrial corrosion environments, containing Cl - ions have been selected, to which the parts of machines, devices and installation are subjected. The test parameters provide the preferential pitting corrosion without prevailing general corrosion, and provide the similar type of corrosion of different kinds of ferrite-perlite and bainite-martensite steels, including steels with modified surface layer. The proposed express method allows to evaluate the susceptibility to pitting corrosion and to evaluate the effect of surface modification on susceptibility to pitting corrosion in environments containing Cl - ions. The method may be applied for the proper selection of materials exploited under pitting corrosion conditions and for preparation of precorroded samples for mechanical testing. (author)

  13. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 STORAGE AND SINK ENHANCEMENT OPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert Bock; Richard Rhudy; Howard Herzog; Michael Klett; John Davison; Danial G. De La Torre Ugarte; Dale Simbeck

    2003-02-01

    This project developed life-cycle costs for the major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} storage and sink enhancement. The technologies evaluated included options for storing captured CO{sub 2} in active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of carbon sequestration in forests and croplands. The capture costs for a nominal 500 MW{sub e} integrated gasification combined cycle plant from an earlier study were combined with the storage costs from this study to allow comparison among capture and storage approaches as well as sink enhancements.

  14. Systematic review of economic evaluations of preparedness strategies and interventions against influenza pandemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Pérez Velasco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although public health guidelines have implications for resource allocation, these issues were not explicitly considered in previous WHO pandemic preparedness and response guidance. In order to ensure a thorough and informed revision of this guidance following the H1N1 2009 pandemic, a systematic review of published and unpublished economic evaluations of preparedness strategies and interventions against influenza pandemics was conducted. METHODS: The search was performed in September 2011 using 10 electronic databases, 2 internet search engines, reference list screening, cited reference searching, and direct communication with relevant authors. Full and partial economic evaluations considering both costs and outcomes were included. Conversely, reviews, editorials, and studies on economic impact or complications were excluded. Studies were selected by 2 independent reviewers. RESULTS: 44 studies were included. Although most complied with the cost effectiveness guidelines, the quality of evidence was limited. However, the data sources used were of higher quality in economic evaluations conducted after the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Vaccination and drug regimens were varied. Pharmaceutical plus non-pharmaceutical interventions are relatively cost effective in comparison to vaccines and/or antivirals alone. Pharmaceutical interventions vary from cost saving to high cost effectiveness ratios. According to ceiling thresholds (Gross National Income per capita, the reduction of non-essential contacts and the use of pharmaceutical prophylaxis plus the closure of schools are amongst the cost effective strategies for all countries. However, quarantine for household contacts is not cost effective even for low and middle income countries. CONCLUSION: The available evidence is generally inconclusive regarding the cost effectiveness of preparedness strategies and interventions against influenza pandemics. Studies on their effectiveness and cost

  15. Systematic review of economic evaluations of preparedness strategies and interventions against influenza pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Velasco, Román; Praditsitthikorn, Naiyana; Wichmann, Kamonthip; Mohara, Adun; Kotirum, Surachai; Tantivess, Sripen; Vallenas, Constanza; Harmanci, Hande; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2012-01-01

    Although public health guidelines have implications for resource allocation, these issues were not explicitly considered in previous WHO pandemic preparedness and response guidance. In order to ensure a thorough and informed revision of this guidance following the H1N1 2009 pandemic, a systematic review of published and unpublished economic evaluations of preparedness strategies and interventions against influenza pandemics was conducted. The search was performed in September 2011 using 10 electronic databases, 2 internet search engines, reference list screening, cited reference searching, and direct communication with relevant authors. Full and partial economic evaluations considering both costs and outcomes were included. Conversely, reviews, editorials, and studies on economic impact or complications were excluded. Studies were selected by 2 independent reviewers. 44 studies were included. Although most complied with the cost effectiveness guidelines, the quality of evidence was limited. However, the data sources used were of higher quality in economic evaluations conducted after the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Vaccination and drug regimens were varied. Pharmaceutical plus non-pharmaceutical interventions are relatively cost effective in comparison to vaccines and/or antivirals alone. Pharmaceutical interventions vary from cost saving to high cost effectiveness ratios. According to ceiling thresholds (Gross National Income per capita), the reduction of non-essential contacts and the use of pharmaceutical prophylaxis plus the closure of schools are amongst the cost effective strategies for all countries. However, quarantine for household contacts is not cost effective even for low and middle income countries. The available evidence is generally inconclusive regarding the cost effectiveness of preparedness strategies and interventions against influenza pandemics. Studies on their effectiveness and cost effectiveness should be readily implemented in forthcoming events that

  16. Some consequences of including low frequencies in the evaluation of floor impact sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Rasmussen, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    A method for including frequencies down to 50 Hz in the evaluation of floor impact sound has become available with the new version of ISO 717-2. In addition to the single number quantity for rating the impact sound insulation, a new spectrum adaptation term has been defined. The method has been...... studied by the Acoustics Group of the Nordic Committee on Building Regulations. The new method has been applied to a large number of recent measuring results from the Nordic countries. It was found that the spectrum adaptation term for the extended frequency range depends on the type of floor construction...

  17. Economic evaluation of horizontal coil geothermal heat pumps in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yari, M.; Ansari, M.; Javani, N.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, an economic and feasibility study for geothermal heat pumps has been studied based on the conditions of Iran. Geothermal heat pumps have a higher coefficient of performance in comparison with the air-to-air heat pumps, so it will cause a considerable saving in electricity consumption although they need to a higher initial investment.In this study, the above-mentioned difference in capital cost is being investigated and using economic analyzing methods, payback period is calculated. Economic investigations show that the payback period is about 6 years. The effect of electricity price, utility time and percentage of annual increase in electricity price, together with the economical performance of system are discussed

  18. Exchange-rate regimes and economic growth: An empirical evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Sosvilla-Rivero; María del Carmen Ramos-Herrera

    2014-01-01

    Based on a dataset of 123 economies, this paper empirically investigates the relation between exchange-rate regimes and economic growth. We find that growth performance is best under intermediate exchange rate regimes, while the smallest growth rates are associated with flexible exchange rates. Nevertheless, this conclusion is tempered when we analyze the countries by income level: even though countries that adopt intermediate exchange-rate regimes are characterized by higher economic growth,...

  19. Economic evaluation of reprocessing and thermal reactor recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    This paper provides a summing up of the discussions on economic aspects in WG4. These discussions also took account of the strategic, ecological and public acceptance factors intimately involved. Tentative conclusions are put forward as a basis for discussion. Reprocessing may take place for reasons other than just strictly economic ones. The decisions facing various countries are rationalized by considering their reactions to the range of possible uranium prices and fast reactor costs in the future

  20. Economic Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambarelli, G.; Goria, A.

    2004-07-01

    The paper deals with the social and economic dimensions of climate change impacts and adaptation in Italy. The ultimate aim of the paper is to provide policy makers and experts with a conceptual framework, as well as methodological and operational tools for dealing with climate change impacts and adaptation from an economic perspective. In order to do so, first a conceptual and theoretical framework of the economic assessment of climate change impacts is presented and the state of the art about impact assessment studies is briefly analysed. Then, the Italian case is taken into account, by underlying the main impacts and adaptation challenges that are likely to be implied by climate change in the next decades. The analysis of the Italian case is particularly addressed through the description of the methodology and results of two case studies. The first one, dealing mainly with impact assessment, is carried out at the national level and is part of a EC funded project on Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE). The second one is carried out at the local level and focuses on sea level rise impacts and adaptation in a plane south of Rome. The two case studies allow to propose simple and flexible methodologies for the economic impact assessment and the economic valuation of adaptation strategies

  1. Economic evaluations of novel antipsychotic medications: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Teresa J; Sullivan, Greer; Feng, Weiwei; Owen, Richard R; Thrush, Carol R

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate the evidence that novel antipsychotic medications offer a cost advantage compared to traditional antipsychotic medications. Literature for this review was identified through a computerized search of Medline, Healthstar and Psyc-INFO databases inclusive from January 1989 to January 2002. Articles included in the review were required to include cost evaluation and to be published in peer-reviewed journals. Twenty-two studies met inclusion criteria. All five studies that used experimental designs found that second-generation antipsychotic medications were associated with a cost advantage or were cost-neutral, and, in some cases, improved quality of life. Of the ten studies using a pre-post design, four found an increase in total costs, six reported a decrease in total costs, and four reported increased effectiveness with use of a second-generation antipsychotic. All seven of the simulation studies reported a cost advantage for novel antipsychotics for specific patient populations under certain conditions. The majority of studies found that novel antipsychotics are at least cost-neutral and may offer cost advantages compared to traditional agents. Some studies also reported greater improvement in effectiveness and quality of life when novel antipsychotics were compared to traditional antipsychotic medications. However, it is difficult to draw firm conclusions given the small sample sizes and limited study designs available in this literature.

  2. Economic evaluation of bone stimulation modalities: A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Button Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Various bone stimulation modalities are commonly used in treatment of fresh fractures and nonunions; however, the effectiveness and efficiency of these modalities remain uncertain. A systematic review of trials evaluating the clinical and economical outcomes of ultrasounds, electrical stimulation, and extracorporeal sound waves on fracture healing was conducted. We searched four electronic databases for economic evaluations that assessed bone stimulation modalities using ultrasound therapy, electrical stimulation, or extracorporeal shock waves. In addition, we searched the references and related articles of eligible studies, and a content expert was contacted. Information on the clinical and economical outcomes of patients was independently extracted by reviewers. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria; therefore, very limited research was found on the cost associated with treatments and the corresponding outcomes. The data available focus primarily on the efficacy of newly introduced treatment methods for bone growth, but failed to incorporate the costs of implementing such treatments. One economic analysis was identified that assessed different treatment paths using ultrasound. A total cost savings of 24-40% per patient occurred when ultrasound was used for fresh fractures and nonunions (grade C recommendation. The results suggest that the ultrasound is a viable alternative for bone stimulation; however, the impacts of the other modalities are left unknown due to the lack of research available. Methodological limitations leave the overall economic and clinical impact of these modalities uncertain. Large, prospective, randomized controlled trials that include cost-effectiveness analyses are needed to further define the clinical effectiveness and financial burden associated with bone stimulation modalities.

  3. WHO standards for biotherapeutics, including biosimilars: an example of the evaluation of complex biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Ivana; Griffiths, Elwyn

    2017-11-01

    The most advanced regulatory processes for complex biological products have been put in place in many countries to provide appropriate regulatory oversight of biotherapeutic products in general, and similar biotherapeutics in particular. This process is still ongoing and requires regular updates to national regulatory requirements in line with scientific developments and up-to-date standards. For this purpose, strong knowledge of and expertise in evaluating biotherapeutics in general and similar biotherapeutic products, also called biosimilars, in particular is essential. Here, we discuss the World Health Organization's international standard-setting role in the regulatory evaluation of recombinant DNA-derived biotherapeutic products, including biosimilars, and provide examples that may serve as models for moving forward with nonbiological complex medicinal products. A number of scientific challenges and regulatory considerations imposed by the advent of biosimilars are described, together with the lessons learned, to stimulate future discussions on this topic. In addition, the experiences of facilitating the implementation of guiding principles for evaluation of similar biotherapeutic products into regulatory and manufacturers' practices in various countries over the past 10 years are briefly explained, with the aim of promoting further developments and regulatory convergence of complex biological and nonbiological products. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  4. [Economic evaluation on breast cancer screening in mainland China: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Shi, J F; Huang, H Y; Zhu, J; Li, J; Fang, Y; Dai, M

    2016-12-10

    Objective: To gather available evidence related to the economic evaluation on breast cancer screening in mainland China and to provide reference for further research. Methods: A systematic review was conducted to identify articles in PubMed and three Chinese databases (CNKI, Wanfang and VIP) during 1995-2015. Data related to descriptive characteristics, rates on participation and detection for population-based studies, methods for model-based studies, types of economic evaluation and results, were extracted. A Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) was used to assess the reporting quality of included studies. Results: Of the 356 records searched in the databases, 13 studies (all published between 2012 and 2015) were included in the current paper involving 11 population-based studies and 3 model-based evaluations (1 study using both methods). Age of the participants who started to be engaged in the screening program ranged from 18 to 45 years old, but terminated at the age of 59 years or older. The screening modalities included single-used clinical breast examination, mammography and ultrasound or combined applications. Study persepectives were described in 7 studies, with 5 from the healthcare providers, and 2 from societal angles. Only 5 studies discounted cost or effectiveness. Out of 11 papers, 9 showed the results on cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) that reporting the cost per breast cancer detection, with median as 145.0 thousand Chinese Yuan (CNY), ranging from 49.7 thousand to 2 293.0 thousand CNY. From 4 papers with results of cost-utility analysis (CUA), the cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained or cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted, were evaluated. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was from 2.9 thousand to 270.7 thousand CNY (GDP per capita of China was CNY 49.3 thousand in 2015). In 13 studies, the quality of reporting varied, with an average score of 14.5 (range: 9.5-21.0). In

  5. Economic evaluations of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongmelaxme, Bunchai; Hammanee, Maythika; Phooaphirak, Wariya; Kotirum, Surachai; Hutubessy, Raymond; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines, but China and Thailand have not used Hib vaccination in their national immunization programs. This systematic review aimed to update published economic evaluations of Hib vaccinations and to determine factors that potentially affected their cost-effectiveness. Searches were performed from the inception until December 2015 using 13 databases: CAB direct; CEA registry; EconLit; EMBASE; E-library; NHSEED; PAHO; POPLINE; PubMed; Redalyc project; RePEc; SciELO; and WHOLIS. Reference lists of relevant studies and grey literature were also searched. Full economic evaluations of Hib vaccination with results of costs and outcomes were included. The WHO checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies. Data from eligible studies were extracted using a standardized data collection form. Out of 830 articles, 27 were included. Almost half of the studies (12/27) were conducted in high-income countries. Twelve studies (12/27) investigated the Hib vaccine as an addition to the existing vaccination program. Most studies (17/27) examined a 3-dose schedule of Hib vaccine. Nineteen studies (19/27) reported the model used, where all were decision tree models. Most of the studies (23/27) demonstrated an economic value of Hib vaccination programs, key influential parameters being incidence rates of Hib disease and vaccine price. Hib vaccination programs are mostly found to be cost-effective across geographic regions and country income levels, and Hib vaccination is recommended for inclusion into all national immunization programs. The findings are expected to support policy-makers for making decisions on allocating limited resources of the Hib vaccination program effectively.

  6. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries; A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions from the published literatures and assess their implication for policy and future research. A systematic review was performed in several electronic databases i.e Medline (Pubmed), Embase, Popline, The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), EBSCOHost, and The Cochrane Library. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of strategies to improve family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, published between 1995 until 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Data was synthesized and analyzed using a narrative approach and the reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement. From 920 references screened, 9 studies were eligible for inclusion. Six references assessed cost effectiveness of improving family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, while the rest assessed costs and consequences of integrating family planning and HIV services, concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Assembled evidence suggested that improving family planning interventions is cost effective in a variety of L-MICs as measured against accepted international cost effectiveness benchmarks. In areas with high HIV prevalence, integrating family planning and HIV services can be efficient and cost effective; however the evidence is only supported by a very limited number of studies. The major drivers of cost effectiveness were cost of increasing coverage, effectiveness of the interventions and country-specific factors. Improving family planning interventions in low and middle income countries appears to be cost-effective. Additional economic evaluation studies with improved reporting quality are necessary to generate

  7. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries; A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neily Zakiyah

    Full Text Available A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions from the published literatures and assess their implication for policy and future research.A systematic review was performed in several electronic databases i.e Medline (Pubmed, Embase, Popline, The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER, EBSCOHost, and The Cochrane Library. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of strategies to improve family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, published between 1995 until 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Data was synthesized and analyzed using a narrative approach and the reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS statement.From 920 references screened, 9 studies were eligible for inclusion. Six references assessed cost effectiveness of improving family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, while the rest assessed costs and consequences of integrating family planning and HIV services, concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Assembled evidence suggested that improving family planning interventions is cost effective in a variety of L-MICs as measured against accepted international cost effectiveness benchmarks. In areas with high HIV prevalence, integrating family planning and HIV services can be efficient and cost effective; however the evidence is only supported by a very limited number of studies. The major drivers of cost effectiveness were cost of increasing coverage, effectiveness of the interventions and country-specific factors.Improving family planning interventions in low and middle income countries appears to be cost-effective. Additional economic evaluation studies with improved reporting quality are necessary

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY IMPACTS OF MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFS) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. he MITE Program is sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protecti...

  9. Sieving wastewater--cellulose recovery, economic and energy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiken, C J; Breuer, G; Klaversma, E; Santiago, T; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2013-01-01

    Application of fine-mesh sieves (wastewater treatment gives an opportunity to recover resources and increase sustainability of wastewater treatment processes. Sieves are traditionally used for single stage mechanical treatment (typical mesh of 0.35 mm) or in combination with an MBR (typical mesh >0.7 mm). When sieves with a mesh of 0.35 mm are used on raw sewage we observed that cellulose fibres mainly originating from toilet paper are removed efficiently from the influent with a high recovery and purity. The application of sieves as pretreatment for conventional activated sludge processes has been evaluated based on pilot plant research at three WWTPs in the Netherlands. With sieving applied to the dry weather flow only the overall energy usage of the WWTP including sludge treatment can be decreased by at least 40% with a payback time of 7 years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Methodologies for environmental, micro- and macro-economic evaluation of bioenergy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R. van den; Wijk, A. van

    2006-01-01

    An overview is given of methodologies used for evaluation of bioenergy systems on envoronmental, micro- and macro-economic spects. To evaluate micro-economic impacts net present value and annualised cost calculation are used. For environmental impacts, methods used are: qualitative studies, energy

  11. Evaluating transfer capability of economic-driven power markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao

    2007-01-01

    in the present economic-driven electricity markets. A mathematical model of a multi-objective optimization (MOOP) technique has been adopted and presented here for transfer capability studies; which can be helpful for power system planning and operation procedures. The newly-developed algorithm is being tested......The on-going restructuring of electric power utilities poses great challenges for power system engineers to plan and operate power systems as economical and reliable as possible. This paper discusses an important issue, which has been usually neglected, when quantifying active power transfer levels...

  12. Economic evaluation for use of advanced welding equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, P. Y.; Alekseev, I. V.; Kolesnik, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    Stable and sustainable predicted development of industrial enterprises within global competition is ensured by regular improvement of technologies and introduction of innovative technological equipment. In terms of comparative analysis of the various power supplies application in the welding production, the equality of relative resource efficiency of various equipment and specific economic effect has been calculated. The research showed that the costs per 1 meter are the smallest for semiautomatic welding in a protective gas environment using inverter power supplies, contributing to the economic benefit during its application.

  13. Energetic and economic evaluations on hydrogen storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arca, S.; Di Profio, P.; Germani, R. [Perugia Univ., Perugia (Italy). Centro di Eccellenza Materiali Innovativi Nanostrutturati, Dip. Chimica; Savelli, G.; Cotana, F.; Rossi, F.; Amantini, M. [Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Sezione di Fisica Tecnica

    2008-07-01

    With the development of the hydrogen economy and fuel cell vehicles, a major technological issue has emerged regarding the storage and delivery of large amounts of hydrogen. Several hydrogen storage methodologies are available while other technologies are being developed aside from the classical compression and liquefaction of hydrogen. A novel technology is also in rapid process, which is based on clathrate hydrates of hydrogen. The features and performances of available storage systems were evaluated in an effort to determine the best technology throughout the hydrogen chain. For each of the storage solutions presented, the key parameters were compared. These key parameters included interaction energy between hydrogen and support; real and practical storage capacity; and specific energy consumption. The paper presented the study methods and discussed hydrogen storage technologies using compressed hydrogen; metal hydrides; liquefied hydrogen; carbon nanotubes; ammonia; and gas hydrates. Carbon dioxide emissions were also evaluated for each storage system analyzed. The paper also presented the worst scenario. It was concluded that a technology based on clathrate hydrates of hydrogen, while being far from optimized, was highly competitive with the classical approaches. 21 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Economic evaluation of 'Return to Country': A remote Australian initiative to address indigenous homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Irina; Jacups, Susan; Hunter, Gary; Rogerson, Bernadette

    2016-06-01

    An increase in the number of Indigenous homeless persons in Cairns, Northern Australia, prompted the Queensland Police Service (QPS) to commence a pilot 'Return to Country' (R2C) program. The program was designed to assist homeless people who were voluntarily seeking to return to their home communities. This study assesses the costs of running the program and evaluates its net economic impact. Retrospective uncontrolled cost, cost-effectiveness and cost-offset analyses were undertaken from a societal perspective. All costs were expressed in 2014 AU$. The R2C program successfully assisted 140 participants to return home, reducing the prevalence of homelessness in the regional center by 9.6%. The total program cost was estimated as AU$ 135,831 or AU$ 970 per participant. The economic analysis indicated that R2C was value for money, potentially saving AU$ 2,714,460. Limitations of the study included retrospective data collection and no established alternative comparison group. R2C is a relatively simple, minimal cost program, which can be utilized by policy makers to offer one solution to homelessness. This economic evaluation informs the QPS of the effects of the R2C program in order to guide further program initiatives. The R2C model may be applied to assist temporarily stranded Indigenous people in other locations within Australia or internationally to return home. No funding was obtained for conducting this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Economic Evaluations of the Health Impacts of Weather-Related Extreme Events: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Laetitia H. M.; Graham, Hilary M.; White, Piran C. L.

    2016-01-01

    The frequency and severity of extreme events is expected to increase under climate change. There is a need to understand the economic consequences of human exposure to these extreme events, to underpin decisions on risk reduction. We undertook a scoping review of economic evaluations of the adverse health effects from exposure to weather-related extreme events. We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases with no restrictions to the type of evaluations. Twenty studies were included, most of which were recently published. Most studies have been undertaken in the U.S. (nine studies) or Asia (seven studies), whereas we found no studies in Africa, Central and Latin America nor the Middle East. Extreme temperatures accounted for more than a third of the pool of studies (seven studies), closely followed by flooding (six studies). No economic study was found on drought. Whilst studies were heterogeneous in terms of objectives and methodology, they clearly indicate that extreme events will become a pressing public health issue with strong welfare and distributional implications. The current body of evidence, however, provides little information to support decisions on the allocation of scarce resources between risk reduction options. In particular, the review highlights a significant lack of research attention to the potential cost-effectiveness of interventions that exploit the capacity of natural ecosystems to reduce our exposure to, or ameliorate the consequences of, extreme events. PMID:27834843

  16. Economic evaluation of the anti-stigma social marketing campaign in England 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham; McCrone, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Evidence on the economic impact of social marketing anti-stigma campaigns in relation to people with mental illness is limited. To describe the economic impact of the Time to Change (TTC) anti-stigma social marketing campaign, including the potential effects on the wider economy. Data collected for the evaluation of TTC were combined with the social marketing campaign expenditure data to investigate differences in knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in relation to campaign awareness. To evaluate the return on investment, we applied a decision model that estimated the impact on employment for people with depression. Based on average national social marketing campaign costs, the economic benefits outweighed costs even if the campaign resulted in only 1% more people with depression accessing services and gaining employment if they experienced a health improvement. The cost per person with improved intended behaviour was at most £ 4 if we assume the campaign was responsible for 50% of the change. Costs associated with improved knowledge and attitudes, however, were more variable. The findings suggest that the TTC anti-stigma social marketing campaign is a potentially cost-effective and low-cost intervention for reducing the impact of stigma on people with mental health problems.

  17. Evidence used in model-based economic evaluations for evaluating pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic tests: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jaime L; Cooper, Chris; Buchanan, James

    2015-11-11

    Decision models can be used to conduct economic evaluations of new pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic tests to ensure they offer value for money to healthcare systems. These models require a great deal of evidence, yet research suggests the evidence used is diverse and of uncertain quality. By conducting a systematic review, we aim to investigate the test-related evidence used to inform decision models developed for the economic evaluation of genetic tests. We will search electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and NHS EEDs to identify model-based economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic tests. The search will not be limited by language or date. Title and abstract screening will be conducted independently by 2 reviewers, with screening of full texts and data extraction conducted by 1 reviewer, and checked by another. Characteristics of the decision problem, the decision model and the test evidence used to inform the model will be extracted. Specifically, we will identify the reported evidence sources for the test-related evidence used, describe the study design and how the evidence was identified. A checklist developed specifically for decision analytic models will be used to critically appraise the models described in these studies. Variations in the test evidence used in the decision models will be explored across the included studies, and we will identify gaps in the evidence in terms of both quantity and quality. The findings of this work will be disseminated via a peer-reviewed journal publication and at national and international conferences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Evaluating Tobacco Control Policies in 28 Countries (including 9 EU countries: The ITC Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Fong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its start in 2002, the ITC Project has been conducting evaluation studies of tobacco control policies via prospective cohort surveys of tobacco users in 28 countries, including 9 EU countries. This presentation will focus on the design of the ITC Project and how it differs from and complements existing evidence-gathering systems (monitoring and surveillance systems in measuring and understanding the impact of FCTC policies. The presentation will also describe the ITC Project's most recent initiatives: (1 the EUREST-PLUS study focusing on measuring the impact of the Tobacco Products Directive, and (2 a large-scale international cohort study of e-cigarettes starting in the United States, Canada, England, and Australia.

  19. Method for including detailed evaluation of daylight levels in Be06

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    for electrical lighting by 30% compared to the method suggested in this paper, which is based on hourly calculated illuminance levels in a representative point in the workspace. Implementing the suggested method in Be06 would be a better representation of the reality compared to the current method. Furthermore......Good daylight conditions in office buildings have become an important issue due to new European regulatory demands which include energy consumption for electrical lighting in the building energy frame. Good daylight conditions in offices are thus in increased focus as an energy conserving measure...... calculation tool in Denmark (Be06) for evaluating the energy performance of buildings is currently using a simple representation of available daylight in a room and simple assumptions regarding the control of shading devices. In a case example, this is leading to an overestimation of the energy consumption...

  20. Quality Assessment of Economic Evaluations of Suicide and Self-Harm Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lizell Bustamante; Eddleston, Michael; Hansen, Kristian Schultz

    2018-01-01

    of interventions aimed at preventing suicidal behavior. Method: A systematic literature search was performed in several literature databases to identify relevant articles published from 2003 to 2016. Drummond's 10-item appraisal tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Results......Background: Death following self-harm constitutes a major global public health challenge and there is an urgent need for governments to implement cost-effective, national suicide prevention strategies. Aim: To conduct a systematic review and quality appraisal of the economic evaluations...

  1. Model-Based Economic Evaluation of Treatments for Depression: A Systematic Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovos, Spyros; Bosmans, Judith E.; Riper, Heleen

    2017-01-01

    eligible if they used a health economic model with quality-adjusted life-years or disability-adjusted life-years as an outcome measure. Data related to various methodological characteristics were extracted from the included studies. The available modelling techniques were evaluated based on 11 predefined......, and DES models in seven.ConclusionThere were substantial methodological differences between the studies. Since the individual history of each patient is important for the prognosis of depression, DES and ISM simulation methods may be more appropriate than the others for a pragmatic representation...

  2. Study Concerning the Measure of Using Accounting, Economical and Administrative Evaluation in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreghiciu Andreea Elena

    2017-01-01

    Starting from the purpose for which the evaluation is requested, this can be accountingevaluation, administrative evaluation and respectively economical – financial evaluation. Thepurpose of accounting evaluation is to elaborate financial reports, and administrative, economicaland financial evaluations have the purpose of determining the market value for different reasons.

  3. A brief history of economic evaluation for human papillomavirus vaccination policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutels, Philippe; Jit, Mark

    2010-09-01

    This commentary discusses key issues for health economic evaluation and modelling, applied to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine programs. We outline some of the specific features of HPV disease and vaccination, and associated policy questions in light of a literature search for economic evaluations on HPV vaccination. We observe that some policy questions could not be reliably addressed by many of the 43 published economic evaluations we found. Despite this, policy making on universal HPV vaccination followed shortly after vaccine licensure in many developed countries, so the role economic evaluation played in informing these decisions (pre-dating 2008) seems to have been fairly limited. For more recent decisions, however, economic evaluation is likely to have been used more widely and more intensively. We expect future cost-effectiveness analyses to be more instrumental in policy making regarding vaccines covering more HPV types, therapeutic HPV vaccines, and novel diagnostic tests for biomarkers of HPV infection and disease integrated with cervical screening programs.

  4. Optimizing chronic disease management mega-analysis: economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    $10,665 per patient wth congestive heart failure receiving in-home care. Evidence used to inform estimates of effect was often limited to a single trial with limited generalizability across populations, interventions, and health care systems. Because of the low clinical fidelity of health administrative data sets, intermediate clinical outcomes could not be included. Cohort costs included an average of all health care costs and were not restricted to costs associated with the disease. Intervention costs were based on resource use specified in clinical trials. Applying estimates of effect from the evidence-based analyses to real-world resource use resulted in cost savings for all interventions. On the basis of quality-of-life data identified in the literature, all interventions were found to result in a greater QALY gain than usual care would. Implementation of all interventions could offer significant cost reductions. However, this analysis was subject to important limitations. Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in Ontario. They account for a third of direct health care costs across the province. This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of health care interventions that might improve the management of chronic diseases. The evaluated interventions led to lower costs and better quality of life than usual care. Offering these options could reduce costs per patient. However, the studies used in this analysis were of medium to very low quality, and the methods had many limitations.

  5. Inclusion of the value of herd immunity in economic evaluations of vaccines. A systematic review of methods used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymark, Liv S; Sharma, Tarang; Miller, Alexander; Enemark, Ulrika; Griffiths, Ulla Kou

    2017-12-14

    The objectives of this review were to identify vaccine economic evaluations that include herd immunity and describe the methodological approaches used. We used Kim and Goldie's search strategy from a systematic review (1976-2007) of modelling approaches used in vaccine economic evaluations and additionally searched PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase for 2007-2015. Studies were classified according to modelling approach used. Methods for estimating herd immunity effects were described, in particular for the static models. We identified 625 economic evaluations of vaccines against human-transmissible diseases from 1976 to 2015. Of these, 172 (28%) included herd immunity. While 4% of studies included herd immunity in 2001, 53% of those published in 2015 did this. Pneumococcal, human papilloma and rotavirus vaccines represented the majority of studies (63%) considering herd immunity. Ninety-five of the 172 studies utilised a static model, 59 applied a dynamic model, eight a hybrid model and ten did not clearly state which method was used. Relatively crude methods and assumptions were used in the majority of the static model studies. The proportion of economic evaluations using a dynamic model has increased in recent years. However, 55% of the included studies used a static model for estimating herd immunity. Values from a static model can only be considered reliable if high quality surveillance data are incorporated into the analysis. Without this, the results are questionable and they should only be included in sensitivity analysis. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Feasibility and economic evaluation of low-cost evaporative cooling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The energy efficiency ratio (varying from 55 to 84%) was found to be high as the evaporative cooling system requires small electric power only for operating fan and water pump. The economic analysis indicates that the payback period of the evaporative cooling system is less than 1.2 years. The results clearly demonstrate ...

  7. Evaluation of genetic trends for traits of economic importance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was conducted to assess the genetic trends realized for traits of economic importance in the South African Holstein population, for the period from 1983 to 2008. Performance and pedigree data of 1 231 930 animals were used to calculate EBVs for these traits by a multi-trait animal model. The resulting ...

  8. Expert system for economic evaluation of technological projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumil Hlavenka

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the technical level, a basic tool for decision-making and realization of the technical innovation project is also its economic effectiveness. It is assessed by comparing expenses and effects with respect to all-society interests and standards valid in a relevant period for the areas of technology, economy, ecology, safety of work, etc.

  9. Economic Evaluation of Insect Pests Management in Cashew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The statistically significant treatments were subjected to economic analysis using the partial budget and MRR. Discounted financial indicators (NPV, BCR and IRR) were used. The study revealed that damage caused by each pest was significantly lower on trees with weaver ants and in the plots treated with Karate® than ...

  10. Design and techno economic evaluation of biomass gasifier for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    and environmental benefits (Ravindranath, 2004). Inex- pensive materials such as forest residue, wood residue, and rice straw are few potential feedstocks for .... Based on net present worth, it can be concluded that the construction of industrial biomass gasifier and heating sy- stem is economical and there is substantial ...

  11. Economic evaluation of water loss saving due to the biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes is considered the most damaging aquatic weed in the world. However, few studies have quantified the impact of this weed economically and ecologically, and even fewer studies have quantified the benefits of its control. This paper focuses on water loss saving as the benefit derived ...

  12. Incorporating risk in the economic evaluation of road infrastructure projects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, IC

    2009-05-26

    Full Text Available credibility to the process and ensure strategic decisions that are more defendable. In this study, a prosedure for incorporating risk is suggested. It involves the identification of inputs critical to the economic success of the project, the quantification...

  13. Ecological and economic evaluation of Dutch egg production systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, S.E.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Vermeij, I.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    The upcoming ban on battery cages in the European Union is expected to cause a shift in husbandry systems from predominantly battery cages to enriched cages and loose housing systems, such as barn, free range and organic systems. To gain insight into ecological and economic consequences of such a

  14. Performance response, carcass evaluation and economic benefit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the performance, carcass quality, haematological indices and economics of production of rabbits fed dietary sorghum offal substitute for maize grain. A total of forty (40) weaned rabbits with a mean weight range of 820-850 g were randomly distributed to five treatment ...

  15. The use of economic evaluation for guiding the pharmaceutical reimbursement list in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Tritasavit, Nattha; Suchonwanich, Netnapis; Kingkaew, Pritaporn

    2014-01-01

    Medicines expenditure consumes a significant proportion of public health expenditure in Thailand, where Universal Health Coverage has been in place since 2002. The National List of Essential Medicines has been successfully used as a pharmaceutical benefits package for all public health plans. All patients are eligible for all medicines included in the list free of charge by law. Health economic evaluation has been employed as a tool for the development of this list, including price negotiation of medicines before inclusion, especially of high-cost medicines or medicines with high budget implications. This paper illustrates the current process, mechanisms, and impact and informs of seven success factors that have contributed to the successful use of health economic evaluation in Thailand. These include strong political commitment, development of individual and institutional capacity, participation of all relevant stakeholders, establishment of standard methodological and process guidelines, consideration of several elements in the decision-making process, using evidence as a starting point rather than a deciding factor, and strong enforcement. The lessons learned from this study are likely to be applicable to other settings committed to evidence-based decision making. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Informing road traffic intervention choices in South Africa: the role of economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley K.H. Wesson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs in South Africa, economic evaluations of prevention interventions are necessary for informing and prioritising public health planning and policy with regard to road safety. Methods: In view of the dearth of RTI cost analysis, and in order to understand the extent to which RTI-related costs in South Africa compare with those in other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, we reviewed published economic evaluations of RTI-related prevention in LMICs. Results: Thirteen articles were identified, including cost-of-illness and cost-effectiveness studies. Although RTI-related risk factors in South Africa are well described, costing studies are limited. There is minimal information, most of which is not recent, with nothing at all on societal costs. Cost-effective interventions for RTIs in LMICs include bicycle and motorcycle helmet enforcement, traffic enforcement, and the construction of speed bumps. Discussion: Policy recommendations from studies conducted in LMICs suggest a number of cost-effective interventions for consideration in South Africa. They include speed bumps for pedestrian safety, strategically positioned speed cameras, traffic enforcement such as the monitoring of seatbelt use, and breathalyzer interventions. However, interventions introduced in South Africa will need to be based either on South African cost-effectiveness data or on findings adapted from similar middle-income country settings.

  17. Lifestyle Interventions to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Alouki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To summarize key findings of economic evaluations of lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D in high-risk subjects. Methods. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed original studies published since January 2009 in English, French, and Spanish. Eligible studies were identified through relevant databases including PubMed, Medline, National Health Services Economic Evaluation, CINHAL, EconLit, Web of sciences, EMBASE, and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature. Studies targeting obesity were also included. Data were extracted using a standardized method. The BMJ checklist was used to assess study quality. The heterogeneity of lifestyle interventions precluded a meta-analysis. Results. Overall, 20 studies were retained, including six focusing on obesity control. Seven were conducted within trials and 13 using modeling techniques. T2D prevention by physical activity or diet or both proved cost-effective according to accepted thresholds, except for five inconclusive studies, three on diabetes prevention and two on obesity control. Most studies exhibited limitations in reporting results, primarily with regard to generalizability and justification of selected sensitivity parameters. Conclusion. This confirms that lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of diabetes are cost-effective. Such interventions should be further promoted as sound investment in the fight against diabetes.

  18. Informing road traffic intervention choices in South Africa: the role of economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Hadley K H; Boikhutso, Nkuli; Hyder, Adnan A; Bertram, Melanie; Hofman, Karen J

    2016-01-01

    Given the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in South Africa, economic evaluations of prevention interventions are necessary for informing and prioritising public health planning and policy with regard to road safety. In view of the dearth of RTI cost analysis, and in order to understand the extent to which RTI-related costs in South Africa compare with those in other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), we reviewed published economic evaluations of RTI-related prevention in LMICs. Thirteen articles were identified, including cost-of-illness and cost-effectiveness studies. Although RTI-related risk factors in South Africa are well described, costing studies are limited. There is minimal information, most of which is not recent, with nothing at all on societal costs. Cost-effective interventions for RTIs in LMICs include bicycle and motorcycle helmet enforcement, traffic enforcement, and the construction of speed bumps. Policy recommendations from studies conducted in LMICs suggest a number of cost-effective interventions for consideration in South Africa. They include speed bumps for pedestrian safety, strategically positioned speed cameras, traffic enforcement such as the monitoring of seatbelt use, and breathalyzer interventions. However, interventions introduced in South Africa will need to be based either on South African cost-effectiveness data or on findings adapted from similar middle-income country settings.

  19. Scale interactions in economics: application to the evaluation of the economic damages of climatic change and of extreme events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallegatte, S.

    2005-06-01

    Growth models, which neglect economic disequilibria, considered as temporary, are in general used to evaluate the damaging effects generated by climatic change. This work shows, through a series of modeling experiences, the importance of disequilibria and of endogenous variability of economy in the evaluation of damages due to extreme events and climatic change. It demonstrates the impossibility to separate the evaluation of damages from the representation of growth and of economic dynamics: the comfort losses will depend on both the nature and intensity of impacts and on the dynamics and situation of the economy to which they will apply. Thus, the uncertainties about the damaging effects of future climatic changes come from both scientific uncertainties and from uncertainties about the future organization of our economies. (J.S.)

  20. Cost-effectiveness of screening for hepatitis C virus: a systematic review of economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Stephanie; Leggett, Laura; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Clement, Fiona

    2016-09-06

    With the developments of near-cures for hepatitis C virus (HCV), who to screen has become a high-priority policy issue in many western countries. Cost-effectiveness of screening programmes should be one consideration when developing policy. The objective of this work is to synthesise the cost-effectiveness of HCV screening programmes. A systematic review was completed. 5 databases were searched until May 2016 (NHSEED, MEDLINE, the HTA Health Technology Assessment Database, EMBASE, EconLit). Any study reporting an economic evaluation (any type) of screening compared with opportunistic or no screening for HCV was included. Exclusion criteria were: (1) abstracts or commentaries, (2) economic evaluations of other interventions for HCV, including blood donors screening, diagnosis tests for HCV, screening for concurrent disease or medications for treatment. Data extraction included type of model, target population, perspective, comparators, time horizon, discount rate, clinical inputs, cost inputs and outcome. Quality was evaluated using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist. Data are summarised using narrative synthesis by population. 2305 abstracts were identified with 52 undergoing full-text review. 30 papers met inclusion criteria addressing 7 populations: drug users (n=6), high risk (n=5), pregnant (n=4), prison (n=3), birth cohort (n=8), general population (n=5) and other (n=6). The majority (77%) of the studies were high quality. Drug users, birth cohort and high-risk populations were associated with cost-effectiveness ratios of under £30 000 per quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY). The remaining populations were associated with cost-effectiveness ratios that exceeded £30 000 per QALY. Economic evidence for screening populations is robust. If a cost per QALY of £30 000 is considered reasonable value for money, then screening birth cohorts, drug users and high-risk populations are policy options that should be considered

  1. Systematic Review of Health Economic Evaluation Studies Developed in Brazil from 1980 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decimoni, Tassia Cristina; Leandro, Roseli; Rozman, Luciana Martins; Craig, Dawn; Iglesias, Cynthia P; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2018-01-01

    Brazil has sought to use economic evaluation to support healthcare decision-making processes. While a number of health economic evaluations (HEEs) have been conducted, no study has systematically reviewed the quality of Brazilian HEE. The objective of this systematic review was to provide an overview regarding the state of HEE research and to evaluate the number, characteristics, and quality of reporting of published HEE studies conducted in a Brazilian setting. We systematically searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Latin American, and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences Database, Scientific Electronic Library Online, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, health technology assessment Database, Bireme, and Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde Economia da Saúde ); citation indexes (SCOPUS, Web of Science), and Sistema de Informação da Rede Brasileira de Avaliação de Tecnologia em Saúde . Partial and full HEEs published between 1980 and 2013 that referred to a Brazilian setting were considered for inclusion. In total, 535 studies were included in the review, 36.8% of these were considered to be full HEE. The category of healthcare technologies more frequently assessed were procedures (34.8%) and drugs (28.8%) which main objective was treatment (72.1%). Forty-four percent of the studies reported their funding source and 36% reported a conflict of interest. Overall, the full HEE quality of reporting was satisfactory. But some items were generally poorly reported and significant improvement is required: (1) methods used to estimate healthcare resource use quantities and unit costs, (2) methods used to estimate utility values, (3) sources of funding, and (4) conflicts of interest. A steady number of HEE have been published in Brazil since 1980. To improve their contribution to inform national healthcare policy efforts need to be made to enhance the quality of reporting of HEEs and promote improvements in the way HEEs are designed, implemented (i.e., using sound

  2. Quantity and Quality of Economic Evaluations in U.S. Nursing Research 1997–2015: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Wendy A.; Morrison, Megan L.; Eaton, Linda H.; Theodore, Brian R.; Doorenbos, Ardith Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background The United States has a complex healthcare system that is undergoing substantial reformations. There is a need for high-quality, economic evaluations of nursing practice. An updated review of completed economic evaluations relevant to the field of nursing within the U.S. healthcare system is timely and needed. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and describe the quantity and quality of economic evaluations in nursing-relevant research performed in the U.S. between 1997 and 2015. Methods Four databases were searched. Titles, abstracts, and full-text content were reviewed to identify studies that analyzed both costs and outcomes, relevant to nursing, performed in the U.S., and used the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) to measure effectiveness. For included studies, data were extracted from full-text articles using criteria from U.S. Public Health Service’s Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Results Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Most (n = 25, 89%) were published in the last decade of the analysis, from 2006 to 2015. Assessment of quality, based on selected items from the panel guidelines, found that the evaluations did not consistently use the recommended societal perspective, use multiple resource utilization categories, use constant dollars, discount future costs and outcomes, use a lifetime horizon, or include an indication of uncertainty in results. The only resource utilization category consistently included across studies was healthcare resources. Discussion Only 28 nursing-related studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified as meeting robust health economic evaluation methodological criteria, and most did not include all important guideline items. Despite increases in absolute numbers of published studies over the past decade, economic evaluation has been underutilized in U.S. nursing-relevant research in the past two decades. PMID:27893648

  3. Uncertainty-driven nuclear data evaluation including thermal (n,α) applied to 59Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesson, P.; Sjöstrand, H.; Rochman, D.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the evaluation of nuclear data (ND), combining experimental data for thermal cross sections with resonance parameters and nuclear reaction modeling. The method involves sampling of various uncertain parameters, in particular uncertain components in experimental setups, and provides extensive covariance information, including consistent cross-channel correlations over the whole energy spectrum. The method is developed for, and applied to, 59Ni, but may be used as a whole, or in part, for other nuclides. 59Ni is particularly interesting since a substantial amount of 59Ni is produced in thermal nuclear reactors by neutron capture in 58Ni and since it has a non-threshold (n,α) cross section. Therefore, 59Ni gives a very important contribution to the helium production in stainless steel in a thermal reactor. However, current evaluated ND libraries contain old information for 59Ni, without any uncertainty information. The work includes a study of thermal cross section experiments and a novel combination of this experimental information, giving the full multivariate distribution of the thermal cross sections. In particular, the thermal (n,α) cross section is found to be 12.7 ± . 7 b. This is consistent with, but yet different from, current established values. Further, the distribution of thermal cross sections is combined with reported resonance parameters, and with TENDL-2015 data, to provide full random ENDF files; all of this is done in a novel way, keeping uncertainties and correlations in mind. The random files are also condensed into one single ENDF file with covariance information, which is now part of a beta version of JEFF 3.3. Finally, the random ENDF files have been processed and used in an MCNP model to study the helium production in stainless steel. The increase in the (n,α) rate due to 59Ni compared to fresh stainless steel is found to be a factor of 5.2 at a certain time in the reactor vessel, with a relative

  4. Welfare Evaluation and the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research will aim to study from an interdisciplinary perspective the economic and social impact of changes in water availability and quality due to climate ... Dans le cadre de ce projet, on étudiera les efforts déployés par le secteur privé pour améliorer la conformité aux lois contre la corruption en Amérique latine.

  5. Evaluating the Factors that Activate the Development of Public-Private Partnership in Foreign Economic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyroh Olha V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with research on public-private partnership in foreign economic activity as process of interaction of the State and business-structures – entities of economic activity of Ukraine along with foreign entities of economic activity, this process includes attraction of investments, acceleration of economic development, etc. The factors determining public-private partnership in the foreign economic sphere (system of the State government bodies, system of economic relations in the State, financial resources of various States, experience in the implementation of public-private partnership projects, trust between partners are researched and generalized. Influence of each of the factors was defined by means of conjunctive analysis, determining that the system of economic relations in the State is most influenced by the formation of conditions, rules and implementation of principles of functioning of public-private partnership in the foreign economic sphere.

  6. Nuclear versus fossil power plants: evolution of economic evaluation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuesen, G.J.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to document the evolution of methods used by an electric utility for comparing the economic attractiveness of nuclear versus fossil electric power generation. This process of change is examined as it took place within the Georgia Power Company (GPC), a company spending in the neighborhood of half a billion dollars annually for capital improvements. This study provides a look at the variety of richness of information that can be made available through the application of different methods of economic analysis. In addition, the varied presentations used to disclose relationships between alternatives furnish evidence as to the effectiveness of providing pertinent information in a simple, meaningful manner. It had been generally accepted throughout GPC that nuclear power was economically desirable as an alternative for the production of base-load power. With inflation increasing, its advantage over fossil power appeared to be significantly increasing as the large operating costs of fossil generation seemed to be more vulnerable to inflation than the costs of operating a nuclear facility. An early indication that the company should reevaluate this position was the experience gained with the installation of their first nuclear plant. Here, actual total costs were exceeding their original construction estimates by a factor of two. Thus the question arose ''Does the high capital cost of nuclear generation offset its operating advantages when compared to similar-sized coal-burning plants.'' To answer this question, additional analyses were undertaken

  7. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  8. Economic evaluation of an industrial high temperature lift heat transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnellan, Philip; Cronin, Kevin; Acevedo, Yaset; Byrne, Edmond

    2014-01-01

    Heat transformers are closed cycle thermodynamic systems which allow waste heat energy to be recycled by increasing its temperature. TAHTs (Triple stage heat transformers) are capable of increasing the temperature of supplied heat by up to ∼140 °C. This paper attempts to analyse the industrial attractiveness of such cycles by conducting a case study on the potential installation of a TAHT in a small Irish oil refinery, examining various different natural gas price scenarios. The choice of waste heat energy being recycled is shown to be pivotal to the success or failure of the installation. TAHTs are demonstrated to show most benefits when applied to waste heat streams with large quantities of latent heat. The usage of more efficient and cost effective equipment instead of conventional shell and tube heat exchangers within the system dramatically increases the potential economic return from the heat transformer. At the present gas price, the capital cost of (conventional) equipment is too high to make this investment financially attractive for the current industrial example, with excessive payback periods predicted. However a return to natural gas price levels observed in 2008 and 2009 would make the unit economically viable. - Highlights: • Economic viability of a triple stage heat transformer in an oil refinery is examined. • Energy Price, waste heat stream type and heat transfer equipment have largest effect. • Waste heat quantity and form are important in determining acceptable payback periods. • Rise of natural gas prices to 2008 levels makes investment feasible in most scenarios

  9. Implementing economic evaluation in simulation-based medical education: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yiqun; Cheng, Adam; Hecker, Kent; Grant, Vincent; Currie, Gillian R

    2018-02-01

    Simulation-based medical education (SBME) is now ubiquitous at all levels of medical training. Given the substantial resources needed for SBME, economic evaluation of simulation-based programmes or curricula is required to demonstrate whether improvement in trainee performance (knowledge, skills and attitudes) and health outcomes justifies the cost of investment. Current literature evaluating SBME fails to provide consistent and interpretable information on the relative costs and benefits of alternatives. Economic evaluation is widely applied in health care, but is relatively scarce in medical education. Therefore, in this paper, using a focus on SBME, we define economic evaluation, describe the key components, and discuss the challenges associated with conducting an economic evaluation of medical education interventions. As a way forward to the rigorous and state of the art application of economic evaluation in medical education, we outline the steps to gather the necessary information to conduct an economic evaluation of simulation-based education programmes and curricula, and describe the main approaches to conducting an economic evaluation. A properly conducted economic evaluation can help stakeholders (i.e., programme directors, policy makers and curriculum designers) to determine the optimal use of resources in selecting the modality or method of assessment in simulation. It also helps inform broader decision making about allocation of scarce resources within an educational programme, as well as between education and clinical care. Economic evaluation in medical education research is still in its infancy, and there is significant potential for state-of-the-art application of these methods in this area. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  10. Development of computer program for the economic evaluation of the volume reduction system for the low-level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Yeong

    1994-02-01

    This study provides the basis for investigating the benefits of purchasing volume reduction equipment and includes the establishment of a volume reduction data base, the creation of the volume reduction cost analysis computer program PEEVR (Program of Economic Evaluation for the Volume Reduction), and a generic analysis designed to identify the major costs influencing the economics of the various equipment options. In treating the plant types and the wastes, this study considers that condensate polishing system is included or not in PWR and precoat condensate polishing system, deep bed condensate polishing system in BWR and the 5 waste streams, i.e., compatible trash (COTRASH), ion exchange resin (IXRESIN), concentrate liquid (CONCLIQ), filter sludge (FSLUDGE), non compatible trash (COTRASH). This study uses the PVRR and LRR methods to create cost analysis and performs sensitivity analysis for the each cost variable and shows that future burial costs increases are the major factors in the economic evaluation

  11. Development of computer program for the economic evaluation of the volume reduction system for the low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Yeong; Lee, Kun Jai

    1994-01-01

    This study provides the basis for investigating the benefits of purchasing volume reduction equipment and includes the establishment of a volume reduction data base, the creation of the volume reduction cost analysis computer program PEEVR (Program of Economic Evaluation for the Volume Reduction), and a generic analysis designed to identify the major costs influencing the economics of the various equipment options. In treating the plant types and the wastes, this study considers that condensate polishing system is included or not in PWR and precoatcondensate polishing system, deep bed condensate polishing system in BWR and the 5 waste streams, i. e., compactibIe trash (COTRASH), ion exchange resin (IXRESIN), concentrate liquid (CONCLIQ), filter sludge (FSLUDGE), non compactible trash (COTRASH). This study uses the PVRR and LRR methods to create cost analysis and performs sensitivity analysis for the each cost variables and shows that future burial costs increases are the major factors in the economic evaluation

  12. Technical characterization and economic evaluation of recovery of flare gas in various gas-processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolfaghari, Mohabbat; Pirouzfar, Vahid; Sakhaeinia, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Today in the worldwide quest for production and economic preference, only industries will survive that have proper solutions for waste disposal and environmental pollution. In industrial applications, a blow down network of gases is used in order to control system pressure and safety instruments. At the end of this network, the excess gases are burnt in the flare tower, which have severe consequences on the environment. Different methods have been proposed and several alternatives have been introduced for reduction and recovery of flaring gases. In this paper, three methods including gas to liquid (GTL), gas turbines generation (GTG) and gas to ethylene (GTE) are introduced and compared with the best method from economic point of view being identified. For this purpose, a natural gas sample is taken from Asalloyeh Refinery Plant and the process has been simulated using Aspen HYSYS. Meanwhile, estimation of the capital and operating costs and evaluation of the processes involved were made using Aspen Capital Cost Estimator. According to the results obtained, production of the electric power from flaring gases is one of the most economical methods. GTG method, with an annual profit of about 480e+006 $, has a greater ROR percent. - Highlights: • Three methods including GTL, GTG and GTE are developed for flare gas recovery. • The processes has been simulated using Aspen HYSYS. • Estimation of the capital and operating costs of the processes were made. • According to the results obtained, GTG is one of the most economical methods. • GTE method has the highest annual benefit, it has the lowest ROR percent.

  13. The Politics and Consequences of Including Stakeholders in International Development Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Anne E.; Coryn, Chris L. S.; Rugh, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Participatory evaluation approaches have a relatively long history of advocacy and application in the international development evaluation community. Despite widespread use and apparent resonance with practitioners and donors alike, very little empirical research exists on why and how participatory evaluation approaches are used in international…

  14. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  15. Economic evaluation of integrated new technologies for health and social care: Suggestions for policy makers, users and evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, John; McMeekin, Peter; Grieve, Eleanor; Briggs, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    With an ageing population there is a move towards the use of assisted living technologies (ALTs) to provide social care and health care services, and to improve service processes. These technologies are at the forefront of the integration of health and social care. However, economic evaluations of ALTs, and indeed economic evaluations of any interventions providing both health benefits and benefits beyond health are complex. This paper considers the challenges faced by evaluators and presents a method of economic evaluation for use with interventions where traditional methods may not be suitable for informing funders and decision makers. We propose a method, combining economic evaluation techniques, that can accommodate health outcomes and outcomes beyond health through the use of a common numeraire. Such economic evaluations can benefit both the public and private sector, firstly by ensuring the efficient allocation of resources. And secondly, by providing information for individuals who, in the market for ALTs, face consumption decisions that are infrequent and for which there may be no other sources of information. We consider these issues in the welfarist, extra-welfarist and capabilities frameworks, which we link to attributes in an individual production model. This approach allows for the valuation of the health component of any such intervention and the valuation of key social care attributes and processes. Finally, we present a set of considerations for evaluators highlighting the key issues that need to be considered in this type of economic evaluation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of socio-economic effects of R and D results at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. 2. Socio-economic evaluation of the basic research at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), as a core organization devoted to comprehensive nuclear energy research, has steadily promoted various types of research and development (R and D) studies since its establishment in June 1956. Research activities are aimed at performing (1) R and D for nuclear energy, (2) the utilization and application of radiation-based technologies, and (3) the establishment of basic and fundamental research in the nuclear field. Last year, the socio-economic effects on items (1) and (2) were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. The quantitative evaluation of item (3) from the viewpoint of a socio-economic effect, however, calls for a different concept and methodology than previously used cost-benefit approach. Achievements obtained from the activities conducted over the last 10 years implied that socio-economics in basic research funded by the public could contribute to the (1) increase in useful intellectual stocks, (2) upbringing of highly skilled college graduates, (3) construction of new scientific facilities and creation of methodologies, (4) stimulation and promotion of social interrelations by networking, (5) increase of one's ability to solve scientific problems, and (6) establishment of venture companies. In this study, we focused on item (4) for the analysis because it assumed that the external economic effect has a link with the socio-economic effects accompanying the networking formation. For the criteria of socio-economic effects we assume that the external effect becomes significant in proportion to the width of networking and/or the magnitude of cooperation measured by numbers of co-writing studies between JAERI and the research bodies, namely private and governmental sectors and universities. Taking these criteria into consideration, the subsequent four items are prepared for quantitative study. They are (1) to clarify the basic research fields where JAERI has been established a significant effort to

  17. Economic evaluation of a crop rotation portfolio for irrigated farms in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge González U

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable use of productive resources by agricultural producers in the central valley of Chile should be compatible with economic results so that producers can select an appropriate rotation or succession of annual crops and pasture. The objective of this work was to evaluate the economic behavior of four food crop and supplementary forage rotations using indicators of profitability and profit variability. Productive data were used from a long-term experiment (16 yr in the central valley of Chile under conditions of irrigation. With productive data and information on historic input/output prices, the real net margin per rotation (RNMR and its coefficient of variation (CV were determined. The results indicated that the highest economic benefits and greatest economic stability were obtained with rotations that only included crops, namely sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.-barley (Hordeum vulgare L. (CR2 and corn (Zea mays L.-wheat-bean-barley (CR4. These rotations included crops with low CV of the net margin, such as wheat, barley and beans, with values between 0.31 and 0.34. The rotations with crops and pasture, sugar beet-wheat-red clover (Trifolium pratense L. (2 (CR1 and corn-wheat-red clover (2 (CR3 had lower net margins and more variability of this indicator. Red clover had the highest CV value (1.00. The selection of crops for rotations and their sequence were determining factors in the economic behavior of rotations, affecting the level of RNMR and the degree of inter-annual variability of this indicator. Thus, differences among rotations of 47% in net margin were determined (CR2 vs. CR1, which only differed in the replacement of pasture with red clover (2 by bean-barley. The economic analysis based on the net margin and its variability allow for discriminating among rotations, providing valuable information for producers in deciding which crops to use in rotations.

  18. Economic evaluation of five curing processes for wood coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez M, I.

    1996-01-01

    In this work we study the economic feasibility of five methods for curing coatings over sheet wood products. Each year, Mexico is producing more than 40 millions of square meters of wood panels, but the demand is of the range of 58 millions of square meters of this product. Two millions are expended after they are coated, and 38 millions without coating, they are coated artisanilly when they are used to make pieces of furniture. The technical characteristics and the costs involved in each one of five methods of curing, are described. Investments involved with each method are processed to establish: fixed costs, variable costs, equilibrium point, and others. Initial investment, coasts and revenues are processed to determine the income statement pro-form, the projected statement of change in financial position, the projected working capital, the projected balance sheet, the cash-flow, and some economical and financial indicators for each one of the five curing methods. With this information, the internal rate of return (IRR) is determined, and used to compare the economic worth of each of the five methods. The five methods are profitable, because all they have a IRR greater than the opportunity cost of capital (15%) of projects with similar characteristics. Despite, with each one of the five methods, the capital invested is recoverable, and profits can be obtained; curing by ultraviolet light or by electron beam, let recover the investment in less than two years, require fewer dollars for investment, and have a IRR of 135% and 111% respectively. Besides ultraviolet light or electron beam curing processes, pollute less with volatile solvents, use the energy efficiently, have greater production rate, and the coating obtained have better quality than with the other three methods. (Author)

  19. Economic evaluation for protein and energy supplementation in adults: opportunities to strengthen the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milte, R K; Ratcliffe, J; Miller, M D; Crotty, M

    2013-12-01

    Malnutrition is a costly problem for health care systems internationally. Malnourished individuals require longer hospital stays and more intensive nursing care than adequately nourished individuals and have been estimated to cost an additional £7.3 billion in health care expenditures in the United Kingdom alone. However, treatments for malnutrition have rarely been considered from an economic perspective. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the cost effectiveness of using protein and energy supplementation as a widely used intervention to treat adults with and at risk of malnutrition. Papers were identified that included economic evaluations of protein or energy supplementation for the treatment or prevention of malnutrition in adults. While the variety of outcome measures reported for cost-effectiveness studies made synthesis of results challenging, cost-benefit studies indicated that the savings for the health system could be substantial due to reduced lengths of hospital stay and less intensive use of health services after discharge. In summary, the available economic evidence indicates that protein and energy supplementation in treatment or prevention of malnutrition provides an opportunity to improve patient wellbeing and lower health system costs.

  20. Operational safety performance and economical efficiency evaluation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yachun; Zou Shuliang

    2012-01-01

    The economical efficiency of nuclear power includes a series of environmental parameters, for example, cleanliness. Nuclear security is the precondition and guarantee for its economy, and both are the direct embodiment of the social benefits of nuclear power. Through analyzing the supervision and management system on the effective operation of nuclear power plants, which has been put forward by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and other organizations, a set of indexs on the safety performance and economical efficiency of nuclear power are explored and established; Based on data envelopment analysis, a DEA approach is employed to evaluate the efficiency of the operation performance of several nuclear power plants, Some primary conclusion are achieved on the basis of analyzing the threshold parameter's sensitivity and relativity which affected operational performance. To address the conflicts between certain security and economical indicators, a multi-objective programming model is established, where top priority is given to nuclear safety, and the investment behavior of nuclear power plant is thereby optimized. (authors)

  1. Systematic review and quality assessment of economic evaluations and quality-of-life studies related to generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereza, Basil G; Machado, Márcio; Einarson, Thomas R

    2009-06-01

    The objectives of this article were to systematically review, summarize the results of, and assess the quality of economic evaluations and humanistic studies related to patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). EMBASE, EBM Reviews, MEDLINE, and HealthSTAR databases were searched (from the time of inception through April 2008). Full-text publications describing full economic evaluations (cost-benefit, cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility analyses), partial economic evaluations (cost, burden-of-illness, and resource-utilization analyses), and humanistic outcomes (utilities, preferences, and willingness-to-pay analyses) were included. GAD diagnoses per official publications (eg, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) and associated comorbid conditions were included; anxiety-related symptoms without a diagnosis of GAD were excluded. Study quality was assessed with a 38-point checklist of criteria previously developed by the Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Thirty-six articles were included. Full economic evaluations (n = 5) were based on conventional decision-making modeling or population-summary data, using time horizons therapy by a public-salaried psychologist and evidence-based care generated savings compared with current care. Pharmacotherapy with extended-release venlafaxine treatment was cost-effective compared with diazepam; escitalopram was cost-effective compared with paroxetine because of productivity gains. Full economic evaluations addressed 55.3% to 68.4% of the 38 items on the quality-assessment checklist. Partial evaluations were reported; GAD incurred larger mean marginal health care costs compared with other anxiety disorders (a difference of US $2138 in year-1999 values). GAD patients with severe pain interference incurred significantly higher costs than did patients with pain but no GAD. Furthermore, GAD patients used more services from a primary care provider or specialist than did

  2. Economic evaluation of geothermal power generation, heating, and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoglu, Mehmet; Cengel, Yunus A. [Nevada Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Reno, NV (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Economic analysis of a typical geothermal resource shows that potential revenues from geothermal heating or cooling can be much larger than those from power generation alone. Geothermal heating may generate up to about 3.1 times and geothermal absorption cooling 2.9 times as much revenue as power generation alone. Similarly, combined power generation and heating may generate about 2.1 times and combined power generation and cooling about 1.2 times as much revenue as power generation alone. Cost and payback period comparison appear to favor power generation, followed by district heating. (Author)

  3. Solar energy system economic evaluation for IBM System 3, Glendo, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    This analysis was based on the technical and economic models in f-chart design procedures with inputs based on the characteristics of the parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life: life cycle savings, year of positive savings, and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables was also investigated.

  4. EVALUATION METHODS USED FOR TANGIBLE ASSETS BY ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Csongor CSŐSZ; Partenie DUMBRAVĂ

    2014-01-01

    At many entities the net asset value is influenced by the evaluation methods applied for tangible assets, because the value of intangible assets and financial assets is small in most cases. The objective of this paper is to analyze the differences between the procedures / methods of evaluation applied by micro and small entities and medium and large entities for tangible assets in Romania and Hungary. Furthermore, we analyze the differences between the procedures / methods of evaluation appli...

  5. An economic evaluation of photovoltaic grid connected systems (PVGCS) in Flanders for companies: A generic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenaert, Amaryllis; De Boeck, Liesje; De Cleyn, Sven; Lizin, Sebastien; Adam, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an economic evaluation of photovoltaic grid connected systems (PVGCS) for companies situated in Flanders (Belgium) is conducted by using a generic Excel model. The model is unique in that it includes the dimension of taxation. This inclusion is required, otherwise the fiscal benefit of using solar panels is not accounted for. The model uses the cash flow projection method. This technique allows the calculation of the following classical evaluation criteria: net present value, internal rate of return, payback period, discounted payback period, profitability index, yield unit cost, yield unit revenue and break-even turnkey cost. Their outcome makes it possible to answer the question whether installing a PVGCS in Flanders is a responsible financial investment for companies. Furthermore, the paper estimates whether the corporate environment is ready for a subsidy legislation change. This change has recently been announced and as such it is possible to gauge whether the current market situation is profitable given future legislation. (author)

  6. Bio-economic evaluation of implementing trawl fishing gear with different selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk Kronbak, Lone; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Jørgensen, Ole A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper develops a biological-economic evaluation tool to analyse the consequences for trawl fishers of implementing more selective fishing technologies. This is done by merging a dynamic biological population model and an economic cost-benefit evaluation framework to describe the consequences...... for the fish stocks, fishermen and society. The bio-economic evaluation is applied to the case of the Danish trawl fishery in Kattegat and Skagerrak, which experiences a high level of discards and byratches of several species. Four different kinds of selectivity scenarios are evaluated in comparison...... with a baseline. The results from the evaluation are indicators for the consequences on ecological and economic levels. The results show that implementation of different selective fishing gear in the Kattegat and Skagerrak mixed trawl fisheries generally implies a trade off over time between rebuilding the stocks...

  7. Bio-economic evaluation of implementing trawl fishing gear with different selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Jørgensen, Ole A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper develops a biological-economic evaluation tool to analyse the consequences for trawl fishers of implementing more selective fishing technologies. This is done by merging a dynamic biological population model and an economic cost-benefit evaluation framework to describe the consequences...... for the fish stocks, fishermen and society. The bio-economic evaluation is applied to the case of the Danish trawl fishery in Kattegat and Skagerrak, which experiences a high level of discards and bycatches of several species. Four different kinds of selectivity scenarios are evaluated in comparison...... with a baseline. The results from the evaluation are indicators for the consequences on ecological and economic levels. The results show that implementation of different selective fishing gear in the Kattegat and Skagerrak mixed trawl fisheries generally implies a trade off over time between rebuilding the stocks...

  8. Fuzzy logic approach for energetic and economic evaluation of hydroelectric projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliev, Atanas M.

    2003-01-01

    of the rules is proposed for obtaining the final result, which is also triangular fuzzy number. Economic parameters of the project, such as Net Present Value, Profitability Index and Internal Rate of Return are calculated as a fuzzy numbers. For this purpose the input parameters with high degree of uncertainty such as: discount rate, price of electricity, duration of the construction of the hydro power pant and economical life-time of the project are modelled with triangular fuzzy numbers. Economical evaluation of the project is performed by original fuzziffied criteria in order model the real decision making process for accepting/rejecting the project. The classical economical criteria are modified in fuzzy sense. Thus, the comparison between two fuzzy numbers: Calculated Economic Fuzzy Parameters of the project and modeled Investors View for successful project is worked out for final decision. For this purpose a satisfaction function which measure degree of plausibility that one fuzzy number is higher/lower then the other one, is applied. The developed methodology is applied on hydro power project St. Petka (in designing phase). In this case plausible yearly production and the main economical parameters are calculated. According the previously specified investor's point of view for successful investment, the evaluation of the project for final decision, is also included. Developed model is extension of the classical deterministic model and enables possibilities to perceive influence of the specific parameters and uncertainty to the rate of the project. Furthermore, since the methodology applied in this thesis provides projects evaluation in a new and natural way, closer to the human reasoning, the model could be successfully applied on a number of hydroelectric projects and to contribute in a further development of engineering economy.(Author)

  9. Evaluating the Air Quality, Climate and Economic Impacts of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process in which microorganisms break down organic materials in the absence of oxygen. When anaerobic microbes metabolize organic waste – i.e., the carbon-based remains of plants, animals and their waste products, e.g. animal manure, sewage sludge and food waste – they produce biogas. Biogas consists mainly of methane and carbon dioxide and can be used as a renewable energy fuel in a variety of applications. The impacts of biogas generation and utilization processes differ, depending on the source material (e.g., sewage, manure, food processing waste, municipal solid waste) and end uses (e.g., on-site electricity generation, conversion to a vehicle fuel, injection into the natural gas pipeline, etc.). Organic waste managers and regulators alike lack sufficient information about the overall environmental and economic performance of available biogas management technologies. A more complete understanding of the environmental and economic performance of biogas-to-energy technologies will assist state and local governments, regulators, and potential project developers in identifying geographically appropriate and cost-effective biogas management options.The backdrop for this research was California. The state has unique air quality challenges due to the combination of meteorology and topography, population growth and the pollution burden associated with mobile sources. However, with the strengthening of National Ambient

  10. An approach to evaluating the economic impact of emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieu, S.; Johnson, S.L.; Dabirian, S.

    1993-01-01

    The command-and-control system to air quality controls is a mixture of technology-forcing standards for existing sources and offset for new sources. More stringent controls are required to achieve the ambient air quality standards in non-attainment urban areas which have been conformed with burgeoning economic growth. Due to the economy of scale and locale of polluting sources, some sources can implement these controls in a more cost-effective manner than others. In order to minimize the control costs of regulated sources, trading of emissions has been stipulated and has occurred among power plants to curb acid rain at the national level. Southern California is currently embarking on the trading of oxides of nitrogen, reactive organic compounds, and oxides of sulfur among existing and new stationary sources. New economic opportunities for entrepreneurs with advances control technology will arise under emissions trading. Trading will also result in the redistribution of emissions geographically and across industries. Through the linkage of a linear-programming trading model, a regional econometric model, and an urban airshed model, the impact of trading on the Southern California economy can thus be examined. This paper describes a framework which can be used to compare and contrast RECLAIM with the command-and-control system; and discusses a few issues which may arise in a trading market and how these issues can be dealt with are also examined

  11. Economic evaluation of GPS technology in Serbian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the level of savings in the application of the most modern technical systems for satellite guidance and control over performing agricultural operations throughout the season. The exemplary property was Agricultural Corporation Belgrade (PKB, which covers about 21.000 hectares of arable land. The effects of plot shape and direction of movement of tractor-attachment units in calculating the savings from reduced overlapping of adjacent passes were studied. The analysis was carried out of savings per crop (maize, wheat, soybean, sugar beet and alfalfa and the operations for each crop separately, based on the manufacturing technology applied to an exemplary property. Detailed data are shown only for wheat and barley. Comparing the achieved level of savings, the application of guidance for the type of the most economically viable operations was found as well as the needed equipment level of guidance devices and management. In particular, the analysis involved the functional dependence of the economic savings in fuel and inputs for the operations such as mineral fertilizers distribution and chemical plant protection. Tabulated are the data estimates for the degree of anticipated savings for operations related to the five analyzed crops.

  12. CHART in lung cancer: Economic evaluation and incentives for implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, Yolande; Kesteloot, Katrien; Bogaert, Walter van den

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate the financial consequences and the impact on daily implementation of CHART in lung cancer. Patients and methods: A cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis were performed using Markov models, comparing the early and delayed costs and effects of CHART for NSCLC over a 4-year time span from a societal viewpoint. The outcome estimates were based on the CHART literature, the cost estimates on the standard practice of the Leuven University Hospitals, the radiotherapy costs being derived from an activity-based costing (ABC) programme developed in the department. Results: The additional societal cost per life-year gained was EURO 9164, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year EURO 11,576. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these results, the incremental cost-utility ratio remaining well under 20,000 EURO /QALY in all tested circumstances. The threshold analyses found the results of the study to be sensitive to the cost of CHART and to the quality of life after treatment. More specifically, standard treatment would become the optimal treatment if CHART would have a higher cost or would result in more long-term side effects. Conclusion: CHART should not be denied to patients with NSCLC on the basis of clinical or economic arguments. Other factors such as socio-economical, institutional, practical departmental and physician-bound barriers most probably explain the lack of implementation into daily practice

  13. Economic Evaluations of Pathology Tests, 2010-2015: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Rory D; Li, Ian W; Geelhoed, Elizabeth A; Sanfilippo, Frank M; St John, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Concerns about pathology testing such as the value provided by new tests and the potential for inappropriate utilization have led to a greater need to assess costs and benefits. Economic evaluations are a formal method of analyzing costs and benefits, yet for pathology tests, questions remain about the scope and quality of the economic evidence. To describe the extent and quality of published evidence provided by economic evaluations of pathology tests from 2010 to 2015. Economic evaluations relating to pathology tests from 2010 to 2015 were reviewed. Eight databases were searched for published studies, and details recorded for the country, clinical focus, type of testing, and consideration of sensitivity, specificity, and false test results. The reporting quality of studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist and cost-effectiveness ratios were analyzed for publication bias. We found 356 economic evaluations of pathology tests, most of which regarded developed countries. The most common economic evaluations were cost-utility analyses and the most common clinical focus was infectious diseases. More than half of the studies considered sensitivity and specificity, but few studies considered the impact of false test results. The average Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist score was 17 out of 24. Cost-utility ratios were commonly less than $10,000/quality-adjusted life-year or more than $200,000/quality-adjusted life-year. The number of economic evaluations of pathology tests has increased in recent years, but the rate of increase has plateaued. Furthermore, the quality of studies in the past 5 years was highly variable, and there is some question of publication bias in reporting cost-effectiveness ratios. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Economic evaluation of da Vinci-assisted robotic surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, Giuseppe; Palla, Ilaria; Pierotti, Francesca; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2012-03-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is frequently used when a new and expensive technology is being introduced into clinical practice. This certainly is the case with the da Vinci surgical robot, with costs ranging from $1 to $2.5 million for each unit. This systematic review documents major variability in the reported cost evaluation studies of da Vinci robot-assisted operations compared with those performed by the direct manual laparoscopic approach. Published studies in the English language related to the period 2000-2010 were searched using economic and clinical electronic databases. All 11 reports included some form of cost analysis, which made it possible for the authors to extract information on certain specific economic outcomes: operating room time, hospital stay, and total costs. With the exception of two studies, the reported operating room time was higher with the robotic approach than with manual laparoscopic surgery, and the hospital stay was the same for the two techniques. Robotic surgery is significantly more expensive if the purchase and maintenance costs of the robot system are included in the total costs. Only 3 of the 11 publications included these costs. The disadvantage of robotic surgery is its higher costs related to purchase and maintenance of technology and its longer operating room time. However, emerging evidence shows that operating room time decreases with experience using the robot. From the HTA viewpoint, the result of this review is that the jury still is out on the HTA of da Vinci-assisted robotic surgery.

  15. EVALUATION METHODS USED FOR TANGIBLE ASSETS BY ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor CSŐSZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At many entities the net asset value is influenced by the evaluation methods applied for tangible assets, because the value of intangible assets and financial assets is small in most cases. The objective of this paper is to analyze the differences between the procedures / methods of evaluation applied by micro and small entities and medium and large entities for tangible assets in Romania and Hungary. Furthermore, we analyze the differences between the procedures / methods of evaluation applied by micro and small entities in Romania and Hungary, respectively the differences between medium and large entities regarding de evaluation methods for tangible assets in Romania and Hungary. For this empirical study the questionnaire is used – as research technique, and to demonstrate the significant differences between the evaluation methods we used the Kolmogorov – Smirnov Z test.

  16. Economic evaluations of hepatitis A vaccination in middle-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwantika, Auliya A; Yegenoglu, Selen; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Tu, Hong-Anh T; Postma, Maarten J

    2013-01-01

    Economic evaluations of hepatitis A vaccination are important to assist national and international policy makers in different jurisdictions on making effective decisions. Up to now, a comprehensive review of the potential health and economic benefits on hepatitis A vaccination in middle-income

  17. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC FACTORS ON SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Evseenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In theory made a case the necessity of modeling economic and demographic indicators. The influences of economic, social and environmental indicators on social and demographic factors of development country are researeched. Given statistical evaluation of relationships based on correlation and regression analysis method.

  18. Responses to Including Parents in Teacher Evaluation Policy: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Erica; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2018-01-01

    The intersection of development in family and school settings has been well established and education policies have begun to promote ways to bridge the two contexts (i.e. teacher evaluations). For this manuscript, authors focus on how teachers and principals used a state educator evaluation policy to position parents as authorities on education.…

  19. A review of case studies evaluating economic incentives to promote occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsler, Dietmar; Treutlein, Daniela; Rydlewska, Iza; Frusteri, Liliana; Krüger, Henning; Veerman, Theo; Eeckelaert, Lieven; Roskams, Nele; Van Den Broek, Karla; Taylor, Terry N

    2010-06-01

    In many European countries, external economic incentives are discussed as a policy instrument to promote occupational safety and health (OSH) in enterprises. This narrative case study review aims to support policy-makers in organizations providing such incentives by supplying information about different incentive schemes and their main characteristics such as effectiveness, efficiency, and feasibility. The focal point and topic centre network of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work were used to collect case studies about incentive schemes aimed at supporting the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases in enterprises. Such incentives are rarely described in the scientific literature. To be considered for this review, studies had to focus on external financial benefits that could be provided as part of an insurance-related incentive or a governmental subsidy scheme. In total, 14 cases were included in the review: 6 insurance premium- and 8 subsidy-based schemes. Of these, 13 contained an evaluation of the incentive scheme, of which 7 use quantitative criteria. Three cases provided sufficient data to conduct a cost-benefit analysis. Most qualitative evaluations related to the successful management of the program and the effectiveness of the promoted measures in the workplace. Regarding the latter, quantitative criteria covered accident rates, sick leave, and general improvement in working conditions. The cost-benefit analyses all resulted in a positive payout ratio, ranging from 1.01-4.81 euros return for every 1 euro invested. Generally, we found economic incentive schemes to be feasible and reasonably effective. However, analysis regarding the efficiency of such schemes is scarce and our evaluation of the cost-benefit analysis had to rely on few cases that, nevertheless, delivered positive results for large samples. Besides this finding, our study also revealed deficits in the quality of evaluations. In order to enable policy-makers to make

  20. SCIENTOMETRY AND EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS OF ECONOMIC SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Lucia RISTEA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the necessity of a continuous and demanding evaluation, capable of linking the results obtained with the human, material and financial resources, allocated and periodically setting the position of the national research relative to the world level, the evaluation of the relevance of the publications must be carried out from the positions and requirements of new disciplines: Scientometry. Scientometry is intended to help substantiate the evaluation of research activity and decision-making on its development, the science policy as a whole.

  1. Economic evaluation of the industrial solar production of lime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Anton; Gremaud, Nicolas; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    The use of concentrated solar energy in place of fossil fuels for driving the endothermic calcination reaction CaCO 3 → CaO + CO 2 at above 1300 K has the potential of reducing CO 2 emissions by 20% in a state-of-the-art lime plant and up to 40% in a conventional cement plant. An economic assessment for an industrial solar calcination plant with 25 MW th solar input indicates that the cost of solar produced lime ranges between 128 and 157 $/t, about twice the current selling price of conventional lime. The solar production of high purity lime for special sectors in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry might be competitive with conventional fossil fuel based calcination processes at current fuel prices

  2. Economic evaluation of system concepts for biowaste fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barchmann, Tino; Rensberg, Nadja

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the utilization of biowaste from separate waste collection as well as industrial organic waste and waste from the food industry are of little significance for biogas generation in Germany. Nevertheless, the number of biogas plants that exclusively or predominantly digest biowaste and organic waste continues to grow. With regard to the biogas plants that have come into operation since 2012 as well as plants that are still under construction or in planning, it becomes apparent that the utilization of biowaste and green waste from separate collection for biogas generation plays an increasingly important role. By the end of 2014, about 140 plants generating biogas from organic waste digestion have been in operation. 83 of these plants use municipal biowaste from separate waste collection. According to the DBFZ database, 68 biogas plants are digestion plants that exclusively or predominantly use biowaste under the terms of paragraph 27a Renewable Energy Sources Act of 2012/ paragraph 45 Renewable Energy Sources Act of 2014. Due to the introduction of direct marketing and flexibility premium of renewable energy by the Renewable Energy Act 2012 (EEG 2012), incentives were created to favour a more demand-oriented power supply from biogas plants. The decision for such an operational mode depends on on-site conversion units on the economic outcome of the plants throughout the whole operating time. From an economic perspective, a duplication of the installed electrical capacity seems to be the most beneficial option for a transition to a demand-driven operation mode of an average biogas model plant under the current legal framework (EEG 2012).

  3. Techno-economical evaluation of protein extraction for microalgae biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Y. W.; Sanders, J. P. M.; Bruins, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Due to scarcity of fossil feedstocks, there is an increasing demand for biobased fuels. Microalgae are considered as promising biobased feedstocks. However, microalgae based fuels are not yet produced at large scale at present. Applying biorefinery, not only for oil, but also for other components, such as carbohydrates and protein, may lead to the sustainable and economical microalgae-based fuels. This paper discusses two relatively mild conditions for microalgal protein extraction, based on alkali and enzymes. Green microalgae (Chlorella fusca) with and without prior lipid removal were used as feedstocks. Under mild conditions, more protein could be extracted using proteases, with the highest yields for microalgae meal (without lipids). The data on protein extraction yields were used to calculate the costs for producing 1 ton of microalgal protein. The processing cost for the alkaline method was € 2448 /ton protein. Enzymatic method performed better from an economic point of view with € 1367 /ton protein on processing costs. However, this is still far from industrially feasible. For both extraction methods, biomass cost per ton of produced product were high. A higher protein extraction yield can partially solve this problem, lowering processing cost to €620 and 1180 /ton protein product, using alkali and enzyme, respectively. Although alkaline method has lower processing cost, optimization appears to be better achievable using enzymes. If the enzymatic method can be optimized by lowering the amount of alkali added, leading to processing cost of € 633/ton protein product. Higher revenue can be generated when the residue after protein extraction can be sold as fuel, or better as a highly digestible feed for cattle.

  4. A Monte Carlo tool for evaluating VMAT and DIMRT treatment deliveries including planar detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asuni, G; Van Beek, T A; Venkataraman, S; McCurdy, B M C; Popescu, I A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe and validate a new general research tool that performs Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (DIMRT), simultaneously tracking dose deposition in both the patient CT geometry and an arbitrary planar detector system. The tool is generalized to handle either entrance or exit detectors and provides the simulated dose for the individual control-points of the time-dependent VMAT and DIMRT deliveries. The MC simulation tool was developed with the EGSnrc radiation transport. For the individual control point simulation, we rotate the patient/phantom volume only (i.e. independent of the gantry and planar detector geometries) using the gantry angle in the treatment planning system (TPS) DICOM RP file such that each control point has its own unique phantom file. After MC simulation, we obtained the total dose to the phantom by summing dose contributions for all control points. Scored dose to the sensitive layer of the planar detector is available for each control point. To validate the tool, three clinical treatment plans were used including VMAT plans for a prostate case and a head-and-neck case, and a DIMRT plan for a head-and-neck case. An electronic portal imaging device operated in ‘movie’ mode was used with the VMAT plans delivered to cylindrical and anthropomorphic phantoms to validate the code using an exit detector. The DIMRT plan was delivered to a novel transmission detector, to validate the code using an entrance detector. The total MC 3D absolute doses in patient/phantom were compared with the TPS doses, while 2D MC doses were compared with planar detector doses for all individual control points, using the gamma evaluation test with 3%/3 mm criteria. The MC 3D absolute doses demonstrated excellent agreement with the TPS doses for all the tested plans, with about 95% of voxels having γ 90% of percentage pixels with γ <1. We found that over

  5. Effectiveness and Economic Evaluation of Chiropractic Care for the Treatment of Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review of Pragmatic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Marc-André; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Borges Da Silva, Roxane; Boruff, Jill; Harrison, Pamela; Bussières, André

    2016-01-01

    Background Context Low back pain (LBP) is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide and among the most common reasons for seeking primary sector care. Chiropractors, physical therapists and general practitioners are among those providers that treat LBP patients, but there is only limited evidence regarding the effectiveness and economic evaluation of care offered by these provider groups. Purpose To estimate the clinical effectiveness and to systematically review the literature of full economic evaluation of chiropractic care compared to other commonly used care approaches among adult patients with non-specific LBP. Study Design Systematic reviews of interventions and economic evaluations. Methods A comprehensive search strategy was conducted to identify 1) pragmatic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and/or 2) full economic evaluations of chiropractic care for low back pain compared to standard care delivered by other healthcare providers. Studies published between 1990 and 4th June 2015 were considered. Primary outcomes included pain, functional status and global improvement. Study selection, critical quality appraisal and data extraction were conducted by two independent reviewers. Data from RCTs with low risk of bias were included in a meta-analysis to determine effect estimates. Cost estimates of full economic evaluations were converted to 2015 USD and results summarized using Slavin’s qualitative best-evidence synthesis. Results Six RCTs and three full economic evaluations were scientifically admissible. Five RCTs with low risk of bias compared chiropractic care to exercise therapy (n = 1), physical therapy (n = 3) and medical care (n = 1). Overall, we found similar effects for chiropractic care and the other types of care and no reports of serious adverse events. Three low to high quality full economic evaluations studies (one cost-effectiveness, one cost-minimization and one cost-benefit) compared chiropractic to medical care. Given the divergent

  6. Energy and economic evaluation of the single-family residential building energy performance standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neal, D.L.; Jones, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    The Energy Production and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1976 mandated the setting of building energy performance standards (BEPS) for all newly constructed buildings. One of the classes of buildings included in EPCA is single-family residences. These standards cover the energy used for space heating, air conditioning, and water heating. This report describes the evaluation of direct energy and economic impacts of three proposed levels of single-family BEPS: lenient, mid, and strict. The lenient level is the least stringent in requiring improvements in eneryperformance of residence while the strict is the most stringent. Each of the levels and the method of developing them are also described. The ORNL residential energy model is used to calculate energy savings and economic impacts of BEPS to the nation. The model is also used to estimate the sensitivity of the results to several exogenous variables: projected fuel prices, baseline energy codes, capital csts, short-run price elasticities, and discount rates. The Net Present Value (NPV) and cumulative energy savings from 1980 to 2020 are the two measures used to compare the standards. Both the lenient and mid level standards provide a positive economic benefit to the country of 1.24 and 2.58 billion dollars, respectively. Even though the strict standard has the largest energy savings, it has a negative economic cost of 1.5 billion dollars to the nation. The cumulative energy savings of the lenient, mid, and strict level standards are 4.2, 10.2, and 20.1 EJ, respectively.

  7. A systematic review of economic evaluations assessing interventions aimed at preventing or treating pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfreyman, Simon J; Stone, Patricia W

    2015-03-01

    Pressure ulcers have an adverse impact on patients and can also result in additional costs and workload for healthcare providers. Interventions to prevent pressure ulcers are focused on identifying at risk patients and using systems such as mattresses and turning to relieve pressure. Treatments for pressure ulcers are directed towards promoting wound healing and symptom relief. Both prevention and treatments have associated costs for healthcare providers. The aim of this study was to systematically review the economic evidence for prevention and treatment interventions for pressure ulcers. A systematic review of comparative clinical studies that evaluate interventions to either prevent or treat pressure ulcers. Searches of the major electronic databases were conducted to identify citations that reported costs or economic analysis for interventions directed towards prevention or treatment of pressure ulcers. Only comparative clinical studies were included. Review articles, case-series, non-randomised studies, and studies in a foreign language that did not have an abstract in English were excluded from the review. Decisions regarding inclusion or exclusion were based on a consensus of the authors after review of the title or abstract. Potential citations were obtained for more detailed review and assessed against the inclusion criteria. The studies identified for inclusion were assessed against the 24 key criteria contained in the CHEERS checklist. Costs were standardised to US dollars and adjusted for inflation to 2012 rates. The searches identified 105 potential studies. After review of the citations a total of 23 studies were included: 12 examined prevention interventions and 11 treatments. Review against the CHEERS criteria showed that the majority of included trials had poor reporting and a lack of detail regarding how costs were calculated. Few studies reported more than aggregate costs of treatments with only a small number reporting unit cost outcomes

  8. Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS)--explanation and elaboration: a report of the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluation Publication Guidelines Good Reporting Practices Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husereau, Don; Drummond, Michael; Petrou, Stavros; Carswell, Chris; Moher, David; Greenberg, Dan; Augustovski, Federico; Briggs, Andrew H; Mauskopf, Josephine; Loder, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting because substantial information must be conveyed to allow scrutiny of study findings. Despite a growth in published reports, existing reporting guidelines are not widely adopted. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user-friendly manner. A checklist is one way to help authors, editors, and peer reviewers use guidelines to improve reporting. The task force's overall goal was to provide recommendations to optimize the reporting of health economic evaluations. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines into one current, useful reporting guidance. The CHEERS Elaboration and Explanation Report of the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluation Publication Guidelines Good Reporting Practices Task Force facilitates the use of the CHEERS statement by providing examples and explanations for each recommendation. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporting economic evaluations and the editors and peer reviewers assessing them for publication. The need for new reporting guidance was identified by a survey of medical editors. Previously published checklists or guidance documents related to reporting economic evaluations were identified from a systematic review and subsequent survey of task force members. A list of possible items from these efforts was created. A two-round, modified Delphi Panel with representatives from academia, clinical practice, industry, and government, as well as the editorial community, was used to identify a minimum set of items important for reporting from the larger list. Out of 44 candidate items, 24 items and accompanying recommendations were developed, with some specific recommendations for single study-based and model-based economic evaluations. The final

  9. Introducing economic evaluation as a policy tool in Korea: Will decision makers get quality information? A critical review of published Korean economic evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.-S. Lee (Kun-Sei); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); S.-I. Lee (Sang-Il); H.-W. Koo (Hye-Won)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractInterest in the use of economic evaluations in Korea as an aid for healthcare decision makers has been growing rapidly since the financial crisis of the Korean National Health Insurance fund and the separation in 2000 of the roles of prescribing and dispensing drugs. The Korean Health

  10. Economic evaluation of externally fired gas turbine cycles for small-scale biomass cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheden, Marie [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2001-01-01

    In this conceptual study, externally fired gas turbine (EFGT) cycles in combination with a biomass-fueled, atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) furnace are investigated for small scale heat and power production ({approx} 8 MW fuel input). Three cycle configurations are considered: closed cycle, with nitrogen, helium, and a helium/carbon dioxide mixture as working fluids; open cycle operating in parallel to the CFB system; and open cycle with a series connection to the CFB system. Intercooling, postcooling, and recuperation are employed with the goal of maximizing efficiency. Aside from a thermodynamic performance analysis, the study includes an economic analysis of both the closed and open externally fired gas turbine configurations, and comparisons are made with existing and emerging alternatives for small-scale biomass cogeneration. Simulation results show that thermodynamic performance varies slightly between the different configurations and working fluids, with electrical efficiencies of 31-38% (LHV) and total efficiency of 85-106% (LHV). The economic evaluation shows that the turbomachinery and the CFB furnace dominate the total plant cost, with each contributing about 1/3 of the total installed equipment cost. The specific capital cost for installation in Sweden in 1998 currency is calculated as 26-31 kSEK/kW{sub e} which is equivalent to 3 200-3 900 USD/kW{sub e} or 2 700-3 300 EUR/kW{sub e} .The cost of electricity, COE, is estimated to 590-670 SEK/MWh{sub e} (equivalent to 73-84 USD/MWh{sub e} or 62-71 EUR/MWh{sub e}) for 4 000 full load hours per year in a cogeneration application. Comparing the economic results for the externally fired gas turbine cycles in a slightly larger scale (40-50 MW{sub f}) to the economics of conventional biomass fired steam turbine cycles shows that the cost of electricity for the two plant configurations are roughly the same with a COE of 300-350 SEK/MWh{sub e}. It is believed that the economic performance of the EFGT

  11. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues.

  12. Health economic evaluation of home and hospital-based care in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health economic evaluation of home and hospital-based care in T2D patients on insulin therapy. Ali Janati, Mohamad Ali Sarabchian, Bahram Mohaghegh, Naser Aghmohamadzadeh, Hesam Seyedin, Masumeh Gholizadeh, Edris Hasanpoor ...

  13. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

  14. Methods for health economic evaluations of vaccines-results from an international expert-workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultsch, B.; Damm, O.; Beutels, P.; Bilcke, J.; Brüggenjürgen, B.; Gerber-Grote, A.U.; Greiner, W.; Hanquet, G.; Harder, T.; Hutubessy, R.; Jit, M.; Knol, M.; Kuhlmann, A.; Von Kries, R.; Levy-Bruhl, D.; Perleth, M.; Postma, M.J.; Salo, H.; Siebert, U.; Wasem, J.; Weidemann, F.; Wichmann, O.; Postma, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Health economic evaluations (HEEs) of vaccines are commonly considered during immunization introduction decision-making processes in most industrialized countries. Despite the availability of guidelines advocating more standardization for such HEEs, there are still several

  15. Evaluation of the Impact of the EU Structural Support on the Competitiveness of Lithuanian Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Remeikiene

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amounts of the EU structural support in Lithuania require theoretical and practical research to disclose the determinants that have a significant impact on the competitiveness of Lithuanian economics. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the impact of the EU structural support on the competitiveness of Lithuanian economics. The methods of the research include systematic and comparative analysis of the scientific literature, expert evaluation and linear regression. The research disclosed the main determinants of country’s competitiveness. The results have revealed that EU structural support has the most significant impact on Lithuanian engineering and technological infrastructure. The impact of the support on country’s macroeconomic, scientific and social environment can also be considered as significant. The EU structural support has medium strong impact on education and business environment conditions in Lithuania. It has been established that, in the field of business advancement, Lithuanian should be rated as medium competitive. Hence, the increase in country’s competitiveness by employing EU structural funds should be treated as one of priority aims. In addition, responsible authorities should perform with higher efficiency seeking for higher competitiveness of the country.

  16. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  17. A critical literature review of health economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aballéa, Samuel; Millier, Aurélie; Quilici, Sibilia; Caroll, Stuart; Petrou, Stavros; Toumi, Mondher

    2013-06-01

    Two licensed vaccines are available to prevent RVGE in infants. A worldwide critical review of economic evaluations of these vaccines was conducted. The objective was to describe differences in methodologies, assumptions and inputs and determine the key factors driving differences in conclusions. 68 economic evaluations were reviewed. RV vaccination was found to be cost-effective in developing countries, while conclusions varied between studies in developed countries. Many studies found that vaccination was likely to be cost-effective under some scenarios, such as lower prices scenarios, inclusion of herd protection, and/or adoption of a societal perspective. Other reasons for variability included uncertainty around healthcare visits incidence and lack of consensus on quality of life (QoL) valuation for infants and caregivers. New evidence on the vaccination effectiveness in real-world, new ways of modeling herd protection and assessments of QoL in children could help more precisely define the conditions under which RV vaccination would be cost-effective in developed countries.

  18. An Evaluation of the Economic Theoretical Potential of the Rural Environment Mismanged During 1956-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Florentin Gabriel Niculescu

    2015-01-01

    Under the context of the essential role and growing importance of the rural environment in the development of a country, we focus on evaluating the economic theoretical potential of the rural environment that we consider to have been mismanaged during 1956-2010. For this purpose, in this paper we define, describe and explain the main concepts, as to be able to evaluate the economic potential of the rural development and further contribute to its improvement. The study focuses on the correlati...

  19. How well do search filters perform in identifying economic evaluations in MEDLINE and EMBASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, Julie; Kaunelis, David; Mensinkai, Shaila

    2009-10-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies assessing the cost-effectiveness of healthcare technologies seek evidence from economic evaluations. As well as searching economic evaluation databases, researchers often search MEDLINE and EMBASE, using search filters whose current performance is unclear. We assessed the performance of search filters in identifying economic evaluations from MEDLINE and EMBASE. A gold standard of economic evaluations was compiled from National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) records for 2000, 2003, and 2006. Corresponding records were retrieved in MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search filters were identified from the InterTASC Information Specialists' SubGroup Web site and from Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) Information Services. The sensitivity and precision of search filters in retrieving gold standard records from MEDLINE and EMBASE were tested. A total of 2,070 full economic evaluations were identified from NHS EED. Of these, 1,955 records were available in Ovid MEDLINE and 1,873 were available in Ovid EMBASE. Thirteen MEDLINE and eight EMBASE filters were identified. NHS Quality Improvement Scotland (full and brief filters), the NHS EED and Royle and Waugh filters achieved over 0.99 sensitivity in MEDLINE. NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, CADTH, Royle and Waugh, and NHS EED filters achieved greater than 0.99 sensitivity in EMBASE. Filters demonstrated low precision. This research provided new performance data on search filters to identify economic evaluations in MEDLINE and EMBASE. It demonstrated that highly sensitive economic evaluation filters are available, but that precision is low, yielding perhaps 5 relevant records per 100 records scanned.

  20. Technical-Economic Evaluation of a Cogeneration Unit Considering Carbon Emission Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The support of combined heat and power production systems has gained policy attention, because these are often considered to be less polluting and more efficient than conventional energy conversion systems. As a consequence, the potential market for these energy systems that contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to enhance energy security on a national level, is shifting from large-scale existing units to small and micro-size emerging technologies. This paper presents a numerical model based on a cost-benefit analysis used to design an optimal cogeneration system for a small-scale building application, considering the Portuguese context and the comparison with the harmonized efficiency reference values for the separate production of electricity and useful heat. The model includes the identification of the objective function terms (i.e., the elements involved in the financial analysis across the system lifetime and the economic evaluation of costs and benefits of the combined heat and power production system. The economic viability of cogeneration systems significantly depends on system technology, client energy requirements and support schemes implemented in the respective countries. A strategic approach is necessary to adequately embed the new technology as a feasible solution in terms of investment and operational costs. Only by matching the energy supply to the needs and expectations of the energy users, it will be possible to improve the market competitiveness of these alternative power production plants. The optimal solution disclosed a positive annual worth, which is higher if the carbon emission savings are monetized. In addition, the optimal system represents a more efficient way to produce useful heat and electricity (i.e. a positive primary energy saving and to reduce gas emissions. A cost-benefit analysis can be applied for the techno-economic evaluation of a CHP system by assessing the monetary socio-environmental costs

  1. Systematic Review and Quality Appraisal of Economic Evaluation Publications in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmukayakul, U; Calache, H; Clark, R; Wasiak, J; Faggion, C M

    2015-10-01

    Economic evaluation (EE) studies have been undertaken in dentistry since the late 20th century because economic data provide additional information to policy makers to develop guidelines and set future direction for oral health services. The objectives of this study were to assess the methodological quality of EEs in oral health. Electronic searching of Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database from 1975 to 2013 were undertaken to identify publications that include costs and outcomes in dentistry. Relevant reference lists were also searched for additional studies. Studies were retrieved and reviewed independently for inclusion by 3 authors. Furthermore, to appraise the EE methods, 1 author applied the Drummond 10-item (13-criteria) checklist tool to each study. Of the 114 publications identified, 79 studies were considered full EE and 35 partial. Twenty-eight studies (30%) were published between the years 2011 and 2013. Sixty-four (53%) studies focused on dental caries prevention or treatment. Median appraisal scores calculated for full and partial EE studies were 11 and 9 out of 13, respectively. Quality assessment scores showed that the quality of partial EE studies published after 2000 significantly improved (P = 0.02) compared to those published before 2000. Significant quality improvement was not found in full EE studies. Common methodological limitations were identified: absence of sensitivity analysis, discounting, and insufficient information on how costs and outcomes were measured and valued. EE studies in dentistry increased over the last 40 y in both quantity and quality, but a number of publications failed to satisfy some components of standard EE research methods, such as sensitivity analysis and discounting. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  2. Technical and economic evaluation of advanced air cargo system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA air cargo market studies, reports on NASA and NASA-sponsored studies of advanced freighter concepts, and identifies the opportunities for the application of advanced technology. The air cargo market is studied to evaluate the timing for, and the potential market response to, advanced technology aircraft. The degree of elasticity in future air freight markets is also being investigated, since the demand for a new aircraft is most favorable in a price-sensitive environment. Aircraft design studies are considered with attention to mission and design requirements, incorporation of advanced technologies in transport aircraft, new cargo aircraft concepts, advanced freighter evaluation, and civil-military design commonality.

  3. Systematic Review of Health Economic Impact Evaluations of Risk Prediction Models: Stop Developing, Start Evaluating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Giessen, Anoukh; Peters, Jaime; Wilcher, Britni; Hyde, Chris; Moons, Carl; de Wit, Ardine; Koffijberg, Erik

    2017-04-01

    Although health economic evaluations (HEEs) are increasingly common for therapeutic interventions, they appear to be rare for the use of risk prediction models (PMs). To evaluate the current state of HEEs of PMs by performing a comprehensive systematic review. Four databases were searched for HEEs of PM-based strategies. Two reviewers independently selected eligible articles. A checklist was compiled to score items focusing on general characteristics of HEEs of PMs, model characteristics and quality of HEEs, evidence on PMs typically used in the HEEs, and the specific challenges in performing HEEs of PMs. After screening 791 abstracts, 171 full texts, and reference checking, 40 eligible HEEs evaluating 60 PMs were identified. In these HEEs, PM strategies were compared with current practice (n = 32; 80%), to other stratification methods for patient management (n = 19; 48%), to an extended PM (n = 9; 23%), or to alternative PMs (n = 5; 13%). The PMs guided decisions on treatment (n = 42; 70%), further testing (n = 18; 30%), or treatment prioritization (n = 4; 7%). For 36 (60%) PMs, only a single decision threshold was evaluated. Costs of risk prediction were ignored for 28 (46%) PMs. Uncertainty in outcomes was assessed using probabilistic sensitivity analyses in 22 (55%) HEEs. Despite the huge number of PMs in the medical literature, HEE of PMs remains rare. In addition, we observed great variety in their quality and methodology, which may complicate interpretation of HEE results and implementation of PMs in practice. Guidance on HEE of PMs could encourage and standardize their application and enhance methodological quality, thereby improving adequate use of PM strategies. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Tables covering the selling price of hydrogen as a function of each process temperature studied are presented. Estimated selling price, based on capital costs and operating and maintenance costs, is included. In all cases, no credit was given for the methane component of hydrogen.

  5. Plant uprate: an economic evaluation and implementation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, R.M.; Darden, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    There is a major trend within the utility industry toward increasing the availability and generating capacity of existing units that is caused by the increasing lead times, capital costs, and construction costs of new generating facilities. Increasing the electrical output of existing units is a less capital-intensive means to aid in meeting a utility's future load growth requirements. A major component of the Virginia Power plant improvement program is core thermal power uprating of its nuclear units. Nuclear plant upratings are of growing utility industry interest because of the large expected economic benefits. However, there are concerns regarding the impact on a plant's current operating license. The potential for core upratings was generally recognized by utilities and vendors by incorporating additional capacity in the original plant design. This was done with the understanding that increased thermal power ratings could be implemented in the future based on demonstrated levels of safety and operability. Safety-related features of a unit have been commonly designed for a thermal power approx.5% above the original licensed rating. This creates the potential to uprate the unit's electrical capacity with only minor or no modifications to the plant. This paper presents Virginia Power's experiences regarding the benefits of nuclear plant uprating, outline their licensing approach, and describes current plans for implementation

  6. Quantitative evaluation of surveillance test intervals including test-caused risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Martorell, S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1992-02-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the adverse safety impact of surveillance testing and generally overburdensome surveillance requirements. To evaluate these concerns, the risk-effectiveness with the beneficial risk impact. This report defines the adverse effects of surveillance testing from a risk perspective, and then presents the methodology by which the adverse risk impact can be quantified, focusing on two important kinds of adverse risk impact of surveillance testing: risk impact of test-caused trips and risk impact of test-caused equipment wear. Using the methodology presented, these risk impacts are evaluated for a selected set of surveillance tests for demonstration examples. The results of the risk-effectiveness evaluation are provided along with the insights from the sensitivity analyses

  7. An Evaluation of the Economic Theoretical Potential of the Rural Environment Mismanged During 1956-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Gabriel Niculescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Under the context of the essential role and growing importance of the rural environment in the development of a country, we focus on evaluating the economic theoretical potential of the rural environment that we consider to have been mismanaged during 1956-2010. For this purpose, in this paper we define, describe and explain the main concepts, as to be able to evaluate the economic potential of the rural development and further contribute to its improvement. The study focuses on the correlations between the population of working age, occupancy, unemployment and the wasted economic potential, putting forward a new concept, statistically valid, demographic named the absolute able overpopulation.

  8. Thermo-economic optimization of the impact of renewable generators on poly-generation smart-grids including hot thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivarolo, M.; Greco, A.; Massardo, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model a poly-generation grid including thermal storage and renewable generators. ► We analyze the impact of random renewable generators on the grid performance. ► We carry out the grid optimization using a time-dependent thermo-economic approach. ► We present the importance of the storage system to optimize the RES impact. - Abstract: In this paper, the impact of not controllable renewable energy generators (wind turbines and solar photovoltaic panels) on the thermo-economic optimum performance of poly-generation smart grids is investigated using an original time dependent hierarchical approach. The grid used for the analysis is the one installed at the University of Genoa for research activities. It is based on different prime movers: (i) 100 kWe micro gas turbine, (ii) 20 kWe internal combustion engine powered by gases to produce both electrical and thermal (hot water) energy and (iii) a 100 kWth adsorption chiller to produce cooling (cold water) energy. The grid includes thermal storage tanks to manage the thermal demand load during the year. The plant under analysis is also equipped with two renewable non-controllable generators: a small size wind turbine and photovoltaic solar panels. The size and the management of the system studied in this work have been optimized, in order to minimize both capital and variable costs. A time-dependent thermo-economic hierarchical approach developed by the authors has been used, considering the time-dependent electrical, thermal and cooling load demands during the year as problem constraints. The results are presented and discussed in depth and show the strong interaction between fossil and renewable resources, and the importance of an appropriate storage system to optimize the RES impact taking into account the multiproduct character of the grid under investigation.

  9. Techno-economic evaluation of broadband access technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2005-01-01

    Broadband for all is an essential element in the EU policy concerning the future of ICT-based society. The overall purpose of this paper is to present a model for evaluation of different broadband access technologies and to present some preliminary results based on the model that has been carried...

  10. Evaluation of economic traits in progenies of Nigerian heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic evaluation of egg production and biometrical traits of the first filial generation of the Nigerian heavy ecotype chicken was carried out. Heritability and genetic correlations between the traits were estimated using the mixed model least squares and maximum likelihood computer programme of Harvey. Results show an ...

  11. The Integration of Socio-Economic Indicators in the CASBEE-UD Evaluation System: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cappai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of tools to measure the degree of sustainability of cities is the approach that receives the most attention in developed countries. However, studies of evaluation tools at the neighborhood level reveal that there are many weaknesses in the most widely-used evaluation systems (LEED-ND, BREEAM Communities, CASBEE-UD. There are ambiguities and gaps in weighting and in scoring and in most cases, there is no mechanism for local adaptability and participation. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the current situation by highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of these evaluation tools in order to integrate social and economic aspects for the improvement of the CASBEE-UD (neighborhood level evaluation tool. The selection of socio-economic aspects was made through the use of a multi criteria Analysis Hierarchical Process (AHP and a Geographic Integration System (GIS. The results of this case study indicate that most evaluation tools need to be revised because most do not include socio-economic aspects. We have demonstrated that applying the CASBEE-UD assessment tool integrated with socio-economic aspects to four boroughs in the City of Montreal can measure success by addressing the objectives of sustainable development.

  12. Evaluation of economic loss from energy-related environmental pollution: a case study of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-09-01

    With the growth of energy consumption, energy-related environmental pollution has become increasingly serious, which in turn causes enormous economic loss because of public health damage, corrosion of materials, crop yield reduction, and other factors. Evaluating economic loss caused by energy-related environmental pollution can contribute to decision making in energy management. A framework for evaluating economic loss from environmental pollution produced during energy production, transportation, and consumption is proposed in this paper. Regarding SO2, PM10, and solid waste as the main pollutants, economic losses from health damage, materials corrosion, crop yield reduction, and solid waste pollution are estimated based on multiple concentration-response relationships and dose-response functions. The proposed framework and evaluation methods are applied to Beijing, China. It is evident that total economic loss attributable to energy-related environmental pollution fluctuated during 2000-2011 but had a general growth trend, with the highest value reaching 2.3 × 108 CNY (China Yuan) in 2006. Economic loss caused by health damage contributes most to the total loss among the four measured damage types. The total economic loss strongly correlates with the amount of energy consumption, especially for oil and electricity. Our evaluation framework and methods can be used widely to measure the potential impact of environmental pollution in the energy lifecycle.

  13. Evaluating the economics of biomass energy production in the Watts Bar region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, R.R.; English, B.C.; Bhat, M.G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Graham, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    While the commercial potential of biofuel technology is becoming more feasible, it is not clear whether the supply of biomass feedstock will be available in competitive markets. In order to exploit the potential of biomass crops as a reliable source of biofuels, a significant commitment on the part of farmers to convert large amounts of cropland would be required. Dedicated energy crops have to compete with conventional crops which could result in significant interregional shifts in crop production. Those changes could further affect overall agricultural production, food prices, consumer spending, and government spending on farm programs. Evaluating these economic impacts provides important information for the ongoing debate. This research is a case study incorporating an existing power plant. The objective of this project is to evaluate the potential of short rotation woody crops as a fuel source in the Watts Bar facility located in eastern Tennessee. The appraisal includes estimates of environmental impacts as well as of economic feasibility. This is achieved by estimating the amounts of biomass that would be supplied at a predetermined price. By changing prices of biomass at the plant in an incremental fashion, a regional supply curve for biomass is estimated. The model incorporates current agricultural production possibilities in the region along with the proposed short rotation woody crop production activities. In order to adequately model the landscape, several variables are considered. These variables include soil type, crop production, government policy, land use conversion to crop land, and distance from the plant. Environmental issues including erosion, chemical usage, and potential leaching are also incorporated within the modeling framework; however, only estimates on erosion are available in this analysis. Output from the model provides insight on where and what types of land should shift from current land use to biomass production.

  14. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler…

  15. Economic evaluation of environmental impacts of open cast mining project - an approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, S.K.; Pathak, K.

    1998-01-01

    Economic valuation of environmental attributes are pragmatic approach to evaluating the impacts and it helps decision makers to arrive at objective decisions on the basis of cost benefit ratio. For determining the physical impact and its quantification, four evaluation methods, namely-market price method, surrogate market price, survey based and cost based approaches are generally used. The present paper reviews the importance of environmental evaluation of impacts of mining and also reviews a few suitable methodologies that could be effectively used for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in open cast mining projects. (author)

  16. Economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaz-Iglesia, Iñaki; Miguel, Lucía García-San; Ayala-Morillas, L Eduardo; García-Pérez, Lidia; González-Enríquez, Jesús; Blasco-Hernández, Teresa; Martín-Águeda, María Belén; Sarría-Santamera, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Although Spain is the European country with the highest Chagas disease burden, the country does not have a national control program of the disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of several strategies for Chagas disease screening among Latin American residents living in Spain. The following screening strategies were evaluated: (1) non-screening; (2) screening of the Latin American pregnant women and their newborns; (3) screening also the relatives of the positive pregnant women; (4) screening also the relatives of the negative pregnant women. A cost-utility analysis was carried out to compare the four strategies from two perspectives, the societal and the Spanish National Health System (SNHS). A decision tree representing the clinical evolution of Chagas disease throughout patient's life was built. The strategies were compared through the incremental cost-utility ratio, using euros as cost measurement and quality-adjusted life years as utility measurement. A sensitivity analysis was performed to test the model parameters and their influence on the results. We found the "Non-screening" as the most expensive and less effective of the evaluated strategies, from both the societal and the SNHS perspectives. Among the screening evaluated strategies the most efficient was, from both perspectives, to extent the antenatal screening of the Latin American pregnant women and their newborns up to the relatives of the positive women. Several parameters influenced significantly on the sensitivity analyses, particularly the chronic treatment efficacy or the prevalence of Chagas disease. In conclusion, for the general Latin American immigrants living in Spain the most efficient would be to screen the Latin American mothers, their newborns and the close relatives of the mothers with a positive serology. However for higher prevalence immigrant population the most efficient intervention would be to extend the program to the close relatives of the negative

  17. Economic Evaluation of the Production Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles via Liquid-Phase Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Fariansyah, R.; Ramadhan, M. F.; Abdullah, A. G.; Widiaty, I.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the production of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles. The evaluation was done in two perspectives: engineering and economic evaluation. The engineering perspective concerned about the analysis of the production rate based on the available apparatuses and raw materials, completed with mass balance calculation. The economic analysis was conducted based on several economic parameters: gross profit margin (GPM), internal return rate (IRR), payback period (PBP), cumulative net present value (CNPV), break even point (BEP), and profit to investment (PI). The engineering perspective showed that the production of MgO is feasibly done in small scale industry. This is verified by the potential production using current available apparatuses and raw materials in the market. Economic analysis obtained that the present project is profitable. But, for some cases, further studies must be done to get the present production process is attractive for investor.

  18. Performing Economic Evaluation of Integrated Care: Highway to Hell or Stairway to Heaven?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, K. Viktoria; Evers, Silvia; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Health economists are increasingly interested in integrated care in order to support decision-makers to find cost-effective solutions able to tackle the threat that chronic diseases pose on population health and health and social care budgets. However, economic evaluation in integrated care is still in its early years, facing several difficulties. The aim of this paper is to describe the unique nature of integrated care as a topic for economic evaluation, explore the obstacles to perform economic evaluation, discuss methods and techniques that can be used to address them, and set the basis to develop a research agenda for health economics in integrated care. The paper joins the voices that call health economists to pay more attention to integrated care and argues that there should be no more time wasted for doing it. PMID:28316543

  19. THE ECONOMIC EVALUATION METHOD OF LAND RESOURCES OF AGRARIAN NOMINATION WITH THEIR REGIONAL REPRODUCTION PECULIARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Sh. Shafeyev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of land market formation and peculiarities of its function in modern (up-to-date environment are covered in this article. The objective necessity of governmental regulation is shown. In authors opinion the economic regulation of land market is the most important part of the system. Economic regulation mechanism is realized in correlation with economic land evaluation. Cadastre evaluation that is applied today does not reflect the true land value, but it is used as a basis for the land rent rat estimation and the initial selling price. The alternative way of land resource evaluation that is offered in the article reflects the change of country economic situation more real and is able to influence objectively on the land relations regulation decision making process.

  20. Trial-based economic evaluations in occupational health: principles, methods, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Johanna M; van Wier, Marieke F; Tompa, Emile; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J; van Tulder, Maurits W; Bosmans, Judith E

    2014-06-01

    To allocate available resources as efficiently as possible, decision makers need information on the relative economic merits of occupational health and safety (OHS) interventions. Economic evaluations can provide this information by comparing the costs and consequences of alternatives. Nevertheless, only a few of the studies that consider the effectiveness of OHS interventions take the extra step of considering their resource implications. Moreover, the methodological quality of those that do is generally poor. Therefore, this study aims to help occupational health researchers conduct high-quality trial-based economic evaluations by discussing the theory and methodology that underlie them, and by providing recommendations for good practice regarding their design, analysis, and reporting. This study also helps consumers of this literature with understanding and critically appraising trial-based economic evaluations of OHS interventions.

  1. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test

    OpenAIRE

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4–6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test—TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler Preschool-and-Primary-Scale-of-Intelligence—WPPSI). Group differences were analyzed using t tests, as well as direct and stepwise discriminant analyses....

  2. Evaluating the Handling Qualities of Flight Control Systems Including Nonlinear Aircraft and System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Raymond Chao

    The handling qualities evaluation of nonlinear aircraft systems is an area of concern in loss-of-control (LOC) prevention. The Get Transfer Function (GetTF) method was demonstrated for evaluating the handling qualities of flight control systems and aircraft containing nonlinearities. NASA's Generic Transport Model (GTM), a nonlinear model of a civilian jet transport aircraft, was evaluated. Using classical techniques, the stability, control, and augmentation (SCAS) systems were designed to control pitch rate, roll rate, and airspeed. Hess's structural pilot model was used to model pilot dynamics in pitch and roll-attitude tracking. The simulated task was simultaneous tracking of, both, pitch and roll attitudes. Eight cases were evaluated: 1) gain increase of pitch-attitude command signal, 2) gain increase of roll-attitude command signal, 3) gain reduction of elevator command signal, 4) backlash in elevator actuator, 5) combination 3 and 4 in elevator actuator, 6) gain reduction of aileron command signal, 7) backlash in aileron actuator, and 8) combination of 6 and 7 in aileron actuator. The GetTF method was used to estimate the transfer function approximating a linear relationship between the proprioceptive signal of the pilot model and the command input. The transfer function was then used to predict the handling qualities ratings (HQR) and pilot-induced oscillation ratings (PIOR). The HQR is based on the Cooper-Harper rating scale. In pitch-attitude tracking, the nominal aircraft is predicted to have Level 2* HQRpitch and 2 exercise was also conducted to validate the structural pilot model.

  3. Evaluation of Dogs with Border Collie Collapse, Including Response to Two Standardized Strenuous Exercise Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Susan; Shmon, Cindy; Su, Lillian; Epp, Tasha; Minor, Katie; Mickelson, James; Patterson, Edward; Shelton, G Diane

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and metabolic variables were evaluated in 13 dogs with border collie collapse (BCC) before, during, and following completion of standardized strenuous exercise protocols. Six dogs participated in a ball-retrieving protocol, and seven dogs participated in a sheep-herding protocol. Findings were compared with 16 normal border collies participating in the same exercise protocols (11 retrieving, five herding). Twelve dogs with BCC developed abnormal mentation and/or an abnormal gait during evaluation. All dogs had post-exercise elevations in rectal temperature, pulse rate, arterial blood pH, PaO2, and lactate, and decreased PaCO2 and bicarbonate, as expected with strenuous exercise, but there were no significant differences between BCC dogs and normal dogs. Electrocardiography demonstrated sinus tachycardia in all dogs following exercise. Needle electromyography was normal, and evaluation of muscle biopsy cryosections using a standard panel of histochemical stains and reactions did not reveal a reason for collapse in 10 dogs with BCC in which these tests were performed. Genetic testing excluded the dynamin-1 related exercise-induced collapse mutation and the V547A malignant hyperthermia mutation as the cause of BCC. Common reasons for exercise intolerance were eliminated. Although a genetic basis is suspected, the cause of collapse in BCC was not determined.

  4. [Evaluation of disease management programmes--assessing methods and initial outcomes from a health economic perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Dana Sophie; Braun, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation represents a substantial component of the concept of Disease Management Programmes. This and the fact that the implementation of Disease Management Programmes constitutes a major change in the German healthcare system require that the criteria established by the German Federal Social Insurance Authority (Bundesversicherungsamt) be carefully reviewed. The present paper focuses on the evaluation method and the economic data. The pre-/-post study design used in the evaluation is known to be vulnerable to threats to internal validity. The objective of this paper is to analyze whether these threats to internal validity which have been known theoretically are confirmed by the results of the final reports. A review of the final reports of health insurance companies like the AOK, Barmer and a group of the BKK in Westfalen-Lippe shows that this question can be answered in the affirmative. The pre-/-post design without control groups is unable to recognize the failure or success of the Disease Management concept. The reasons include a high drop-out rate as well as the lack of consideration of the characteristics of chronic disease. Hence the evaluation method has failed to prove the quality of Disease Management Programmes in Germany. This is why consistent further development is needed.

  5. Evaluation of economic efficiency of process improvement in food packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, we make gains in process by the three fundamental ways. First, we define or redefine our process in a strategic sense. Second, once defined or redefined, we commence process operations and use process control methods to target and stabilize our process. Third, we use process improvement methods, as described in this paper, along with process control to fully exploit our process management and/or technology. Process improvement is focused primarily in our subprocesses and sub-subprocesses. Process leverage is the key to process improvement initiatives. This means that small improvements of the basic manufacturing operations can have (with the assumption of mass repetition of the operation a big impact on the functioning of the whole production unit. The complexity within even small organizations, in people, products, and processes, creates significant challenges in effectively and efficiently using these initiatives tools. In this paper we are going to place process purposes in the foreground and initiatives and tools in the background as facilitator to help accomplish process purpose. Initiatives and tools are not the ends we are seeking; result/outcomes in physical, economics, timeliness, and customer service performance matter. In the paper process boundaries (in a generic sense are set by our process purpose and our process definition. Process improvement is initiated within our existing process boundaries. For example, in a fast-food restaurant, if we define our cooking process around a frying technology, then we provide process improvements within our frying technology. On the other hand, if we are considering changing to a broiling technology, then we are likely faced with extensive change, impacting our external customers, and a process redefinition may be required. The result / aim of the paper are based on the example of the process improving of a food packaging quality. Specifically, the integration of two approaches

  6. Micro economic evaluations of transferal tariffs and income framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangensteen, Ivar; Groenli, Helle

    2000-01-01

    The report discusses conditions of transferral tariffs as micro economic measures in the income-regulating frameworks of today. The process from aim to implementation of the tariff measures is described and the conditions as the tariff goal, segmenting of the customers and their price sensitivity are discussed. The report deals specifically with construction grants and connection fees. Connection fees are proposed as measures in order to influence dimensioning, while construction grants may be suitable in certain conditions for influencing the localisation. These measures would have different effects on the network companies' incomes and costs also due to the accounting regulations. A selection of tariff measures is proposed that illuminate the problems of the network companies. ''How shall the present income frames be distributed among the customers in order to stimulate the reduction of the costs and an increase of the income framework.'' The tariff measures are illustrated by specific numeric examples and the influence on incomes and costs are discussed. Examples of tariff measures are: Do not use the connection fee but rather the construction grant or increase the firm power part, only use the energy part, effect part or the firm power part. Solely altering of the tariff parts may result in the following: 1) Altering the firm power part: An increase would give a more stable yearly profit. 2) Altering of the energy part: An increase would promote a reduced consumption and thereby negatively influence a possible increase in the income frames. An increase may on the other hand reduce the costs of loss and delay investments. 3) Altering of the effect part: An increase would promote reduced maximal effects, lower the costs of loss and delay investments. 4) Reducing the connection fee would increase the maximum construction grant that could be applied for. This would result in a larger part of the construction costs could be covered within the income frames and would

  7. evaluation of some maternal and socio-economic factors associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bolgatanga and War Memorial hospital, Navrongo. The factors considered include: gestational age, gestational weight gain, maternal educational level, parity, cigarette smoking habits, type of fuel used for cooking, maternal drinking habits, type of physical exercise undertaken, period of rest during pregnancy, and fundal ...

  8. Economic evaluation of epinephrine auto-injectors for peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Marcus; Bean, Katherine; Verdi, Marylee

    2017-08-01

    Three commercial epinephrine auto-injectors were available in the United States in the summer of 2016: EpiPen, Adrenaclick, and epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. To describe the variation in pharmacy costs among epinephrine auto-injector devices in New England and evaluate the additional expense associated with incremental auto-injector costs. Decision analysis software was used to evaluate costs of the most and least expensive epinephrine auto-injector devices for children with peanut allergy. To evaluate regional variation in epinephrine auto-injector costs, a random sample of New England national and corporate pharmacies was compared with a convenience sample of pharmacies from 10 Canadian provinces. Assuming prescriptions written for 2 double epinephrine packs each year (home and school), the mean costs of food allergy over the 20-year model horizon totaled $58,667 (95% confidence interval [CI] $57,745-$59,588) when EpiPen was prescribed and $45,588 (95% CI $44,873-$46,304) when epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector was prescribed. No effectiveness differences were evident between groups, with 17.19 (95% CI 17.11-17.27) quality-adjusted life years accruing for each subject. The incremental cost per episode of anaphylaxis treated with epinephrine over the model horizon was $12,576 for EpiPen vs epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. EpiPen costs were lowest at Canadian pharmacies ($96, 95% CI $85-$107). There was price consistency between corporate and independent pharmacies throughout New England by device brand, with the epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector being the most affordable device. Cost differences among epinephrine auto-injectors were significant. More expensive auto-injector brands did not appear to provide incremental benefit. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic approaches in infectious diseases: a review of current approaches and evaluation of critical aspects affecting their quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Meoni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacogenetics holds great potential for improving the effectiveness of treatment modalities in infectious diseases by taking into account the genetic determinants of both the host and infectious agents’ individuality. Better utilization of resources and improved therapeutic efficiency are the expected outcomes of personalized medicine using pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomics information made available by technological advances. However, there has been growing concern in the clinical community regarding the evaluation of the true benefits of these approaches. This perception is partly due to the limited number and perceived poor quality of economic evaluations in this field, and initiatives aimed at harmonizing and communicating strategies improving the quality of these studies and their acceptance by the clinical community are greatly needed. This paper reviews current literature of economic evaluations of pharmacogenetics interventions guiding pharmacotherapy in infectious diseases. PubMed and the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases were searched using a combination of five broad research terms related to pharmacogenetic approaches, and papers relative to economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic interventions in infectious diseases retained for further analysis. Using these criteria, a total of 14 papers were included in this review. The area of economic evaluation of pharmacogenetic interventions in infectious diseases remains understudied and would benefit from greater harmonization. The main weaknesses of evaluations reviewed in this paper seem to be represented by poor evidence of pharmacogenetic marker validation, inconsistencies in the selection of costs and utility included in the economic models and the choice of sensitivity analysis. All these factors limit the overall transparency of the studies, greater acceptance of their results and applicability to diverse and possibly resourcelimited environments where these

  10. Unit costs in international economic evaluations: resource costing of the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdahl, H; Knapp, M; Edgell, E T; Ghandi, G; Haro, J M

    2003-01-01

    We present unit costs corresponding to resource information collected in the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes (SOHO) Study. The SOHO study is a 3-year, prospective, observational study of health outcomes associated with antipsychotic treatment in out-patients treated for schizophrenia. The study is being conducted across 10 European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the UK) and includes over 10,800 patients and over 1000 investigators. To identify the best available unit costs of hospital admissions, day care and psychiatrist out-patient visits, a tariff-based approach was used. Unit costs were obtained for nine of the 10 countries and were adjusted to 2000 price levels by consumer price indices and converted to US dollars using purchasing power parity rates (and on to Euro). The paper illustrates the need to balance the search for sound unit costs with pragmatic solutions in the costing of international economic evaluations.

  11. Economic evaluation of in situ extraction for copper, gold, and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, F.M.; Chase, C.K.; Bhappu, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    In situ extraction for copper, gold, and uranium, generally involves several common alternative processes and techniques. These include dump leaching, heap leaching, leaching of fractured ore in-place or bore hole mining and unit operations such as cementation, solvent extraction, ion-exchange, or carbon-in-pulp. Since the metallurgical effectiveness and economics of such processes and unit operations are well established, it would be possible to select the optimum alternative for extracting either copper, gold, or uranium from their ores using in situ extraction technology. Efforts made to provide metallurgical evaluation as well as capital and operating costs for the various processes and unit operations are reported. These costs are used in preparing feasibility studies for in situ extraction of these metals

  12. Evaluating and Using Literature Including People with Disabilities in All Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslick, Mary Ellen; Pearson, Mary

    2016-01-01

    To help students see their worlds differently and to expand those views beyond their own backyards, educators can expose them to quality multicultural children's literature. In this article, we focus on a subtopic within the genre of multicultural children's literature: literature including people with disabilities. We chose seven recent texts…

  13. Generalisability in economic evaluation studies in healthcare: a review and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculpher, M J; Pang, F S; Manca, A; Drummond, M F; Golder, S; Urdahl, H; Davies, L M; Eastwood, A

    2004-12-01

    To review, and to develop further, the methods used to assess and to increase the generalisability of economic evaluation studies. Electronic databases. Methodological studies relating to economic evaluation in healthcare were searched. This included electronic searches of a range of databases, including PREMEDLINE, MEDLINE, EMBASE and EconLit, and manual searches of key journals. The case studies of a decision analytic model involved highlighting specific features of previously published economic studies related to generalisability and location-related variability. The case-study involving the secondary analysis of cost-effectiveness analyses was based on the secondary analysis of three economic studies using data from randomised trials. The factor most frequently cited as generating variability in economic results between locations was the unit costs associated with particular resources. In the context of studies based on the analysis of patient-level data, regression analysis has been advocated as a means of looking at variability in economic results across locations. These methods have generally accepted that some components of resource use and outcomes are exchangeable across locations. Recent studies have also explored, in cost-effectiveness analysis, the use of tests of heterogeneity similar to those used in clinical evaluation in trials. The decision analytic model has been the main means by which cost-effectiveness has been adapted from trial to non-trial locations. Most models have focused on changes to the cost side of the analysis, but it is clear that the effectiveness side may also need to be adapted between locations. There have been weaknesses in some aspects of the reporting in applied cost-effectiveness studies. These may limit decision-makers' ability to judge the relevance of a study to their specific situations. The case study demonstrated the potential value of multilevel modelling (MLM). Where clustering exists by location (e.g. centre or

  14. Practice evaluation and sale transactions: preserving value through economic turmoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumblin, Denise L

    2009-12-01

    There are several options to value a veterinary practice (market approach, asset approach, and income approach) and several methods within these approaches. Examples of an income-based approach include excess earnings, discounted future returns, and single period capitalization of earnings. A qualified valuator will use his or her professional opinion and experience to determine the most appropriate method for one's practice situation. This article outlines the excess earnings method for which where the principal components of value are net assets and goodwill.

  15. Systematic Review of Health Economic Evaluation Studies Developed in Brazil from 1980 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassia Cristina Decimoni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBrazil has sought to use economic evaluation to support healthcare decision-making processes. While a number of health economic evaluations (HEEs have been conducted, no study has systematically reviewed the quality of Brazilian HEE. The objective of this systematic review was to provide an overview regarding the state of HEE research and to evaluate the number, characteristics, and quality of reporting of published HEE studies conducted in a Brazilian setting.MethodsWe systematically searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Latin American, and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences Database, Scientific Electronic Library Online, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, health technology assessment Database, Bireme, and Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde Economia da Saúde; citation indexes (SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Sistema de Informação da Rede Brasileira de Avaliação de Tecnologia em Saúde. Partial and full HEEs published between 1980 and 2013 that referred to a Brazilian setting were considered for inclusion.ResultsIn total, 535 studies were included in the review, 36.8% of these were considered to be full HEE. The category of healthcare technologies more frequently assessed were procedures (34.8% and drugs (28.8% which main objective was treatment (72.1%. Forty-four percent of the studies reported their funding source and 36% reported a conflict of interest. Overall, the full HEE quality of reporting was satisfactory. But some items were generally poorly reported and significant improvement is required: (1 methods used to estimate healthcare resource use quantities and unit costs, (2 methods used to estimate utility values, (3 sources of funding, and (4 conflicts of interest.ConclusionA steady number of HEE have been published in Brazil since 1980. To improve their contribution to inform national healthcare policy efforts need to be made to enhance the quality of reporting of HEEs and promote improvements in the way HEEs are

  16. Evaluation of the vitreous matrices to include high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, J.L.; Petraitis, E.J.; Pasquali, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Argentine Nuclear Programme considers a fuel cycle with Pu recycle. This will generate high-level liquid wastes, that should be safely eliminated. With this purpose, primary glasses utilizing three prototipe compositions were prepared. Simulated wastes oxides in the rate of about 10% were added to the vitreous matrices. The mixture was melted in ceramic melting pots in a muffle furnace at 1 100 deg C during 8 hours. Resistance leaching tests were made following an adaptation of the DIN 12 111 standard. Quantitative analysis of the leaching solutions were made to evaluate the solubility of the different elements. Glasses were observed with optical microscopy scanning before and after leaching. In the first, glasses, bubbles and crystalline-phase appear; in the second ones, puncture and embrittlement were detected. By means of differential thermoanalysis, endo and exothermal peaks were identified in glasses supporting gradual heating. X ray diffraction analysis were made in samples with and without wastes. The degree of crystallization of samples was evaluated by photographic and diffractometric techniques. Leaching studies showed the existance of a direct relation between leaching and glass alkaline content. (M.E.L.) [es

  17. Evaluation of the Treatment of Congenital Penile Curvature Including Psychosexual Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachalski, Wojciech; Krajka, Kazimierz; Matuszewski, Marcin

    2015-08-01

    Penile corporoplasty is a well-established treatment method of congenital penile deviation (CPD). Anatomical results are good with only slight differences between surgical procedures used. The disease however has huge influence on young male quality of life. This issue is not well analyzed in the literature. The aim of the study was to evaluate quality of life of the patients affected with CPD before and after the surgical treatment Study population consisted of 107 patients with CPD referred for surgical management. Patients were evaluated with not only clinical assessment, but also by four questionnaires measuring various aspects of quality of life. They were: Short-Form Medical Outcomes, Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire for Man, Beck Depression Inventory, and International Index of Erectile Function. Quality of life measurements showed deep decrease in the general quality of life, sexual performance, depression scale, as well as in physical and mental health in men with CPD. All these parameters were restored to normal after the successful surgical treatment with any method. CPD deeply decreases the quality of life of the affected men in many aspects. Surgical treatment is able to repair the anatomical deformity and as well as significantly restore the patients' psychosocial well-being. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. A systematic review of instruments for measuring outcomes in economic evaluation within aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulamu, Norma B; Kaambwa, Billingsley; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2015-11-09

    This paper describes the methods and results of a systematic review to identify instruments used to measure quality of life outcomes in older people. The primary focus of the review was to identify instruments suitable for application with older people within economic evaluations conducted in the aged care sector. Online databases searched were PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Embase and Informit. Studies that met the following criteria were included: 1) study population exclusively above 65 years of age 2) measured health status, health related quality of life or quality of life outcomes more broadly through use of an instrument developed for this purpose, 3) used a generic preference based instrument or an older person specific preference based or non-preference based instrument or both, and 4) published in journals in the English language after 2000. The most commonly applied generic preference based instrument in both the community and residential aged care context was the EuroQol - 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), followed by the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT) and the Health Utilities Index (HUI2/3). The most widely applied older person specific instrument was the ICEpop CAPability measure for Older people (ICECAP-O) in both community and residential aged care. In the absence of an ideal instrument for incorporating into economic evaluations in the aged care sector, this review recommends the use of a generic preference based measure of health related quality of life such as the EQ-5D to obtain quality adjusted life years, in combination with an instrument that has a broader quality of life focus like the ASCOT, which was designed specifically for evaluating interventions in social care or the ICECAP-O, a capability measure for older people.

  19. Economic Evaluation of a Pre-Hospital Protocol for Patients with Suspected Acute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiry, Suman; Levi, Christopher; Kim, Joosup; Cadilhac, Dominique A; Searles, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    In regional and rural Australia, patients experiencing ischemic stroke do not have equitable access to an intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Although thrombolysis with tPA is a clinically proven and cost-effective treatment for eligible stroke patients, there are few economic evaluations on pre-hospital triage interventions to improve access to tPA. To describe the potential cost-effectiveness of the pre-hospital acute stroke triage (PAST) protocol implemented to provide priority transfer of appropriate patients from smaller hospitals to a primary stroke center (PSC) in regional New South Wales, Australia. The PAST protocol was evaluated using a prospective and historical control design. Using aggregated administrative data, a decision analytic model was used to simulate costs and patient outcomes. During the implementation of the PAST protocol (intervention), patient data were collected prospectively at the PSC. Control patients included two groups (i) patients arriving at the PSC in the 12 months before the implementation of the PAST protocol and, (ii) patients from the geographical catchment area of the smaller regional hospitals that were previously not bypassed during the control period. Control data were collected retrospectively. The primary outcome of the economic evaluation was the additional cost per disability adjusted life years (DALYs) averted in the intervention period compared to the control period. The intervention was associated with a 17 times greater odds of eligible patients receiving tPA (adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI 9.42-31.2, p  pre-hospital triage intervention was a potentially cost-effective strategy for improving access to tPA therapy for patients with ischemic stroke in regional Australia.

  20. Methodological variation in economic evaluations conducted in low- and middle-income countries: information for reference case development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjarin Santatiwongchai

    Full Text Available Information generated from economic evaluation is increasingly being used to inform health resource allocation decisions globally, including in low- and middle- income countries. However, a crucial consideration for users of the information at a policy level, e.g. funding agencies, is whether the studies are comparable, provide sufficient detail to inform policy decision making, and incorporate inputs from data sources that are reliable and relevant to the context. This review was conducted to inform a methodological standardisation workstream at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF and assesses BMGF-funded cost-per-DALY economic evaluations in four programme areas (malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and vaccines in terms of variation in methodology, use of evidence, and quality of reporting. The findings suggest that there is room for improvement in the three areas of assessment, and support the case for the introduction of a standardised methodology or reference case by the BMGF. The findings are also instructive for all institutions that fund economic evaluations in LMICs and who have a desire to improve the ability of economic evaluations to inform resource allocation decisions.

  1. Methodological variation in economic evaluations conducted in low- and middle-income countries: information for reference case development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santatiwongchai, Benjarin; Chantarastapornchit, Varit; Wilkinson, Thomas; Thiboonboon, Kittiphong; Rattanavipapong, Waranya; Walker, Damian G; Chalkidou, Kalipso; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2015-01-01

    Information generated from economic evaluation is increasingly being used to inform health resource allocation decisions globally, including in low- and middle- income countries. However, a crucial consideration for users of the information at a policy level, e.g. funding agencies, is whether the studies are comparable, provide sufficient detail to inform policy decision making, and incorporate inputs from data sources that are reliable and relevant to the context. This review was conducted to inform a methodological standardisation workstream at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) and assesses BMGF-funded cost-per-DALY economic evaluations in four programme areas (malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and vaccines) in terms of variation in methodology, use of evidence, and quality of reporting. The findings suggest that there is room for improvement in the three areas of assessment, and support the case for the introduction of a standardised methodology or reference case by the BMGF. The findings are also instructive for all institutions that fund economic evaluations in LMICs and who have a desire to improve the ability of economic evaluations to inform resource allocation decisions.

  2. CO2 emission reduction policies in the greek residential sector: a methodological framework for their economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirasgedis, S.; Georgopoulou, E.; Sarafidis, Y.; Balaras, C.; Gaglia, A.; Lalas, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodological framework for the economic evaluation of CO 2 emissions abatement policies and measures in the residential sector, taking into consideration both economic and social costs/benefits. The approach includes two stages: first, the measures under consideration are evaluated on the basis of a cost effectiveness analysis, which takes into account only the related net financial costs, thus highlighting win-win actions (i.e. measures presenting an economic benefit for end users without the provision of any economic subsidies or other similar policies); and second, the measures are re-evaluated using an integrated cost benefit analysis (where both the private and external costs/benefits are taken into account). The economic performance of the measures examined incorporates the effects of a variety of parameters, such as the region's climate, size and age of buildings, etc., which significantly affect the resulting ranking. The implementation of this framework in the Greek residential sector identified and prioritized a significant emissions reduction potential, which could be achieved with win-win measures and/or interventions that present a net social benefit. Measures with negative economic cost but positive net social benefit for the majority of the buildings examined include: (i) regular inspection of central heating boilers, (ii) use of thermostats in central heating boilers, (iii) sealing of openings, (iv) installation of solar collectors for hot water etc. The monetization of environmental benefits is shown to provide a powerful tool for highlighting priority actions in the context of a climate change mitigation policy

  3. Application of economic techniques to fire management - A status review and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie K. Gorte; Ross W. Gorte

    1979-01-01

    Discusses both the historic and contemporary influences of economic in formulating USDA, Forest Service fire management policy in allocating money for fire management and in appraising fire effects. Includes a partial listing of publications that deal with resource valuation.

  4. Including public perception data in the evaluation of the consequences of sewerage derived urban flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Scott; Crow, Helen; Karikas, Naoum

    2009-01-01

    This text reports research which was undertaken to assess the failure consequences associated with sewerage systems. In an effort to move away from considering only flood volume, depth or extent, the text will focus on how a survey of public opinion was used to inform the development of a consequence scoring methodology. The failure consequences considered range from internal flooding of properties, to road closure, environmental damage and odour problems. The text reports the extent to which experience of flooding influences perceptions of failure consequence and sewerage system management. It is also outlined how this data was used, along with other data sources, to construct an objective scoring process that can be used to evaluate failure consequence and readily prioritise sewerage maintenance.

  5. Economic assumptions for evaluating reactor-related options for managing plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the economic assumptions in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences' report, Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium: Reactor-Related Options (1995). It reviews the Net Present Value approach for discounting and comparing the costs and benefits of reactor-related options. It argues that because risks associated with the returns to plutonium management are unlikely to be constant over time, it is preferable to use a real risk-free rate to discount cash flows and explicitly describe the probability distributions for costs and benefits, allowing decision makers to determine the risk premium of each option. As a baseline for comparison, it assumes that one economic benefit of changing the current plutonium management system is a reduction in on-going Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) costs. This reduction in the present value of S and M costs can be compared with the discounted costs of each option. These costs include direct construction costs, indirect costs, operating costs minus revenues, and decontamination and decommissioning expenses. The paper also discusses how to conduct an uncertainty analysis. It finishes by summarizing conclusions and recommendations and discusses how these recommendations might apply to the evaluation of Russian plutonium management options. (author)

  6. Economic evaluation of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES). Volume II. Detailed results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The energy effectiveness and the economic viability of the ACES concept are examined. ACES is studied in a variety of different applications and compared to a number of conventional systems. The different applications are studied in two groups: the class of building into which the ACES is incorporated and the climatic region in which the ACES is located. Buildings investigated include single-family and multi-family residences and a commercial office building. The application of ACES to each of these building types is studied in Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia. The economic evaluation of the ACES is based on a comparison of the present worth of the ACES to the present worth of conventional systems; namely, electric resistance heating, electric air conditioning, and electric domestic water heating; air-to-air heat pump and electric domestic water heating; oil-fired furnace, electric air conditioning, and electric domestic water heating; and gas-fired furnace, electric air conditioning, and gas domestic water heating.

  7. System-level modeling for economic evaluation of geological CO2 storage in gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2007-01-01

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine aquifers or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO 2 storage (such as storage performance, storage capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues) as well as to lower the cost of CO 2 capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis to date on system-level analyses of geological CO 2 storage that consider geological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailed process models to representations of engineering components and associated economic models. The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model for geological CO 2 storage, including CO 2 capture and separation, compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO 2 injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailed reservoir simulations of CO 2 injection into a gas reservoir and related enhanced production of methane. Potential leakage and associated environmental impacts are also considered. The platform for the system-level model is GoldSim [GoldSim User's Guide. GoldSim Technology Group; 2006, http://www.goldsim.com]. The application of the system model focuses on evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoir simulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator, EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO 2 . Using a system-level modeling approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gas recovery can be directly weighed against the costs and benefits of CO 2 injection

  8. The economic evaluation of alternatives to reduce SO2 emissions from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abboud, Nadim; Chaaban, Farid

    1997-01-01

    Global environmental problems, such as acid rain, ozone layer depletion, and global warming, have become a main source of public as well as official concerns. These problems are partly caused by the widespread dispersion in the atmosphere of sulphur dioxide and other pollutants which result from combustion of fossil-fuel in thermal power plants and other industrial complexes. Options to reduce sulfur dioxide from power plants emissions include, among others, the use of low sulfur but expensive fuels. Alternatively, fuel gas desulfurization systems are being used in association with cheap fuels at the pre combustion stage. This paper presents an economic evaluation of these two alternatives to determine the more economically feasible one. In comparing the alternatives, an assessment should be made concerning the true of the cost of the damage caused by sulfur emissions. However, given the difficulty in assessing the social and environmental costs, the problem can be limited to finding the alternative with the lower economic cost. Such that sulfur dioxide emissions do not exceed 0.3 % by weight, a limit set by international organizations. The engineering economy models developed for both alternatives are implemented on a 600-MW thermal power plant in Lebanon. Sensitivity analysis is performed on several parameters; such as, the planning horizon of the study, the discount rate to be used, the installation cost of the fuel gas desulfurization system, and fuel costs. While all parameters can influence the decision to be made, fuel cost is the most critical one that needs to be carefully estimated. Under most realistic situations however, it appears that the fuel gas desulfurization system is the preferred alternative

  9. Evaluation of economic impact of climatic change on agro-forestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Gallerani

    Full Text Available Climate change has a strong influence on agro-forestry systems. Present estimations evisage that changes in climate patterns and extreme events connected to climate change will have greater impacts in the future. This paper seeks to illustrate the articulation of the problems concerning the economic evaluation of climate change, with particularly attention to open problems and future lines of research. Research on this topic, though using methods and approaches consolidated in the disciplines of resource economics and evaluation, still have several open problems, particularly in the field of multidisciplinary studies of the man-environmental relations, policy evaluation and development of decision support systems for decision makers.

  10. Economic gains stimulate negative evaluations of corporate sustainability initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makov, Tamar; Newman, George E.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, many organizations have sought to align their financial goals with environmental ones by identifying strategies that maximize profits while minimizing environmental impacts. Examples of this `win-win' approach can be found across a wide range of industries, from encouraging the reuse of hotel towels, to the construction of energy efficient buildings, to the large-scale initiatives of multi-national corporations. Although win-win strategies are generally thought to reflect positively on the organizations that employ them, here we find that people tend to respond negatively to the notion of profiting from environmental initiatives. In fact, observers may evaluate environmental win-wins less favourably than profit-seeking strategies that have no environmental benefits. The present studies suggest that how those initiatives are communicated to the general public may be of central importance. Therefore, organizations would benefit from carefully crafting the discourse around their win-win initiatives to ensure that they avoid this type of backlash.

  11. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna; Stensøe, Steen; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3-4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate and a significant amount of landfill gas. Leachate controls may include bottom liners and leachate collection systems as well as leachate treatment prior to discharge to surface water. Gas controls may include oxidizing top covers, gas collection systems with flares or gas utilization systems for production of electricity and heat. The importance of leachate and gas control measures in reducing the overall environmental impact from a conventional landfill was assessed by life-cycle-assessment (LCA). The direct cost for the measures were also estimated providing a basis for assessing which measures are the most cost-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic improvements for most impact categories. Global warming went from an impact of 0.1 person equivalent (PE) for the dump to -0.05 PE for the best design. Similar improvements were found for photochemical ozone formation (0.02 PE to 0.002 PE) and stratospheric ozone formation (0.04 PE to 0.001 PE). For the toxic and spoiled groundwater impact categories the trend is not as clear. The reason for this was that the load to the environment shifted as more technologies were used. For the dump landfill the main impacts were impacts for spoiled groundwater due to lack of leachate collection, 2.3 PE down to 0.4 PE when leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007 E to 0

  12. Engineering Analysis and Economic Evaluation of the Synthesis of Composite CuO/ZnO/ZrO2 Nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Hayati, W. R.; Aziz, T. A.; Ragadhita, R.; Abdullah, A. G.; Widiaty, I.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the synthesis process of composite CuO/ZnO/ZrO2 (CZZ) nanocatalyst. The CZZ nanocatalyst is used as a catalyst in the hydrogenation reaction, which is used to convert harmful CO2 gas into liquid fuels such as methanol. In this study, CZZ produced using the sol-gel autocombustion method was selected as a model of the production procedure. The evaluation was conducted into two factors: engineering and economic analysis. Engineering analysis was analyzed based on the available apparatuses and raw materials in online web. Then, these data were used and compared with the mass balance approximation. The economic analysis was done using several economic parameters, including such as gross margin, internal rate return, payback period, cumulative net value, break even point (BEP), profitability index on sales to investment. Engineering analysis showed the present method can be applied using available apparatuses and raw materials in market. Economic analysis result confirmed that the present project is profitable. The analysis concluded that the present project for the production of CZZ nanocatalyst is prospective in small scale industry and profitable (by positive values in all economic parameters).

  13. Integrated Emergy and Economic Evaluation of Tea Production Chains in Anxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare tea production systems in Anxi, China. Tea production was classified into three phases, i.e., the nursery, the plantation and tea processing, and each phase was evaluated. The results showed that the nursery subsystems...

  14. Economic, Environmental, and Social Evaluation of Africa's Small-Scale Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This report is the culmination of a cross-African countries analytical and empirical study commissioned by the World Bank, which set out to improve the understanding of the characteristics and environmental, economic, and social performances of small-scale fisheries in Africa. It applies a common evaluation tool, called Fishery Performance Indicators (FPIs), which evaluates the ecological,...

  15. Economic evaluation of a workplace intervention for sick-listed employees with distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, S.H.; Heijmans, M.W.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van Tulder, M.W.; van Mechelen, W.; Anema, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the cost effectiveness, cost utility and cost benefit of a workplace intervention compared with usual care for sick-listed employees with distress. Methods: An economic evaluation was conducted alongside a randomised controlled trial. Employees with distress and who were

  16. Evaluating Effective Teaching in College Level Economics Using Student Ratings of Instruction: A Factor Analytic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbetsiafa, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the factors that affect students' evaluation of economic instruction using a sample of 1300 completed rating instruments at a comprehensive four-year mid-western public university. The study uses factor analysis to determine the validity and reliability of the evaluation instrument in assessing instructor or course…

  17. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3–4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate......-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic...... leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007E to 0.013PE and 0.002 to 0.003 PE respectively). The reason for this is that even if the leachate is treated, slight amounts of contaminants are released...

  18. Evaluation of European air quality modelled by CAMx including the volatility basis set scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciarelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Four periods of EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme intensive measurement campaigns (June 2006, January 2007, September–October 2008 and February–March 2009 were modelled using the regional air quality model CAMx with VBS (volatility basis set approach for the first time in Europe within the framework of the EURODELTA-III model intercomparison exercise. More detailed analysis and sensitivity tests were performed for the period of February–March 2009 and June 2006 to investigate the uncertainties in emissions as well as to improve the modelling of organic aerosol (OA. Model performance for selected gas phase species and PM2.5 was evaluated using the European air quality database AirBase. Sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ozone (O3 were found to be overestimated for all the four periods, with O3 having the largest mean bias during June 2006 and January–February 2007 periods (8.9 pbb and 12.3 ppb mean biases respectively. In contrast, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and carbon monoxide (CO were found to be underestimated for all the four periods. CAMx reproduced both total concentrations and monthly variations of PM2.5 for all the four periods with average biases ranging from −2.1 to 1.0 µg m−3. Comparisons with AMS (aerosol mass spectrometer measurements at different sites in Europe during February–March 2009 showed that in general the model overpredicts the inorganic aerosol fraction and underpredicts the organic one, such that the good agreement for PM2.5 is partly due to compensation of errors. The effect of the choice of VBS scheme on OA was investigated as well. Two sensitivity tests with volatility distributions based on previous chamber and ambient measurements data were performed. For February–March 2009 the chamber case reduced the total OA concentrations by about 42 % on average. In contrast, a test based on ambient measurement data increased OA concentrations by about 42 % for the same period bringing

  19. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-10-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler Preschool-and-Primary-Scale-of-Intelligence-WPPSI). Group differences were analyzed using t tests, as well as direct and stepwise discriminant analyses. The predictive value of the WPPSI with respect to TT performance was analyzed using regression analyses. SLI-children performed significantly worse on both TT and WPPSI ([Formula: see text]). The TT alone yielded an overall classification rate of 79%, the TT and the WPPSI together yielded an overall classification rate of 80%. TT performance was significantly predicted by verbal intelligence in SLI-children and nonverbal intelligence in controls whilst WPPSI subtest arithmetic was predictive in both groups. Without further research, the Token Test cannot be seen as a valid and sufficient tool for the screening of SLI in preschool children but rather as a tool for the assessment of more general intellectual capacities. SLI-children at this age already show impairments typically associated with SLI which indicates the necessity of early developmental support or training. Token Test performance is possibly an indicator for a more general developmental factor rather than an exclusive indicator for language difficulties.

  20. Herpes zoster vaccine: A health economic evaluation for Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Patricia R; Ademi, Zanfina; Lu, Xiaoyan; Szucs, Thomas D; Schwenkglenks, Matthias

    2017-07-03

    Herpes zoster (HZ) or "shingles" results from a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) acquired during primary infection (chickenpox) and surviving in the dorsal root ganglia. In about 20% of cases, a complication occurs, known as post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). A live attenuated vaccine against VZV is available for the prevention of HZ and subsequent PHN. The present study aims to update an earlier evaluation estimating the cost-effectiveness of the HZ vaccine from a Swiss third party payer perspective. It takes into account updated vaccine prices, a different age cohort, latest clinical data and burden of illness data. A Markov model was developed to simulate the lifetime consequences of vaccinating 15% of the Swiss population aged 65-79 y. Information from sentinel data, official statistics and published literature were used. Endpoints assessed were number of HZ and PHN cases, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), costs of hospitalizations, consultations and prescriptions. Based on a vaccine price of CHF 162, the vaccination strategy accrued additional costs of CHF 17,720,087 and gained 594 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was CHF 29,814 per QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results were most sensitive to epidemiological inputs, utility values, discount rates, duration of vaccine efficacy, and vaccine price. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses indicated a more than 99% chance that the ICER was below 40,000 CHF per QALY. Findings were in line with existing cost-effectiveness analyses of HZ vaccination. This updated study supports the value of an HZ vaccination strategy targeting the Swiss population aged 65-79 y.

  1. Ludwig's angina: need for including airways and larynx in ultrasound evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, P L; Vishal, N S; Jenkins, Brian

    2014-11-09

    Ludwig's angina is a deep neck space infection. Unlike other abscesses elsewhere in the body, rapid progression of the disease results in serious complications such as airway oedema, distortion, total obstruction with loss of airway and death. Thus, early diagnosis and skilful airway management is necessary. For safe airway management, fibreoptic intubation or tracheostomy under local anaesthesia is recommended.1 We describe a case report where an initial attempt at fibreoptic intubation failed and subsequently bleeding ensued causing difficulty in viewing the larynx by fibreoptic bronchoscopy. Radiological investigations such as ultrasound and computer tomography (CT) are commonly ordered by surgeons and emergency physicians to know the extension of disease, but airways and larynx are seldom included. We discuss the role of ultrasound in airway assessment in such critical cases to ensure safe and uncomplicated airway access.

  2. Basis for the evaluation of economic benefits from using modules for the development of radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodyukov, V.M.; Purtova, M.I.; Smirnova, Z.M.; Semenova, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    A method is discussed for calculating the economic effect obtained by introduction of a designing principle involving standardized units and blocks of various radiation equipment. The method was based on a comparison of the technological and economic factors that could be obtained by using the said principle with similar factors not involving the aggregate principle (used previously in designing various instruments and installations). The formulae are sited for estimating the economy involved in designing and manufacturing aggregated complexes (AC) of the subsystems involved in an aggregated system of instrument making (ASIM) and for evaluating the additional economic effect resulting from reduced AC development time

  3. Prospective evaluation of dermatologic surgery complications including patients on multiple antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeaux, Jeremy S; Martires, Kathryn J; Goldberg, Dori; Pattee, Sean F; Fu, Pingfu; Maloney, Mary E

    2011-09-01

    Few prospective studies have evaluated the safety of dermatologic surgery. We sought to determine rates of bleeding, infection, flap and graft necrosis, and dehiscence in outpatient dermatologic surgery, and to examine their relationship to type of repair, anatomic location of repair, antibiotic use, antiplatelet use, or anticoagulant use. Patients presenting to University of Massachusetts Medical School Dermatology Clinic for surgery during a 15-month period were prospectively entered. Medications, procedures, and complications were recorded. Of the 1911 patients, 38% were on one anticoagulant or antiplatelet medication, and 8.0% were on two or more. Risk of hemorrhage was 0.89%. Complex repair (odds ratio [OR] = 5.80), graft repair (OR = 7.58), flap repair (OR = 11.93), and partial repair (OR = 43.13) were more likely to result in bleeding than intermediate repair. Patients on both clopidogrel and warfarin were 40 times more likely to have bleeding complications than all others (P = .03). Risk of infection was 1.3%, but was greater than 3% on the genitalia, scalp, back, and leg. Partial flap necrosis occurred in 1.7% of flaps, and partial graft necrosis occurred in 8.6% of grafts. Partial graft necrosis occurred in 20% of grafts on the scalp and 10% of grafts on the nose. All complications resolved without sequelae. The study was limited to one academic dermatology practice. The rate of complications in dermatologic surgery is low, even when multiple oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications are continued, and prophylactic antibiotics are not used. Closure type and use of warfarin or clopidogrel increase bleeding risk. However, these medications should be continued to avoid adverse thrombotic events. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and evaluation of alternative radioanalytical methods, including mass spectrometry for marine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    One, if not the most important, aspect of environmental protection against radioactive contamination is the ability to measure accurately low-levels of radionuclides present in the environment. This is particularly true of the marine environment where improved and more rapid methods of analysis are required to identify the source and radiological impact of anthropogenic inputs to the oceans. More sensitive and rapid analytical methods with smaller analytical errors are required to study the behaviour of different radionuclides in the marine environment. Some of these radionuclides serve as useful research tracers that aid in understanding many complex oceanographic processes. With the ever-increasing demand for more accurate data, the IAEA considered it necessary to convene an Advisory Group Meeting to identify those long-lived radionuclides that may be measured by alternative techniques and discuss and evaluate the sensitivity of the analytical methods. The meeting was held at the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco from 6 to 9 June 1989 and was attended by 6 invited participants and several observers. This report from the meeting is divided into two parts. The first contains 5 contributing chapters. In these chapters the authors have endeavored to explain the principles of each measurement technique, the strengths and weakness of the method as applied to marine sciences, comparative costs and sensitivities, future developments and topics of interest to the Agency. The reviews and sensitivities were prepared exclusively by the participants on the basis of their own experience and knowledge of the existing literature. The second part of this report is the appendices section in which can be found tables of radionuclides considered in this report and a comparison of sensitivities for different methods of detection. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. The insights of health and welfare professionals on hurdles that impede economic evaluations of welfare interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, J; Plaete, J; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Annemans, L; Simoens, S

    2017-08-01

    Four hurdles associated with economic evaluations in welfare interventions were identified and discussed in a previous published literature review. These hurdles include (i) 'Ignoring the impact of condition-specific outcomes', (ii) 'Ignoring the impact of QoL externalities', (iii) 'Calculation of costs from a too narrow perspective' and (iv) 'The lack of well-described & standardized interventions'. This study aims to determine how healthcare providers and social workers experience and deal with these hurdles in practice and what solutions or new insights they would suggest. Twenty-two professionals of welfare interventions carried out in Flanders, were interviewed about the four described hurdles using a semi-structured interview. A thematic framework was developed to enable the qualitative analysis. The analysis of the semi-structured interviews was facilitated through the use of the software program QRS NVivo 10. The interviews revealed a clear need to tackle these hurdles. The interviewees confirmed that further study of condition-specific outcomes in economic evaluations are needed, especially in the field of mental health and stress. The proposed dimensions for the condition-specific questionnaires varied however between the groups of interviewees (i.e. general practitioners vs social workers). With respect to QoL externalities, the interviewees confirmed that welfare interventions have an impact on the social environment of the patient (friends and family). There was however no consensus on how this impact of QoL externalities should be taken into account in welfare interventions. Professionals also suggested that besides health care costs, the impact of welfare interventions on work productivity, the patients' social life and other items should be incorporated. Standardization appears to be of limited added value for most of the interviewees because they need a certain degree of freedom to interpret the intervention. Furthermore, the target population of

  6. Systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccination programs in mainland China: Are they sufficient to inform decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiong-Fei; Griffiths, Ulla K; Pennington, Mark; Yu, Hongjie; Jit, Mark

    2015-11-17

    The purpose of the study was to systematically review economic evaluations of vaccine programs conducted in mainland China. We searched for economic evaluations of vaccination in China published prior to August 3, 2015 in eight English-language and three Chinese-language databases. Each article was appraised against the 19-item Consensus on Health Economic Criteria list (CHEC-list). We found 23 papers evaluating vaccines against hepatitis B (8 articles), Streptococcus pneumoniae (5 articles), human papillomavirus (3 articles), Japanese encephalitis (2 articles), rotavirus (2 articles), hepatitis A (1 article), Enterovirus 71 (1 article) and influenza (1 article). Studies conformed to a mean of 12 (range: 6-18) items in the CHEC-list criteria. Five of six Chinese-language articles conformed to fewer than half of the 19 criteria items. The main criteria that studies failed to conform to included: inappropriate measurement (20 articles) and valuation (18 articles) of treatment and/or vaccination costs, no discussion about distributional implications (18 articles), missing major health outcomes (14 articles), no discussion about generalizability to other contexts (14 articles), and inadequate sensitivity analysis (13 articles). In addition, ten studies did not include major cost components of vaccination programs, and nine did not report outcomes in terms of life years even in cases where QALYs or DALYs were calculated. Only 13 studies adopted a societal perspective for analysis. All studies concluded that the appraised vaccination programs were cost-effective except for one evaluation of universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in children. However, three of the five studies on PCV-7 showed poor overall quality, and the number of studies on vaccines other than hepatitis B vaccine and PCV-7 was limited. In conclusion, major methodological flaws and reporting problems exist in current economic evaluations of vaccination programs in China. Local

  7. Systematic review of studies evaluating the broader economic impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogaonkar Rohan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most health economic evaluations of childhood vaccination only capture the health and short-term economic benefits. Measuring broader, long-term effects of vaccination on productivity and externalities could provide a more complete picture of the value of vaccines. Method MEDLINE, EconLit and NHS-EED databases were searched for articles published between January 1990 and July 2011, which captured broader economic benefits of vaccines in low and middle income countries. Studies were included if they captured at least one of the following categories on broader economic impact: outcome-related productivity gains, behaviour-related productivity gains, ecological externalities, equity gains, financial sustainability gains or macroeconomic benefits. Results Twenty-six relevant studies were found, including observational studies, economic models and contingent valuation studies. Of the identified broader impacts, outcome-related productivity gains and ecological externalities were most commonly accounted for. No studies captured behaviour-related productivity gains or macroeconomic effects. There was some evidence to show that vaccinated children 8–14 years of age benefit from increased cognitive ability. Productivity loss due to morbidity and mortality was generally measured using the human capital approach. When included, herd immunity effects were functions of coverage rates or based on reduction in disease outcomes. External effects of vaccines were observed in terms of equitable health outcomes and contribution towards synergistic and financially sustainable healthcare programs. Conclusion Despite substantial variation in the methods of measurement and outcomes used, the inclusion of broader economic impact was found to improve the attractiveness of vaccination. Further research is needed on how different tools and techniques can be used in combination to capture the broader impact of vaccination in a way that is consistent

  8. Systematic review of studies evaluating the broader economic impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deogaonkar, Rohan; Hutubessy, Raymond; van der Putten, Inge; Evers, Silvia; Jit, Mark

    2012-10-16

    Most health economic evaluations of childhood vaccination only capture the health and short-term economic benefits. Measuring broader, long-term effects of vaccination on productivity and externalities could provide a more complete picture of the value of vaccines. MEDLINE, EconLit and NHS-EED databases were searched for articles published between January 1990 and July 2011, which captured broader economic benefits of vaccines in low and middle income countries. Studies were included if they captured at least one of the following categories on broader economic impact: outcome-related productivity gains, behaviour-related productivity gains, ecological externalities, equity gains, financial sustainability gains or macroeconomic benefits. Twenty-six relevant studies were found, including observational studies, economic models and contingent valuation studies. Of the identified broader impacts, outcome-related productivity gains and ecological externalities were most commonly accounted for. No studies captured behaviour-related productivity gains or macroeconomic effects. There was some evidence to show that vaccinated children 8-14 years of age benefit from increased cognitive ability. Productivity loss due to morbidity and mortality was generally measured using the human capital approach. When included, herd immunity effects were functions of coverage rates or based on reduction in disease outcomes. External effects of vaccines were observed in terms of equitable health outcomes and contribution towards synergistic and financially sustainable healthcare programs. Despite substantial variation in the methods of measurement and outcomes used, the inclusion of broader economic impact was found to improve the attractiveness of vaccination. Further research is needed on how different tools and techniques can be used in combination to capture the broader impact of vaccination in a way that is consistent with other health economic evaluations. In addition, more country

  9. Refrigerant Performance Evaluation Including Effects of Transport Properties and Optimized Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignoli, Riccardo; Brown, J Steven; Skye, H; Domanski, Piotr A

    2017-08-01

    Preliminary refrigerant screenings typically rely on using cycle simulation models involving thermodynamic properties alone. This approach has two shortcomings. First, it neglects transport properties, whose influence on system performance is particularly strong through their impact on the performance of the heat exchangers. Second, the refrigerant temperatures in the evaporator and condenser are specified as input, while real-life equipment operates at imposed heat sink and heat source temperatures; the temperatures in the evaporator and condensers are established based on overall heat transfer resistances of these heat exchangers and the balance of the system. The paper discusses a simulation methodology and model that addresses the above shortcomings. This model simulates the thermodynamic cycle operating at specified heat sink and heat source temperature profiles, and includes the ability to account for the effects of thermophysical properties and refrigerant mass flux on refrigerant heat transfer and pressure drop in the air-to-refrigerant evaporator and condenser. Additionally, the model can optimize the refrigerant mass flux in the heat exchangers to maximize the Coefficient of Performance. The new model is validated with experimental data and its predictions are contrasted to those of a model based on thermodynamic properties alone.

  10. Dosimetric evaluation of three adaptive strategies for prostate cancer treatment including pelvic lymph nodes irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantin, Audrey; Gingras, Luc; Archambault, Louis, E-mail: louis.archambault@phy.ulaval.ca [Département de Physique, de génie Physique et d’optique et Centre de Recherche sur le Cancer, Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec—Université Laval, 11 côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Lachance, Bernard; Foster, William [Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec—Université Laval, 11 côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Goudreault, Julie [Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec—Université Laval, 11 côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie, CSSS de Gatineau–Hôpital de Gatineau, 909 Boulevard La Vérendrye, Gatineau, Québec J8P 7H2 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The movements of the prostate relative to the pelvic lymph nodes during intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment can limit margin reduction and affect the protection of the organs at risk (OAR). In this study, the authors performed an analysis of three adaptive treatment strategies that combine information from both bony and gold marker registrations. The robustness of those treatments against the interfraction prostate movements was evaluated. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on five prostate cancer patients with 7–13 daily cone-beam CTs (CBCTs). The clinical target volumes (CTVs) consisting of pelvic lymph nodes, prostate, and seminal vesicles as well as the OARs were delineated on each CBCT and the initial CT. Three adaptive strategies were analyzed. Two of these methods relied on a two-step patient positioning at each fraction. First step: a bony registration was used to deliver the nodal CTV prescription. Second step: a gold marker registration was then used either to (1) complete the dose delivered to the prostate (complement); (2) or give almost the entire prescription to the prostate with a weak dose gradient between the targets to compensate for possible motions (gradient). The third method (COR) used a pool of precalculated plans based on images acquired at previous treatment fractions. At each new fraction, a plan is selected from that pool based on the daily position of prostate center-of-mass. The dosimetric comparison was conducted and results are presented with and without the systematic shift in the prostate position on the CT planning. The adaptive strategies were compared to the current clinical standard where all fractions are treated with the initial nonadaptive plan. Results: The minimum daily prostate D{sub 95%} is improved by 2%, 9%, and 6% for the complement, the gradient, and the COR approaches, respectively, compared to the nonadaptive method. The average nodal CTV D{sub 95%} remains constant across the

  11. Environmental and economic evaluation of the Massachusetts Smoke-Free Workplace Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; Carpenter, Carrie M; Travers, Mark J; Connolly, Gregory N

    2007-08-01

    An environmental and economic evaluation of the smoke-free law in Massachusetts provides a broad appreciation of how a state-wide smoking ban affects the health of patrons and workers as well as the industries that are commonly concerned about the effects of smoking bans on business. The aim of this study is to evaluate environmental and economic effects of the statewide Massachusetts statewide Smoke-Free Workplace Law. Before and after the smoking ban, air quality testing was conducted in a sample (n = 27) of hospitality venues and state-wide economic changes were assessed. Compliance, in terms of patronage was measured by person-counts. Environmental outcomes were respirable suspended particles (RSP) less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5). Economic outcomes were meals tax collections, employment in the food services and drinking places and accommodations industries. On average, levels of respirable suspended particles (RSPs) less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) decreased 93% in these venues after the Massachusetts Smoke-free Workplace Law went into effect. No statistically significant changes were observed among the economic indicators. This evaluation demonstrates that the state-wide Massachusetts law has effectively improved indoor air quality in a sample of Massachusetts venues and has not negatively affected several economic indicators.

  12. A techno-economic evaluation of two non-edible vegetable oil based bio diesel in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, M.H.; Ali, M.

    2010-01-01

    Technical evaluation of Bio diesel, produced from various non-edible oils, was carried out on the basis of emission profile, torque, engine brake power and exhaust temperatures at 10% blend ratio (by volume) with mineral diesel. The performance of engine parameters showed that the castor oil based bio diesel gave the best results. Economic feasibility for bio diesel production was carried out based on available data on cultivation of necessary plants on marginal lands. This economic analysis also included the value of by-products which would be available during the chemical process for the production of bio diesel. It was found that jatropha bio diesel could be produced at a comparable cost to mineral diesel, however, castor bio diesel required substantial subsidies or mass cultivation of plants on marginal lands to enable it to compete economically with mineral diesel. (author)

  13. Economic and Financial Evaluation of The Irradiation Facility Unit For Some Egyptian Agricultural Exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, S.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Food irradiation technology strongly enhances quarantine, especially that chemical methods to preserve food and agricultural products are completely banned. The technology of food preservation by irradiation helps increasing Egypt’s agricultural exports to foreign markets as these exports become more competitive due to their long shelf life and decrease of loss. Therefore, food irradiation technology helps avoiding economic loss. The present study aims at conducting a financial analysis and economic evaluation for establishing an irradiation unit for some Egypt’s agricultural exports to enhance their competitiveness and help exporters in marketing them. The study also considers the site location of the unit because of the important role it plays in influencing the project size, production capacity, costs and expected profits. The study consists of four sections namely: Section one: This section includes two chapters. Chapter one presents the theoretical framework of the study. Chapter two displays the literature review. Chapter one includes key concepts and terms of irradiation, purpose of food irradiation, types of irradiation units, application in fruits and vegetables irradiation, radiation doses used in irradiating food and requirements for safety of food irradiation. chapter two reveals the literature review of previous research of the topic showing important results and conclusions made of previous studies and research, studies are divided into two parts, part one relate to agricultural exports, as part two links food irradiation technology. Section Two: This section presents a study of irradiating Egypt’s agricultural exports .This section is divided into two chapters; chapter one reveals the economic importance of irradiating agricultural products, and chapter two illustrates different types of irradiation techniques. The results in this section show the advantages of food irradiation technology in terms of marketing, health, environment and cost

  14. Process Simulation and Techno-Economic Evaluation of Alternative Biorefinery Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua Gonzalez, Carlos Ernesto

    A biorefinery is a complex processing facility that uses sustainably produced biomass as feedstock to generate biofuels and chemical products using a wide variety of alternative conversion pathways. The alternative conversion pathways can be generally classified as either biochemical or thermochemical conversion. A biorefinery is commonly based on a core biomass conversion technology (pretreatment, hydrolysis, pyrolysis, etc.) followed by secondary processing stages that determine the specific product, and its recovery. In this study, techno-economic analysis of several different lignocellulosic biomass conversion pathways have been performed. First, a novel biochemical conversion, which used electron beam and steam explosion pretreatments for ethanol production was evaluated. This evaluation include both laboratory work and process modeling. Encouraging experimental results are obtained that showed the biomass had enhanced reactivity to the enzyme hydrolysis. The total sugar recovery for the hardwood species was 72% using 5 FPU/g enzyme dosage. The combination of electron beam and steam explosion provides an improvement in sugar conversion of more than 20% compared to steam explosion alone. This combination of pretreatments was modeled along with a novel ethanol dehydration process that is based on vapor permeation membranes. The economic feasibility of this novel pretreatment-dehydration technology was evaluated and compared with the dilute acid process proposed by NREL in 2011. Overall, the pretreatment-dehydration technology process produces the same ethanol yields (81 gal/bdton). However, the economics of this novel process does not look promising since the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) to generate an internal rate of return of 10% is of 3.09 /gal, compared to 2.28 /gal for the base case. To enhance the economic potential of a biorefinery, the isolation of value-added co-products was incorporated into the base dilute acid biorefinery process. In this

  15. Experimental evaluation of admission and disposition of artificial radionuclides including transuranium elements in agricultural plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhakhanov, T.; Lukashenko, S. [Institute of radiation safety and ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    Processes of radionuclides migration and transfer to agricultural plants are quite well developed worldwide, but the information on character of accumulation of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu transuranium radionuclides in agricultural plants is still fragmentary. Even in generalized materials of worldwide studies, IAEA guide, accumulation coefficient (AC) can have wide range of values (5-6 orders), no data exists on radionuclides' distribution in different organs of plants and they are given for joined groups of plants and types of soils. That is why the main aim of this work was to obtain basic quantitative parameters of radionuclides' migration in 'soil-plant' system, and firs of all- for transuranium elements.. In 2010 a series of experiments with agricultural plants was started at the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site aimed to investigate entry of artificial radionuclides by crop products in natural climatic conditions. To conduct the experiment for study of coefficient of radionuclides' accumulation by agricultural corps, there was chosen a land spot at the STS territory, characterized by high concentration of radionuclides: {sup 241}Am - n*10{sup 4} Bq/kg, {sup 137}Cs - n*10{sup 3} Bq/kg, {sup 90}Sr - n*10{sup 3} Bq/kg and {sup 239+240}Pu- n*10{sup 5} Bq/kg. As objects of investigation, cultures, cultivated in Kazakhstan have been selected: wheat (Triticum vulgare), barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa L.), water melon (Citrullus vulgaris), melon (Cucumis melo), potato (Solanum tuberosum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), pepper (Capsicum annuum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sunflower (Helianthus cultus), onion (Allium cepa), carrot (Daucus carota), parsley(Petroselinum vulgare)and cabbage (Brassica oleracea). Investigated plants have been planted within the time limits, recommended for selected types of agricultural plants. Cropping system included simple agronomic and amelioration measures. Fertilizers were not

  16. Productivity estimation in economic evaluations of occupational health and safety interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Jonas; Godderis, Lode; Luyten, Jeroen

    2018-02-06

    Objectives Occupational health and safety (OHS) interventions` effect on worker productivity is an essential, but complex element of the value of these programs. The trustworthiness of economic evaluation studies, aiming to provide guidance to decision-makers in the field of OHS, depends at least partly on how accurately productivity changes are measured. We aim to review the methods used to estimate productivity changes in recently published economic evaluations of OHS interventions. Methods We performed systematic searches of economic evaluations of OHS programs published between 2007 and 2017 and reviewed these studies` methods to quantify the programs` impact on worker productivity Results Of the 90 identified studies, 44 used a human capital approach, 17 a friction cost approach, 13 stated productivity in natural units (eg, a cost-per-absence-day-avoided), 7 made use of compensation expenses, 4 used output-based methods, 4 an "ad hoc" approach, and 1 study did not state its method. Different approaches were combined in 19 studies. Within these methods, we observed a wide diversity in their precise implementation, especially regarding the measurement and valuation of absenteeism and presenteeism. Conclusions Productivity is a key element of the economic attractiveness of investing in OHS. Economic evaluation studies of OHS would benefit from more methodological standardization in their approach to quantifying productivity change. Future research should better account for the methodological uncertainty that occurs in estimating it in order to demonstrate the impact that particular choices and approaches to productivity estimation can have on cost-effectiveness results.

  17. 77 FR 12081 - Stanley Black and Decker, CDIY Division, Warranty Evaluation Center (WEC), Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... (WEC), Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower, McAllen, TX; Amended Certification Regarding... Center (WEC), CDIY Division of Stanley Black and Decker, McAllen, Texas. The intent of the Department's...: All workers of Stanley Black and Decker, CDIT Division, Warranty Evaluation Center (WEC), including on...

  18. Sensitivity analysis of technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzimouratidis, Athanasios I.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2009-01-01

    Technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants by use of the analytic hierarchy process and nine end node criteria for a reference scenario based on subjective criteria weighting has been presented in a previous paper by authors. However, criteria weight variations may substantially modify overall evaluations and rankings of power plants. The current paper presents a sensitivity analysis with four alternative scenarios (sets of criteria weights) compared with the reference scenario. The results show that priority to 'technology and sustainability' favors renewable energy power plants, while priority to 'economic' criteria favors mainly nuclear power plants and less the four types of fossil fuel power plant

  19. [Medico-economic evaluation of therapeutic strategies at hospital: A systematic review of French studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, A; Armoiry, X; Dussart, C

    2017-05-01

    Therapeutic innovation contributes to the increase of health care expenditures in France. Medico-economic evaluation has still a minor role in the decision-making for the registration of drugs and medical devices in hospitals. This study aimed to systematically review published works on medico-economic studies conducted within French hospitals. A literature review was carried out to search for medico-economic studies conducted by hospital teams on therapeutic or diagnostic strategies employed within French hospitals and published from 2010 to 2014. Quality assessment of selected studies was performed according to Drummond et al.'s checklist, which is also used within French guidelines. Of the 44 analyzed articles, methods for identification and measure of costs and results complied with guidelines in 95 % of cases. For results interpretation, compliance was 91 %. Costs discounting (29 %) and the use of sensitivity analysis to account for results uncertainty (70 %) were the parameters with the lowest compliance to guidelines. A good training of health professionals in using economic and statistic tools, and the transferability of results of medico-economic studies are essential and should be optimized to enable a broader use of medico-economic evaluation within the scope of decision-making in French hospitals. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. An evaluation of technical and economic capacity of farmers of Rural Production Cooperatives. Case Study: Neishabour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hadizadeh Bazaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to investigate the impact of cooperatives on the technical and economical empowering of farmers and agricultural development in the villages of Neishabour. The method of this research is analytical – descriptive and it has been carried out in 2013.  The statistical society is composed of 4685 members and non-members of cooperatives in twenty villages of Neishabour. The sample size via the Cochran formula and stratified sampling technique has been calculated to be 252.  Data collection has been performed through documentation and field study. For data analysis, the SPSS software package and the T-Student Test have been employed. The results of statistical analysis based on 13 economic indicators revealed that the average economic stability of the members is 2.64 which is slightly higher than 2.47; that is the average economic stability of non-members. Independent samples T-Test results between members and non-members revealed that the probability value is 0.004 which indicates that there exists a significant difference between average economic stability of members and non-members. The T-Test results with hypothetical mean of 3 and 4 showed that the majority of indicators are less than the average. Therefore, the impact of cooperatives in economic development is evaluated to be below the average limit and cooperatives could not play an important role in increasing the economic empowerment of farmers.

  1. Economic evaluations of ergonomic interventions preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review of organizational-level interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan-Taïeb, Hélène; Parent-Lamarche, Annick; Gaillard, Aurélie; Stock, Susan; Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Hong, Quan Nha; Vezina, Michel; Coulibaly, Youssouph; Vézina, Nicole; Berthelette, Diane

    2017-12-08

    investigating the determinants of financial outcomes of prevention related to implementation process are very seldom. We recommend that in future research economic evaluation should include information on the implementation process in order to permit the interpretation of economic results and enhance the generalizability of results. This is also necessary for knowledge transfer and utilization of research results for prevention-oriented decision-making in occupational health and safety.

  2. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF COMBINED THERAPY OF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION BY MARKOV’S MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Maksimchuk-Kolobova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the economic effectiveness of the combined two-drug antihypertensive therapy in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and high cardiovascular risk by Markov’s modeling.Material and methods. Patients (n= 65; 19 males and 46 females with essential HT accompanied by metabolic disorders, history of previous ineffective antihypertensive therapy were included into the study. Patients were randomized into 2 groups. Group V/A was treated with valsartan and amlodipine in fixed-dose combinations of 160/5 and 160/10 mg depending on blood pressure (BP level. Patients of group L/A were treated with losartan 100 mg and amlodipine 5 or 10 mg daily. Treatment duration was 24 weeks. Changes in BP level, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH regression were assessed. Economic evaluation was performed on the basis of modeling with specialized software Decision Tree 4.xla.Results. Effect of the two variants of combination therapy on LVH was used to estimate treatment effectiveness and to build the model. Patients were distributed according to the left ventricular mass (LVM at baseline and after 24 weeks of therapy. Significant decrease in LVM was observed in V/A group: from 225.1±71.7 to 186.3±44.5 g (p<0.05. There was no LVM dynamics in L/A group. The model took into account economic and frequency factors for 10 years forecast. V/A therapy is able to prevent 94 deaths, 22 strokes, and 64 myocardial infarction per 1000 patients. Absence of need in treatment of these prevented events can save about 5.5 million RUR for every 1000 patients. It would reduce the total costs per patient during 10 years. V/A therapy is able to save maximal number of quality adjusted life years (QALY due to LVM regression (5.016 years. L/A combination is the most economical variant of pharmacotherapy due to low cost of treatment (16.491.25 RUR per 1 QALY. It would take 286.698.7 RUR additionally for one additional QALY in the treatment with V/A, and it is

  3. Integrated Evaluation Method-Based Technical and Economic Factors for International Oil Exploration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing international oil exploration projects is one of the main challenges for oil companies in obtaining investment benefits. This paper establishes an integrated evaluation model to maximize investment benefits within the constraints of technical and economic factors, including geological factors, resource quality, geographic conditions, the investment environment, and oil contracts. The paper also proposes a dynamic calculation method of indicators’ weight associated with oil prices. The analysis describes the effects of contract terms and the investment environment on project value and quantifies the contractor income ratio for different types of contracts and the investment environment of the host country. Oil exploration projects in Africa are illustrated as examples in which the evaluation indicator Adjusted Concept Reserves (ACR is calculated for each project. The results show that remaining recoverable reserves and contract terms exert tremendous influences on ACR, and remaining recoverable reserves is the essential factor. Simultaneously, changes in oil prices lead to various rates of change in the contractor income ratio, which is determined by different fiscal terms. This study is important in helping oil companies optimize international oil projects and design reasonable investment strategies.

  4. Economic evaluation of pharmacist-led medication reviews in residential aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Thiruchelvam, Kaeshaelya; Kow, Chia Siang; Ghori, Muhammad Usman; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2017-10-01

    Medication reviews is a widely accepted approach known to have a substantial impact on patients' pharmacotherapy and safety. Numerous options to optimise pharmacotherapy in older people have been reported in literature and they include medication reviews, computerised decision support systems, management teams, and educational approaches. Pharmacist-led medication reviews are increasingly being conducted, aimed at attaining patient safety and medication optimisation. Cost effectiveness is an essential aspect of a medication review evaluation. Areas covered: A systematic searching of articles that examined the cost-effectiveness of medication reviews conducted in aged care facilities was performed using the relevant databases. Pharmacist-led medication reviews confer many benefits such as attainment of biomarker targets for improved clinical outcomes, and other clinical parameters, as well as depict concrete financial advantages in terms of decrement in total medication costs and associated cost savings. Expert commentary: The cost-effectiveness of medication reviews are more consequential than ever before. A critical evaluation of pharmacist-led medication reviews in residential aged care facilities from an economical aspect is crucial in determining if the time, effort, and direct and indirect costs involved in the review rationalise the significance of conducting medication reviews for older people in aged care facilities.

  5. Generalized economic model for evaluating disposal costs at a low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, R.D.; Rogers, V.C.

    1985-01-01

    An economic model is developed which can be used to evaluate cash flows associated with the development, operations, closure, and long-term maintenance of a proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste disposal facility and to determine the unit disposal charges and unit surcharges which might result. The model includes the effects of nominal interest rate (rate of return on investment, or cost of capital), inflation rate, waste volume growth rate, site capacity, duration of various phases of the facility history, and the cash flows associated with each phase. The model uses standard discounted cash flow techniques on an after-tax basis to determine that unit disposal charge which is necessary to cover all costs and expenses and to generate an adequate rate of return on investment. It separately considers cash flows associated with post-operational activities to determine the required unit surcharge. The model is applied to three reference facilities to determine the respective unit disposal charges and unit surcharges, with various values of parameters. The sensitivity of the model results are evaluated for the unit disposal charge

  6. Life Cycle Based Evaluation of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Agricultural Productions in the Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA applied to estimate the cradle-to-grave environmental impact of agricultural products or processes. Furthermore, including in the analysis an economic evaluation, from the perspective of an integrated life cycle approach, appears nowadays as a fundamental improvement. In particular, Life Cycle Costing (LCC, is a method that could integrate financial data and cost information with metrics of life cycle approaches. In this study, LCA in conjunction with LCC methods were used, with the aim to evaluate the main cost drivers—environmental and economic—of five widely diffused and market-valued agricultural productions (organic tomato and pear, integrated wheat, apple and chicory and to combine the results in order to understand the long-term externalities impacts of agricultural productions. Data obtained in local assessment show a wide margin of improvement of resources management at farms level in the short-term, but also allow for the investigation of future effects of environmental impacts not expressed in product price on the market. Reaching a real sustainable model for agriculture could be a value added approach firstly for farmers, but also for all the people who live in rural areas or use agricultural products.

  7. Development and Evaluation of an Economic-Driving Assistance Program for Transit Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoxin Han

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on development and evaluation of an economic-driving assistance program for transit vehicles (EDTV which can minimize energy consumption, air pollution emission of buses, and improve the level of service of transit system as well. Taking advantage of the latest advances in information and communication technologies, the EDTV system can provide bus drivers with optimal recommended bus holding times at near-side bus stops and dynamic bus speed to adapt to the real-time traffic control plan at downstream intersections. In order to address the impacts of the stochastic variation of bus dwell time, the total link between adjacent intersections is divided into three parts: upstream of bus stop part; bus stop part; and downstream of bus stop part. The methods for calculating recommended parameters, including bus holding time and bus speed in each of the three parts are proposed based on real-time bus status and signal status at downstream intersections. A VISSIM-based simulation platform was designed and used for simulating and evaluating the proposed EDTV system. Extensive experimental analyses have shown that the proposed EDTV system can improve the performance of a transit system in terms of reducing fuel consumption, air pollution emissions and level of service of the transit system.

  8. A Systematic Review of the State of Economic Evaluation for Health Care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Chauhan, Akashdeep Singh; Angell, Blake; Gupta, Indrani; Jan, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Economic evaluations are one of the important tools in policy making for rational allocation of resources. Given the very low public investment in the health sector in India, it is critical that resources are used wisely on interventions proven to yield best results. Hence, we undertook this study to assess the extent and quality of evidence for economic evaluation of health-care interventions and programmes in India. A comprehensive search was conducted to search for published full economic evaluations pertaining to India and addressing a health-related intervention or programme. PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ScienceDirect, and York CRD database and websites of important research agencies were identified to search for economic evaluations published from January 1980 to the middle of November 2014. Two researchers independently assessed the quality of the studies based on Drummond and modelling checklist. Out of a total of 5013 articles enlisted after literature search, a total of 104 met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The majority of these papers were cost-effectiveness studies (64%), led by a clinician or public-health professional (77%), using decision analysis-based methods (59%), published in an international journal (80%) and addressing communicable diseases (58%). In addition, 42% were funded by an international funding agency or UN/bilateral aid agency, and 30% focussed on pharmaceuticals. The average quality score of these full economic evaluations was 65.1%. The major limitation was the inability to address uncertainties involved in modelling as only about one-third of the studies assessed modelling structural uncertainties (33%), or ran sub-group analyses to account for heterogeneity (36.5%) or analysed methodological uncertainty (32%). The existing literature on economic evaluations in India is inadequate to feed into sound policy making. There is an urgent need to generate awareness within the government of how economic evaluation can

  9. [Is rehabilitation worth it? : Review of economic evaluations of rehabilitation in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauth, Christian; Bartling, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Because of demographic change, the rehabilitation sector in Germany is going to face increasing demands in the future. Limited budgets make the optimal allocation of resources a top priority. To support decisions about the optimal scope and design of rehabilitation, studies on health economics are of utmost importance. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the evaluation of rehabilitation with regard to health economics in Germany.Based on a comprehensive literature research, 17 studies on the cost-effectiveness of rehabilitation in Germany were identified. The health economics evaluation focuses on four main topics: patient education (5 studies), the comparison of outpatient and inpatient rehabilitation (7 studies), medico-occupational rehabilitation programs (2 studies) and aftercare programs (3 studies). All four topics show that innovative rehabilitation technologies can be cost-effective. Significant potential savings in program costs of 25-35% are demonstrated in outpatient rehabilitation (with comparable effectiveness with inpatient care). Designated patient education programs often lead to significant savings with indirect costs, by reducing periods of unfitness to work and extending the long-term ability to work. This review article also points out that some relevant areas of rehabilitation, such as the flexibilization of rehabilitation programs or the efficient organization of access to rehabilitation, have not been evaluated sufficiently on the basis of health economics. This article ends with the requirement to carry out more economics-based rehabilitation studies.

  10. A note on the depreciation of the societal perspective in economic evaluation of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, M

    1995-07-01

    It is common in cost-effectiveness analyses of health care to only include health care costs, with the argument that some fictive 'health care budget' should be used to maximize the health effects. This paper provides a criticism of the 'health care budget' approach to cost-effectiveness analysis of health care. It is argued that the approach is ad hoc and lacks theoretical foundation. The approach is also inconsistent with using a fixed budget as the decision rule for cost-effectiveness analysis. That is the case unless only costs that fall into a single annual actual budget are included in the analysis, which would mean that any cost paid by the patients should be excluded as well as any future cost changes and all costs that fall on other budgets. Furthermore the prices facing the budget holder should be used, rather than opportunity costs. It is concluded that the 'health care budget' perspective should be abandoned and the societal perspective reinstated in economic evaluation of health care.

  11. EVALUATION OF SMALL BUSINESS INFLUENCE ON THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Zvarych

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to study the role and assess the small business development influence on the economic development of the region. Methods. Theoretical and methodological foundations of the research draw up the scientists’ works on the problems of economic development of the regions. During the scientific research, a complex of such methods was used: generalization and scientific abstraction – in order to specify the conceptualcategorical instrument and identify characteristics of the small business; monographic – in case of highlighting the scientists’ views on the investigated problems; comparative analysis – when identifying features of small business influence on the economic development of the region; mathematical modelling in economics – to develop the methodology for the evaluation of small business development influence on the economic development of the region. Results. Special aspects of small business functioning as a factor of the economic development of the region that accommodates economic growth, the improvement of the product quality and social indicators of development, formation of the middle class, decrease of the unemployment rate, increase of the population living standards are researched. The ambiguity of approaches to the small business definition is established, the characteristic feature of which, in most cases, is the number of employees. However, the small business is distinguished for industrial enterprises and service-oriented companies, based on the structure of management, and also taking into account the self-regulation of small enterprises or their relations to the large enterprises or industrial group of companies. It is established that criteria for the evaluation of the efficiency of small business enterprises can be: increase in the entrepreneurship development rates, minimization of material and social losses of the society, increasing the share of small business in GDP formation

  12. Health and economic benefits of reducing sugar intake in the USA, including effects via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a microsimulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreman, Rick A; Goodell, Alex J; Rodriguez, Luis A; Porco, Travis C; Lustig, Robert H; Kahn, James G

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Excessive consumption of added sugars in the human diet has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease (CHD) and other elements of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a critical pathway to metabolic syndrome. This model assesses the health and economic benefits of interventions aimed at reducing intake of added sugars. Methods Using data from US National Health Surveys and current literature, we simulated an open cohort, for the period 2015–2035. We constructed a microsimulation model with Markov chains for NAFLD (including steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)), body mass index, T2D and CHD. We assessed reductions in population disease prevalence, disease-attributable disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and costs, with interventions that reduce added sugars consumption by either 20% or 50%. Findings The model estimated that a 20% reduction in added sugars intake will reduce prevalence of hepatic steatosis, NASH, cirrhosis, HCC, obesity, T2D and CHD. Incidence of T2D and CHD would be expected to decrease by 19.9 (95% CI 12.8 to 27.0) and 9.4 (95% CI 3.1 to 15.8) cases per 100 000 people after 20 years, respectively. A 20% reduction in consumption is also projected to annually avert 0.767 million (M) DALYs (95% CI 0.757M to 0.777M) and a total of US$10.3 billion (B) (95% CI 10.2B to 10.4B) in discounted direct medical costs by 2035. These effects increased proportionally when added sugars intake were reduced by 50%. Conclusions The decrease in incidence and prevalence of disease is similar to results in other models, but averted costs and DALYs were higher, mainly due to inclusion of NAFLD and CHD. The model suggests that efforts to reduce consumption of added sugars may result in significant public health and economic benefits. PMID:28775179

  13. Post-introduction economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Ecuador, Honduras, and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constenla, Dagna O

    2015-11-01

    A decision-analytic model was constructed to evaluate the economic impact of post-introduction pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programs in Ecuador, Honduras, and Paraguay from the societal perspective. Hypothetical birth cohorts were followed for a 20-year period in each country. Estimates of disease burden, vaccine effectiveness, and health care costs were derived from primary and secondary data sources. Costs were expressed in 2014 US$. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the impact of model input uncertainties. Over the 20 years of vaccine program implementation, the health care costs per case ranged from US$ 764 854 to more than US$ 1 million. Vaccination prevented more than 50% of pneumococcal cases and deaths per country. At a cost of US$ 16 per dose, the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted for the 10-valent PCV (PCV10) and the 13-valet PCV (PCV13) ranged from US$ 796 (Honduras) to US$ 1 340 (Ecuador) and from US$ 691 (Honduras) to US$ 1 166 (Ecuador) respectively. At a reduced price (US$ 7 per dose), the cost per DALY averted ranged from US$ 327 (Honduras) to US$ 528 (Ecuador) and from US$ 281 (Honduras) to US$ 456 (Ecuador) for PCV10 and PCV13 respectively. Several model parameters influenced the results of the analysis, including vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, disease incidence, and costs. The economic impact of post-introduction PCV needs to be assessed in a context of uncertainty regarding changing antibiotic resistance, herd and serotype replacement effects, differential vaccine prices, and government budget constraints.

  14. A new method for evaluating worst- and best-case (WBC) economic consequences of technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1996-01-01

    This paper is addressing the problem of evaluating economic worst- and best-care (WBC) consequences of technological development in industrial companies faking into account uncertainties and lack of exact cost and market information. In the theoretical part of the paper, the mathematical concepts...

  15. The economic evaluation of cocoyam (Xanthosoma sp) and Maize (Zea mays) in a mixed cropping system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagoe, R.; Haleegoah, J.; Marfo, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sp.) and maize (Zea mays) are major food crops often grown in association. On-farm testing at Sunyani, Sankore and Begoro in the forest ecology of Ghana evaluated the agronomic performance and economic productivity of both crops grown as mixed crops and sole crop. The cropping

  16. Evaluating the Air Quality, Climate Change, and Economic Impacts of Biogas Management Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an abstract for a presentation that describes a project to evaluate economic and environmental performance of several biogas management technologies. It will analyze various criteria air pollutants, greenhouse gas emissions, and costs associated with the use of biogas. Th...

  17. Modelling and economic evaluation of forest biome shifts under climate change in Southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc Hanewinkel; Susan Hummel; Dominik. Cullmann

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the economic effects of a predicted shift from Norway spruce (Picea abies) to European beech (Fagus sylvatica) for a forest area of 1.3 million ha in southwest Germany. The shift was modelled with a generalized linear model (GLM) by using presence/absence data from the National Forest Inventory in Baden-Wurttemberg...

  18. Economic evaluations of hepatitis B vaccination strategies - A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit GA de; Welte R; CZO

    National and international economic evaluations of universal vaccination against hepatitis B were systematically selected from the literature. Only the studies meeting the following criteria were selected: (a) original data reported in Dutch, English, French or German; (b) at least one universal

  19. Economic Evaluation Research in the Context of Child Welfare Policy: A Structured Literature Review and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Snowden, Lonnie R.; Wulczyn, Fred; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: With over 1 million children served by the US Child Welfare system at a cost of $20 billion annually, this study examines the economic evaluation literature on interventions to improve outcomes for children at risk for and currently involved with the system, identifies areas where additional research is needed, and discusses the use of…

  20. Multiple imputation strategies for zero-inflated cost data in economic evaluations : which method works best?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacNeil Vroomen, Janet; Eekhout, Iris; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; van Hout, Hein; de Rooij, Sophia E; Heymans, Martijn W; Bosmans, Judith E

    2016-01-01

    Cost and effect data often have missing data because economic evaluations are frequently added onto clinical studies where cost data are rarely the primary outcome. The objective of this article was to investigate which multiple imputation strategy is most appropriate to use for missing

  1. Multiple imputation strategies for zero-inflated cost data in economic evaluations: which method works best?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macneil Vroomen, Janet; Eekhout, Iris; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; van Hout, Hein; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Bosmans, Judith E.

    2016-01-01

    Cost and effect data often have missing data because economic evaluations are frequently added onto clinical studies where cost data are rarely the primary outcome. The objective of this article was to investigate which multiple imputation strategy is most appropriate to use for missing

  2. Learning Online: A Case Study Exploring Student Perceptions and Experience of a Course in Economic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Batura, Neha; Hughes, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions and experiences of a group of students enrolled in an online course in Economic Evaluation. A mixed methods approach was adopted for the data collection, and thematic analysis was used to synthesize the data collected and highlight key findings. The participants identified several positive and negative perceived…