Sample records for include delta-aminolevulinic acid

  1. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters (United States)

    Moens, Luc


    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  2. 21 CFR 862.1060 - Delta-aminolevulinic acid test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delta-aminolevulinic acid test system. 862.1060 Section 862.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  3. delta-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genotype modifies four hour urinary lead excretion after oral administration of dimercaptosuccinic acid.


    Schwartz, B S; Lee, B K; Stewart, W; Sithisarankul, P; Strickland, P T; Ahn, K D; Kelsey, K


    OBJECTIVES: Previous research suggests that binding of lead by delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) may vary by ALAD genotype. This hypothesis was tested by examining whether ALAD genotype modifies urinary lead excretion (DMSA chelatable lead) after oral administration of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). METHODS: 57 South Korean lead battery manufacturing workers were given 5 mg/kg oral DMSA and urine was collected for four hours. Male workers were randomly selected from two ALAD genot...

  4. Design of PDT protocols using delta-aminolevulinic acid (5ALA) (United States)

    Jacques, Steven L.; He, Xiao-Yan; Gofstein, Gary


    The kinetics of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) synthesis, bioconversion to other metabolic products, and photobleaching were measured in cell cultures after incubation in media containing the metabolic precursor for heme synthesis, (delta) -aminolevulinic acid (5 ALA). A compartmental model described the kinetics in terms of rate constants for the three processes. The maximum amount of PPIX that can be attained in the cells and the concentration of 5 ALA in the medium that obtains this maximum were determined. Using this information, two dosimetry protocols are outlined which both involve complete photobleaching of the PPIX: (1) the classical acute protocol using maximum 5 ALA to produce maximum PPIX and a light treatment of about 0.5 - 1 hr, and (2) a novel prolonged protocol using continuous low-level 5 ALA delivery to produce only slightly elevated PPIX and an extended light exposure time of over 24 hrs.

  5. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters (United States)

    Moens, Luc


    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising: dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures thereof to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing said alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  6. Direct assay of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in heme biosynthesis for the detection of porphyrias by tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Choiniere, John R; Scott, C Ronald; Gelb, Michael H; Turecek, Frantisek


    We report a new assay of human delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), an enzyme converting delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) into porphobilinogen. The assay is developed for use in the clinical diagnosis of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase-deficient porphyria, a rare enzymatic deficiency of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The assay involves the incubation of erythrocyte lysate with the natural substrate, ALA, followed by quantitative in situ conversion of porphobilinogen to its butyramide, and liquid-liquid extraction into a mass spectrometer-friendly solvent. Quantitation of the butyrylated porphobilinogen is done by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, using a deuterium labeled internal standard. The assay stays well within the range wherein ALAD activity is linear with time. The K(m) of ALAD for ALA was measured as 333 microM, and the V(max) was 19.3 microM/h. Average enzyme activity among a random sample of 36 anonymous individuals was 277 micromol/L erythrocyte lysate/hour with a standard deviation of 90 micromol/L erythrocyte lysate/hour. The tandem mass spectrometric assay should easily detect the enzyme deficiency, which causes a reduction of activity by 95-99%. The assay shows good reproducibility and low background, requires a simple workup, and uses a commercially available substrate.

  7. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase in Pregnant Women

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    Osmel La-Llave-León


    Full Text Available Blood lead levels (BLLs and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD activity are considered biomarkers of lead exposure and lead toxicity, respectively. The present study was designed to investigate the association between BLLs and ALAD activity in pregnant women from Durango, Mexico. A total of 633 pregnant women aged 13–43 years participated in this study. Blood lead was measured by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. ALAD activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Mean blood lead was 2.09 ± 2.34 µg/dL; and 26 women (4.1% crossed the Centers for Disease Control (CDC recommended level of 5 µg/dL. ALAD activity was significantly lower in women with levels of lead ≥5 µg/dL compared to those with BLLs < 5 µg/dL (p = 0.002. To reduce the influence of extreme values on the statistical analysis, BLLs were analyzed by quartiles. A significant negative correlation between blood lead and ALAD activity was observed in the fourth quartile of BLLs (r = −0.113; p < 0.01. Among women with blood lead concentrations ≥2.2 µg/dL ALAD activity was negatively correlated with BLLs (r = −0.413; p < 0.01. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that inhibition of ALAD in pregnant women may occur at levels of lead in blood above 2.2 µg/dL.

  8. Delta-aminolevulinic acid as a photosensitizer precursor for the treatment of hepatoma cells in vitro (United States)

    Laukka, Mark A.; Wang, Kenneth K.


    Delta-aminolevulinic acid ((delta) -ALA) has been recently proposed as a tumor photosensitizer precursor with increased selectivity and decreased toxicity for the treatment of neoplasms. We investigated the conversion and cytotoxicity of (delta) -ALA in a human hepatoma cell line to determine its clinical potential. SK-HEP-1 (ATCC) cells were plated on 35 mm coverslips in media for use in a digital fluorescence microscopic imaging system. (delta) -ALA was added to achieve final concentrations between 0-5 mM. Cells were excited with 450-490 nm light while a 610 nm long pass filter was used to assess fluorescence from conversion to protoporphyrin IX, the putative photosensitizer. After maximal fluorescence was obtained at each initial concentration of (delta) -ALA, cells were radiated with 10 J/cm2 of light from a xenon lamp fitted with a 515 nm band pass filter. After photoradiation, cell death was assessed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide labeling. Protoporphyrin IX accumulation was constant at Ksequals0.001 until a plateau was achieved 2 hours after the addition of (delta -ALA. Photoradiation with 10 J/cm2 at a concentration of 1 mM (delta ALA resulted in a linear increase in cell death over time with 5% cell death at 2 hours and 12% at 5 hours compared to controls. Interestingly, controls with (delta) -ALA alone demonstrated a cytoprotective effect with a logarithmic relationship between increasing cell survival and increasing dose of drug.

  9. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase in Pregnant Women. (United States)

    La-Llave-León, Osmel; Méndez-Hernández, Edna M; Castellanos-Juárez, Francisco X; Esquivel-Rodríguez, Eloísa; Vázquez-Alaniz, Fernando; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Duarte-Sustaita, Jaime; Candelas-Rangel, Jorge L; Salas-Pacheco, José M


    Blood lead levels (BLLs) and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity are considered biomarkers of lead exposure and lead toxicity, respectively. The present study was designed to investigate the association between BLLs and ALAD activity in pregnant women from Durango, Mexico. A total of 633 pregnant women aged 13-43 years participated in this study. Blood lead was measured by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. ALAD activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Mean blood lead was 2.09 ± 2.34 µg/dL; and 26 women (4.1%) crossed the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommended level of 5 µg/dL. ALAD activity was significantly lower in women with levels of lead ≥5 µg/dL compared to those with BLLs lead and ALAD activity was observed in the fourth quartile of BLLs (r = -0.113; p lead concentrations ≥2.2 µg/dL ALAD activity was negatively correlated with BLLs (r = -0.413; p lead in blood above 2.2 µg/dL.

  10. Blood lead and erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase levels in Manchester taxi drivers. (United States)

    Flindt, M L; King, E; Walsh, D B


    Among 40 Manchester taxi drivers the mean blood lead was 1.10 mumol/1 (22.8 mug per 100 ml). The mean erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity among 34 of them was 30.1 units. No significant association was found between the blood lead levels and erythrocyte ALAD activity in these 34 men. No significant association was found between either blood lead elvels or erythrocyte ALAD activity and duration of service or weekly mileage as a taxi driver or with drinking or smoking habits, or age. The mean blood lead of those with homes in the north east quadrant of the city was higher than of those living elsewhere but the difference was not statistically significant. Although there was no correlation between blood lead levels and the source of domestic water, the mean blood lead of those with lead domestic plumbing was appreciably higher than the level of those with copper plumbing. There was no indication that, by virtue of their occupation, the taxi drivers were liable to greater lead absorption than their fellow-citizens.

  11. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism in lead exposed Bangladeshi children and its effect on urinary aminolevulinic acid (ALA)

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    Tasmin, Saira, E-mail: [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Furusawa, Hana [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ahmad, Sk. Akhtar [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences, 125/1, Darus Salam, Mirpur, Dhaka 1216 (Bangladesh); Faruquee, M.H. [Department of Public Health, State University of Bangladesh, 77 Satmasjid Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh); Watanabe, Chiho [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)


    Background and objective: Lead has long been recognized as a harmful environmental pollutant. People in developing countries like Bangladesh still have a higher risk of lead exposure. Previous research has suggested that the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) genotype can modify lead toxicity and individual susceptibility. As children are more susceptible to lead-induced toxicity, this study investigated whether the ALAD genotype influenced urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA) among children exposed to environmental lead in Bangladesh. Methods: Subjects were elementary schoolchildren from a semi-urban industrialized area in Bangladesh. A total of 222 children were studied. Blood and urine were collected to determine ALAD genotypes, blood lead levels and urinary aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA). Results: The mean BPb level was 9.7 µg/dl for the study children. BPb was significantly positively correlated with hemoglobin (p<0.01). In total, allele frequency for ALAD 1 and 2 was 0.83 and 0.17 respectively. The mean U-ALA concentration was lower in ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers than ALAD1-1 carriers for boys (p=0.001). But for girls, U-ALA did not differ significantly by genotype (p=0.26). When U-ALA was compared by genotype at the same exposure level in a multiple linear regression analysis, boys who were ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers still had a lower level of U-ALA compared to ALAD1-1carriers. Conclusion: This study provides information about the influence of ALAD polymorphism and its association with U-ALA in Bangladeshi children. Our results indicate that the ALAD1-2/2-2 genotype may have a protective effect in terms of U-ALA for environmentally lead exposed boys. - Highlights: • High blood lead level for the environmentally exposed schoolchildren. • BPb was significantly correlated with U-ALA and Hb. • Effect of ALAD genotype on U-ALA is differed by sex. • Lower U-ALA in ALAD2 than ALAD1 carriers only for boys at same exposure.

  12. Associations of blood pressure and hypertension with lead dose measures and polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genes.


    Lee, B K; Lee, G S; Stewart, W F; Ahn, K D; Simon, D; Kelsey, K T; Todd, A C; Schwartz, B S


    Evidence suggests that lead and selected genes known to modify the toxicokinetics of lead--namely, those for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD)--may independently influence blood pressure and hypertension risk. We report the relations among ALAD and VDR genotypes, three lead dose measures, and blood pressure and hypertension status in 798 Korean lead workers and 135 controls without occupational exposure to lead. Lead dose was assessed by blood lead,...

  13. Associations of blood lead, dimercaptosuccinic acid-chelatable lead, and tibia lead with polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor and [delta]-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genes.


    Schwartz, B S; Lee, B K; Lee, G S; Stewart, W F; Simon, D; Kelsey, K; Todd, A C


    A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in the [delta]-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes on blood lead, tibia lead, and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-chelatable lead levels in 798 lead workers and 135 controls without occupational lead exposure in the Republic of Korea. Tibia lead was assessed with a 30-min measurement by (109)Cd-induced K-shell X-ray fluorescence, and DMSA-chelatable lead was estimated as 4-hr ...

  14. Evaluation of biosynthetic pathways to delta-aminolevulinic acid in Propionibacterium shermanii based on biosynthesis of vitamin B12 from D-[1-13C]glucose. (United States)

    Iida, K; Kajiwara, M


    Analysis of the (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of (13)C-labeled vitamin B(12) biosynthesized from D-[1-(13)C]glucose by Propionibacterium shermanii provided evidence suggesting that delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) incorporated in the (13)C-labeled vitamin B(12) may have been synthesized via both the Shemin pathway and the C5 pathway under anaerobic conditions in the ratio of 1 < [(ratio of ALA biosynthesis from the Shemin pathway)/(that from the C5 pathway)] < 1.8. The D-ribose moiety of vitamin B(12) was labeled with (13)C at R-1, R-3, and R-5. The aminopropanol moiety of vitamin B(12) was labeled on Pr-1 and Pr-2, but not Pr-3.

  15. Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding glutamate 1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase, which is involved in delta-aminolevulinic acid synthesis in Propionibacterium freudenreichii. (United States)

    Murakami, K; Hashimoto, Y; Murooka, Y


    The gene from Propionibacterium freudenreichii that encodes glutamate 1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase (EC, which is involved in the C5 pathway for synthesis of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor in heme and cobalamin biosynthesis, was cloned onto a multicopy plasmid, pUC18, via complementation of an ALA-deficient mutant (hemL) of Escherichia coli. Subcloning of fragments from the initial 3.3-kb chromosomal fragment allowed the isolation of a 1.9-kb fragment which could complement the hemL mutation. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 1.9-kb DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame (ORF) that was located downstream from a potential ribosome-binding site. The ORF encoded a polypeptide of 441 amino acid residues, and the deduced molecular mass of this polypeptide is 45,932 Da. A high G+C content (70 mol%) of the codons of the ORF was found and was consistent with the taxonomic features of Propionibacterium species. The amino acid sequence showed a high degree of homology with those of the HemL proteins from other organisms, and a putative binding site for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was conserved, with the exception of a single substitution of phenylalanine for leucine. These results suggest that ALA is synthesized via the C5 pathway in a producer of vitamin B12, P. freudenreichii.

  16. Effect modification by delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, vitamin D receptor, and nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms on associations between patella lead and renal function in lead workers. (United States)

    Weaver, Virginia M; Lee, Byung-Kook; Todd, Andrew C; Ahn, Kyu-Dong; Shi, Weiping; Jaar, Bernard G; Kelsey, Karl T; Lustberg, Mark E; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Parsons, Patrick J; Wen, Jiayu; Schwartz, Brian S


    Genetic polymorphisms that affect lead toxicokinetics or toxicodynamics may be important modifiers of risk for adverse outcomes in lead-exposed populations. We recently reported associations between higher patella lead, which is hypothesized to represent a lead pool that is both bioavailable and cumulative, and adverse renal outcomes in current and former Korean lead workers. In the present study, we assessed effect modification by polymorphisms in the genes encoding for delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase on those associations. Similar analyses were conducted with three other lead biomarkers. Renal function was assessed via blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, measured and calculated creatinine clearances, urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, and retinol-binding protein. Mean (SD) blood, patella, tibia, and dimercaptosuccinic acid-chelatable lead values were 30.9 (16.7) microg/dl, 75.1 (101.1)and 33.6 (43.4) microg Pb/g bone mineral, and 0.63 (0.75) microg Pb/mg creatinine, respectively, in 647 lead workers. Little evidence of effect modification by genotype on associations between patella lead and renal outcomes was observed. The VDR polymorphism did modify associations between the other lead biomarkers and the serum creatinine and calculated creatinine clearance. Higher lead dose was associated with worse renal function in participants with the variant B allele. Models in two groups, dichotomized by median age, showed that this effect was present in the younger half of the population. Limited evidence of effect modification by ALAD genotype was observed; higher blood lead levels were associated with higher calculated creatinine clearance among participants with the ALAD(1-2) genotype. In conclusion, VDR and/or ALAD genotypes modified associations between all the lead biomarkers, except patella lead, and the renal outcomes.

  17. Effects of lead shot ingestion on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, hemoglobin concentration, and serum chemistry in bald eagles (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Mulhern, B.


    Lead shot ingestion by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is considered to be widespread and has been implicated in the death of eagles in nature. It was recently demonstrated under experimental conditions that ingestion of as few as 10 lead shot resulted in death within 12 to 20 days. In the present study hematological responses to lead toxicity including red blood cell ALAD activity, hemoglobin concentration and 23 different blood serum chemistries were examined in five captive bald eagles that were unsuitable for rehabilitation and release. Eagles were dosed by force-feeding with 10 lead shot; they were redosed if regurgitation occurred. Red blood cell ALAD activity was inhibited by nearly 80% within 24 hours when mean blood lead concentration had increased to 0.8 parts per million (ppm). By the end of 1 week there was a significant decrease (20-25%) in hematocrit and hemoglobin, and the mean blood lead concentration was over 3 ppm. Within as little as 1-2 weeks after dosing, significant elevations in serum creatinine and serum alanine aminotransferase occurred, as well as a significant decrease in the ratio of serum aspartic aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase. The mean blood lead concentration was over 5 ppm by the end of 2 weeks. These changes in serum chemistry may be indicative of kidney and liver alterations.

  18. Message amplification phenotyping of an inherited delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase deficiency in a family with acute hepatic porphyria. (United States)

    Ishida, N; Fujita, H; Noguchi, T; Doss, M; Kappas, A; Sassa, S


    The molecular basis of the enzymatic defect responsible for acute hepatic porphyria due to delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD) deficiency was investigated in a family including a proband with the acute disease. In order to delineate the mutation in the proband, cDNA for deficient ALAD was synthesized from the proband's cells. The ALAD phenotype was studied by message amplification phenotyping with total RNA extracted from lymphoblastoid cells of the proband and his family members. Two independent mutant alleles of ALAD were identified in the proband's cells. One mutant allele was shown to result in an amino acid substitution at residue 274 (Ala274----Thr). Message amplification phenotyping studies have also permitted us to define the ALAD phenotype of each subject in the family. This is the first mutation to be recognized in the human ALAD gene.

  19. Interaction of blood lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genotype on markers of heme synthesis and sperm production in lead smelter workers.


    Alexander, B H; Checkoway, H; Costa-Mallen, P; Faustman, E M; Woods, J S; Kelsey, K T; van Netten, C; Costa, L G


    The gene that encodes gamma-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) has a polymorphism that may modify lead toxicokinetics and ultimately influence individual susceptibility to lead poisoning. To evaluate the effect of the ALAD polymorphism on lead-mediated outcomes, a cross-sectional study of male employees from a lead-zinc smelter compared associations between blood lead concentration and markers of heme synthesis and semen quality with respect to ALAD genotype. Male employees were recruited...

  20. Terapêutica fotodinâmica com ácido delta-aminolevulínico em neoplasias queratinocíticas superficiais Photodynamic therapy with delta-aminolevulinic acid for superficial keratinocytic neoplasms

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    Renato Marchiori Bakos


    %, dor em cinco (6,7% e prurido em um caso (1,3%. A maioria dos casos (60% apresentou boa tolerância ao tratamento, não havendo efeitos paralelos dignos de nota. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados obtidos no trabalho assemelham-se, em parte, aos relatados na literatura com aplicação única da terapêutica fotodinâmica com ácido delta-aminolevulínico em neoplasias queratinocíticas superficiais, principalmente nas ceratoses actínicas e na doença de Bowen.BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a treatment technique in which photosensitizing substances are applied in tissues and excited with specific wavelengths of light energy to obtain cell destruction through photoactive cytotoxic substances. This method has been used in several skin neoplasms, with quite successful results. OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of one single session of topical delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA irradiated with incoherent light, in actinic keratosis (AK, superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC and Bowen's disease (BD. PATIENT AND METHODS: Eighty skin lesions, in 52 patients, were treated with an incoherent light source prototype built by the Service of Biomedical Engineering of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA, after the application of 20% ALA under occlusion. Thirty two (40% were superficial BCC, 37 (46.3% AK, and 11 (13.7% BD. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy and histology in 23 cases (28.7%. RESULTS: Follow up was not available in five lesions. From the remaining 75, 41 (54.6% were completely resolved, 22 (29.4% showed partial remission, and 12 (16.0% were considered as treatment failures. Considering the 35 treated AK, 23 (65.7% presented complete response, 7 (20% improved, and 5 (14.3% showed no benefit after treatment. Thirty BCC were treated, 10 (33.3% completely resolved, 13 (43.4% improved, and 7 (23.3% remained unaffected. From 10 treated BD, 8 (80% resolved and 2 (20% improved. Observed side effects were burning sensation in 24 lesions (32%, pain in 5 (6.7%, and itch in

  1. Delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity and oxidative stress markers in preeclampsia. (United States)

    de Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B; Kober, Helena; Neme, Walter S; Gallarreta, Francisco M P; Gonçalves, Thissiane L


    Preeclampsia is an important pregnancy-specific multisystem disorder characterized by the onset of hypertension and proteinuria. It is of unknown etiology and involves serious risks for the pregnant women and fetus. One of the main factors involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia is oxidative stress, where excess free radicals produce harmful effects, including damage to macromolecules such as lipids, proteins and DNA. In addition, the sulfhydryl delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase enzyme (δ-ALA-D) that is part of the heme biosynthetic pathway in pro-oxidant conditions can be inhibited, which may result in the accumulation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), associated with the overproduction of free radicals, suggesting it to be an indirect marker of oxidative stress. As hypertensive pregnancy complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality maternal and fetal where oxidative stress appears to be an important factor involved in preeclampsia, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of δ-ALA-D and classic oxidative stress markers in the blood of pregnant women with mild and severe preeclampsia. The analysis and quantification of the following oxidative stress markers were performed: thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS); presence of protein and non-protein thiol group; quantification of vitamin C; Catalase and δ-ALA--D activities in samples of blood of pregnant women with mild preeclampsia (n=25), with severe preeclampsia (n=30) and in a control group of healthy pregnant women (n=30). TBARS was significantly higher in women with preeclampsia, while the presence of thiol groups, levels of vitamin C, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in groups of pregnant women with preeclampsia compared with healthy women. In addition, the results showed no significant difference between groups of pregnant women with mild and severe preeclampsia. The data suggest a state of increased oxidative stress in pregnant women with

  2. delta-Aminolevulinate dehydratase deficient porphyria: identification of the molecular lesions in a severely affected homozygote.


    Plewinska, M; Thunell, S; Holmberg, L; Wetmur, J G; Desnick, R J


    delta-Aminolevulinate dehydratase deficient porphyria, a recently recognized inborn error of heme biosynthesis, results from the markedly deficient activity of the heme biosynthetic enzyme, delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D). The four homozygotes described to date with this disorder have remarkably distinct phenotypes, ranging from a severely affected infant with failure to thrive to an essentially asymptomatic 68-year-old male. To investigate the molecular nature of the lesions causin...

  3. Terapêutica fotodinâmica com ácido delta-aminolevulínico e luz de diodos em ceratoses actínicas Photodynamic therapy with delta-aminolevulinic acid and light-emitting diodes in actinic keratosis

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    Clarice Gabardo Ritter


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A terapêutica fotodinâmica é técnica de tratamento em que se aplica uma substância fotossensibilizante nos tecidos ativada por uma fonte de luz de comprimento de onda específico, gerando destruição celular seletiva. Estudam-se novas fontes de luz que possam ser usadas no tratamento de ceratoses actínicas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a efetividade da terapêutica fotodinâmica com ácido delta-aminolevulínico utilizando como fonte de luz um aparelho emissor de luz de diodos no tratamento de ceratoses actínicas de face e membros superiores. MÉTODOS: Dezoito pacientes com ceratoses actínicas na face ou membros superiores realizaram uma aplicação de creme de ácido delta-aminolevulínico a 20% e foram submetidos à exposição de luz de diodos, comprimento de onda de 630 nm. RESULTADOS: Foram tratadas 328 ceratoses actínicas, obtendo-se cura clínica completa em 210 (64,0% após 24 semanas. Lesões do dorso das mãos apresentaram cura clínica completa em 49,2%; nas demais áreas esse valor foi de 81,4%. Não houve registro de efeitos adversos graves, e obteve-se bom grau de satisfação dos pacientes com os resultados. CONCLUSÃO: A terapêutica fotodinâmica com fonte de emissão de luz de diodos mostrou-se eficaz e bem tolerada para tratamento de ceratoses actínicas, com resultados semelhantes aos encontrados na literatura utilizando outras fontes luminosas.BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy is a form of treatment in which a photosensitizing substance is applied to tissue and activated by a light source at a specific wavelength, thus selectively destroying cells. New light sources are being evaluated for use in the treatment of actinic keratoses. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of photodynamic therapy with delta-aminolevulinic acid using a light emitting diode device as a light source in the treatment of actinic keratoses of the face and upper limbs. METHODS: Eighteen patients with actinic keratoses of the face or upper

  4. The concentration of some metals (Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu) and delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) living near lead and zinc smelter ``Trepça'' in Kosova (United States)

    Elezaj, I. R.; Letaj, K. Rr.; Selimi, Q. I.; Zhushi-Etemi, F.


    The concentration of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (ALA-D: EC. hemoglobin and protein amount have been determined in three different populations of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) caught at two urban sites (Mitrovica town, which is situated close to smelter of “Trepça” don close and Prishtina the capital of Kosova) and in Luki village as uncontaminated area. The results show that in the fruit fly of Mitrovica the concentration of Pb, Cd and Zn was significantly higher (Pfruit fly from Mitrovica was 3.1 times higher in comparison with that on fruit fly of Prishtina and 4.9 times higher in comparison with uncontaminated group of fruit fly. The ALA-D activity was significantly inhibited in the homogenate of fruit fly from Mitrovica in comparison with Prishtina and Luki localities (Pfruit fly in comparison with Luki group (Pfruit fly in comparison with that in control and Prishtina group. The hemoglobin value was relatively unchanged.

  5. Effects of aluminum sulfate on delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase from kidney, brain, and liver of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.C. Schetinger


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of aluminum sulfate on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D activity from the brain, liver and kidney of adult mice (Swiss albine. In vitro experiments showed that the aluminum sulfate concentration needed to inhibit the enzyme activity was 1.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in brain, 4.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in liver and 0.0-5.0 mM (N = 3 in kidney. The in vivo experiments were performed on three groups for one month: 1 control animals (N = 8; 2 animals treated with 1 g% (34 mM sodium citrate (N = 8 and 3 animals treated with 1 g% (34 mM sodium citrate plus 3.3 g% (49.5 mM aluminum sulfate (N = 8. Exposure to aluminum sulfate in drinking water inhibited ALA-D activity in kidney (23.3 ± 3.7%, mean ± SEM, P kidney > brain. Furthermore, aluminum had only inhibitory properties in vitro, while in vivo it inhibited or stimulated the enzyme depending on the organ studied.

  6. Reaction of diphenyl diselenide with hydrogen peroxide and inhibition of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase from rat liver and cucumber leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farina


    Full Text Available The interaction of the product of H2O2 and (PhSe2 with delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (delta-ALA-D from mammals and plants was investigated. (PhSe2 inhibited rat hepatic delta-ALA-D with an IC50 of 10 µM but not the enzyme from cucumber leaves. The reaction of (PhSe2 with H2O2 for 1 h increased the inhibitory potency of the original compound and the IC50 for animal delta-ALA-D inhibition was decreased from 10 to 2 µM. delta-ALA-D from cucumber leaves was also inhibited by the products of reaction of (PhSe2 with H2O2 with an IC50 of 4 µM. The major product of reaction of (PhSe2 with H2O2 was identified as seleninic acid and produced an intermediate with a lambdamax at 265 nm after reaction with t-BuSH. These results suggest that the interaction of (PhSe2 with mammal delta-ALA-D requires the presence of cysteinyl residues in close proximity. Two cysteine residues in spatial proximity have been recently described for the mammalian enzyme. Analysis of the primary structure of plant delta-ALA-D did not reveal an analogous site. In contrast to (PhSe2, seleninic acid, as a result of the higher electrophilic nature of its selenium atom, may react with additional cysteinyl residue(s in mammalian delta-ALA-D and also with cysteinyl residues from cucumber leaves located at a site distinct from that found at the B and A sites in mammals. Although the interaction of organochalcogens with H2O2 may have some antioxidant properties, the formation of seleninic acid as a product of this reaction may increase the toxicity of organic chalcogens such as (PhSe2.

  7. Lack of association of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase polymorphisms with blood lead levels and hemoglobin in Romanian women from a lead-contaminated region. (United States)

    Rabstein, Sylvia; Unfried, Klaus; Ranft, Ulrich; Illig, Thomas; Kolz, Melanie; Mambetova, Chinara; Vlad, Mariana; Roman, Cecilia; Weiss, Tobias; Becker, Doreen; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate


    As part of a project on environmental pollution, this study aimed to evaluate associations between blood lead (BPb) levels, hemoglobin (Hb) content, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) gene in 129 unrelated women from Romania. Five SNPs (rs1805313, rs2228083, rs1805312, rs1800435, rs1139488) were analyzed with respect to haplotype structure and impact on BPb levels and Hb content with proportional odds and analysis of covariance models. Combinations of SNPs were rare (16%). Low haplotype diversity was found with seven haplotypes. One rare haplotype implied the C allele of rs1800435, often referred to as the ALAD2 allele (frequency 8.6%). The putative risk genotype (CC) occurred in only one woman with BPb below 0.5 microg/dl. Median BPb was 4.8 microg/dl and differed markedly by community with a level of 12.5 microg/dl near a mining-spill region. Hb was regular (interquartile range 12.3-13.7 g/dl) and not correlated with BPb, although quantitatively lower in women living near the spill region. No significant associations were found for BPb or Hb with SNPs, haplotypes, or diplotypes. BPb levels were higher in this region than in populations from industrialized countries but without hematotoxic effects. An impact of ALAD2 on BPb or Hb was not seen in these women.

  8. Modulation of cytochrome biosynthesis in yeast by antimetabolite action of levulinic acid. (United States)

    Malamud, D R; Borralho, L M; Panek, A D; Mattoon, J R


    Levulinic acid, a competitive inhibitor of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, was used to inhibit cytochrome biosynthesis in growing yeast cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the antimetabolite acts by inhibiting delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in vivo, causing an accumulation of intracellular delta-aminolevulinic acid and simultaneous decreases in all classes of mitochondrial cytochromes. Changes in cellular cytochrome content with increasing levulinic acid concentration suggested the existence of different regulatory patterns in S. cerevisiae and Candida utilis. In C. utilis, cytochrome a.a3 formation is very resistant to the antimetabolite action of levulinic acid. In this aerobic yeast, cytochrome c+c1 is the most sensitive to levulinic acid, and cytochrome b exhibits intermediate sensitivity. PMID:378939

  9. Effect of levulinic acid on pigment biosynthesis in Agmenellum quadruplicatum. (United States)

    Kipe-Nolt, J A; Stevens, S E


    When levulinic acid was added to a growing culture of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6, delta-aminoelevulinic acid accumulated in the medium and chlorophyll a synthesis and cell growth were inhibited, but there was a small amount of c-phycocyanin synthesis. The amount of delta-aminolevulinic acid produced in the treated culture did not fully account for the amount of pigment synthesized in the untreated control. Levulinic acid and either sodium nitrate or ammonium chloride were added to nitrogen-starved cultures of PR-6, and delta-aminolevulinic acid production and chlorophyll a and c-phycocyanin content were monitored. When ammonium chloride was added as a nitrogen source after nitrogen starvation, the cells recovered more rapidly than when sodium nitrate was added as a nitrogen source. In cultures recovering from nitrogen starvation, synthesis of c-phycocyanin occurred before synthesis of chlorophyll a. PMID:104956

  10. Lead acid batteries simulation including experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achaibou, N.; Malek, A. [Division Energie Solaire Photovoltaique, Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables, B.P. 62, Route de l' Observatoire, Bouzareah, Alger (Algeria); Haddadi, M. [Laboratoire de Dispositif de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Rue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)


    The storage of energy in batteries is a cause of the failure and loss of reliability in PV systems. The battery behavior has been largely described in the literature by many authors; the selected models are of Monegon and CIEMAT. This paper reviews the two general lead acid battery models and their agreement with experimental data. In order to validate these models, the behavior of different battery cycling currents has been simulated. Results obtained have been compared to real data. The CIEMAT model presents a good performance compared to Monegon's model. (author)

  11. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in Ureilites Including Almahata Sitta (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Callahan, M. P.; Dworkin, J. P.


    Ureilites are a class of meteorites that lack chondrules (achondrites) but have relatively high carbon abundances, averaging approx.3 wt %. Using highly sensitive liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS), it was recently determined that there are amino acids in. fragment 94 of the Almahata Sitta ureilite[l]. Based on the presence of amino acids that are rare in the Earth's biosphere, as well as the near-racemic enantiomeric ratios of marry of the more common amino acids, it was concluded that most of the detected amino acids were indigenous to the meteorite. Although the composition of the Almahata Sitta ureilite appears to be unlike other recovered ureilites, the discovery of amino acids in this meteorite raises the question of whether other ureilites rnav also contain amino acids. Herein we present the results of LC-FDlTo.F-MS analyses of: a sand sample from the Almahata Sitta strewn held, Almahata Sitta fragments 425 (an ordinary H5 chondrite) and 427 (ureilite), as well as an Antarctic ureilite (Allan lulls, ALHA 77257).

  12. Fatty acid composition including trans isomers of Serbian biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravić Snežana Ž.


    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the quality of the lipid fraction of Serbian biscuits. Total fat contents of the biscuit samples ranged between 10.2% and 24.5%. The saturated, cis-monounsaturated and cis-polyunsaturated fatty acid contents were within the ranges of 18.585.6%, 10.649.9% and 2.713.3% of total fatty acids, respectively. The content of trans fatty acids (TFA ranged from 0.0% to 42.5% and the mean was 10.2%. In a total of 34 investigated samples, 10 of them were found to be trans - free, 8 contained low level of TFA (under 2%, 4 samples contained between 2 and 10% of TFA, while 12 samples contained very high amounts of TFA (12.042.5%. The results obtained showed a considerable variability in fatty acid composition of biscuits which indicated that different types of fats and oils were used for production of biscuits in Serbia.

  13. Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol. (United States)

    Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.


    Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

  14. Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic beads for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid (United States)

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz [Livermore, CA


    A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.

  15. Validation of molecular force field parameters for peptides including isomerized amino acids. (United States)

    Oda, Akifumi; Nakayoshi, Tomoki; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi; Kurimoto, Eiji; Yamaotsu, Noriyuki; Hirono, Shuichi; Takahashi, Ohgi


    Recently, stereoinversions and isomerizations of amino acid residues in the proteins of living beings have been observed. Because isomerized amino acids cause structural changes and denaturation of proteins, isomerizations of amino acid residues are suspected to cause age-related diseases. In this study, AMBER molecular force field parameters were tested by using computationally generated nonapeptides and tripeptides including stereoinverted and/or isomerized amino acid residues. Energy calculations by using density functional theory were also performed for comparison. Although the force field parameters were developed by parameter fitting for l-α-amino acids, the accuracy of the computational results for d-amino acids and β-amino acids was comparable to those for l-α-amino acids. The conformational energies for tripeptides calculated by using density functional theory were reproduced more accurately than those for nonapeptides calculated by using the molecular mechanical force field. The evaluations were performed for the ff99SB, ff03, ff12SB, and the latest ff14SB force field parameters. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Limites de aplicabilidade da determinação do ácido delta-aminolevulínico urinário como teste screening na avaliação da intoxicação profissional pelo chumbo Applicability limits of urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid as a screening test to evaluate professional intoxication by lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Caldeira


    Full Text Available A aplicabilidade da determinação da concentração do ácido delta-aminolevulínico urinário (ALA-U no controle da saúde de trabalhadores expostos ocupacionalmente ao chumbo foi realizada em dois grupos de trabalhadores. Os valores médios de Pb-S para os dois grupos foram 17,3 µg/dl (6,2-39,4 e 61,5 µg/dl (41,1-91,0, respectivamente. As concentrações de ALA-U foram determinadas por HPLC e por espectrofotometria. Uma correlação significativa (pThe relationship between concentrations of ALA-U and Pb-S for two groups of workers is reported. The first group consisted of workers from a telephone company, and the second, of workers from battery factories with average Pb-S equivalent to 17,3 µg/dl (6,2-39,4 and 61,5 µg/dl (41,1-91,0, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utilization of ALA-U levels as a screening test for different levels of lead in blood by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and of spectrophotometry. A significant correlation was found between measured ALA and levels of blood lead (R = 0,739 - first group; R = 0,902 - second group; p < 0,001. The validity of ALA-U test to evaluate different levels of lead in blood was also studied. By using ALA levels of 3 mg/g creatinine as a threshold to detect levels of lead in blood equal to or higher than 20 µg/dl, the test results, for the workers in the first group, showed sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 90%. In both groups, the false positives as well as the false negatives were lower than 10%, which was enough to validate the test.

  17. Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk from Chickens Fed a Diet including Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altuntaş


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet supplemented with marigold on egg yolk fatty acid composition and egg quality parameters. Sixty hens were assigned into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control, 10 g kg−1, or 20 g kg−1 marigold for 42 days. Eggs collected at the 6th week of the study were analyzed for fatty acid analysis. Laying performance, egg quality parameters, and feed intake were also evaluated. Yolk color scores in the group fed the 20 g kg−1 marigold-supplemented diet were found greater than control (10.77 versus 9.77. Inclusion of 20 g kg−1 marigold in diet influenced egg weights adversely compared to the control. Diet supplemented with 10 g kg−1 or 20 g kg−1 marigold increased the levels of C16:0 and C18:0 and decreased levels of C16:1 (n-7 and C18:1 (n-9 in the egg yolk. Also, diet including marigold increased total saturated fatty acids (SFA and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA in the egg yolk.

  18. Metabolic pathways leading from amino acids to vitamin B12 in Propionibacterium shermanii, and the sources of the seven methyl carbons. (United States)

    Iida, Katsumi; Kajiwara, Masahiro


    The metabolic pathways leading from l-[2-13C]aspartic acid, [2-13C]glycine and l-[methyl-13C]methionine to vitamin B12 were investigated, focusing on the biosynthetic pathways leading to the aminopropanol moiety of vitamin B12 and on the role of the Shemin pathway leading to delta-aminolevulinic acid (a biosynthetic intermediate of tetrapyrrole), by means of feeding experiments with Propionibacterium shermanii in combination with 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The 13C-methylene carbons of l-[2-(13)C]aspartic acid, which is transformed to [2-13C]glycine via l-[2-13C]threonine, and [2-13C]glycine added to the culture medium served mainly to enrich the seven methyl carbons of the corrin ring through C-methylation by S-adenosyl-l-[methyl-13C]methionine derived from catabolically generated l-[methyl-13C]methionine in the presence of tetrahydrofolic acid. The results indicate that the catabolism of these amino acids predominates over pathways leading to (2R)-1-amino-2-propanol or delta-aminolevulinic acid in P. shermanii. Feeding of l-[methyl-13C]methionine efficiently enriched all seven methyl carbons. In the cases of [2-13C]glycine and l-[methyl-13C]methionine, the 13C-enrichment ratio of the methyl carbon at C-25 (the site of the first C-methylation) was less than those of the other six methyl carbons, probably due to the influence of endogenous d-glucose in P. shermanii. The almost identical 13C-enrichment ratios of the other six methyl carbons indicated that these C-methylations during vitamin B12 biosynthesis were completed before the amino acids were completely consumed. However, in the case of l-[2-13C]aspartic acid, the 13C-enrichment ratios of five methyl carbons were low and similar, whereas the last two sites of C-methylation (C-53 and C-35) were not labeled, presumably because of complete consumption of the smaller amount of added label. The ratios of 13C-incorporation into the seven methyl carbons are influenced by the conditions of amino acid feeding experiments in

  19. Influence of fatty acid precursors, including food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of Listeria monocytogenes at 37 and 10degreesC. (United States)

    Julotok, Mudcharee; Singh, Atul K; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J


    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that grows at refrigeration temperatures and increases its content of anteiso-C(15:0) fatty acid, which is believed to be a homeoviscous adaptation to ensure membrane fluidity, at these temperatures. As a possible novel approach for control of the growth of the organism, the influences of various fatty acid precursors, including branched-chain amino acids and branched- and straight-chain carboxylic acids, some of which are also well-established food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of the organism at 37 degrees C and 10 degrees C were studied in order to investigate whether the organism could be made to synthesize fatty acids that would result in impaired growth at low temperatures. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of L. monocytogenes could be modulated by the feeding of branched-chain amino acid, C(4), C(5), and C(6) branched-chain carboxylic acid, and C(3) and C(4) straight-chain carboxylic acid fatty acid precursors, but the growth-inhibitory effects of several preservatives were independent of effects on fatty acid composition, which were minor in the case of preservatives metabolized via acetyl coenzyme A. The ability of a precursor to modify fatty acid composition was probably a reflection of the substrate specificities of the first enzyme, FabH, in the condensation of primers of fatty acid biosynthesis with malonyl acyl carrier protein.

  20. Case Studies in Systems Chemistry. Final Report. [Includes Complete Case Study, Carboxylic Acid Equilibria (United States)

    Fleck, George

    This publication was produced as a teaching tool for college chemistry. The book is a text for a computer-based unit on the chemistry of acid-base titrations, and is designed for use with FORTRAN or BASIC computer systems, and with a programmable electronic calculator, in a variety of educational settings. The text attempts to present computer…

  1. pH-Free Measurement of Relative Acidities, Including Isotope Effects. (United States)

    Perrin, Charles L


    A powerful pH-free multicomponent NMR titration method can measure relative acidities, even of closely related compounds, with excellent accuracy. The history of the method is presented, along with details of its implementation and a comparison with earlier NMR titrations using a pH electrode. Many of its areas of applicability are described, especially equilibrium isotope effects. The advantages of the method, some practical considerations, and potential pitfalls are considered. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Liver protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid includes regulation of ADAM17 activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buryová, Halka; Chalupský, Karel; Žbodáková, Olga; Kanchev, Ivan; Jiroušková, Markéta; Gregor, Martin; Sedláček, Radislav


    Roč. 13, 30.10.2013 (2013), s. 155-155 ISSN 1471-230X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/10/2143; GA ČR GAP303/10/2044; GA AV ČR IAA500520812; GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : ursodeoxycholic acid * ADAM17 * shedding * cholestasis * liver Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.113, year: 2013

  3. Multifunctional colloidal nanofiber composites including dextran and folic acid as electro-active platforms. (United States)

    Rzayev, Zakir M O; Bunyatova, Ulviye; Şimșek, Murat


    This work presents the fabrication and characterization of novel colloidal multifunctional polymer nanofiber composites (NFCs) from water dispersion blends of intercalated silicate layered nanocomposites of poly (2-vinyl-N-pyrrolidone)/octadecyl amine-montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) and dextran/ODA-MMT as matrix and partner polymer intercalated nanocomposites in the presence of NaOH and folic acid (FA) as doping agents by green reactive electrospinning. Chemical and physical structures, surface morphology and electrical properties were investigated. Effects of matrix/partner polymer ratios, doping agents, absorption time of NaOH, and temperature on electrical parameters of NFCs were evaluated. The presence of FA and increasing dextran fraction in NFCs resulted in reducing fiber diameter and improving diameter distribution. High complexing behaviors of matrix/partner polymer chains, organoclay, FA, and NaOH significantly improved conductivity parameters, especially 5-min of absorption time (≈10 -2 -10 - 3 Sm -1 ). The conductivity of the samples decreased with increasing temperature. NFCs fabricated for the first time are promising candidates for various biomedical, electrochemical and electronic applications as electro-active platforms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and application of carbonated fatty acid esters from carbon dioxide including a life cycle analysis. (United States)

    Schäffner, Benjamin; Blug, Matthias; Kruse, Daniela; Polyakov, Mykola; Köckritz, Angela; Martin, Andreas; Rajagopalan, Prasanna; Bentrup, Ursula; Brückner, Angelika; Jung, Sebastian; Agar, David; Rüngeler, Bettina; Pfennig, Andreas; Müller, Karsten; Arlt, Wolfgang; Woldt, Benjamin; Grass, Michael; Buchholz, Stefan


    Carbon dioxide can be used in various ways as a cheap C1 source. However, the utilization of CO2 requires energy or energy-rich reagents, which leads to further emissions, and therefore, diminishes the CO2-saving potential. Therefore, life cycle assessment (LCA) is required for each process that uses CO2 to provide valid data for CO2 savings. Carbon dioxide can be incorporated into epoxidized fatty acid esters to provide the corresponding carbonates. A robust catalytic process was developed based on simple halide salts in combination with a phase-transfer catalyst. The CO2-saving potential was determined by comparing the carbonates as a plasticizer with an established phthalate-based plasticizer. Although CO2 savings of up to 80 % were achieved, most of the savings arose from indirect effects and not from CO2 utilization. Furthermore, other categories have been analyzed in the LCA. The use of biobased material has a variety of impacts on categories such as eutrophication and marine toxicity. Therefore, the benefits of biobased materials have to be evaluated carefully for each case. Finally, interesting properties as plasticizers were obtained with the carbonates. The volatility and water extraction could be improved relative to the epoxidized system. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Profile of trans fatty acids (FAs) including trans polyunsaturated FAs in representative fast food samples. (United States)

    Tyburczy, Cynthia; Delmonte, Pierluigi; Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Mossoba, Magdi M; Kramer, John K G; Rader, Jeanne I


    The content of trans fat in foods is most commonly determined by summing the levels of individual trans fatty acids (FAs), analyzed as FA methyl esters (FAME) by gas chromatography. Current Official Methods of the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) enable quantitation of total trans fat in foods but were not designed for the determination of transFA isomeric compositions. In the present study, the content of trans fat in 32 representative fast food samples ranged from 0.1 to 3.1 g per serving, as determined according to AOCS Official Method Ce 1j-07. Further analysis of FAME using the 200 m SLB-IL111 ionic liquid column yielded quantitative results of total, trans, saturated, and cis unsaturated fat that were comparable to those of Method Ce 1j-07 and also allowed for the complementary determination of individual trans 18:1, trans 18:2, and trans 18:3 FA isomeric compositions under conditions suitable for routine sample analysis.

  6. Bio-toxicological supervision op workers exposed to lead poisoning hazard. Systematic examination of amino acids, in urine and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harduin, Jean-Claude


    A bio-toxicological chart was established for the workers in a firm handling lead. The known facts concerning professional lead poisoning are outlined, after which the importance of lead work in a nuclear center is discussed. The work station of each man is described and the results of analyses made during atmospheric checks on the site are given with sampling techniques. Since the biological chart is centered on the chromatographic exploration of amino acids in blood and urine, the analytical technique used is described and the different technical modifications made to the standard technique reported. The results obtained on reference subjects are compared with those found in the specialized literature. The results found in lead workers are then presented in the form of histograms, which better illustrate the differences observed with respect to the reference subjects. An hematological and toxicological balance-sheet is drawn up and the correlation existing between the results of coproporphyrine, lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid analyses in urine is checked. Biological detection of lead-poisoning has the advantage of providing an early diagnosis, thus enabling the works doctor to forestall the effects of this professional disease before any clinical symptoms appear. (author) [fr

  7. An optimized method for fatty acid analysis, including quantification of trans fatty acids, in human adipose tissue by gas-liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Cold, S; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed


    for 25 min, and finally raised at 25 degrees C/min to 225 degrees C. The trans and cis isomers of18:1 were well separated from each other, as shown by silver-ion thin-layer chromatography. Verification by standardsshowed that the trans 18:1 isomers with a double bond in position 12 or lower were......Considering the need for a quick direct method for measurement of the fatty acid composition including trans isomers ofhuman adipose tissue we have developed a procedure using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) alone, which is thussuitable for validation of fatty acid status in epidemiological studies...

  8. FT-midIR determination of fatty acid profiles, including trans fatty acids, in bakery products after focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction. (United States)

    Ruiz-Jiménez, J; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D


    A study of the feasibility of Fourier transform medium infrared spectroscopy (FT-midIR) for analytical determination of fatty acid profiles, including trans fatty acids, is presented. The training and validation sets-75% (102 samples) and 25% (36 samples) of the samples once the spectral outliers have been removed-to develop FT-midIR general equations, were built with samples from 140 commercial and home-made bakery products. The concentration of the analytes in the samples used for this study is within the typical range found in these kinds of products. Both sets were independent; thus, the validation set was only used for testing the equations. The criterion used for the selection of the validation set was samples with the highest number of neighbours and the most separation between them (H/=0.90, SEP=1-1.5 SEL and R (2)=0.70-0.89, SEP=2-3 SEL, respectively. The results obtained with the proposed method were compared with those provided by the conventional method based on GC-MS. At 95% significance level, the differences between the values obtained for the different fatty acids were within the experimental error.

  9. Chemical Cues which Include Amino Acids Mediate Species-Specific Feeding Behavior in Invasive Filter-Feeding Bigheaded Carps. (United States)

    Claus, Aaron W; Sorensen, Peter W


    This study tested whether and how dissolved chemicals might assist food recognition in two filter-feeding fishes, the silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and the bighead carp (H. nobilis). These species evolved in Asia, are now invasive in the Mississippi River, and feed voraciously on microparticles including plankton. The food habits and biology of these carps are broadly similar to many filter-feeding fish, none of whose chemical ecology has been examined. We conducted five experiments. First, we demonstrated that buccal-pharngeal pumping (BPP), a behavior in which fish pump water into their buccal cavities, is responsible for sampling food: BPP activity in both silver and bighead carps was low and increased nearly 25-fold after exposure to a filtrate of a planktonic food mixture (P amino acids could explain about half of the activity of food filtrate, other unknown chemical stimuli were also implicated. Finally, occlusion experiments showed the olfactory sense has a very important, but not exclusive, role in bigheaded carp feeding behaviors and this might be exploited in both their control and culture.

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can......-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids......; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha...

  11. Health information impact on the relative importance of beef attributes including its enrichment with polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid). (United States)

    Kallas, Zein; Realini, Carolina E; Gil, José Maria


    This paper uses Choice Experiments (CE) to investigate Spanish consumers' preferences towards beef meat enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid). Data were gathered from self-completed questionnaires in a controlled environment with two different samples (320 and 322 consumers) differentiated by the information received. The surveys were carried out in three main Spanish cities (Barcelona, Zaragoza and Pamplona), representing the average consumer. A variation of the "Dual Response Choice Experiments" (DRCE) design was used due to its ability to emphasize the purchase context. Results showed that consumers who received information attach higher preference for enriched meat with polyunsaturated fatty acids. The utility associated with the higher content of fat increase for informed consumers, showing a substitute effect. Informed consumers are willing to accept meat with a higher amount of visible fat if it is enriched with beneficial fatty acids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Health information impact on the relative importance of beef attributes including its enrichment with polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid)


    Kallas, Zein; Realini Cujó, Carolina; Gil Roig, José María


    This paper uses Choice Experiments (CE) to investigate Spanish consumers' preferences towards beef meat enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid). Data were gathered from self-completed questionnaires in a controlled environment with two different samples (320 and 322 consumers) differentiated by the information received. The surveys were carried out in three main Spanish cities (Barcelona, Zaragoza and Pamplona), representing the average consumer. A var...

  13. Lead exposure in two pottery handicraft populations. (United States)

    Molina-Ballesteros, G; Zuñiga-Charles, M A; García-de Alba, J E; Cárdenas-Ortega, A; Solis-Camara, P


    Lead poisoning studies were carried out in the populations of two potter towns in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. The first population in Tonalá included 198 people who use lead monoxide (PbO) in making pottery. The second population in El Rosario included 187 people who do not use any lead salt in the pottery-making process. The studies included children, adolescents and adults of both sexes. Analyses for lead in the blood (Pb-B), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA U) were carried out. In the population exposed to lead, abnormally high lead concentrations in blood and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid were found in both sexes and in all age groups studied. When compared to the control group, the differences are statistically significant. The Hb and Ht results fell within the lower normal limits in both populations. No cases of acute lead poisoning were found, but the high amount of lead absorption in the Tonalá population may be caused by the rudimentary means of manufacturing their products.

  14. Fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta and longissimus muscle from lambs fed silage mixtures including red clover, sainfoin, and timothy. (United States)

    Campidonico, L; Toral, P G; Priolo, A; Luciano, G; Valenti, B; Hervás, G; Frutos, P; Copani, G; Ginane, C; Niderkorn, V


    This work investigated the effects of feeding silage mixtures of a plant containing polyphenol oxidase (PPO; red clover [; RC]), a plant containing tannins (sainfoin [; SF]), and a grass species not containing these compounds (timothy [; T]) on ruminal and intramuscular (i.m.) fatty acids of lambs. Forty 4-mo-old castrated male Romane lambs, divided into 5 groups, received 1 of the following silages: 1) T (100%), 2) a binary mixture of timothy and tannin-containing sainfoin ( cv. Perly; 50:50 [T-SF]), 3) a binary mixture of timothy and PPO-containing red clover ( cv. Mervius; 50:50 [T-RC]), 4) a ternary mixture of timothy, sainfoin, and red clover containing both tannins and PPO (50:25:25, respectively [T-SF-RC]), and 5) a binary mixture of tannin-containing sainfoin and PPO-containing red clover (50:50 [SF-RC]). In the rumen digesta, the partial or total replacement of T with forage legumes was associated with greater concentrations of PUFA ( < 0.001) and 1esser concentrations of MUFA ( < 0.001). The inclusion of forage legumes in the silage favored the accumulation of 18:3 -3 ( < 0.001), with the greatest concentrations being observed in SF-RC. This latter diet also led to the greatest percentage of 18:2 -6 ( < 0.001). Forage legumes decreased the -11 18:1 to 30% of T in rumen digesta ( < 0.001). Forage legumes decreased the total concentration of branched-chain fatty acids in the rumen digesta (on average, -28%; < 0.001), this effect being less marked (-17%; = 0.014) in T-RC in comparison with T. The dietary treatment tended to affect the proportion of MUFA ( = 0.081) and of PUFA ( = 0.079) in the i.m. fat of the LM, respectively, at the highest and lowest numerical value in the T group. The sum of -3 fatty acids was less in the T and T-SF groups compared with the mixture of legumes without T (SF-RC; < 0.001 and < 0.008, respectively). The latter group had also a lesser -6-to--3 ratio than the T-SF group ( = 0.01). -11 18:1 was greater ( < 0.03) in lambs given T

  15. 1-(2-aminophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acid: activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens including Vibrio cholerae (United States)

    Maji, Krishnendu; Haldar, Debasish


    We report a new synthetic aromatic ε-amino acid containing a triazole moiety with antimicrobial potential against Gram-positive, Gram-negative and pathogenic bacteria including Vibrio cholerae. Structure-property relationship studies revealed that all the functional groups are essential to enhance the antimicrobial activity. The 1-(2-aminophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acid was synthesized by click chemistry. From X-ray crystallography, the amino acid adopts a kink-like structure where the phenyl and triazole rings are perpendicular to each other and the amine and acid groups maintain an angle of 60°. The agar diffusion test shows that the amino acid has significant antibacterial activity. The liquid culture test exhibits that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for Bacillus subtilis and Vibrio cholerae is 59.5 µg ml-1. FE-SEM experiments were performed to study the morphological changes of bacterial shape after treatment with compound 1. The antimicrobial activity of the amino acid was further studied by DNA binding and degradation study, protein binding, dye-binding assay and morphological analysis. Moreover, the amino acid does not have any harmful effect on eukaryotes.

  16. Simultaneous optimization of monolayer formation factors, including temperature, to significantly improve nucleic acid hybridization efficiency on gold substrates. (United States)

    Pris, Andrew D; Ostrowski, Sara G; Garaas, Sarah D


    Past literature investigations have optimized various single factors used in the formation of thiolated, single stranded DNA (ss-DNA) monolayers on gold. In this study a more comprehensive approach is taken, where a design of experiment (DOE) is employed to simultaneously optimize all of the factors involved in construction of the capture monolayer used in a fluorescence-based hybridization assay. Statistical analysis of the fluorescent intensities resulting from the DOE provides empirical evidence for the importance and the optimal levels of traditional and novel factors included in this investigation. We report on the statistical importance of a novel factor, temperature of the system during monolayer formation of the capture molecule and lateral spacer molecule, and how proper usage of this temperature factor increased the hybridization signal 50%. An initial theory of how the physical factor of heat is mechanistically supplementing the function of the lateral spacer molecule is provided.

  17. Biosynthesis of vitamin B12: concerning the origin of the methine protons of the corrin nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.I.; Kajiwara, M.; Santander, P.J.


    13C NMR spectroscopy has been used to locate six deuterium atoms incorporated biosynthetically on the periphery of the corrin nucleus of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) derived from cells of Propionibacterium shermanii grown in a medium containing 50% 2 H 2 O and 13 C-enriched delta-aminolevulinic acid. The implications of these results for the mechanism of vitamin B12 biosynthesis are discussed, and it is concluded that the same oxidation level of the intermediates is maintained throughout the biosynthetic pathway, from delta-aminolevulinic acid to corrin

  18. Biosynthesis of vitamin B12: concerning the origin of the methine protons of the corrin nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A.I.; Kajiwara, M.; Santander, P.J.


    13C NMR spectroscopy has been used to locate six deuterium atoms incorporated biosynthetically on the periphery of the corrin nucleus of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) derived from cells of Propionibacterium shermanii grown in a medium containing 50% /sup 2/H/sub 2/O and /sup 13/C-enriched delta-aminolevulinic acid. The implications of these results for the mechanism of vitamin B12 biosynthesis are discussed, and it is concluded that the same oxidation level of the intermediates is maintained throughout the biosynthetic pathway, from delta-aminolevulinic acid to corrin.

  19. 3-(1H-Indol-3-yl-2-(2-nitrobenzenesulfonamidopropanoic acid including an unknown solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Ullah Khan


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H15N3O6S, which crystallized with highly disordered methanol and/or water solvent molecules, the dihedral angle between the the indole and benzene ring systems is 5.3 (2°, which allows for the formation of intramolecular π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid separations = 3.641 (3 and 3.694 (3 Å] and an approximate overall U-shape for the molecule. In the crystal, dimers linked by pairs of Ns—H...Oc (s = sulfonamide and c = carboxylate hydrogen bonds generate R22(10 loops, whereas Ni—H...π (i = indole interactions lead to chains propagating in [100] or [010]. Together, these lead to a three-dimensional network in which the solvent voids are present as intersecting (two-dimensional systems of [100] and [010] channels. The title compound was found to contain a heavily disordered solvent molecule, which could be methanol or water or a mixture of the two. Due to its uncertain nature and the unresolvable disorder, the data were processed with the SQUEEZE option in PLATON [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155], which revealed 877.8 Å3 of solvent-accessible volume per unit cell and 126 electron-units of scattering density or 109.7 Å3 (16 electron units per organic molecule.. This was not included in the calculations of overall formula weight, density and absorption coefficient.

  20. New CE-ESI-MS analytical method for the separation, identification and quantification of seven phenolic acids including three isomer compounds in virgin olive oil. (United States)

    Nevado, Juan José Berzas; Peñalvo, Gregorio Castañeda; Robledo, Virginia Rodríguez; Martínez, Gabriela Vargas


    A sensitive and expeditious CE-ESI-MS analytical method for the separation, identification and determination of seven selected antioxidants (cinnamic and benzoic acids), including three isomers of coumaric acid (ortho-, meta- and para-) has been developed. In order to obtain the analytical separation, capillary electrophoresis and CE-MS interface parameters (e.g., buffer pH and composition, sheath liquid and gas flow rates, sheath liquid composition, electrospray voltage, etc.) were carefully optimized. The polar fraction containing the selected phenolic acids was obtained using a previously optimized SPE pretreatment. An MS detector in order to extract structural information about the target compounds and facilitate their qualitative analysis was used in the negative ion mode. The proposed off-line SPE CE-ESI-MS method was validated by assessing its precision, LODs and LOQs, linearity range and accuracy. The optimized and validated method was used in order to quantify the selected antioxidants in various samples of virgin olive oil and extra-virgin olive oil obtained from the main olive varieties cropped in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. Salicylic acid was used as internal standard throughout in order to ensure reproducibility in the quantitative analysis of the oil samples. The results confirmed the presence of hydroxyphenyl acetic, p-coumaric, ferulic and vanillic acids in substantial amounts (microg g(-1) level) in all samples.

  1. Extension of a PBPK model for ethylene glycol and glycolic acid to include the competitive formation and clearance of metabolites associated with kidney toxicity in rats and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, R.A.; Saghir, S.A.; Bartels, M.J.; Hansen, S.C.; Creim, J.; McMartin, K.E.; Snellings, W.M.


    A previously developed PBPK model for ethylene glycol and glycolic acid was extended to include glyoxylic acid, oxalic acid, and the precipitation of calcium oxalate that is associated with kidney toxicity in rats and humans. The development and evaluation of the PBPK model was based upon previously published pharmacokinetic studies coupled with measured blood and tissue partition coefficients and rates of in vitro metabolism of glyoxylic acid to oxalic acid, glycine and other metabolites using primary hepatocytes isolated from male Wistar rats and humans. Precipitation of oxalic acid with calcium in the kidneys was assumed to occur only at concentrations exceeding the thermodynamic solubility product for calcium oxalate. This solubility product can be affected by local concentrations of calcium and other ions that are expressed in the model using an ion activity product estimated from toxicity studies such that calcium oxalate precipitation would be minimal at dietary exposures below the NOAEL for kidney toxicity in the sensitive male Wistar rat. The resulting integrated PBPK predicts that bolus oral or dietary exposures to ethylene glycol would result in typically 1.4-1.6-fold higher peak oxalate levels and 1.6-2-fold higher AUC's for calcium oxalate in kidneys of humans as compared with comparably exposed male Wistar rats over a dose range of 1-1000 mg/kg. The converse (male Wistar rats predicted to have greater oxalate levels in the kidneys than humans) was found for inhalation exposures although no accumulation of calcium oxalate is predicted to occur until exposures are well in excess of the theoretical saturated vapor concentration of 200 mg/m 3 . While the current model is capable of such cross-species, dose, and route-of-exposure comparisons, it also highlights several areas of potential research that will improve confidence in such predictions, especially at low doses relevant for most human exposures.

  2. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Chlorogenic Acid against Clinical Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia including the Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Resistant Strain (United States)

    Karunanidhi, Arunkumar; Thomas, Renjan; van Belkum, Alex; Neela, Vasanthakumari


    The in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of chlorogenic acid against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was investigated through disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill and biofilm assays. A total of 9 clinical S. maltophilia isolates including one isolate resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) were tested. The inhibition zone sizes for the isolates ranged from 17 to 29 mm, while the MIC and MBC values ranged from 8 to 16 μg mL−1 and 16 to 32 μg mL−1. Chlorogenic acid appeared to be strongly bactericidal at 4x MIC, with a 2-log reduction in viable bacteria at 10 h. In vitro antibiofilm testing showed a 4-fold reduction in biofilm viability at 4x MIC compared to 1x MIC values (0.085 chlorogenic acid. The data from this study support the notion that the chlorogenic acid has promising in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against S. maltophilia. PMID:23509719

  3. Targeted mutation of Δ12 and Δ15 desaturase genes in hemp produce major alterations in seed fatty acid composition including a high oleic hemp oil. (United States)

    Bielecka, Monika; Kaminski, Filip; Adams, Ian; Poulson, Helen; Sloan, Raymond; Li, Yi; Larson, Tony R; Winzer, Thilo; Graham, Ian A


    We used expressed sequence tag library and whole genome sequence mining to identify a suite of putative desaturase genes representing the four main activities required for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemp seed oil. Phylogenetic-based classification and developing seed transcriptome analysis informed selection for further analysis of one of seven Δ12 desaturases and one of three Δ15 desaturases that we designate CSFAD2A and CSFAD3A, respectively. Heterologous expression of corresponding cDNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed CSFAD2A to have Δx+3 activity, while CSFAD3A activity was exclusively at the Δ15 position. TILLING of an ethyl methane sulphonate mutagenized population identified multiple alleles including non-sense mutations in both genes and fatty acid composition of seed oil confirmed these to be the major Δ12 and Δ15 desaturases in developing hemp seed. Following four backcrosses and sibling crosses to achieve homozygosity, csfad2a-1 was grown in the field and found to produce a 70 molar per cent high oleic acid (18:1(Δ9) ) oil at yields similar to wild type. Cold-pressed high oleic oil produced fewer volatiles and had a sevenfold increase in shelf life compared to wild type. Two low abundance octadecadienoic acids, 18:2(Δ6,9) and 18:2(Δ9,15), were identified in the high oleic oil, and their presence suggests remaining endogenous desaturase activities utilize the increased levels of oleic acid as substrate. Consistent with this, CSFAD3A produces 18:2(Δ9,15) from endogenous 18:1(Δ9) when expressed in S. cerevisiae. This work lays the foundation for the development of additional novel oil varieties in this multipurpose low input crop. © 2014 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Nielsen, Morten


    valuable information related to amino acid depletion. Seq2logo aims at resolving these issues allowing the user to include sequence weighting to correct for data redundancy, pseudo counts to correct for low number of observations and different logotype representations each capturing different aspects...

  5. Purification of Peptide Components including Melittin from Bee Venom using gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Chon Choi


    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was conducted to carry out Purification of Melittin and other peptide components from Bee Venom using gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis Methods : Melittin and other peptide components were separated from bee venom by using gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-50 column in 0.05M ammonium acetate buffer. Results : Melittin and other peptide components were separated from bee venom by using gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-50 column in 0.05M ammonium acetate buffer. The fractions obtained from gel filtration chromatography was analyzed by using SDS-PAGE and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The melittin obtained from the gel filtration contained residual amount of phospholipase A2 and a protein with molecular weight of 6,000. The contaminating proteins were removed by the second gel filtration chromatography. Conclusion : Gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are useful to separate peptide components including melittin from bee venom.

  6. Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion. (United States)

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Nielsen, Morten


    Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active sites, etc. in biological sequences. Accurate generation of sequence logos is often compromised by sequence redundancy and low number of observations. Moreover, most methods available for sequence logo generation focus on displaying the position-specific enrichment of amino acids, discarding the equally valuable information related to amino acid depletion. Seq2logo aims at resolving these issues allowing the user to include sequence weighting to correct for data redundancy, pseudo counts to correct for low number of observations and different logotype representations each capturing different aspects related to amino acid enrichment and depletion. Besides allowing input in the format of peptides and MSA, Seq2Logo accepts input as Blast sequence profiles, providing easy access for non-expert end-users to characterize and identify functionally conserved/variable amino acids in any given protein of interest. The output from the server is a sequence logo and a PSSM. Seq2Logo is available at (14 May 2012, date last accessed).

  7. Prediction of oxidation parameters of purified Kilka fish oil including gallic acid and methyl gallate by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and artificial neural network. (United States)

    Asnaashari, Maryam; Farhoosh, Reza; Farahmandfar, Reza


    As a result of concerns regarding possible health hazards of synthetic antioxidants, gallic acid and methyl gallate may be introduced as natural antioxidants to improve oxidative stability of marine oil. Since conventional modelling could not predict the oxidative parameters precisely, artificial neural network (ANN) and neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) modelling with three inputs, including type of antioxidant (gallic acid and methyl gallate), temperature (35, 45 and 55 °C) and concentration (0, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg L(-1) ) and four outputs containing induction period (IP), slope of initial stage of oxidation curve (k1 ) and slope of propagation stage of oxidation curve (k2 ) and peroxide value at the IP (PVIP ) were performed to predict the oxidation parameters of Kilka oil triacylglycerols and were compared to multiple linear regression (MLR). The results showed ANFIS was the best model with high coefficient of determination (R(2)  = 0.99, 0.99, 0.92 and 0.77 for IP, k1 , k2 and PVIP , respectively). So, the RMSE and MAE values for IP were 7.49 and 4.92 in ANFIS model. However, they were to be 15.95 and 10.88 and 34.14 and 3.60 for the best MLP structure and MLR, respectively. So, MLR showed the minimum accuracy among the constructed models. Sensitivity analysis based on the ANFIS model suggested a high sensitivity of oxidation parameters, particularly the induction period on concentrations of gallic acid and methyl gallate due to their high antioxidant activity to retard oil oxidation and enhanced Kilka oil shelf life. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Enteric bacterial metabolites propionic and butyric acid modulate gene expression, including CREB-dependent catecholaminergic neurotransmission, in PC12 cells--possible relevance to autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra B Nankova

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA like propionic (PPA, and butyric acid (BA, which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals

  9. An update on potato crisps contents of moisture, fat, salt and fatty acids (including trans-fatty acids) with special emphasis on new oils/fats used for frying. (United States)

    Gonçalves Albuquerque, Tânia; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Santos, Lèlita; Costa, Helena S


    Eighteen brands of potato crisps, frequently consumed, were analyzed to establish their nutritional value in relation to salt, fat and fatty acid (FA) composition. The purpose of the present study was to determine moisture, total fat, salt contents and FA profiles (including trans-FAs), and to identify the oil/fat used for frying of the 18 brands of potato crisps. Our results show that salt content ranged from 0.127 to 2.77 g/100 g and total fat content of potato crisps varied between 20.0 and 42.8 g/100 g. With respect to FAs analysis, palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) were the major FAs found in the analyzed potato crisps. It is clear from our work that nowadays most potato crisps are currently produced using oils with high contents in unsaturated FAs, which can be considered as healthier from a nutritional point of view. Nevertheless, some brands of potato crisps still use palm oil or a blend of palm oil and other fats/oils, which are very rich in saturated FAs.

  10. Evolution of the Tetrapyrrole Biosynthetic Pathway in Secondary Algae: Conservation, Redundancy and Replacement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cihlář, J.; Füssy, Z.; Horák, A.; Oborník, Miroslav


    Roč. 11, č. 11 (2016), e0166338 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : DELTA-AMINOLEVULINIC-ACID * PLASTID EVOLUTION * EUGLENA-GRACILIS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  11. Functional assignments for the carboxyl-terminal domains of the ferrochelatase from Synechocystis PCC 6803: The CAB domain plays a regulatory role, and region II is essential for catalysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotka, Roman; Tichý, Martin; Wilde, A.; Hunter, C. N.


    Roč. 155, č. 4 (2011), 1735-1747 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : TRANSFER-RNA REDUCTASE * DELTA-AMINOLEVULINIC-ACID * PHOTOSYSTEM-II Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.535, year: 2011

  12. Comparison of Glycomacropeptide with Phenylalanine Free-Synthetic Amino Acids in Test Meals to PKU Patients: No Significant Differences in Biomarkers, Including Plasma Phe Levels. (United States)

    Ahring, Kirsten K; Lund, Allan M; Jensen, Erik; Jensen, Thomas G; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Pedersen, Michael; Bardow, Allan; Holst, Jens Juul; Rehfeld, Jens F; Møller, Lisbeth B


    Management of phenylketonuria (PKU) is achieved through low-phenylalanine (Phe) diet, supplemented with low-protein food and mixture of free-synthetic (FS) amino acid (AA). Casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) is a natural peptide released in whey during cheese-making and does not contain Phe. Lacprodan® CGMP-20 used in this study contained a small amount of Phe due to minor presence of other proteins/peptides. The purpose of this study was to compare absorption of CGMP-20 to FSAA with the aim of evaluating short-term effects on plasma AAs as well as biomarkers related to food intake. This study included 8 patients, who had four visits and tested four drink mixtures (DM1-4), consisting of CGMP, FSAA, or a combination. Plasma blood samples were collected at baseline, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes (min) after the meal. AA profiles and ghrelin were determined 6 times, while surrogate biomarkers were determined at baseline and 240 min. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for evaluation of taste and satiety. The surrogate biomarker concentrations and VAS scores for satiety and taste were nonsignificant between the four DMs, and there were only few significant results for AA profiles (not Phe). CGMP and FSAA had the overall same nonsignificant short-term effect on biomarkers, including Phe. This combination of FSAA and CGMP is a suitable supplement for PKU patients.

  13. Comparison of Glycomacropeptide with Phenylalanine Free-Synthetic Amino Acids in Test Meals to PKU Patients: No Significant Differences in Biomarkers, Including Plasma Phe Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten K. Ahring


    Full Text Available Introduction. Management of phenylketonuria (PKU is achieved through low-phenylalanine (Phe diet, supplemented with low-protein food and mixture of free-synthetic (FS amino acid (AA. Casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP is a natural peptide released in whey during cheese-making and does not contain Phe. Lacprodan® CGMP-20 used in this study contained a small amount of Phe due to minor presence of other proteins/peptides. Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare absorption of CGMP-20 to FSAA with the aim of evaluating short-term effects on plasma AAs as well as biomarkers related to food intake. Methods. This study included 8 patients, who had four visits and tested four drink mixtures (DM1–4, consisting of CGMP, FSAA, or a combination. Plasma blood samples were collected at baseline, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes (min after the meal. AA profiles and ghrelin were determined 6 times, while surrogate biomarkers were determined at baseline and 240 min. A visual analogue scale (VAS was used for evaluation of taste and satiety. Results. The surrogate biomarker concentrations and VAS scores for satiety and taste were nonsignificant between the four DMs, and there were only few significant results for AA profiles (not Phe. Conclusion. CGMP and FSAA had the overall same nonsignificant short-term effect on biomarkers, including Phe. This combination of FSAA and CGMP is a suitable supplement for PKU patients.

  14. Reliable detection of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis by using multiplex qPCR including internal controls for nucleic acid extraction and amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rotterdam Bart J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several pathogens could seriously affect public health if not recognized timely. To reduce the impact of such highly pathogenic micro-organisms, rapid and accurate diagnostic tools are needed for their detection in various samples, including environmental samples. Results Multiplex real-time PCRs were designed for rapid and reliable detection of three major pathogens that have the potential to cause high morbidity and mortality in humans: B. anthracis, F. tularensis and Y. pestis. The developed assays detect three pathogen-specific targets, including at least one chromosomal target, and one target from B. thuringiensis which is used as an internal control for nucleic acid extraction from refractory spores as well as successful DNA amplification. Validation of the PCRs showed a high analytical sensitivity, specificity and coverage of diverse pathogen strains. Conclusions The multiplex qPCR assays that were developed allow the rapid detection of 3 pathogen-specific targets simultaneously, without compromising sensitivity. The application of B. thuringiensis spores as internal controls further reduces false negative results. This ensures highly reliable detection, while template consumption and laboratory effort are kept at a minimum

  15. Diverse Cone-Snail Species Harbor Closely Related Streptomyces Species with Conserved Chemical and Genetic Profiles, Including Polycyclic Tetramic Acid Macrolactams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Quezada


    Full Text Available Streptomyces are Gram-positive bacteria that occupy diverse ecological niches including host-associations with animals and plants. Members of this genus are known for their overwhelming repertoire of natural products, which has been exploited for almost a century as a source of medicines and agrochemicals. Notwithstanding intense scientific and commercial interest in Streptomyces natural products, surprisingly little is known of the intra- and/or inter-species ecological roles played by these metabolites. In this report we describe the chemical structures, biological properties, and biosynthetic relationships between natural products produced by Streptomyces isolated from internal tissues of predatory Conus snails, collected from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Using chromatographic, spectroscopic and bioassays methodology, we demonstrate that Streptomyces isolated from five different Conus species produce identical chemical and antifungal profiles – comprising a suite of polycyclic tetramic acid macrolactams (PTMs. To investigate possible ecological (and evolutionary relationships we used genome analyses to reveal a close taxonomic relationship with other sponge-derived and free-living PTM producing Streptomyces (i.e., Streptomyces albus. In-depth phylogenomic analysis of PTM biosynthetic gene clusters indicated PTM structure diversity was governed by a small repertoire of genetic elements, including discrete gene acquisition events involving dehydrogenases. Overall, our study shows a Streptomyces-Conus ecological relationship that is concomitant with specific PTM chemical profiles. We provide an evolutionary framework to explain this relationship, driven by anti-fungal properties that protect Conus snails from fungal pathogens.

  16. Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, is more pronounced in older adults with elevated plasma folate (United States)

    Background: An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in older adults exposed to folic acid fortification, the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 and elevated folate is associated with higher concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid ...

  17. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma upregulates markers associated with high-grade serous carcinomas including Rsf-1 (HBXAP), cyclin E and fatty acid synthase. (United States)

    Sehdev, Ann Smith; Kurman, Robert J; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Shih, Ie-Ming


    Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) has been proposed as a precursor for many pelvic high-grade serous carcinomas. Our previous analysis of the ovarian cancer genome identified several genes with oncogenic potential that are amplified and/or overexpressed in the majority of high-grade serous carcinomas. Determining whether these genes are upregulated in STICs is important in further elucidating the relationship of STICs to high-grade serous carcinomas and is fundamental in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of high-grade serous carcinomas. In this study, 37 morphologically defined STICs were obtained from 23 patients with stage IIIC/IV high-grade serous carcinomas. Both STICs and the high-grade serous carcinomas were analyzed for expression of Rsf-1 (HBXAP), cyclin E, fatty acid synthase (FASN) and mucin-4. In addition, they were examined for expression of established markers including p53, Ki-67 and p16. We found that diffuse nuclear p53 and p16 immunoreactivity was observed in 27 (75%) of 36 and 18 (55%) of 33 STICs, respectively, whereas an elevated Ki-67 labeling index (>or=10%) was detected in 29 (78%) of 37 STICs. Cyclin E nuclear staining was seen in 24 (77%) of 35 STICs, whereas normal tubal epithelial cells were all negative. Increased Rsf-1 and FASN immunoreactivity occurred in 63%, and 62% of STICs, respectively, compared with adjacent normal-appearing tubal epithelium. Interestingly, only one STIC showed increased mucin-4 immunoreactivity. Carcinomas, when compared with STICs, overexpressed p16, Rsf-1, cyclin E and FASN in a higher proportion of cases. In conclusion, STICs express several markers including Rsf-1, cyclin E and FASN in high-grade serous carcinomas. In contrast, mucin-4 immunoreactivity either did not change or was reduced in most STICs. These results suggest that overexpression of Rsf-1, cyclin E and FASN occurs early in tumor progression.

  18. Impact of Biological Feedback and Incentives on Blood Fatty Acid Concentrations, Including Omega-3 Index, in an Employer-Based Wellness Program. (United States)

    McBurney, Michael I; Bird, Julia K


    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18-30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%). At baseline, the average age ( n = 834) was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8%) than women (5.2%), as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations ( p omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d ( p omega-3 index (+0.21, p omega-3 supplement.

  19. Stereochemistry of C18 monounsaturated cork suberin acids determined by spectroscopic techniques including (1) H-NMR multiplet analysis of olefinic protons. (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Graça, José


    Suberin is a biopolyester responsible for the protection of secondary plant tissues, and yet its molecular structure remains unknown. The C18:1 ω-hydroxyacid and the C18:1 α,ω-diacid are major monomers in the suberin structure, but the configuration of the double bond remains to be elucidated. To unequivocally define the configuration of the C18:1 suberin acids. Pure C18:1 ω-hydroxyacid and C18:1 α,ω-diacid, isolated from cork suberin, and two structurally very close C18:1 model compounds of known stereochemistry, methyl oleate and methyl elaidate, were analysed by NMR spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, and GC-MS. The GC-MS analysis showed that both acids were present in cork suberin as only one geometric isomer. The analysis of dimethyloxazoline (DMOX) and picolinyl derivatives proved the double bond position to be at C-9. The FTIR spectra were concordant with a cis-configuration for both suberin acids, but their unambiguous stereochemical assignment came from the NMR analysis: (i) the chemical shifts of the allylic (13) C carbons were shielded comparatively to the trans model compound, and (ii) the complex multiplets of the olefinic protons could be simulated only with (3) JHH and long-range (4) JHH coupling constants typical of a cis geometry. The two C18:1 suberin acids in cork are (Z)-18-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid and (Z)-octadec-9-enedoic acid. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Therapeutic potential of monoisoamyl and monomethyl esters of meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in gallium arsenide intoxicated rats. (United States)

    Flora, Swaran J S; Mehta, Ashish; Rao, P V Lakshmana; Kannan, Gurusamy M; Bhaskar, A S B; Dube, Shashi N; Pant, Bhagwat P


    The dose dependent effects of monoisoamyl and monomethyl esters of meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mmol kg(-1), intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for 5 days) to offset the characteristic biochemical, immunological, oxidative stress consequences and DNA damage (based on DNA fragmentation and comet assay) following sub-chronic administration of gallium arsenide and the mobilization of gallium and arsenic were examined. The effects of these chelators alone in normal animals too were examined on above-mentioned variables. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 10 mg kg(-1), GaAs, orally once daily for 12 weeks and were administered DMSA or two of its monoesters (monoisoamyl or monomethyl) for 5 consecutive days. DMSA was used as a positive control. DMSA and its derivatives, when given alone, generally have no adverse effects on various parameters. After 5 days of chelation therapy in GaAs pre-exposed rats, MiADMSA was most effective in the reduction of inhibited blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and zinc protoporphyrin level while, all three chelators effectively reduced urinary ALA excretion, compared to GaAs alone exposed rats. MiADMSA was also effective, particularly at a dose of 0.3 mmol kg(-1), in enhancing the inhibited hepatic transaminase activities. Parameters indicative of oxidative stress responded less favorably to the chelation therapy, however, three chelators significantly restored the altered immunological variables. MiADMSA was relatively more effective than the other two chelators. GaAs produced significant DNA damage in the liver and kidneys and the chelation treatment had moderate but significant influence in reducing DNA damage. All three chelators significantly reduced arsenic concentration and, however, MiADMSA was more effective than the other two chelators in depleting arsenic concentration from blood and other soft tissues. A dose of 0.3 mmol kg(-1) was found to be relatively better than the

  1. Arsenic Metabolites, Including N-Acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic Acid, in Chicken Litter from a Roxarsone-Feeding Study Involving 1600 Chickens. (United States)

    Yang, Zonglin; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Liu, Qingqing; Huang, Rongfu; Hu, Bin; Kachanoski, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Le, X Chris


    The poultry industry has used organoarsenicals, such as 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, ROX), to prevent disease and to promote growth. Although previous studies have analyzed arsenic species in chicken litter after composting or after application to agricultural lands, it is not clear what arsenic species were excreted by chickens before biotransformation of arsenic species during composting. We describe here the identification and quantitation of arsenic species in chicken litter repeatedly collected on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 of a Roxarsone-feeding study involving 1600 chickens of two strains. High performance liquid chromatography separation with simultaneous detection by both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry provided complementary information necessary for the identification and quantitation of arsenic species. A new metabolite, N-acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic acid (N-AHAA), was identified, and it accounted for 3-12% of total arsenic. Speciation analyses of litter samples collected from ROX-fed chickens on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 showed the presence of N-AHAA, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-AHPAA), inorganic arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), and ROX. 3-AHPAA accounted for 3-19% of the total arsenic. Inorganic arsenicals (the sum of As(III) and As(V)) comprised 2-6% (mean 3.5%) of total arsenic. Our results on the detection of inorganic arsenicals, methylarsenicals, 3-AHPAA, and N-AHAA in the chicken litter support recent findings that ROX is actually metabolized by the chicken or its gut microbiome. The presence of the toxic metabolites in chicken litter is environmentally relevant as chicken litter is commonly used as fertilizer.

  2. Parenteral nutrition including an omega-3 fatty-acid-containing lipid emulsion for intensive care patients in China: a pharmacoeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Y


    Full Text Available Yufei Feng,1 Chao Li,1 Tian Zhang,1 Lorenzo Pradelli2 1Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2AdRes Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Piazza Carlo Emanuele II, Torino, Italy Background/objectives: Parenteral nutrition (PN incorporating omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsions has been shown to be cost effective in Western populations. A pharmacoeconomic evaluation was performed within the Chinese intensive care unit (ICU setting. This assessed whether the additional acquisition cost of PN with omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsion (SMOFlipid vs standard PN was offset by improved clinical outcomes that can reduce subsequent costs. Materials and methods: A pharmacoeconomic discrete event simulation model was developed, based on an update to efficacy data from a previous international meta-analysis, with China-specific clinical and economic input parameters. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess the effects of uncertainty around input parameters. Results: The model predicted that PN with an omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsion was more effective and less costly than PN with standard lipid emulsions for Chinese ICU patients, as follows: reduced length of overall hospital length of stay (19.48 vs 21.35 days, respectively, reduced length of ICU stay (5.03 vs 6.18 days, respectively, and prevention of 35.6% of nosocomial infections leading to a lower total cost per patient (¥47 189 [US $6937] vs ¥54 783 [US $8053], respectively. Additional treatment costs were offset by savings in overall hospital and ICU stay cost, and antibiotic cost, resulting in a mean cost saving of ¥7594 (US $1116 per patient. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these findings. Conclusions: PN enriched with an omega-3 fatty-acid-containing lipid emulsion vs standard PN may be effective in reducing length of hospital and ICU stay and infectious complications in

  3. Deciphering the mechanisms involved in Portulaca oleracea (C4) response to drought: metabolic changes including crassulacean acid-like metabolism induction and reversal upon re-watering. (United States)

    D'Andrea, Rodrigo Matías; Andreo, Carlos Santiago; Lara, María Valeria


    Portulaca oleracea is a C(4) plant; however, under drought it can change its carbon fixation metabolism into a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)-like one. While the C(3) -CAM shift is well known, the C(4) -CAM transition has only been described in Portulaca. Here, a CAM-like metabolism was induced in P. oleracea by drought and then reversed by re-watering. Physiological and biochemical approaches were undertaken to evaluate the drought and recovery responses. In CAM-like plants, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were transitory affected and non-radiative energy dissipation mechanisms were induced. Induction of flavonoids, betalains and antioxidant machinery may be involved in photosynthetic machinery protection. Metabolic analysis highlights a clear metabolic shift, when a CAM-like metabolism is induced and then reversed. Increases in nitrogenous compounds like free amino acids and urea, and of pinitol could contribute to withstand drought. Reciprocal variations in arginase and urease in drought-stressed and in re-watered plants suggest urea synthesis is strictly regulated. Recovery of C(4) metabolism was accounted by CO(2) assimilation pattern and malate levels. Increases in glycerol and in polyamines would be of importance of re-watered plants. Collectively, in P. oleracea multiple strategies, from induction of several metabolites to the transitory development of a CAM-like metabolism, participate to enhance its adaptation to drought. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Dietary flax oil rich in α-linolenic acid reduces renal disease and oxylipin abnormalities, including formation of docosahexaenoic acid derived oxylipins in the CD1-pcy/pcy mouse model of nephronophthisis. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tamio; Devassy, Jessay G; Gabbs, Melissa; Ravandi, Amir; Nagao, Shizuko; Aukema, Harold M


    The CD1-pcy/pcy mouse model of nephronophthisis displays reduced renal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and alterations in renal cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase oxylipins derived from n-6 fatty acids. Since dietary flax oil ameliorates disease progression, its effect on renal fatty acids and oxylipins was examined. Sixteen weeks of feeding resulted in reduced disease progression and enrichment of renal phospholipid α-linolenic acid (ALA) and eicosapentaenoic acid, reduction in arachidonic acid (AA), but no change in linoleic acid (LA) or DHA. In diseased kidneys, flax oil feeding mitigated the elevated levels of renal cyclooxygenase derived oxylipins formed from AA and the lowered lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 derived oxylipins formed from ALA and DHA. Increased DHA oxylipins occurred with flax feeding despite not altering DHA levels. Dietary flax oil may therefore reduce disease progression via mitigation of oxylipin abnormalities. This study also provides evidence of in vivo ALA conversion to DHA in amounts necessary to restore DHA oxylipin levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Amino acid profiles of rumen undegradable protein: a comparison between forages including cereal straws and alfalfa and their respective total mixed rations. (United States)

    Wang, B; Jiang, L S; Liu, J X


    Optimizing the amino acid (AA) profile of rumen undegradable protein (RUP) can positively affect the amount of milk protein. This study was conducted to improve knowledge regarding the AA profile of rumen undegradable protein from corn stover, rice straw and alfalfa hay as well as the total mixed ratio diets (TMR) based on one of them as forage source [forage-to-concentrate ratio of 45:55 (30% of corn stover (CS), 30% of rice straw (RS), 23% of alfalfa hay (AH) and dry matter basis)]. The other ingredients in the three TMR diets were similar. The RUP of all the forages and diets was estimated by incubation for 16 hr in the rumen of three ruminally cannulated lactating cows. All residues were corrected for microbial colonization, which was necessary in determining the AA composition of RUP from feed samples using in situ method. Compared with their original AA composition, the AA pattern of forages and forage-based diets changed drastically after rumen exposure. In addition, the extent of ruminal degradation of analysed AA was not constant among the forages. The greatest individual AA degradability of alfalfa hay and corn stover was Pro, but was His of rice straw. A remarkable difference was observed between microbial attachment corrected and uncorrected AA profiles of RUP, except for alfalfa hay and His in the three forages and TMR diets. The ruminal AA degradability of cereal straws was altered compared with alfalfa hay but not for the TMR diets. In summary, the AA composition of forages and TMR-based diets changed significantly after ruminal exposure, indicating that the original AA profiles of the feed cannot represent its AA composition of RUP. The AA profile of RUP and ruminal AA degradability for corn stover and rice straw contributed to missing information in the field. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Design, Synthesis, and in Vitro Pharmacology of New Radiolabeled γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid Analogues Including Photolabile Analogues with Irreversible Binding to the High-Affinity γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbatini, Paola; Wellendorph, Petrine; Høg, Signe


    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a psychotropic compound endogenous to the brain. Despite its potential physiological significance, the complete molecular mechanisms of action remain unexplained. To facilitate the isolation and identification of the high-affinity GHB binding site, we herein report...

  7. Gas–liquid chromatographic method for analysing complex mixtures of fatty acids including conjugated linoleic acids (cis9trans11 and trans10cis12 isomers) and long-chain (n-3 or n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids: Application to the intramuscular fat of beef meat


    Aldai, Noelia; Osoro, Koldo; Barrón, L.J. (L.); Nájera, A.I. (A.)


    The optimisation and validation of a gas–liquid chromatographic (GLC) method using direct saponification with KOH/methanol followed by a derivatization with (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane was carried out trying to overcome all the difficulties posed by the analysis of complex mixtures of fatty acids (FAs) in animal fat tissues. The presented method allowed sensitive, selective and simultaneous determination of a wide range of different FAs, including short-chain FAs, branched-chain FAs and conj...

  8. Evolution of the Tetrapyrrole Biosynthetic Pathway in Secondary Algae: Conservation, Redundancy and Replacement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cihlář, Jaromír; Füssy, Zoltán; Horák, Aleš; Oborník, Miroslav


    Roč. 11, č. 11 (2016), č. článku e0166338. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1522 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : delta aminolevulinic acid * plastid evolution * Euglena gracilis * gene transfer * diatom endosymbionts * Bigelowiella natans * chloroplast genome * sequence alignment * nuclear genomes * protein import Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  9. Lead and PCB's in canvasback ducks: Relationship between enzyme levels and residues in blood (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.; Perry, M.C.; Mulhern, B.M.


    Blood samples were taken for two successive years from canvasback ducks trapped in the Chesapeake Bay. The first winter (1972?1973) five plasma enzymes known to respond to organochlorine poisoning were examined. Abnormal enzyme elevations suggested that 20% of the population sampled (23/115 ducks) might contain organochlorine contaminants, but no residue analyses were performed. The second winter (1974) two of the same enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, and a third enzyme known to be specifically inhibited by lead, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, were assayed in 95 blood samples. Blood residues of organochlorine compounds and of lead were determined in representative samples, and the correlations between residue levels and enzyme changes were examined. The enzyme bioassays in 1974 indicated that lead was a more prevalent environmental contaminant than organochlorine compounds in canvasback ducks; 17% of the blood samples had less than one-half of the normal delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, but only 11% exhibited abnormal aspartate aminotransferase or lactate dehydrogenase activities. These findings were confirmed by residue analyses that demonstrated lead concentrations four times higher than background levels, but only relatively low organochlorine concentrations. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and blood lead concentrations (Pheme synthesis and is regarded as detrimental in humans.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of primary aliphatic saturated or unsaturated alcohols/aldehydes/acids/acetals/esters with a second primary, secondary or tertiary oxygenated functional group including aliphatic lactones (chemical group 9) when used as flavourings for all animal species


    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)


    Chemical group 9 consists of primary aliphatic saturated or unsaturated alcohols/aldehydes/acids/acetals/esters with a second primary, secondary or tertiary oxygenated functional group including aliphatic lactones, of which 30 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The FEEDAP Panel was unable to perform an assessment of 2-oxopropanal because of issues related to the purity of the compound. The FEEDAP Panel concludes that lactic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, 4-oxov...

  11. A composite model including visfatin, tissue polypeptide-specific antigen, hyaluronic acid, and hematological variables for the diagnosis of moderate-to-severe fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Chwist, Alina; Hartleb, Marek; Lekstan, Andrzej; Kukla, Michał; Gutkowski, Krzysztof; Kajor, Maciej


    Histopathological risk factors for end-stage liver failure in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) include nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced liver fibrosis. There is a need for noninvasive diagnostic methods for these 2 conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate new laboratory variables with a predictive potential to detect advanced fibrosis (stages 2 and 3) in NAFLD. The study involved 70 patients with histologically proven NAFLD of varied severity. Additional laboratory variables included zonulin, haptoglobin, visfatin, adiponectin, leptin, tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPSA), hyaluronic acid, and interleukin 6. Patients with NASH (NAFLD activity score of ≥5) had significantly higher HOMA-IR values and serum levels of visfatin, haptoglobin, and zonulin as compared with those without NASH on histological examination. Advanced fibrosis was found in 16 patients (22.9%) and the risk factors associated with its prevalence were age, the ratio of erythrocyte count to red blood cell distribution width, platelet count, and serum levels of visfatin and TPSA. Based on these variables, we constructed a scoring system that differentiated between NAFLD patients with and without advanced fibrosis with a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 100% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.93). The scoring system based on the above variables allows to predict advanced fibrosis with high sensitivity and specificity. However, its clinical utility should be verified in further studies involving a larger number of patients.

  12. The RNA-Binding Chaperone Hfq Is an Important Global Regulator of Gene Expression in Pasteurella multocida and Plays a Crucial Role in Production of a Number of Virulence Factors, Including Hyaluronic Acid Capsule. (United States)

    Mégroz, Marianne; Kleifeld, Oded; Wright, Amy; Powell, David; Harrison, Paul; Adler, Ben; Harper, Marina; Boyce, John D


    The Gram-negative bacterium Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of a number of economically important animal diseases, including avian fowl cholera. Numerous P. multocida virulence factors have been identified, including capsule, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and filamentous hemagglutinin, but little is known about how the expression of these virulence factors is regulated. Hfq is an RNA-binding protein that facilitates riboregulation via interaction with small noncoding RNA (sRNA) molecules and their mRNA targets. Here, we show that a P. multocida hfq mutant produces significantly less hyaluronic acid capsule during all growth phases and displays reduced in vivo fitness. Transcriptional and proteomic analyses of the hfq mutant during mid-exponential-phase growth revealed altered transcript levels for 128 genes and altered protein levels for 78 proteins. Further proteomic analyses of the hfq mutant during the early exponential growth phase identified 106 proteins that were produced at altered levels. Both the transcript and protein levels for genes/proteins involved in capsule biosynthesis were reduced in the hfq mutant, as were the levels of the filamentous hemagglutinin protein PfhB2 and its secretion partner LspB2. In contrast, there were increased expression levels of three LPS biosynthesis genes, encoding proteins involved in phosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine addition to LPS, suggesting that these genes are negatively regulated by Hfq-dependent mechanisms. Taken together, these data provide the first evidence that Hfq plays a crucial role in regulating the global expression of P. multocida genes, including the regulation of key P. multocida virulence factors, capsule, LPS, and filamentous hemagglutinin. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Mefenamic Acid (United States)

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  14. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew


    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  15. Optical modulator including grapene (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang


    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  16. Dietary echium oil increases long-chain n-3 PUFAs, including docosapentaenoic acid, in blood fractions and alters biochemical markers for cardiovascular disease independently of age, sex, and metabolic syndrome. (United States)

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Fuhrmann, Claudia; Köhler, Melanie; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard


    Dietary supplementation with echium oil (EO) containing stearidonic acid (SDA) is a plant-based strategy to improve long-chain (LC) n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status in humans. We investigated the effect of EO on LC n-3 PUFA accumulation in blood and biochemical markers with respect to age, sex, and metabolic syndrome. This double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized controlled study started with a 2-wk run-in period, during which participants (n = 80) were administered 17 g/d run-in oil. Normal-weight individuals from 2 age groups (20-35 and 49-69 y) were allotted to EO or fish oil (FO; control) groups. During the 8-wk intervention, participants were administered either 17 g/d EO (2 g SDA; n = 59) or FO [1.9 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); n = 19]. Overweight individuals with metabolic syndrome (n = 19) were recruited for EO treatment only. During the 10-wk study, the participants followed a dietary n-3 PUFA restriction, e.g., no fish. After the 8-wk EO treatment, increases in the LC n-3 metabolites EPA (168% and 79%) and docosapentaenoic acid [DPA (68% and 39%)] were observed, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreased (-5% and -23%) in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. Compared with FO, the efficacy of EO to increase EPA and DPA in blood was significantly lower (∼25% and ∼50%, respectively). A higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with lower relative and net increases in EPA and DPA. Compared with baseline, EO significantly reduced serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, and triglyceride (TG), but also HDL cholesterol, regardless of age and BMI. In the FO group, only TG decreased. Overall, daily intake of 15-20 g EO increased EPA and DPA in blood but had no influence on DHA. EO lowered cardiovascular risk markers, e.g., serum TG, which is particularly relevant for individuals with metabolic syndrome. Natural EO could be a noteworthy source of n-3 PUFA in human nutrition.

  17. European Food Safety Authority; Outcome of the Public consultation on the Draft Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    On 2 July 2009, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) endorsed a draft Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats to be released for public consultation. This Scientific Report summarises the comments received through the public consultation and outlines how...... these were taken into account in the final opinion. EFSA had received contributions from 40 interested parties (individuals, non-governmental organisations, industry organisations, academia and national assessment bodies). The main comments which were received during the public consultation related to......: the availability of more recent data, the nomenclature used, the use of a non-European food composition data base, the impact of genetic factors in modulating the absorption, metabolism and health effects of different fatty acids, the definition of “nutritionally adequate diet”, the use of Dietary Reference Values...

  18. Theoretical study on molecular structure and vibrational analysis included FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV techniques of 2,4,5-trimethylbenzoic acid (monomer and dimer structures). (United States)

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Bilgili, Sibel; Atac, Ahmet


    Theoretical study on the structural and vibrational analysis of monomer and dimer structures of 2,4,5-trimethylbenzoic acid (2,4,5-TMBA, C₁₀H₁₂O₂) were presented. The geometry of the molecule was fully optimized. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and the Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectra of the title molecule in solid phase were recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 4000-50 cm(-1), respectively. The geometrical parameters and energies were investigated with the help of Density Functional Theory (DFT) employing B3LYP method and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated by using DFT/B3LYP method with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The vibrational spectra were calculated and fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes. The geometric parameters were compared with experimental data of the title molecule. The UV absorption spectrum of the studied compound was computed and recorded in the range of 190-400 nm dissolved in water and ethanol. Besides, charge transfer occurring in the molecule between HOMO and LUMO energies, frontier energy gap, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were calculated and presented. In addition these, thermodynamic properties and Mulliken atomic charges were performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection and enumeration of methanotrophs in acidic Sphagnum peat by 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization, including the use of newly developed oligonucleotide probes for Methylocella palustris. (United States)

    Dedysh, S N; Derakshani, M; Liesack, W


    Two 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes, Mcell-1026 and Mcell-181, were developed for specific detection of the acidophilic methanotroph Methylocella palustris using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The fluorescence signal of probe Mcell-181 was enhanced by its combined application with the oligonucleotide helper probe H158. Mcell-1026 and Mcell-181, as well as 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes with reported group specificity for either type I methanotrophs (probes M-84 and M-705) or the Methylosinus/Methylocystis group of type II methanotrophs (probes MA-221 and M-450), were used in FISH to determine the abundance of distinct methanotroph groups in a Sphagnum peat sample of pH 4.2. M. palustris was enumerated at greater than 10(6) cells per g of peat (wet weight), while the detectable population size of type I methanotrophs was three orders of magnitude below the population level of M. palustris. The cell counts with probe MA-221 suggested that only 10(4) type II methanotrophs per g of peat (wet weight) were present, while the use of probe M-450 revealed more than 10(6) type II methanotroph cells per g of the same samples. This discrepancy was due to the fact that probe M-450 targets almost all currently known strains of Methylosinus and Methylocystis, whereas probe MA-221, originally described as group specific, does not detect a large proportion of Methylocystis strains. The total number of methanotrophic bacteria detected by FISH was 3.0 (+/-0.2) x 10(6) cells per g (wet weight) of peat. This was about 0.8% of the total bacterial cell number. Thus, our study clearly suggests that M. palustris and a defined population of Methylocystis spp. were the predominant methanotrophs detectable by FISH in an acidic Sphagnum peat bog.

  20. Association between blood lead and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Kwee, Lydia C; Allen, Kelli D; Umbach, David M; Ye, Weimin; Watson, Mary; Keller, Jean; Oddone, Eugene Z; Sandler, Dale P; Schmidt, Silke; Kamel, Freya


    The authors conducted a 2003-2007 case-control study including 184 cases and 194 controls to examine the association between blood lead and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) among US veterans and to explore the influence on this association of bone turnover and genetic factors related to lead toxicokinetics. Blood lead, plasma biomarkers of bone formation (procollagen type 1 amino-terminal peptide (PINP)) and resorption (C-terminal telopeptides of type 1 collagen (CTX)), and the K59N polymorphism in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase gene, ALAD, were measured. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of blood lead with ALS were estimated with unconditional logistic regression after adjustment for age and bone turnover. Blood lead levels were higher among cases compared with controls (P lead was associated with a 1.9-fold increased risk of ALS (95% confidence interval: 1.3, 2.7) after adjustment for age and CTX. Additional adjustment for PINP did not alter the results. Significant lead-ALS associations were observed in substrata of PINP and CTX levels. The K59N polymorphism in the ALAD gene did not modify the lead-ALS association (P = 0.32). These results extend earlier findings by accounting for bone turnover in confirming the association between elevated blood lead level and higher risk of ALS.

  1. Biochemical and hematological analysis in acute intermittent porphyria (AIP: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Acute intermittent porphyria is the most common acute porphyria caused by a decrease in hepatic porphobilinogen deaminase activity, resulting in an accumulation of delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen. This disease shows nonspecific signs and symptoms that can be confused with other diseases, thereby making the diagnosis difficult. We report a case of acute intermittent porphyria, reviewing clinical and laboratory aspects, highlighting the hematological and biochemical parameters during and after the crisis. A female patient, aged 28 years, suffered two crises, both presenting gastrointestinal disorders. The second presented neuropsychiatric symptoms. The analysis of hematological and biochemical parameters during the second crisis showed anemia, leukocytosis, hyponatremia, mild hypokalemia, uremia and elevated C-reactive protein. The initial treatment included glucose infusion, a diet rich in carbohydrates and interruption of porphyrinogenic drugs. Subsequently, treatment was maintained with oral contraceptive use. According to the observed data, signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal, neurological and psychiatric disorders, associated with laboratory results presented in this paper can be applied to screen acute porphyria, contributing to early diagnosis.

  2. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K


    Okadaic acid (OA) is a polyether fatty acid produced by marine dinoflagellates and the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The effect of OA on apical endocytosis in the small intestine was studied in organ cultured porcine mucosal explants. Within 0.5-1 h of culture, the toxin caused...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....

  3. Heme synthesis in normal mouse liver and mouse liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, D.L.; Becker, F.F.


    Hepatic cancers from mice and rats demonstrate decreased levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the heme synthetic pathway, and increased heme oxygenase, the heme-catabolizing enzyme. These findings suggest that diminution of P-450, b5, and catalase in these lesions may result from a heme supply that is limited by decreased heme synthesis and increased heme catabolism. Heme synthesis was measured in mouse liver tumors (MLT) and adjacent tumor-free lobes (BKG) by administering the radiolabeled heme precursors 55 FeCl3 and [2- 14 C]glycine and subsequently extracting the heme for determination of specific activity. Despite reduced delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase activity in MLT, both tissues incorporated [2-14C]glycine into heme at similar rates. At early time points, heme extracted from MLT contained less 55Fe than that from BKG. This was attributed to the findings that MLT took up 55Fe at a slower rate than BKG and had larger iron stores than BKG. The amount of heme per milligram of protein was also similar in both tissues. These findings militate against the hypothesis that diminished hemoprotein levels in MLT result from limited availability of heme. It is probable, therefore, that decreased hemoprotein levels in hepatic tumors are linked to a general program of dedifferentiation associated with the cancer phenotype. Diminution of hemoprotein in MLT may result in a relatively increased intracellular heme pool. delta-Aminolevulinic acid synthase and heme oxygenase are, respectively, negatively and positively regulated by heme. Thus, their alteration in MLT may be due to the regulatory influences of the heme pool

  4. Fluorescence investigations to classify malignant laryngeal lesions in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydell, Roland; Eker, Charlotta; Andersson-Engels, Stefan


    administration of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)) were investigated with laser-induced fluorescence, and the results correlated to histopathologic grading in 4 groups: non/mild dysplasia (I), moderate dysplasia (II), severe dysplasia/cancer in situ (III), and carcinoma. RESULTS: At 337-nm excitation, there were...... differences in the fluorescence ratio I(431)/I(390) between groups I/III and carcinoma. Following 405-nm excitation, I(500 nm) group I differed significantly from group III and cancer. The sensitivity for the fluorescence method was 89%, and the specificity was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: There are differences...... in the in vivo tissue fluorescence between tissue with different gradings of dysplasia and carcinoma....

  5. Power generation method including membrane separation (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.


    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  6. The onset of hemoglobin synthesis in spleens of irradiated mice after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponka, P.; Fuchs, O.; Borova, J.; Necas, E.


    Messenger RNA (mRNA) for globin was isolated from spleens of irradiated mice in which erythroid differentiation was induced by a bone marrow graft. The globin mRNA was isolated either by means of sucrose gradients of reticulocyte polysomal RNA or by affinity chromatography of total spleen RNA on poly (U)-sepharose. The globin mRNA was tested in a wheat embryo cell-free system. The appearance of mRNA in the spleen erythroid colonies was correlated with other parameters of erythroid differentiation such as globin synthesis, activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and iron uptake. Poly(A) containing mRNA did appear already on the 3rd day after grafting. However, significant translational activity of globin mRNA could be demonstrated only one day later together with increase in globin synthesis and delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and enhanced iron uptake. In the second part of this study mouse spleen cells rich in erythroid elements were incubated with a specific heme synthesis inhibitor (isonicotinic acid hydrazide, INH) and the synthesis of 9 S RNA was estimated. It was found that a 40-minute incubation with INH reduced uridine incorporation into 9 S RNA fraction by about 40%. (author)

  7. Omega-6 Fatty Acids (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  8. Sublethal effects of chronic lead ingestion in mallard ducks (United States)

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.; Locke, L.N.


    Mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos) fed 1, 5, or 25 ppm lead nitrate were bled and sacrificed at 3-wk intervals. No mortality occurred, and the pathologic lesions usually associated with lead poisoning were not found. Changes in hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration did not occur. After 3-wk ducks fed 25 ppm lead exhibited a 40% inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity that persisted through 12 wk exposure. After 12 wk treatment similar enzyme inhibition was present in the ducks fed 5 ppm lead. At 3 wk there was a small accumulation of lead (less than 1 ppm) in the liver and kidneys of ducks fed 25ppm lead; no further increases occurred throughout the exposure. No significant accumulation of lead occurred the the tibiae or wing bones. Groups of ducks fed 5 and 25 ppm diets for 12 wk were placed on clean feed and examined through a 12 wk posttreatment period. After 3 wk on clean diet delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and lead concentrations in the blood had returned to pretreatment levels. Even though lead concentrations in the blood, soft organs and bone were low, a highly significant negative correlation between blood lead and blood enzyme activity was obtained. This enzyme bioassay should provide a sensitive and precise estimate for monitoring lead in the blood for waterflow.

  9. Acquisition of iron from transferrin regulates reticulocyte heme synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponka, P.; Schulman, H.M.


    Fe-salicylaldehyde isonicotinoylhydrazone (SIH), which can donate iron to reticulocytes without transferrin as a mediator, has been utilized to test the hypothesis that the rate of iron uptake from transferrin limits the rate of heme synthesis in erythroid cells. Reticulocytes take up 59 Fe from [ 59 Fe]SIH and incorporate it into heme to a much greater extent than from saturating concentrations of [ 59 Fe]transferrin. Also, Fe-SIH stimulates [2- 14 C]glycine into heme when compared to the incorporation observed with saturating levels of Fe-transferrin. In addition, delta-aminolevulinic acid does not stimulate 59 Fe incorporation into heme from either [ 59 Fe]transferrin or [ 59 Fe]SIH but does reverse the inhibition of 59 Fe incorporation into heme caused by isoniazid, an inhibitor of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. Taken together, these results suggest the hypothesis that some step(s) in the pathway of iron from extracellular transferrin to intracellular protoporphyrin limits the overall rate of heme synthesis in reticulocytes

  10. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  11. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.


    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  12. Amino acids and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H.; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.


    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional

  13. Toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mute swans (United States)

    Day, D.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Hoffman, D.J.; Morton, Alexandra; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; Ottinger, M.A.


    Most ecotoxicological risk assessments of wildlife emphasize contaminant exposure through ingestion of food and water. However, the role of incidental ingestion of sediment-bound contaminants has not been adequately appreciated in these assessments. This study evaluates the toxicological consequences of contamination of sediments with metals from hard-rock mining and smelting activities. Lead-contaminated sediments collected from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in Idaho were combined with either a commercial avian maintenance diet or ground rice and fed to captive mute swans (Cygnus olor) for 6 weeks. Experimental treatments consisted of maintenance or rice diets containing 0, 12 (no rice group), or 24% highly contaminated (3,950 ug/g lead) sediment or 24% reference (9.7 ug/g lead) sediment. Although none of the swans died, the group fed a rice diet containing 24% lead-contaminated sediment were the most severely affected, experiencing a 24% decrease in mean body weight, including three birds that became emaciated. All birds in this treatment group had nephrosis; abnormally dark, viscous bile; and significant (p treatment groups. After 14 days of exposure, mean protoporphyrin concentrations increased substantially, and mean delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity decreased by more than 95% in all groups fed diets containing highly contaminated sediments. All swans fed diets that contained 24% lead-contaminated sediment had renal acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies, which are diagnostic of lead poisoning in waterfowl. Body weight and hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations in swans on control (no sediment) and reference (uncontaminated) sediment diets remained unchanged. These data provide evidence that mute swans consuming environmentally relevant concentrations of Coeur d'Alene River Basin sediment developed severe sublethal lead poisoning. Furthermore, toxic effects were more pronounced when the birds were fed lead contaminated sediment combined with

  14. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  15. Assessment of essential and nonessential metals and different metal exposure biomarkers in the human placenta in a population from the south of Portugal. (United States)

    Serafim, A; Company, R; Lopes, B; Rosa, J; Cavaco, A; Castela, G; Castela, E; Olea, N; Bebianno, M J


    The general population is exposed to metals as trace amounts of metallic compounds are present in air, water, and food. Information on background exposures and biomarker concentrations of environmental chemicals in the general Portuguese population is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the levels of important nonessential metals with recognized toxicity cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) and essential metals copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), and zinc (Zn) in placentas of mothers living in south Portugal (Algarve). Due to the difficulty in establishing the effects of chemicals in a complex and variable environment, this study also aimed to examine the response of biomarkers, such as biochemical changes that occurs at subcellular levels in the presence of contaminants. The investigated biomarkers in placentas indicative of metal exposure or damage included the metallothioneins (MT), delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) (specific for Pb), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) as an index of oxidative stress damage. Moreover, HJ-BIPLOT was applied in order to identify and categorize mothers vulnerable to environmental contamination in this region. Metal concentrations in the placenta were not excessive but within the range found in most European studies. In general, the biomarkers MT and LPO were positively correlated with metal levels, while with ALAD the opposite occurred, indicating the selected battery of biomarkers were suitable to study the effects of metals on human placenta. Further, the application of multivariate analysis with HJ-BIPLOT showed that most significant factors contributing to maternal and fetal exposures via placenta were dietary and smoking habits.

  16. Folic Acid (United States)

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  17. Early life adversity and/or posttraumatic stress disorder severity are associated with poor diet quality, including consumption of trans fatty acids, and fewer hours of resting or sleeping in a US middle-aged population: A cross-sectional and prospective study. (United States)

    Gavrieli, Anna; Farr, Olivia M; Davis, Cynthia R; Crowell, Judith A; Mantzoros, Christos S


    Early life adversity (ELA) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with poorer psychological and physical health. Potential underlying mechanisms and mediators remain to be elucidated, and the lifestyle habits and characteristics of individuals with ELA and/or PTSD have not been fully explored. We investigated whether the presence of ELA and/or PTSD are associated with nutrition, physical activity, resting and sleeping and smoking. A cross-sectional sample of 151 males and females (age: 45.6±3.5 years, BMI: 30.0±7.1 kg/m(2)) underwent anthropometric measurements, as well as detailed questionnaires for dietary assessment, physical activity, resting and sleeping, smoking habits and psychosocial assessments. A prospective follow-up visit of 49 individuals was performed 2.5 years later and the same outcomes were assessed. ELA and PTSD were evaluated as predictors, in addition to a variable assessing the combined presence/severity of ELA-PTSD. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance after adjusting for several socioeconomic, psychosocial and anthropometric characteristics. Individuals with higher ELA or PTSD severity were found to have a poorer diet quality (DASH score: p=0.006 and p=0.003, respectively; aHEI-2010 score: ELA p=0.009), including further consumption of trans fatty acids (ELA p=0.003); the differences were significantly attenuated null after adjusting mainly for education or income and/or race. Further, individuals with higher ELA severity reported less hours of resting and sleeping (p=0.043) compared to those with zero/lower ELA severity, and the difference remained significant in the fully adjusted model indicating independence from potential confounders. When ELA and PTSD were combined, an additive effect was observed on resting and sleeping (p=0.001); results remained significant in the fully adjusted model. They also consumed more energy from trans fatty acids (p=0.017) tended to smoke more (p=0.008), and have less physical

  18. CDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil


    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  19. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.


    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  20. Acid Rain: What It Is -- How You Can Help! (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication discusses the nature and consequences of acid precipitation (commonly called acid rain). Topic areas include: (1) the chemical nature of acid rain; (2) sources of acid rain; (3) geographic areas where acid rain is a problem; (4) effects of acid rain on lakes; (5) effect of acid rain on vegetation; (6) possible effects of acid rain…

  1. Fatty acid-producing hosts (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M


    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at C. are also described.

  2. The acid rain primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, O.


    Acid rain continues to be a major problem in North America, and particularly in eastern Canada. This report introduced the topic of acid rain and discussed its formation, measurement, sources, and geographic distribution. The major sources of sulphur dioxide in Canada are smelting metals, burning coal for electrical power generation, industrial emissions (e.g., pulp and paper, petroleum and aluminum industry), and oil and gas extraction and refining. In Canada, the largest source of nitrogen oxide is the burning of fossil fuels by the transportation sector. Problem areas for acid rain in Canada were identified. The effects of acid rain were examined on lakes and aquatic ecosystems, forests and soils, human-made structures and materials, human health, and on visibility. Acid rain policies and programs were then presented from a historical and current context. Ecosystem recovery from acid rain was discussed with reference to acid rain monitoring, atmospheric response to reductions in acid-causing emissions, and ecosystem recovery of lakes, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Challenges affecting ecosystem recovery were also presented. These challenges include drought and dry weather, decrease of base cations in precipitation, release of sulphate previously stored in soil, mineralization and immobilization of sulphur/sulphates. Last, the report discussed what still needs to be done to improve the problem of acid rain as well as future concerns. These concerns include loss of base cations from forested watersheds and nitrogen deposition and saturation. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs

  3. Ascorbic Acid (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  4. Obeticholic Acid (United States)

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  5. Aminocaproic Acid (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  6. Ethacrynic Acid (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  7. Effects of expression of hemA and hemB genes on production of porphyrin in Propionibacterium freudenreichii. (United States)

    Piao, Yongzhe; Kiatpapan, Pornpimon; Yamashita, Mitsuo; Murooka, Yoshikatsu


    The genus Propionibacterium has a wide range of probiotic activities that are exploited in dairy and fermentation systems such as cheeses, propionic acid, and tetrapyrrole compounds. In order to improve production of tetrapyrrole compounds, we expressed the hemA gene, which encodes delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and the hemB gene, which encodes porphobilinogen (PBG) synthase from Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii IFO12424, either monocistronically or polycistronically in strain IFO12426. The recombinant strains accumulated larger amounts of ALA and PBG, with resultant 28- to 33-fold-higher production of porphyrinogens, such as uroporphyrinogen and coproporphyrinogen, than those observed in strain IFO12426, which harbored the shuttle vector pPK705.





    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LA...

  9. Levulinic acid in organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timokhin, Boris V; Baransky, V A; Eliseeva, G D


    Data concerning the methods of synthesis, chemical transformations and application of levulinic acid are analysed and generalised. The wide synthetic potential of levulinic acid, particularly as a key compound in the synthesis of various heterocyclic systems, saturated and unsaturated ketones and diketones, difficultly accessible acids and other compounds is demonstrated. The accessibility of levulinic acid from hexose-containing wood-processing and agricultural wastes is noted. The bibliography includes 260 references.

  10. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte


    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  11. Histidine-Containing Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics.......Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics....

  12. Characterization of acid tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Sunday A., E-mail: [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Stegemann, Julia A. [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Roy, Amitava [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Centre for Advance Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), 6980 Jefferson Highway, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70806 (United States)


    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  13. Zinc and lead poisoning in wild birds in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri) (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Dalgam, J.; Dudding, S.; French, J.B.; Mateo, R.; Miesner, J.; Sileo, L.; Spann, J.


    contaminated with Pb, Cd, and Zn from mining, milling and smelting. Metals have been dispersed heterogeneously throughout the District in the form of milled mine waste ('chat'), as flotation tailings and from smelters as aerial deposition or slag. This study was conducted to determine if the habitat has been contaminated to the extent that the assessment populations of wild birds are exposed to toxic concentrations of metals. American robins (Turdus migratorius), northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), and waterfowl had increased Pb tissue concentrations (p contaminated with Pb. Mean activities of the Pb-sensitive enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) were decreased by >50% in red blood cells in these birds (p environmental concentrations of Zn associated with mining in the District accounted for the pancreatitis previously observed in five waterfowl from the District. The District is the first site at which free-flying wild birds have been found to be suffering severe effects of Zn poisoning.

  14. Is the photobleaching signal a useful tool for dosimetry during photodynamic therapy? (United States)

    Sroka, Ronald; Heinritz, H.; Heil, Peter; Ludwig, M.; Wessels, Jurina M.


    Photosensitizing drugs (e.g. porphyrins) are likely to be degraded upon irradiation. The mechanisms of photodegradation are complex. The photodegradation behavior of photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) could be used as a tool for dosimetry and for protecting adjacent tissue against photodynamic effects. The photobleaching behavior of (delta) -aminolevulinic acid induced porphyrins has been studied. The results of in vitro experiments (Protoporphyrin IX in organic solvent) and the in vivo tests (SSK2-fibrosarcoma on C3H-mice) have shown the bleaching rate to be dependent on the environment of the photosensitizer. During its photodegradation a chlorine-type photoproduct is formed. Its spectrometric detection reveals on signals proposed for dosimetry in PDT.

  15. Effects of chronic dietary lead in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Sileo, Louis; Pattee, Oliver H.; Moore, John F.


    American kestrels were fed a diet containing 0, 10, or 50 ppm lead (Pb) powder for at least 5 mo. Blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in birds receiving 50 ppm Pb was as low as 20% of controls but no significant effects were noted in packed cell volume (PCV) or hemoglobin concentration (Hb). Mean liver Pb residues in birds fed 50 ppm Pb were 1.3 and 2.4 ppm (dry wt) for males and females, respectively. Liver Pb residues in birds fed 10 ppm Pb were not significantly greater than controls. There was no significant correlation between blood ALAD activity and blood Pb concentration, no consistent histopathological lesions were noted, and body and organ weights were not affected.

  16. Lead exposure and biological effects in pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) before and after the closure of a lead mine in northern Sweden. (United States)

    Berglund, A M M; Ingvarsson, P K; Danielsson, H; Nyholm, N E I


    Mining activities affect the surrounding environment by increasing exposure to metals. In this study, metal accumulation and its effects on reproduction and health of pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings were monitored before and up to five years after a lead mine and enrichment plant closed down. The lead concentration in moss, nestling blood, liver and feces all indicated decreased lead exposure by at least 31% after closure, although only blood lead decreased significantly. Although the birds responded fairly well to the changed atmospheric deposition (based on moss samples), concentrations were still higher compared with birds in a reference area, and breeding was affected at the mine (smaller clutches and higher mortality). Surviving nestlings suffered from lower hemoglobin levels, mean cell hemoglobin concentrations and inhibited delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Lead poisoning contributed to poor health and adverse reproductive effects, but other factors (e.g. increased parasitic load) probably also affected the birds. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as biomonitors of lead contamination of the Big River in Missouri`s Old Lead Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overmann, S.R.; Krajicek, J.J. [Southeast Missouri State Univ., Cape Girardeau, MO (United States). Dept. of Biology


    The usefulness of common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as biomonitors of lead (Pb) contamination of aquatic ecosystems was assessed. Thirty-seven snapping turtles were collected from three sites on the Big River, an Ozarkian stream contaminated with Pb mine tailings. Morphometric measurements, tissue Pb concentrations (muscle, blood, bone, carapace, brain, and liver), {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase ({delta}-ALAD) activity, hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma glucose, osmolality, and chloride ion content were measured. The data showed no effects of Pb contamination on capture success or morphological measurements. Tissue Pb concentrations were related to capture location. Hematocrit, plasma osmolality, plasma glucose, and plasma chloride ion content were not significantly different with respect to capture location. The {delta}-ALAD activity levels were decreased in turtles taken from contaminated sites. Lead levels in the Big River do not appear to be adversely affecting the snapping turtles of the river. Chelydra serpentina is a useful species for biomonitoring of Pb-contaminated aquatic environments.

  18. Bisphosphonate complications including osteonecrosis of the jaw. (United States)

    Mehrotra, Bhoomi; Ruggiero, Salvatore


    Bisphosphonate therapy has been incorporated in the standard management of patients with multiple myeloma-related bony disease. Although their efficacy in reducing skeletal related events is important in the supportive management of the myeloma patient, post-marketing experience with this class of agents, particularly the more potent intravenous agents pamidronate and zoledronic acid, have raised cautionary notes regarding the potential side effects of these agents. The focus of this session is to review the risk factors, incidence, prevention strategies and management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. In addition, pathophysiology, incidence and monitoring for renal dysfunction during chronic therapy with these agents are reviewed.

  19. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)


    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  20. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)


    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  1. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  2. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.


    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  3. Antifungal effect of 405-nm light on Botrytis cinerea. (United States)

    Imada, K; Tanaka, S; Ibaraki, Y; Yoshimura, K; Ito, S


    There is very little information on the fungistatic or fungicidal effect of visible light. This study investigated the effect of 405-nm light, generated by a light-emitting diode array, on the economically important fungus Botrytis cinerea. The mycelial growth of B. cinerea was inhibited to the greatest extent by light at 405 and 415 nm and was negligibly inactivated at 450 nm, suggesting the presence of a photosensitizing compound that absorbs light mainly at wavelengths of 405-415 nm. Delta-aminolevulinic acid, a precursor of endogenous photosensitizer porphyrins, was used to determine the role of these porphyrins in 405-nm light-mediated photoinactivation of the fungus. Concentration-dependent inhibition of spore germination by delta-aminolevulinic acid and accumulation of singlet oxygen in the spores was observed when the spores were exposed to 405-nm light. These results suggest that the excitation of endogenous porphyrins and subsequent accumulation of singlet oxygen could partially explain the 405-nm light-mediated photoinactivation of B. cinerea. The development of symptoms in detached tomato leaves inoculated with B. cinerea spores was significantly reduced by irradiation with 405-nm light, indicating that 405-nm light has a potential use for controlling plant diseases caused by B. cinerea. Grey mould (Botrytis cinerea) is a very successful necrotroph, causing serious losses in more than 200 crop hosts. This study investigated the antifungal effect of 405-nm light on this pathogen. Our results suggest that the excitation of endogenous porphyrins and subsequent accumulation of singlet oxygen contribute to the 405-nm light-mediated photoinactivation of grey mould. The development of symptoms in detached tomato leaves inoculated with B. cinerea spores was significantly inhibited by irradiation with 405-nm light, indicating that this wavelength of light has a potential use in controlling plant diseases caused by B. cinerea. © 2014 The Society for

  4. Adipic acid tolerance screening for potential adipic acid production hosts. (United States)

    Karlsson, Emma; Mapelli, Valeria; Olsson, Lisbeth


    Biobased processes for the production of adipic acid are of great interest to replace the current environmentally detrimental petrochemical production route. No efficient natural producer of adipic acid has yet been identified, but several approaches for pathway engineering have been established. Research has demonstrated that the microbial production of adipic acid is possible, but the yields and titres achieved so far are inadequate for commercialisation. A plausible explanation may be intolerance to adipic acid. Therefore, in this study, selected microorganisms, including yeasts, filamentous fungi and bacteria, typically used in microbial cell factories were considered to evaluate their tolerance to adipic acid. Screening of yeasts and bacteria for tolerance to adipic acid was performed in microtitre plates, and in agar plates for A. niger in the presence of adipic acid over a broad range of concentration (0-684 mM). As the different dissociation state(s) of adipic acid may influence cells differently, cultivations were performed with at least two pH values. Yeasts and A. niger were found to tolerate substantially higher concentrations of adipic acid than bacteria, and were less affected by the undissociated form of adipic acid than bacteria. The yeast exhibiting the highest tolerance to adipic acid was Candida viswanathii, showing a reduction in maximum specific growth rate of no more than 10-15% at the highest concentration of adipic acid tested and the tolerance was not dependent on the dissociation state of the adipic acid. Tolerance to adipic acid was found to be substantially higher among yeasts and A. niger than bacteria. The explanation of the differences in adipic acid tolerance between the microorganisms investigated are likely related to fundamental differences in their physiology and metabolism. Among the yeasts investigated, C. viswanathii showed the highest tolerance and could be a potential host for a future microbial cell factory for adipic acid.

  5. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)


    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  6. Aristolochic Acids (United States)

    ... often used as herbal medicines or in other botanical products in the United States and abroad. Aristolochic ... individuals with kidney or renal disease who consumed botanical products containing aristolochic acids. Animal Studies The findings ...

  7. Including Organizational Cultural Parameters in Work Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handley, Holly A; Heacox, Nancy J


    .... In order to represent the organizational impact on the work process, five organizational cultural parameters were identified and included in an algorithm for modeling and simulation of cultural...

  8. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms (United States)

    ... Links Global Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis ... Haemophilus influenzae , including H. influenzae type b or Hib, can cause many different kinds of infections . Symptoms depend on ...

  9. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.


    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  10. Acid-functionalized polyolefin materials and their use in acid-promoted chemical reactions (United States)

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Tian, Chengcheng; Bauer, John Christopher; Dai, Sheng


    An acid-functionalized polyolefin material that can be used as an acid catalyst in a wide range of acid-promoted chemical reactions, wherein the acid-functionalized polyolefin material includes a polyolefin backbone on which acid groups are appended. Also described is a method for the preparation of the acid catalyst in which a precursor polyolefin is subjected to ionizing radiation (e.g., electron beam irradiation) of sufficient power and the irradiated precursor polyolefin reacted with at least one vinyl monomer having an acid group thereon. Further described is a method for conducting an acid-promoted chemical reaction, wherein an acid-reactive organic precursor is contacted in liquid form with a solid heterogeneous acid catalyst comprising a polyolefin backbone of at least 1 micron in one dimension and having carboxylic acid groups and either sulfonic acid or phosphoric acid groups appended thereto.

  11. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre


    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...

  12. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  13. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination (United States)

    ... Diseases Resources Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  14. Births and deaths including fetal deaths (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  15. Zoledronic acid. (United States)

    Coleman, Robert; Burkinshaw, Roger; Winter, Matthew; Neville-Webbe, Helen; Lester, Jim; Woodward, Emma; Brown, Janet


    Both bone metastases and fragility fractures due to bone loss result in considerable morbidity affecting quality of life and independence as well as placing complex demands on healthcare resources. Zoledronic acid is a widely used intravenous bisphosphonate that reduces this skeletal morbidity in both benign and malignant conditions. The incidence, clinical importance and prevention strategies to minimize side effects associated with the use of zoledronic acid are discussed with a particular focus on use in oncology where intensive monthly scheduling is required. This potentially increases the risk for adverse events over the 6-12 monthly administration used to treat benign bone diseases. A detailed understanding of the generally favorable safety profile of zoledronic acid, but particularly the potential for renal dysfunction and osteonecrosis of the jaw. When compared to many other therapies, especially in the cancer setting, the severity of adverse events related to zoledronic acid is generally mild and, with the exception of the acute phase response causing transient fever, myalgia and bone pain, side effects are infrequent. Thus, the benefits of treatment with zoledronic acid within its licensed indications almost always outweigh the risks.

  16. Available versus digestible dietary amino acids. (United States)

    Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J


    Available amino acids are those absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in a form suitable for body protein synthesis. True ileal digestible amino acids are determined based on the difference between dietary amino acid intake and unabsorbed dietary amino acids at the terminal ileum. The accuracy of ileal digestible amino acid estimates for predicting available amino acid content depends on several factors, including the accuracy of the amino acid analysis procedure. In heat processed foods, lysine can react with compounds to form nutritionally unavailable derivatives that are unstable during the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis step of amino acid analysis and can revert back to lysine causing an overestimate of available lysine. Recently, the true ileal digestible reactive (available) lysine assay based on guanidination has provided a means of accurately determining available lysine in processed foods. Methionine can be oxidised during processing to form methionine sulphoxide and methionine sulphone and cysteine oxidised to cysteic acid. Methionine sulphoxide, but not methionine sulphone or cysteic acid, is partially nutritionally available in some species of animal. Currently, methionine and cysteine are determined as methionine sulphone and cysteic acid respectively after quantitative oxidation prior to acid hydrolysis. Consequently, methionine and cysteine are overestimated if methionine sulphone or cysteic acid are present in the original material. Overall, given the problems associated with the analysis of some amino acids in processed foodstuffs, the available amino acid content may not always be accurately predicted by true ileal amino acid digestibility estimates. For such amino acids specific analytical strategies may be required.


    ethanolysis or alkaline oxidation of their extracted wood-meals. p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were identified in phenolic acid ...Twenty-one species and varieties of Lycopodium have been examined for phenolic acids and for phenolic aldehydes, ketones and acids obtained on...found to yield syringic acid in the ethanol-soluble fraction and on degradation of lignin whereas species included in the genera Huperzia and Lepidotis

  18. Acid Rain (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison


    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  19. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems (United States)

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)


    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

  20. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier (United States)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael


    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  1. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  2. Lipoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Tetikcok


    Full Text Available Lipoic acid, which is defined as a miralce antioxidan, is used by many departments. Eventhough clinical using data are very limited , it is used in treatment of diabetic neuropathy, physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic, dermatology clinic, geriatric clinics. It has usage area for cosmetic purposes. Although there are reports there are the direction of the effectiveness in these areas, the works done are not enough. Today lipoic acid , used in many areas ,is evaluated as universal antioxidant [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(3.000: 206-209

  3. Diversification of Smallholder Tobacco Systems to include ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco is the mainstay of the economy of Malawi, accounting for over 70% of export earnings. Of the 100 000 members of the National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi (NASFAM), 60% rely on tobacco for their sole source of income. Like their counterparts elsewhere, they face many difficulties, including: ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  5. Extending flood damage assessment methodology to include ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal and sustainable flood plain management, including flood control, can only be achieved when the impacts of flood control measures are considered for both the man-made and natural environments, and the sociological aspects are fully considered. Until now, methods/models developed to determine the influences ...

  6. Including Children Dependent on Ventilators in School. (United States)

    Levine, Jack M.


    Guidelines for including ventilator-dependent children in school are offered, based on experience with six such students at a New York State school. Guidelines stress adherence to the medical management plan, the school-family partnership, roles of the social worker and psychologist, orientation, transportation, classroom issues, and steps toward…

  7. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin


    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joint...

  8. Modernizing Agrifood Markets : Including Small Producers in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Against this baseline data, they will endeavor to identify success stories or examples of interventions that ensure small farmers' access to modernizing agrifood markets. The research will inform a set of policy recommendations to be promoted through policy platforms in a large number of developing countries, including but ...

  9. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.


    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  10. Numerical simulation of spark ignition including ionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, M; Selle, S; Riedel, U; Warnatz, J; Maas, U


    A detailed understanding of the processes associated Midi spark ignition, as a first step during combustion, is of great importance fur clean operation of spark ignition engines. In the past 10 years. a growing concern for environmental protection, including low emission of pollutants, has increased

  11. Counter current extraction of phosphoric acid: Food grade acid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; AlIbrahim, M.


    Extraction, scrubbing and stripping of phosphoric acid from the Syrian wet-phosphoric acid was carried out using Micro-pilot plant of mixer settler type of 8 l/h capacity. Tributyl phosphate (TBP)/di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) in kerosene was used as extractant. Extraction and stripping equilibrium curves were evaluated. The number of extraction and stripping stages to achieve the convenient and feasible yield was determined. Detailed flow sheet was suggested for the proposed continuous process. Data obtained include useful information for the design of phosphoric acid extraction plant. The produced phosphoric acid was characterized using different analytical techniques. (author)

  12. Salicylhydroxamic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to as topological indices, can be used for establishing QSAR of interest in pharmacology. A number of successful QSAR studies were made 4 based on Wms by means of which we can determine the ways in which the structural features of SHA and SHA derivatives influence the course of nucleic acid synthesis in a tumour ...

  13. Crystal growth and physical characterization of picolinic acid cocrystallized with dicarboxylic acids (United States)

    Somphon, Weenawan; Haller, Kenneth J.


    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are multicomponent materials containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient with another component in well-defined stoichiometry within the same unit cell. Such cocrystals are important in drug design, particularly for improving physicochemical properties such as solubility, bioavailability, or chemical stability. Picolinic acid is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan and is widely used for neuroprotective, immunological, and anti-proliferative effects within the body. In this paper we present cocrystallization experiments of a series of dicarboxylic acids, oxalic acid, succinic acid, DL-tartaric acid, pimelic acid, and phthalic acid, with picolinic acid. Characterization by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, DSC and TG/DTG analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction show that new compounds are formed, including a 1:1 picolinium tartrate monohydrate, a 2:1 monohydrate adduct of picolinic acid and oxalic acid, and a 2:1 picolinic acid-succinic acid monohydrate cocrystal.

  14. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav


    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  15. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  16. Should Trade Agreements Include Environmental Policy?


    Josh Ederington


    This article examines the extent to which environmental and trade policies should be treated equally, or symmetrically, in international negotiations. It reviews the recent economics literature on trade and the environment to address two questions. First, should trade negotiations include negotiations over environmental policies and the setting of binding environmental standards? Second, if there are grounds for international environmental negotiations, should environmental agreements b...

  17. Jet-calculus approach including coherence effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Migneron, R.; Narayanan, K.S.S.


    We show how integrodifferential equations typical of jet calculus can be combined with an averaging procedure to obtain jet-calculus-based results including the Mueller interference graphs. Results in longitudinal-momentum fraction x for physical quantities are higher at intermediate x and lower at large x than with the conventional ''incoherent'' jet calculus. These results resemble those of Marchesini and Webber, who used a Monte Carlo approach based on the same dynamics

  18. Revisiting Hansen Solubility Parameters by Including Thermodynamics. (United States)

    Louwerse, Manuel J; Maldonado, Ana; Rousseau, Simon; Moreau-Masselon, Chloe; Roux, Bernard; Rothenberg, Gadi


    The Hansen solubility parameter approach is revisited by implementing the thermodynamics of dissolution and mixing. Hansen's pragmatic approach has earned its spurs in predicting solvents for polymer solutions, but for molecular solutes improvements are needed. By going into the details of entropy and enthalpy, several corrections are suggested that make the methodology thermodynamically sound without losing its ease of use. The most important corrections include accounting for the solvent molecules' size, the destruction of the solid's crystal structure, and the specificity of hydrogen-bonding interactions, as well as opportunities to predict the solubility at extrapolated temperatures. Testing the original and the improved methods on a large industrial dataset including solvent blends, fit qualities improved from 0.89 to 0.97 and the percentage of correct predictions rose from 54 % to 78 %. Full Matlab scripts are included in the Supporting Information, allowing readers to implement these improvements on their own datasets. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Acid digestion of organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capp, P.D.


    To overcome the high temperatures involved in straight incineration of organic waste and the difficulty of extracting actinides from the ash various research establishments throughout the world, including Winfrith and Harwell in the UK, have carried out studies on an alternative chemical combustion method known as acid digestion. The basis of the technique is to digest the waste in concentrated sulphuric acid containing a few percent of nitric acid at a temperature of about 250 0 C. Acid digestion residues consist mainly of non-refractory inorganic sulphates and oxides from which any actinide materials can easily be extracted. (author)

  20. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.


    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  1. Chemistry of Fluorinated Carbon Acids: Synthesis, Physicochemical Properties, and Catalysis. (United States)

    Yanai, Hikaru


    The bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]methyl (Tf2CH; Tf=SO2CF3) group is known to be one of the strongest carbon acid functionalities. The acidity of such carbon acids in the gas phase is stronger than that of sulfuric acid. Our recent investigations have demonstrated that this type of carbon acids work as novel acid catalysts. In this paper, recent achievements in carbon acid chemistry by our research group, including synthesis, physicochemical properties, and catalysis, are summarized.

  2. New Acid Combination for a Successful Sandstone Acidizing (United States)

    Shafiq, M. U.; Mahmud, H. K. B.; Rezaee, R.


    With the development of new enhanced oil recovery techniques, sandstone acidizing has been introduced and played a pivotal role in the petroleum industry. Different acid combinations have been applied, which react with the formation, dissolve the soluble particles; thus increase the production of hydrocarbons. To solve the problems which occurred using current preflush sandstone acidizing technology (hydrochloric acid); a new acid combination has been developed. Core flooding experiments on sandstone core samples with dimensions 1.5 in. × 3 in. were conducted at a flow rate of 2 cm3/min. A series of hydrochloric-acetic acid mixtures with different ratios were tested under 150°F temperature. The core flooding experiments performed are aimed to dissolve carbonate, sodium, potassium and calcium particles from the core samples. These experiments are followed by few important tests which include, porosity-permeability, pH value, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR measurements). All the results are compared with the results of conventional hydrochloric acid technology. NMR and porosity analysis concluded that the new acid combination is more effective in creating fresh pore spaces and thus increasing the reservoir permeability. It can be seen from the pore distribution before and after the acidizing. Prior applying acid; the large size of pores appears most frequently in the pore distribution while with the applied acid, it was found that the small pore size is most the predominant of the pore distribution. These results are validated using ICP analysis which shows the effective removal of calcium and other positive ions from the core sample. This study concludes that the combination of acetic-hydrochloric acid can be a potential candidate for the preflush stage of sandstone acidizing at high temperature reservoirs.

  3. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.


    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs

  4. Including gauge corrections to thermal leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huetig, Janine


    This thesis provides the first approach of a systematic inclusion of gauge corrections to leading order to the ansatz of thermal leptogenesis. We have derived a complete expression for the integrated lepton number matrix including all resummations needed. For this purpose, a new class of diagram has been invented, namely the cylindrical diagram, which allows diverse investigations into the topic of leptogenesis such as the case of resonant leptogenesis. After a brief introduction of the topic of the baryon asymmetry in the universe and a discussion of its most promising solutions as well as their advantages and disadvantages, we have presented our framework of thermal leptogenesis. An effective model was described as well as the associated Feynman rules. The basis for using nonequilibrium quantum field theory has been built in chapter 3. At first, the main definitions have been presented for equilibrium thermal field theory, afterwards we have discussed the Kadanoff-Baym equations for systems out of equilibrium using the example of the Majorana neutrino. The equations have also been solved in the context of leptogenesis in chapter 4. Since gauge corrections play a crucial role throughout this thesis, we have also repeated the naive ansatz by replacing the free equilibrium propagator by propagators including thermal damping rates due to the Standard Model damping widths for lepton and Higgs fields. It is shown that this leads to a comparable result to the solutions of the Boltzmann equations for thermal leptogenesis. Thus it becomes obvious that Standard Model corrections are not negligible for thermal leptogenesis and therefore need to be included systematically from first principles. In order to achieve this we have started discussing the calculation of ladder rung diagrams for Majorana neutrinos using the HTL and the CTL approach in chapter 5. All gauge corrections are included in this framework and thus it has become the basis for the following considerations

  5. Antifungal Activity of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria and Propionic Acid Bacteria against Dairy-Associated Spoilage Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing

    Bacterial cultures of lactic and propionic acid bacteria are widely used in fermented products including dairy products. Spoilage fungi may constitute a quality and safety issue in these products. The antifungal properties of some lactic and propionic acid bacteria make them potential candidates...... diacetyl and lactic acid, 6 antifungal hydroxy acids were identified. Of these, 3 have previously been reported from antifungal lactic acid bacteria, whereas the other 3 hydroxy acids have not previously been reported produced by antifungal lactic acid bacteria....

  6. Levulinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hachuła


    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: 4-oxopentanoic acid, C5H8O3, is close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0762 Å. In the crystal, the molecules interact via O—H...O hydrogen bonds in which the hydroxy O atoms act as donors and the ketone O atoms in adjacent molecules as acceptors, forming C(7 chains along [20-1].

  7. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiezhong


    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  8. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni


    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  9. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin


    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  10. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal (United States)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  11. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47? (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica


    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  12. Pulmonary disorders, including vocal cord dysfunction. (United States)

    Greenberger, Paul A; Grammer, Leslie C


    The lung is a very complex immunologic organ and responds in a variety of ways to inhaled antigens, organic or inorganic materials, infectious or saprophytic agents, fumes, and irritants. There might be airways obstruction, restriction, neither, or both accompanied by inflammatory destruction of the pulmonary interstitium, alveoli, or bronchioles. This review focuses on diseases organized by their predominant immunologic responses, either innate or acquired. Pulmonary innate immune conditions include transfusion-related acute lung injury, World Trade Center cough, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Adaptive immunity responses involve the systemic and mucosal immune systems, activated lymphocytes, cytokines, and antibodies that produce CD4(+) T(H)1 phenotypes, such as for tuberculosis or acute forms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and CD4(+) T(H)2 phenotypes, such as for asthma, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  14. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    The contents of "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" trainings have been recently changed to include, respectively, an introduction and an expert training on the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to develop expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepare...

  15. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepares participants to develop test and measurement, da...

  16. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; King, S.J.; Day, J.P.


    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of 26 Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 59 Ni and 129 I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs

  17. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry


    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of fatty acids of buddleja asiatica by GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F.; Ali, I.; Bibi, H.; Malik, A.


    To analyze the fatty acid contents of Buddleja asiatica Lour,both the non-volatile oil and fat obtained from the n-hexane soluble sub- fraction were subjected to GC/MS using BSTFA (N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifloroacetamide) derivatization. The oil showed the presence of six fatty acids including palmitic acid (46.75 %), linoleic acid (37.80 %), stearic acid (10.98 %), arachidic acid, margaric acid and lignoceric acid (< 3 %) . Analysis of the fat revealed nine fatty acids including lignoceric acid (43.12 %), behenic acid (26.39 %), arachidic acid (9.29 %) and stearic acid (5.3 %). Cerotic acid, montanic acid, melissic acid and palmitic acid were found in low amounts (< 5 %) while trycosylic acid (4.83 %) was the only fatty acid with odd number of carbon atoms. The oil showed a low thermal stability. (author)

  19. Treatment of acid mine wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, D.; Barnard, R.


    Acid mine drainage often results from the oxidation sulfide minerals to form sulfuric acid. As a consequence, high concentrations of metals in the both the suspended and dissolved state result from the low pH water. This paper discusses several of the more common treatment methods for acid mine drainage including the use of chemical precipitation agents, pH correction agents, filtration methods, and biodegradation methods. Advanced treatment technologies are also briefly described and include microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis

  20. A micromanipulation cell including a tool changer (United States)

    Clévy, Cédric; Hubert, Arnaud; Agnus, Joël; Chaillet, Nicolas


    This paper deals with the design, fabrication and characterization of a tool changer for micromanipulation cells. This tool changer is part of a manipulation cell including a three linear axes robot and a piezoelectric microgripper. All these parts are designed to perform micromanipulation tasks in confined spaces such as a microfactory or in the chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tool changer principle is to fix a pair of tools (i.e. the gripper tips) either on the tips of the microgripper actuator (piezoceramic bulk) or on a tool magazine. The temperature control of a thermal glue enables one to fix or release this pair of tools. Liquefaction and solidification are generated by surface mounted device (SMD) resistances fixed on the surface of the actuator or magazine. Based on this principle, the tool changer can be adapted to other kinds of micromanipulation cells. Hundreds of automatic tool exchanges were performed with a maximum positioning error between two consecutive tool exchanges of 3.2 µm, 2.3 µm and 2.8 µm on the X, Y and Z axes respectively (Z refers to the vertical axis). Finally, temperature measurements achieved under atmospheric pressure and in a vacuum environment and pressure measurements confirm the possibility of using this device in the air as well as in a SEM.

  1. Robust Unit Commitment Including Frequency Stability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pérez-Illanes


    Full Text Available An increased use of variable generation technologies such as wind power and photovoltaic generation can have important effects on system frequency performance during normal operation as well as contingencies. The main reasons are the operational principles and inherent characteristics of these power plants like operation at maximum power point and no inertial response during power system imbalances. This has led to new challenges for Transmission System Operators in terms of ensuring system security during contingencies. In this context, this paper proposes a Robust Unit Commitment including a set of additional frequency stability constraints. To do this, a simplified dynamic model of the initial system frequency response is used in combination with historical frequency nadir data during contingencies. The proposed approach is especially suitable for power systems with cost-based economic dispatch like those in most Latin American countries. The study is done considering the Northern Interconnected System of Chile, a 50-Hz medium size isolated power system. The results obtained were validated by means of dynamic simulations of different system contingencies.

  2. Unifying all elementary particle forces including gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, H.


    It is a final goal in physics to unify all four basic forces, strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational. First, the unified gauge theories of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed. There are two standard models, the model of Pati and Salam in which leptons have the fourth color, and the model of Georgi and Glashow in which a simple group SU (5) is assumed for grand unification. Two mass relations for leptons and quarks were derived, and the extension of the Georgi-Glashow model to a grand unified model of SU (6) gauge group has been made. The quantization of the electric charge of elementary particles is one of the most satisfactory features in grand unified gauge theories. The constraint relations between the gauge couplings, the weak mixing angle and the mass scale of symmetry breaking owing to the renormalization effect are not so severe as those in the grand unified models. However, the mass scale becomes far above the Planck mass in some cases. The baryon number non-conservation is one of the most intriguing features common to grand unified gauge theories. The unified models of all elementary particle forces including gravity are discussed. The discovery of weak vector bosons and the production of subquark pairs are anticipated. (Kako, I.)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang


    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  4. [Contracts including performance and management of uncertainty]. (United States)

    Duru, G; Garassus, P; Auray, J-P


    Since many decades in France, the most important part of ambulatory health care expenditure is represented by drug consumption. By the fact, French patient is indeed the greatest world consumer of pharmaceuticals treatments. Therefore, the regulation authorities by successive strategies, attempt to limit or even restrict market access for new drugs in the health care sector secured by public social insurance coverage. Common objectives are to assess the reimbursement to scientific studies and to fix the price of therapeutics at an acceptable level for both industries and government. New trends try then to determine recently the drug price in a dual approach, as a component of global and effective contract, including performance and outcome. The first diffusion authorization is diffusion concerned, but this concept takes into account the eventual success of new produces in long-term survey. Signed for a fixed period as reciprocal partnership between regulation authorities and pharmaceutics industries, the contract integrates two dimensions of incertitude. The first one is represented by the strategy of new treatments development according to efficacy and adapted price, and the second one is linked to the result of diffusion and determines adapted rules if eventual non-respects of the previous engagement are registered. This paper discusses problems related to this new dimension of incertitude affected by conditional drug prices in market access strategy and the adapted follow-up of new treatment diffusion fixed by "outcome" contract between French regulation administration and pharmaceutics industries in our recent economic context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Resection of thymoma should include nodal sampling. (United States)

    Weksler, Benny; Pennathur, Arjun; Sullivan, Jennifer L; Nason, Katie S


    Thymoma is best treated by surgical resection; however, no clear guidelines have been created regarding lymph node sampling at the time of resection. Additionally, the prognostic implications of nodal metastases are unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic implications of nodal metastases in thymoma. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for patients who underwent surgical resection of thymoma with documented pathologic examination of lymph nodes. The impact of nodal status on survival and thymoma staging was examined. We identified 442 patients who underwent thymoma resection with pathologic evaluation of 1 or more lymph nodes. A median of 2 nodes were sampled per patient. Fifty-nine patients (59 of 442, 13.3%) had ≥ 1 positive node. Patients with positive nodes were younger and had smaller tumors than node-negative patients. Median survival in the node-positive patients was 98 months, compared with 144 months in node-negative patients (P = .013). In multivariable analysis, the presence of positive nodes had a significant, independent, adverse impact on survival (hazard ratio 1.945, 95% confidence interval 1.296-2.919, P = .001). The presence of nodal metastases resulted in a change in classification to a higher stage in 80% of patients, the majority from Masaoka-Koga stage III to stage IV. Nodal status seems to be an important prognostic factor in patients with thymoma. Until the prognostic significance of nodal metastases is better understood, surgical therapy for thymoma should include sampling of regional lymph nodes. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Maleopimaric acid acetic acid solvate


    Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Yong-hong; Guo, Xiao-xin; Hu, Li-hong


    The title compound, C24H32O5·C2H4O2, is a derivative of abietic acid. The two fused and unbridged cyclohexane rings have chair conformations and the anhydride ring is planar. Of the other three six-membered rings, two have boat conformations and one has a twist-boat conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  7. Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, M. Clayton; van Walsum, G. Peter; Schwartz, Thomas J.; van Heiningen, Adriaan


    A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

  8. Tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Klingenberg, Sarah Louise; Langholz, Ebbe


    Tranexamic acid reduces haemorrhage through its antifibrinolytic effects. In a previous version of the present review, we found that tranexamic acid may reduce mortality. The present review includes updated searches of randomised trials on tranexamic acid versus placebo, cimetidine or lansoprazole....

  9. Acid rain and sugar maple decline (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg


    Through the increased combustion of fossil fuels, humans have dramatically increased pollutant additions of sulfur and nitrogen into the atmosphere where it conbines with water to form sulfuric and nitric acids, creating acid rain (Driscoll et al. 2001). Incoming acid rain has various impacts on human and natural systems, including the accelerated degradation of built...

  10. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Schultz, Peter G.


    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  11. Bio-based methacrylic acid via catalytic decarboxylation of itaconic and citric acids (United States)

    Methacrylic acid is an important commodity monomer for the plastics industry that is produced industrially from acetone, hydrogen cyanide and concentrated sulfuric acid via the acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) process. Disadvantages to the ACH process include nonrenewable starting materials, stoichiometric...

  12. Acid rain in Asia (United States)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.


    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  13. Folic Acid and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Folic Acid and ... conception and during early pregnancy . What Is Folic Acid? Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  14. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry


    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  15. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Min Lee


    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  16. Acid dip for dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.C.; McWhan, A.F.


    Background signal in a PTFE based dosemeter caused by impurities in the PTFE and in the active component such as lithium fluoride is substantially reduced by treating the dosemeter with acid. The optimum treatment involves use of hydrofluoric acid at room temperature for approximately one minute, followed by thorough washing with methanol, and finally drying. This treatment is best applied after the original manufacture of the dosemeters. It may also be applied to existing dosemeters after they have been in use for some time. The treatment produces a permanent effect in reducing both the light induced signal and the non-light induced signal. The process may be applied to all types of dosemeter manufactured from PTFE or other plastics or resins which are able to resist brief exposure to acid. The treatment works particularly well with dosemeters based on PTFE and lithium fluoride. It is also applicable to dosemeters based on calcium sulphate, lithium borate and magnesium borate. Acids which may be used include hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric and sulphuric. (author)

  17. Expression of sialic acids and other nonulosonic acids in Leptospira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricaldi N Jessica


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acids are negatively charged nine carbon backbone sugars expressed on mammalian cell surfaces. Sialic acids are part of a larger family of nonulosonic acid (NulO molecules that includes pseudaminic and legionaminic acids. Microbial expression of sialic acids and other nonulosonic acids has been shown to contribute to host-microbe interactions in a variety of contexts, including participation in colonization, immune subversion, and behaviors such as biofilm formation, autoagglutination and motility. Previous research has suggested that some spirochetes may also express these molecules. Results Here we use a combination of molecular tools to investigate the presence of NulO biosynthetic gene clusters among clinical and saprophytic isolates of the genus Leptospira. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting suggested that a variety of leptospires encoded NulO biosynthetic pathways. High performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses provided biochemical evidence that di-N-acetylated NulO molecules are expressed at relatively high levels by L. interrogans serovar Lai strain 55601, and at lower levels by L. alexanderi serovar Manhao and L. fainei serovar Hurstbridge. Endogenous expression of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, the most common sialic acid was documented in L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain L1-130. Neu5Ac biosynthesis is also supported by a unique gene fusion event resulting in an enzyme with an N-terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid synthase domain and a C-terminal phosphatase domain. This gene fusion suggests that L. interrogans uses a Neu5Ac biosynthetic pathway more similar to animals than to other bacteria. Analysis of the composition and phylogeny of putative NulO biosynthetic gene clusters in L. interrogans serovar Lai and serovar Copenhageni revealed that both strains have complete biosynthetic pathways for legionamimic acid synthesis, a molecule with the same stereochemistry

  18. Dehydroabietic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Rao


    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  19. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.


    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  20. Pd(II)/Bipyridine-Catalyzed Conjugate Addition of Arylboronic Acids to α,β-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids. Synthesis of β-Quaternary Carbons Substituted Carboxylic Acids. (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Yang, Zhenyu; Ni, Yuxin; Song, Kaixuan; Shen, Kai; Lin, Shaohui; Pan, Qinmin


    Pd(II)/bipyridine-catalyzed conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids (including β,β-disubstituted acrylic acids) was developed and optimized, which provided a mild and convenient method for the highly challenging synthesis of β-quaternary carbons substituted carboxylic acids.

  1. Amino Acids from a Comet (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla


    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  2. Pantothenic Acid (United States)

    ... B complex generally includes vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin/niacinamide), vitamin B5 (pantothenic ... Calcium, Pantothenol, Pantothenylol, Vitamin B5, Vitamin B-5, Vitamina B5, Vitamine B5.

  3. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hev ein sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI); Broekaert, Willem F. (Dilbeek, BE); Chua, Nam-Hai (Scarsdale, NY); Kush, Anil (New York, NY)


    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  4. Predicting folic acid intake among college students. (United States)

    Lane, Susan H; Hines, Annette; Krowchuk, Heidi


    Annually in the United States, approximately 3,000 babies are born with neural tube defects (NTDs). Folic acid supplementation can reduce NTDs by 50% to 70%. Despite recommendations for folic acid intake, only 30% of women ages 18 to 24 report folic acid supplementation and 6% have knowledge of when to take folic acid. There is little information regarding lifestyle factors that correlate with consuming folic acid. The purpose was to describe folic acid consumption among college students; and explore the relationship between folic acid intake and the variables of: age, gender, year in college, alcohol and tobacco use, and vitamin supplement intake. This was a descriptive study with secondary analysis of data from 1,921 college-aged student participants in North Carolina who took part in a pretest/posttest-designed intervention to increase folic acid consumption and knowledge. Surveys included demographic, lifestyle, folic acid knowledge, and consumption questions adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention questionnaire. Quantitative analyses included descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Of the 1,921 college students, 83.3% reported taking a vitamin supplement, but only 47.6% stated that the vitamin contained folic acid. A relationship was found between age, year in school, gender, and vitamin intake. Lifestyle variables were not significant predictors of folic acid consumption. Identification of variables associated with folic acid intake, marketing, and education can be focused to increase supplementation levels, and ultimately reduce the number of NTDs.

  5. Prebiotic synthesis of carboxylic acids, amino acids and nucleic acid bases from formamide under photochemical conditions⋆ (United States)

    Botta, Lorenzo; Mattia Bizzarri, Bruno; Piccinino, Davide; Fornaro, Teresa; Robert Brucato, John; Saladino, Raffaele


    The photochemical transformation of formamide in the presence of a mixture of TiO2 and ZnO metal oxides as catalysts afforded a large panel of molecules of biological relevance, including carboxylic acids, amino acids and nucleic acid bases. The reaction was less effective when performed in the presence of only one mineral, highlighting the role of synergic effects between the photoactive catalysts. Taken together, these results suggest that the synthesis of chemical precursors for both the genetic and the metabolic apparatuses might have occurred in a simple environment, consisting of formamide, photoactive metal oxides and UV-radiation.

  6. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same (United States)

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.


    Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

  7. Phosphonic acid: preparation and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte M. Sevrain


    Full Text Available The phosphonic acid functional group, which is characterized by a phosphorus atom bonded to three oxygen atoms (two hydroxy groups and one P=O double bond and one carbon atom, is employed for many applications due to its structural analogy with the phosphate moiety or to its coordination or supramolecular properties. Phosphonic acids were used for their bioactive properties (drug, pro-drug, for bone targeting, for the design of supramolecular or hybrid materials, for the functionalization of surfaces, for analytical purposes, for medical imaging or as phosphoantigen. These applications are covering a large panel of research fields including chemistry, biology and physics thus making the synthesis of phosphonic acids a determinant question for numerous research projects. This review gives, first, an overview of the different fields of application of phosphonic acids that are illustrated with studies mainly selected over the last 20 years. Further, this review reports the different methods that can be used for the synthesis of phosphonic acids from dialkyl or diaryl phosphonate, from dichlorophosphine or dichlorophosphine oxide, from phosphonodiamide, or by oxidation of phosphinic acid. Direct methods that make use of phosphorous acid (H3PO3 and that produce a phosphonic acid functional group simultaneously to the formation of the P–C bond, are also surveyed. Among all these methods, the dealkylation of dialkyl phosphonates under either acidic conditions (HCl or using the McKenna procedure (a two-step reaction that makes use of bromotrimethylsilane followed by methanolysis constitute the best methods to prepare phosphonic acids.

  8. Lignin poly(lactic acid) copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Johan Vilhelm; Chung, Yi-Lin; Li, Russell Jingxian; Waymouth, Robert; Sattely, Elizabeth; Billington, Sarah; Frank, Curtis W.


    Provided herein are graft co-polymers of lignin and poly(lactic acid) (lignin-g-PLA copolymer), thermoset and thermoplastic polymers including them, methods of preparing these polymers, and articles of manufacture including such polymers.

  9. Uses of Nucleic Acid Analogues in the Inhibition of Nucleic Acid Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to the use of nucleic acid analogues in blocking nucleic acid ampli?cation procedures and to diagnostic and analytical techniques based thereon. Also included are kits for use in the conduct of nucleic acid ampli?cation reactions....

  10. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same (United States)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)


    Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-23 - Phosphoric acid. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Phosphoric acid. 151.50-23 Section 151.50-23 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-23 Phosphoric acid. (a) The term phosphoric acid as used in this subpart shall include, in addition to phosphoric acid, aqueous solutions of...

  12. Amino Acid Profile of Biodegraded Brewers Spent Grains (BSG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amino acids profiles of biodegraded brewers spent grains (BSG) were determined. The analysis revealed the presence of 17 amino acids including the major amino acids (cysteine, lysine and methionine) required in poultry nutrition. The concentrations of the amino acids however varied with the microbial species used ...

  13. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria]. (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K


    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  14. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.


    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  15. Uric acid test (image) (United States)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  16. Uric acid - urine (United States)

    ... this page: // Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid ...

  17. Plasma amino acids (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  18. Facts about Folic Acid (United States)

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... of the baby’s brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  19. Methylmalonic acid blood test (United States)

    ... Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the ...

  20. Method of extracting butyric acid from a fermented liquid and chemically converting butyric acid into biofuel


    Ahn, Hyungwoong


    Disclosed is a method of converting butyric acid contained in a fermentation broth into biofuel. This chemical conversion method includes separating biohydrogen from gases generated in the course of production of butyric acid through fermentation of carbohydrate, extracting butyric acid from the broth using an insoluble solvent, esterifying butyric acid thus producing butylbutyrate, and hydrogenolyzing all or part of butylbutyrate, thus obtaining butanol. Thereby, biobutanol can be efficientl...

  1. Profile of preoperative fecal organic acids closely predicts the incidence of postoperative infectious complications after major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection: Importance of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap. (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Takashi; Sugawara, Gen; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Ebata, Tomoki; Nagino, Masato


    To investigate the association between preoperative fecal organic acid concentrations and the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The fecal samples of 44 patients were collected before undergoing hepatectomy with bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The concentrations of fecal organic acids, including acetic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid, and representative fecal bacteria were measured. The perioperative clinical characteristics and the concentrations of fecal organic acids were compared between patients with and without postoperative infectious complications. Among 44 patients, 13 (30%) developed postoperative infectious complications. Patient age and intraoperative bleeding were significantly greater in patients with postoperative infectious complications compared with those without postoperative infectious complications. The concentrations of fecal acetic acid and butyric acid were significantly less, whereas the concentration of fecal lactic acid tended to be greater in the patients with postoperative infectious complications. The calculated gap between the concentrations of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap was less in the patients with postoperative infectious complications (median 43.5 vs 76.1 μmol/g of feces, P = .011). Multivariate analysis revealed that an acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap acid profile (especially low acetic acid, low butyric acid, and high lactic acid) had a clinically important impact on the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Unesterified docosahexaenoic acid is protective in neuroinflammation (United States)

    Orr, Sarah K; Palumbo, Sara; Bosetti, Francesca; Mount, Howard T; Kang, Jing X; E, Carol; Greenwood; Ma, David WL; Serhan, Charles N; Bazinet, Richard P


    Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) is the major brain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and it is possible that docosahexaenoic acid is anti-inflammatory in the brain as it is known to be in other tissues. Using a combination of models including the fat-1 transgenic mouse, chronic dietary n-3 PUFA modulation in transgenic and wildtype mice, and acute direct brain infusion, we demonstrated that unesterified docosahexaenoic acid attenuates neuroinflammation initiated by intracerebroventricular lipopolysaccharide. Hippocampal neuroinflammation was assessed by gene expression and immunohistochemistry. Further, docosahexaenoic acid protected against lipopolysaccharide-induced neuronal loss. Acute intracerebroventricular infusion of unesterified docosahexaenoic acid or its 12/15-lipoxygenase product and precursor to protectins and resolvins, 17S-hydroperoxy-docosahexaenoic acid, mimics anti-neuroinflammatory aspects of chronically increased unesterified docosahexaenoic acid. LCMS/MS revealed that neuroprotectin D1 and several other docosahexaenoic acid-derived specialized pro-resolving mediators are present in the hippocampus. Acute icv infusion of 17S-hydroperoxydocosahexaenoic acid increases hippocampal neuroprotectin D1 levels concomitant to attenuating neuroinflammation. These results show that unesterified docosahexaenoic acid is protective in a lipopolysaccharide-initiated mouse model of acute neuroinflammation, at least in part, via its conversion to specialized pro-resolving mediators; these docosahexaenoic acid stores may provide novel targets for the prevention and treatment(s) of neurological disorders with a neuroinflammatory component. PMID:23919613

  3. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)


    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  4. A Glutamic Acid-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Fermented Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Forghani


    Full Text Available L-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218 were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently γ-amino butyric acid (GABA as a bioactive compound.

  5. A Glutamic Acid-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Fermented Foods (United States)

    Zareian, Mohsen; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Karim Sabo; Forghani, Bita; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Safuan B.; Saari, Nazamid


    l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound. PMID:22754309

  6. 21 CFR 1.233 - What optional items are included in the registration form? (United States)


    ... extracts) and 11b (e.g., grain products, amino acids); (i) Type of storage, if the facility is primarily a... registration form? 1.233 Section 1.233 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Registration of Food Facilities § 1.233 What optional items are included in the registration form? FDA...

  7. Impact of supersonic and subsonic aircraft on ozone: Including heterogeneous chemical reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnison, D.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.


    Preliminary calculations suggest that heterogeneous reactions are important in calculating the impact on ozone from emissions of trace gases from aircraft fleets. In this study, three heterogeneous chemical processes that occur on background sulfuric acid aerosols are included and their effects on O 3 , NO x , Cl x , HCl, N 2 O 5 , ClONO 2 are calculated

  8. Impact of supersonic and subsonic aircraft on ozone: Including heterogeneous chemical reaction mechanisms (United States)

    Kinnison, Douglas E.; Wuebbles, Donald J.


    Preliminary calculations suggest that heterogeneous reactions are important in calculating the impact on ozone from emissions of trace gases from aircraft fleets. In this study, three heterogeneous chemical processes that occur on background sulfuric acid aerosols are included and their effects on O3, NO(x), Cl(x), HCl, N2O5, ClONO2 are calculated.

  9. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pickenheim, B. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); BIBLER, N. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This document has been revised to add analytical data for fresh, 1 year old, and 4 year old glycolic acid as recommended in Revision 2 of this document. This was needed to understand the concentration of formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid, impurities present in the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments. Based on this information, the concentration of these impurities did not change during storage. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in the first two versions of this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends.

  10. Biosynthesis and biotransformation of bile acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarenac Tanja M.


    Full Text Available Bile acids are steroidal compounds, which contain 24 carbon atoms. They can be classified into two major groups: primary and secondary. The most abundant bile acids: The primary bile acids include cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, while the major secondary bile acids are deoxycholic acid and litocholic acid. Bile acids are important physiological agents for intestinal absorption of nutrients and are used for biliary lipid secretion, toxic metabolites and xenobiotics. The aim of this paper is to analyze biosynthesis and biotransformation of bile acids, as preparation for practical usage in laboratory and clinical conditions. Topic: Biosynthesis and biotransformation of bile acids: The biosynthesis of bile acids is the dominant metabolic pathway for catabolism of cholesterol in humans. The classical route of biosynthesis of bile acids is embarking on the conversion of cholesterol into 7α-hydroxycholesterol using enzyme 7α-cholesterol hydroxylase (CYP7A1. This enzyme is one of the microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme is localized exclusively in the liver. Classical road is the main road in the biosynthesis of bile acids, and its total contribution amounts to 90% for people, and 75% in mice. CYP 7A1 enzyme is considered to be sensitive to the inhibition of carbon monoxide, and the condition for the effect of NADPH, the oxygen, lecithin, and the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Bile acids are important signaling molecules and metabolic controls which activate the nuclear receptor and the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR, a signaling lipid regulation of the liver, glucose and energy homeostasis. Also, bile acids maintain metabolic homeostasis. Biotransformation of bile acids: The conversion of cholesterol into bile acids just important for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis, but also to prevent the accumulation of cholesterol, triglycerides and toxic metabolites as well as violations of the liver and other organs. Enterohepatic circulation of

  11. Health benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Nalin; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima


    Marine-based fish and fish oil are the most popular and well-known sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These n-3 PUFAs are known to have variety of health benefits against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including well-established hypotriglyceridemic and anti-inflammatory effects. Also, various studies indicate promising antihypertensive, anticancer, antioxidant, antidepression, antiaging, and antiarthritis effects. Moreover, recent studies also indicate anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of these fatty acids in metabolic disorders. Classically, n-3 PUFAs mediate some of these effects by antagonizing n-6 PUFA (arachidonic acid)-induced proinflammatory prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) formation. Another well-known mechanism by which n-3 PUFAs impart their anti-inflammatory effects is via reduction of nuclear factor-κB activation. This transcription factor is a potent inducer of proinflammatory cytokine production, including interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, both of which are decreased by EPA and DHA. Other evidence also demonstrates that n-3 PUFAs repress lipogenesis and increase resolvins and protectin generation, ultimately leading to reduced inflammation. Finally, beneficial effects of EPA and DHA in insulin resistance include their ability to increase secretion of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine. In summary, n-3 PUFAs have multiple health benefits mediated at least in part by their anti-inflammatory actions; thus their consumption, especially from dietary sources, should be encouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Protein and metabolic engineering for the production of organic acids. (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian


    Organic acids are natural metabolites of living organisms. They have been widely applied in the food, pharmaceutical, and bio-based materials industries. In recent years, biotechnological routes to organic acids production from renewable raw materials have been regarded as very promising approaches. In this review, we provide an overview of current developments in the production of organic acids using protein and metabolic engineering strategies. The organic acids include propionic acid, pyruvate, itaconic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, malic acid and citric acid. We also expect that rapid developments in the fields of systems biology and synthetic biology will accelerate protein and metabolic engineering for microbial organic acid production in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts to convert cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu


    Embodiments of the present invention include methods and compositions related to catabolic conversion of cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid using molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts. The invention includes the use of heteropoly and isopoly acids and salts as the molybdenum-containing multi-functional catalysts for biomass conversion. In embodiments of the invention, the reactions employ successive hydrolysis, retro-aldol fragmentation, and selective oxidation in a noble metal-free system.

  14. Assessing College Students' Understanding of Acid Base Chemistry Concepts (United States)

    Wan, Yanjun Jean


    Typically most college curricula include three acid base models: Arrhenius', Bronsted-Lowry's, and Lewis'. Although Lewis' acid base model is generally thought to be the most sophisticated among these three models, and can be further applied in reaction mechanisms, most general chemistry curricula either do not include Lewis' acid base model, or…

  15. Lactic acid polymers: strong, degradable thermoplastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehrenberg, R.H.


    Copolymers of lactic and glycolic acids are being developed by researchers at Battelle and elsewhere as renewable-resource plastics. Other uses include matrices for controlled release of drugs and pesticides as well as in prosthetic devices. In contrast to conventional plastics, lactic acid polymers are biodegradable, and after several months exposure to moisture, these materials convert back to natural harmless products. The properties of lactic acid polymers are examined.

  16. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis. (United States)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia; Ohue, Ryuji; Nomura, Wataru; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Kitamura, Nahoko; Park, Si-Bum; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Kawada, Teruo


    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Women's knowledge of folic acid]. (United States)

    Salgues, Mathilde; Damase-Michel, Christine; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Lacroix, Isabelle


    Many trials have shown that folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy reduces the risk of neural tube defects in general population. We investigated the knowledge of folic acid in women of child-bearing age. Women of child-bearing age were interviewed by 20 pharmacists living in Haute-Garonne between January and February 2014. One hundred ninety-six women were included in the present study. Out of them, 36% of women never heard of folic acid and 82% were not aware of its benefits. Knowledge was higher in older women, women in a couple and women with higher educational level (Pfolic acid during pregnancy. Moreover, previous studies have shown that French women have low use of folic acid during peri-conceptional period. Information of general population will be required for a better prevention of folic acid-preventable NTDs. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett


    Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.

  19. Hydroxamic acid surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sawy, A. A.


    Full Text Available p-Hydroxy phenyloctadecanol and p-hydroxy phenyloctadecanoic acid were used as new precursors for the preparation of surface active hydroxamic acid including different moles of propylene oxide. The hydroxamic acid was prepared by the reaction of propenoxylated products with sodium chloroacetate, followed by methyl esterification and the resultant product reacted with hydroxyl amine hydrochloride to give the hydroxamic acid. The structures of prepared hydroxamic acid were confirmed by spectroscopic study. The surface activity of prepared hydroxamic acid was studied; the results revealed that, the prepared hydroxamic acid has pronounced surface activity, the alcohol substrate shows a surface activity superior than the acid substrate.Se han utilizado el p-hidroxifeniloctadecanol y el ácido p-hidroxifeniloctadecanoico como nuevos precursores para la preparación de tensioactivos derivados del ácido hidroxámico, que incluyen diferentes moles de óxido de propileno. El ácido hidroxámico se preparó por reacción de los productos propenoxilados con cloroacetato sódico, seguido de la formación de ésteres metílicos, y los productos resultantes se hicieron reaccionar con clorhidrato de hidroxilamina para dar los derivados del ácido hidroxámico. Las estructuras de los derivados preparados del ácido hidroxámico, se confirmaron por técnicas espectroscópicas, estudiándose su actividad superficial cuyos resultados mostraron que dichos compuestos tenían un alto valor. La actividad superficial del sustrato alcohólico fue mayor que la del sustrato ácido.

  20. Metabolic reprogramming in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases including BPD, COPD, and pulmonary fibrosis. (United States)

    Zhao, Haifeng; Dennery, Phyllis A; Yao, Hongwei


    The metabolism of nutrient substrates including glucose, glutamine and fatty acids provides acetyl-CoA for the tricarboxylic acid cycle to generate energy, and metabolites for the biosynthesis of biomolecules including nucleotides, proteins, and lipids. It has been shown that metabolism of glucose, fatty acid, and glutamine plays important roles in modulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, autophagy, senescence, and inflammatory responses. All these cellular processes contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary fibrosis. Recent studies demonstrate that metabolic reprogramming occurs in patients with and animal models of chronic lung diseases, suggesting that metabolic dysregulation may participate in the pathogenesis and progression of these diseases. In this review, we briefly discuss the catabolic pathways for glucose, glutamine and fatty acids, and focus on how metabolic reprogramming of these pathways impacts cellular functions and leads to the development of these chronic lung diseases. We also highlight how targeting metabolic pathways can be utilized in the prevention and treatment of these diseases.

  1. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases (United States)

    Erdemir, A.


    Lubricating compositions are disclosed including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  2. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali


    Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  3. L-Lactic acid production from glycerol coupled with acetic acid metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis without carbon loss. (United States)

    Murakami, Nao; Oba, Mana; Iwamoto, Mariko; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Noguchi, Takuya; Bonkohara, Kaori; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Zendo, Takeshi; Shimoda, Mitsuya; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji


    Glycerol is a by-product in the biodiesel production process and considered as one of the prospective carbon sources for microbial fermentation including lactic acid fermentation, which has received considerable interest due to its potential application. Enterococcus faecalis isolated in our laboratory produced optically pure L-lactic acid from glycerol in the presence of acetic acid. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis using [1, 2-(13)C2] acetic acid proved that the E. faecalis strain QU 11 was capable of converting acetic acid to ethanol during lactic acid fermentation of glycerol. This indicated that strain QU 11 restored the redox balance by oxidizing excess NADH though acetic acid metabolism, during ethanol production, which resulted in lactic acid production from glycerol. The effects of pH control and substrate concentration on lactic acid fermentation were also investigated. Glycerol and acetic acid concentrations of 30 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, were expected to be appropriate for lactic acid fermentation of glycerol by strain QU 11 at a pH of 6.5. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation with 30 g/L glycerol and 10 g/L acetic acid wholly exhibited the best performance including lactic acid production (55.3 g/L), lactic acid yield (0.991 mol-lactic acid/mol-glycerol), total yield [1.08 mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)]/mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)], and total carbon yield [1.06 C-mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)/C-mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)] of lactic acid and ethanol. In summary, the strain QU 11 successfully produced lactic acid from glycerol with acetic acid metabolism, and an efficient fermentation system was established without carbon loss. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acid Rain: A Student's First Sourcebook. (United States)

    Kyle, Beth Ann; And Others

    The purpose of this guide is to help students better understand the science, citizen action, and research issues that are part of the acid rain problem. The guide is designed for students in grades 4-8 and their teachers. Following an introduction, the first seven sections are informative in nature. They include: (1) "Observations about Acidity";…

  5. Energy transduction in lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poolman, Bert

    In the discovery of some general principles of energy transduction, lactic acid bacteria have played an important role. In this review, the energy transducing processes of lactic acid bacteria are discussed with the emphasis on the major developments of the past 5 years. This work not only includes


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Method of obtaining mutated lactic acid bacteria having a reduced susceptibility towards attack by bacteriophages, the method comprising mutating a gene involved in the pyrimidine metabolism, including pyrG encoding CTP synthetase. Such lactic acid bacteria are useful in starter cultures...

  7. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pickenheim, B. R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bibler, N. E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hay, M. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This document has been revised due to recent information that the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments contains both formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in earlier revisions. Additional data concerning the properties of glycolic acid have also been added to this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in Technical Grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.033 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H2 and cause an adverse effect in the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) or Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process. It has been cited that glycolic acid

  8. Modulating the electronic structure of amino acids: interaction of model lewis acids with anthranilic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq Irshaidat


    Full Text Available On the basis of theoretical B3LYP calculations, Yáñez and co-workers (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2012, 8, 2293 illustrated that beryllium ions are capable of significantly modulating (changing the electronic structures of imidazole. In this computational organic chemistry study, the interaction of this β-amino acid and five model Lewis acids (BeF1+, Be2+, AlF2(1+, AlF2+, and Al3+ were investigated. Several aspects were addressed: natural bond orbitals, including second order perturbation analysis of intra-molecular charge delocalization and the natural population analysis atomic charges; molecular geometries; selected infrared stretching frequencies (C-N, C-O, and N-H, and selected ¹H-NMR chemical shifts. The data illustrate that this interaction can weaken the H-O bond and goes beyond strengthening the intra-molecular hydrogen bond (N...H-O to cause a spontaneous transfer of the proton to the nitrogen atom in five cases generating zwitterion structures. Many new features are observed. Most importantly, the zwitterion structures include a stabilizing hydrogen bond (N-H...O that varies in relative strength according to the Lewis acid. These findings explain the experimental observations of α-amino acids (for example: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 3577 and are the first reported fundamental electronic structure characterization of β-amino acids in zwitterion form.

  9. Toxicity of adipic acid. (United States)

    Kennedy, Gerald L


    Adipic acid has very low acute toxicity in rats with an LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Adipic acid produced mild to no skin irritation on intact guinea pig skin as a 50% concentration in propylene glycol; it was not a skin sensitizer. Adipic acid caused mild conjunctival irritation in washed rabbit eyes; in unwashed rabbit eyes, there was mild conjunctival irritation, minimal iritis, but no corneal effects. Adipic acid dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose. In a 2-year feeding study, rats fed adipic acid at concentrations up to 5% in the diet exhibited only weight loss. Adipic acid is not genetically active in a wide variety of assay systems. Adipic acid caused no developmental toxicity in mice, rats, rabbits, or hamsters when administered orally. Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests.


    The cacodylic acid (DMAV) issue paper discusses the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the various arsenical chemicals; evaluates the appropriate dataset to quantify the potential cancer risk to the organic arsenical herbicides; provides an evaluation of the mode of carcinogenic action (MOA) for DMAV including a consideration of the key events for bladder tumor formation in rats, other potential modes of action; and also considers the human relevance of the proposed animal MOA. As part of tolerance reassessment under the Food Quality Protection Act for the August 3, 2006 deadline, the hazard of cacodylic acid is being reassessed.

  11. Addition of phenolic acids on the reduction of methanol content in wine. (United States)

    Hou, C-Y; Lin, Y-S; Wang, Y T; Jiang, C-M; Lin, K T; Wu, M-C


    Utilization of phenolic acids, including gallic acid, coumaric acid, caffic acid, cinnamic acid, and ferulic acid, for methanol reduction in wine was investigated. Enzyme activities of pectinesterase and pectin lyase decreased significantly when 0.1 mg/L of gallic acid, coumaric acid, caffic acid, cinnamic acid, or ferulic acid was added. However, no inhibition on polygalacturonase activity was observed when 0.5 mg/L of phenolic acid was added. Methanol content in commercial pectic enzyme (CPE) group increased from 11.53 +/- 1.34 to 56.67 +/- 3.75 ppm in the final products. Adding gallic acid or coumaric acid with CPE inhibited the increase of methanol production. In addition, when 0.2 mg/L of phenolic acid (gallic acid or coumaric acid) was added, the amount of total phenolic acid released from CPE + gallic acid or CPE + coumaric acid groups became higher than CPE group by approximately 466 and 539 mg/L, respectively. In conclusion, the values of lightness, red content, yellow content, total pigment, and total phenolic acid increased in the presence of gallic acid or coumaric acid with CPE, suggesting that adding gallic acid or coumaric acid into winemaking process is a potential method for reducing methanol content, improving wine quality, as well as increasing healthy compounds in wine production.

  12. [Combined treatment including ozonotherapy of patients with viral hepatitis ]. (United States)

    Chernyshev, A L; Filimonov, R M; Karasev, A V; Neronov, V A; Maksimov, V A


    Patients with viral hepatitis have disturbances of biliary tract motor function with the tendency to hypertonus of Oddi's sphincter, changes of physic-colloid properties of bile with increase in density of gall and hepatic bile, pH shift to acid side, microlites formation, disorders in biochemical composition of bile. More than 80% patients have biliar insufficiency. According to our data, with the purpose to correct of disturbances of hepatic exocrine function in patients with viral hepatitis and to prevent stone formation, it is reasonable to use together with antiviral therapy also intravenous injection of ozonated physiological solution and preparations of ursodeoxycholic acid.

  13. Fatty acid metabolism: target for metabolic syndrome


    Wakil, Salih J.; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi A.


    Fatty acids are a major energy source and important constituents of membrane lipids, and they serve as cellular signaling molecules that play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) catalyze the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the substrate for fatty acid synthesis and the regulator of fatty acid oxidation. They are highly regulated and play important roles in the energy metabolism of fatty acids in animals, including humans. They...

  14. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.


    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  15. Challenges in enriching milk fat with polyunsaturated fatty acids. (United States)

    Lanier, Jennifer Stamey; Corl, Benjamin A


    Milk fatty acid composition is determined by several factors including diet. The milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows is low in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially those of the n-3 series. Efforts to change and influence fatty acid profile with longer chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have proven challenging. Several barriers prevent easy transfer of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids to milk fat including rumen biohydrogenation and fatty acid esterification. The potential for cellular uptake and differences in fatty acid incorporation into milk fat might also have an effect, though this has received less research effort. Given physiological impediments to enriching milk fat with polyunsaturated fatty acids, manipulating the genome of the cow might provide a greater increase than diet alone, but this too may be challenged by the physiology of the cow.

  16. Detection and formation scenario of citric acid, pyruvic acid, and other possible metabolism precursors in carbonaceous meteorites (United States)

    Cooper, George; Reed, Chris; Nguyen, Dang; Carter, Malika; Wang, Yi


    Carbonaceous meteorites deliver a variety of organic compounds to Earth that may have played a role in the origin and/or evolution of biochemical pathways. Some apparently ancient and critical metabolic processes require several compounds, some of which are relatively labile such as keto acids. Therefore, a prebiotic setting for any such individual process would have required either a continuous distant source for the entire suite of intact precursor molecules and/or an energetic and compact local synthesis, particularly of the more fragile members. To date, compounds such as pyruvic acid, oxaloacetic acid, citric acid, isocitric acid, and α-ketoglutaric acid (all members of the citric acid cycle) have not been identified in extraterrestrial sources or, as a group, as part of a “one pot” suite of compounds synthesized under plausibly prebiotic conditions. We have identified these compounds and others in carbonaceous meteorites and/or as low temperature (laboratory) reaction products of pyruvic acid. In meteorites, we observe many as part of three newly reported classes of compounds: keto acids (pyruvic acid and homologs), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (citric acid and homologs), and tricarboxylic acids. Laboratory syntheses using 13C-labeled reactants demonstrate that one compound alone, pyruvic acid, can produce several (nonenzymatic) members of the citric acid cycle including oxaloacetic acid. The isotopic composition of some of the meteoritic keto acids points to interstellar or presolar origins, indicating that such compounds might also exist in other planetary systems. PMID:21825143

  17. Use of hexadeuterated valproic acid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acheampong, A.A.; Abbott, F.S.; Orr, J.M.; Ferguson, S.M.; Burton, R.W.


    Di-[( 3,3,3- 2 H3]propyl)acetic acid, a hexadeuterated analogue of valproic acid, was synthesized and its pharmacokinetic properties compared with valproic acid. Concentrations of valproic acid and [ 2 H]valproic acid in serum and saliva were determined by GC-MS using selected-ion monitoring. Saliva drug levels were measured with good precision down to 0.1 microgram/mL. Kinetic equivalence of valproic acid and [ 2 H]valproic acid was demonstrated in a single-dose study in a human volunteer. An isotope effect was observed for omega-oxidation, but the difference in metabolism was not sufficient to make [ 2 H]valproic acid biologically nonequivalent. The application of [ 2 H]valproic acid to determine the kinetics of valproic acid under steady-state concentrations was evaluated in the same volunteer. The kinetic data obtained with [ 2 H]valproic acid was consistent with previously reported values for valproic acid including kinetic differences observed between single-dose and steady-state experiments. Saliva levels of valproic acid were found to give a good correlation with total serum valproic acid under multiple-dose conditions. A concentration dependence was found for the ratio of saliva valproic acid to free valproic acid in serum, low ratios being observed at high serum concentrations of valproic acid

  18. Subcellular localization of secondary lipid metabolites including fragrance volatiles in carnation petals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, K.A.; Thompson, J.E.


    Pulse-chase labeling of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Improved White Sim) petals with [14C]acetate has provided evidence for a hydrophobic subcompartment of lipid-protein particles within the cytosol that resemble oil bodies, are formed by blebbing from membranes, and are enriched in lipid metabolites (including fragrance volatiles) derived from membrane fatty acids. Fractionation of the petals during pulse-chase labeling revealed that radiolabeled fatty acids appear first in microsomal membranes and subsequently in cytosolic lipid-protein particles, indicating that the particles originate from membranes. This interpretation is supported by the finding that the cytosolic lipid-protein particles contain phospholipid as well as the same fatty acids found in microsomal membranes. Radiolabeled polar lipid metabolites (methanol/ water-soluble) were detectable in both in situ lipid-protein particles isolated from the cytosol and those generated in vitro from isolated radiolabeled microsomal membranes. The lipid-protein particles were also enriched in hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-hexanol, volatiles of carnation flower fragrance that are derived from membrane fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. Therefore, secondary lipid metabolites, including components of fragrance, appear to be formed within membranes of petal tissue and are subsequently released from the membrane bilayers into the cytosol by blebbing of lipid-protein particles

  19. Engineering E. coli for caffeic acid biosynthesis from renewable sugars. (United States)

    Zhang, Haoran; Stephanopoulos, Gregory


    Caffeic acid is a valuable aromatic compound that possesses many important pharmacological activities. In structure, caffeic acid belongs to the hydroxycinnamic acid family and can be biosynthesized from the aromatic amino acid tyrosine. In the present paper, the caffeic acid biosynthesis pathway was reconstituted in engineered Escherichia coli to produce caffeic acid from simple biomass sugar glucose and xylose. Different engineering approaches were utilized to optimize the production. Specifically, two parallel biosynthesis routes leading from tyrosine to caffeic acid were studied. The copy number of the intermediate biosynthesis genes was varied to find appropriate gene doses for caffeic acid biosynthesis. Three different media, including a MOPS medium, a synthetic medium, and a rich medium, were also examined to improve the production. The highest specific caffeic acid production achieved was 38 mg/L/OD. Lastly, cultivation of engineered E. coli in a bioreactor resulted in a production of 106 mg/L caffeic acid after 4 days.

  20. Chain-modified radioiodinated fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, C.A.


    Several carbon chain manipulations have been studied in terms of their effects on myocardial activity levels and residence time. The manipulations examined included: chain length, chain branching, chain unsaturation, and carbon-iodine bond stabilization. It was found that chain length affects myocardial activity levels for both straight-chain alkyl acids and branched chain alkyl and aryl acids. Similar results have been reported for the straight-chain aryl acids. Generally, the longer chain lengths correlated with higher myocardial activity levels and longer residence times. This behavior is attributed to storage as triglycerides. Branched chain acids are designed to be anti-metabolites but only the aryl β-methyl acids possessed the expected time course of constant or very slowly decreasing activity levels. The alkyl β-methyl acids underwent rapid deiodination - a process apparently independent of β-oxidation. Inhibition of β-oxidation by incorporation of carbon-carbon double and triple bonds was studied. Deiodination of ω-iodo alkyl fatty acids prevented an assessment of suicide inhibition using an unsaturated alkynoic acid. Stabilization of the carbon-iodine bond by attachment of iodine to a vinylic or aryl carbon was studied. The low myocardial values and high blood values observed for an eleven carbon ω-iodo vinylic fatty acid were not encouraging but ω-iodo aryl fatty acids appear to avoid the problems of rapid deiodination. (Auth.)

  1. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.


    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry


    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  3. The dilemma of an acidic sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, T.


    A discussion of studies detailing the damaging effects of acid precipitation in North America and Europe is followed by a commentary on the controversial political and economic issues associated with forestalling deterioration of the environment. A comprehensive bibliography is included

  4. Biosynthesis of butyric acid by Clostridium tyrobutyricum. (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Tang, Wan; Zhu, Shengquan; Du, Meini


    Butyric acid (C 3 H 7 COOH) is an important chemical that is widely used in foodstuffs along with in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The bioproduction of butyric acid via large-scale fermentation has the potential to be more economical and efficient than petrochemical synthesis. In this paper, the metabolic pathways involved in the production of butyric acid from Clostridium tyrobutyricum using hexose and pentose as substrates are investigated, and approaches to enhance butyric acid production via genetic modification are discussed. Finally, bioreactor modifications (including fibrous bed bioreactor, inner disc-shaped matrix bioreactor, fibrous matrix packed in porous levitated sphere carriers), low-cost feedstocks and special treatments (including continuous fermentation with cell recycling, extractive fermentation with solvent, using different artificial electron carriers) intended to improve the feasibility of commercial butyric acid bioproduction are summarized.

  5. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders (United States)

    ... acids are "building blocks" that join together to form proteins. If you have one of these disorders, your body may have trouble breaking down certain amino acids. Or there may be a problem getting the ...

  6. Uric acid - blood (United States)

    ... acid in blood Images Blood test Uric acid crystals References Edwards NL. Crystal deposition diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. ... M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn ...

  7. Pantothenic acid and biotin (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/002410.htm Pantothenic acid and biotin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pantothenic acid and biotin are types of B vitamins. They are water- ...

  8. Acid-fast stain (United States)

    ... this page: // Acid-fast stain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines ...

  9. Hydrochloric acid poisoning (United States)

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  10. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical (United States)

    Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

  11. Zoledronic Acid Injection (United States)

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  12. Azelaic Acid Topical (United States)

    Azelaic acid gel and foam is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat the pimples and ...

  13. Aminocaproic Acid Injection (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  14. Deoxycholic Acid Injection (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  15. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Valproic Acid Monday, 01 January 2018 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to valproic acid may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  16. Lactic acid test (United States)

    ... this page: // Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  17. Sulfuric acid poisoning (United States)

    Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  18. [Simultaneous determination of twenty-one organic acids in food by ion chromatography with eluent autogeneration]. (United States)

    Lin, Huaying; Lin, Fenghua; Sheng, Lina; Li, Yidan; Zhang, Qiong


    A novel ion chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of organic acids in food samples including quinic acid, acetic acid, pyruvic acid, ketosuccinic acid, mannitic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, fumaric acid, ascorbic acid, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, cinnamic acid, salicylic acid, citric acid, isocitric acid, ferulic acid, cis-aconitic acid, trans-aconitic acid, beta-coumaric acid. 5 - 34 mmol/L KOH produced by an EG40 eluent autogenerator could achieve a flat baseline and lower background conductance when performing gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.6 - 2.5 mL/min and the injection volume was 25 microL. The separation was performed on an IonPac AS11 column and detected by suppressed conductivity with self-regenerating suppressor mode. The samples were prepared through extraction, decoloration and filtration before analysis. Twenty-one organic acids showed good linear relationship between the mass concentration and the peak area in the measurement ranges. The correlation coefficients were above 0.999 and the detection limits were 0.011 - 0.188 mg/L, and the average recoveries were 91.5% - 101.8%. The method is simple and rapid with good accuracy and reproducibility, and has been applied to determine twenty-one organic acids in diversiform samples with satisfactory results.

  19. Determination of Fatty Acid in Asparagus by Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Asparagus contain a lot of macronutrients and micronutrients including folate, dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble and phenolic compounds. Also asparagus is a good source of unsaturated linoleic and linolenic fatty acids which are precursors for Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA. Unsaturated fatty acids have important biological effects and they have important role in human health. The objective of this study was to analyze fatty acid composition of asparagus as a potential source of linoleic and linolenic acid - a precursor for EPA and DHA. For this reason we analyzed fifty seven samples of asparagus collected from the local market. We used AOAC 996.06 method and analyses were performed with gas chromatograph with flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The highest concentration of fatty acid in the asparagus was linoleic acid (C18:2n6 which content in asparagus is 25.620±1.0%. Also, asparagus is good source of -linolenic fatty acid (C18:3n3 and content of this fatty acid in asparagus is 8.840±0.3%. The omega-6 to omega-3 (n6/n3 ratio in asparagus was 3.19. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs were higher than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, and from saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid was most frequent with 24.324±1.0%. From our study we can conclude that asparagus is very good source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and linolenic fatty acids.

  20. Acid Rain Study Guide. (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  1. The Acid Rain Reader. (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  2. Stomach acid test (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour (mEq/ ...

  3. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  4. Chip-based sequencing nucleic acids (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald


    A system for fast DNA sequencing by amplification of genetic material within microreactors, denaturing, demulsifying, and then sequencing the material, while retaining it in a PCR/sequencing zone by a magnetic field. One embodiment includes sequencing nucleic acids on a microchip that includes a microchannel flow channel in the microchip. The nucleic acids are isolated and hybridized to magnetic nanoparticles or to magnetic polystyrene-coated beads. Microreactor droplets are formed in the microchannel flow channel. The microreactor droplets containing the nucleic acids and the magnetic nanoparticles are retained in a magnetic trap in the microchannel flow channel and sequenced.

  5. Reactions of benzene oxide with thiols including glutathione. (United States)

    Henderson, Alistair P; Barnes, Martine L; Bleasdale, Christine; Cameron, Richard; Clegg, William; Heath, Sarah L; Lindstrom, Andrew B; Rappaport, Stephen M; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Watson, William P; Golding, Bernard T


    S-Phenylmercapturic acid is a minor metabolite of benzene used as a biomarker for human benzene exposures. The reaction of intracellular glutathione with benzene oxide-oxepin, the initial metabolite of benzene, is presumed to give 1-(S-glutathionyl)-cyclohexa-3,5-dien-2-ol, which undergoes dehydration to S-phenylglutathione, the precursor of S-phenylmercapturic acid. To validate the proposed route to S-phenylglutathione, reactions of benzene oxide-oxepin with glutathione and other sulfur nucleophiles have been studied. The reaction of benzene oxide with an excess of aqueous sodium sulfide, followed by acetylation, gave bis-(6-trans-5-acetoxycyclohexa-1,3-dienyl)sulfide, the structure of which was proved by X-ray crystallography. Reactions of benzene oxide-oxepin in a 95:5 (v/v) mixture of phosphate buffer in D2O with (CD3)2SO were monitored by 1H NMR spectroscopy. In the absence of glutathione, the half-life of benzene oxide-oxepin was ca. 34 min at 25 degrees C and pD 7.0. The half-life was not affected in the range of 2-15 mM glutathione in the presence and absence of a commercial sample of human glutathione S-transferase (at pH 7.0, 8.0, 8.5, or 10.0). The adduct 1-(S-glutathionyl)-cyclohexa-3,5-diene-2-ol was identified in these reaction mixtures, especially at higher pH, by mass spectrometry and by its acid-catalyzed decomposition to S-phenylglutathione. Incubation of benzene oxide with N-acetyl-L-cysteine at 37 degrees C and pH 10.0 and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of the mixture showed formation of pre-S-phenylmercapturic acid and the dehydration product, S-phenylmercapturic acid. The data validate the premise that benzene oxide-oxepin can be captured by glutathione to give (1R,2R)- and/or (1S,2S)-1-(S-glutathionyl)-cyclohexa-3,5-dien-2-ol, which dehydrate to S-phenylglutathione. The capture is a relatively inefficient process at pH 7 that is accelerated at higher pH. These studies account for the observation that the metabolism of benzene is

  6. [Molecular docking of chlorogenic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid with human serum albumin]. (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Ma, Hong-yue; Fan, Xin-sheng; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Tuan-jie


    To investigate the mechanism of binding of human serum albumin (HSA) with potential sensitinogen, including chlorogenic acid and two isochlorogenic acids (3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid). By using the docking algorithm of computer-aided molecular design and the Molegro Virtual Docker, the crystal structures of HSA with warfarin and diazepam (Protein Data Bank ID: 2BXD and 2BXF) were selected as molecular docking receptors of HSA sites I and II. According to docking scores, key residues and H-bond, the molecular docking mode was selected and confirmed. The molecular docking of chlorogenic acid and two isochlorogenic acids on sites I and II was compared based on the above design. The results from molecular docking indicated that chlorogenic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid could bind to HSA site I by high affinity scores of -112.3, -155.3 and -153.1, respectively. They could bind to site II on HSA by high affinity scores of -101.7, -138.5 and -133.4, respectively. In site I, two isochlorogenic acids interacted with the key apolar side-chains of Leu238 and Ala291 by higher affinity scores than chlorogenic acid. Furthermore, the H-bonds of isochlorogenic acids with polar residues inside the pocket and at the entrance of the pocket were different from chlorogenic acid. Moreover, the second coffee acyl of isochlorogenic acid occupied the right-hand apolar compartment in the pocket of HSA site I. In site I, the second coffee acyl of isochlorogenic acid formed the H-bonds with polar side-chains, which contributed isochlorogenic acid to binding with site II of HSA. The isochlorogenic acids with two coffee acyls have higher binding abilities with HSA than chlorogenic acid with one coffee acyl, suggesting that isochlorogenic acids binding with HSA may be sensitinogen.

  7. Amino acid analysis (United States)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)


    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  8. Biological treatment of inorganic ion contamination including radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, R.S.


    Microorganisms and plants are capable of a broad range of activities useful in treating inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface runoff water Among the advantages of biological processes for this purpose are relatively low costs (related to their mild conditions) and the practicality of letting them run unattended. This talk will review both kinds of treatment chemistry that can be done biologically as well as present data from INEEL projects on bioremediation of specific elements. Biological processes can either solubilize or immobilize metals and other ions depending on the need. Uranium ions are solubilized from soil by the local bioproduction of organic acids as chelating agents, allowing removal of this ion as part of an ex-situ treatment process. Further, the microbial production of sulfuric acid can be used to solubilize Cs contamination in concrete surfaces. More usual though is the need to control metal movement in soil or water. Various metals such as Se and Cd are taken up from soil by hyper-accumulating plants, where they can be harvested in concentrated form in the leaves and stems. Excess acidity and a broad variety of toxic metals in acid rock drainage, such as Hg, Cd, Zn and others, can be removed by the production of sulfide ion in an easily fielded biological reactor which may be useful on phosphate processing runoff water contaminated with naturally occuring radioactive materials. Soluble Co, Cu, and Cd can be treated by sorption onto immobilized algae. Inorganic ions can also be directly reduced by bacteria as part of treatment, for example the conversion of soluble selenate ion to insoluble elemental selenium and the conversion of highly toxic CR(VI) to the far less soluble and less toxic Cr(III)

  9. Molecular Interaction of Pinic Acid with Sulfuric Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Kurten, Theo; Bilde, Merete


    from the corresponding ΔG values. The first two additions of sulfuric acid to pinic acid are found to be favorable with ΔG values of -9.06 and -10.41 kcal/mol. Addition of a third sulfuric acid molecule is less favorable and leads to a structural rearrangement forming a bridged sulfuric acid-pinic acid...... without the further possibility for attachment of either sulfuric acid or pinic acid. This suggests that pinic acid cannot be a key species in the first steps in nucleation, but the favorable interactions between sulfuric acid and pinic acid imply that pinic acid can contribute to the subsequent growth...

  10. Nutritional quality evaluation of rabbit meat (Flemish Giant breed corelated with fatty acids content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Frunză


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional quality of rabbit meat (Flemish Giant breed in terms of content of fatty acids. The biological material consisted of 42 rabbits (17 females and 15 males from which were collected Longissimus dorsi, Semimembranosus and Triceps Brachii muscles immediately after slaughter. The samples were vacuum packaged, frozen at -80 0C, and immediately after thawing have been minced and freeze-dried at -110 0C (using lyophilizer CoolSafe Scanvac. The content in fatty acids was followed through NIRS methodology, using FOSS 6500 spectrophotometer, by gender. Was determined: the saturated fatty acids: C14:0 (Myristic acid, C15: 0 (Pentadecanoic acid, C16: 0 (Palmitic acid, C17: 0 (Heptadecanoic acid and C18: 0 (Stearic acid; monounsaturated fatty acids: Palmitoleic acid (C16: 1n-7, Vaccenic acid, cis-isomer of oleic acid (C18: 1n-7 and oleic acid (C18: 1n-9 and the polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 and ω6: C18: 2n-6 (linoleic acid, C18: 3n-3 (Linolenic acid, C20: 2n-6 (Eicosadienoic acid, C20: 3n-6 (Eicosatrienoic acid, C20: 4n-6 (arachidonic acid, C20: 5n-3 (Eicosapentaenoic acid, C22: 4n-6 (Docosatetraenoic acid, C22: 5n-3 (Docosopentaenoic acid and C22: 6n- 3 (docosahexaenoic acid. The results were statistically analyzed, including analysis of variance (ANOVA and was observed significant differences between gender.

  11. [Biosynthesis of adipic acid]. (United States)

    Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe


    Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production.

  12. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shoup, Timothy


    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  13. Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; West,; Ryan, M [Madison, WI


    A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

  14. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, up to and including the decaglycerol esters, may be safely used in food in...

  15. Rodriguesic acids, modified diketopiperazines from the gastropod mollusc Pleurobranchus areolatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabio R.; Santos, Mario F.C.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S., E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Williams, David E.; Andersen, Raymond J. [Departments of Chemistry and Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Padula, Vinicius [SNSB-Zoologische Staatssammlung München, München, Germany and Department Biology II and GeoBio-Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, (Germany); Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica


    In the present investigation, two specimens of the nudipleuran mollusc Pleurobranchus areolatus have shown to accumulate oxidized rodriguesin A derivatives. Rodriguesic acid presents a carboxylic acid replacing the terminal methyl group of the alkyl chain of rodriguesin A. A hydroxamate group was also present on the diketopiperazine moiety of a rodriguesic acid derivative. The structures of both rodriguesic acid and of rodriguesic acid hydroxamate have been established by analysis of spectroscopic data, including their absolute configuration. Two methyl esters of the rodriguesic acids have been isolated as major compounds, but were considered to be isolation artifacts. (author)

  16. Metabolism of 2-deoxyglyconic acid in plants and bakers yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gakhokidze, R.A.; Beriashvili, L.T.; Chigvinadze, T.D.


    During photosynthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris haricot bean and Zea mays leaves, assimilated carbon 14 CO 2 is rapidly incorporated into aldonic acids including 2-deoxygluconic acid whose radioactivity was relatively high. In these plants, radioactive carbon of 2-deoxy-D-gluconic acid prepared from 1-6 14 C-D-glucose is actively involved in the formation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids. In baking yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the rate of respiration-dependent oxidation of 2-deoxy-D-gluconic acid differs versus the rate of D-glucose oxidation [ru

  17. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid (United States)

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI


    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  18. The Degradation of 14C-Glutamic Acid by L-Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase. (United States)

    Dougherty, Charles M; Dayan, Jean


    Describes procedures and semi-micro reaction apparatus (carbon dioxide trap) to demonstrate how a particular enzyme (L-Glutamic acid decarboxylase) may be used to determine the site or sites of labeling in its substrate (carbon-14 labeled glutamic acid). Includes calculations, solutions, and reagents used. (Author/SK)

  19. Lichen-derived caperatic acid and physodic acid inhibit Wnt signaling in colorectal cancer cells. (United States)

    Paluszczak, Jarosław; Kleszcz, Robert; Studzińska-Sroka, Elżbieta; Krajka-Kuźniak, Violetta


    Lichens are a source of secondary metabolites which possess important biological activities, including antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic effects. The anticancer activity of lichens was shown in many types of tumors, including colorectal cancers (CRC). Several studies revealed that the application of lichen extracts diminished the proliferation of CRC cells and induced apoptosis. Colon carcinogenesis is associated with aberrations in Wnt signaling. Elevated transcriptional activity of β-catenin induces cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Thus, the inhibition of Wnt signaling is a promising therapeutic strategy in colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effects of lichen-derived depsides (atranorin, lecanoric acid, squamatic acid) and depsidones (physodic acid, salazinic acid) and a poly-carboxylic fatty acid-caperatic acid, on Wnt signaling in HCT116 and DLD-1 colorectal cancer cell lines. HCT116 cells were more sensitive to the modulatory effects of the compounds. PKF118-310, which was used as a reference β-catenin inhibitor, dose-dependently reduced the expression of the classical β-catenin target gene-Axin2 in both cell lines. Lecanoric acid slightly reduced Axin2 expression in HCT116 cells while caperatic acid tended to reduce Axin2 expression in both cell lines. Physodic acid much more potently decreased Axin2 expression in HCT116 cells than in DLD-1 cells. Physodic acid and caperatic acid also diminished the expression of survivin and MMP7 in a cell line and time-dependent manner. None of the compounds affected the nuclear translocation of β-catenin. This is the first report showing the ability of caperatic acid and physodic acid to modulate β-catenin-dependent transcription.

  20. Old and New Gut Hormone, Gastrin and Acid Suppressive Therapy. (United States)

    Haruma, Ken; Kamada, Tomoari; Manabe, Noriaki; Suehiro, Mitsuhiko; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Shiotani, Akiko


    Gastrin acts physiologically as a gut hormone to stimulate acid secretion after meal and as a cell-growth factor of oxyntic mucosa. Increase in serum gastrin level happens under various conditions including Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, antral G cell hyperplasia, autoimmune gastritis, atrophic gastritis, renal failure, vagotomy, Helicobacter pylori infection and acid suppressive therapy. As acid suppressive therapy causes hypergastrinemia, the association between acid suppressive therapy and gastric neuroendocrine cell tumor (NET) has been discussed during the past 30 years. In this review article, the definition of hypergastrinemia and the related disorders including acid suppressive therapy and gastric NET are discussed. © 2018 Japanese Gastroenterological Association Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Acid Load and Phosphorus Homeostasis in CKD. (United States)

    Khairallah, Pascale; Isakova, Tamara; Asplin, John; Hamm, Lee; Dobre, Mirela; Rahman, Mahboob; Sharma, Kumar; Leonard, Mary; Miller, Edgar; Jaar, Bernard; Brecklin, Carolyn; Yang, Wei; Wang, Xue; Feldman, Harold; Wolf, Myles; Scialla, Julia J


    The kidneys maintain acid-base homeostasis through excretion of acid as either ammonium or as titratable acids that primarily use phosphate as a buffer. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), ammoniagenesis is impaired, promoting metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis stimulates phosphaturic hormones, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) in vitro, possibly to increase urine titratable acid buffers, but this has not been confirmed in humans. We hypothesized that higher acid load and acidosis would associate with altered phosphorus homeostasis, including higher urinary phosphorus excretion and serum PTH and FGF-23. Cross-sectional. 980 participants with CKD enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. Net acid excretion as measured in 24-hour urine, potential renal acid load (PRAL) estimated from food frequency questionnaire responses, and serum bicarbonate concentration urine phosphorus and calcium excretion and serum phosphorus, FGF-23, and PTH concentrations. Using linear and log-linear regression adjusted for demographics, kidney function, comorbid conditions, body mass index, diuretic use, and 24-hour urine creatinine excretion, we found that 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion was higher at higher net acid excretion, higher PRAL, and lower serum bicarbonate concentration (each Pphosphorus concentration was also higher with higher net acid excretion and lower serum bicarbonate concentration (each P=0.001). Only higher net acid excretion associated with higher 24-hour urine calcium excretion (Pphosphorus, or urine urea nitrogen excretion, when available. Possible residual confounding by kidney function or nutrition; urine phosphorus excretion was included in calculation of the titratable acid component of net acid excretion. In CKD, higher acid load and acidosis associate independently with increased circulating phosphorus concentration and augmented phosphaturia, but not consistently with FGF-23 or PTH

  2. The Role of Microbial Amino Acid Metabolism in Host Metabolism


    Neis, Evelien P. J. G.; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Rensen, Sander S.


    Disruptions in gut microbiota composition and function are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The functional output of the gut microbiota, including short-chain fatty acids and amino acids, are thought to be important modulators underlying the development of these disorders. Gut bacteria can alter the bioavailability of amino acids by utilization of several amino acids originating from both alimentary and endogenous protei...

  3. The use of the SPASIBA spectroscopic potential for reproducing the structures and vibrational frequencies of a sries of acids: acetic acid, pivalic acid, succinic acid, adipic acid and ?-glutamic acid (United States)

    Chhiba, M.; Derreumaux, P.; Vergoten, G.


    Normal coordinate analyses have been performed on acetic, pivalic, succinic and adipic acid dimers (including their deutero analogues) and the L-glutamic acid dimer. It is shown that the calculated potential energy surfaces and harmonic vibrational frequencies are in very good accordance with the experimental results. For all the observed vibrational modes below 1750 cm -1, the standard deviation between the 381 calculated and observed frequencies is approximately 12 cm -1. Comparison with previous assignments underlines a quasi-agreement for the four former molecules. In contrast, new assignments are given for some vibrational bands of L-glutamic acid.

  4. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Diagnosis and Treatment (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Page Diagnosis Treatment Complications Diagnosis Doctors usually diagnose Haemophilus influenzae , including H. influenzae type b or Hib, infection ...

  5. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V? (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.


    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  6. Partially ionized plasmas including the third symposium on uranium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [ed.


    Separate abstracts are included for 28 papers on electrically generated plasmas, fission generated plasmas, nuclear pumped lasers, gaseous fuel reactor research, and applications. Five papers have been previously abstracted and included in ERA.

  7. Dictionary of scientific units including dimensionless numbers and scales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerrard, H.G; McNeill, D.B


    .... The text includes the most recently accepted values of all units. Several disciplines, which have in the past employed few scientific principles and the dictionary has been extended to include examples of these.

  8. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.


    aqueous formation of sulfate-bearing phases under acidic conditions on the surface of Mars including (1) sulfuric acid weathering of basaltic materials; (2) oxidative weathering of ultramafic igneous rocks containing sulfides; (3) acid fog weathering of basaltic materials, and (4) near-neutral pH subsurface solutions rich in Fe2(+) that were rapidly oxidized to Fe3(+), which produced excess acidity as iron was oxidized on exposure to O2 or photo-oxidized by ultraviolet radiation at the martian surface. Next, we briefly describe evidence for these hypothesis.

  9. Recovery of boric acid from nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahoda, E.J.


    Disclosed is a process for separating and recovering boric acid from water containing solids which include boric acid and radionuclides. In the first step, the water is separated from the solids by evaporation of the water at a temperature under 130 0 F In the second step, an alcohol selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, and mixtures thereof is added to the remaining solids in the amount of at least 1.4 times that stoichiometrically required to react with the boric acid to form boron alkoxide and water to about 100 mole % in excess of stoichiometric. In the third step, the boron alkoxide is separated from the remaining solids by evaporation of the boron alkoxide. In the fourth step, water is added to the volatilized boron alkoxide to form boric acid and an alcohol. And finally, the alcohol is separated from the boric acid by evaporating the alcohol

  10. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, including monoesters with an unusual esterifying acid, from cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp cv. 'Tropic Sun') (United States)

    Cultivation of Crotalaria juncea L. (Sunn Hemp cv. ‘Tropic Sun’) is recommended as a green manure crop in a rotation cycle to improve soil condition, help control erosion, suppress weeds, and reduce soil nematodes. Because C. juncea belongs to a genus that is known for the production of toxic dehydr...

  11. Migration of antioxidants from polylactic acid films, a parameter estimation approach: Part I - A model including convective mass transfer coefficient. (United States)

    Samsudin, Hayati; Auras, Rafael; Burgess, Gary; Dolan, Kirk; Soto-Valdez, Herlinda


    A two-step solution based on the boundary conditions of Crank's equations for mass transfer in a film was developed. Three driving factors, the diffusion (D), partition (K p,f ) and convective mass transfer coefficients (h), govern the sorption and/or desorption kinetics of migrants from polymer films. These three parameters were simultaneously estimated. They provide in-depth insight into the physics of a migration process. The first step was used to find the combination of D, K p,f and h that minimized the sums of squared errors (SSE) between the predicted and actual results. In step 2, an ordinary least square (OLS) estimation was performed by using the proposed analytical solution containing D, K p,f and h. Three selected migration studies of PLA/antioxidant-based films were used to demonstrate the use of this two-step solution. Additional parameter estimation approaches such as sequential and bootstrap were also performed to acquire a better knowledge about the kinetics of migration. The proposed model successfully provided the initial guesses for D, K p,f and h. The h value was determined without performing a specific experiment for it. By determining h together with D, under or overestimation issues pertaining to a migration process can be avoided since these two parameters are correlated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, The Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University (Japan); Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, The Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University (Japan); Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Ohue, Ryuji [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, The Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University (Japan); Nomura, Wataru [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Sugawara, Tatsuya [Laboratory of Marine Bioproducts Technology, Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yu, Rina [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kitamura, Nahoko [Laboratory of Fermentation Physiology and Applied Microbiology, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); and others


    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. - Highlights: • Most LA-derived fatty acids from gut lactic acid bacteria potently activated PPARα. • Among tested fatty acids, KetoA and KetoC significantly activated PPARγ. • KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ. • KetoA enhanced adiponectin production and glucose uptake during adipogenesis.

  13. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K


    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  14. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Keisuke


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake activity in muscle cells are fundamental events in the development of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. There is an increasing demand for compounds including drugs and functional foods that can prevent myocellular insulin resistance. Methods In this study, we established a high-throughput assay to screen for compounds that can improve myocellular insulin resistance, which was based on a previously reported non-radioisotope 2-deoxyglucose (2DG uptake assay. Insulin-resistant muscle cells were prepared by treating rat L6 skeletal muscle cells with 750 μM palmitic acid for 14 h. Using the established assay, the impacts of several fatty acids on myocellular insulin resistance were determined. Results In normal L6 cells, treatment with saturated palmitic or stearic acid alone decreased 2DG uptake, whereas unsaturated fatty acids did not. Moreover, co-treatment with oleic acid canceled the palmitic acid-induced decrease in 2DG uptake activity. Using the developed assay with palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant L6 cells, we determined the effects of other unsaturated fatty acids. We found that arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids improved palmitic acid-decreased 2DG uptake at lower concentrations than the other unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, as 10 μM arachidonic acid showed similar effects to 750 μM oleic acid. Conclusions We have found that polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids prevent palmitic acid-induced myocellular insulin resistance.

  15. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)


    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.


    De Ley, J.; Friedman, S.


    De Ley, J. (State University, Ghent, Belgium), and S. Friedman. Deoxyribonucleic acid hybrids of acetic acid bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 88:937–945. 1964.—Deuterated N15-labeled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from Acetobacter aceti (mesoxydans 4) forms hybrids with ordinary DNA from other species of this genus (A. xylinum, A. pasteurianus, A. estunensis, and possibly A. xylinoides) when the guanine plus cytosine base composition does not vary by more than 1 to 2%. Beyond this limit (A. aceti Ch31 and A. muciparus 5) no hybrids are formed. The hybrids are apparently derived from an asymmetrical part of the compositional distribution. The results lend strength to the concept of a genetic species rather than to a division of a genus into sharply separated species, based on small phenotypic differences. Taxonomic implications are discussed. PMID:14219057

  17. Caveolar fatty acids and acylation of caveolin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cai

    Full Text Available Caveolae are cholesterol and sphingolipids rich subcellular domains on plasma membrane. Caveolae contain a variety of signaling proteins which provide platforms for signaling transduction. In addition to enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, caveolae also contain a variety of fatty acids. It has been well-established that acylation of protein plays a pivotal role in subcellular location including targeting to caveolae. However, the fatty acid compositions of caveolae and the type of acylation of caveolar proteins remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the fatty acids in caveolae and caveolin-1 bound fatty acids.Caveolae were isolated from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells. The caveolar fatty acids were extracted with Folch reagent, methyl esterificated with BF3, and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS. The caveolin-1 bound fatty acids were immunoprecipitated by anti-caveolin-1 IgG and analyzed with GC/MS.In contrast to the whole CHO cell lysate which contained a variety of fatty acids, caveolae mainly contained three types of fatty acids, 0.48 µg palmitic acid, 0.61 µg stearic acid and 0.83 µg oleic acid/caveolae preparation/5 × 10(7 cells. Unexpectedly, GC/MS analysis indicated that caveolin-1 was not acylated by myristic acid; instead, it was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid.Caveolae contained a special set of fatty acids, highly enriched with saturated fatty acids, and caveolin-1 was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid. The unique fatty acid compositions of caveolae and acylation of caveolin-1 may be important for caveolae formation and for maintaining the function of caveolae.

  18. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie


    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...

  19. Recovery of organic acids (United States)

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.


    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  20. Folic Acid Quiz (United States)

    ... to Other Health Outcomes Folic Acid Fortification and Supplementation Neural Tube Defects Surveillance References Data and Statistics Research Birth Defects COUNT Articles & Key Findings Recommendations Links to ...

  1. Recovery of organic acids (United States)

    Verser, Dan W [Menlo Park, CA; Eggeman, Timothy J [Lakewood, CO


    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  2. USGS Tracks Acid Rain (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  3. Biosynthesis of natural products containing β-amino acids. (United States)

    Kudo, Fumitaka; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Eguchi, Tadashi


    Covering: up to January, 2014. We focus here on β-amino acids as components of complex natural products because the presence of β-amino acids produces structural diversity in natural products and provides characteristic architectures beyond those of ordinary α-L-amino acids, thus generating significant and unique biological functions in nature. In this review, we first survey the known bioactive β-amino acid-containing natural products including nonribosomal peptides, macrolactam polyketides, and nucleoside-β-amino acid hybrids. Next, the biosynthetic enzymes that form β-amino acids from α-amino acids and the de novo synthesis of β-amino acids are summarized. Then, the mechanisms of β-amino acid incorporation into natural products are reviewed. Because it is anticipated that the rational swapping of the β-amino acid moieties with various side chains and stereochemistries by biosynthetic engineering should lead to the creation of novel architectures and bioactive compounds, the accumulation of knowledge regarding β-amino acid-containing natural product biosynthetic machinery could have a significant impact in this field. In addition, genome mining of characteristic β-amino acid biosynthetic genes and unique β-amino acid incorporation machinery could lead to the discovery of new β-amino acid-containing natural products.

  4. Towards Sustainable Production of Formic Acid. (United States)

    Bulushev, Dmitri A; Ross, Julian R H


    Formic acid is a widely used commodity chemical. It can be used as a safe, easily handled, and transported source of hydrogen or carbon monoxide for different reactions, including those producing fuels. The review includes historical aspects of formic acid production. It briefly analyzes production based on traditional sources, such as carbon monoxide, methanol, and methane. However, the main emphasis is on the sustainable production of formic acid from biomass and biomass-derived products through hydrolysis and oxidation processes. New strategies of low-temperature synthesis from biomass may lead to the utilization of formic acid for the production of fuel additives, such as methanol; upgraded bio-oil; γ-valerolactone and its derivatives; and synthesis gas used for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of hydrocarbons. Some technological aspects are also considered. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Methoxylated fatty acids in Blumeria graminis conidia. (United States)

    Muchembled, Jérôme; Sahraoui, Anissa Lounès-Hadj; Laruelle, Frédéric; Palhol, Fabien; Couturier, Daniel; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Sancholle, Michel


    The total fatty acids (FA) composition of Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici conidia, the causal agent of wheat powdery mildew, was analyzed as a function of their age. A total of 19 FA (C12-C24 saturated and unsaturated) and unusual methoxylated fatty acids (mFA) were detected in young, intermediate and old conidia. Two very long chain methoxylated FA were identified by GC-MS as 3-methoxydocosanoic and 3-methoxytetracosanoic acids. Medium chain FA were predominant in young conidia (75%, including 13% of mFA) while very long chain fatty acids constituted the major compounds in old conidia (74%, including 30% of mFA). We have shown for the first time that the total FA composition is strongly correlated with the age of B. graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) conidia.

  6. Replica amplification of nucleic acid arrays (United States)

    Church, George M.; Mitra, Robi D.


    Disclosed are improved methods of making and using immobilized arrays of nucleic acids, particularly methods for producing replicas of such arrays. Included are methods for producing high density arrays of nucleic acids and replicas of such arrays, as well as methods for preserving the resolution of arrays through rounds of replication. Also included are methods which take advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays for increased sensitivity in detection of sequences on arrays. Improved methods of sequencing nucleic acids immobilized on arrays utilizing single copies of arrays and methods taking further advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays are disclosed. The improvements lead to higher fidelity and longer read lengths of sequences immobilized on arrays. Methods are also disclosed which improve the efficiency of multiplex PCR using arrays of immobilized nucleic acids.

  7. The proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria. (United States)

    Mayo, B


    Lactic acid bacteria are widely used throughout the world, empirically or deliberately, in the manufacturing of several food and feed stuffs, including milk products (such as cheese, butter, yoghurt, buttermilk, etc.), fermented vegetables (pickles, olives and sauerkraut), sausages, sourdough bread and silage, due to their ability to convert sugars into lactic acid. Of these, dairy products are of outstanding economic importance. Starter cultures used in the dairy industry are mixtures of carefully selected lactic acid bacteria which are added to the milk to fulfil the desired fermentation. Dairy starter cultures must reach high densities in milk in order to produce lactic acid at the required rates for manufacturing. Under these conditions, amino acids supply becomes limitant due to their scarce concentration in milk and to the auxotrophies shown by many starter bacteria. This implies the necessity of a proteolytic system, able to degrade the most abundant protein in milk, casein, into assimilable amino acids and peptides. Casein degradation and utilization require the concerted action of proteinases, peptidases and amino acid and peptide uptake systems. This whole set of enzymes constitutes the proteolytic system. In this article an overview of the recent biochemical and genetic data on the proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria will be presented.

  8. Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.


    One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

  9. 75 FR 16513 - B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, Including B&C Distribution Center, Including On-Site... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70, 975A] B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, Including B&C Distribution Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers From B&C Services... October 2, 2009, applicable to workers of B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, including on-site...

  10. Acid digestion studies at AEE Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capp, P.D.; Nichols, A.L.; Snelling, K.W.; Stride, R.


    Acid digestion is a chemical combustion process which could be applied to the treatment of low- and medium-level radioactive waste. The present paper describes experiments on the topic carried out at AEE Winfrith in the period 1979-1982. This work has included laboratory-scale studies of the basic chemistry of the process, the design and operation of a 5:1 scale rig and investigations into methods of residue treatment and acid recovery. A review of acid digestion work carried out at other locations throughout the world and a summary of the results of a design study carried out by external consultants are also presented. (author)

  11. Absorption of proteins and amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeejeebhoy, K.N.


    Although the absorption of proteins and amino acids is an important issue in nutrition, its measurement is not common because of the methodological difficulties. Complications are attributable in particular to the magnitude of endogenous protein secretion and to the diversity of absorption mechanisms for amino acids either as individual units or as peptides. Methods for studying absorption include balance techniques, tolerance tests, tracer techniques using proteins or amino acids labelled with 131 I, 3 H, or 15 N, intestinal perfusion studies, and others; they must be selected according to the nature of the information sought. Improvements over the current methods would be useful. (author)

  12. Biliary amino acid and glutathione secretion in response to amino acid infusion in the isolated rat liver. (United States)

    Shattuck, K E; Grinnell, C D; Rassin, D K


    The intravenous infusion of amino acid solutions has been associated with cholestatic liver injury in hospitalized patients and in laboratory animals. In the isolated rat liver, we recently showed that the acute decrease in bile flow, previously reported by other investigators, is dose related, reversible, and associated with dose-related increases in total biliary amino acid concentrations. In the present study, we characterized the effects of graded infusions of amino acid solutions, with and without taurocholate, on biliary secretion of individual amino acids and glutathione, an important regulator of bile flow. Livers from young adult male rats were perfused with an amino acid solution for 1 hour and allowed to recover for 30 minutes. Infusion of the amino acid solution was associated with dose-related increases in biliary concentrations of most amino acids included in the amino acid solution. Infusion of amino acid solutions resulted in a decreased bile/perfusate ratio of most amino acids, which were secreted into bile in amounts approximating their calculated uptake from the infusate. The inclusion of taurocholate in the infusate was associated with lower biliary concentrations of each individual amino acid and significant decreases in biliary total, reduced, and oxidized glutathione. Further investigation of the relationship between these changes in biliary amino acids and glutathione concentrations and the cholestasis associated with infusion of amino acid solutions may provide insights into the mechanism by which amino acids induce such cholestasis.

  13. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Retinoic Acid and Lauric Acid as an Alternative for Topical Treatment of Acne Vulgaris. (United States)

    Silva, Elton Luiz; Carneiro, Guilherme; De Araújo, Lidiane Advíncula; Trindade, Mariana de Jesus Vaz; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Oréfice, Rodrigo Lambert; Farias, Luis de Macêdo; De Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Dos Santos, Simone Gonçalves; Goulart, Gisele Assis Castro; Alves, Ricardo José; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda


    Topical therapy is the first choice for the treatment of mild to moderate acne and all-trans retinoic acid is one of the most used drugs. The combination of retinoids and antimicrobials is an innovative approach for acne therapy. Recently, lauric acid, a saturated fatty acid, has shown strong antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes. However, topical application of retinoic acid is followed by high incidence of side-effects, including erythema and irritation. Solid lipid nanoparticles represent an alternative to overcome these side-effects. This work aims to develop solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with retinoic acid and lauric acid and evaluate their antibacterial activity. The influence of lipophilic stearylamine on the characteristics of solid lipid nanoparticles was investigated. Solid lipid nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The in vitro inhibitory activity of retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was evaluated against Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. High encapsulation efficiency was obtained at initial time (94 ± 7% and 100 ± 4% for retinoic acid and lauric acid, respectively) and it was demonstrated that lauric acid-loaded-solid lipid nanoparticles provided the incorporation of retinoic acid. However, the presence of stearylamine is necessary to ensure stability of encapsulation. Moreover, retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles showed growth inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus, representing an interesting alternative for the topical therapy of acne vulgaris.

  14. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  15. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding including coagulopathies and other menstrual disorders. (United States)

    Deligeoroglou, Efthimios; Karountzos, Vasileios


    Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) is a frequent cause of visits to the emergency department and a major reason for concern among adolescents and their families. The most common cause of AUB, in otherwise healthy adolescents, is ovulatory dysfunction, although 5-36% of adolescents who present with heavy menstrual bleeding, have an underlying bleeding disorder (BD). The most common form of BDs is von Willebrand Disease, reflecting 13% of adolescents with AUB. Management of AUB depends on the underlying etiology, the bleeding severity, as well as the need for hospitalization. Treatment of adolescents with an underlying coagulopathy depends on the severity of the BD, while therapeutic interventions are summarized in supportive measures, hormonal treatments (e.g. Combined Oral Contraceptives), non-hormonal treatments (e.g. tranexamic acid and desmopressin), surgical options (e.g. dilatation & curettage) and treatment options in specific conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans


    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Katan, M.B.


    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in humans are lacking. We determined the absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in a cross-over study with 4 female and 3 male healthy ileo...

  17. Characterization of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Elongation (United States)


    synthases have been studied including the soluble fatty acid synthases , those involved in polyketide synthesis, and the FAE1-like 3-keto-CoA synthases ...condensation, including the soluble fatty acid synthases and the FAE1-like 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthases (FAE-KCSs) possess a catalytic triad of Cys, His...1 Fatty acid synthase required for de novo FA synthesis .................................................. 2 A. Type I FAS

  18. Science of acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Tsuguo


    In this report, the mechanism of forming acid rain in the atmosphere and the process of its fall to ground, the mechanism of withering forests by acid substances, and the process of acidifying lakes and marshes are explained. Moreover, the monitoring networks for acid rain and the countermeasures are described. Acid rain is the pollution phenomena related to all environment, that is, atmosphere, hydrosphere, soilsphere, biosphere and so on, and it is a local environmental pollution problem, and at the same time, an international, global environmental pollution problem. In Japan, acid rain has fallen, but the acidification of lakes and marshes is not clear, and the damage to forests is on small scale. However in East Asia region, the release of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides is much, and the increase of the effects of acid rain is expected. It is necessary to devise the measures for preventing the damage due to acid rain. The global monitoring networks of World Meteorological Organization and United Nations Environment Program, and those in Europe, USA and Japan are described. The monitoring of acid rain in Japan is behind that in Europe and USA. (K.I.)

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acids (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  20. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper


    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  1. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  2. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.


    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  3. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter


    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also, chlor...

  4. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  5. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  6. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  7. Acid digestion of organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.


    Laboratory studies on the destruction of liquid organic wastes by acid digestion are discussed. A variety of liquid waste types was tested, including those encountered in the nuclear industry as well as some organic liquids representative of non-nuclear industrial wastes. The liquids tested were vacuum pump oil, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), normal paraffin hydrocarbon solvent (NPH), a mixture of 30 vol% TBP in NPH, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), trichloroethane, toluene, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), a mixture of hexone and NPH, polychlorobiphenyl (PCB), isopropanol, normal-decane, and two waste organic solutions from Hanford radioactive waste tanks. The tests demonstrated that several types of organic liquids can be destroyed by the acid digestion process. 8 figures, 19 tables

  8. Acid dissociation characteristics of humic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochiyama, Osamu; Sakakibara, Tetsuro; Inoue, Yasushi


    Based on the results from potentiometric titrations carried out on polyacrylic acid and some commercially available humic acids, the equation for the proton dissociation of weak polymeric acids is proposed to be K app (H + )α/(1-α) = K 1/2 {(1-α)/α}((Na + )/(Na + ) s ), where α is the degree of dissociation, K 1/2 is the dissociation constant at α = 1/2, and the brackets with subscript s denote the concentration at the surface of the polymer. This equation has been derived on the assumptions: (i) Each polymer molecule is a polybasic acid (H N R N ) having different acidic sites with K values from K 1 to K N . (ii) Binding energies of protons on these sites are all equal. (iii) The ratios of the dissociation constants of H N-i R N i- and H N-j R N j- is expressed by K i /K j = {(N-i+1)/i}/{(N-j+1)/j} since the probabilities to release or bind a proton are proportional to the numbers of protons or numbers of available anionic sites on the polymer. (iv) The effective concentration of protons at the surface of the polymer ((H + ) s ) is related by (H + ) s /(H + ) = (Na + ) s /(Na + ), where (Na + ) s can be estimated by the relation, (Na + ) s = (Cl - ) s + (R - ) s (where (R - ) s Σi(H N-i R N i- )). This leads to (Na + ) s ≅ (Cl - ) s , which in turn leads to (Na + ) s ≅ (Na + ) at high ionic strength and (Na + ) s ≅ (R - ) s = C R α at low ionic strength. (author)

  9. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the United...

  10. 24 CFR 220.822 - Claim computation; items included. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim computation; items included. 220.822 Section 220.822 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... computation; items included. (a) Assignment of loan. Upon an acceptable assignment of the note and security...

  11. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  12. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set in this section...

  13. Including Exceptional Students in Your Instrumental Music Program (United States)

    Mixon, Kevin


    This article describes the method and adaptations used by the author in including students with special needs in an instrumental music program. To ensure success in the program, the author shares the method he uses to include exceptional students and enumerates some possible adaptations. There are certainly other methods and modifications that…

  14. 26 CFR 1.1013-1 - Property included in inventory. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Property included in inventory. 1.1013-1 Section... inventory. The basis of property required to be included in inventory is the last inventory value of such property in the hands of the taxpayer. The requirements with respect to the valuation of an inventory are...

  15. A framework for including family health spillovers in economic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Al-Janabi (Hareth); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); J. Coast (Joanna)


    textabstractHealth care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these health spillovers? should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health

  16. 31 CFR 103.51 - Dollars as including foreign currency. (United States)


    ... RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.51 Dollars as including foreign currency. Wherever in this part an amount is stated in dollars, it shall be deemed to mean... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dollars as including foreign currency...

  17. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Margreet R.; Hollman, Peter C H; Katan, Martijn B.


    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  18. Production of shikimic acid. (United States)

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Chisti, Yusuf; Banerjee, Uttam C


    Shikimic acid is a key intermediate for the synthesis of the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu®). Shikimic acid can be produced via chemical synthesis, microbial fermentation and extraction from certain plants. An alternative production route is via biotransformation of the more readily available quinic acid. Much of the current supply of shikimic acid is sourced from the seeds of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum). Supply from star anise seeds has experienced difficulties and is susceptible to vagaries of weather. Star anise tree takes around six-years from planting to bear fruit, but remains productive for long. Extraction and purification from seeds are expensive. Production via fermentation is increasing. Other production methods are too expensive, or insufficiently developed. In the future, production in recombinant microorganisms via fermentation may become established as the preferred route. Methods for producing shikimic acid are reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 2-Methylaspartic acid monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray J. Butcher


    Full Text Available The title compound, C5H9NO4·H2O, is an isomer of the α-amino acid glutamic acid that crystallizes from water in its zwitterionic form as a monohydrate. It is not one of the 20 proteinogenic α-amino acids that are used in living systems and differs from the natural amino acids in that it has an α-methyl group rather than an α-H atom. In the crystal, an O—H...O hydrogen bond is present between the acid and water molecules while extensive N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the components into a three-dimensional array.

  20. Acidity in rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisue, G.T.; Kacoyannakis, J.


    The reported increasing acidity of rainfall raises many interesting ecological and chemical questions. In spite of extensive studies in Europe and North America there are, for example, great uncertainties in the relative contributions of strong and weak acids to the acid-base properties of rainwater. Unravelling this and similar problems may require even more rigorous sample collection and analytical procedures than previously employed. Careful analysis of titration curves permits inferences to be made regarding chemical composition, the possible response of rainwater to further inputs of acidic components to the atmosphere, and the behavior to be expected when rainwater interacts with the buffers present in biological materials and natural waters. Rainwater samples collected during several precipitation events at Argonne National Laboratory during October and November 1975 have been analyzed for pH, acid and base neutralizing properties, and the ions of ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sulfate, and calcium. The results are tabulated

  1. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis (United States)

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John


    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13cis) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  2. Essential fatty acids and lipid mediators. Endocannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia


    Full Text Available In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA as precursors of “lipid mediator” molecules, often with opposing effects, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipossines, resolvines, protectines, maresins that regulate immunity, platelet aggregation, inflammation, etc. They showed that the balance between omega-3 and omega-6 acids has a profound influence on all the body’s inflammatory responses and a raised level of PUFA omega-3 in tissue correlate with a reduced incidence of degenerative cardiovascular disease, some mental illnesses such as depression, and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. The CYP-catalyzed epoxidation and hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA were established recently as the so-called third branch of AGE cascade. Cytochrome P450 (CYP epoxygenases convert AA to four epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET regioisomers, that produce vascular relaxation anti-inflammatory effects on blood vessels and in the kidney, promote angiogenesis, and protect ischemic myocardium and brain. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are accessible to CYP enzymes in the same way as AA. Metabolites derived from EPA include epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EETR and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (19- and 20-HEPE, whereas DHA include epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (21- and 22-HDoHE. For many of the CYP isoforms, the n-3 PUFAs are the preferred substrates and the available data suggest that some of the vasculo- and cardioprotective effects attributed to dietary n-3 PUFAs may be mediated by CYP-dependent metabolites of EPA and DHA. From AA derives also endocannabinoids like anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, capable of mimicking the pharmacological actions of the active principle of Cannabis sativa preparations such as

  3. Production of Succinic Acid for Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, B.H.; Nghiem, J.


    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is to add and test new metabolic activities to existing microbial catalysts for the production of succinic acid from renewables. In particular, they seek to add to the existing organism the ability to utilize xylose efficiently and simultaneously with glucose in mixtures of sugars or to add succinic acid production to another strain and to test the value of this new capability for production of succinic acid from industrial lignocellulosic hydrolyasates. The Contractors and Participant are hereinafter jointly referred to as the 'Parties'. Research to date in succinic acid fermentation, separation and genetic engineering has resulted in a potentially economical process based on the use of an Escherichia coli strain AFP111 with suitable characteristics for the production of succinic acid from glucose. Economic analysis has shown that higher value commodity chemicals can be economically produced from succinic acid based on repliminary laboratory findings and predicted catalytic parameters. The initial target markets include succinic acid itself, succinate salts, esters and other derivatives for use as deicers, solvents and acidulants. The other commodity products from the succinic acid platform include 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidinone and N-methyl pyrrolidinone. Current economic analyses indicate that this platform is competitive with existing petrochemical routes, especially for the succinic acid and derivatives. The report presents the planned CRADA objectives followed by the results. The results section has a combined biocatalysis and fermentation section and a commercialization section. This is a nonproprietary report; additional proprietary information may be made available subject to acceptance of the appropriate proprietary information agreements.

  4. Beneficial effects of Centella asiatica aqueous extract against arsenic-induced oxidative stress and essential metal status in rats. (United States)

    Flora, S J S; Gupta, Richa


    The efficacy of an aqueous extract of Centella asiatica (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days) was studied in the depletion of arsenic and in the recovery of a few altered biochemical variables in arsenic pre-exposed rats (20 ppm in drinking water for 5 weeks). Exposure to arsenic significantly depleted delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) activity in red blood cells. Significant depletion of ALAD activity, GSH level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), SOD and catalase (CAT) activities and an increase in TBARS levels in liver tissues was also noted. There was a significant depletion of SOD, CAT and GPx activities in kidneys and an increased TBARS levels in kidney and brain accompanied by increased arsenic concentration in blood and soft tissues. Treatment with aqueous extract of Centella asiatica provided significant protection against ALAD, GSH and TBARS levels, particularly at doses of 200 and 500 mg. Centella asiatica also provided significant recovery in the inhibited liver ALAD and G6PD activities. Arsenic concentration in blood and soft tissues remained uninfluenced after Centella asiatica administration. The present study thus suggests a beneficial effect of Centella asiatica against arsenic-induced oxidative stress but possesses no chelating property.

  5. Bioengineering of photosynthetic membranes. Requirement of magnesium for the conversion of chlorophyllide a to chlorophyll a during the greening of etiochloroplasts in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniell, H.; Rebeiz, C.A.


    The massive conversion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) and the massive conversion of chlorophyllide a (Chlide a) to chlorophyll a (Chl a) are two essential conditions for the ALA-dependent assembly of photosynthetic membranes in vitro. In this work, the authors describe the development of a cell-free system capable of the forementioned biosynthetic activities at rates higher than in vivo, for the first 2 h of dark-incubation. The cell-free system consisted of 1) etiochloroplasts prepared from kinetin and gibberellic-acid-pretreated cucumber cotyledons, and 2) cofactors and additives described elsewhere and which are needed for the massive conversion of ALA to Pchlide, 3) high concentrations of ATP, MgCl/sub 2/, and an isoprenol alcohol such as phytol, were required for the massive conversion of Chlide a to Chl a. An absolute and novel requirement of Mg/sup 2 +/ for the conversion of Chlide a to Chl a was also demonstrated. In addition to the role of phytol as a substrate for the conversion of Chlide a to Chl a, the data suggested that this alcohol may also be involved in the regulation of the reactions between ALA and Pchlide. It is proposed that during greening, the conversion of Chlide a to Chl a may follow different biosynthetic rates, having different substrate and cofactor requirements, depending on the stage of plastid development.

  6. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng


    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  7. Tranexamic acid in epistaxis: a systematic review. (United States)

    Kamhieh, Y; Fox, H


    The role of tranexamic acid in the management of epistaxis remains unclear. There is uncertainty about its safety and about the contraindications for its use. We performed a systematic review of the use of systemic and topical tranexamic acid in epistaxis and a comparative review of its use in other specialties. This review assesses and summarises the existing evidence for the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in the management of epistaxis. Systematic review. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for 'epistaxis' and equivalent MESH terms, combined with the Boolean operator 'OR' and 'tranexamic acid'. The Cochrane library and society guidelines were reviewed for evidence regarding the use of tranexamic acid in other specialties. All five relevant RCTs were included in the review and were evaluated according to the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews. Three RCTS pertained to spontaneous epistaxis; of these, one trial found no benefit of oral tranexamic acid in acute epistaxis, one trial found no significant benefit of topical tranexamic acid, but the largest of the trials showed significant benefit of topical tranexamic acid in acute epistaxis management. Two RCTs examined oral tranexamic acid for prophylaxis of recurrent epistaxes in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia; both showed significant reduction in severity and frequency. Tranexamic acid, as a WHO 'essential medicine', is a powerful, readily available tool, the use of which in epistaxis has been limited by uncertainty over its efficacy and its safety profile. This systematic review summarises the existing evidence and extrapolates from the wealth of data for other specialties to address the clinical question - does TXA have a role in epistaxis management? © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids. (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M


    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  9. Batch salicylic acid nitration by nitric acid/acetic acid mixture under isothermal, isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions. (United States)

    Andreozzi, R; Canterino, M; Caprio, V; Di Somma, I; Sanchirico, R


    Runaway phenomena and thermal explosions can originate during the nitration of salicylic acid by means of a nitric acid/acetic acid mixture when the thermal control is lost, mainly as a result of the formation and thermal decomposition of picric acid. The prediction of the behaviour of this system is thus of great importance in view of possible industrial applications and the need to avoid the occurrence of unwanted dangerous events. During a previous investigation a model was developed to simulate its behaviour when the starting concentration of the substrate is too low, thus, preventing the precipitation of poor soluble intermediates. In this work this model is extended to deal with more concentrated systems even in case of a solid phase separating during the process. To this purpose the previously assessed dependence of the solubility of 3-nitro and 5-nitrosalicylic acids upon temperature and nitric acid concentration is included in the model. It is assumed that when 3-nitro and 5-nitrosalicylic acids are partially suspended in the reacting medium a kinetic regime of "dissolution with reaction" is established; that is, the redissolution of these species is a fast process compared to the successive nitration to give dinitroderivatives. Good results are obtained in the comparison of the experimental data with those calculated both in isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions when the revised model is used.

  10. The impact of fatty acid desaturase genotype on fatty acid status and cardiovascular health in adults. (United States)

    O'Neill, Colette M; Minihane, Anne-Marie


    The aim of this review was to determine the impact of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotype on plasma and tissue concentrations of the long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA, including EPA and DHA, which are associated with the risk of several diet-related chronic diseases, including CVD. In addition to dietary intakes, which are low for many individuals, tissue EPA and DHA are also influenced by the rate of bioconversion from α-linolenic acid (αLNA). Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, encoded for by FADS1 and FADS2 genes, are key desaturation enzymes involved in the bioconversion of essential fatty acids (αLNA and linoleic acid (LA)) to longer chained PUFA. In general, carriers of FADS minor alleles tend to have higher habitual plasma and tissue levels of LA and αLNA, and lower levels of arachidonic acid, EPA and also to a lesser extent DHA. In conclusion, available research findings suggest that FADS minor alleles are also associated with reduced inflammation and CVD risk, and that dietary total fat and fatty acid intake have the potential to modify relationships between FADS gene variants and circulating fatty acid levels. However to date, neither the size-effects of FADS variants on fatty acid status, nor the functional SNP in FADS1 and 2 have been identified. Such information could contribute to the refinement and targeting of EPA and DHA recommendations, whereby additional LC n-3 PUFA intakes could be recommended for those carrying FADS minor alleles.

  11. Production and applications of rosmarinic acid and structurally related compounds. (United States)

    Kim, Gun-Dong; Park, Yong Seek; Jin, Young-Ho; Park, Cheung-Seog


    Rosmarinic acid (α-o-caffeoyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid; RA) is a naturally occurring hydroxylated compound commonly found in species of the subfamily Nepetoideae of the Lamiaceae and Boraginaceae, such as Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, and Perilla frutescens. RA is biosynthesized from the amino acids L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine by eight enzymes that include phenylalanine ammonia lyase and cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase. RA can also be chemically produced by the esterification of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. RA and its numerous derivatives containing one or two RA with other aromatic moieties are well known and include lithospermic acid, yunnaneic acid, salvianolic acid, and melitric acid. Recently, RA and its derivatives have attracted interest for their biological activities, which include anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor, and anti-microbial functions. Clinically, RA attenuates T cell receptor-mediated signaling, attenuates allergic diseases like allergic rhinitis and asthma, and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like symptoms, protects from neurotoxicity, and slows the development of Alzheimer's disease. These attributes have increased the demand for the biotechnological production and application of RA and its derivatives. The present review discusses the function and application of RA and its derivatives including the molecular mechanisms underlying clinical efficacy.

  12. Acid Balance, Dietary Acid Load, and Bone Effects—A Controversial Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Frassetto


    Full Text Available Modern Western diets, with higher contents of animal compared to fruits and vegetable products, have a greater content of acid precursors vs. base precursors, which results in a net acid load to the body. To prevent inexorable accumulation of acid in the body and progressively increasing degrees of metabolic acidosis, the body has multiple systems to buffer and titrate acid, including bone which contains large quantities of alkaline salts of calcium. Both in vitro and in vivo studies in animals and humans suggest that bone base helps neutralize part of the dietary net acid load. This raises the question of whether decades of eating a high acid diet might contribute to the loss of bone mass in osteoporosis. If this idea is true, then additional alkali ingestion in the form of net base-producing foods or alkalinizing salts could potentially prevent this acid-related loss of bone. Presently, data exists that support both the proponents as well as the opponents of this hypothesis. Recent literature reviews have tended to support either one side or the other. Assuming that the data cited by both sides is correct, we suggest a way to reconcile the discordant findings. This overview will first discuss dietary acids and bases and the idea of changes in acid balance with increasing age, then review the evidence for and against the usefulness of alkali therapy as a treatment for osteoporosis, and finally suggest a way of reconciling these two opposing points of view.

  13. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.


    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  14. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  15. Including estimates of the future in today's financial statements


    Mary Barth


    This paper explains why the question is how, not if, today's financial statements should include estimates of the future. Including such estimates is not new, but their use is increasing. This increase results primarily because standard setters believe asset and liability measures that reflect current economic conditions and up-to-date expectations of the future will result in more useful information for making economic decisions, which is the objective of financial reporting. This is why sta...

  16. Trans Fatty Acids (United States)

    Doyle, Ellin


    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  17. Sulfuric Acid on Europa (United States)


    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain. This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks. Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  18. Enhancement of Emulsifying Properties of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin by Modification with N-hydroxysuccinimide Esters of Fatty Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Encarnacion, A.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.


    Cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) skin gelatin modified with N-hydroxysuccinimide esters of various fatty acids including capric acid (C10:0), lauric acid (C12:0), and myristic acid (C14:0) at different molar ratios was characterized and determined for emulsifying property. Fatty acid esters were

  19. Glycosyltransferase glycosylating flavokermesic acid and/or kermesic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....

  1. Fatty Acid Synthesis by Indonesian Marine Diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Since the primary storage nutrients in diatoms consist of lipid, they are potential for the industrial fatty acid production. High value fatty acids include arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. This study aimed to analyze fatty acid synthesis by Chaetoceros gracilis diatom during growth. There was a large increase in lipid yield from 4pg cell−1 mass of lipid per cell at the exponential phase to 283pg cell−1 at stationary phase. The lipid concentrations also increased significantly from the stationary phase to the death phase, but not significantly from the end exponential phase to the stationary phase. The relative percentage of saturated fatty acid (SAFA of the total fatty acid was higher than that of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA at all of growth phase. The highest PUFA was found at stationary phase at the same time when SAFA was being the lowest. The majority of SAFA was palmitic acid (24.03–40.35%. MUFA contained significant proportion of oleic acid (19.6–20.9%. Oleic acid, linoleic acid and á-linolenic acid were found at every stage growth. These fatty acids are considered as precursor for production of long chain PUFA-Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA/22:6ù3 through series of desaturation and elongation step with all of desaturase enzyme (Ä8-D, Ä9-D, Ä12-D, Ä15-D, Ä17-D, Ä6-D, Ä5-D, and Ä4-D and elongase enzyme (E.

  2. Chloroplast Protein Turnover: The Influence of Extraplastidic Processes, Including Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Izumi


    Full Text Available Most assimilated nutrients in the leaves of land plants are stored in chloroplasts as photosynthetic proteins, where they mediate CO2 assimilation during growth. During senescence or under suboptimal conditions, chloroplast proteins are degraded, and the amino acids released during this process are used to produce young tissues, seeds, or respiratory energy. Protein degradation machineries contribute to the quality control of chloroplasts by removing damaged proteins caused by excess energy from sunlight. Whereas previous studies revealed that chloroplasts contain several types of intraplastidic proteases that likely derived from an endosymbiosed prokaryotic ancestor of chloroplasts, recent reports have demonstrated that multiple extraplastidic pathways also contribute to chloroplast protein turnover in response to specific cues. One such pathway is autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved process that leads to the vacuolar or lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic components in eukaryotic cells. Here, we describe and contrast the extraplastidic pathways that degrade chloroplasts. This review shows that diverse pathways participate in chloroplast turnover during sugar starvation, senescence, and oxidative stress. Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate these pathways will help decipher the relationship among the diverse pathways mediating chloroplast protein turnover.

  3. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene


    Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown good...... excellent results in infected eczema by addressing both inflammation and infection. A new lipid-rich combination formulation provides an extra moisturizing effect. Development of resistance to fusidic acid has remained generally low or short-lived and can be minimized by restricting therapy to no more than...

  4. 40 CFR 72.31 - Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information requirements for Acid Rain... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Permit Applications § 72.31 Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications. A complete Acid Rain permit application shall include the...

  5. Acid Rain. Activities for Grades 4 to 12. A Teacher's Guide. (United States)

    Wood, David; Bryant, Jeannette

    This teacher's guide on acid rain is divided into three study areas to explain: (1) what causes acid rain; (2) what problems acid rain has created; and (3) what teachers and students can do to help combat acid rain. Instructions for activities within the study areas include suggested grade levels, objectives, materials needed, and directions for…

  6. Students' Understandings of Acid Strength: How Meaningful Is Reliability When Measuring Alternative Conceptions (United States)

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; McClary, LaKeisha


    Most organic chemistry reactions occur by a mechanism that includes acid-base chemistry, so it is important that students develop and learn to use correct conceptions of acids and acid strength. Recent studies have described undergraduate organic chemistry students' cognitive resources related to the Brønsted-Lowry acid model and the Lewis acid…

  7. Discovery and History of Amino Acid Fermentation. (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi

    There has been a strong demand in Japan and East Asia for L-glutamic acid as a seasoning since monosodium glutamate was found to present umami taste in 1907. The discovery of glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum in 1956 enabled abundant and low-cost production of the amino acid, creating a large market. The discovery also prompted researchers to develop fermentative production processes for other L-amino acids, such as lysine. Currently, the amino acid fermentation industry is so huge that more than 5 million metric tons of amino acids are manufactured annually all over the world, and this number continues to grow. Research on amino acid fermentation fostered the notion and skills of metabolic engineering which has been applied for the production of other compounds from renewable resources. The discovery of glutamate fermentation has had revolutionary impacts on both the industry and science. In this chapter, the history and development of glutamate fermentation, including the very early stage of fermentation of other amino acids, are reviewed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozelinda Čož-Rakovac


    Full Text Available Acid rains is one of the most relevant problems of the human environment, the result being pollution of the atmosphere caused by ever growing industrial development. It is caused by the freeing of sulphuric oxides and oxygen, which along with certain chemical reactions transfer into sulphate and nitrate, and through wet or dry sediments reach the ground. This has an effect on lakes, rivers, the entire animal and plant kingdom, including all the good creations of mankind. Over a longer time period acid destroy organisms which live in the water of some freshwater ecosystems, depending on local geological characteristics (presence of natural neutralizers of acid in the ground which makes an area more of less sensitive to acidity. Investigators have determined that the activity of H+ on organisms which live in the water depend differently on species and concentrations of acidity. For many species the problems begin already with pH ≤ 6, and only a few resistant species survive at pH ≤ 4.7. Acidity changes chemical and biochemical tissue composition, decreases the osmoregulation, influences the level of hormones in the blood, has an effect on fish smoltification, and interrupts its reproduction. Acidifying sensitive water ecosystems in the Northern hemisphere corresponds with the increase of acid precipitation. To prevent this problem from spreading even more it is necessary to solve it as soon as possible, either by controlling the release of pollutants into the atmosphere, or improving of the already occurring consequences.

  9. Enantiomer-specific selection of amino acids. (United States)

    Ren, Xueying; Tellez, Luis A; de Araujo, Ivan E


    Dietary intake of L-amino acids impacts on several physiological functions, including the control of gastrointestinal motility, pancreatic secretion, and appetite. However, the biological mechanisms regulating behavioral predilections for certain amino acid types remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that, in mice, the potency with which a given glucogenic amino acid increases glucose utilization reflects its rewarding properties. We have found that: (1) during long-, but not short-, term preference tests, L-alanine and L-serine were preferred over their D-enantiomer counterparts, while no such effect was observed for L-threonine vs. D-threonine; (2) these behavioral patterns were closely associated with the ability of L-amino acids to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios such that those, and only those, L-amino acids able to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios were preferred over their D-isomers; (3) these behavioral preferences were independent of gustatory influences, since taste-deficient Trpm5 knockout mice displayed ingestive responses very similar to those of their wild-type counterparts. We conclude that the ability to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios enhances the reward value of nutritionally relevant amino acids and suggest a mechanistic link between substrate utilization and amino acid preferences.

  10. Biochemistry of microbial itaconic acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Georg Steiger


    Full Text Available Itaconic acid is an unsatured dicarbonic acid which has a high potential as a biochemical building block, because it can be used as a monomer for the production of a plethora of products including resins, plastics, paints and synthetic fibers. Some Aspergillus species, like A. itaconicus and A. terreus, show the ability to synthesize this organic acid and A. terreus can secrete significant amounts to the media (> 80 g/L. However, compared with the citric acid production process (titers > 200 g/L the achieved titers are still low and the overall process is expensive because purified substrates are required for optimal productivity. Itaconate is formed by the enzymatic activity of a cis-aconitate decarboxylase (CadA encoded by the cadA gene in A. terreus. Cloning of the cadA gene into the citric acid producing fungus A. niger showed that it is possible to produce itaconic acid also in a different host organism. This review will describe the current status and recent advances in the understanding of the molecular processes leading to the biotechnological production of itaconic acid.

  11. Boronic acid-tethered amphiphilic hyaluronic acid derivative-based nanoassemblies for tumor targeting and penetration. (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Young; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Song Yi; Lee, Jae-Young; Song, Jae-Hyoung; Ko, Seung-Hak; Shim, Jae-Seong; Choe, Sunghwa; Kim, Dae-Duk; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Jong


    (3-Aminomethylphenyl)boronic acid (AMPB)-installed hyaluronic acid-ceramide (HACE)-based nanoparticles (NPs), including manassantin B (MB), were fabricated for tumor-targeted delivery. The amine group of AMPB was conjugated to the carboxylic acid group of hyaluronic acid (HA) via amide bond formation, and synthesis was confirmed by spectroscopic methods. HACE-AMPB/MB NPs with a 239-nm mean diameter, narrow size distribution, negative zeta potential, and >90% drug encapsulation efficiency were fabricated. Exposed AMPB in the outer surface of HACE-AMPB NPs (in the aqueous environment) may react with sialic acid of cancer cells. The improved cellular accumulation efficiency, in vitro antitumor efficacy, and tumor penetration efficiency of HACE-AMPB/MB NPs, compared with HACE/MB NPs, in MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44 receptor-positive human breast adenocarcinoma cells) may be based on the CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis and phenylboronic acid-sialic acid interaction. Enhanced in vivo tumor targetability, infiltration efficiency, and antitumor efficacies of HACE-AMPB NPs, compared with HACE NPs, were observed in a MDA-MB-231 tumor-xenografted mouse model. In addition to passive tumor targeting (based on an enhanced permeability and retention effect) and active tumor targeting (interaction between HA and CD44 receptor), the phenylboronic acid-sialic acid interaction can play important roles in augmented tumor targeting and penetration of HACE-AMPB NPs. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: (3-Aminomethylphenyl)boronic acid (AMPB)-tethered hyaluronic acid-ceramide (HACE)-based nanoparticles (NPs), including manassantin B (MB), were fabricated and their tumor targeting and penetration efficiencies were assessed in MDA-MB-231 (CD44 receptor-positive human adenocarcinoma) tumor models. MB, which exhibited antitumor efficacies via the inhibition of angiogenesis and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1, was entrapped in HACE-AMPB NPs in this study. Phenylboronic acid located in the outer surface

  12. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin


    The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...

  13. Ceramic substrate including thin film multilayer surface conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Joseph Ambrose; Peterson, Kenneth A.


    A ceramic substrate comprises a plurality of ceramic sheets, a plurality of inner conductive layers, a plurality of vias, and an upper conductive layer. The ceramic sheets are stacked one on top of another and include a top ceramic sheet. The inner conductive layers include electrically conductive material that forms electrically conductive features on an upper surface of each ceramic sheet excluding the top ceramic sheet. The vias are formed in each of the ceramic sheets with each via being filled with electrically conductive material. The upper conductive layer includes electrically conductive material that forms electrically conductive features on an upper surface of the top ceramic sheet. The upper conductive layer is constructed from a stack of four sublayers. A first sublayer is formed from titanium. A second sublayer is formed from copper. A third sublayer is formed from platinum. A fourth sublayer is formed from gold.

  14. Including information technology project management in the nursing informatics curriculum. (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Bowles, Kathryn H


    Project management is a critical skill for nurse informaticists who are in prominent roles developing and implementing clinical information systems. It should be included in the nursing informatics curriculum, as evidenced by its inclusion in informatics competencies and surveys of important skills for informaticists. The University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing includes project management in two of the four courses in the master's level informatics minor. Course content includes the phases of the project management process; the iterative unified process methodology; and related systems analysis and project management skills. During the introductory course, students learn about the project plan, requirements development, project feasibility, and executive summary documents. In the capstone course, students apply the system development life cycle and project management skills during precepted informatics projects. During this in situ experience, students learn, the preceptors benefit, and the institution better prepares its students for the real world.

  15. Classical mechanics including an introduction to the theory of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschke, Reinhard


    This textbook teaches classical mechanics as one of the foundations of physics. It describes the mechanical stability and motion in physical systems ranging from the molecular to the galactic scale. Aside from the standard topics of mechanics in the physics curriculum, this book includes an introduction to the theory of elasticity and its use in selected modern engineering applications, e.g. dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic materials. The text also covers many aspects of numerical mechanics, ranging from the solution of ordinary differential equations, including molecular dynamics simulation of many particle systems, to the finite element method. Attendant Mathematica programs or parts thereof are provided in conjunction with selected examples. Numerous links allow the reader to connect to related subjects and research topics. Among others this includes statistical mechanics (separate chapter), quantum mechanics, space flight, galactic dynamics, friction, and vibration spectroscopy. An introductory...

  16. Activation of the Glutamic Acid-Dependent Acid Resistance System in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) Leads to Increase of the Fatty Acid Biotransformation Activity. (United States)

    Woo, Ji-Min; Kim, Ji-Won; Song, Ji-Won; Blank, Lars M; Park, Jin-Byung

    The biosynthesis of carboxylic acids including fatty acids from biomass is central in envisaged biorefinery concepts. The productivities are often, however, low due to product toxicity that hamper whole-cell biocatalyst performance. Here, we have investigated factors that influence the tolerance of Escherichia coli to medium chain carboxylic acid (i.e., n-heptanoic acid)-induced stress. The metabolic and genomic responses of E. coli BL21(DE3) and MG1655 grown in the presence of n-heptanoic acid indicated that the GadA/B-based glutamic acid-dependent acid resistance (GDAR) system might be critical for cellular tolerance. The GDAR system, which is responsible for scavenging intracellular protons by catalyzing decarboxylation of glutamic acid, was inactive in E. coli BL21(DE3). Activation of the GDAR system in this strain by overexpressing the rcsB and dsrA genes, of which the gene products are involved in the activation of GadE and RpoS, respectively, resulted in acid tolerance not only to HCl but also to n-heptanoic acid. Furthermore, activation of the GDAR system allowed the recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3) expressing the alcohol dehydrogenase of Micrococcus luteus and the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase of Pseudomonas putida to reach 60% greater product concentration in the biotransformation of ricinoleic acid (i.e., 12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (1)) into n-heptanoic acid (5) and 11-hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid (4). This study may contribute to engineering E. coli-based biocatalysts for the production of carboxylic acids from renewable biomass.

  17. Activation of the Glutamic Acid-Dependent Acid Resistance System in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3 Leads to Increase of the Fatty Acid Biotransformation Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Min Woo

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of carboxylic acids including fatty acids from biomass is central in envisaged biorefinery concepts. The productivities are often, however, low due to product toxicity that hamper whole-cell biocatalyst performance. Here, we have investigated factors that influence the tolerance of Escherichia coli to medium chain carboxylic acid (i.e., n-heptanoic acid-induced stress. The metabolic and genomic responses of E. coli BL21(DE3 and MG1655 grown in the presence of n-heptanoic acid indicated that the GadA/B-based glutamic acid-dependent acid resistance (GDAR system might be critical for cellular tolerance. The GDAR system, which is responsible for scavenging intracellular protons by catalyzing decarboxylation of glutamic acid, was inactive in E. coli BL21(DE3. Activation of the GDAR system in this strain by overexpressing the rcsB and dsrA genes, of which the gene products are involved in the activation of GadE and RpoS, respectively, resulted in acid tolerance not only to HCl but also to n-heptanoic acid. Furthermore, activation of the GDAR system allowed the recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3 expressing the alcohol dehydrogenase of Micrococcus luteus and the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase of Pseudomonas putida to reach 60% greater product concentration in the biotransformation of ricinoleic acid (i.e., 12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (1 into n-heptanoic acid (5 and 11-hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid (4. This study may contribute to engineering E. coli-based biocatalysts for the production of carboxylic acids from renewable biomass.

  18. Dynamical criteria for a unified gauge theory (including gravity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    It is shown that local gauge invariance together with dynamical (and possibly Higgs) symmetry breaking can be taken as a basis for a unified gauge theory including gravity. The criterion for the breakdown of the linear gauge symmetry of the space-time sector turns out to be the absence of a prior geometry. The usual postulates of general relativity, such as general coordinate invariance, etc., follow from the above two criteria. Gravity actions that are natural from the point of view are discussed. The extension to superspace relevant to gauge supergroups is also given, including a large number of linear and quadratic superspace invariants

  19. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  20. Meta-structure and tunable optical device including the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seunghoon; Papadakis, Georgia Theano; Atwater, Harry


    A meta-structure and a tunable optical device including the same are provided. The meta-structure includes a plurality of metal layers spaced apart from one another, an active layer spaced apart from the plurality of metal layers and having a carrier concentration that is tuned according to an electric signal applied to the active layer and the plurality of metal layers, and a plurality of dielectric layers spaced apart from one another and each having one surface contacting a metal layer among the plurality of metal layers and another surface contacting the active layer.

  1. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide (United States)

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J


    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  2. Tunable cavity resonator including a plurality of MEMS beams (United States)

    Peroulis, Dimitrios; Fruehling, Adam; Small, Joshua Azariah; Liu, Xiaoguang; Irshad, Wasim; Arif, Muhammad Shoaib


    A tunable cavity resonator includes a substrate, a cap structure, and a tuning assembly. The cap structure extends from the substrate, and at least one of the substrate and the cap structure defines a resonator cavity. The tuning assembly is positioned at least partially within the resonator cavity. The tuning assembly includes a plurality of fixed-fixed MEMS beams configured for controllable movement relative to the substrate between an activated position and a deactivated position in order to tune a resonant frequency of the tunable cavity resonator.

  3. Nonessential amino acid metabolism in breast cancer. (United States)

    Geck, Renee C; Toker, Alex


    Interest in studying cancer metabolism has risen in recent years, as it has become evident that the relationship between cancer and metabolic pathways could reveal novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Metabolic starvation therapy is particularly promising due to its low toxicity. Nonessential amino acids are promising metabolites for such therapy because they become essential in many tumor cells, including breast cancer cells. This review will focus on four nonessential amino acid metabolism pathways: glutamine-glutamate, serine-glycine, cysteine, and arginine-proline metabolism. Recent studies of these amino acids have revealed metabolic enzymes that have the potential to be effective as cancer therapy targets or biomarkers for response to metabolic starvation therapy. The review will also discuss features of nonessential amino acid metabolism that merit further investigation to determine their relevancy to breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Butylated caffeic acid: An efficient novel antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, G.; Liao, X.; Olajide, T.M.; Liu, J.; Jiang, X.; Weng, X.


    A novel antioxidant, butylated caffeic acid (BCA) was rationally designed by adding a tert-butyl group to caffeic acid, which was synthesized at a high yield (36.2%) from 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (1) by a four-step reaction including Friedel-Crafts alkylation, bromine oxidation, ether bond hydrolysis and Knoevenagel condensation. Its antioxidant capacity was much stronger than common commercial antioxidant tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and its mother compound, caffeic acid, in both rancimat and deep frying tests. When investigated via the DPPH method, the antioxidant capacity of BCA was almost equal to TBHQ, but lower than caffeic acid. BCA could be a potentially strong antioxidant, especially for food processing at high temperatures such as deep frying and baking. [es

  5. Global survey of the omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in the blood stream of healthy adults. (United States)

    Stark, Ken D; Van Elswyk, Mary E; Higgins, M Roberta; Weatherford, Charli A; Salem, Norman


    Studies reporting blood levels of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were systematically identified in order to create a global map identifying countries and regions with different blood levels. Included studies were those of healthy adults, published in 1980 or later. A total of 298 studies met all inclusion criteria. Studies reported fatty acids in various blood fractions including plasma total lipids (33%), plasma phospholipid (32%), erythrocytes (32%) and whole blood (3.0%). Fatty acid data from each blood fraction were converted to relative weight percentages (wt.%) and then assigned to one of four discrete ranges (high, moderate, low, very low) corresponding to wt.% EPA+DHA in erythrocyte equivalents. Regions with high EPA+DHA blood levels (>8%) included the Sea of Japan, Scandinavia, and areas with indigenous populations or populations not fully adapted to Westernized food habits. Very low blood levels (≤4%) were observed in North America, Central and South America, Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Africa. The present review reveals considerable variability in blood levels of EPA+DHA and the very low to low range of blood EPA+DHA for most of the world may increase global risk for chronic disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. octadecenoic acid in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    octadecenoic acid which is proba- bly involved in plant defense responses is synthesized in tomato fruits and subjected to metabo- lism. Its catabolism or conversion was thus further characterized. The endogenous level of.

  7. Folic acid in diet (United States)

    Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academies Press. Washington, DC, 1998. PMID: 23193625 ...

  8. Amino Acids and Chirality (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.


    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  9. Amino acid racemisation dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V.


    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject

  10. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning (United States)

    ... mouth (intubation), and breathing machine (ventilator) Blood and urine tests Camera down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomach (endoscopy) Fluids through a vein (IV) Magnesium and calcium solutions to neutralize the acid Medicines ...

  11. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fripp, Jon


    .... Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial plant growth and harm wetlands, contaminate groundwater, raise water treatment costs, and damage concrete and metal structures...

  12. Methylmalonic Acid Test (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... very small amounts and is necessary for human metabolism and energy production. In one step of metabolism, ...

  13. Metalion-humic acid nanoparticle interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Town, Raewyn M.; van Leeuwen, Herman P.


    Purely Donnan type models for electrostatic binding by humic acid (HA) nanoparticles are shown to be physically incomplete. To describe the extent of ion binding by HA, such models need to invoke parameters that are not consistent with experimental observations. These disparate parameters include...... binding by humic acid nanoparticles. The extent of Ca2+-HA association can be adequately described solely in terms of electrostatics only, including counterion condensation in the intraparticulate double layer in addition to Donnan partitioning in the remainder of the particle body. The binding of Cd...

  14. Candidate genes for performance in horses, including monocarboxylate transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaê Cristina Regatieri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Some horse breeds are highly selected for athletic activities. The athletic potential of each animal can be measured by its performance in sports. High athletic performance depends on the animal capacity to produce energy through aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways, among other factors. Transmembrane proteins called monocarboxylate transporters, mainly the isoform 1 (MCT1 and its ancillary protein CD147, can help the organism to adapt to physiological stress caused by physical exercise, transporting lactate and H+ ions. Horse breeds are selected for different purposes so we might expect differences in the amount of those proteins and in the genotypic frequencies for genes that play a significant role in the performance of the animals. The study of MCT1 and CD147 gene polymorphisms, which can affect the formation of the proteins and transport of lactate and H+, can provide enough information to be used for selection of athletic horses increasingly resistant to intense exercise. Two other candidate genes, the PDK4 and DMRT3, have been associated with athletic potential and indicated as possible markers for performance in horses. The oxidation of fatty acids is highly effective in generating ATP and is controlled by the expression of PDK4 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 in skeletal muscle during and after exercise. The doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (DMRT3 gene encodes an important transcription factor in the setting of spinal cord circuits controlling movement in vertebrates and may be associated with gait performance in horses. This review describes how the monocarboxylate transporters work during physical exercise in athletic horses and the influence of polymorphisms in candidate genes for athletic performance in horses.

  15. Web-accessible molecular modeling with Rosetta: The Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone (ROSIE). (United States)

    Moretti, Rocco; Lyskov, Sergey; Das, Rhiju; Meiler, Jens; Gray, Jeffrey J


    The Rosetta molecular modeling software package provides a large number of experimentally validated tools for modeling and designing proteins, nucleic acids, and other biopolymers, with new protocols being added continually. While freely available to academic users, external usage is limited by the need for expertise in the Unix command line environment. To make Rosetta protocols available to a wider audience, we previously created a web server called Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone (ROSIE), which provides a common environment for hosting web-accessible Rosetta protocols. Here we describe a simplification of the ROSIE protocol specification format, one that permits easier implementation of Rosetta protocols. Whereas the previous format required creating multiple separate files in different locations, the new format allows specification of the protocol in a single file. This new, simplified protocol specification has more than doubled the number of Rosetta protocols available under ROSIE. These new applications include pK a determination, lipid accessibility calculation, ribonucleic acid redesign, protein-protein docking, protein-small molecule docking, symmetric docking, antibody docking, cyclic toxin docking, critical binding peptide determination, and mapping small molecule binding sites. ROSIE is freely available to academic users at © 2017 The Protein Society.

  16. Systematic review: tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, S.L.; Langholz, S.E.; Gluud, Lise Lotte


    BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid may reduce upper gastrointestinal bleeding and stabilize patients before endoscopic treatments. AIM: To review randomized trials on tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS: Manual and electronic searches of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE...... were unclearly reported. Data from three of the included trials suggested that tranexamic acid did not significantly increase the risk of thromboembolic disease. CONCLUSIONS: The present review suggests that tranexamic acid may reduce all-cause mortality. However, because of limitations in the internal...... and external validity of included trials, additional evidence is needed before treatment recommendations can be made Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...

  17. Suppressed hepatic bile acid signalling despite elevated production of primary and secondary bile acids in NAFLD. (United States)

    Jiao, Na; Baker, Susan S; Chapa-Rodriguez, Adrian; Liu, Wensheng; Nugent, Colleen A; Tsompana, Maria; Mastrandrea, Lucy; Buck, Michael J; Baker, Robert D; Genco, Robert J; Zhu, Ruixin; Zhu, Lixin


    Bile acids are regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism, and modulate inflammation in the liver and other tissues. Primary bile acids such as cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) are produced in the liver, and converted into secondary bile acids such as deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid by gut microbiota. Here we investigated the possible roles of bile acids in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis and the impact of the gut microbiome on bile acid signalling in NAFLD. Serum bile acid levels and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), liver gene expression profiles and gut microbiome compositions were determined in patients with NAFLD, high-fat diet-fed rats and their controls. Serum concentrations of primary and secondary bile acids were increased in patients with NAFLD. In per cent, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonistic DCA was increased, while the agonistic CDCA was decreased in NAFLD. Increased mRNA expression for cytochrome P450 7A1, Na + -taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and paraoxonase 1, no change in mRNA expression for small heterodimer partner and bile salt export pump, and reduced serum FGF19 were evidence of impaired FXR and fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4)-mediated signalling in NAFLD. Taurine and glycine metabolising bacteria were increased in the gut of patients with NAFLD, reflecting increased secondary bile acid production. Similar changes in liver gene expression and the gut microbiome were observed in high-fat diet-fed rats. The serum bile acid profile, the hepatic gene expression pattern and the gut microbiome composition consistently support an elevated bile acid production in NAFLD. The increased proportion of FXR antagonistic bile acid explains, at least in part, the suppression of hepatic FXR-mediated and FGFR4-mediated signalling. Our study suggests that future NAFLD intervention may target the components of FXR signalling, including the bile acid converting gut microbiome. © Article

  18. Appraisal Of Quality Of Life Of Diabetic Patients, Including Life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appraisal Of Quality Of Life Of Diabetic Patients, Including Life Expectancy. ... of long-term complications, development of short-term complications, and physical symptoms and lifestyle changes resulting from the demands of the diabetic ... Key words: Type 2 Diabetes, quality of life, life expectancy, diabetic complications.

  19. Assessing the Doctoral Thesis When It Includes Published Work (United States)

    Sharmini, Sharon; Spronken-Smith, Rachel; Golding, Clinton; Harland, Tony


    In this article we explore how examiners assess a thesis that includes published work. An online survey was used to gather data on approaches to assessing publication-based theses (PBTs). The respondents were 62 supervisors who had experience examining PBTs across a range of disciplines at a research-intensive university in New Zealand. Nearly…

  20. 25 CFR 20.308 - What does earned income include? (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What does earned income include? 20.308 Section 20.308 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND..., the sale of farm crops, livestock, or professional artists producing art work); and (b) With regard to...

  1. 34 CFR 661.20 - What must an application include? (United States)


    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must an application include? 661.20 Section 661.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BUSINESS AND INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM How Does One Apply for a...

  2. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA


    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  3. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal R.K


    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  4. Towards a general framework for including noise impacts in LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucurachi, Stefano; Heijungs, Reinout; Ohlau, Katrin

    Purpose Several damages have been associated with the exposure of human beings to noise. These include auditory effects, i.e., hearing impairment, but also non-auditory physiological ones such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease, or psychological ones such as annoyance, depression, sleep

  5. 25 CFR 20.403 - What do protective services include? (United States)


    ....403 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE... services, which may include, but are not limited to, the following: (i) Investigating and reporting on... for assistance in solving the social problems of individuals, families, and children. (5) Coordinating...

  6. Including Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Physical Education (United States)

    Pill, Shane; SueSee, Brendan


    Many physical education curriculum frameworks include statements about the inclusion of critical inquiry processes and the development of creativity and problem-solving skills. The learning environment created by physical education can encourage or limit the application and development of the learners' cognitive resources for critical and creative…

  7. Including Leap Year in the Canonical Birthday Problem (United States)

    Nandor, M. J.


    The greatest benefit of including leap year in the calculation is not to increase precision, but to show students that a problem can be solved without such presumption. A birthday problem is analyzed showing that calculating a leap-year birthday probability is not a frivolous computation.

  8. Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, in the Netherlands in 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MG van Veen; FDH Koedijk; IVF van der Broek; ELM Op de Coul; IM de Boer; AI van Sighem; MAB van der Sande; soa-centra; Stichting HIV Monitoring; EPI/Cib


    The nationally covered low threshold STI centres offering STI care targeted at high risk groups, provide surveillance data to monitor national trends in STI, including HIV. In 2006, chlamydia remained the most commonly diagnosed bacterial STI in the Netherlands in the STI centres, in spite of

  9. Three-humped fission barrier transmission including vibrational damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabretta, L.; Del Zoppo, A.; Ingrao, G.


    The total penetrability through a three-humped fission barrier including vibrational damping is calculated by using an optical model for fission. The Bondorf's stationary probability current theory is used for transitions among class-1, class-2 and class-3 phases. A method to calculate the partial-transmission coefficients is developed

  10. Information for Teachers (Including Classroom Activities), Skylab Student Project. (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This program is intended to directly involve the educational community in space experiments, many of which can be related to existing curricula. Included in this first packet are: 1) a brief description of the Skylab Program and the National Science Teachers Association-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NSTA-NASA) Skylab Student…

  11. Smart Antenna Skins, including Conformal Array, MMICs and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, F.L.M. van den


    Low-cost technologies are presented for future space-borne and airborne SAR systems. These technologies include state-of-the art highly integrated circuits to miniaturise front-end, solutions to lower-cost interconnection technologies, new beamforming aspects and new architectures. The MMICs address

  12. Including Students with Severe Disabilities in General Education Settings. (United States)

    Wisniewski, Lech; Alper, Sandra


    This paper presents five systematic phases for bringing about successful regular education inclusion of students with severe disabilities. Phases include develop networks within the community, assess school and community resources, review strategies for integration, install strategies that lead to integration, and develop a system of feedback and…

  13. Including patients’ perspectives in patient information leaflets: A polyocular approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary


    Existing research reveals that patients’ perspectives are missing from mandatory patient information leaflets (PILs). At the same time, there is overwhelming consensus that they should be included in this genre, and a corresponding need for potential approaches to tackle this problem. This paper ...

  14. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book. (United States)

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  15. 10 CFR 905.11 - What must an IRP include? (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.11 What must an IRP include? (a) General. Integrated resource planning is a planning process for new energy... projected durability of such savings measured over time; and must treat demand and supply resources on a...

  16. LTRACK: Beam-transport calculation including wakefield effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.C.D.; Cooper, R.K.


    LTRACK is a first-order beam-transport code that includes wakefield effects up to quadrupole modes. This paper will introduce the readers to this computer code by describing the history, the method of calculations, and a brief summary of the input/output information. Future plans for the code will also be described

  17. Visual Impairments, "Including Blindness." NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #13 (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2012


    Vision is one of the five senses. Being able to see gives tremendous access to learning about the world around--people's faces and the subtleties of expression, what different things look like and how big they are, and the physical environments, including approaching hazards. When a child has a visual impairment, it is cause for immediate…

  18. 34 CFR 429.20 - What must an application include? (United States)


    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must an application include? 429.20 Section 429.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL VOCATIONAL MATERIALS, METHODS, AND TECHNIQUES PROGRAM...

  19. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn


    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  20. Oat have multifunctional uses including animal feed, human food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akademia Rolnicza


    Jul 11, 2014 ... Abstract. The objective of the work was to evaluate the influence of genetic and mechanical removal of hulls from oat grains on their nutrient content. The studies included three cultivars and six lines of oat grains. In grain samples of hulled (5 samples), dehulled (5 samples) and naked (4 samples) oats, the ...

  1. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.


    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...

  2. Including the gifted learner: perceptions of South African teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative content analysis revealed the following themes: inclusive education and the learner who is gifted; curriculum differentiation; obstacles to curriculum differentiation; and possible solutions for more effectively including the gifted learner. Despite their diversity in terms of culture, language and positioning by the ...

  3. Payment Services for Global Online Systems Including Internet. (United States)

    Seebeck, Bill; And Others


    A panel of four conference presenters address issues related to paying for services provided through online systems. Discussion includes the following topics: metering devices; electronic/digital cash; working within existing banking/credit card structures; provision of payment mechanisms in countries without extensive credit card usage; and…

  4. Restructuring the Public School Curriculum To Include Parenting Education Classes. (United States)

    Tyree, Carolyn L.; And Others

    Although the current educational climate stresses a back-to-basics approach, there is nonetheless overwhelming evidence of a need for an appropriately structured parenting education program in the public school curriculum. Reasons for this need include the large number of teenage pregnancies and abortions. These lead teens to miss high school…

  5. Can We Include The Third Dimension During Image Mining?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Can We Include The Third Dimension During Image Mining? Retrieve An Image · Content-Based Retrieval · Problem Statement · Slide 5 · CBIR Methodology · Slide 7 · Illustration : Logo Search · Illustration: Arbitrary Query · Limitations · Illustration: Change in View · Slide 12 · Illustration: Depth Variation.

  6. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography. (United States)

    Chatake, Toshiyuki


    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  7. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.


    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  8. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid]. (United States)

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G


    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  9. The Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; McLain, Hannah L.; Noble, Sarah K.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.


    We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5 ppb to 651.1 ppb in 6M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, D- and L-alanine, D- and L-aspartic acid, D- and L-glutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine, all of which had previously been detected in lunar samples, as well as several compounds not previously identified in lunar regoliths: -aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), D-and L-amino-n-butyric acid (-ABA), DL-amino-n-butyric acid, -amino-n-butyric acid, -alanine, and -amino-n-caproic acid. We observed an excess of the L enantiomer in most of the detected proteinogenic amino acids, but racemic alanine and racemic -ABA were present in some samples.

  10. Aspartate protects Lactobacillus casei against acid stress. (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Zhang, Juan; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aspartate on the acid tolerance of L. casei. Acid stress induced the accumulation of intracellular aspartate in L. casei, and the acid-resistant mutant exhibited 32.5 % higher amount of aspartate than that of the parental strain at pH 4.3. Exogenous aspartate improved the growth performance and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus casei during acid stress. When cultivated in the presence of 50 mM aspartate, the biomass of cells increased 65.8 % compared with the control (without aspartate addition). In addition, cells grown at pH 4.3 with aspartate addition were challenged at pH 3.3 for 3 h, and the survival rate increased 42.26-fold. Analysis of the physiological data showed that the aspartate-supplemented cells exhibited higher intracellular pH (pHi), intracellular NH4 (+) content, H(+)-ATPase activity, and intracellular ATP pool. In addition, higher contents of intermediates involved in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle were observed in cells in the presence of aspartate. The increased contents of many amino acids including aspartate, arginine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine in aspartate-added cells may contribute to the regulation of pHi. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression of argG and argH increased during acid stress, and the addition of aspartate induced 1.46- and 3.06-fold higher expressions of argG and argH, respectively, compared with the control. Results presented in this manuscript suggested that aspartate may protect L. casei against acid stress, and it may be used as a potential protectant during the production of probiotics.

  11. Acidification and Acid Rain (United States)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.


    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  12. Inhibitory effect of ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Wan, Wei; Wang, Jianlong [Laboratory of Environmental Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    The inhibitory effect of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production by mixed cultures was investigated in batch tests using glucose as substrate. The experimental results showed that, at 35 C and initial pH 7.0, during the fermentative hydrogen production, the substrate degradation efficiency, hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and hydrogen production rate all trended to decrease with increasing added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid concentration from 0 to 300 mmol/L. The inhibitory effect of added ethanol on fermentative hydrogen production was smaller than those of added acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid. The modified Han-Levenspiel model could describe the inhibitory effects of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production rate in this study successfully. The modified Logistic model could describe the progress of cumulative hydrogen production. (author)

  13. Nitrosation and nitration of fulvic acid, peat and coal with nitric acid (United States)

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.


    Nitrohumic acids, produced from base extraction of coals and peats oxidized with nitric acid, have received considerable attention as soil ammendments in agriculture. The nitration chemistry however is incompletely understood. Moreover, there is a need to understand the reaction of nitric acid with natural organic matter (NOM) in general, in the context of a variety of environmental and biogeochemical processes. Suwannee River NOM, Suwannee River fulvic acid, and Pahokee Peat fulvic acid were treated with 15N-labeled nitric acid at concentrations ranging from 15% to 22% and analyzed by liquid and solid state 15N NMR spectroscopy. Bulk Pahokee peat and Illinois #6 coal were also treated with nitric acid, at 29% and 40% respectively, and analyzed by solid state 15N NMR spectroscopy. In addition to nitro groups from nitration of aromatic carbon, the 15N NMR spectra of all five samples exhibited peaks attributable to nitrosation reactions. These include nitrosophenol peaks in the peat fulvic acid and Suwannee River samples, from nitrosation of phenolic rings, and N-nitroso groups in the peat samples, from nitrosation of secondary amides or amines, the latter consistent with the peat samples having the highest naturally abundant nitrogen contents. Peaks attributable to Beckmann and secondary reactions of the initially formed oximes were present in all spectra, including primary amide, secondary amide, lactam, and nitrile nitrogens. The degree of secondary reaction product formation resulting from nitrosation reactions appeared to correlate inversely with the 13C aromaticities of the samples. The nitrosation reactions are most plausibly effected by nitrous acid formed from the reduction of nitric acid by oxidizable substrates in the NOM and coal samples.

  14. Nitrosation and Nitration of Fulvic Acid, Peat and Coal with Nitric Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Thorn

    Full Text Available Nitrohumic acids, produced from base extraction of coals and peats oxidized with nitric acid, have received considerable attention as soil ammendments in agriculture. The nitration chemistry however is incompletely understood. Moreover, there is a need to understand the reaction of nitric acid with natural organic matter (NOM in general, in the context of a variety of environmental and biogeochemical processes. Suwannee River NOM, Suwannee River fulvic acid, and Pahokee Peat fulvic acid were treated with 15N-labeled nitric acid at concentrations ranging from 15% to 22% and analyzed by liquid and solid state 15N NMR spectroscopy. Bulk Pahokee peat and Illinois #6 coal were also treated with nitric acid, at 29% and 40% respectively, and analyzed by solid state 15N NMR spectroscopy. In addition to nitro groups from nitration of aromatic carbon, the 15N NMR spectra of all five samples exhibited peaks attributable to nitrosation reactions. These include nitrosophenol peaks in the peat fulvic acid and Suwannee River samples, from nitrosation of phenolic rings, and N-nitroso groups in the peat samples, from nitrosation of secondary amides or amines, the latter consistent with the peat samples having the highest naturally abundant nitrogen contents. Peaks attributable to Beckmann and secondary reactions of the initially formed oximes were present in all spectra, including primary amide, secondary amide, lactam, and nitrile nitrogens. The degree of secondary reaction product formation resulting from nitrosation reactions appeared to correlate inversely with the 13C aromaticities of the samples. The nitrosation reactions are most plausibly effected by nitrous acid formed from the reduction of nitric acid by oxidizable substrates in the NOM and coal samples.

  15. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.


    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to three-carbon amines with abundances ranging from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, R-amino-n-butyric acid (beta-ABA), 2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (norvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicating that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not terrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid, 4-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. The total abundances of isovaline and alpha-AIB in Almahata Sitta are 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous chondrite Murchison. The extremely low abundances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites may reflect extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent asteroid by partial melting during formation or subsequent impact shock heating. It is also possible that amino acids were synthesized by catalytic reactions on the parent body after asteroid 2008 TC3 cooled to lower temperatures.

  16. Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect (United States)

    Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok


    This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.

  17. Suddenly included: cultural differences in experiencing re-inclusion. (United States)

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Graupmann, Verena; Du, Hongfei; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer


    In the current research, we examined whether re-inclusion (i.e. the change from a previous state of exclusion to a new state of inclusion) was perceived differently by people with individualistic and collectivistic cultural backgrounds. Individualists (German and Austrian participants) but not collectivists (Chinese participants) experienced re-inclusion differently than continued inclusion: While collectivistic participants did not differentiate between both kinds of inclusion, individualistic participants showed reduced fulfilment of their psychological needs under re-inclusion compared to continued inclusion. The results moreover revealed that only participants from individualistic cultures expressed more feelings of exclusion when re-included than when continually included. These exclusionary feelings partially mediated the relationship between the different states of inclusion and basic need fulfilment. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Progressive IRP Models for Power Resources Including EPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zhu


    Full Text Available In the view of optimizing regional power supply and demand, the paper makes effective planning scheduling of supply and demand side resources including energy efficiency power plant (EPP, to achieve the target of benefit, cost, and environmental constraints. In order to highlight the characteristics of different supply and demand resources in economic, environmental, and carbon constraints, three planning models with progressive constraints are constructed. Results of three models by the same example show that the best solutions to different models are different. The planning model including EPP has obvious advantages considering pollutant and carbon emission constraints, which confirms the advantages of low cost and emissions of EPP. The construction of progressive IRP models for power resources considering EPP has a certain reference value for guiding the planning and layout of EPP within other power resources and achieving cost and environmental objectives.

  19. How Do We Include Underrepresented Voices in the Sustainability Conversation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virajita Singh


    Full Text Available In a speech given at the Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships 20th Anniversary Statewide Event in the Cargill Building on the St. Paul Campus of the University of Minnesota on November 21, 2017, Virajita Singh, Assistant Vice Provost in the Office for Equity and Diversity, addressed the question, “How do we include underrepresented voices in the sustainability conversation?” The speech describes the work of The Partnerships as observed by the speaker, and its connection to the Design for Community Resilience program. It also introduces the concepts of Partnership and Design Thinking, and suggests a process for including underrepresented voices in the work informed by Design Thinking.  

  20. 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of hohlraums including fill tubes (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J.; Hammel, B. A.; Macphee, A. G.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.


    Measurements of fill tube perturbations from hydro growth radiography (HGR) experiments on the National Ignition Facility show spoke perturbations in the ablator radiating from the base of the tube. These correspond to the shadow of the 10 μm diameter glass fill tube cast by hot spots at early time. We present 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of these experiments which include the fill tube. Meshing techniques are described which were employed to resolve the fill tube structure and associated perturbations in the simulations. We examine the extent to which the specific illumination geometry necessary to accommodate a backlighter in the HGR experiment contributes to the spoke pattern. Simulations presented include high resolution calculations run on the Trinity machine operated by the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES) partnership. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Survey of state legislative programs that include passive solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S


    This report surveys and evaluates state-level solar-incentive programs, including passive solar energy. The range of programs examined focuses on financial and legal incentives designed to speed the implementation of solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems. They have been evaluated by probing the wording of the incentive legislation and by interviewing state program administrators in each state to determine: (1) the extent, if any, of passive inclusion in solar-incentive programs, and (2) the level of success that various implementation techniques have achieved for encouraging passive solar designs as opposed to the more-commonly-understood active systems. Because no states have initiated incentive legislation designed exclusively to encourage passive solar techniques, it has been essential to determine whether legislative programs explicitly or implicitly include passive solar or if they explicitly exclude it.

  2. Energy storage device including a redox-enhanced electrolyte (United States)

    Stucky, Galen; Evanko, Brian; Parker, Nicholas; Vonlanthen, David; Auston, David; Boettcher, Shannon; Chun, Sang-Eun; Ji, Xiulei; Wang, Bao; Wang, Xingfeng; Chandrabose, Raghu Subash


    An electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) energy storage device is provided that includes at least two electrodes and a redox-enhanced electrolyte including two redox couples such that there is a different one of the redox couples for each of the electrodes. When charged, the charge is stored in Faradaic reactions with the at least two redox couples in the electrolyte and in a double-layer capacitance of a porous carbon material that comprises at least one of the electrodes, and a self-discharge of the energy storage device is mitigated by at least one of electrostatic attraction, adsorption, physisorption, and chemisorption of a redox couple onto the porous carbon material.

  3. Improving the strength of amalgams by including steel fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Calvin T. [Hendrix College, Conway, AR 72032 (United States); Van Hoose, James R. [Siemens, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); McGill, Preston B. [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM20, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Grugel, Richard N., E-mail: [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM30, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A room temperature liquid Ga-In alloy was successfully substituted for mercury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physically sound amalgams with included steel fibers can be made. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small volume fraction inclusion of fibers increased strength by {approx}20%. - Abstract: Mercury amalgams, due to their material properties, are widely and successfully used in dental practice. They are, however, also well recognized as having poor tensile strength. With the possibility of expanding amalgam applications it is demonstrated that tensile strength can be increased some 20% by including a small amount of steel fibers. Furthermore, it is shown that mercury can be replaced with a room temperature liquid gallium-indium alloy. Processing, microstructures, and mechanical test results of these novel amalgams are presented and discussed in view of means to further improve their properties.

  4. QCD Reggeon field theory for every day: Pomeron loops included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinoluk, Tolga; Kovner, Alex; Peressutti, Javier; Lublinsky, Michael


    We derive the evolution equation for hadronic scattering amplitude at high energy. Our derivation includes the nonlinear effects of finite partonic density in the hadronic wave function as well as the effect of multiple scatterings for scattering on dense hadronic target. It thus includes Pomeron loops. It is based on the evolution of the hadronic wave function derived in /cite{foam}. The kernel of the evolution equation defines the second quantized Hamiltonian of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory, H RFT beyond the limits considered so far. The two previously known limits of the evolution: dilute target (JIMWLK limit) and dilute projectile (KLWMIJ limit) are recovered directly from our final result. The Hamiltonian H RFT is applicable for the evolution of scattering amplitude for arbitrarily dense hadronic projectiles/targets - from 'dipole-dipole' to 'nucleus-nucleus' scattering processes.

  5. Smart Farming: Including Rights Holders for Responsible Agricultural Innovation


    Kelly Bronson


    This article draws on the literature of responsible innovation to suggest concrete processes for including rights holders in the “smart” agricultural revolution. It first draws upon historical agricultural research in Canada to highlight how productivist values drove seed innovations with particular consequences for the distribution of power in the food system. Next, the article uses document analysis to suggest that a similar value framework is motivating public investment in smart farming i...

  6. Production, control and utilization of radioisotopes including radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.


    From April 29th to May 5th, 1984 27 participants from 21 developing countries stayed within an IAEA Study Tour ('Production, Control and Utilization of Radioisotopes including Radiopharmaceuticals') in the GDR. In the CINR, Rossendorf the reactor, the cyclotron, the technological centre as well as the animal test laboratory were visited. The participants were made familiar by 10 papers with the development, production and control of radiopharmaceuticals in the CINR, Rossendorf. (author)

  7. Information to Include in Curriculum Vitae | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (United States)

    Applicants are encouraged to use their current curriculum vitae and to add any necessary information. Please include your name and a page number on each page of the curriculum vitae. Some of the information requested below will not be applicable to all individuals. Please do not print or type your information on this page. Personal Information Name (First middle last) Gender (optional) Race (optional) Date of birth Place of birth (city,

  8. Stochastic modelling of two-phase flows including phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurisse, O.; Minier, J.P.


    Stochastic modelling has already been developed and applied for single-phase flows and incompressible two-phase flows. In this article, we propose an extension of this modelling approach to two-phase flows including phase change (e.g. for steam-water flows). Two aspects are emphasised: a stochastic model accounting for phase transition and a modelling constraint which arises from volume conservation. To illustrate the whole approach, some remarks are eventually proposed for two-fluid models. (authors)

  9. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?


    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard


    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20% reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how to integrate as many sectors as possible in these efforts. Farmers, however, do not trade GHG under the Kyoto agreement. The idea of including farmers in a national emission trading system has been launc...

  10. GNSS-Based Space Weather Systems Including COSMIC Ionospheric Measurements (United States)

    Komjathy, Attila; Mandrake, Lukas; Wilson, Brian; Iijima, Byron; Pi, Xiaoqing; Hajj, George; Mannucci, Anthony J.


    The presentation outline includes University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) product comparisons, assimilating ground-based global positioning satellites (GPS) and COSMIC into JPL/University of Southern California (USC) Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM), and JPL/USC GAIM validation. The discussion of comparisons examines Abel profiles and calibrated TEC. The JPL/USC GAIM validation uses Arecibo ISR, Jason-2 VTEC, and Abel profiles.

  11. Adsorption of amino acids and nucleic acid bases onto minerals: a few suggestions for prebiotic chemistry experiments (United States)

    Zaia, Dimas A. M.


    Amino acids and nucleic acid bases are very important for the living organisms. Thus, their protection from decomposition, selection, pre-concentration and formation of biopolymers are important issues for understanding the origin of life on the Earth. Minerals could have played all of these roles. This paper discusses several aspects involving the adsorption of amino acids and nucleic acid bases onto minerals under conditions that could have been found on the prebiotic Earth; in particular, we recommend the use of minerals, amino acids, nucleic acid bases and seawater ions in prebiotic chemistry experiments. Several experiments involving amino acids, nucleic acid bases, minerals and seawater ions are also suggested, including: (a) using well-characterized minerals and the standardization of the mineral synthesis methods; (b) using primary chondrite minerals (olivine, pyroxene, etc.) and clays modified with metals (Cu, Fe, Ni, Mo, Zn, etc.); (c) determination of the possible products of decomposition due to interactions of amino acids and nucleic acid bases with minerals; (d) using minerals with more organophilic characteristics; (e) using seawaters with different concentrations of ions (i.e. Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO4 2- and Cl-) (f) using non-protein amino acids (AIB, α-ABA, β-ABA, γ-ABA and β-Ala and g) using nucleic acid bases other than adenine, thymine, uracil and cytosine. These experiments could be useful to clarify the role played by minerals in the origin of life on the Earth.

  12. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna


    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients’ family networks. It has been suggested that these “health spillovers” should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the “health care perspective”). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. PMID:26377370

  13. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation. (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna


    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages (United States)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan


    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  15. Electrolytes including fluorinated solvents for use in electrochemical cells (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan


    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include ion-supplying salts and fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions with the salts at between about C. to about C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and increase safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Fluorinated salts, such as fluoroalkyl-substituted LiPF.sub.6, fluoroalkyl-substituted LiBF.sub.4 salts, linear and cyclic imide salts as well as methide salts including fluorinated alkyl groups, may be used due to their solubility in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene or, more specifically, a cyclic phosphazene and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  16. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from a few sediment samples from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were analysed for total hydrolysable amino acids concentration and their composition. The amono acids content of fulvic acids was higher than in the humic...

  17. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele


    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  18. Are naphthenic acids from oil sands tailings waters really naphthenic acids?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorak, P.M.; Grewer, D.M.; Young, R.F.; Whittal, R.M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    Naphthenic acids (NA) are toxic compounds that occur in oil sands tailings waters, and are comprised of a complex mixture of alkyl-substituted acyclic and cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids. This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the analytica methods used to characterize NA in tailings water samples. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is traditionally used to analyze the NA in tailings samples. However, newer method include electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR MS). The method has been used to identify oxy-NA that contain more than 2 oxygen atoms. Ion counts from ultrahigh resolution MS of oil sands tailings waters were presented. The study concluded by suggesting that when considering oil sands tailings, the term NA should be replaced with the term acid-extractable organics, that include classical NA, oxy-NA, and other unidentified organic acids. tabs., figs.

  19. Fermentative production of butyric acid from wheat straw: Economic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, G. N.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Westermann, P.


    The economic feasibility of biochemical conversion of wheat straw to butyric acid was studied in this work. Basic process steps included physicochemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and saccharification, fermentation with in-situ acids separation by electrodialysis and product purification....... Two scenarios (S1 and S2) were examined assuming a plant with an annual capacity of 10,000 tonnes of product installed in India (due to significantly lower feedstock prices). S1 resulted in a product of 89% butyric acid mixed with acetic acid and S2 produced butyric acid of 99% purity. Unit production...... cost was estimated at 2.75 and 3.31 $ per kg product for S1 and S2 respectively. The main part of production cost was attributed to steam for the purification step and electricity for the in-situ acids separation. This unit production cost combined with an estimated butyric acid selling price (year...

  20. Chlorogenic acids and the acyl-quinic acids: discovery, biosynthesis, bioavailability and bioactivity. (United States)

    Clifford, Michael N; Jaganath, Indu B; Ludwig, Iziar A; Crozier, Alan


    Covering: 2000 up to late 2017This review is focussed upon the acyl-quinic acids, the most studied group within the ca. 400 chlorogenic acids so far reported. The acyl-quinic acids, the first of which was characterised in 1846, are a diverse group of plant-derived compounds produced principally through esterification of an hydroxycinnamic acid and 1l-(-)-quinic acid. Topics addressed in this review include the confusing nomenclature, quantification and characterisation by NMR and MS, biosynthesis and role in planta, and the occurrence of acyl-quinic acids in coffee, their transformation during roasting and delivery to the beverage. Coffee is the major human dietary source world-wide of acyl-quinic acids and consideration is given to their absorption and metabolism in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and the colon where the microbiota play a key role in the formation of catabolites. Evidence on the potential of the in vivo metabolites and catabolites of acyl-quinic acids to promote the consumer's health is evaluated.