WorldWideScience

Sample records for include broad applicability

  1. Broad-Application Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motloch, C.G.

    1992-05-01

    This report is about a new, safe, and operationally efficient DOE reactor of nuclear research and testing proposed for the early to mid- 21st Century. Dubbed the Broad-Application Test Reactor (BATR), the proposed facility incorporates a multiple-application, multiple-mission design to support DOE programs such as naval reactors and space power and propulsion, as well as research in medical, science, isotope, and electronics arenas. DOE research reactors are aging, and implementing major replacement projects requires long lead times. Primary design drivers include safety, low risk, minimum operation cost, mission flexibility, waste minimization, and long life. Scientists and engineers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are evaluating possible fuel forms, structural materials, reactor geometries, coolants, and moderators

  2. PRA insights applicable to the design of the Broad Applications Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khericha, S.T.; Reilly, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Design insights applicable to the design of a new Broad Applications Test Reactor (BATR), being studied at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, are summarized. Sources of design insights include past probabilistic risk assessments and related studies for department of Energy-owned Class A reactors and for commercial reactors. The report includes a preliminary risk allocation scheme for the BATR

  3. Broadly Applicable Nanowafer Drug Delivery System for Treating Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Systems in Systemic , Dermal, Transdermal , and Ocular Drug Delivery . Crit. Rev. Ther. Drug 2008, 25, 545–584. 14. Choy, Y. B.; Park, J.-H.; McCarey, B...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0146 TITLE: Broadly Applicable Nanowafer Drug Delivery System for Treating Eye Injuries PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr...Broadly Applicable Nanowafer Drug Delivery System for Treating Eye Injuries” 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0146 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  4. PRA insights applicable to the design of a broad applications test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khericha, S.T.; Reilly, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Design insights applicable to the design of a new Broad Applications Test Reactor (BATR), studied during Fiscal Years 1992 an d1993 at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), are summarized. Sources of design insights include past probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) and related studies for Department of Energy (DOE)-owned Class A reactors and for commercial reactors. The report includes preliminary risk allocations for the BATR. The survey addressed those design insights that would affect the reactor core damage frequency (CDF). The design insights, while selected specifically for BATR, should be applicable to any new advanced test reactor

  5. Broad-Scale Genetic Diversity of Cannabis for Forensic Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Dufresnes

    Full Text Available Cannabis (hemp and marijuana is an iconic yet controversial crop. On the one hand, it represents a growing market for pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, plants synthesizing the psychoactive THC produce the most widespread illicit drug in the world. Yet, the difficulty to reliably distinguish between Cannabis varieties based on morphological or biochemical criteria impedes the development of promising industrial programs and hinders the fight against narcotrafficking. Genetics offers an appropriate alternative to characterize drug vs. non-drug Cannabis. However, forensic applications require rapid and affordable genotyping of informative and reliable molecular markers for which a broad-scale reference database, representing both intra- and inter-variety variation, is available. Here we provide such a resource for Cannabis, by genotyping 13 microsatellite loci (STRs in 1 324 samples selected specifically for fibre (24 hemp varieties and drug (15 marijuana varieties production. We showed that these loci are sufficient to capture most of the genome-wide diversity patterns recently revealed by NGS data. We recovered strong genetic structure between marijuana and hemp and demonstrated that anonymous samples can be confidently assigned to either plant types. Fibres appear genetically homogeneous whereas drugs show low (often clonal diversity within varieties, but very high genetic differentiation between them, likely resulting from breeding practices. Based on an additional test dataset including samples from 41 local police seizures, we showed that the genetic signature of marijuana cultivars could be used to trace crime scene evidence. To date, our study provides the most comprehensive genetic resource for Cannabis forensics worldwide.

  6. Broad-Scale Genetic Diversity of Cannabis for Forensic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Jan, Catherine; Bienert, Friederike; Goudet, Jérôme; Fumagalli, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (hemp and marijuana) is an iconic yet controversial crop. On the one hand, it represents a growing market for pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, plants synthesizing the psychoactive THC produce the most widespread illicit drug in the world. Yet, the difficulty to reliably distinguish between Cannabis varieties based on morphological or biochemical criteria impedes the development of promising industrial programs and hinders the fight against narcotrafficking. Genetics offers an appropriate alternative to characterize drug vs. non-drug Cannabis. However, forensic applications require rapid and affordable genotyping of informative and reliable molecular markers for which a broad-scale reference database, representing both intra- and inter-variety variation, is available. Here we provide such a resource for Cannabis, by genotyping 13 microsatellite loci (STRs) in 1 324 samples selected specifically for fibre (24 hemp varieties) and drug (15 marijuana varieties) production. We showed that these loci are sufficient to capture most of the genome-wide diversity patterns recently revealed by NGS data. We recovered strong genetic structure between marijuana and hemp and demonstrated that anonymous samples can be confidently assigned to either plant types. Fibres appear genetically homogeneous whereas drugs show low (often clonal) diversity within varieties, but very high genetic differentiation between them, likely resulting from breeding practices. Based on an additional test dataset including samples from 41 local police seizures, we showed that the genetic signature of marijuana cultivars could be used to trace crime scene evidence. To date, our study provides the most comprehensive genetic resource for Cannabis forensics worldwide.

  7. Technology and applications of broad-beam ion sources used in sputtering. Part II. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.M.E.; Cuomo, J.J.; Kaufman, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    The developments in broad-beam ion source technology described in the companion paper (Part I) have stimulated a rapid expansion in applications to materials processing. These applications are reviewed here, beginning with a summary of sputtering mechanisms. Next, etching applications are described, including microfabrication and reactive ion beam etching. The developing area of surface layer applications is summarized, and related to the existing fields of oxidation and implantation. Next, deposition applications are reviewed, including ion-beam sputter deposition and the emerging technique of ion-assisted vapor deposition. Many of these applications have been stimulated by the development of high current ion sources operating in the energy range of tens of hundreds of eV. It is in this energy range that ion-activated chemical etching is efficient, self-limiting compound layers can be grown, and the physical properties of vapor-deposited films can be modified. In each of these areas, broad ion beam technology provides a link between other large area plasma processes and surface analytical techniques using ion beams

  8. Plasma ion implantation technology for broad industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, D.; Siambis, J.; Symons, R.

    1994-01-01

    The recently invented Plasma Ion Implantation (PII) process (1987) [J. R. Conrad, U.S. Patent No. 764394 (August 16, 1988)] is currently under intense industrial engineering investigation and development. A critical component of PII for broad industrial utilization is the availability of an efficient modulator system that applies the high voltage pulse to the workpiece. A modulator technology assessment and selection is carried out. The requirements of the PII process favor the selection of a hard-tube modulator. The PII process favors the application of beam switch tube technology such as the Litton L-5012 and L-5097. These Litton tubes have already been selected by LANL and utilized in their pilot engineering demonstration experiment with GM and the University of Wisconsin. The performance, physical operation, and potential enhancements of the Litton beam switch tubes L-5012 and L-5097 will be discussed in connection with the requirements of the emerging plasma ion implantation industrial modulator technology

  9. Developments in broad-beam, ion-source technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, H.R.; Harper, J.M.E.; Cuomo, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Recent advances in broad-beam, ion-source technology are summarized, including low-energy ion optics, improved extraction grid fabrication, a compact ion-source design and a gridless ion-source design. Recent applications have emphasized concepts such as stress modification of vapor deposited films, very low energy ion beams to minimize the physical sputtering portion in reactive etching, and the use of multiple sources and targets to sputter deposit alloys and compounds. A comprehensive critical review by the same authors appears concurrently, describing in detail the developments in broad-beam, ion-source technology 1 and the applications of these sources. 2

  10. Preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, W.J.; Terry, W.K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Jahshan, S.N.; Fletcher, C.D.; Moore, R.L.; Leyse, C.F.; Ottewitte, E.H.; Motloch, C.G.; Lacy, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    This report describes progress made at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the first three quarters of Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 on the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to perform preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR). This work builds on the FY-92 BATR studies, which identified anticipated mission and safety requirements for BATR and assessed a variety of reactor concepts for their potential capability to meet those requirements. The main accomplishment of the FY-92 BATR program is the development of baseline reactor configurations for the two conventional conceptual test reactors recommended in the FY-91 report. Much of the present report consists of descriptions and neutronics and thermohydraulics analyses of these baseline configurations. In addition, we considered reactor safety issues, compared the consequences of steam explosions for alternative conventional fuel types, explored a Molten Chloride Fast Reactor concept as an alternate BATR design, and examined strategies for the reduction of operating costs. Work planned for the last quarter of FY-92 is discussed, and recommendations for future work are also presented

  11. Requirements, needs, and concepts for a new broad-application test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Fletcher, C.D.; Denison, A.B.; Liebenthal, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    For a variety of reasons, including (a) the increasing demands of the 1990s regulatory environment, (b) limited existing test capactiy and capability to satisfy projected future testing missions, and (c) an expected increasing need for nuclear information to support development of advanced reactors, there is a need for requirements and preliminary concepts for a new broad-application test reactor (BATR). These requirements must include consideration not only for a broad range of projected testing missions but also for current and projected regulatory compliance and safety requirements. The requirements will form the basis for development and assessment of preconceptual reactor designs and lead to the identification of key technologies to support the government's long-term strategic and programmatic planning. This paper outlines the need for a new BATR and suggests a few preliminary reactor concepts that can meet that need

  12. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L K; Allan, G L; Cresswell, R G; Ophel, T R [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S J; Day, J P [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  13. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  14. Application of broad-spectrum resequencing microarray for genotyping rhabdoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacheux, Laurent; Berthet, Nicolas; Dissard, Gabriel; Holmes, Edward C; Delmas, Olivier; Larrous, Florence; Guigon, Ghislaine; Dickinson, Philip; Faye, Ousmane; Sall, Amadou A; Old, Iain G; Kong, Katherine; Kennedy, Giulia C; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Cole, Stewart T; Caro, Valérie; Gessain, Antoine; Bourhy, Hervé

    2010-09-01

    The rapid and accurate identification of pathogens is critical in the control of infectious disease. To this end, we analyzed the capacity for viral detection and identification of a newly described high-density resequencing microarray (RMA), termed PathogenID, which was designed for multiple pathogen detection using database similarity searching. We focused on one of the largest and most diverse viral families described to date, the family Rhabdoviridae. We demonstrate that this approach has the potential to identify both known and related viruses for which precise sequence information is unavailable. In particular, we demonstrate that a strategy based on consensus sequence determination for analysis of RMA output data enabled successful detection of viruses exhibiting up to 26% nucleotide divergence with the closest sequence tiled on the array. Using clinical specimens obtained from rabid patients and animals, this method also shows a high species level concordance with standard reference assays, indicating that it is amenable for the development of diagnostic assays. Finally, 12 animal rhabdoviruses which were currently unclassified, unassigned, or assigned as tentative species within the family Rhabdoviridae were successfully detected. These new data allowed an unprecedented phylogenetic analysis of 106 rhabdoviruses and further suggest that the principles and methodology developed here may be used for the broad-spectrum surveillance and the broader-scale investigation of biodiversity in the viral world.

  15. Application of Broad-Spectrum Resequencing Microarray for Genotyping Rhabdoviruses▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacheux, Laurent; Berthet, Nicolas; Dissard, Gabriel; Holmes, Edward C.; Delmas, Olivier; Larrous, Florence; Guigon, Ghislaine; Dickinson, Philip; Faye, Ousmane; Sall, Amadou A.; Old, Iain G.; Kong, Katherine; Kennedy, Giulia C.; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Cole, Stewart T.; Caro, Valérie; Gessain, Antoine; Bourhy, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    The rapid and accurate identification of pathogens is critical in the control of infectious disease. To this end, we analyzed the capacity for viral detection and identification of a newly described high-density resequencing microarray (RMA), termed PathogenID, which was designed for multiple pathogen detection using database similarity searching. We focused on one of the largest and most diverse viral families described to date, the family Rhabdoviridae. We demonstrate that this approach has the potential to identify both known and related viruses for which precise sequence information is unavailable. In particular, we demonstrate that a strategy based on consensus sequence determination for analysis of RMA output data enabled successful detection of viruses exhibiting up to 26% nucleotide divergence with the closest sequence tiled on the array. Using clinical specimens obtained from rabid patients and animals, this method also shows a high species level concordance with standard reference assays, indicating that it is amenable for the development of diagnostic assays. Finally, 12 animal rhabdoviruses which were currently unclassified, unassigned, or assigned as tentative species within the family Rhabdoviridae were successfully detected. These new data allowed an unprecedented phylogenetic analysis of 106 rhabdoviruses and further suggest that the principles and methodology developed here may be used for the broad-spectrum surveillance and the broader-scale investigation of biodiversity in the viral world. PMID:20610710

  16. Probing Gallic Acid for Its Broad Spectrum Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Sneha; Goyal, Soniya; Varughese, Lesley Rachel; Kumar, Vinod

    2018-03-29

    Gallic acid and its derivatives not only exhibit excellent antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, antimicrobial properties but also provide protection to the cells against oxidative stress. Gallic acid (3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a low molecular triphenolic compound has arised as an efficient apoptosis inducing agent. The antimicrobial and other biological properties of gallic acid and its derivatives seemed to be linked with the hydrolysis of ester linkage between gallic acid and polyols like tannins hydrolyzed after ripening of many edible fruits. Gallic acid serves a natural defense mechanism against microbial infections and modulation of immune-responses. The current review updates us with the diverse roles played by gallic acid, its antioxidant potential, action mechanism and more importantly the diverse array of applications in therapeutic and pharmaceutical area. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Statistical physics including applications to condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    Statistical Physics bridges the properties of a macroscopic system and the microscopic behavior of its constituting particles, otherwise impossible due to the giant magnitude of Avogadro's number. Numerous systems of today's key technologies -- as e.g. semiconductors or lasers -- are macroscopic quantum objects; only statistical physics allows for understanding their fundamentals. Therefore, this graduate text also focuses on particular applications such as the properties of electrons in solids with applications, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.

  18. Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease Applications: Innovation towards Broad-Spectrum Treatment of Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Joshua A; Lee, Jaywon; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-03-02

    Nanomedicine enables unique diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities to tackle problems in clinical medicine. As multifunctional agents with programmable properties, nanomedicines are poised to revolutionize treatment strategies. This promise is especially evident for infectious disease applications, for which the continual emergence, re-emergence, and evolution of pathogens has proven difficult to counter by conventional approaches. Herein, a conceptual framework is presented that envisions possible routes for the development of nanomedicines as superior broad-spectrum antiviral agents against enveloped viruses. With lipid membranes playing a critical role in the life cycle of medically important enveloped viruses including HIV, influenza, and Ebola, cellular and viral membrane interfaces are ideal elements to incorporate into broad-spectrum antiviral strategies. Examples are presented that demonstrate how nanomedicine strategies inspired by lipid membranes enable a wide range of targeting opportunities to gain control of critical stages in the virus life cycle through either direct or indirect approaches involving membrane interfaces. The capabilities can be realized by enabling new inhibitory functions or improving the function of existing drugs through nanotechnology-enabled solutions. With these exciting opportunities, due attention is also given to the clinical translation of nanomedicines for infectious disease applications, especially as pharmaceutical drug-discovery pipelines demand new routes of innovation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. 77 FR 8865 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Applicable Alternative Test Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the broadly applicable alternative test method approval decisions... INFORMATION CONTACT: An electronic copy of each alternative test method approval document is available on the...

  20. Broad spectrum pesticide application alters natural enemy communities and may facilitate secondary pest outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfadyen, Sarina; Nash, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Pesticide application is the dominant control method for arthropod pests in broad-acre arable systems. In Australia, organophosphate pesticides are often applied either prophylactically, or reactively, including at higher concentrations, to control crop establishment pests such as false wireworms and earth mite species. Organophosphates are reported to be disruptive to beneficial species, such as natural enemies, but this has not been widely assessed in Australian systems. Neither has the risk that secondary outbreaks may occur if the natural enemy community composition or function is altered. Methods We examine the abundance of ground-dwelling invertebrate communities in an arable field over successive seasons under rotation; barley, two years of wheat, then canola. Two organophosphates (chlorpyrifos and methidathion) were initially applied at recommended rates. After no discernible impact on target pest species, the rate for chlorpyrifos was doubled to elicit a definitive response to a level used at establishment when seedling damage is observed. Invertebrates were sampled using pitfalls and refuge traps throughout the experiments. We applied measures of community diversity, principal response curves and multiple generalised linear modelling techniques to understand the changes in pest and natural enemy communities. Results There was large variability due to seasonality and crop type. Nevertheless, both pest (e.g., mites and aphids) and natural enemy (e.g., predatory beetles) invertebrate communities were significantly affected by application of organophosphates. When the rate of chlorpyrifos was increased there was a reduction in the number of beetles that predate on slug populations. Slugs displayed opposite trends to many of the other target pests, and actually increased in numbers under the higher rates of chlorpyrifos in comparison to the other treatments. Slug numbers in the final rotation of canola resulted in significant yield loss regardless

  1. Broad spectrum pesticide application alters natural enemy communities and may facilitate secondary pest outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Hill

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Pesticide application is the dominant control method for arthropod pests in broad-acre arable systems. In Australia, organophosphate pesticides are often applied either prophylactically, or reactively, including at higher concentrations, to control crop establishment pests such as false wireworms and earth mite species. Organophosphates are reported to be disruptive to beneficial species, such as natural enemies, but this has not been widely assessed in Australian systems. Neither has the risk that secondary outbreaks may occur if the natural enemy community composition or function is altered. Methods We examine the abundance of ground-dwelling invertebrate communities in an arable field over successive seasons under rotation; barley, two years of wheat, then canola. Two organophosphates (chlorpyrifos and methidathion were initially applied at recommended rates. After no discernible impact on target pest species, the rate for chlorpyrifos was doubled to elicit a definitive response to a level used at establishment when seedling damage is observed. Invertebrates were sampled using pitfalls and refuge traps throughout the experiments. We applied measures of community diversity, principal response curves and multiple generalised linear modelling techniques to understand the changes in pest and natural enemy communities. Results There was large variability due to seasonality and crop type. Nevertheless, both pest (e.g., mites and aphids and natural enemy (e.g., predatory beetles invertebrate communities were significantly affected by application of organophosphates. When the rate of chlorpyrifos was increased there was a reduction in the number of beetles that predate on slug populations. Slugs displayed opposite trends to many of the other target pests, and actually increased in numbers under the higher rates of chlorpyrifos in comparison to the other treatments. Slug numbers in the final rotation of canola resulted in significant yield

  2. Generation of broad-group neutron/photon cross-section libraries for shielding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D.T.; Roussin, R.W.; Fu, C.Y.; White, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The generation and use of multigroup cross-section libraries with broad energy group structures is primarily for the economy of computer resources. Also, the establishment of reference broad-group libraries is desirable in order to avoid duplication of effort, both in terms of the data generation and verification, and to assure a common data base for all participants in a specific project. Uncertainties are inevitably introduced into the broad-group cross sections due to approximations in the grouping procedure. The dominant uncertainty is generally with regard to the energy weighting function used to average the pointwise or fine-group data within a single broad group. Intelligent choice of the weighting functions can reduce such uncertainties. Also, judicious selection of the energy group structure can help to reduce the sensitivity of the computed responses to the weighting function, at least for a selected set of problems. Two new multigroup cross section libraries have been recently generated from ENDF/B-V data for two specific shielding applications. The first library was prepared for use in sodium-cooled reactor systems and is available in both broad-group structures. The second library, just recently completed, was prepared for use in air-over-ground environments and is available in a broad-group (46-neutron, 23-photon) energy structure. The selection of the specific group structures and weighting functions was an important part of the generation of both libraries

  3. Core-cross-linked polymeric micelles: a versatile nanomedicine platform with broad applicability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Q.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the broad applicability of the nanomedicine platform core-cross-linked polymeric micelles (CCL-PMs) composed of thermosensitive mPEG-b-pHPMAmLacn block copolymers. In Chapter 1, a general introduction to nanomedicines is provided, with a particular focus on polymeric

  4. Monolithic front-end preamplifiers for a broad range of calorimetry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radeka, V.; Rescia, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Manfredi, P.F.; Speziali, V. [Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Elettronica]|[INFN--Sezzione di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    1993-12-31

    The present paper summarizes the salient results of a research and development activity in the area of low noise preamplifiers for different applications in calorimetry. Design target for all circuits considered here are low noise, ability to cope with broad energy ranges and radiation hardness.

  5. Electrostatic force microscopy as a broadly applicable method for characterizing pyroelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Olmos, Cristina; Gimzewski, James K; Stieg, Adam Z

    2012-01-01

    A general method based on the combination of electrostatic force microscopy with thermal cycling of the substrate holder is presented for direct, nanoscale characterization of the pyroelectric effect in a range of materials and sample configurations using commercial atomic force microscope systems. To provide an example of its broad applicability, the technique was applied to the examination of natural tourmaline gemstones. The method was validated using thermal cycles similar to those experienced in ambient conditions, where the induced pyroelectric response produced localized electrostatic surface charges whose magnitude demonstrated a correlation with the iron content and heat dissipation of each gemstone variety. In addition, the surface charge was shown to persist even at thermal equilibrium. This behavior is attributed to constant, stochastic cooling of the gemstone surface through turbulent contact with the surrounding air and indicates a potential utility for energy harvesting in applications including environmental sensors and personal electronics. In contrast to previously reported methods, ours has a capacity to carry out such precise nanoscale measurements with little or no restriction on the sample of interest, and represents a powerful new tool for the characterization of pyroelectric materials and devices. (paper)

  6. Accelerating the introduction of HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Russell

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems, is successfully pursuing the development of electric power and industrial devices, incorporating significant high-temperature superconducting (HTS) components or subsystems, through its innovative Superconducting Partnership Initiative (SPI). The objective of the SPI is to accelerate the commercial introduction of the HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications. DOE's approach to accomplishing the SPI objective is to support cost shared projects carried out by industry led teams. DOE will fund projects to develop HTS devices that are either in (1) the research and development stage (Phase 1), (2) the pre-commercialization stage (Phase II), or (3) the commercial entry stage (Phase III). DOE's industry partners must contribute at least half a project's costs. These teams will include capabilities needed to develop the device as well as to develop the business plan for the commercial product introduction. DOE's partners consist of vertically integrated teams consisting of equipment manufacturers, HTS wire and coil suppliers, national laboratories, and end users, primarily utilities. These partners carry out the multi-year technology development efforts, consisting generally of design, construction, and testing of the HTS system. Finally, commercialization of HTS products will be discussed primarily in terms of benefits these products will have over competing products based upon conventional conductors and the critical need for affordable, practical HTS materials and conductors for these applications. .

  7. Broadly tunable metal halide perovskites for solid-state light-emission applications

    OpenAIRE

    Adjokatse, Sampson; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2017-01-01

    The past two years have witnessed heightened interest in metal-halide perovskites as promising optoelectronic materials for solid-state light emitting applications beyond photovoltaics. Metal-halide perovskites are low-cost solution-processable materials with excellent intrinsic properties such as broad tunability of bandgap, defect tolerance, high photoluminescence quantum efficiency and high emission color purity (narrow full-width at half maximum). In this review, the photophysical propert...

  8. Lutetium-177 - Broad Production Capabilities are Expected to Stimulate Clinical Applications of this Important Therapeutic Radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Lutetium-177 (Lu-177) is of broad interest for therapeutic applications where the deposition of localized radiation can benefit from the limited soft tissue penetration of the 0.497 MeV beta particle (max. = 2.76 mm). Examples of Lu-177 therapeutic strategies include treatment of small SS2/SS5-expressing tumors with targeted peptides and radiosynovectomy. Emission of a 208 keV gamma photon (11 %) allows imaging for evaluation of localization and biokinetics, and for targeting applications, correlation of uptake with therapeutic response. A broad spectrum of research reactors with even modest thermal neutron flux (e.g. > 1 x 10 14 ) can produce carrier-added Lu-177 with sufficient specific activity (SA) > 10 Ci/mg Lu by the 'direct' approach by irradiation of Lu-176. For low SA applications, thermal flux of > 10 13 in low-medium flux reactors provides sufficient SA (> 0.5 mCi Lu-177/mg) for preparation of Lu-EDTMP for synovectomy. Although relative Lu-177m/Lu-177 activity levels from 'direct' production can be very low (> 10 -5 ), the Lu-177m impurity levels can present an issue with radioactive waste storage requirements at some institutions. The alternative 'indirect' approach using decay of reactor produced ytterbium-177 available from by neutron irradiation of enriched Yb-176 targets provides no-carrier-added (nca) Lu-177 (theoretical SA = 109 Ci/mg Lu). Purification of the microscopic levels of nca Lu-177 from macroscopic Yb levels at the high multi Curie production level is a more challenging approach, since production yields are relatively low even at high thermal flux (e.g. 2 x 10 15 neutrons/cm 2 /sec). In addition, high mass Lu/Yb separation is especially time consuming, can generate significant waste, and the relatively expensive Yb-176 target material (> 97%, ∼ $ 20/mg) must be recovered, re-purified and used for subsequent target preparation. However, a number of effective methods for the Lu/Yb separation and Yb recovery have been reported, and even

  9. Experiences gained in implementing a broad-based risk-informed application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinzel, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    The South Texas Project was granted a first-of-kind exemption from special treatment requirements contained in 10-CFR Parts 21, 50, and 100 in August 2001. Since that time, South Texas has pursued a cautious, deliberate approach to implement these risk-informed exemption allowances. Over the past two years, South Texas has gained a unique insight into the challenges and benefits that exist in pursuing a broad-based risk-informed application. The American nuclear industry is currently pursuing similar capabilities through proposed rule 10-CFR 50.69 which is scheduled for NRC final review and approval in the July, 2004 time-frame. This proposed rule closely resembles the approach taken by South Texas in the exemption process and the allowances granted. For nuclear utilities that wish to pursue a similar broad-based risk-informed application, a well-conceived strategic approach is needed to prioritize the implementation activities as well as engage stake-holders in the implementation process. Cultural and communication challenges exist which must be addressed and effectively overcome. The goal of this paper is to communicate these challenges to the attendees, inform attendees of the safety and economic benefits to be recognized through this risk-informed approach, and to provide insight into continuing application opportunities that were not readily apparent when the broad-based exemption was originally conceived. This paper and presentation will be beneficial for both domestic and international attendees, as well as for personnel with utility or regulatory backgrounds. (author)

  10. Safety requirements, facility user needs, and reactor concepts for a new Broad Application Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Liebenthal, J.L.; Denison, A.B.; Fletcher, C.D.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes the EG ampersand G Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR) Project that was conducted in fiscal year 1991. The scope of this project was divided into three phases: a project process definition phase, a requirements development phase, and a preconceptual reactor design and evaluation phase. Multidisciplinary teams of experts conducted each phase. This report presents the need for a new test reactor, the project process definition, a set of current and projected regulatory compliance and safety requirements, a set of facility user needs for a broad range of projected testing missions, and descriptions of reactor concepts capable of meeting these requirements. This information can be applied to strategic planning to provide the Department of Energy with management options

  11. Applications of a broad-spectrum tool for conservation and fisheries analysis: aquatic gap analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Steen, Paul J.; Lyons, John; Stewart, Jana S.

    2009-01-01

    . Aquatic gap analysis naturally focuses on aquatic habitats. The analytical tools are largely based on specification of the species-habitat relations for the system and organism group of interest (Morrison et al. 2003; McKenna et al. 2006; Steen et al. 2006; Sowa et al. 2007). The Great Lakes Regional Aquatic Gap Analysis (GLGap) project focuses primarily on lotic habitat of the U.S. Great Lakes drainage basin and associated states and has been developed to address fish and fisheries issues. These tools are unique because they allow us to address problems at a range of scales from the region to the stream segment and include the ability to predict species specific occurrence or abundance for most of the fish species in the study area. The results and types of questions that can be addressed provide better global understanding of the ecological context within which specific natural resources fit (e.g., neighboring environments and resources, and large and small scale processes). The geographic analysis platform consists of broad and flexible geospatial tools (and associated data) with many potential applications. The objectives of this article are to provide a brief overview of GLGap methods and analysis tools, and demonstrate conservation and planning applications of those data and tools. Although there are many potential applications, we will highlight just three: (1) support for the Eastern Brook Trout Joint Venture (EBTJV), (2) Aquatic Life classification in Wisconsin, and (3) an educational tool that makes use of Google Earth (use of trade or product names does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government) and Internet accessibility.

  12. Plasmid-mediated AmpC-type beta-lactamase isolated from Klebsiella pneumoniae confers resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, T; Arakawa, Y; Ohta, M; Ichiyama, S; Wacharotayankun, R; Kato, N

    1993-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae NU2936 was isolated from a patient and was found to produce a plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase (MOX-1) which conferred resistance to broad spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam, flomoxef, ceftizoxime, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime. Resistance could be transferred from K. pneumoniae NU2936 to Escherichia coli CSH2 by conjugation with a transfer frequency of 5 x 10(-7). The structural gene of MOX-1 (blaMOX-1) was cloned and expressed in E. coli HB101. The MIC of moxalactam for E. coli HB101 producing MOX-1 was > 512 micrograms/ml. The apparent molecular mass and pI of this enzyme were calculated to be 38 kDa and 8.9, respectively. Hg2+ and Cu2+ failed to block enzyme activity, and the presence of EDTA in the reaction buffer did not reduce the enzyme activity. However, clavulanate and cloxacillin, serine beta-lactamase inhibitors, inhibited the enzyme activity competitively (Kis = 5.60 and 0.35 microM, respectively). The kinetic study of MOX-1 suggested that it effectively hydrolyzed broad-spectrum beta-lactams. A hybridization study confirmed that blaMOX-1 is encoded on a large resident plasmid (pRMOX1; 180 kb) of strain NU2936. By deletion analysis, the functional region was localized within a 1.2-kb region of the plasmid. By amino acid sequencing, 18 of 33 amino acid residues at the N terminus of MOX-1 were found to be identical to those of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AmpC. These findings suggest that MOX-1 is a plasmid-mediated AmpC-type beta-lactamase that provides enteric bacteria resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam. Images PMID:8517725

  13. 11th International Conference On Broad-Band Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xhafa, Fatos; Yim, Kangbin

    2017-01-01

    The success of all-IP networking and wireless technology has changed the ways of living the people around the world. The progress of electronic integration and wireless communications is going to pave the way to offer people the access to the wireless networks on the fly, based on which all electronic devices will be able to exchange the information with each other in ubiquitous way whenever necessary. The aim of the volume is to provide latest research findings, innovative research results, methods and development techniques from both theoretical and practical perspectives related to the emerging areas of broadband and wireless computing. This proceedings volume presents the results of the 11th International Conference on Broad-Band Wireless Computing, Communication And Applications (BWCCA-2016), held November 5-7, 2016, at Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Korea. .

  14. Flexible Near-Field Wireless Optoelectronics as Subdermal Implants for Broad Applications in Optogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gunchul; Gomez, Adrian M; Al-Hasani, Ream; Jeong, Yu Ra; Kim, Jeonghyun; Xie, Zhaoqian; Banks, Anthony; Lee, Seung Min; Han, Sang Youn; Yoo, Chul Jong; Lee, Jong-Lam; Lee, Seung Hee; Kurniawan, Jonas; Tureb, Jacob; Guo, Zhongzhu; Yoon, Jangyeol; Park, Sung-Il; Bang, Sang Yun; Nam, Yoonho; Walicki, Marie C; Samineni, Vijay K; Mickle, Aaron D; Lee, Kunhyuk; Heo, Seung Yun; McCall, Jordan G; Pan, Taisong; Wang, Liang; Feng, Xue; Kim, Tae-Il; Kim, Jong Kyu; Li, Yuhang; Huang, Yonggang; Gereau, Robert W; Ha, Jeong Sook; Bruchas, Michael R; Rogers, John A

    2017-02-08

    In vivo optogenetics provides unique, powerful capabilities in the dissection of neural circuits implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Conventional hardware for such studies, however, physically tethers the experimental animal to an external light source, limiting the range of possible experiments. Emerging wireless options offer important capabilities that avoid some of these limitations, but the current size, bulk, weight, and wireless area of coverage is often disadvantageous. Here, we present a simple but powerful setup based on wireless, near-field power transfer and miniaturized, thin, flexible optoelectronic implants, for complete optical control in a variety of behavioral paradigms. The devices combine subdermal magnetic coil antennas connected to microscale, injectable light-emitting diodes (LEDs), with the ability to operate at wavelengths ranging from UV to blue, green-yellow, and red. An external loop antenna allows robust, straightforward application in a multitude of behavioral apparatuses. The result is a readily mass-producible, user-friendly technology with broad potential for optogenetics applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of reactive gases with broad-beam radio frequency ion sources for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, St.; Jolly, T.W.; Kohlstedt, H.; Waser, R.

    2004-01-01

    Broad-beam ion sources are used for a number of important industrial etching and deposition applications, and the use of inductively coupled plasmas has greatly increased the feasibility of using beams of reactive gases, especially of chlorine and oxygen, but also of CO, CO 2 , CF 4 , CHF 3 , SF 6 , etc. In order to gain more understanding of the factors that affect the composition of beams of these gases, we have used a Hiden energy-dispersive quadrupole mass spectrometer to analyze the flux of ions and energetic particles produced by an Oxford Instruments 15 cm rf ion source. For all of the above gases, we have analyzed the effects of changing the operating conditions on the composition of the ion beam, and the fractional production of multiply charged ions; on the plasma potential (and the consequential divergence of the ion beam) and on the spread in energy of the ion beam. We discuss how these factors influence the correct use of the ion source in etching applications with these gases. It is important that the design of the ion source should be optimized for the process gases that are used. The source was originally optimized for use on argon. We discuss the effect of the design on the source's performance with the different gases, and we consider whether design changes would be appropriate for optimum performance on different gases

  16. Human Cognitive Limitations. Broad, Consistent, Clinical Application of Physiological Principles Will Require Decision Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alan H

    2018-02-01

    Our education system seems to fail to enable clinicians to broadly understand core physiological principles. The emphasis on reductionist science, including "omics" branches of research, has likely contributed to this decrease in understanding. Consequently, clinicians cannot be expected to consistently make clinical decisions linked to best physiological evidence. This is a large-scale problem with multiple determinants, within an even larger clinical decision problem: the failure of clinicians to consistently link their decisions to best evidence. Clinicians, like all human decision-makers, suffer from significant cognitive limitations. Detailed context-sensitive computer protocols can generate personalized medicine instructions that are well matched to individual patient needs over time and can partially resolve this problem.

  17. The physics of semiconductors an introduction including nanophysics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2016-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this successful textbook contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors, nanowires, quantum dots, multi-junction solar cells, thin film transistors, carbon-based nanostructures and transparent conductive oxides. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better under...

  18. Broad frequency band full field measurements for advanced applications: Point-wise comparisons between optical technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    The progress of optical systems gives nowadays at disposal on lightweight structures complex dynamic measurements and modal tests, each with its own advantages, drawbacks and preferred usage domains. It is thus more easy than before to obtain highly spatially defined vibration patterns for many applications in vibration engineering, testing and general product development. The potential of three completely different technologies is here benchmarked on a common test rig and advanced applications. SLDV, dynamic ESPI and hi-speed DIC are here first deployed in a complex and unique test on the estimation of FRFs with high spatial accuracy from a thin vibrating plate. The latter exhibits a broad band dynamics and high modal density in the common frequency domain where the techniques can find an operative intersection. A peculiar point-wise comparison is here addressed by means of discrete geometry transforms to put all the three technologies on trial at each physical point of the surface. Full field measurement technologies cannot estimate only displacement fields on a refined grid, but can exploit the spatial consistency of the results through neighbouring locations by means of numerical differentiation operators in the spatial domain to obtain rotational degrees of freedom and superficial dynamic strain distributions, with enhanced quality, compared to other technologies in literature. Approaching the task with the aid of superior quality receptance maps from the three different full field gears, this work calculates and compares rotational and dynamic strain FRFs. Dynamic stress FRFs can be modelled directly from the latter, by means of a constitutive model, avoiding the costly and time-consuming steps of building and tuning a numerical dynamic model of a flexible component or a structure in real life conditions. Once dynamic stress FRFs are obtained, spectral fatigue approaches can try to predict the life of a component in many excitation conditions. Different

  19. Surface defect assisted broad spectra emission from CdSe quantum dots for white LED application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Boni; Mathew, S.; Anand, V. R.; Correya, Adrine Antony; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Mujeeb, A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports, broadband photoluminescence from CdSe quantum dots (QDs) under the excitation of 403 nm using fluorimeter and 403 nm CW laser excitation. The broad spectrum obtained from the colloidal quantum dots was ranges from 450 nm to 800 nm. The broadness of the spectra was attributed to the merging of band edge and defect driven emissions from the QDs. Six different sizes of particles were prepared via kinetic growth method by using CdO and elemental Se as sources of Cd and Se respectively. The particle sizes were measured from TEM images. The size dependent effect on broad emission was also studied and the defect state emission was found to be predominant in very small QDs. The defect driven emission was also observed to be redshifted, similar to the band edge emission, due to quantum confinement effect. The emission corresponding to different laser power was also studied and a linear relation was obtained. In order to study the colour characteristics of the emission, CIE chromaticity coordinate, CRI and CCT of the prepared samples were measured. It is observed that, these values were tunable by the addition of suitable intensity of blue light from the excitation source to yield white light of various colour temperatures. The broad photoluminescence spectrum of the QDs, were compared with that of a commercially available white LED. It was found that the prepared QDs are good alternatives for the phosphor in phosphor converted white LEDs, to provide good spectral tunability.

  20. A broad-spectrum, efficient and nontransgenic approach to control plant viruses by application of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jing; Xi, De-Hui; Xu, Fei; Wang, Shao-Dong; Cao, Sen; Xu, Mo-Yun; Zhao, Ping-Ping; Wang, Jian-Hui; Jia, Shu-Dan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Shu; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2011-02-01

    Plant viruses cause many diseases that lead to significant economic losses. However, most of the approaches to control plant viruses, including transgenic processes or drugs are plant-species-limited or virus-species-limited, and not very effective. We introduce an application of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA), a broad-spectrum, efficient and nontransgenic method, to improve plant resistance to RNA viruses. Applying 0.06 mM JA and then 0.1 mM SA 24 h later, enhanced resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) in Arabidopsis, tobacco, tomato and hot pepper. The inhibition efficiency to virus replication usually achieved up to 80-90%. The putative molecular mechanism was investigated. Some possible factors affecting the synergism of JA and SA have been defined, including WRKY53, WRKY70, PDF1.2, MPK4, MPK2, MPK3, MPK5, MPK12, MPK14, MKK1, MKK2, and MKK6. All genes involving in the synergism of JA and SA were investigated. This approach is safe to human beings and environmentally friendly and shows potential as a strong tool for crop protection against plant viruses.

  1. Apple latent spherical virus vectors for reliable and effective virus-induced gene silencing among a broad range of plants including tobacco, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucurbits, and legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Aki; Yamagata, Kousuke; Sugai, Tomokazu; Takahashi, Yukari; Sugawara, Emiko; Tamura, Akihiro; Yaegashi, Hajime; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Isogai, Masamichi; Takahashi, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors were evaluated for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of endogenous genes among a broad range of plant species. ALSV vectors carrying partial sequences of a subunit of magnesium chelatase (SU) and phytoene desaturase (PDS) genes induced highly uniform knockout phenotypes typical of SU and PDS inhibition on model plants such as tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana, and economically important crops such as tomato, legume, and cucurbit species. The silencing phenotypes persisted throughout plant growth in these plants. In addition, ALSV vectors could be successfully used to silence a meristem gene, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and disease resistant N gene in tobacco and RCY1 gene in A. thaliana. As ALSV infects most host plants symptomlessly and effectively induces stable VIGS for long periods, the ALSV vector is a valuable tool to determine the functions of interested genes among a broad range of plant species.

  2. Choline and Geranate Deep Eutectic Solvent as a Broad-Spectrum Antiseptic Agent for Preventive and Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrewsky, Michael; Banerjee, Amrita; Apte, Sanjana; Kern, Theresa L; Jones, Mattie R; Sesto, Rico E Del; Koppisch, Andrew T; Fox, David T; Mitragotri, Samir

    2016-06-01

    Antiseptic agents are the primary arsenal to disinfect skin and prevent pathogens spreading within the host as well as into the surroundings; however the Food and Drug Administration published a report in 2015 requiring additional validation of nearly all current antiseptic agents before their continued use can be allowed. This vulnerable position calls for urgent identification of novel antiseptic agents. Recently, the ability of a deep eutectic, Choline And Geranate (CAGE), to treat biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica was demonstrated. Here it is reported that CAGE exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against a number of drug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and viruses including clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans as well as laboratory strains of Herpes Simplex Virus. Studies in human keratinocytes and mice show that CAGE affords negligible local or systemic toxicity, and an ≈180-14 000-fold improved efficacy/toxicity ratio over currently used antiseptic agents. Further, CAGE penetrates deep into the dermis and treats pathogens located in deep skin layers as confirmed by the ability of CAGE in vivo to treat Propionibacterium acnes infection. In combination, the results clearly demonstrate CAGE holds promise as a transformative platform antiseptic agent for preventive as well as therapeutic applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Assessment of nuclear data needs for broad-group SCALE library related to WWER spent fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalesky, K.; Markova, L.

    1999-12-01

    A preliminary study aimed at the issue of feasibility to generate a broad-group SCALE library related to WWER spent fuel applications was made. The SCALE code system has been installed and is being used in many countries operating WWER-type reactors for criticality and shielding analyses as well as spent fuel isotopic inventory calculations but still without an extensive validation and verification for the WWER environment. This study should be a contribution to QA connected with the SCALE code system application for the WWER calculations as a basis on which the generation of the specific WWER SCALE library can be prepared. Possible ways of the broad-group library development are described. (author)

  4. Broad Frequency LTCC Vertical Interconnect Transition for Multichip Modules and System on Package Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrossas, Emmanuel; Glover, Michael D.; Porter, Kaoru; Cannon, Tom; Mantooth, H. Alan; Hamilton, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Various stripline structures and flip chip interconnect designs for high-speed digital communication systems implemented in low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrates are studied in this paper. Specifically, two different transition designs from edge launch 2.4 millimeter connectors to stripline transmission lines embedded in LTCC are discussed. After characterizing the DuPont (sup trademark) 9K7 green tape, different designs are proposed to improve signal integrity for high-speed digital data. The full-wave simulations and experimental data validate the presented designs over a broad frequency band from Direct Current to 50 gigahertz and beyond.

  5. Behaviour of radionuclides in meadows including countermeasures application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Perepelyatnikov, G.P.; Il'yn, M.I.; Belli, M.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Fesenko, S.V.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Bunzl, K.; Petriaev, E.P.; Sokolik, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    Main regularities of the behaviour of ChNPP release radionuclides in components of meadow ecosystems are considered. Developed mathematical model of radionuclide migration in components of meadow ecosystems is discussed. Radioecological classification of meadow ecosystems is proposed. Effectiveness of countermeasures application in meadow ecosystems is estimated

  6. Applicability of Broad-Band Photometry for Determining the Properties of Stars and Interstellar Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichevskij, S. G.

    2018-01-01

    The feasibility of the determination of the physical conditions in star's atmosphere and the parameters of interstellar extinction from broad-band photometric observations in the 300-3000 nm wavelength interval is studied using SDSS and 2MASS data. The photometric accuracy of these surveys is shown to be insufficient for achieving in practice the theoretical possibility of estimating the atmospheric parameters of stars based on ugriz and JHK s photometry exclusively because such determinations result in correlations between the temperature and extinction estimates. The uncertainty of interstellar extinction estimates can be reduced if prior data about the temperature are available. The surveys considered can nevertheless be potentially valuable sources of information about both stellar atmospheric parameters and the interstellar medium.

  7. Smart Antenna Skins, including Conformal Array, MMICs and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, F.L.M. van den

    2000-01-01

    Low-cost technologies are presented for future space-borne and airborne SAR systems. These technologies include state-of-the art highly integrated circuits to miniaturise front-end, solutions to lower-cost interconnection technologies, new beamforming aspects and new architectures. The MMICs address

  8. 30 CFR 250.1007 - What to include in applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... features and other pertinent data including area, lease, and block designations; water depths; route...) submitted for a pipeline right-of-way shall bear a signed certificate upon its face by the engineer who made... additional design precautions you took to enable the pipeline to withstand the effects of water currents...

  9. The Broad Application of Data Science and Analytics: Essential Tools for the Liberal Arts Graduate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Navia, Isabel; Fitzgerald, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    New technologies and data science are transforming a wide range of organizations into analytics-intensive enterprises. Despite the resulting demand for graduates with experience in the application of analytics, though, undergraduate education has been slow to change. The academic and policy communities have engaged in a decade-long conversation…

  10. Broadly tunable metal halide perovskites for solid-state light-emission applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adjokatse, Sampson; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2017-01-01

    The past two years have witnessed heightened interest in metal-halide perovskites as promising optoelectronic materials for solid-state light emitting applications beyond photovoltaics. Metal-halide perovskites are low-cost solution-processable materials with excellent intrinsic properties such as

  11. Very broad beam metal ion source for large area ion implantation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.; Yao, X.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have made and operated a very broad beam version of vacuum arc ion source and used it to carry out high energy metal ion implantation of a particularly large substrate. A multiple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source was coupled to a 50 cm diameter beam extractor (multiple aperture, accel-decel configuration) operated at a net extraction voltage of up to 50 kV. The metal ion species chosen were Ni and Ta. The mean ion charge state for Ni and Ta vacuum arc plasmas is 1.8 and 2.9, respectively, and so the mean ion energies were up to about 90 and 145 keV, respectively. The ion source was operated in a repetitively pulsed mode with pulse length 250 μs and repetition rate several pulses per second. The extracted beam had a gaussian profile with FWHM about 35 cm, giving a nominal beam area of about 1,000 cm 2 . The current of Ni or Ta metal ions in the beam was up to several amperes. The targets for the ion implantation were a number of 24-inch long, highly polished Cu rails from an electromagnetic rail gun. The rails were located about 80 cm away from the ion source extractor grids, and were moved across a diameter of the vessel in such a way as to maximize the uniformity of the implant along the rail. The saturation retained dose for Ta was limited to about 4 x 10 16 cm -2 because of the rather severe sputtering, in accordance with the theoretical expectations for these implantation conditions. Here they describe the ion source, the implantation procedure, and the kinds of implants that can be produced in this way

  12. Live donor liver transplantation without blood products: strategies developed for Jehovah's Witnesses offer broad application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Nicolas; Gagandeep, Singh; Mateo, Rodrigo; Sher, Linda; Strum, Earl; Donovan, John; Kahn, Jeffrey; Peyre, Christian G; Henderson, Randy; Fong, Tse-Ling; Selby, Rick; Genyk, Yuri

    2004-08-01

    Developing strategies for transfusion-free live donor liver transplantation in Jehovah's Witness patients. Liver transplantation is the standard of care for patients with end-stage liver disease. A disproportionate increase in transplant candidates and an allocation policy restructuring, favoring patients with advanced disease, have led to longer waiting time and increased medical acuity for transplant recipients. Consequently, Jehovah's Witness patients, who refuse blood product transfusion, are usually excluded from liver transplantation. We combined blood augmentation and conservation practices with live donor liver transplantation (LDLT) to accomplish successful LDLT in Jehovah's Witness patients without blood products. Our algorithm provides broad possibilities for blood conservation for all surgical patients. From September 1998 until June 2001, 38 LDLTs were performed at Keck USC School of Medicine: 8 in Jehovah's Witness patients (transfusion-free group) and 30 in non-Jehovah's Witness patients (transfusion-eligible group). All transfusion-free patients underwent preoperative blood augmentation with erythropoietin, intraoperative cell salvage, and acute normovolemic hemodilution. These techniques were used in only 7%, 80%, and 10%, respectively, in transfusion-eligible patients. Perioperative clinical data and outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. Data from both groups were statistically analyzed. Preoperative liver disease severity was similar in both groups; however, transfusion-free patients had significantly higher hematocrit levels following erythropoietin augmentation. Operative time, blood loss, and postoperative hematocrits were similar in both groups. No blood products were used in transfusion-free patients while 80% of transfusion-eligible patients received a median of 4.5+/- 3.5 units of packed red cell. ICU and total hospital stay were similar in both groups. The survival rate was 100% in transfusion-free patients and 90% in transfusion

  13. Engineering of gadofluoroprobes: Broad-spectrum applications from cancer diagnosis to therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Ranu A., E-mail: ranu.dutta16@gmail.com [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); NanoeRA medicare Private Limited, Uttar Pradesh (India); Sharma, Prashant K. [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India); Tiwari, Vandana [Department of Pathology, KGMU, Lucknow (India); Tiwari, Vivek; Patel, Anant B. [Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad (India); Pandey, Ravindra [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Michigan 49931-1295 (United States); Pandey, Avinash C. [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); NanoeRA medicare Private Limited, Uttar Pradesh (India); Bundelkhand University, Jhansi (India)

    2014-01-13

    The engineering of the Gadolinium based nanostructures have been demonstrated in this paper. Nanostructures of α-Gd{sub 2}S{sub 3} exhibit a unique transition between ferromagnetic state and paramagnetic state of the system. It was demonstrated that their properties could be tuned for a wide range of applications ranging from hyperthermia to Magnetic Resonance Imaging, owing to their magnetic moments and large relaxivities. Metallic Gd nanoparticles obtained by reduction method were employed for cancer imaging in mice. The Gd nanoparticles were coated with Curcumin and their biomedical implications in the field of simultaneous diagnosis and therapy of cancer and related diseases has been discussed.

  14. Engineering of gadofluoroprobes: Broad-spectrum applications from cancer diagnosis to therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Ranu A.; Sharma, Prashant K.; Tiwari, Vandana; Tiwari, Vivek; Patel, Anant B.; Pandey, Ravindra; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2014-01-01

    The engineering of the Gadolinium based nanostructures have been demonstrated in this paper. Nanostructures of α-Gd 2 S 3 exhibit a unique transition between ferromagnetic state and paramagnetic state of the system. It was demonstrated that their properties could be tuned for a wide range of applications ranging from hyperthermia to Magnetic Resonance Imaging, owing to their magnetic moments and large relaxivities. Metallic Gd nanoparticles obtained by reduction method were employed for cancer imaging in mice. The Gd nanoparticles were coated with Curcumin and their biomedical implications in the field of simultaneous diagnosis and therapy of cancer and related diseases has been discussed

  15. Design, calibration and application of broad-range optical nanosensors for determining intracellular pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Rikke Vicki; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2014-01-01

    Particle-based nanosensors offer a tool for determining the pH in the endosomal-lysosomal system of living cells. Measurements providing absolute values of pH have so far been restricted by the limited sensitivity range of nanosensors, calibration challenges and the complexity of image analysis....... This protocol describes the design and application of a polyacrylamide-based nanosensor (∼60 nm) that covalently incorporates two pH-sensitive fluorophores, fluorescein (FS) and Oregon Green (OG), to broaden the sensitivity range of the sensor (pH 3.1-7.0), and uses the pH-insensitive fluorophore rhodamine...... as a reference fluorophore. The nanosensors are spontaneously taken up via endocytosis and directed to the lysosomes where dynamic changes in pH can be measured with live-cell confocal microscopy. The most important focus areas of the protocol are the choice of pH-sensitive fluorophores, the design...

  16. Genetically engineered Pseudomonas: a factory of new bioplastics with broad applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera, E R; Carnicero, D; Jodra, R; Miñambres, B; García, B; Abraham, G A; Gallardo, A; Román, J S; García, J L; Naharro, G; Luengo, J M

    2001-10-01

    New bioplastics containing aromatic or mixtures of aliphatic and aromatic monomers have been obtained using genetically engineered strains of Pseudomonas putida. The mutation (-) or deletion (Delta) of some of the genes involved in the beta-oxidation pathway (fadA(-), fadB(-) Delta fadA or Delta fad BA mutants) elicits a strong intracellular accumulation of unusual homo- or co-polymers that dramatically alter the morphology of these bacteria, as more than 90% of the cytoplasm is occupied by these macromolecules. The introduction of a blockade in the beta-oxidation pathway, or in other related catabolic routes, has allowed the synthesis of polymers other than those accumulated in the wild type (with regard to both monomer size and relative percentage), the accumulation of certain intermediates that are rapidly catabolized in the wild type and the accumulation in the culture broths of end catabolites that, as in the case of phenylacetic acid, phenylbutyric acid, trans-cinnamic acid or their derivatives, have important medical or pharmaceutical applications (antitumoral, analgesic, radiopotentiators, chemopreventive or antihelmintic). Furthermore, using one of these polyesters (poly 3-hydroxy-6-phenylhexanoate), we obtained polymeric microspheres that could be used as drug vehicles.

  17. Turning the Page: Advancing Paper-Based Microfluidics for Broad Diagnostic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Max M; Sinton, David

    2017-06-28

    Infectious diseases are a major global health issue. Diagnosis is a critical first step in effectively managing their spread. Paper-based microfluidic diagnostics first emerged in 2007 as a low-cost alternative to conventional laboratory testing, with the goal of improving accessibility to medical diagnostics in developing countries. In this review, we examine the advances in paper-based microfluidic diagnostics for medical diagnosis in the context of global health from 2007 to 2016. The theory of fluid transport in paper is first presented. The next section examines the strategies that have been employed to control fluid and analyte transport in paper-based assays. Tasks such as mixing, timing, and sequential fluid delivery have been achieved in paper and have enabled analytical capabilities comparable to those of conventional laboratory methods. The following section examines paper-based sample processing and analysis. The most impactful advancement here has been the translation of nucleic acid analysis to a paper-based format. Smartphone-based analysis is another exciting development with potential for wide dissemination. The last core section of the review highlights emerging health applications, such as male fertility testing and wearable diagnostics. We conclude the review with the future outlook, remaining challenges, and emerging opportunities.

  18. A broadly applicable surgical teaching method: evaluation of a stepwise introduction to cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloek, Carolyn E; Borboli-Gerogiannis, Sheila; Chang, Kenneth; Kuperwaser, Mark; Newman, Lori R; Lane, Anne Marie; Loewenstein, John I

    2014-01-01

    Although cataract surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in the country, it is a microsurgical procedure that is difficult to learn and to teach. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a new method for introducing postgraduate year (PGY)-3 ophthalmology residents to cataract surgery. Hospital-based ophthalmology residency program. Retrospective cohort study. PGY-3 and PGY-4 residents of the Harvard Medical School Ophthalmology Residency from graduating years 2010 to 2012. In July 2009, a new method of teaching PGY-3 ophthalmology residents cataract surgery was introduced, which was termed "the stepwise introduction to cataract surgery." This curriculum aimed to train residents to perform steps of cataract surgery by deliberately practicing each of the steps of surgery under a structured curriculum with faculty feedback. Assessment methods included surveys administered to the PGY-4 residents who graduated before the implementation of these measures (n = 7), the residents who participated in the first and second years of the new curriculum (n = 16), faculty who teach PGY-4 residents cataract surgery (n = 8), and review of resident Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education surgical logs. Resident survey response rate was 100%. Residents who participated in the new curriculum performed more of each step of cataract surgery in the operating room, spent more time practicing each step of cataract surgery on a cataract surgery simulator during the PGY-3 year, and performed more primary cataract surgeries during the PGY-3 year than those who did not. Faculty survey response rate was 63%. Faculty noted an increase in resident preparedness following implementation of the new curriculum. There was no statistical difference between the precurriculum and postcurriculum groups in the percentage turnover of cataracts for the first 2 cataract surgery rotations of the PGY-4 year of training. The introduction of cataract surgery to PGY-3 residents

  19. The investigation of copper-based impregnated activated carbons prepared from water-soluble materials for broad spectrum respirator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.W.H.; Westreich, P.; Abdellatif, H.; Filbee-Dexter, P.; Smith, A.J.; Wood, T.E.; Croll, L.M.; Reynolds, J.H.; Dahn, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of impregnated activated carbons (IACs) from aqueous, copper-containing solutions for broad spectrum gas filtration applications is studied here. Several samples were studied to determine the effect that impregnant loading, impregnant distribution and impregnant recipe had on the overall performance. Dynamic flow testing was used to determine the gas filtration capacity of the IAC samples versus a variety of challenge gases. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were used to characterize the impregnant distribution on the carbon as a function of impregnant loading. Oven tests were performed to determine the thermal stability of the IAC samples exposed to elevated temperatures. The role impregnant distribution plays in gas filtration capacity and the overall performance of the IAC samples is discussed. The IAC samples prepared in this work were found to have gas filtration capacities as good as or better than broad spectrum respirator carbon samples prepared from the patent literature. IACs impregnated with an aqueous 2.4 M Cu(NO 3 ) 2 /0.04 M H 3 PO 4 .12MoO 3 /4 M HNO 3 solution that were heated to 200 deg. C under argon were found to have the best overall performance of the samples studied in this work.

  20. The investigation of copper-based impregnated activated carbons prepared from water-soluble materials for broad spectrum respirator applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.H.; Westreich, P.; Abdellatif, H.; Filbee-Dexter, P.; Smith, A.J. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5 (Canada); Wood, T.E. [3M Company, St. Paul, MN, 55144 (United States); Croll, L.M.; Reynolds, J.H. [3M Canada Company, Brockville, Ontario, K6V 5V8 (Canada); Dahn, J.R., E-mail: jeff.dahn@dal.ca [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4J3 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    The preparation of impregnated activated carbons (IACs) from aqueous, copper-containing solutions for broad spectrum gas filtration applications is studied here. Several samples were studied to determine the effect that impregnant loading, impregnant distribution and impregnant recipe had on the overall performance. Dynamic flow testing was used to determine the gas filtration capacity of the IAC samples versus a variety of challenge gases. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were used to characterize the impregnant distribution on the carbon as a function of impregnant loading. Oven tests were performed to determine the thermal stability of the IAC samples exposed to elevated temperatures. The role impregnant distribution plays in gas filtration capacity and the overall performance of the IAC samples is discussed. The IAC samples prepared in this work were found to have gas filtration capacities as good as or better than broad spectrum respirator carbon samples prepared from the patent literature. IACs impregnated with an aqueous 2.4 M Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}/0.04 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}.12MoO{sub 3}/4 M HNO{sub 3} solution that were heated to 200 deg. C under argon were found to have the best overall performance of the samples studied in this work.

  1. The European source-term evaluation code ASTEC: status and applications, including CANDU plant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dorsselaere, J.P.; Giordano, P.; Kissane, M.P.; Montanelli, T.; Schwinges, B.; Ganju, S.; Dickson, L.

    2004-01-01

    Research on light-water reactor severe accidents (SA) is still required in a limited number of areas in order to confirm accident-management plans. Thus, 49 European organizations have linked their SA research in a durable way through SARNET (Severe Accident Research and management NETwork), part of the European 6th Framework Programme. One goal of SARNET is to consolidate the integral code ASTEC (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code, developed by IRSN and GRS) as the European reference tool for safety studies; SARNET efforts include extending the application scope to reactor types other than PWR (including VVER) such as BWR and CANDU. ASTEC is used in IRSN's Probabilistic Safety Analysis level 2 of 900 MWe French PWRs. An earlier version of ASTEC's SOPHAEROS module, including improvements by AECL, is being validated as the Canadian Industry Standard Toolset code for FP-transport analysis in the CANDU Heat Transport System. Work with ASTEC has also been performed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, on IPHWR containment thermal hydraulics. (author)

  2. 40 CFR 1045.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my application... Engine Families § 1045.205 What must I include in my application? This section specifies the information... system components for controlling exhaust emissions, including all auxiliary emission control devices...

  3. 40 CFR 1054.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my application... Certifying Emission Families § 1054.205 What must I include in my application? This section specifies the... controlling exhaust emissions, including all auxiliary emission control devices (AECDs) and all fuel-system...

  4. YqhD. A broad-substrate range aldehyde reductase with various applications in production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarboe, Laura R. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2011-01-15

    The Escherichia coli NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase YqhD has contributed to a variety of metabolic engineering projects for production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. As a scavenger of toxic aldehydes produced by lipid peroxidation, YqhD has reductase activity for a broad range of short-chain aldehydes, including butyraldehyde, glyceraldehyde, malondialdehyde, isobutyraldehyde, methylglyoxal, propanealdehyde, acrolein, furfural, glyoxal, 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetol. This reductase activity has proven useful for the production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals, such as isobutanol and 1,3- and 1,2-propanediol; additional capability exists for production of 1-butanol, 1-propanol, and allyl alcohol. A drawback of this reductase activity is the diversion of valuable NADPH away from biosynthesis. This YqhD-mediated NADPH depletion provides sufficient burden to contribute to growth inhibition by furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, inhibitory contaminants of biomass hydrolysate. The structure of YqhD has been characterized, with identification of a Zn atom in the active site. Directed engineering efforts have improved utilization of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde and NADPH. Most recently, two independent projects have demonstrated regulation of yqhD by YqhC, where YqhC appears to function as an aldehyde sensor. (orig.)

  5. Application of the broad-spectrum bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 to inhibit Bacillus coagulans in canned fruit and vegetable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R; Grande, M A J; Abriouel, H; Maqueda, M; Ben Omar, N; Valdivia, E; Martínez-Cañamero, M; Gálvez, A

    2006-10-01

    The enterococcal bacteriocin (enterocin) AS-48 is a broad-spectrum cyclic peptide. Enterocin AS-48 was tested against Bacillus coagulans in three vegetable canned foods: tomato paste (pH 4.64), syrup from canned peaches (pH 3.97), and juice from canned pineapple (pH 3.65). When vegetative cells of B. coagulans CECT (Spanish Type Culture Collection) 12 were inoculated in tomato paste supplemented with 6 microg/ml AS-48 and stored at different temperatures, viable cell counts were reduced by approximately 2.37 (4 degrees C), 4.3 (22 degrees C) and 3.0 (37 degrees C) log units within 24 h storage. After 15-days storage, no viable cells were detected in any sample. Strain B. coagulans CECT 561 showed a poor survival in tomato paste, but surviving cells were also killed by AS-48. The bacteriocin was also very active against B. coagulans CECT 12 vegetative cells in juice from canned pineapple stored at 22 degrees C, and slightly less active in syrup from canned peaches. In food samples supplemented with 1.5% lactic acid, enterocin AS-48 (6 microg/ml) rapidly reduced viable counts of vegetative cells below detection limits within 24 h storage. Addition of glucose and sucrose (10% and 20%) significantly increased bacteriocin activity against vegetative cells of B. coagulans CECT 12. Enterocin AS-48 had no significant effect on B. coagulans CECT 12 spores. However, the combined application of AS-48 and heat (80-95 degrees C for 5 min) significantly increased the effect of thermal treatments on spores.

  6. Application of a process-based shallow landslide hazard model over a broad area in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Eleonora; Speranza, Gabriella; Ferretti, Maurizio; Godt, Jonathan W.; Baum, Rex L.; Marincioni, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Process-based models are widely used for rainfall-induced shallow landslide forecasting. Previous studies have successfully applied the U.S. Geological Survey’s Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability (TRIGRS) model (Baum et al. 2002) to compute infiltration-driven changes in the hillslopes’ factor of safety on small scales (i.e., tens of square kilometers). Soil data input for such models are difficult to obtain across larger regions. This work describes a novel methodology for the application of TRIGRS over broad areas with relatively uniform hydrogeological properties. The study area is a 550-km2 region in Central Italy covered by post-orogenic Quaternary sediments. Due to the lack of field data, we assigned mechanical and hydrological property values through a statistical analysis based on literature review of soils matching the local lithologies. We calibrated the model using rainfall data from 25 historical rainfall events that triggered landslides. We compared the variation of pressure head and factor of safety with the landslide occurrence to identify the best fitting input conditions. Using calibrated inputs and a soil depth model, we ran TRIGRS for the study area. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, comparing the model’s output with a shallow landslide inventory, shows that TRIGRS effectively simulated the instability conditions in the post-orogenic complex during historical rainfall scenarios. The implication of this work is that rainfall-induced landslides over large regions may be predicted by a deterministic model, even where data on geotechnical and hydraulic properties as well as temporal changes in topography or subsurface conditions are not available.

  7. 30 CFR 285.906 - What must my decommissioning application include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Decommissioning Applications § 285.906 What must my decommissioning application include? You must... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must my decommissioning application...

  8. Broadly Applicable Strategy for the Fluorescence Based Detection and Differentiation of Glutathione and Cysteine/Homocysteine: Demonstration in Vitro and in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenqiang; Luo, Hongchen; Liu, Xingjiang; Foley, James W; Song, Xiangzhi

    2016-04-05

    Glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys), and homocysteine (Hcy) are small biomolecular thiols that are present in all cells and extracellular fluids of healthy mammals. It is well-known that each plays a separate, critically important role in human physiology and that abnormal levels of each are predictive of a variety of different disease states. Although a number of fluorescence-based methods have been developed that can detect biomolecules that contain sulfhydryl moieties, few are able to differentiate between GSH and Cys/Hcy. In this report, we demonstrate a broadly applicable approach for the design of fluorescent probes that can achieve this goal. The strategy we employ is to conjugate a fluorescence-quenching 7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD) moiety to a selected fluorophore (Dye) through a sulfhydryl-labile ether linkage to afford nonfluorescent NBD-O-Dye. In the presence of GSH or Cys/Hcy, the ether bond is cleaved with the concomitant generation of both a nonfluorescent NBD-S-R derivative and a fluorescent dye having a characteristic intense emission band (B1). In the special case of Cys/Hcy, the NBD-S-Cys/Hcy cleavage product can undergo a further, rapid, intramolecular Smiles rearrangement to form a new, highly fluorescent NBD-N-Cys/Hcy compound (band B2); because of geometrical constraints, the GSH derived NBD-S-GSH derivative cannot undergo a Smiles rearrangement. Thus, the presence of a single B1 or double B1 + B2 signature can be used to detect and differentiate GSH from Cys/Hcy, respectively. We demonstrate the broad applicability of our approach by including in our studies members of the Flavone, Bodipy, and Coumarin dye families. Particularly, single excitation wavelength could be applied for the probe NBD-OF in the detection of GSH over Cys/Hcy in both aqueous solution and living cells.

  9. 40 CFR 725.355 - Information to be included in the TME application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or the environment as a result of the test marketing. The TME application must be in writing and must... the microorganism as a result of test marketing, including information regarding duration and route of... for Test Marketing § 725.355 Information to be included in the TME application. (a) To review a TME...

  10. Characterization of a broad host-spectrum virulent Salmonella bacteriophage fmb-p1 and its application on duck meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changbao; Chen, Qiming; Zhang, Chong; Yang, Jie; Lu, Zhaoxin; Lu, Fengxia; Bie, Xiaomei

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to find a virulent bacteriophage for the biocontrol of Salmonella in duck meat. A broad host-spectrum virulent phage, fmb-p1, was isolated and purified from an duck farm, and its host range was determined to include S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Saintpaul, S. Agona, S. Miami, S. Anatum, S. Heidelberg and S. Paratyphi-C. Electron microscopy and genome sequencing showed that fmb-p1 belongs to the family Siphoviridae. The genome of fmb-p1 is composed of a 43,327-bp double-stranded DNA molecule with 60 open reading frames and a total G+C content of 46.09%. There are no deleterious sequences or genes encoding known harmful products in the phage fmb-p1 genome. Phage fmb-p1 was stable under different temperature (40-75°C), pH (4-10) and NaCl solutions (1-11%). The phage treatment (9.9×10 9 PFU/cm 2 ) caused a peak reduction in S. Typhimurium of 4.52 log CFU/cm 2 in ready-to-eat (RTE) duck meat, whereas potassium sorbate treatment (PS, 2mg/cm 2 ) resulted in a 0.05-0.12 log reduction. Compared to PS treatment, there was significant difference in the S. Typhimurium reduction (P˂0.05) by phage treatment at both 4°C and 25°C. The results suggested that phage could be applied to reduce Salmonella, on commercial poultry products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. DETERMINING QUASAR BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTIONS FROM THEIR BROAD EMISSION LINES: APPLICATION TO THE BRIGHT QUASAR SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Fan Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian approach to estimating quasar black hole mass functions (BHMF) using the broad emission lines to estimate black hole mass. We show how using the broad-line mass estimates in combination with statistical techniques developed for luminosity function estimation (e.g., the 1/V a correction) leads to statistically biased results. We derive the likelihood function for the BHMF based on the broad-line mass estimates, and derive the posterior distribution for the BHMF, given the observed data. We develop our statistical approach for a flexible model where the BHMF is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian functions. Statistical inference is performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, and we describe a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to perform the MCMC. The MCMC simulates random draws from the probability distribution of the BHMF parameters, given the data, and we use a simulated data set to show how these random draws may be used to estimate the probability distribution for the BHMF. In addition, we show how the MCMC output may be used to estimate the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF, such as the peak in the space density of quasars. Our method has the advantage that it is able to constrain the BHMF even beyond the survey detection limits at the adopted confidence level, accounts for measurement errors and the intrinsic uncertainty in broad-line mass estimates, and provides a natural way of estimating the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF. We conclude by using our method to estimate the local active BHMF using the z BH ∼> 10 8 M sun . Our analysis implies that at a given M BH , z < 0.5 broad-line quasars have a typical Eddington ratio of ∼0.4 and a dispersion in Eddington ratio of ∼<0.5 dex.

  12. 33 CFR 148.105 - What must I include in my application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certificate of formation; the partnership agreement or articles of association; the current by-laws; the... quarter that ends at least 30 days before submission of the application, unless it is included in the most..., for night detection. (r) Information on dedicated fixed offshore components. (1) A description and...

  13. 29 CFR 575.4 - Information to be included in application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information to be included in application. 575.4 Section 575.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAIVER OF CHILD LABOR PROVISIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT OF 10 AND 11 YEAR OLD MINORS IN HAND...

  14. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Jeffrey K; Karl, Jason W; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  15. Development of a broad-host synthetic biology toolbox for Ralstonia eutropha and its application to engineering hydrocarbon biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Changhao; Su, Peter; Müller, Jana; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chhabra, Swapnil R; Beller, Harry R; Singer, Steven W; Hillson, Nathan J

    2013-11-13

    The chemoautotrophic bacterium Ralstonia eutropha can utilize H2/CO2 for growth under aerobic conditions. While this microbial host has great potential to be engineered to produce desired compounds (beyond polyhydroxybutyrate) directly from CO2, little work has been done to develop genetic part libraries to enable such endeavors. We report the development of a toolbox for the metabolic engineering of Ralstonia eutropha H16. We have constructed a set of broad-host-range plasmids bearing a variety of origins of replication, promoters, 5' mRNA stem-loop structures, and ribosomal binding sites. Specifically, we analyzed the origins of replication pCM62 (IncP), pBBR1, pKT (IncQ), and their variants. We tested the promoters P(BAD), T7, P(xyls/PM), P(lacUV5), and variants thereof for inducible expression. We also evaluated a T7 mRNA stem-loop structure sequence and compared a set of ribosomal binding site (RBS) sequences derived from Escherichia coli, R. eutropha, and a computational RBS design tool. Finally, we employed the toolbox to optimize hydrocarbon production in R. eutropha and demonstrated a 6-fold titer improvement using the appropriate combination of parts. We constructed and evaluated a versatile synthetic biology toolbox for Ralstonia eutropha metabolic engineering that could apply to other microbial hosts as well.

  16. Highly-reliable operation of 638-nm broad stripe laser diode with high wall-plug efficiency for display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Tetsuya; Shimada, Naoyuki; Nishida, Takehiro; Mitsuyama, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Motoharu

    2013-03-01

    Laser based displays, as pico to cinema laser projectors have gathered much attention because of wide gamut, low power consumption, and so on. Laser light sources for the displays are operated mainly in CW, and heat management is one of the big issues. Therefore, highly efficient operation is necessitated. Also the light sources for the displays are requested to be highly reliable. 638 nm broad stripe laser diode (LD) was newly developed for high efficiency and highly reliable operation. An AlGaInP/GaAs red LD suffers from low wall plug efficiency (WPE) due to electron overflow from an active layer to a p-cladding layer. Large optical confinement factor (Γ) design with AlInP cladding layers is adopted to improve the WPE. The design has a disadvantage for reliable operation because the large Γ causes high optical density and brings a catastrophic optical degradation (COD) at a front facet. To overcome the disadvantage, a window-mirror structure is also adopted in the LD. The LD shows WPE of 35% at 25°C, highest record in the world, and highly stable operation at 35°C, 550 mW up to 8,000 hours without any catastrophic optical degradation.

  17. Broadly tunable, beta-barium-borate-based, pulsed optical parametric oscillators and their potential applications in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobey, Mark S.; Clark, Jim; Johnson, Bertram C.

    1995-05-01

    With the recent availability of Beta Barium Borate (BBO) crystals in useful sizes at acceptable market prices, the promise of Optical Parametric Oscillators (OPOs) becoming practical tunable systems is finally being realized. Wavelength coverage from such systems extends from 420 nm to over 2400 nm when pumped in the UV. For medical applications their usage will be limited in the near term to low repetition rates (suitable for selective absorption applications in medicine such as colored tattoo removal or treating vascular lesions. For such high energy devices peak powers necessitate the use of articulating arms for beam delivery. For high repetition rate systems, energy outputs will be in the range of 100 to 500 (mu) J at kHz frequencies (up to 1 W average power). Peak powers are low enough that fiber optic delivery is possible. These systems may find selective absorption applications in ophthalmology.

  18. Estimating Vegetation Height from WorldView-02 and ArcticDEM Data for Broad Ecological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddens, A. J.; Vierling, L. A.; Eitel, J.; Jennewein, J. S.; White, J. C.; Wulder, M.

    2017-12-01

    Boreal and arctic regions are warming at an unprecedented rate, and at a rate higher than in other regions across the globe. Ecological processes are highly responsive to temperature and therefore substantial changes in these northern ecosystems are expected. Recently, NASA initiated the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE), which is a large-scale field campaign that aims to gain a better understanding of how the arctic responds to environmental change. High-resolution data products that quantify vegetation structure and function will improve efforts to assess these environmental change impacts. Our objective was to develop and test an approach that allows for mapping vegetation height at a 5m grid cell resolution across the ABoVE domain. To accomplish this, we selected three study areas across a north-south gradient in Alaska, representing an area of approximately 130 km2. We developed a RandomForest modeling approach for predicting vegetation height using the ArcticDEM (a digital surface model produced across the Arctic by the Polar Geospatial Center) and high-resolution multispectral satellite data (WorldView-2) in conjunction with aerial lidar data for calibration and validation. Vegetation height was successfully predicted across the three study areas and evaluated using an independent dataset, with R2 ranging from 0.58 to 0.76 and RMSEs ranging from 1.8 to 2.4 m. This predicted vegetation height dataset also led to the development of a digital terrain model using the ArcticDEM digital surface model by removing canopy heights from the surface heights. Our results show potential to establish a high resolution pan-arctic vegetation height map, which will provide useful information to a broad range of ongoing and future ecological research in high northern latitudes.

  19. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge management options including long-term impacts after land application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2018-01-01

    -toxic impact categories other than freshwater eutrophication. The sensitivity analysis showed that the results were sensitive to soil and precipitation conditions. The ranking of scenarios was affected by local conditions for marine eutrophication. Overall, the present study highlighted the importance...... of including all sludge treatment stages and conducting a detailed N flow analysis, since the emission of reactive N into the environment is the major driver for almost all non-toxic impact categories....... happened. In general, the INC scenario performed better than or comparably to the scenarios with land application of the sludge. Human toxicity (non-carcinogenic) and eco-toxicity showed the highest normalised impact potentials for all the scenarios with land application. In both categories, impacts were...

  20. Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44: Lessons Learned from a Model Whole-Cell Bioreporter with a Broad Application History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary S. Sayler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Initially described in 1990, Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 served as the first whole-cell bioreporter genetically endowed with a bioluminescent (luxCDABE phenotype directly linked to a catabolic (naphthalene degradative pathway. HK44 was the first genetically engineered microorganism to be released in the field to monitor bioremediation potential. Subsequent to that release, strain HK44 had been introduced into other solids (soils, sands, liquid (water, wastewater, and volatile environments. In these matrices, it has functioned as one of the best characterized chemically-responsive environmental bioreporters and as a model organism for understanding bacterial colonization and transport, cell immobilization strategies, and the kinetics of cellular bioluminescent emission. This review summarizes the characteristics of P. fluorescens HK44 and the extensive range of its applications with special focus on the monitoring of bioremediation processes and biosensing of environmental pollution.

  1. Microwave Technology for Waste Management Applications Including Disposition of Electronic Circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of waste management and environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of hazardous components into leach resistant forms. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from the undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. One application of special interest is the treatment of discarded electronic circuitry using a new hybrid microwave treatment process and subsequent reclamation of the precious metals within

  2. Microwave technology for waste management applications including disposition of electronic circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.; Folz, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of selected components. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. Applications of microwave energy for environmental remediation will be discussed. Emphasized will be a newly developed microwave process designed to treat discarded electronic circuitry and reclaim the precious metals within for reuse

  3. Thermal Insulation System for Non-Vacuum Applications Including a Multilayer Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The thermal insulation system of the present invention is for non-vacuum applications and is specifically tailored to the ambient pressure environment with any level of humidity or moisture. The thermal insulation system includes a multilayered composite including i) at least one thermal insulation layer and at least one compressible barrier layer provided as alternating, successive layers, and ii) at least one reflective film provided on at least one surface of the thermal insulation layer and/or said compressible barrier layer. The different layers and materials and their combinations are designed to provide low effective thermal conductivity for the system by managing all modes of heat transfer. The thermal insulation system includes an optional outer casing surrounding the multilayered composite. The thermal insulation system is particularly suited for use in any sub-ambient temperature environment where moisture or its adverse effects are a concern. The thermal insulation system provides physical resilience against damaging mechanical effects including compression, flexure, impact, vibration, and thermal expansion/contraction.

  4. Liquid theory with high accuracy and broad applicability: Coupling parameter series expansion and non hard sphere perturbation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Zhou

    2011-12-01

    convergence speed of the CPSE in both the HS and non HS perturbation schemes is certainly faster than that of the HTSE and the HS perturbation scheme. (iii We illustrate applications of the CPSE TPT in both the HS and non HS perturbation schemes in calculating thermodynamic properties of various coarse-grained potential function models and as input information of other liquid state theories such as a classical density functional theory (DFT, and also discuss, in the framework of classical DFT, the potential of our CPSE scheme in several typical problems of chemical physics interest. (iv Finally, we consider several topics which are possibly expected to be settled in the immediate future and possible integration with other liquid state theory frameworks aiming to solve problems in complex fluids in both bulk and inhomogeneous states.

  5. The influence of sterilization on nitrogen-included ultrananocrystalline diamond for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Wei; Tran, Phong A.; Turnley, Ann M.; Aramesh, Morteza; Prawer, Steven; Brandt, Milan; Fox, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Diamond has shown great potential in different biomedical applications, but the effects of sterilization on its properties have not been investigated. Here, we studied the influence of five sterilization techniques (solvent cleaning, oxygen plasma, UV irradiation, autoclave and hydrogen peroxide) on nitrogen-included ultrananocrystalline diamond. The chemical modification of the diamond surface was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. Different degrees of surface oxidation and selective sp 2 bonded carbon etching were found following all sterilization techniques, resulting in an increase of hydrophilicity. Higher viabilities of in vitro mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and rat cortical neuron cells were observed on oxygen plasma, autoclave and hydrogen peroxide sterilized diamond, which correlated with their higher hydrophilicity. By examination of apatite formation in simulated body fluid, in vivo bioactivity was predicted to be best on those surfaces which have been oxygen plasma treated and lowest on those which have been exposed to UV irradiation. The charge injection properties were also altered by the sterilization process and there appears to be a correlation between these changes and the degree of oxygen termination of the surface. We find that the modification brought by autoclave, oxygen plasma and hydrogen peroxide were most consistent with the use of N-UNCD in biological applications as compared to samples sterilized by solvent cleaning or UV exposure or indeed non-sterilized. A two-step process of sterilization by hydrogen peroxide following oxygen plasma treatment was then suggested. However, the final choice of sterilization technique will depend on the intended end application. - Highlights: • We test for the first time the effect of 5 sterilization techniques on nitrogen included ultrananocrystalline diamond. • Different degrees of surface oxidation and selective sp 2 bonded carbon etching were found to

  6. The influence of sterilization on nitrogen-included ultrananocrystalline diamond for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Wei [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Tran, Phong A. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Queensland (Australia); Turnley, Ann M. [Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Aramesh, Morteza [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); School of Chemistry, Physics, and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Prawer, Steven [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Brandt, Milan [Centre for Additive Manufacturing, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Fox, Kate, E-mail: kate.fox@rmit.edu.au [Centre for Additive Manufacturing, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2016-04-01

    Diamond has shown great potential in different biomedical applications, but the effects of sterilization on its properties have not been investigated. Here, we studied the influence of five sterilization techniques (solvent cleaning, oxygen plasma, UV irradiation, autoclave and hydrogen peroxide) on nitrogen-included ultrananocrystalline diamond. The chemical modification of the diamond surface was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. Different degrees of surface oxidation and selective sp{sup 2} bonded carbon etching were found following all sterilization techniques, resulting in an increase of hydrophilicity. Higher viabilities of in vitro mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and rat cortical neuron cells were observed on oxygen plasma, autoclave and hydrogen peroxide sterilized diamond, which correlated with their higher hydrophilicity. By examination of apatite formation in simulated body fluid, in vivo bioactivity was predicted to be best on those surfaces which have been oxygen plasma treated and lowest on those which have been exposed to UV irradiation. The charge injection properties were also altered by the sterilization process and there appears to be a correlation between these changes and the degree of oxygen termination of the surface. We find that the modification brought by autoclave, oxygen plasma and hydrogen peroxide were most consistent with the use of N-UNCD in biological applications as compared to samples sterilized by solvent cleaning or UV exposure or indeed non-sterilized. A two-step process of sterilization by hydrogen peroxide following oxygen plasma treatment was then suggested. However, the final choice of sterilization technique will depend on the intended end application. - Highlights: • We test for the first time the effect of 5 sterilization techniques on nitrogen included ultrananocrystalline diamond. • Different degrees of surface oxidation and selective sp{sup 2} bonded carbon etching were

  7. The influence of sterilization on nitrogen-included ultrananocrystalline diamond for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wei; Tran, Phong A; Turnley, Ann M; Aramesh, Morteza; Prawer, Steven; Brandt, Milan; Fox, Kate

    2016-04-01

    Diamond has shown great potential in different biomedical applications, but the effects of sterilization on its properties have not been investigated. Here, we studied the influence of five sterilization techniques (solvent cleaning, oxygen plasma, UV irradiation, autoclave and hydrogen peroxide) on nitrogen-included ultrananocrystalline diamond. The chemical modification of the diamond surface was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. Different degrees of surface oxidation and selective sp(2) bonded carbon etching were found following all sterilization techniques, resulting in an increase of hydrophilicity. Higher viabilities of in vitro mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and rat cortical neuron cells were observed on oxygen plasma, autoclave and hydrogen peroxide sterilized diamond, which correlated with their higher hydrophilicity. By examination of apatite formation in simulated body fluid, in vivo bioactivity was predicted to be best on those surfaces which have been oxygen plasma treated and lowest on those which have been exposed to UV irradiation. The charge injection properties were also altered by the sterilization process and there appears to be a correlation between these changes and the degree of oxygen termination of the surface. We find that the modification brought by autoclave, oxygen plasma and hydrogen peroxide were most consistent with the use of N-UNCD in biological applications as compared to samples sterilized by solvent cleaning or UV exposure or indeed non-sterilized. A two-step process of sterilization by hydrogen peroxide following oxygen plasma treatment was then suggested. However, the final choice of sterilization technique will depend on the intended end application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitrogen-rich functional groups carbon nanoparticles based fluorescent pH sensor with broad-range responding for environmental and live cells applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bingfang; Su, Yubin; Zhang, Liangliang; Liu, Rongjun; Huang, Mengjiao; Zhao, Shulin

    2016-08-15

    A nitrogen-rich functional groups carbon nanoparticles (N-CNs) based fluorescent pH sensor with a broad-range responding was prepared by one-pot hydrothermal treatment of melamine and triethanolamine. The as-prepared N-CNs exhibited excellent photoluminesence properties with an absolute quantum yield (QY) of 11.0%. Furthermore, the N-CNs possessed a broad-range pH response. The linear pH response range was 3.0 to 12.0, which is much wider than that of previously reported fluorescent pH sensors. The possible mechanism for the pH-sensitive response of the N-CNs was ascribed to photoinduced electron transfer (PET). Cell toxicity experiment showed that the as-prepared N-CNs exhibited low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility with the cell viabilities of more than 87%. The proposed N-CNs-based pH sensor was used for pH monitoring of environmental water samples, and pH fluorescence imaging of live T24 cells. The N-CNs is promising as a convenient and general fluorescent pH sensor for environmental monitoring and bioimaging applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 49 CFR 107.709 - Processing of an application for approval, including an application for renewal or modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROGRAM PROCEDURES Approvals... before the disposition of an application. (b) At any time during the processing of an application, the...

  10. 30 CFR 203.63 - Does my application have to include all leases in the field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The Regional Director maintains a Field Names Master List with updates of all leases in each... application for all leases that are part of the designated field on the date of application, except as... eventually become part of the authorized field. Therefore, if you have any other leases that you believe may...

  11. 12 CFR 563b.150 - What must I include in my application for conversion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... legal opinion indicating that any marketing materials comply with all applicable securities laws. (4) An..., attorney, investment banker, appraiser, or other professional who prepared, reviewed, passed upon, or... requests. (b) OTS will not accept for filing, and will return, any application for conversion that is...

  12. 41 CFR 301-74.16 - What must be included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must be included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance? 301-74.16 Section 301-74.16... included in any advertisement or application form relating to conference attendance? (a) Any advertisement...

  13. The 2010 Broad Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  14. A xylanase with broad pH and temperature adaptability from Streptomyces megasporus DSM 41476, and its potential application in brewing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhenhua; Shi, Pengjun; Luo, Huiying; Bai, Yingguo; Yuan, Tiezheng; Yang, Peilong; Liu, Suchun; Yao, Bin

    2010-05-05

    A xylanase gene, xynAM6, was isolated from the genomic DNA library of Streptomyces megasporus DSM 41476 using colony PCR screening method. The 1440-bp full-length gene encodes a 479-amino acid peptide consisting of a putative signal peptide of 36 residues, a family 10 glycoside hydrolase domain and a family 2 carbohydrate-binding module. The mature peptide of xynAM6 was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The optimal pH and temperature were pH 5.5 and 70°C, respectively. The enzyme showed broad temperature adaptability (>60% of the maximum activity at 50-80°C), had good thermostability at 60°C and 70°C, remained stable at pH 4.0-11.0, and was resistant to most proteases. The Km and Vmax values for oat spelt xylan were 1.68mgml(-1) and 436.76μmolmin(-1)mg(-1), respectively, and 2.33mgml(-1) and 406.93μmolmin(-1)mg(-1) for birchwood xylan, respectively. The hydrolysis products of XYNAM6 were mainly xylose and xylobiose. Addition of XYNAM6 (80U) to the brewery mash significantly reduced the filtration rate and viscosity by 36.33% and 35.51%, respectively. These favorable properties probably make XYNAM6 a good candidate for application in brewing industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Synchrotron radiation spectroscopy including X-ray absorption spectroscopy and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Recent trends of synchrotron radiation spectroscopy, especially X-ray absorption spectroscopy for industrial applications are introduced based on our latest results for energy efficient devices such as magnetic RAM, LSI and organic FET, power generation devices such as fuel cells, and energy storage devices such as Li ion batteries. Furthermore, future prospects of spectroscopy with higher energy resolution, higher spatial resolution, higher temporal resolution and operando spectroscopy taking advantage of much brighter synchrotron radiation beam at low emittance SR rings are discussed from the view point of practical applications. (author)

  16. Included or excluded: an analysis of the application of the free, prior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... which are often conspicuously lacking during land grabbing contracts, its application in and during land grabbing might be useful to set the basis for the recognition, promotion, and enforcement of local communities' rights in Cameroon. Keywords: Cross-border insolvency; companies; list of persons who may seek a stay ...

  17. Runs 800, 813, 842 and physics runs from 18.1.77 to 21.5.77, Development of a new set-up for working line measurements including a Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum Analyser and using weak beam excitiation with broad-band noise

    CERN Document Server

    Borer, J

    1977-01-01

    Runs 800, 813, 842 and physics runs from 18.1.77 to 21.5.77, Development of a new set-up for working line measurements including a Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum Analyser and using weak beam excitiation with broad-band noise

  18. Ferroelectric crystals for photonic applications including nanoscale fabrication and characterization techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Grilli, Simonetta

    2008-01-01

    This book deals with the latest achievements in the field of ferroelectric domain engineering and characterization at micron- and nano-scale dimensions and periods. The book collects the results obtained in the last years by world scientific leaders in the field, thus providing a valid and unique overview of the state of the art and also a view to future applications of those engineered materials in the field of photonics.

  19. Modeling of Pem Fuel Cell Systems Including Controls and Reforming Effects for Hybrid Automotive Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boettner, Daisie

    2001-01-01

    .... This study develops models for a stand-alone Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, a direct-hydrogen fuel cell system including auxiliaries, and a methanol reforming fuel cell system for integration into a vehicle performance simulator...

  20. Electrodes for high-definition transcutaneous DC stimulation for applications in drug-delivery and electrotherapy, including tDCS

    OpenAIRE

    Minhas, Preet; Bansal, Varun; Patel, Jinal; Ho, Johnson S.; Diaz, Julian; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom

    2010-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation is applied in a range of biomedical applications including Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). tDCS is a non-invasive procedure where a weak direct current (

  1. Space Weather opportunities from the Swarm mission including near real time applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolle, Claudia; Floberghagen, Rune; Luehr, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Sophisticated space weather monitoring aims at nowcasting and predicting solar-terrestrial interactions because their effects on the ionosphere and upper atmosphere may seriously impact advanced technology. Operating alert infrastructures rely heavily on ground-based measurements and satellite...... these products in timely manner will add significant value in monitoring present space weather and helping to predict the evolution of several magnetic and ionospheric events. Swarm will be a demonstrator mission for the valuable application of LEO satellite observations for space weather monitoring tools....

  2. 3D printed optical phantoms and deep tissue imaging for in vivo applications including oral surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Brian Z.; Costas, Alfonso; Gaind, Vaibhav; Garcia, Jose M.; Webb, Kevin J.

    2017-03-01

    Progress in developing optical imaging for biomedical applications requires customizable and often complex objects known as "phantoms" for testing, evaluation, and calibration. This work demonstrates that 3D printing is an ideal method for fabricating such objects, allowing intricate inhomogeneities to be placed at exact locations in complex or anatomically realistic geometries, a process that is difficult or impossible using molds. We show printed mouse phantoms we have fabricated for developing deep tissue fluorescence imaging methods, and measurements of both their optical and mechanical properties. Additionally, we present a printed phantom of the human mouth that we use to develop an artery localization method to assist in oral surgery.

  3. An application in cheddar cheese manufacture for a strain of Lactococcus lactis producing a novel broad-spectrum bacteriocin, lacticin 3147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M P; Rea, M C; Hill, C; Ross, R P

    1996-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis DPC3147, a strain isolated from an Irish kefir grain, produces a bacteriocin with a broad spectrum of inhibition. The bacteriocin produced is heat stable, particularly at a low pH, and inhibits nisin-producing (Nip+) lactococci. On the basis of the observation that the nisin structural gene (nisA) does not hybridize to DPC3147 genomic DNA, the bacteriocin produced was considered novel and designated lacticin 3147. The genetic determinants which encode lacticin 3147 are contained on a 63-kb plasmid, which was conjugally mobilized to a commercial cheese starter, L. lactis subsp. cremoris DPC4268. The resultant transconjugant, DPC4275, both produces and is immune to lacticin 3147. The ability of lacticin 3147-producing lactococci to perform as cheddar cheese starters was subsequently investigated in cheesemaking trials. Bacteriocin-producing starters (which included the transconjugant strain DPC4275) produced acid at rates similar to those of commercial strains. The level of lacticin 3147 produced in cheese remained constant over 6 months of ripening and correlated with a significant reduction in the levels of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. Such results suggest that these starters provide a means of controlling developing microflora in ripened fermented products. PMID:8593062

  4. Active immunisation of horses against tetanus including the booster dose and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefman, C E

    1981-02-01

    Successful active immunisation of horses against tetanus is dependent on a number of factors of which the toxoid preparation used, its method of application and the ability of the individual horse to respond are fundamental. Two immunisation schedules using an aluminium-based toxoid preparation were examined and the protection determined by monitoring the level of antitoxin afforded by each schedule. The results obtained demonstrated that 2 doses of this toxoid are necessary to ensure 12 months protection in all horses. These results are discussed in relation to the factors involved in active immunisation against tetanus. Reference is also made to the occurrence of a transient phase of reduced levels of antitoxin following booster doses of toxoid in immunised horses during which it is considered these horses could become more susceptible to tetanus. The effect of a booster dose on immunised horses was examined and while there can be a reduction in the level of antitoxin in some immunised horses following this dose its effect is minimal, short-lived and for all practical purposes can be disregarded. The application of the booster dose in practice is also discussed.

  5. Integrative Biological Chemistry Program Includes the Use of Informatics Tools, GIS and SAS Software Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J.; Kashmar, Richard J.; Hurst, Kent; Fiedler, Frank; Gross, Catherine E.; Deol, Jasbir K.; Wilson, Alora

    2015-01-01

    Wesley College is a private, primarily undergraduate minority-serving institution located in the historic district of Dover, Delaware (DE). The College recently revised its baccalaureate biological chemistry program requirements to include a one-semester Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences course and project-based experiential learning…

  6. 40 CFR 1051.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... placed in service. If this cannot be done by simply adding a 20-centimeter extension to the exhaust pipe... describe in detail all system components for controlling exhaust emissions, including all auxiliary... requirements of § 1051.135. (l) Identify the exhaust emission standards or FELs to which you are certifying...

  7. 40 CFR 1048.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust pipe, show how to sample exhaust emissions in a way that prevents diluting the exhaust sample with... system components for controlling exhaust emissions, including all auxiliary emission control devices.... (p) Present emission data to show that you meet emission standards, as follows: (1) Present exhaust...

  8. 40 CFR 1039.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust emissions will be possible after engines are installed in equipment and placed in service. If this cannot be done by simply adding a 20-centimeter extension to the exhaust pipe, show how to sample exhaust.... Describe in detail all system components for controlling exhaust emissions, including all auxiliary...

  9. Application of OMA to an Operating Wind Turbine: now including Vibration Data from the Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tcherniak, Dmitri; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2013-01-01

    due to the rotor rotation) as well as the considerable aerodynamic damping make OMA of operating wind turbines a difficult task. While in the previous works OMA was based on data provided by sensors mounted on the wind turbine tower and nacelle, we here attempt to improve the results by instrumenting......The presented study continues the work on application of Output Only Modal Analysis (OMA) to operating wind turbines. It is known from previous studies that issues like the time-varying nature of the equations of motion of an operating wind turbine (in particular the significant harmonic components...... discusses the technical challenges regarding blade instrumentation and data acquisition, data processing applied to eliminate the time-varying nature of an operating wind turbine in the resulting eigenvalue problem and, finally, it presents and discusses the initial results....

  10. Advances in the theory and application of BSF cells. [including electrical resistivity and photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelkorn, J.; Lamneck, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The characteristics and behavior of p(+), p solar cells were investigated. The p(+), p cells were made by the removal of the n(+) surface layers from n(+), p p(+), BSF cells followed by application of a suitable contact to the resultant p(+), p structures. The open circuit voltage of p(+), p cells was found to increase with increasing 'p' bulk resistivity. The measured open circuit velocity-temperature coefficients were positive and increased with increasing resistivity. An outline of prior limitations in solar cell design is presented, and the removal of these limitations through use of BSF effects is pointed out. The study of BSF effects made feasible production of very thin high efficiency silicon cells as well as high resistivity-high efficiency cells, two desirable types of silicon cells which were previously impossible to make.

  11. Composite Coatings with Ceramic Matrix Including Nanomaterials as Solid Lubricants for Oil-Less Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posmyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical basis of manufacturing and chosen applications of composite coatings with ceramic matrix containing nanomaterials as a solid lubricant (AHC+NL. From a theoretical point of view, in order to reduce the friction coefficient of sliding contacts, two materials are required, i.e. one with a high hardness and the other with low shear strength. In case of composite coatings AHC+NL the matrix is a very hard and wear resistant anodic oxide coating (AHC whereas the solid lubricant used is the nanomaterial (NL featuring a low shear strength such as glassy carbon nanotubes (GC. Friction coefficient of cast iron GJL-350 sliding against the coating itself is much higher (0.18-0.22 than when it slides against a composite coating (0.08-0.14. It is possible to reduce the friction due to the presence of carbon nanotubes, or metal nanowires.

  12. Chemical countermeasures: Dispersants overview of dispersant use (including application) and research issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    I will attempt in twenty minutes to summarize the state of research on oil spill dispersants as I perceive it. The expertise I bring to this task includes 20 years of experience with the fate and effects of petroleum in the marine environment, including participation in the 1973 and 1981 NRC studies and three years as chairman of the NRC committee on oil spill dispersants. I More recently I served on a committee of the International Maritime Organization which reviewed the open-quotes Impact of oil and related chemicals and wastes on the marine environment.close quotes That report will be published this year. However, my statements in this paper are not made as a representative of either NRC or IMO. They are my own interpretation of scientific literature cited in the above reviews. Dispersants are chemical formulations, which include surface active agents, designed to decrease the interfacial tension between oil and water. Because the first attempts to disperse oil on a large scale, at the Torrey Canyon spill of 1967, used highly toxic degreasing agents, dispersants have an undeserved reputation for toxicity. In fact, for twenty years dispersant formulations have been developed with an emphasis on reducing their toxicity to marine life. The dispersal of oil in water has been documented in the laboratory by dozens of papers (see references in NRC 1989, pp 70-79), and in the field by dozens of studies (NRC 1989, pp 165- 193). The toxicity of commercial dispersant formulations (NRC 1989, pp 81-123) and dispersed oil (NRC 1989, pp 123-147) has been tested on a wide variety of marine organisms ranging from algae to salmonid fishes. The NRC review has been updated by the IMO/GESAMP (1992) study, but the conclusions remain unchanged

  13. Enzyme oxidation of plant galactomannans yielding biomaterials with novel properties and applications, including as delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Yves M; Merlini, Luca; Silvetti, Tiziana; Campia, Paola; Rossi, Bianca; Viani, Fiorenza; Brasca, Milena

    2018-06-01

    New biomaterials from renewable sources and the development of "functionalized biopolymers" are fields of growing industrial interest. Plant polysaccharides represent a valid alternative to traditional synthetic polymers, which are obtained from monomers of fossil, non-renewable origin. Several polysaccharides, either in their natural or chemically/biochemically modified forms, are currently employed in the biomedical, food and feed, and industrial fields, including packaging. Sustainable biochemical reactions, such as enzyme modifications of polysaccharides, open further possibilities for new product and process innovation. In the present review, we summarize the recent progress on enzyme oxidation of galactomannans (GM) from few leguminous plants (performed either with galactose oxidase or laccase) and we focus on the versatile and easily accessible laccase/TEMPO oxidative reaction. The latter causes a steep viscosity increase of GM water solutions and a transition of the gels from a viscous to an elastic form, due to formation of emiacetalic bonds and thus of internal cross-linking of the polymers. Following lyophilization of these hydrogels, stable aerogels can be obtained, which were shown to have good potential as delivery systems (DS) of actives. The active molecules tested and herewith described are polymyxin B, an antibiotic; nisin, an antimicrobial peptide; the enzymes lysozyme, protease and lipase; the mixture of the industrial microbiocides 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (CIT) and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (MIT). The advantages of such aerogel systems and the possibilities they open for future developments, including as DS, are described.

  14. Thermal enhanced vapor extraction systems: Design, application and performance prediction including contaminant behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    Soil heating technologies have been proposed as a method to accelerate contaminant removal from subsurface soils. These methods include the use of hot air, steam, conductive heaters, in-situ resistive heating and in-situ radiofrequency heating (Buettner et.al., EPA, Dev et.al., Heath et.al.). Criteria for selection of a particular soil heating technology is a complex function of contaminant and soil properties, and efficiency in energy delivery and contaminant removal technologies. The work presented here seeks to expand the understanding of the interactions of subsurface water, contaminant, heat and vacuum extraction through model predictions and field data collection. Field demonstration will involve the combination of two soil heating technologies (resistive and dielectric) with a vacuum vapor extraction system and will occur during the summer of 1994

  15. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Charles [Delta Products, Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical

  16. Applicability of a panel method, which includes nonlinear effects, to a forward-swept-wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of a lower order panel method VSAERO, to accurately predict the lift and pitching moment of a complete forward-swept-wing/canard configuration was investigated. The program can simulate nonlinear effects including boundary-layer displacement thickness, wake roll up, and to a limited extent, separated wakes. The predictions were compared with experimental data obtained using a small-scale model in the 7- by 10- Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. For the particular configuration under investigation, wake roll up had only a small effect on the force and moment predictions. The effect of the displacement thickness modeling was to reduce the lift curve slope slightly, thus bringing the predicted lift into good agreement with the measured value. Pitching moment predictions were also improved by the boundary-layer simulation. The separation modeling was found to be sensitive to user inputs, but appears to give a reasonable representation of a separated wake. In general, the nonlinear capabilities of the code were found to improve the agreement with experimental data. The usefullness of the code would be enhanced by improving the reliability of the separated wake modeling and by the addition of a leading edge separation model.

  17. Vector optimization and needle-free intradermal application of a broadly protective polyvalent influenza A DNA vaccine for pigs and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggren, Marie; Nielsen, Jens; Bragstad, Karoline

    2015-01-01

    such as the induction of cellular and humoral immunity, inherent safety and rapid production time. We have previously developed a DNA vaccine encoding selected influenza proteins of pandemic origin and demonstrated broad protective immune responses in ferrets and pigs. In this study, we evaluated our DNA vaccine......The threat posed by the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus emphasized the need for new influenza A virus vaccines inducing a broad cross-protective immune response for use in both humans and pigs. An effective and broad influenza vaccine for pigs would greatly benefit the pork industry and contribute...... to public health by diminishing the risk of emerging highly pathogenic reassortants. Current inactivated protein vaccines against swine influenza produce only short-lived immunity and have no efficacy against heterologous strains. DNA vaccines are a potential alternative with advantages...

  18. Fabrication of SWCNT-Ag nanoparticle hybrid included self-assemblies for antibacterial applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayanti Brahmachari

    Full Text Available The present article reports the development of soft nanohybrids comprising of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT included silver nanoparticles (AgNPs having superior antibacterial property. In this regard aqueous dispersing agent of carbon nanotube (CNT containing a silver ion reducing unit was synthesised by the inclusion of tryptophan and tyrosine within the backbone of the amphiphile. The dispersions were characterized spectroscopically and microscopically using TEM, AFM and Raman spectroscopy. The nanotube-nanoparticle conjugates were prepared by the in situ photoreduction of AgNO3. The phenolate residue and the indole moieties of tyrosine and tryptophan, respectively reduces the sliver ion as well as acts as stabilizing agents for the synthesized AgNPs. The nanohybrids were characterized using TEM and AFM. The antibacterial activity of the nanohybrids was studied against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella aerogenes. The SWCNT dispersions showed moderate killing ability (40-60% against Gram-positive bacteria however no antibacterial activity was observed against the Gram negative ones. Interestingly, the developed SWCNT-amphiphile-AgNP nanohybrids exhibited significant killing ability (∼90% against all bacteria. Importantly, the cell viability of these newly developed self-assemblies was checked towards chinese hamster ovarian cells and high cell viability was observed after 24 h of incubation. This specific killing of bacterial cells may have been achieved due to the presence of higher -SH containing proteins in the cell walls of the bacteria. The developed nanohybrids were subsequently infused into tissue engineering scaffold agar-gelatin films and the films similarly showed bactericidal activity towards both kinds of bacterial strains while allowing normal growth of eukaryotic cells on the surface of the films.

  19. A surplus production model including environmental effects: Application to the Senegalese white shrimp stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiaw, Modou; Gascuel, Didier; Jouffre, Didier; Thiaw, Omar Thiom

    2009-12-01

    In Senegal, two stocks of white shrimp ( Penaeusnotialis) are intensively exploited, one in the north and another in the south. We used surplus production models including environmental effects to analyse their changes in abundance over the past 10 years and to estimate their Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) and the related fishing effort ( EMSY). First, yearly abundance indices were estimated from commercial statistics using GLM techniques. Then, two environmental indices were alternatively tested in the model: the coastal upwelling intensity from wind speeds provided by the SeaWifs database and the primary production derived from satellite infrared images of chlorophyll a. Models were fitted, with or without the environmental effect, to the 1996-2005 time series. They express stock abundance and catches as functions of the fishing effort and the environmental index (when considered). For the northern stock, fishing effort and abundance fluctuate over the period without any clear trends. The model based on the upwelling index explains 64.9% of the year-to-year variability. It shows that the stock was slightly overexploited in 2002-2003 and is now close to full exploitation. Stock abundance strongly depends on environmental conditions; consequently, the MSY estimate varies from 300 to 900 tons according to the upwelling intensity. For the southern stock, fishing effort has strongly increased over the past 10 years, while abundance has been reduced 4-fold. The environment has a significant effect on abundance but only explains a small part of the year-to-year variability. The best fit is obtained using the primary production index ( R2 = 0.75), and the stock is now significantly overfished regardless of environmental conditions. MSY varies from 1200 to 1800 tons according to environmental conditions. Finally, in northern Senegal, the upwelling is highly variable from year to year and constitutes the major factor determining productivity. In the south, hydrodynamic

  20. NASTRAN thermal analyzer: Theory and application including a guide to modeling engineering problems, volume 1. [thermal analyzer manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. P.

    1977-01-01

    The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer Manual describes the fundamental and theoretical treatment of the finite element method, with emphasis on the derivations of the constituent matrices of different elements and solution algorithms. Necessary information and data relating to the practical applications of engineering modeling are included.

  1. FIBER LASER CONSTRUCTION AND THEORY INCLUDING FIBER BRAGG GRATINGS Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) and applications of gas filled PCFs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Jacob O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-08

    The principles used in fiber lasers have been around for a while but it is only within the past few years that fiber lasers have become commercially available and used in high power laser applications. This paper will focus on the basic design principles of fiber lasers, including fiber Bragg gratings, principles of operation, and forms of non-linear effects. It will describe the type and associated doping of the fiber used and difficult designs used to guide energy from the pump to the active medium. Topics covered include fiber laser design, fiber Bragg gratings, materials used, differences in quantum energy loss, thermo-optical effects, stimulated Raman scattering, Brillouin scattering, photonic crystal fibers and applications of gas filled Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs). Thanks to fiber lasers, the energy required to produce high power lasers has greatly dropped and as such we can now produce kW power using a standard 120V 15A circuit. High power laser applications are always requiring more power. The fiber laser can now deliver the greater power that these applications demand. Future applications requiring more power than can be combined using standard materials or configurations will need to be developed to overcome the high energy density and high non-linear optical scattering effects present during high power operations.

  2. Broad spectrum bioactive sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Salgado-Santos, Idalina Maria Nunes; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim

    2008-11-03

    The development of sunscreens containing reduced concentration of chemical UV filters, even though, possessing broad spectrum effectiveness with the use of natural raw materials that improve and infer UV absorption is of great interest. Due to the structural similarities between polyphenolic compounds and organic UV filters, they might exert photoprotection activity. The objective of the present research work was to develop bioactive sunscreen delivery systems containing rutin, Passiflora incarnata L. and Plantago lanceolata extracts associated or not with organic and inorganic UV filters. UV transmission of the sunscreen delivery system films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection efficacy was evaluated according to the following parameters: estimated sun protection factor (SPF); Boot's Star Rating category; UVA/UVB ratio; and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). Sunscreen delivery systems obtained SPF values ranging from 0.972+/-0.004 to 28.064+/-2.429 and bioactive compounds interacted with the UV filters positive and negatively. This behavior may be attributed to: the composition of the delivery system; the presence of inorganic UV filter and quantitative composition of the organic UV filters; and the phytochemical composition of the P. incarnata L. and P. lanceolata extracts. Among all associations of bioactive compounds and UV filters, we found that the broad spectrum sunscreen was accomplished when 1.68% (w/w) P. incarnata L. dry extract was in the presence of 7.0% (w/w) ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 2.0% (w/w) benzophenone-3 and 2.0% (w/w) TiO(2). It was demonstrated that this association generated estimated SPF of 20.072+/-0.906 and it has improved the protective defense against UVA radiation accompanying augmentation of the UVA/UVB ratio from 0.49 to 0.52 and lambda(c) from 364 to 368.6nm.

  3. Novel genus-specific broad range primers for the detection of furoviruses, hordeiviruses and rymoviruses and their application in field surveys in South-East Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Linda; Tang, Joe; Clover, Gerard R G; Spackman, Merrin E; Freeman, Angela J; Rodoni, Brendan C

    2015-03-01

    A number of viruses from the genera Furovirus, Hordeivirus and Rymovirus are known to infect and damage the four major temperate cereal crops, wheat, barley, sorghum and oats. Currently, there is no active testing in Australia for any of these viruses, which pose a significant biosecurity threat to the phytosanitary status of Australia's grains industry. To address this, broad spectrum PCR assays were developed to target virus species within the genera Furovirus, Hordeivirus and Rymovirus. Five sets of novel genus-specific primers were designed and tested in reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays against a range of virus isolates in plant virus diagnostic laboratories in both Australia and New Zealand. Three of these assays were then chosen to screen samples in a three-year survey of cereal crops in western Victoria, Australia. Of the 8900 cereal plants screened in the survey, all were tested free of furoviruses, hordeiviruses and rymoviruses. To date, there were no published genus-specific primers available for the detection of furoviruses, hordeiviruses and rymoviruses. This study shows for the first time a broad-spectrum molecular test being used in a survey for exotic grain viruses in Australia. Results from this survey provide important evidence of the use of this method to demonstrate the absence of these viruses in Victoria, Australia. The primer pairs reported here are expected to detect a wide range of virus species within the three genera. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of the spine-layer jet radiation model to outbursts in the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiak, M.; Sikora, M.; Moderski, R.

    2016-05-01

    We present a detailed Fermi/LAT data analysis for the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 120. This source has recently entered into a state of increased γ-ray activity which manifested itself in two major flares detected by Fermi/LAT in 2014 September and 2015 April with no significant flux changes reported in other wavelengths. We analyse available data focusing our attention on aforementioned outbursts. We find very fast variability time-scale during flares (of the order of hours) together with a significant γ-ray flux increase. We show that the ˜6.8 yr averaged γ-ray emission of 3C 120 is likely a sum of the external radiation Compton and the synchrotron self-Compton radiative components. To address the problem of violent γ-ray flares and fast variability we model the jet radiation dividing the jet structure into two components: the wide and relatively slow outer layer and the fast, narrow spine. We show that with the addition of the fast spine occasionally bent towards the observer we are able to explain observed spectral energy distribution of 3C 120 during flares with the Compton upscattered broad-line region and dusty torus photons as main γ-rays emission mechanism.

  5. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating...... including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... not traded on the mar-ket, and therefore there is no possibility for practical application. Broad stakeholder maximization instead in practical applications becomes satisfying certain stakeholder demands, so that the practical application will be stakeholder-owner maximization un-der constraints defined...

  6. Carbon dots with strong excitation-dependent fluorescence changes towards pH. Application as nanosensors for a broad range of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barati, Ali [Faculty of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshamsipur@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Hamid, E-mail: abd@iasbs.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-10

    In this study, preparation of novel pH-sensitive N-doped carbon dots (NCDs) using glucose and urea is reported. The prepared NCDs present strong excitation-dependent fluorescence changes towards the pH that is a new behavior from these nanomaterials. By taking advantage of this unique behavior, two separated ratiometric pH sensors using emission spectra of the NCDs for both acidic (pH 2.0 to 8.0) and basic (pH 7.0 to 14.0) ranges of pH are constructed. Additionally, by considering the entire Excitation–Emission Matrix (EEM) of NCDs as analytical signal and using a suitable multivariate calibration method, a broad range of pH from 2.0 to 14.0 was well calibrated. The multivariate calibration method was independent from the concentration of NCDs and resulted in a very low average prediction error of 0.067 pH units. No changes in the predicted pH under UV irradiation (for 3 h) and at high ionic strength (up to 2 M NaCl) indicated the high stability of this pH nanosensor. The practicality of this pH nanosensor for pH determination in real water samples was validated with good accuracy and repeatability. - Highlights: • Novel pH-sensitive carbon dots with strong FL changes towards pH are reported. • Ratiometric FL pH-sensors for both acidic and basic ranges of pH are constructed. • Multivariate calibration methods were used to calibrate a broad range of pH. • Using EEM of carbon dots and ANN, pH from 2.0 to 14.0 was well calibrated. • The pH prediction is stable even at high ionic strength up to 2 M NaCl.

  7. Broad Energy Range Neutron Spectroscopy using a Liquid Scintillator and a Proportional Counter: Application to a Neutron Spectrum Similar to that from an Improvised Nuclear Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J

    2015-09-11

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n) 3 He and D(d,n) 3 He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the 9 Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima.

  8. Carbon dots with strong excitation-dependent fluorescence changes towards pH. Application as nanosensors for a broad range of pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barati, Ali; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    In this study, preparation of novel pH-sensitive N-doped carbon dots (NCDs) using glucose and urea is reported. The prepared NCDs present strong excitation-dependent fluorescence changes towards the pH that is a new behavior from these nanomaterials. By taking advantage of this unique behavior, two separated ratiometric pH sensors using emission spectra of the NCDs for both acidic (pH 2.0 to 8.0) and basic (pH 7.0 to 14.0) ranges of pH are constructed. Additionally, by considering the entire Excitation–Emission Matrix (EEM) of NCDs as analytical signal and using a suitable multivariate calibration method, a broad range of pH from 2.0 to 14.0 was well calibrated. The multivariate calibration method was independent from the concentration of NCDs and resulted in a very low average prediction error of 0.067 pH units. No changes in the predicted pH under UV irradiation (for 3 h) and at high ionic strength (up to 2 M NaCl) indicated the high stability of this pH nanosensor. The practicality of this pH nanosensor for pH determination in real water samples was validated with good accuracy and repeatability. - Highlights: • Novel pH-sensitive carbon dots with strong FL changes towards pH are reported. • Ratiometric FL pH-sensors for both acidic and basic ranges of pH are constructed. • Multivariate calibration methods were used to calibrate a broad range of pH. • Using EEM of carbon dots and ANN, pH from 2.0 to 14.0 was well calibrated. • The pH prediction is stable even at high ionic strength up to 2 M NaCl.

  9. Application of the nuclear field theory to monopole interactions which include all the vertices of a general force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bes, D.R.; Dussel, G.G.; Liotta, R.J.; Sofia, H.M.; Broglia, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The field treatment is applied to the monopole pairing and monopole particle-hole interactions in a two-level model. All the vertices of realistic interactions appear, and the problems treated here have most of the complexities of real nuclei. Yet, the model remains sufficiently simple, so that a close comparison with the results of a (conventional) treatment in which only the fermion degrees of freedom are considered is possible. The applicability to actual physical situations appears to be feasible, both for schematic or realistic forces. The advantage of including the exchange components of the interaction in the construction of the phonon is discussed. (Auth.)

  10. Application of groundwater residence time tracers and broad screening for micro-organic contaminants in the Indo-Gangetic aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, Dan; Das, Prerona; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Petersen, Jade; Gooddy, Daren; Krishan, Gopal

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater abstracted from aquifers underlying urban centres across India provide a vital source of domestic water. Abstraction from municipal and private supplies is considerable and growing rapidly with ever increasing demand for water from expanding urban populations. This trend is set to continue. The vulnerability of deeper aquifers (typically >100 m below ground) used for domestic water to contamination migration from often heavily contaminated shallow aquifer systems has not been studies in detail in India. This paper focusses on the occurrence of micro-organic contaminants within sedimentary aquifers beneath urban centres which are intensively pumped for drinking water and domestic use. New preliminary results from a detailed case study undertaken across Varanasi, a city with an estimated population of ca. 1.5 million in Uttar Pradesh. Micro -organic groundwater quality status and evolution with depth is investigated through selection of paired shallow and deep sites across the city. These results are considered within the context of paired groundwater residence time tracers within the top 150m within the sedimentary aquifer system. Groundwater emerging contaminant results are compared with surface water quality from the Ganges which is also used for drinking water supply. Broad screening for >800 micro-organic compounds was undertaken. Age dating tools were employed to constrain and inform a conceptual model of groundwater recharge and contaminant evolution within the sedimentary aquifer system.

  11. Application of the Broad Energy Germanium detector: A technique for elucidating β-decay schemes which involve daughter nuclei with very low energy excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhart, M., E-mail: martin.venhart@savba.sk [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, SK-84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Wood, J.L. [Department of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332 (United States); Boston, A.J. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, SK-84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Cocolios, T.E. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern, en Stralingsfysica, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Harkness-Brennan, L.J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Joss, D.T.; Judson, D.S. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Kliman, J.; Matoušek, V. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, SK-84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Motyčák, Š. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, SK-812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Page, R.D.; Patel, A. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Petrík, K.; Sedlák, M.; Veselský, M. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, SK-84511 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2017-03-21

    A technique for elucidating β-decay schemes of isotopes with a large density of states at low excitation energy has been developed, in which a Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector is used in conjunction with coaxial hyper-pure germanium detectors. The power of this technique is demonstrated using the example of {sup 183}Hg decay. Mass-separated samples of {sup 183}Hg were produced by a deposition of the low-energy radioactive-ion beam delivered by the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The excellent energy resolution of the BEGe detector allowed γ-ray energies to be determined with a precision of a few tens of eV, which was sufficient for the analysis of the Rydberg-Ritz combinations (in conjunction with γ-γ coincidences) in the level scheme. The timestamped structure of the data was used for unambiguous separation of γ rays arising from the decay of {sup 183}Hg from those due to the daughter decays.

  12. Sensitivity of broad-band ground-motion simulations to earthquake source and Earth structure variations: an application to the Messina Straits (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate ground-motion variability due to different faulting approximations and crustal-model parametrizations in the Messina Straits area (Southern Italy). Considering three 1-D velocity models proposed for this region and a total of 72 different source realizations, we compute broad-band (0-10 Hz) synthetics for Mw 7.0 events using a fault plane geometry recently proposed. We explore source complexity in terms of classic kinematic (constant rise-time and rupture speed) and pseudo-dynamic models (variable rise-time and rupture speed). Heterogeneous slip distributions are generated using a Von Karman autocorrelation function. Rise-time variability is related to slip, whereas rupture speed variations are connected to static stress drop. Boxcar, triangle and modified Yoffe are the adopted source time functions. We find that ground-motion variability associated to differences in crustal models is constant and becomes important at intermediate and long periods. On the other hand, source-induced ground-motion variability is negligible at long periods and strong at intermediate-short periods. Using our source-modelling approach and the three different 1-D structural models, we investigate shaking levels for the 1908 Mw 7.1 Messina earthquake adopting a recently proposed model for fault geometry and final slip. Our simulations suggest that peak levels in Messina and Reggio Calabria must have reached 0.6-0.7 g during this earthquake.

  13. In silico and experimental methods revealed highly diverse bacteria with quorum sensing and aromatics biodegradation systems--a potential broad application on bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yili; Zeng, Yanhua; Yu, Zhiliang; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Hao; Lin, Xiuchun

    2013-11-01

    Phylogenetic overlaps between aromatics-degrading bacteria and acyl-homoserine-lactone (AHL) or autoinducer (AI) based quorum-sensing (QS) bacteria were evident in literatures; however, the diversity of bacteria with both activities had never been finely described. In-silico searching in NCBI genome database revealed that more than 11% of investigated population harbored both aromatic ring-hydroxylating-dioxygenase (RHD) gene and AHL/AI-synthetase gene. These bacteria were distributed in 10 orders, 15 families, 42 genus and 78 species. Horizontal transfers of both genes were common among them. Using enrichment and culture dependent method, 6 Sphingomonadales and 4 Rhizobiales with phenanthrene- or pyrene-degrading ability and AHL-production were isolated from marine, wetland and soil samples. Thin-layer-chromatography and gas-chromatography-mass-spectrum revealed that these Sphingomonads produced various AHL molecules. This is the first report of highly diverse bacteria that harbored both aromatics-degrading and QS systems. QS regulation may have broad impacts on aromatics biodegradation, and would be a new angle for developing bioremediation technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel process for the synthesis of 'Designed Molecular Precursor' (DMP) of thorium useful for broad application spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarika Verma; Amritphalae, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    For the first time (Patent application filed in India vide N/F No-0018NF2015) a novel process for the synthesis of 'Designed Molecular Precursor' (DMP) of thorium has been developed, which involves the unique combination of two different (dual) capping agents, one is biomolecule: Cytosine and other is non biomolecule: cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The DMP essentially consists of hybrid nanosized thorium oxalate and alkaline thorate whose application lies in the area of making thorium metal, densified thorium oxide, carbide and nitride, anhydrous thorium complexes and thorium boron silicates glasses. (author)

  15. Review of neutron activation analysis in the standardization and study of reference materials, including its application to radionuclide reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) plays a very important role in the certification of reference materials (RMs) and their characterization, including homogeneity testing. The features of the method are briefly reviewed, particularly aspects relating to its completely independent nuclear basis, its virtual freedom from blank problems, and its capacity for self-verification. This last aspect, arising from the essentially isotopic character of NAA, can be exploited by using different nuclear reactions and induced nuclides, and the possibility of employing two modes, one instrumental (nondestructive), the other radiochemical (destructive). This enables the derivation of essentially independent analytical information and the unique capacity of NAA for selfvalidation. The application of NAA to quantify natural or man-made radionuclides such as uranium, thorium, 237 Np, 129 I and 230 Th is discussed, including its advantages over conventional radiometric methods and its usefulness in providing independent data for nuclides where other confirmatory analyses are impossible, or are only recently becoming available through newer 'atom counting' techniques. Certain additional, prospective uses of NAA in the study of RMs and potential RMs are mentioned, including transmutation reactions, creation of endogenously radiolabelled matrices for production and study of RMs (such as dissolution and leaching tests, use as incorporated radiotracers for chemical recovery correction), and the possibility of molecular activation analysis for specification. (orig.)

  16. DINEOF reconstruction of clouded images including error maps – application to the Sea-Surface Temperature around Corsican Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Beckers

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an extension to the Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions (DINEOF technique which allows not only to fill in clouded images but also to provide an estimation of the error covariance of the reconstruction. This additional information is obtained by an analogy with optimal interpolation. It is shown that the error fields can be obtained with a clever rearrangement of calculations at a cost comparable to that of the interpolation itself. The method is presented on the reconstruction of sea-surface temperature in the Ligurian Sea and around the Corsican Island (Mediterranean Sea, including the calculation of inter-annual variability of average surface values and their expected errors. The application shows that the error fields are not only able to reflect the data-coverage structure but also the covariances of the physical fields.

  17. Applications of neutron activation analysis in determination of natural and man-made radionuclides, including PA-231

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, A. R.; Benedik, L.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA), being essentially an isotopic and not an elemental method of analysis, is capable of determining a number of important radionuclides of radioecological interest by transformation into another, more easily quantifiable radionuclide. The nuclear characteristics which favour this technique may be summarized in an advantage factor relative to radiometric analysis of the original radioanalyte. Well known or hardly known examples include235U,238U,232Th,230Th,129I,99Tc,237Np and231Pa; a number of these are discussed and illustrated in analysis of real samples of environmental and biological origin. In particular, determination of231Pa by RNAA was performed using both postirradiation and preseparation methods. Application of INAA to enable the use of238U and232Th as endogenous (internal) radiotracers in alpha spectrometric analyses of uranium and thorium radioisotopes in radioecological studies is described, also allowing independent data sets to be obtained for quality control.

  18. Application of Observed Precipitation in NCEP Global and Regional Data Assimilation Systems, Including Reanalysis and Land Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K. E.

    2006-12-01

    The Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) applies several different analyses of observed precipitation in both the data assimilation and validation components of NCEP's global and regional numerical weather and climate prediction/analysis systems (including in NCEP global and regional reanalysis). This invited talk will survey these data assimilation and validation applications and methodologies, as well as the temporal frequency, spatial domains, spatial resolution, data sources, data density and data quality control in the precipitation analyses that are applied. Some of the precipitation analyses applied by EMC are produced by NCEP's Climate Prediction Center (CPC), while others are produced by the River Forecast Centers (RFCs) of the National Weather Service (NWS), or by automated algorithms of the NWS WSR-88D Radar Product Generator (RPG). Depending on the specific type of application in data assimilation or model forecast validation, the temporal resolution of the precipitation analyses may be hourly, daily, or pentad (5-day) and the domain may be global, continental U.S. (CONUS), or Mexico. The data sources for precipitation include ground-based gauge observations, radar-based estimates, and satellite-based estimates. The precipitation analyses over the CONUS are analyses of either hourly, daily or monthly totals of precipitation, and they are of two distinct types: gauge-only or primarily radar-estimated. The gauge-only CONUS analysis of daily precipitation utilizes an orographic-adjustment technique (based on the well-known PRISM precipitation climatology of Oregon State University) developed by the NWS Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD). The primary NCEP global precipitation analysis is the pentad CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), which blends both gauge observations and satellite estimates. The presentation will include a brief comparison between the CMAP analysis and other global

  19. Applicability of bioanalysis of multiple analytes in drug discovery and development: review of select case studies including assay development considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2006-05-01

    The development of sound bioanalytical method(s) is of paramount importance during the process of drug discovery and development culminating in a marketing approval. Although the bioanalytical procedure(s) originally developed during the discovery stage may not necessarily be fit to support the drug development scenario, they may be suitably modified and validated, as deemed necessary. Several reviews have appeared over the years describing analytical approaches including various techniques, detection systems, automation tools that are available for an effective separation, enhanced selectivity and sensitivity for quantitation of many analytes. The intention of this review is to cover various key areas where analytical method development becomes necessary during different stages of drug discovery research and development process. The key areas covered in this article with relevant case studies include: (a) simultaneous assay for parent compound and metabolites that are purported to display pharmacological activity; (b) bioanalytical procedures for determination of multiple drugs in combating a disease; (c) analytical measurement of chirality aspects in the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and biotransformation investigations; (d) drug monitoring for therapeutic benefits and/or occupational hazard; (e) analysis of drugs from complex and/or less frequently used matrices; (f) analytical determination during in vitro experiments (metabolism and permeability related) and in situ intestinal perfusion experiments; (g) determination of a major metabolite as a surrogate for the parent molecule; (h) analytical approaches for universal determination of CYP450 probe substrates and metabolites; (i) analytical applicability to prodrug evaluations-simultaneous determination of prodrug, parent and metabolites; (j) quantitative determination of parent compound and/or phase II metabolite(s) via direct or indirect approaches; (k) applicability in analysis of multiple compounds in select

  20. Development of Constraint Force Equation Methodology for Application to Multi-Body Dynamics Including Launch Vehicle Stage Seperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Albertson, Cindy W.; Karlgaard, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this report is to develop and implement a physics based method for analysis and simulation of multi-body dynamics including launch vehicle stage separation. The constraint force equation (CFE) methodology discussed in this report provides such a framework for modeling constraint forces and moments acting at joints when the vehicles are still connected. Several stand-alone test cases involving various types of joints were developed to validate the CFE methodology. The results were compared with ADAMS(Registered Trademark) and Autolev, two different industry standard benchmark codes for multi-body dynamic analysis and simulations. However, these two codes are not designed for aerospace flight trajectory simulations. After this validation exercise, the CFE algorithm was implemented in Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) to provide a capability to simulate end-to-end trajectories of launch vehicles including stage separation. The POST2/CFE methodology was applied to the STS-1 Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) separation and Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV) separation from the Pegasus booster as a further test and validation for its application to launch vehicle stage separation problems. Finally, to demonstrate end-to-end simulation capability, POST2/CFE was applied to the ascent, orbit insertion, and booster return of a reusable two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle concept. With these validation exercises, POST2/CFE software can be used for performing conceptual level end-to-end simulations, including launch vehicle stage separation, for problems similar to those discussed in this report.

  1. 45 CFR 2516.410 - What must a community-based entity include in an application for a grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Application... Corporation in the grant application package. (c) Assurances that the applicant will— (1) Keep such records... fiscal audits and program evaluations; (2) Prior to the placement of a participant, consult with the...

  2. Broad band exciplex dye lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienes, A.; Shank, C.V.; Trozzolo, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    The disclosure is concerned with exciplex dye lasers, i.e., lasers in which the emitting species is a complex formed only from a constituent in an electronically excited state. Noting that an exciplex laser, favorable from the standpoint of broad tunability, results from a broad shift in the peak emission wavelength for the exciplex relative to the unreacted species, a desirable class resulting in such broad shift is described. Preferred classes of laser media utilizing specified resonant molecules are set forth. (auth)

  3. Applications of the conjugate gradient FFT method in scattering and radiation including simulations with impedance boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkeshli, Kasra; Volakis, John L.

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical and computational aspects related to the application of the Conjugate Gradient FFT (CGFFT) method in computational electromagnetics are examined. The advantages of applying the CGFFT method to a class of large scale scattering and radiation problems are outlined. The main advantages of the method stem from its iterative nature which eliminates a need to form the system matrix (thus reducing the computer memory allocation requirements) and guarantees convergence to the true solution in a finite number of steps. Results are presented for various radiators and scatterers including thin cylindrical dipole antennas, thin conductive and resistive strips and plates, as well as dielectric cylinders. Solutions of integral equations derived on the basis of generalized impedance boundary conditions (GIBC) are also examined. The boundary conditions can be used to replace the profile of a material coating by an impedance sheet or insert, thus, eliminating the need to introduce unknown polarization currents within the volume of the layer. A general full wave analysis of 2-D and 3-D rectangular grooves and cavities is presented which will also serve as a reference for future work.

  4. Predicting land use change on a broad area: Dyna-CLUE model application to the Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano (Campania, South Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Pindozzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-standing awareness of the environmental impact of land-use change (LUC has led scientific community to develop tools able to predict their amount and to evaluate their effect on environment, with the aim supporting policy makers in their planning activities. This paper proposes an implementation of the Dyna-CLUE (Dynamic Conversion of Land Use and its Effects model applied to the Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano, an area of Campania region, which needs interventions for environmental remediation. Future land use changes were simulated in two different scenarios developed under alternative strategies of land management: scenario 1 is a simple projection of the recent LUC trend, while scenario 2 hypothesises the introduction of no-food crops, such as poplar (Populus nigra L. and giant reed (Arundo donax L., in addition to a less impactful urban sprawl, which is one of the main issues in the study area. The overall duration of simulations was 13 years, subdivided into yearly time steps. CORINE land cover map of 2006 was used as baseline for land use change detection in the study area. Competition between different land use types is taken into account by setting the conversion elasticity, a parameter ranging from 0 to 1, according to their capital investment level. Location suitability for each land use type is based on logit model. Since no actual land use already exists for the alternative crops investigated in scenario 2, a suitability map realised through a spatial multicriteria decision analysis was used as a proxy for its land use pattern. The comparison of the land use in 2012 and scenario 1, evaluated through the application of Kappa statistics, showed a general tendency to expansion of built-up areas, with an increase of about 2400 ha (1.5% of the total surface, at the expense of agricultural land and those covered by natural vegetation. The comparison of the land use in 2012 and scenario 2 showed a less significant spread of built

  5. New Theoretical Developments in Exploring Electronically Excited States: Including Localized Configuration Interaction Singles and Application to Large Helium Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closser, Kristina Danielle

    superpositions of atomic states with surface states appearing close to the atomic excitation energies and interior states being blue shifted by up to ≈2 eV. The dynamics resulting from excitation of He_7 were subsequently explored using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). These simulations were performed with classical adiabatic dynamics coupled to a new state-following algorithm on CIS potential energy surfaces. Most clusters were found to completely dissociate and resulted in a single excited atomic state (90%), however, some trajectories formed bound, He*2 (3%), and a few yielded excited trimers (<0.5%). Comparisons were made with available experimental information on much larger clusters. Various applications of this state following algorithm are also presented. In addition to AIMD, these include excited-state geometry optimization and minimal energy path finding via the growing string method. When using state following we demonstrate that more physical results can be obtained with AIMD calculations. Also, the optimized geometries of three excited states of cytosine, two of which were not found without state following, and the minimal energy path between the lowest two singlet excited states of protonated formaldimine are offered as example applications. Finally, to address large clusters, a local variation of CIS was developed. This method exploits the properties of absolutely localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs) to limit the total number of excitations to scaling only linearly with cluster size, which results in formal scaling with the third power of the system size. The derivation of the equations and design of the algorithm are discussed in detail, and computational timings as well as a pilot application to the size dependence of the helium cluster spectrum are presented.

  6. Analytical equations for CT dose profiles derived using a scatter kernel of Monte Carlo parentage with broad applicability to CT dosimetry problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Robert L.; Boone, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge of the complete axial dose profile f(z), including its long scatter tails, provides the most complete (and flexible) description of the accumulated dose in CT scanning. The CTDI paradigm (including CTDI vol ) requires shift-invariance along z (identical dose profiles spaced at equal intervals), and is therefore inapplicable to many of the new and complex shift-variant scan protocols, e.g., high dose perfusion studies using variable (or zero) pitch. In this work, a convolution-based beam model developed by Dixon et al.[Med. Phys. 32, 3712-3728, (2005)] updated with a scatter LSF kernel (or DSF) derived from a Monte Carlo simulation by Boone [Med. Phys. 36, 4547-4554 (2009)] is used to create an analytical equation for the axial dose profile f(z) in a cylindrical phantom. Using f(z), equations are derived which provide the analytical description of conventional (axial and helical) dose, demonstrating its physical underpinnings; and likewise for the peak axial dose f(0) appropriate to stationary phantom cone beam CT, (SCBCT). The methodology can also be applied to dose calculations in shift-variant scan protocols. This paper is an extension of our recent work Dixon and Boone [Med. Phys. 37, 2703-2718 (2010)], which dealt only with the properties of the peak dose f(0), its relationship to CTDI, and its appropriateness to SCBCT. Methods: The experimental beam profile data f(z) of Mori et al.[Med. Phys. 32, 1061-1069 (2005)] from a 256 channel prototype cone beam scanner for beam widths (apertures) ranging from a = 28 to 138 mm are used to corroborate the theoretical axial profiles in a 32 cm PMMA body phantom. Results: The theoretical functions f(z) closely-matched the central axis experimental profile data 11 for all apertures (a = 28 -138 mm). Integration of f(z) likewise yields analytical equations for all the (CTDI-based) dosimetric quantities of conventional CT (including CTDI L itself) in addition to the peak dose f(0) relevant to SCBCT

  7. 45 CFR 2517.410 - What must a qualified organization include in an application for a grant or a subgrant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING... Corporation in the grant application package; and (3) Assurances that the applicant will— (i) Keep such... fiscal audits and program evaluation; (ii) Comply with the nonduplication, nondisplacement, and grievance...

  8. 34 CFR 611.2 - What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What management plan must be included in a Teacher... TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM General Provisions § 611.2 What management plan must be... appropriate, a management plan that includes a proposed multiyear workplan. (b) At a minimum, this workplan...

  9. Preliminary Data on the Safety of Phytoene- and Phytofluene-Rich Products for Human Use including Topical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Havas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The colorless carotenoids phytoene and phytofluene are comparatively understudied compounds found in common foods (e.g., tomatoes and in human plasma, internal tissues, and skin. Being naturally present in common foods, their intake at dietary levels is not expected to present a safety concern. However, since the interest in these compounds in the context of many applications is expanding, it is important to conduct studies aimed at assessing their safety. We present here results of in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies, revealing no significant cytotoxic or genotoxic potential and of short- and long-term human in vivo skin compatibility studies with phytoene- and phytofluene-rich tomato and Dunaliella salina alga extracts, showing a lack of irritancy or sensitization reactions. These results support the safe use of phytoene- and phytofluene-rich products in human topical applications.

  10. Colombia Mi Pronostico Flood Application: Updating and Improving the Mi Pronostico Flood Web Application to Include an Assessment of Flood Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushley, Stephanie; Carter, Matthew; Chiou, Charles; Farmer, Richard; Haywood, Kevin; Pototzky, Anthony, Jr.; White, Adam; Winker, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Colombia is a country with highly variable terrain, from the Andes Mountains to plains and coastal areas, many of these areas are prone to flooding disasters. To identify these risk areas NASA's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was used to construct a digital elevation model (DEM) for the study region. The preliminary risk assessment was applied to a pilot study area, the La Mosca River basin. Precipitation data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s near-real-time rainfall products as well as precipitation data from the Instituto de Hidrologia, Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales (the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies, IDEAM) and stations in the La Mosca River Basin were used to create rainfall distribution maps for the region. Using the precipitation data and the ASTER DEM, the web application, Mi Pronóstico, run by IDEAM, was updated to include an interactive map which currently allows users to search for a location and view the vulnerability and current weather and flooding conditions. The geospatial information was linked to an early warning system in Mi Pronóstico that can alert the public of flood warnings and identify locations of nearby shelters.

  11. Novel alginate-based nanocarriers as a strategy to include high concentrations of hydrophobic compounds in hydrogels for topical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, H T P; Munnier, E; Souce, M; Perse, X; David, S; Bonnier, F; Cohen-Jonathan, S; Chourpa, I; Vial, F; Yvergnaux, F; Perrier, T

    2015-01-01

    The cutaneous penetration of hydrophobic active molecules is of foremost concern in the dermatology and cosmetic formulation fields. The poor solubility in water of those molecules limits their use in hydrophilic forms such as gels, which are favored by patients with chronic skin disease. The aim of this work is to design a novel nanocarrier of hydrophobic active molecules and to determine its potential as an ingredient of a topical form. The nanocarrier consists of an oily core surrounded by a protective shell of alginate, a natural polysaccharide isolated from brown algae. These calcium alginate-based nanocarriers (CaANCs) were prepared at room temperature and without the use of organic solvent by an accelerated nanoemulsification-polymer crosslinking method. The size (hydrodynamic diameter ∼200 nm) and surface charge (zeta potential ∼ − 30 mV) of the CaANCs are both compatible with their application on skin. CaANCs loaded with a fluorescent label were stable in model hydrophilic galenic forms under different storage conditions. Curcumin was encapsulated in CaANCs with an efficiency of ∼95%, fully retaining its antioxidant activity. The application of the curcumin-loaded CaANCs on excised human skin led to a significant accumulation of the active molecules in the upper layers of the skin, asserting the potential of these nanocarriers in active pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients topical delivery. (paper)

  12. Novel alginate-based nanocarriers as a strategy to include high concentrations of hydrophobic compounds in hydrogels for topical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. T. P.; Munnier, E.; Souce, M.; Perse, X.; David, S.; Bonnier, F.; Vial, F.; Yvergnaux, F.; Perrier, T.; Cohen-Jonathan, S.; Chourpa, I.

    2015-06-01

    The cutaneous penetration of hydrophobic active molecules is of foremost concern in the dermatology and cosmetic formulation fields. The poor solubility in water of those molecules limits their use in hydrophilic forms such as gels, which are favored by patients with chronic skin disease. The aim of this work is to design a novel nanocarrier of hydrophobic active molecules and to determine its potential as an ingredient of a topical form. The nanocarrier consists of an oily core surrounded by a protective shell of alginate, a natural polysaccharide isolated from brown algae. These calcium alginate-based nanocarriers (CaANCs) were prepared at room temperature and without the use of organic solvent by an accelerated nanoemulsification-polymer crosslinking method. The size (hydrodynamic diameter ˜200 nm) and surface charge (zeta potential ˜ - 30 mV) of the CaANCs are both compatible with their application on skin. CaANCs loaded with a fluorescent label were stable in model hydrophilic galenic forms under different storage conditions. Curcumin was encapsulated in CaANCs with an efficiency of ˜95%, fully retaining its antioxidant activity. The application of the curcumin-loaded CaANCs on excised human skin led to a significant accumulation of the active molecules in the upper layers of the skin, asserting the potential of these nanocarriers in active pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients topical delivery.

  13. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 6 and 7: Work and Energy; Applications of Newton's Laws].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  14. NASTRAN thermal analyzer: Theory and application including a guide to modeling engineering problems, volume 2. [sample problem library guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A sample problem library containing 20 problems covering most facets of Nastran Thermal Analyzer modeling is presented. Areas discussed include radiative interchange, arbitrary nonlinear loads, transient temperature and steady-state structural plots, temperature-dependent conductivities, simulated multi-layer insulation, and constraint techniques. The use of the major control options and important DMAP alters is demonstrated.

  15. Locking device of a guiding ring on a plate including an aperture; application to guide tube of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauquelin, C.; Poitrenaud, P.

    1987-01-01

    To make easy to take to pieces a guide tube, by a simple tool, this device includes a guide ring. This guide ring aligned with an aperture in a plate has a tubular support fixed to the plate and coaxial with the aperture and lock the guide tube by rotation [fr

  16. Non-mechanical optical path switching and its application to dual beam spectroscopy including gas filter correlation radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor); Wang, Liang-Guo (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A non-mechanical optical switch is developed for alternately switching a monochromatic or quasi-monochromatic light beam along two optical paths. A polarizer polarizes light into a single, e.g., vertical component which is then rapidly modulated into vertical and horizontal components by a polarization modulator. A polarization beam splitter then reflects one of these components along one path and transmits the other along the second path. In the specific application of gas filter correlation radiometry, one path is directed through a vacuum cell and one path is directed through a gas correlation cell containing a desired gas. Reflecting mirrors cause these two paths to intersect at a second polarization beam splitter which reflects one component and transmits the other to recombine them into a polarization modulated beam which can be detected by an appropriate single sensor.

  17. Studies and analyses of the management of scientific research and development, including implementation and application at NASA centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    Summary results obtained through the Program of Research on the Management of Research and Development (POMRAD) were presented. The nature of the overall program and the specific projects undertaken were described. Statistical data is also given concerning the papers, publications, people, and major program areas associated with the program. The actual list of papers, names of doctoral and masters theses, and other details of the program are included as appendices.

  18. [Anatomical study and clinical application of a leg flap pedicle-included with cutaneous nerve and its concomitant vessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Hao, X; Goan, M

    2000-05-01

    To investigate the blood supply patterns and the clinical liability of a leg flap pedicle-included with cutaneous nerve and its concomitant vessels. Fresh cadaver legs with thirty-two in infants and two in adults were anatomically examined after the intravenous injection of the red Chlorinated Poly Vingl Choride (CPVC). Five patients with the soft tissue defects were selected for the treatment with the flap pedicle-included with the cutaneous nerve and its concomitant vessels. Four main cutaneous nerves were found in the leg after they perforated the deep fascia out. They were companioned with their concomitant vessels with different blood-supply pateeerns, which the upper part of the leg was in an axial pattern and the lower part was in a "chain-type anastomosing" pattern. Following the above-mentioned findings, five cases were successfully treated with this led flap. The leg flap should be designed along the cutaneous nerve and its concomitant vessels. When the flap is applied in the area of blood supply with "chain-type anastomosing" pattern, the deep fascia should also be included in the flap.

  19. Applications of EDGAR. Including a description of EDGAR 3.2. Reference database with trend data for 1970-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.G.J.; Peters, J.A.H.W.; Bakker, J.; Berdowski, J.J.; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Bloos, J.P.J.

    2002-01-01

    EDGAR 2.0 (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research) provided global annual emissions for 1990 of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O and precursor gases CO, NOx, NMVOC and SO2 both per region and on a 1 degrees x 1degrees grid. Similar inventories were compiled for a number of CFCs, halons and methyl bromide, methyl chloroform. This report discusses the applications of EDGAR 2.0 over the last couple of years as well as the validation and uncertainty analysis carried out. About 700 users have downloaded EDGAR 2.0 data during the last 24 year. In addition, the approach taken to compile EDGAR 3.0 is discussed: update and extension from 1990 to 1995 for all gases and extended time series for direct greenhouse gases to 1970-1995 and inclusion of the new 'Kyoto' greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs, SF6. Selected time profiles for the seasonality of anthropogenic sources are also discussed. The work is linked into and part of the Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) of IGBP/IGAC

  20. Biomechanical analysis of a salt-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel for knee meniscus applications, including comparison with human donor samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jennifer C; Curley, Colin; Tierney, Paul; Kennedy, James E

    2016-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was the biomechanical analysis of a salt-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel, in order to assess its potential for use as an artificial meniscal implant. Aqueous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was treated with a sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) solution to precipitate out the polyvinyl alcohol resulting in a pliable hydrogel. The freeze-thaw process, a strictly physical method of crosslinking, was employed to crosslink the hydrogel. Development of a meniscal shaped mould and sample housing unit allowed the production of meniscal shaped hydrogels for direct comparison to human meniscal tissue. Results obtained show that compressive responses were slightly higher in PVA/Na2SO4 menisci, displaying maximum compressive loads of 2472N, 2482N and 2476N for samples having undergone 1, 3 and 5 freeze-thaw cycles respectively. When compared to the human meniscal tissue tested under the same conditions, an average maximum load of 2467.5N was observed. This suggests that the PVA/Na2SO4 menisci are mechanically comparable to the human meniscus. Biocompatibility analysis of PVA/Na2SO4 hydrogels revealed no acute cytotoxicity. The work described herein has innovative potential in load bearing applications, specifically as an alternative to meniscectomy as replacement of critically damaged meniscal tissue in the knee joint where repair is not viable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mathematical multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including mitral valve dynamics. Application to ischemic mitral insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen Marie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Valve dysfunction is a common cardiovascular pathology. Despite significant clinical research, there is little formal study of how valve dysfunction affects overall circulatory dynamics. Validated models would offer the ability to better understand these dynamics and thus optimize diagnosis, as well as surgical and other interventions. Methods A cardiovascular and circulatory system (CVS model has already been validated in silico, and in several animal model studies. It accounts for valve dynamics using Heaviside functions to simulate a physiologically accurate "open on pressure, close on flow" law. However, it does not consider real-time valve opening dynamics and therefore does not fully capture valve dysfunction, particularly where the dysfunction involves partial closure. This research describes an updated version of this previous closed-loop CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve, and is defined over the full cardiac cycle. Results Simulations of the cardiovascular system with healthy mitral valve are performed, and, the global hemodynamic behaviour is studied compared with previously validated results. The error between resulting pressure-volume (PV loops of already validated CVS model and the new CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve is assessed and remains within typical measurement error and variability. Simulations of ischemic mitral insufficiency are also performed. Pressure-Volume loops, transmitral flow evolution and mitral valve aperture area evolution follow reported measurements in shape, amplitude and trends. Conclusions The resulting cardiovascular system model including mitral valve dynamics provides a foundation for clinical validation and the study of valvular dysfunction in vivo. The overall models and results could readily be generalised to other cardiac valves.

  2. Computation of transverse muon-spin relaxation functions including trapping-detrapping reactions, with application to electron-irradiated tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, K.P.; Aurenz, T.; Herlach, D.; Schaefer, H.E.; Arnold, K.P.; Jacobs, W.; Orth, H.; Haas, N.; Seeger, A.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart

    1986-01-01

    A new technique for the economical evaluation of transverse muon spin relaxation functions in situations involving μ + trapping at and detrapping from crystal defects is applied to electron-irradiated Ta exhibiting relaxation maxima at about 35 K, 100 K, and 250 K. The long-range μ + diffusion is shown to be limted by traps over the entire temperature range investigated. The (static) relaxation rates for several possible configurations of trapped muons are discussed, including the effect of the simultaneous presence of a proton in a vacancy. (orig.)

  3. Two-stage robust UC including a novel scenario-based uncertainty model for wind power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Miranda, Eduardo; Campos-Valdés, Camilo; Rahmann, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Methodological framework for obtaining Robust Unit Commitment (UC) policies. • Wind-power forecast using a revisited bootstrap predictive inference approach. • Novel scenario-based model for wind-power uncertainty. • Efficient modeling framework for obtaining nearly optimal UC policies in reasonable time. • Effective incorporation of wind-power uncertainty in the UC modeling. - Abstract: The complex processes involved in the determination of the availability of power from renewable energy sources, such as wind power, impose great challenges in the forecasting processes carried out by transmission system operators (TSOs). Nowadays, many of these TSOs use operation planning tools that take into account the uncertainty of the wind-power. However, most of these methods typically require strict assumptions about the probabilistic behavior of the forecast error, and usually ignore the dynamic nature of the forecasting process. In this paper a methodological framework to obtain Robust Unit Commitment (UC) policies is presented; such methodology considers a novel scenario-based uncertainty model for wind power applications. The proposed method is composed by three main phases. The first two phases generate a sound wind-power forecast using a bootstrap predictive inference approach. The third phase corresponds to modeling and solving a one-day ahead Robust UC considering the output of the first phase. The performance of proposed approach is evaluated using as case study a new wind farm to be incorporated into the Northern Interconnected System (NIS) of Chile. A projection of wind-based power installation, as well as different characteristic of the uncertain data, are considered in this study

  4. A Novel GH7 Endo-β-1,4-Glucanase from Neosartorya fischeri P1 with Good Thermostability, Broad Substrate Specificity and Potential Application in the Brewing Industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liu

    Full Text Available An endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene, cel7A, was cloned from the thermophilic cellulase-producing fungus Neosartorya fischeri P1 and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The 1,410-bp full-length gene encodes a polypeptide of 469 amino acids consisting of a putative signal peptide at residues 1-20, a catalytic domain of glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GH7, a short Thr/Ser-rich linker and a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM 1. The purified recombinant Cel7A had pH and temperature optima of pH 5.0 and 60°C, respectively, and showed broad pH adaptability (pH 3.0-6.0 and excellent stability at pH3.0-8.0 and 60°C. Belonging to the group of nonspecific endoglucanases, Cel7A exhibited the highest activity on barley β-glucan (2020 ± 9 U mg-1, moderate on lichenan and CMC-Na, and weak on laminarin, locust bean galactomannan, Avicel, and filter paper. Under simulated mashing conditions, addition of Cel7A (99 μg reduced the mash viscosity by 9.1% and filtration time by 24.6%. These favorable enzymatic properties make Cel7A as a good candidate for applications in the brewing industry.

  5. Sound propagation in narrow tubes including effects of viscothermal and turbulent damping with application to charge air coolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Magnus; Åbom, Mats

    2009-02-01

    Charge air coolers (CACs) are used on turbocharged internal combustion engines to enhance the overall gas-exchange performance. The cooling of the charged air results in higher density and thus volumetric efficiency. It is also important for petrol engines that the knock margin increases with reduced charge air temperature. A property that is still not very well investigated is the sound transmission through a CAC. The losses, due to viscous and thermal boundary layers as well as turbulence, in the narrow cooling tubes result in frequency dependent attenuation of the transmitted sound that is significant and dependent on the flow conditions. Normally, the cross-sections of the cooling tubes are neither circular nor rectangular, which is why no analytical solution accounting for a superimposed mean flow exists. The cross-dimensions of the connecting tanks, located on each side of the cooling tubes, are large compared to the diameters of the inlet and outlet ducts. Three-dimensional effects will therefore be important at frequencies significantly lower than the cut-on frequencies of the inlet/outlet ducts. In this study the two-dimensional finite element solution scheme for sound propagation in narrow tubes, including the effect of viscous and thermal boundary layers, originally derived by Astley and Cummings [Wave propagation in catalytic converters: Formulation of the problem and finite element scheme, Journal of Sound and Vibration 188 (5) (1995) 635-657] is used to extract two-ports to represent the cooling tubes. The approximate solutions for sound propagation, accounting for viscothermal and turbulent boundary layers derived by Dokumaci [Sound transmission in narrow pipes with superimposed uniform mean flow and acoustic modelling of automobile catalytic converters, Journal of Sound and Vibration 182 (5) (1995) 799-808] and Howe [The damping of sound by wall turbulent shear layers, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 98 (3) (1995) 1723-1730], are

  6. A broad view of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F T

    2007-01-01

    In the mind of the general public, the words "arsenic" and "poison" have become almost synonymous. Yet, As is a natural metallic element found in low concentrations in virtually every part of the environment, including foods. Mining and smelting activities are closely associated with As, and the largest occurrence of As contamination in the United States is near the gold mines of northern Nevada. Inhabitants of Bangladesh and surrounding areas have been exposed to water that is naturally and heavily contaminated with As, causing what the World Health Organization has described as the worst mass poisoning in history. Although readily absorbed by humans, most inorganic As (>90%) is rapidly cleared from the blood with a half-life of 1 to 2 h, and 40 to 70% of the As intake is absorbed, metabolized, and excreted within 48 h. Arsenic does not appreciably bioaccumulate, nor does it biomagnify in the food chain. The United States has for some time purchased more As than any other country in the world, but As usage is waning, and further reductions appear likely. Arsenic is used in a wide variety of industrial applications, from computers to fireworks. All feed additives used in US poultry feeds must meet the strict requirements of the US Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine (Rockville, MD) before use. Although some public health investigators have identified poultry products as a potentially significant source of total As exposure for Americans, studies consistently demonstrate that perception issue.

  7. Broad-band beam buncher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, D.A.; Flood, W.S.; Arthur, A.A.; Voelker, F.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a broad-band beam buncher. This beam buncher consists of: a housing adapted to be eacuated, an electron gun in the housing for producing a beam of electrons, buncher means in the housing forming a buncher cavity which has an entrance opening for receiving the electron beam and an exit opening through which the electron beam passes out of the buncher cavity, a drift tube electrode in the buncher cavity and disposed between the entrance opening and the exit opening with first and second gaps between the drift tube electrode and the entrance and exit openings, the drift tube electrode which has a first drift space through which the electron beam passes in traveling between the entrance and exit openings, modulating means for supplying an ultrahigh frequeny modulating signal to the drift tube electrode for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the electron beam as the electrons pass through the buncher cavity and the drift tube electrode between the entrance opening and the exit opening, drift space means in the housing forming a second drift space for receiving the velocity modulated electron beam from the exit opening, the velocity modulated electron beam being bunched as it passes along the second drift space, the drift space means has a discharge opening through which the electron beam is discharged from the second drift space after being bunched therein, the modulating means containing a signal source for producing an ultrahigh frequency signal, a transmission line connected between the signal source and the drift tube electrode, and terminating means connected to the drift tube electrode for terminating the transmission line in approximately its characteristic impedance to afford a broad response band with minimum 6 variations therein

  8. Towards HIV-1 remission: potential roles for broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-02-01

    Current antiretroviral drug therapies do not cure HIV-1 because they do not eliminate a pool of long-lived cells harboring immunologically silent but replication-competent proviruses - termed the latent reservoir. Eliminating this reservoir and stimulating the immune response to control infection in the absence of therapy remain important but unsolved goals of HIV-1 cure research. Recently discovered broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) exhibit remarkable breadth and potency in their ability to neutralize HIV-1 in vitro, and recent studies have demonstrated new therapeutic applications for passively administered bNAbs in vivo. This Review discusses the roles bNAbs might play in HIV-1 treatment regimens, including prevention, therapy, and cure.

  9. Preface of "The Second Symposium on Border Zones Between Experimental and Numerical Application Including Solution Approaches By Extensions of Standard Numerical Methods"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortleb, Sigrun; Seidel, Christian

    2017-07-01

    In this second symposium at the limits of experimental and numerical methods, recent research is presented on practically relevant problems. Presentations discuss experimental investigation as well as numerical methods with a strong focus on application. In addition, problems are identified which require a hybrid experimental-numerical approach. Topics include fast explicit diffusion applied to a geothermal energy storage tank, noise in experimental measurements of electrical quantities, thermal fluid structure interaction, tensegrity structures, experimental and numerical methods for Chladni figures, optimized construction of hydroelectric power stations, experimental and numerical limits in the investigation of rain-wind induced vibrations as well as the application of exponential integrators in a domain-based IMEX setting.

  10. 78 FR 20119 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0042] Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY... concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DHS previously published this ICR in the Federal Register on August... across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on the...

  11. Broad-range PCR: past, present, or future of bacteriology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renvoisé, A; Brossier, F; Sougakoff, W; Jarlier, V; Aubry, A

    2013-08-01

    PCR targeting the gene encoding 16S ribosomal RNA (commonly named broad-range PCR or 16S PCR) has been used for 20 years as a polyvalent tool to study prokaryotes. Broad-range PCR was first used as a taxonomic tool, then in clinical microbiology. We will describe the use of broad-range PCR in clinical microbiology. The first application was identification of bacterial strains obtained by culture but whose phenotypic or proteomic identification remained difficult or impossible. This changed bacterial taxonomy and allowed discovering many new species. The second application of broad-range PCR in clinical microbiology is the detection of bacterial DNA from clinical samples; we will review the clinical settings in which the technique proved useful (such as endocarditis) and those in which it did not (such as characterization of bacteria in ascites, in cirrhotic patients). This technique allowed identifying the etiological agents for several diseases, such as Whipple disease. This review is a synthesis of data concerning the applications, assets, and drawbacks of broad-range PCR in clinical microbiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Broad ion beam serial section tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, B., E-mail: b.winiarski@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Gholinia, A. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mingard, K.; Gee, M. [Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E.; Withers, P.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    and compare for the first time the application of Broad Ion Beams (BIBs) using the Gatan PECS and Ilion systems for large volume serial sectioning and 3D-EBSD data acquisition. • Volumetric data registration schemes usually assume that the data comprises a series of parallel, planar slices. We quantify the variations in slice thickness and parallelity which can arise when using BIB systems. • Raw 3D-EBSD data is affected by distortions and artefacts arising from serial sectioning such that quantitative analyses and visualisation can give misleading and erroneous results. Addressing and correcting these issues offer real benefits in understanding microstructures reconstructed by 3D-EBSD.

  13. A broad view of model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.

    1989-10-01

    The safety assessment of a nuclear waste repository requires the use of models. Such models need to be validated to ensure, as much as possible, that they are a good representation of the actual processes occurring in the real system. In this paper we attempt to take a broad view by reviewing step by step the modeling process and bringing out the need to validating every step of this process. This model validation includes not only comparison of modeling results with data from selected experiments, but also evaluation of procedures for the construction of conceptual models and calculational models as well as methodologies for studying data and parameter correlation. The need for advancing basic scientific knowledge in related fields, for multiple assessment groups, and for presenting our modeling efforts in open literature to public scrutiny is also emphasized. 16 refs

  14. A method for energy window optimization for quantitative tasks that includes the effects of model-mismatch on bias: application to Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Xing; Du Yong; Frey, Eric C

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of 90 Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for 90 Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure of merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as 90 Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In 90 Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were derived for

  15. A method for energy window optimization for quantitative tasks that includes the effects of model-mismatch on bias: application to Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xing; Du, Yong; Frey, Eric C

    2012-06-21

    Quantitative Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of (90)Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for (90)Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure of merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as (90)Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In (90)Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were

  16. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  17. 77 FR 50144 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0042] Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY... Information Collection Request: 1670-NEW. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National... (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). NPPD is soliciting comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder...

  18. 76 FR 34087 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2011-0027] Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY... Information Collection Request: 1670-NEW. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National... (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). NPPD is soliciting comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder...

  19. Update on the Human Broad Tapeworm (Genus Diphyllobothrium), Including Clinical Relevance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; García, H. H.; Kuchta, Roman; Wicht, B.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2009), s. 146-160 ISSN 0893-8512 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GA524/08/0885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cestoda * D. latum * zoonosis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 14.691, year: 2009

  20. Molecular evolution of broadly neutralizing Llama antibodies to the CD4-binding site of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Laura E; Rutten, Lucy; Frampton, Dan; Anderson, Ian; Granger, Luke; Bashford-Rogers, Rachael; Dekkers, Gillian; Strokappe, Nika M; Seaman, Michael S; Koh, Willie; Grippo, Vanina; Kliche, Alexander; Verrips, Theo; Kellam, Paul; Fassati, Ariberto; Weiss, Robin A

    2014-12-01

    To date, no immunization of humans or animals has elicited broadly neutralizing sera able to prevent HIV-1 transmission; however, elicitation of broad and potent heavy chain only antibodies (HCAb) has previously been reported in llamas. In this study, the anti-HIV immune responses in immunized llamas were studied via deep sequencing analysis using broadly neutralizing monoclonal HCAbs as a guides. Distinct neutralizing antibody lineages were identified in each animal, including two defined by novel antibodies (as variable regions called VHH) identified by robotic screening of over 6000 clones. The combined application of five VHH against viruses from clades A, B, C and CRF_AG resulted in neutralization as potent as any of the VHH individually and a predicted 100% coverage with a median IC50 of 0.17 µg/ml for the panel of 60 viruses tested. Molecular analysis of the VHH repertoires of two sets of immunized animals showed that each neutralizing lineage was only observed following immunization, demonstrating that they were elicited de novo. Our results show that immunization can induce potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies in llamas with features similar to human antibodies and provide a framework to analyze the effectiveness of immunization protocols.

  1. High Temperature Superconductors: From Delivery to Applications (Presentation from 2011 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award-winner, Dr. Amit Goyal, and including introduction by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Amit Goyal, a high temperature superconductivity (HTS) researcher at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was named a 2011 winner of the Department of Energy's Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award honoring U.S. scientists and engineers for exceptional contributions in research and development supporting DOE and its mission. Winner of the award in the inaugural category of Energy Science and Innovation, Dr. Goyal was cited for his work in 'pioneering research and transformative contributions to the field of applied high temperature superconductivity, including fundamental materials science advances and technical innovations enabling large-scale applications of these novel materials.' Following his basic research in grain-to-grain supercurrent transport, Dr. Goyal focused his energy in transitioning this fundamental understanding into cutting-edge technologies. Under OE sponsorship, Dr. Goyal co-invented the Rolling Assisted Bi-Axially Textured Substrate technology (RABiTS) that is used as a substrate for second generation HTS wires. OE support also led to the invention of Structural Single Crystal Faceted Fiber Substrate (SSIFFS) and the 3-D Self Assembly of Nanodot Columns. These inventions and associated R and D resulted in 7 R and D 100 Awards including the 2010 R and D Magazine's Innovator of the Year Award, 3 Federal Laboratory Consortium Excellence in Technology Transfer National Awards, a DOE Energy100 Award and many others. As a world authority on HTS materials, Dr. Goyal has presented OE-sponsored results in more than 150 invited talks, co-authored more than 350 papers and is a fellow of 7 professional societies.

  2. Modeling the fields of magneto-optical devices, including fringe field effects and higher order multipole contributions, with application to charged particle optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. G. M. Trines

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the calculation of the magnetic field of beam guiding elements is presented. The method relates the calculation to measurement data of the magnetic field in a direct way. It can be applied to single beam guiding elements as well as to clusters of elements. The presented description of the magnetic field differs from the classical approach in that it does not rely on power series approximations. It is also both divergence free and curl free, and takes fringe field effects up to any desired order into account. In the field description, pseudodifferential operators described by Bessel functions are used to obtain the various multipole contributions. Magnetic field data on a two-dimensional surface, e.g., a cylindrical surface or median plane, serve as input for the calculation of the three-dimensional magnetic field. A boundary element method is presented to fit the fields to a discrete set of field data, obtained, for instance, from field measurements, on the two-dimensional surface. Relative errors in the field approximation do not exceed the maximal relative errors in the input data. Methods for incorporating the obtained field in both analytical and numerical computation of transfer functions are outlined. Applications include easy calculation of the transfer functions of clusters of beam guiding elements and of generalized field gradients for any multipole contribution up to any order.

  3. Improved application of the electrophoretic tissue clearing technology, CLARITY, to intact solid organs including brain, pancreas, liver, kidney, lung, and intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunsu; Park, Jae-Hyung; Seo, Incheol; Park, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Shin

    2014-12-21

    Mapping of tissue structure at the cellular, circuit, and organ-wide scale is important for understanding physiological and biological functions. A bio-electrochemical technique known as CLARITY used for three-dimensional anatomical and phenotypical mapping within transparent intact tissues has been recently developed. This method provided a major advance in understanding the structure-function relationships in circuits of the nervous system and organs by using whole-body clearing. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to improve the original CLARITY procedure and developed specific CLARITY protocols for various intact organs. We determined the optimal conditions for reducing bubble formation, discoloration, and depositing of black particles on the surface of tissue, which allowed production of clearer organ images. We also determined the appropriate replacement cycles of clearing solution for each type of organ, and convincingly demonstrated that 250-280 mA is the ideal range of electrical current for tissue clearing. We then acquired each type of cleared organs including brain, pancreas, liver, lung, kidney, and intestine. Additionally, we determined the images of axon fibers of hippocampal region, the Purkinje layer of cerebellum, and vessels and cellular nuclei of pancreas. CLARITY is an innovative biochemical technology for the structural and molecular analysis of various types of tissue. We developed improved CLARITY methods for clearing of the brain, pancreas, lung, intestine, liver, and kidney, and identified the appropriate experimental conditions for clearing of each specific tissue type. These optimized methods will be useful for the application of CLARITY to various types of organs.

  4. Valuing and timing R and D using a real options pricing framework; including an application to the development of Lunar Helium-3 fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation uses the real options framework to study the valuation and optimal investment policies for R and D projects. The models developed integrate and extend the literature by taking into account the unique characteristics of such projects including uncertain investment in R and D, time-to-build, and multiple investment opportunities. The models were developed to examine the optimal R and D investment policy for the Lunar Helium-3 fusion project but have general applicability. Models are development which model R and D investment as an information gathering process where R and D investment remaining changes as investment is expended. The value of the project increased as the variance of required investment increases. An extension of this model combines a stochastic benefit with stochastic investment. Both the value of the R and D project and the region prescribing continued investment increased. The policy implications are significant: When uncertainty of R and D investment is ignored, the value of the project is underestimated and a tendency toward underinvestment in R and D will result; the existence of uncertainty in R and D investment will cause R and D projects to experience larger declines in value before discontinuation of investment. The model combining stochastic investment with the stochastic benefit is applied to the Lunar Helium-3 fusion project. Investment in fusion should continue at the maximum level of $1 billion annually given current levels of costs of alternative fuels and the perceived uncertainty of R and D investment in the project. A model is developed to examine the valuation and optimal split of funding between R and D projects when there are two competing new technologies. Without interaction between research expenditures and benefits across technologies, the optimal investment strategy is to invest in one or the other technology or neither. The multiple technology model is applied to analyze competing R and D projects, namely

  5. Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications - including criteria for Sb and As; Miljoeriktlinjer foer askanvaendning i anlaeggningsbyggande - inklusive haltkriterier foer Sb och As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, David; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden)); Jones, Celia; Pettersson, Michael; Elert, Mark (Kemakta, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-07-15

    exposure scenarios including exposure pathways and points of compliance. Risk evaluation becomes an issue of comparing the estimated (-modeled) increased concentrations at specified target points with general human and environmental toxicological criteria. Guidelines have been calculated for two different types of constructions, with or without an impermeable (asphalt-) pavement that prevents rain water from infiltrating into the road. Also the possible exposure of intruding ground water has been taken into account. A set of ashes, for which data on total content and leachability was available in the ALLASKA and MALTE database, have been classified according to three categories of applications/situations. The results show that due to lack of data it could not be assessed whether naphthalene, bens(a)pyren and selen in ashes imply an insignificant risk or not. Cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, molybdenum, nickel and zinc generally shows a large margin to the calculated guidelines for total content and leachability for most ashes. Thus, ashes in constructions constitute an acceptable risk with respect to these elements. Antimony and lead in ashes fall above the guideline values for leaching in some cases. The total content of arsenic in many ashes exceeds the guideline values when used in an unpaved construction even when taking the oral bioavailabity of arsenic in ashes in consideration. To a lesser extent this also holds for total content of lead. Accordingly, it can not be excluded that the reuse of some ashes in some applications may imply a certain risk. Spreading as dust, deposition on vegetables and the subsequent intake has reveled itself as an important exposure pathway. Little data, theory and models are available on dust generation and transport, the calculations made here are rough and conservative. Also, guidelines for the ash construction left in place in the post use phase are difficult to determine. The health risk associated with intake of vegetables and

  6. The Cladistic Basis for the Phylogenetic Diversity (PD Measure Links Evolutionary Features to Environmental Gradients and Supports Broad Applications of Microbial Ecology’s “Phylogenetic Beta Diversity” Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Knight

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The PD measure of phylogenetic diversity interprets branch lengths cladistically to make inferences about feature diversity. PD calculations extend conventional specieslevel ecological indices to the features level. The “phylogenetic beta diversity” framework developed by microbial ecologists calculates PD-dissimilarities between community localities. Interpretation of these PD-dissimilarities at the feature level explains the framework’s success in producing ordinations revealing environmental gradients. An example gradients space using PD-dissimilarities illustrates how evolutionary features form unimodal response patterns to gradients. This features model supports new application of existing species-level methods that are robust to unimodal responses, plus novel applications relating to climate change, commercial products discovery, and community assembly.

  7. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2009-07-06

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  8. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.; Amendola, Vincenzo; Aikens, Christine M.; Wenseleers, Wim; Li, Rui; Dal Negro, Luca; Schatz, George C.; Stellacci, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  9. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity...... of the multilayer is found to agree extraordinarily well with theory (assuming an interface roughness of 4.5 Angstrom), while the agreement for the gold film is less, The overall performance of the supermirror is superior to that of gold, extending the band of reflection at least a factor of 2.8 beyond...... that of the gold, Various other design options are discussed, and we conclude that continued interest in the X-ray supermirror for broad-band hard X-ray applications is warranted....

  10. Formation of broad Balmer wings in symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Seok-Jun; Heo, Jeong-Eun; Hong, Chae-Lin; Lee, Hee-Won

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are binary systems composed of a hot white dwarf and a mass losing giant. In addition to many prominent emission lines symbiotic stars exhibit Raman scattered O VI features at 6825 and 7088 Å. Another notable feature present in the spectra of many symbiotics is the broad wings around Balmer lines. Astrophysical mechanisms that can produce broad wings include Thomson scattering by free electrons and Raman scattering of Ly,β and higher series by neutral hydrogen. In this poster presentation we produce broad wings around Hα and H,β adopting a Monte Carlo techinique in order to make a quantitative comparison of these two mechanisms. Thomson wings are characterized by the exponential cutoff given by the termal width whereas the Raman wings are dependent on the column density and continuum shape in the far UV region. A brief discussion is provided. (paper)

  11. Broad beam ion sources and some surface processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, H.; Scholze, F.; Tarz, M.; Schindler, A.; Wiese, R.; Nestler, M.; Blum, T.

    2005-01-01

    Modern broad-beam multi-aperture ion sources are widely used in material and surface technology applications. Customizing the generated ion beam properties (i. e. the ion current density profile) for specific demands of the application is a main challenge in the improvement of the ion beam technologies. First we introduce ion sources based on different plasma excitation principles shortly. An overview of source plasma and ion beam measurement methods deliver input data for modelling methods. This beam profile modelling using numerical trajectory codes and the validation of the results by Faraday cup measurements as a basis for ion beam profile design are described. Furthermore possibilities for ex situ and in situ beam profile control are demonstrated, like a special method for in situ control of a linear ion source beam profile, a grid modification for circular beam profile design and a cluster principle for broad beam sources. By means of these methods, the beam shape may be adapted to specific technological demands. Examples of broad beam source application in ion beam figuring of optical surfaces, modification of stainless steel, photo voltaic processes and deposition of EUVL-multilayer stacks are finally presented. (Author)

  12. A broad-application microchannel-plate detector system for advanced particle or photon detection tasks large area imaging, precise multi-hit timing information and high detection rate

    CERN Document Server

    Jagutzki, O; Mergel, V; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Spielberger, L; Spillmann, U; Ullmann-Pfleger, K

    2002-01-01

    New applications for single particle and photon detection in many fields require both large area imaging performance and precise time information on each detected particle. Moreover, a very high data acquisition rate is desirable for most applications and eventually the detection and imaging of more than one particle arriving within a microsecond is required. Commercial CCD systems lack the timing information whereas other electronic microchannel plate (MCP) read-out schemes usually suffer from a low acquisition rate and complicated and sometimes costly read-out electronics. We have designed and tested a complete imaging system consisting of an MCP position readout with helical wire delay-lines, single-unit amplifier box and PC-controlled time-to-digital converter (TDC) readout. The system is very flexible and can detect and analyse position and timing information at single particle rates beyond 1 MHz. Alternatively, multi-hit events can be collected and analysed at about 20 kHz rate. We discuss the advantage...

  13. 13 CFR 123.402 - Can your business include its relocation as a mitigation measure in an application for a pre...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... participating in the Pre-Disaster Mitigation Program and SFHAs or visit the FEMA Web site at http://www.fema.gov. ... relocation as a mitigation measure in an application for a pre-disaster mitigation loan? 123.402 Section 123.402 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Pre-Disaster...

  14. Mimicking of Arginine by Functionalized N(ω)-Carbamoylated Arginine As a New Broadly Applicable Approach to Labeled Bioactive Peptides: High Affinity Angiotensin, Neuropeptide Y, Neuropeptide FF, and Neurotensin Receptor Ligands As Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Max; Kuhn, Kilian K; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Hübner, Harald; Biselli, Sabrina; Mollereau, Catherine; Wifling, David; Svobodová, Jaroslava; Bernhardt, Günther; Cabrele, Chiara; Vanderheyden, Patrick M L; Gmeiner, Peter; Buschauer, Armin

    2016-03-10

    Derivatization of biologically active peptides by conjugation with fluorophores or radionuclide-bearing moieties is an effective and commonly used approach to prepare molecular tools and diagnostic agents. Whereas lysine, cysteine, and N-terminal amino acids have been mostly used for peptide conjugation, we describe a new, widely applicable approach to peptide conjugation based on the nonclassical bioisosteric replacement of the guanidine group in arginine by a functionalized carbamoylguanidine moiety. Four arginine-containing peptide receptor ligands (angiotensin II, neurotensin(8-13), an analogue of the C-terminal pentapeptide of neuropeptide Y, and a neuropeptide FF analogue) were subject of this proof-of-concept study. The N(ω)-carbamoylated arginines, bearing spacers with a terminal amino group, were incorporated into the peptides by standard Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis. The synthesized chemically stable peptide derivatives showed high receptor affinities with Ki values in the low nanomolar range, even when bulky fluorophores had been attached. Two new tritiated tracers for angiotensin and neurotensin receptors are described.

  15. Broad research and application of composite materials. ; Future for textile reinforced resins, rubber, and intelligent composites. Fukugo zairyo no habahiroi kenkyu to oyo ni mukete. ; Textile kyoka jushi, gomu, intelligent composite no shorai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, S. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-02-15

    This paper presents several topics on composite materials and describes the ways the materials should be for the future. Composite materials are accomplishing great evolution, which owes a great deal to application and practical use, particularly the progress in materials. However, an impression is ineffaceable that the technology stays in a limited region as a science to pursue basic principles. A development of the 'post-classical theory' is expected in the future. While fiber technologies are related closely with composites, Japan who has a long history of weaving, knitting, and braiding threads stands behind in devising ideas. Fiber engineering education would have to be addressed with problems. Rubber materials are made and used by freely using composite technologies such as carbon black mixing, vulcanization, and reinforcing with fibrous chords, but no through-design theory has been established. While wool has a function of self-adjustment according to humidity and temperature, such intelligent composites as ones using optic glass fibers for example are expected for their future. 1 fig.

  16. Evidence for a Broad Autism Phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. de Groot (Kristel); J.W. van Strien (Jan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe broad autism phenotype implies the existence of a continuum ranging from individuals displaying almost no autistic traits to severely impaired diagnosed individuals. Recent studies have linked this variation in autistic traits to several domains of functioning. However, studies

  17. 33 CFR 117.921 - Broad River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.921 Broad River. (a) The draw of the S170 bridge, mile 14.0 near Beaufort, shall open on signal if at least 24 hours notice is given. (b) The draw...

  18. Education and Broad Concepts of Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on recent debates about the relationship between propositional and practical knowledge, this article is concerned with broad concepts of agency. Specifically, it is concerned with agency that involves the forming and putting into effect of intentions over relatively extended periods, particularly in work contexts (called, for want of a…

  19. Including climate variability in determination of the optimum rate of N fertilizer application using a crop model: A case study for rainfed corn in eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, M.; Pattey, E.; Jégo, G.; Geng, X.; Tremblay, N.; Didier, A.

    2017-12-01

    Identifying optimum nitrogen (N) application rate is essential for increasing agricultural production while limiting potential environmental contaminations caused by release of reactive N, especially for high demand N crops such as corn. The central question of N management is then how the optimum N rate is affected by climate variability for given soil. The experimental determination of optimum N rates involve the analyses of variance on the mean value of crop yield response to various N application rates used by factorial plot based experiments for a few years in several regions. This traditional approach has limitations to capture 1) the non-linear response of yield to N application rates due to large incremental N rates (often more than 40 kg N ha-1) and 2) the ecophysiological response of the crop to climate variability because of limited numbers of growing seasons considered. Modeling on the other hand, does not have such limitations and hence we use a crop model and propose a model-based methodology called Finding NEMO (N Ecophysiologically Modelled Optimum) to identify the optimum N rates for variable agro-climatic conditions and given soil properties. The performance of the methodology is illustrated using the STICS crop model adapted for rainfed corn in the Mixedwood Plains ecozone of eastern Canada (42.3oN 83oW-46.8oN 71oW) where more than 90% of Canadian corn is produced. The simulations were performed using small increment of preplant N application rate (10 kg N ha -1), long time series of daily climatic data (48 to 61 years) for 5 regions along the ecozone, and three contrasting soils per region. The results show that N recommendations should be region and soil specific. Soils with lower available water capacity required more N compared to soil with higher available water capacity. When N rates were at their ecophysiologically optimum level, 10 to 17 kg increase in dry yield could be achieved by adding 1 kg N. Expected yield also affected the optimum

  20. The contact-temperature ignition (CTI) criteria for propagating chemical reactions including the effect of moisture and application to Hanford waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    To assure the continued absence of uncontrolled condensed-phase chemical reactions in connection with the Hanford waste materials, efforts have been underway including both theoretical and experimental investigations to clarify the requirements for such reactions. This document defines the differences and requirements for homogeneous runaway and propagating chemical reactions incuding a discussion of general contact-temperature ignition (CTI) condition for propagating reactions that include the effect of moisture. The CTI condition implies that the contact temperature or interface temperature between reacted and unreacted materials must exceed the ignition temperature and is compared to experimental data including both synthetic ferrocyanide and surrogate organic materials. In all cases, the occurrences of ignition accompanied by self-propagating reactions are consistent with the theoretical anticipations of the CTI condition

  1. Wave-packet continuum-discretization approach to ion-atom collisions including rearrangement: Application to differential ionization in proton-hydrogen scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhmanov, I. B.; Bailey, J. J.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Bray, I.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we develop a wave-packet continuum-discretization approach to ion-atom collisions that includes rearrangement processes. The total scattering wave function is expanded using a two-center basis built from wave-packet pseudostates. The exact three-body Schrödinger equation is converted into coupled-channel differential equations for time-dependent expansion coefficients. In the asymptotic region these time-dependent coefficients represent transition amplitudes for all processes including elastic scattering, excitation, ionization, and electron capture. The wave-packet continuum-discretization approach is ideal for differential ionization studies as it allows one to generate pseudostates with arbitrary energies and distribution. The approach is used to calculate the double differential cross section for ionization in proton collisions with atomic hydrogen. Overall good agreement with experiment is obtained for all considered cases.

  2. A novel synthetic quantification standard including virus and internal report targets: application for the detection and quantification of emerging begomoviruses on tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Péréfarres, Frédéric; Hoareau, Murielle; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Reynaud, Bernard; Dintinger, Jacques; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Begomovirus is a genus of phytopathogenic single-stranded DNA viruses, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. This genus includes emerging and economically significant viruses such as those associated with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Disease, for which diagnostic tools are needed to prevent dispersion and new introductions. Five real-time PCRs with an internal tomato reporter gene were developed for accurate detection and quantification of monopartite begomoviruses, inclu...

  3. Broad line regions in Seyfert-1 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groningen, E. van.

    1984-01-01

    To reproduce observed emission profiles of Seyfert galaxies, rotation in an accretion disk has been proposed. In this thesis, the profiles emitted by such an accretion disk are investigated. Detailed comparison with the observed profiles yields that a considerable fraction can be fitted with a power-law function, as predicted by the model. The author analyzes a series of high quality spectra of Seyfert galaxies, obtained with the 2.5m telescope at Las Campanas. He presents detailed analyses of two objects: Mkn335 and Akn120. In both cases, strong evidence is presented for the presence of two separate broad line zones. These zones are identified with an accretion disk and an outflowing wind. The disk contains gas with very high densities and emits predominantly the lower ionization lines. He reports on the discovery of very broad wings beneath the strong forbidden line 5007. (Auth.)

  4. Fourier evaluation of broad Moessbauer spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincze, I.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown by the Fourier analysis of broad Moessbauer spectra that the even part of the distribution of the dominant hyperfine interaction (hyperfine field or quadrupole splitting) can be obtained directly without using least-square fitting procedures. Also the odd part of this distribution correlated with other hyperfine parameters (e.g. isomer shift) can be directly determined. Examples for amorphous magnetic and paramagnetic iron-based alloys are presented. (author)

  5. Fourier evaluation of broad Moessbauer spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincze, I.

    1981-09-01

    It is shown by the Fourier analysis of broad Moessbauer spectra that the even part of the distribution of the dominant hyperfine interaction (hyperfine field or quadrupole splitting) can be obtained directly without using least-square fitting procedures. Also the odd part of this distribution correlated with other hyperfine parameters (e.g. isomer shift) can be directly determined. Examples covering the case of amorphous magnetic and paramagnetic iron-based alloys are presented. (author)

  6. Application Of A New Semi-Empirical Model For Forming Limit Prediction Of Sheet Material Including Superposed Loads Of Bending And Shearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Christian; Liewald, Mathias; Schleich, Ralf; Sindel, Manfred

    2010-06-01

    The use of lightweight materials offers substantial strength and weight advantages in car body design. Unfortunately such kinds of sheet material are more susceptible to wrinkling, spring back and fracture during press shop operations. For characterization of capability of sheet material dedicated to deep drawing processes in the automotive industry, mainly Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) are used. However, new investigations at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology have shown that High Strength Steel Sheet Material and Aluminum Alloys show increased formability in case of bending loads are superposed to stretching loads. Likewise, by superposing shearing on in plane uniaxial or biaxial tension formability changes because of materials crystallographic texture. Such mixed stress and strain conditions including bending and shearing effects can occur in deep-drawing processes of complex car body parts as well as subsequent forming operations like flanging. But changes in formability cannot be described by using the conventional FLC. Hence, for purpose of improvement of failure prediction in numerical simulation codes significant failure criteria for these strain conditions are missing. Considering such aspects in defining suitable failure criteria which is easy to implement into FEA a new semi-empirical model has been developed considering the effect of bending and shearing in sheet metals formability. This failure criterion consists of the combination of the so called cFLC (combined Forming Limit Curve), which considers superposed bending load conditions and the SFLC (Shear Forming Limit Curve), which again includes the effect of shearing on sheet metal's formability.

  7. Application Of A New Semi-Empirical Model For Forming Limit Prediction Of Sheet Material Including Superposed Loads Of Bending And Shearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Christian; Liewald, Mathias; Schleich, Ralf; Sindel, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    The use of lightweight materials offers substantial strength and weight advantages in car body design. Unfortunately such kinds of sheet material are more susceptible to wrinkling, spring back and fracture during press shop operations. For characterization of capability of sheet material dedicated to deep drawing processes in the automotive industry, mainly Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) are used. However, new investigations at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology have shown that High Strength Steel Sheet Material and Aluminum Alloys show increased formability in case of bending loads are superposed to stretching loads. Likewise, by superposing shearing on in plane uniaxial or biaxial tension formability changes because of materials crystallographic texture. Such mixed stress and strain conditions including bending and shearing effects can occur in deep-drawing processes of complex car body parts as well as subsequent forming operations like flanging. But changes in formability cannot be described by using the conventional FLC. Hence, for purpose of improvement of failure prediction in numerical simulation codes significant failure criteria for these strain conditions are missing. Considering such aspects in defining suitable failure criteria which is easy to implement into FEA a new semi-empirical model has been developed considering the effect of bending and shearing in sheet metals formability. This failure criterion consists of the combination of the so called cFLC (combined Forming Limit Curve), which considers superposed bending load conditions and the SFLC (Shear Forming Limit Curve), which again includes the effect of shearing on sheet metal's formability.

  8. Mathematical Modeling for the Extraction of Uranium and Molybdenum with Emulsion Liquid Membrane, Including Industrial Application and Cost Evaluation of the Uranium Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kris Tri Basuki

    2008-01-01

    Emulsion liquid membrane systems are double emulsion drops. Two immiscible phases are separated by a third phase which is immiscible with the other two phases. The liquid membrane systems were classified into two types: (1) carrier mediated mass transfer, (2) mass transfer without any reaction involved. Uranium extraction, molybdenum extraction and solvent extraction were used as purposed elements for each type of the membrane systems in the derivation of their mathematical models. Mass transfer in emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) systems has been modeled by several differential and algebraic equations. The models take into account the following : mass transfer of the solute from the bulk external phase to the external phase-membrane interface; an equilibrium reaction between the solute and the carrier to form the solute-carrier complex at the interface; mass transfer by diffusion of the solute-carrier complex in the membrane phase to the membrane-internal phase interface; another equilibrium reaction of the solute-carrier complex to release the solute at the membrane-internal phase interface into the internal phase. Models with or without the consideration of film resistances were developed and compared. The models developed in this study can predict the extraction rate through emulsion liquid membranes theoretically. All parameters required in the models can be determined before an experimental extraction run. Experimental data from literature (uranium extraction) and (molybdenum extraction and solvent extraction) were used to test the models. The agreements between the theoretical predictions and the experimental data were very good. The advantages of emulsion liquid membrane systems over traditional methods were discussed. The models developed in this research can be used directly for the design of emulsion liquid membrane systems. The results of this study represent a very significant step toward the practical applications of the emulsion liquid membrane

  9. Broad Application of a Reconfigurable Motor Controller, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An ultra-miniature (<50 grams) high-performance brushless-motor controller, code named 'Puck', has been developed by Barrett for Earth-based mobile-manipulation...

  10. Transvaginal organ extraction: potential for broad clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Garth R; Barajas-Gamboa, Juan S; Coker, Alisa M; Cheverie, Joslin; Macias, C Aitor; Sandler, Bryan J; Talamini, Mark A; Horgan, Santiago

    2014-02-01

    Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery procedures have evolved over the past few years. A transvaginal approach is a promising alternative for intraperitoneal procedures. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of transvaginal organ extraction. This institutional review board-approved protocol involved retrospective review of an ongoing prospective study. Female subjects who presented to our hospital for elective cholecystectomy, appendectomy, or sleeve gastrectomy were offered participation in the study. Eligible patients met the following criteria: age between 18 and 75, diagnosis of gallbladder disease, acute appendicitis, or morbid obesity who desired surgical treatment. A hybrid transvaginal natural orifice approach was used in this series. Thirty-four women underwent transvaginal organ extraction between September 2007 and January 2012. The mean age was 40 ± 12.1 years (range 23-63 years). The mean body mass index was 27 ± 6.4 kg/m(2) (range 16-43 kg/m(2)). All patients had an American Society of Anesthesiologists classification of two or below. The mean operative time for cholecystectomy, appendectomy, and sleeve gastrectomy was 90, 71, and 135 min, respectively. There were no conversions to open operation and no intraoperative complications. The mean hospital stay was 2 days for all cases. Patients were followed for a mean of 24 months (range 1-61 months). There were two pregnancies and two successful vaginal deliveries. Six patients (18 %) had minor complaints of spotting or heavy menses in the immediate postoperative period that resolved with conservative measures. There were no abdominal wall complications. There were no long-term complications and no mortalities. This initial experience suggests that this surgical approach is safe, does not increase length of stay, and has no long-term vaginal complications. Given this attractive profile, a transvaginal approach may prove to be a superior mode of organ extraction, although randomized studies and long-term follow-up are needed.

  11. Epoxy adhesives offer broad choice for challenging applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Stevens, P

    2006-01-01

    "While they do not offer quite the same fascination as the "instant" adhesives that deliver great strenght from a single drop, exposy adhesives are now available with a remarkably wide range of material properties. As such, grades can be specified for use on almost any material type in most industries"

  12. Broadly Applicable Nanowafer Drug Delivery System for Treating Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    side effects such as eye pain , redness, and ocular inflammation. As a result, compliance and treatment outcomes are severely compromised. To surmount...Cys-NW treatments were applied once a day. An untreated set of animals was used as control. After the treatment period, mice were euthanized by cervical

  13. A combined DFT and restricted open-shell configuration interaction method including spin-orbit coupling: Application to transition metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemelt, Michael; Maganas, Dimitrios; Neese, Frank [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); DeBeer, Serena [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2013-05-28

    A novel restricted-open-shell configuration interaction with singles (ROCIS) approach for the calculation of transition metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra is introduced. In this method, one first calculates the ground state and a number of excited states of the non-relativistic Hamiltonian. By construction, the total spin is a good quantum number in each of these states. For a ground state with total spin S excited states with spin S Prime = S, S - 1, and S + 1 are constructed. Using Wigner-Eckart algebra, all magnetic sublevels with M{sub S}= S, Horizontal-Ellipsis , -S for each multiplet of spin S are obtained. The spin-orbit operator is represented by a mean-field approximation to the full Breit-Pauli spin-orbit operator and is diagonalized over this N-particle basis. This is equivalent to a quasi-degenerate treatment of the spin-orbit interaction to all orders. Importantly, the excitation space spans all of the molecular multiplets that arise from the atomic Russell-Saunders terms. Hence, the method represents a rigorous first-principles approach to the complicated low-symmetry molecular multiplet problem met in L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In order to gain computational efficiency, as well as additional accuracy, the excitation space is restricted to single excitations and the configuration interaction matrix is slightly parameterized in order to account for dynamic correlation effects in an average way. To this end, it is advantageous to employ Kohn-Sham rather than Hartree-Fock orbitals thus defining the density functional theory/ROCIS method. However, the method can also be used in an entirely non-empirical fashion. Only three global empirical parameters are introduced and have been determined here for future application of the method to any system containing any transition metal. The three parameters were carefully calibrated using the L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy spectra of a test set of coordination complexes containing first row

  14. Inferring relationships between clinical mastitis, productivity and fertility: a recursive model application including genetics, farm associated herd management, and cow-specific antibiotic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Pia; Brügemann, Kerstin; Yin, Tong; V Borstel, U König; Wu, Xiao-Lin; König, Sven

    2013-10-01

    A dataset of test-day records, fertility traits, and one health trait including 1275 Brown Swiss cows kept in 46 small-scale organic farms was used to infer relationships among these traits based on recursive Gaussian-threshold models. Test-day records included milk yield (MY), protein percentage (PROT-%), fat percentage (FAT-%), somatic cell score (SCS), the ratio of FAT-% to PROT-% (FPR), lactose percentage (LAC-%), and milk urea nitrogen (MUN). Female fertility traits were defined as the interval from calving to first insemination (CTFS) and success of a first insemination (SFI), and the health trait was clinical mastitis (CM). First, a tri-trait model was used which postulated the recursive effect of a test-day observation in the early period of lactation on liability to CM (LCM), and further the recursive effect of LCM on the following test-day observation. For CM and female fertility traits, a bi-trait recursive Gaussian-threshold model was employed to estimate the effects from CM to CTFS and from CM on SFI. The recursive effects from CTFS and SFI onto CM were not relevant, because CM was recorded prior to the measurements for CTFS and SFI. Results show that the posterior heritability for LCM was 0.05, and for all other traits, heritability estimates were in reasonable ranges, each with a small posterior SD. Lowest heritability estimates were obtained for female reproduction traits, i.e. h(2)=0.02 for SFI, and h(2)≈0 for CTFS. Posterior estimates of genetic correlations between LCM and production traits (MY and MUN), and between LCM and somatic cell score (SCS), were large and positive (0.56-0.68). Results confirm the genetic antagonism between MY and LCM, and the suitability of SCS as an indicator trait for CM. Structural equation coefficients describe the impact of one trait on a second trait on the phenotypic pathway. Higher values for FAT-% and FPR were associated with a higher LCM. The rate of change in FAT-% and in FPR in the ongoing lactation with

  15. A novel synthetic quantification standard including virus and internal report targets: application for the detection and quantification of emerging begomoviruses on tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péréfarres, Frédéric; Hoareau, Murielle; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Reynaud, Bernard; Dintinger, Jacques; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2011-08-05

    Begomovirus is a genus of phytopathogenic single-stranded DNA viruses, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. This genus includes emerging and economically significant viruses such as those associated with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Disease, for which diagnostic tools are needed to prevent dispersion and new introductions. Five real-time PCRs with an internal tomato reporter gene were developed for accurate detection and quantification of monopartite begomoviruses, including two strains of the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV; Mld and IL strains), the Tomato leaf curl Comoros virus-like viruses (ToLCKMV-like viruses) and the two molecules of the bipartite Potato yellow mosaic virus. These diagnostic tools have a unique standard quantification, comprising the targeted viral and internal report amplicons. These duplex real-time PCRs were applied to artificially inoculated plants to monitor and compare their viral development. Real-time PCRs were optimized for accurate detection and quantification over a range of 2 × 10(9) to 2 × 10(3) copies of genomic viral DNA/μL for TYLCV-Mld, TYLCV-IL and PYMV-B and 2 × 10(8) to 2 × 10(3) copies of genomic viral DNA/μL for PYMV-A and ToLCKMV-like viruses. These real-time PCRs were applied to artificially inoculated plants and viral loads were compared at 10, 20 and 30 days post-inoculation. Different patterns of viral accumulation were observed between the bipartite and the monopartite begomoviruses. Interestingly, PYMV accumulated more viral DNA at each date for both genomic components compared to all the monopartite viruses. Also, PYMV reached its highest viral load at 10 dpi contrary to the other viruses (20 dpi). The accumulation kinetics of the two strains of emergent TYLCV differed from the ToLCKMV-like viruses in the higher quantities of viral DNA produced in the early phase of the infection and in the shorter time to reach this peak viral load. To detect and quantify a wide range of begomoviruses, five duplex

  16. A novel synthetic quantification standard including virus and internal report targets: application for the detection and quantification of emerging begomoviruses on tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lett Jean-Michel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Begomovirus is a genus of phytopathogenic single-stranded DNA viruses, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. This genus includes emerging and economically significant viruses such as those associated with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Disease, for which diagnostic tools are needed to prevent dispersion and new introductions. Five real-time PCRs with an internal tomato reporter gene were developed for accurate detection and quantification of monopartite begomoviruses, including two strains of the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV; Mld and IL strains, the Tomato leaf curl Comoros virus-like viruses (ToLCKMV-like viruses and the two molecules of the bipartite Potato yellow mosaic virus. These diagnostic tools have a unique standard quantification, comprising the targeted viral and internal report amplicons. These duplex real-time PCRs were applied to artificially inoculated plants to monitor and compare their viral development. Results Real-time PCRs were optimized for accurate detection and quantification over a range of 2 × 109 to 2 × 103 copies of genomic viral DNA/μL for TYLCV-Mld, TYLCV-IL and PYMV-B and 2 × 108 to 2 × 103 copies of genomic viral DNA/μL for PYMV-A and ToLCKMV-like viruses. These real-time PCRs were applied to artificially inoculated plants and viral loads were compared at 10, 20 and 30 days post-inoculation. Different patterns of viral accumulation were observed between the bipartite and the monopartite begomoviruses. Interestingly, PYMV accumulated more viral DNA at each date for both genomic components compared to all the monopartite viruses. Also, PYMV reached its highest viral load at 10 dpi contrary to the other viruses (20 dpi. The accumulation kinetics of the two strains of emergent TYLCV differed from the ToLCKMV-like viruses in the higher quantities of viral DNA produced in the early phase of the infection and in the shorter time to reach this peak viral load. Conclusions To detect and

  17. The broad utility of Trizac diamond tile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, John I.; Romero, Vincent D.; Sventek, Bruce; Zu, Lijun

    2017-10-01

    Sample finishing data from a broad range of materials — glasses, sapphire, silicon carbide, silicon, zirconium oxide, lithium tantalate, and flooring materials — are shown effectively processed with Trizact™ Diamond Tile (TDT). This data should provide the reader with an understanding of what to expect when using TDT on hard to grind or brittle materials. Keys to maintaining effective TDT pad wear rates, and therefore cost effect and stable processes, are described as managing 1) the proper lubricant flow rate for glasses and silicon-type materials and 2) the conditioning particle concentration for harder-to-grind materials

  18. Broad spectrum antiangiogenic treatment for ocular neovascular diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofra Benny

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathological neovascularization is a hallmark of late stage neovascular (wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD and the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 50 in the western world. The treatments focus on suppression of choroidal neovascularization (CNV, while current approved therapies are limited to inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF exclusively. However, this treatment does not address the underlying cause of AMD, and the loss of VEGF's neuroprotective can be a potential side effect. Therapy which targets the key processes in AMD, the pathological neovascularization, vessel leakage and inflammation could bring a major shift in the approach to disease treatment and prevention. In this study we have demonstrated the efficacy of such broad spectrum antiangiogenic therapy on mouse model of AMD.Lodamin, a polymeric formulation of TNP-470, is a potent broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug. Lodamin significantly reduced key processes involved in AMD progression as demonstrated in mice and rats. Its suppressive effects on angiogenesis, vascular leakage and inflammation were studied in a wide array of assays including; a Matrigel, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, Miles assay, laser-induced CNV and corneal micropocket assay. Lodamin significantly suppressed the secretion of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CNV lesion including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/Ccl2. Importantly, Lodamin was found to regress established CNV lesions, unlike soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlk-1. The drug was found to be safe in mice and have little toxicity as demonstrated by electroretinography (ERG assessing retinal and by histology.Lodamin, a polymer formulation of TNP-470, was identified as a first in its class, broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug that can be administered orally or locally to treat corneal and retinal neovascularization. Several unique properties make Lodamin especially beneficial for ophthalmic

  19. Ecological restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems: A broad perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig D.; Savage, Melissa; Falk, Donald A.; Suckling, Kieran F.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Schulke, Todd; Stacey, Peter B.; Morgan, Penelope; Hoffman, Martos; Klingel, Jon T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote a broad and flexible perspective on ecological restoration of Southwestern (U.S.) ponderosa pine forests. Ponderosa pine forests in the region have been radically altered by Euro-American land uses, including livestock grazing, fire suppression, and logging. Dense thickets of young trees now abound, old-growth and biodiversity have declined, and human and ecological communities are increasingly vulnerable to destructive crown fires. A consensus has emerged that it is urgent to restore more natural conditions to these forests. Efforts to restore Southwestern forests will require extensive projects employing varying combinations of young-tree thinning and reintroduction of low-intensity fires. Treatments must be flexible enough to recognize and accommodate: high levels of natural heterogeneity; dynamic ecosystems; wildlife and other biodiversity considerations; scientific uncertainty; and the challenges of on-the-ground implementation. Ecological restoration should reset ecosystem trends toward an envelope of “natural variability,” including the reestablishment of natural processes. Reconstructed historic reference conditions are best used as general guides rather than rigid restoration prescriptions. In the long term, the best way to align forest conditions to track ongoing climate changes is to restore fire, which naturally correlates with current climate. Some stands need substantial structural manipulation (thinning) before fire can safely be reintroduced. In other areas, such as large wilderness and roadless areas, fire alone may suffice as the main tool of ecological restoration, recreating the natural interaction of structure and process. Impatience, overreaction to crown fire risks, extractive economics, or hubris could lead to widespread application of highly intrusive treatments that may further damage forest ecosystems. Investments in research and monitoring of restoration treatments are essential to refine

  20. Public Entrepreneurs and the Adoption of Broad-Based Merit Aid beyond the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, William Kyle; Petroff, Ruth Ann

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of broad-based merit aid adoption in the southeastern United States has been well noted in the literature. However, there are states that have adopted broad-based merit aid programs outside of the Southeast. Guided by multiple theoretical frameworks, including innovation diffusion theory (e.g., Gray, 1973, 1994; Rogers, 2003),…

  1. Applications of artificial intelligence, including expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    When Artificial Intelligence is applied to a complex physical system like a nuclear plant it is useful to distinguish between two rather distinct and different intelligent views of such a plant. The first view may be characterised as ''the designer's view''. This is the view of the plant as it was originally conceived and designed; it is essentially a once-and-for-all static view, corresponding to the implicit assumption of an ''ageless plant'', or at most a plant which ages in a preconceived, preset manner. The second view, which may be characterised as ''the operators view'', has to do more with a real-world, ageing plant. It is a more dynamic view, which sees the ageing process as one in which unforeseen, and possibly unforeseeable events may occur at equally unforeseen, and possibly unforeseeable times. The first view is predominantly a way of thinking about the plant, while the second is very often more a way of feeling about it. It should be emphasized that both ways are ways of intelligence. (author)

  2. Spectrophotometry of six broad absorption line QSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Smith, Harding E.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of six broad absorption-line QSOs (BALQSOs) are presented. The continua and emission lines are compared with those in the spectra of QSOs without BALs. A statistically significant difference is found in the emission-line intensity ratio for (N V 1240-A)/(C IV 1549-A). The median value of (N V)/(C IV) for the BALQSOs is two to three times the median for QSOs without BALs. The absorption features of the BALQSOs are described, and the column densities and limits on the ionization structure of the BAL region are discussed. If the dominant ionization mechanism is photoionization, then it is likely that either the ionizing spectrum is steep or the abundances are considerably different from solar. Collisional ionization may be a significant factor, but it cannot totally dominate the ionization rate.

  3. Study on broad beam heavy ion CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yumiko; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Hitomi; Nanbu, S.; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2003-01-01

    To achieve the heavy ion radiotherapy more precisely, it is important to know the distribution of the electron density in a human body, which is highly related to the range of charged particles. From a heavy ion CT image, we can directly obtain the 2-D distribution of the electron density in a sample. For this purpose, we have developed a broad beam heavy ion CT system. The electron density was obtained using some kinds of solutions targets. Also the dependence of the spatial resolution on the target size and the kinds of beams was estimated in this work using cylinders targets of 40, 60 and 80 mm in diameter, each of them has a hole of 10 mm in diameter at the center of it. (author)

  4. Broad Ligament Haematoma Following Normal Vaginal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrar, Faiza; Awan, Azra Saeed; Fatima, Touseef; Tabassum, Hina

    2017-01-01

    A 37-year-old, patient presented in emergency with history of normal vaginal delivery followed by development of abdominal distention, vomiting, constipation for last 3 days. She was para 4 and had normal vaginal delivery by traditional birth attendant at peripheral hospital 3 days back. Imaging study revealed a heterogeneous complex mass, ascites, pleural effusion, air fluid levels with dilatation gut loops. Based upon pelvic examination by senior gynaecologist in combination with ultrasound; a clinical diagnosis of broad ligament haematoma was made. However, vomiting and abdominal distention raised suspicion of intestinal obstruction. Due to worsening abdominal distention exploratory laparotomy was carried out. It was pseudo colonic obstruction and caecostomy was done. Timely intervention by multidisciplinary approach saved patient life with minimal morbidity.

  5. Constructing and Using Broad-coverage Lexical Resource for Enhancing Morphological Analysis of Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Sawalha, M.; Atwell, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Broad-coverage language resources which provide prior linguistic knowledge must improve the accuracy and the performance of NLP applications. We are constructing a broad-coverage lexical resource to improve the accuracy of morphological analyzers and part-of-speech taggers of Arabic text. Over the past 1200 years, many different kinds of Arabic language lexicons were constructed; these lexicons are different in ordering, size and aim or goal of construction. We collected 23 machine-readable l...

  6. Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterhuber, A; Povazay, B; Bizheva, K; Hermann, B; Sattmann, H; Stingl, A; Le, T; Seefeld, M; Menzel, R; Preusser, M; Budka, H; Schubert, Ch; Reitsamer, H; Ahnelt, P K; Morgan, J E; Cowey, A; Drexler, W

    2004-01-01

    Novel ultra-broad bandwidth light sources enabling unprecedented sub-2 μm axial resolution over the 400 nm-1700 nm wavelength range have been developed and evaluated with respect to their feasibility for clinical ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR OCT) applications. The state-of-the-art light sources described here include a compact Kerr lens mode locked Ti:sapphire laser (λ c = 785 nm, Δλ = 260 nm, P out = 50 mW) and different nonlinear fibre-based light sources with spectral bandwidths (at full width at half maximum) up to 350 nm at λ c = 1130 nm and 470 nm at λ c = 1375 nm. In vitro UHR OCT imaging is demonstrated at multiple wavelengths in human cancer cells, animal ganglion cells as well as in neuropathologic and ophthalmic biopsies in order to compare and optimize UHR OCT image contrast, resolution and penetration depth

  7. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of micro......Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use......-type animals; only eight of these were also day/night expressed in the Crx-/- pineal gland. However, in the Crx-/- pineal gland 41 genes exhibited differential night/day expression that was not seen in wild-type animals. These findings indicate that Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome and also...... influences differential night/day gene expression in this tissue. Some effects of Crx deletion on the pineal transcriptome might be mediated by Hoxc4 up-regulation....

  8. MIPPA: First Broad Changes to Medicare Part D Plan Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMasurier, Jean D; Edgar, Babette

    2009-04-01

    In July 2008, as part of broad Medicare reform, Congress passed the first major legislative changes to Medicare Part D since its enactment in 2003-the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act. This new legislation has significant implications for how Part D plans can market and enroll Medicare beneficiaries. The new legislation also strengthened beneficiary protections, expanded the low-income subsidy provisions originally included in Part D, and expanded Part D coverage. These changes have significant implications for the operation of Part D plans and can affect those involved in benefit design, including specialty pharmacy coverage. This article discusses the major changes that took effect on January 1, 2009, and have immediate implications for Part D plan sponsors, including Medicare Advantage plans and stand-alone prescription drug plans.

  9. The broad-band overlap problem in atmospheric trace gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subasilar, B.

    1991-01-01

    In relation to a better understanding of climate change and the related greenhouse problem, one way of projecting for the next decades is through general circulation models (GCMs). The only input as a driving force in the changing atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns is the amount of heat perturbation either due to natural or man-caused activities. Among these, CO 2 concentrations resulting from the latter has been observed to be accelerating at alarmingly high rates especially after the advent of the industrialization which just began in the last century. In addition to that, collective effects of other greenhouse gases (freons, SO 2 , H 2 O, CH 4 , etc.) are as important as CO 2 . Hence, it is evident from the above considerations that, in the predictions of climate models, the heat input which triggers changes in the atmospheric patterns, should be formulated accurately. In order to realize this objective, in this research, beginning with the available line parameter data, the problems of absorption have been investigated and attacked in the frame known as the broad band modeling since that is the only best and fastest manageable representation for GCMs. The first step was the construction of a full broad band (intra band overlap) model that was also flexible enough to accommodate the individual peculiarities of the bands. Before, the well known and very useful Ramanathan model had a limited applicability in the concentration scale, and it was also not systematically or successfully incorporated into an inter band overlap picture. Then, the established ideas that served as bases up to present, have been employed but found to have a limited practical applicability when it came to predict the inter band overlaps

  10. MICROLENSING OF QUASAR BROAD EMISSION LINES: CONSTRAINTS ON BROAD LINE REGION SIZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerras, E.; Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jimenez-Vicente, J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 4055 McPherson Lab, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Munoz, J. A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Falco, E. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Motta, V. [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avda. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2013-02-20

    We measure the differential microlensing of the broad emission lines between 18 quasar image pairs in 16 gravitational lenses. We find that the broad emission lines are in general weakly microlensed. The results show, at a modest level of confidence (1.8{sigma}), that high ionization lines such as C IV are more strongly microlensed than low ionization lines such as H{beta}, indicating that the high ionization line emission regions are more compact. If we statistically model the distribution of microlensing magnifications, we obtain estimates for the broad line region size of r{sub s} = 24{sup +22} {sub -15} and r{sub s} = 55{sup +150} {sub -35} lt-day (90% confidence) for the high and low ionization lines, respectively. When the samples are divided into higher and lower luminosity quasars, we find that the line emission regions of more luminous quasars are larger, with a slope consistent with the expected scaling from photoionization models. Our estimates also agree well with the results from local reveberation mapping studies.

  11. Validation, automatic generation and use of broad phonetic transcriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bael, Cristophe Patrick Jan Van

    2007-01-01

    Broad phonetic transcriptions represent the pronunciation of words as strings of characters from specifically designed symbol sets. In everyday life, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used as aids to pronounce (foreign) words. In addition, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used for

  12. Manta A New BroadBand OBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hello, Y.; Yegikyan, M.; Charvis, P.; Philippe, O.

    2017-12-01

    Manta is a new BroadBand OBS developed at Geoazur and commercialized by Osean. The design is inspired by 3-years autonomy MUG-OBS a Multiparameter Ocean Bottom System which carry a lot of sort of sensor types. As Mug-OBS, Manta-OBS rated 6000m is designed to resist a trawling. All the components are non corrosive such polyethylene, titanium and buoyancy is ensured by syntactic foam. Equipped in standard version with a Trillium compact OBS Manta has an autonomy of 18 months, but can accept on its 4 input channels any kind of signal as low as from an hydrophone or larger from other type of a seismometer or accelerometer. Tri-axial geophones unit (2 Hz or 4.5 Hz ) can replace the seismometer and will expend the lifespan for the instrument. The seismometer is encapsulated in a central well established by four panels of the main structure to protect it from sea current convection and is decoupled from main chassis. An health bulletin is recoverable by acoustic any time to facilitate the installation and during a visit when instrument is deployed. Main parameters for acquisition can be changed by acoustics command from surface at any time. Once at the bottom, release for the main sensor installation is programmed on a timer but controlled by the tilt of the OBS. If the tilt is too important based on programmed limits, sensor will not released automatically, but this can be forced by acoustic command after returning the tilt informations to the boat operator. Manta is equipped with flash light and AIS system for easy location at recovery, and can also send it's position by Iridium satellite in case of an unexpected ascent such caused by a possible trawling if deployed in shallow water. Clock drift calculation is automatically made against GPS time signal once the OBS return at the surface. The recovery of the OBS is initiated by an acoustic command. These new features made Manta a very versatile instrument for monitoring earthquakes.

  13. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  14. Applications of Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Anna C.

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that und...

  15. Development of a gene silencing DNA vector derived from a broad host range geminivirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancock Leandria C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing is proving to be a powerful tool for genetic, developmental, and physiological analyses. The use of viral induced gene silencing (VIGS offers advantages to transgenic approaches as it can be potentially applied to non-model systems for which transgenic techniques are not readily available. However, many VIGS vectors are derived from Gemini viruses that have limited host ranges. We present a new, unipartite vector that is derived from a curtovirus that has a broad host range and will be amenable to use in many non-model systems. Results The construction of a gene silencing vector derived from the geminivirus Beet curly top virus (BCTV, named pWSRi, is reported. Two versions of the vector have been developed to allow application by biolistic techniques or by agro-infiltration. We demonstrate its ability to silence nuclear genes including ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (rbcS, transketolase, the sulfur allele of magnesium chelatase (ChlI, and two homeotic transcription factors in spinach or tomato by generating gene-specific knock-down phenotypes. Onset of phenotypes occurred 3 to 12 weeks post-inoculation, depending on the target gene, in organs that developed after the application. The vector lacks movement genes and we found no evidence for significant spread from the site of inoculation. However, viral amplification in inoculated tissue was detected and is necessary for systemic silencing, suggesting that signals generated from active viral replicons are efficiently transported within the plant. Conclusion The unique properties of the pWSRi vector, the ability to silence genes in meristem tissue, the separation of virus and silencing phenotypes, and the broad natural host range of BCTV, suggest that it will have wide utility.

  16. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  17. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  18. Comparison of different application systems and CT- assisted treatment planning procedures in primary endometrium cancer: Is it technically possible to include the whole uterus volume in the volume treated by brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, U.; Knocke, Th.; Fellner, C.; Poetter, R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy is regarded as the definitive component of treatment for inoperable patients with endometrium cancer. In published series the whole uterus has been claimed to represent the target volume independently of the individual tumor spread. The purpose of this work is to compare different planning and application procedures and to analyze the target volumes (whole uterus), treatment volumes and their respective relation for the given various conditions. Material and Methods: In ten patients with primary endometrium cancer the correlation between target- and treatment volume was analysed based on standard one-channel applicators or individual Heyman applicators. A comparative analysis of target volumes resulting from two different planning procedures of Heyman applications was performed. CT was carried out after insertion of the Heyman ovoids. Target volume was estimated by measuring the uterus size at different cross sections of the CT images. Dose calculation was performed with (PLATO-system) or without (NPS-system) transferring these data directly to the planning system. We report on the differences in treatment volumes resulting from the two application and planning systems. Results: The mean value of the uterus volume was 180 ccm (range 57 ccm to 316 ccm). Four out of 10 patients had an asymmetric uterus configuration with a side-difference (in longitudinal or transversal direction) of more than 1 cm. On average 70% (range 48-95%) of the uterus volume was included by the treatment volume when Heymann applicators were used compared to 45 % (range 25-89%) when standard one channel applicators were used. This represents an improvement of 25% (range from 11%-35%). By utilizing the more sophisticated way of treatment planning a more adequate coverage of the uterus volume was achieved in five out of ten patients. The treated volume increased on the average by 20 % (range 11 %-32%). In three cases changes in the irradiation volume were less than 5%. In

  19. Evolved Cas9 variants with broad PAM compatibility and high DNA specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Johnny H; Miller, Shannon M; Geurts, Maarten H; Tang, Weixin; Chen, Liwei; Sun, Ning; Zeina, Christina M; Gao, Xue; Rees, Holly A; Lin, Zhi; Liu, David R

    2018-04-05

    A key limitation of the use of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome editing and other applications is the requirement that a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) be present at the target site. For the most commonly used Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9), the required PAM sequence is NGG. No natural or engineered Cas9 variants that have been shown to function efficiently in mammalian cells offer a PAM less restrictive than NGG. Here we use phage-assisted continuous evolution to evolve an expanded PAM SpCas9 variant (xCas9) that can recognize a broad range of PAM sequences including NG, GAA and GAT. The PAM compatibility of xCas9 is the broadest reported, to our knowledge, among Cas9 proteins that are active in mammalian cells, and supports applications in human cells including targeted transcriptional activation, nuclease-mediated gene disruption, and cytidine and adenine base editing. Notably, despite its broadened PAM compatibility, xCas9 has much greater DNA specificity than SpCas9, with substantially lower genome-wide off-target activity at all NGG target sites tested, as well as minimal off-target activity when targeting genomic sites with non-NGG PAMs. These findings expand the DNA targeting scope of CRISPR systems and establish that there is no necessary trade-off between Cas9 editing efficiency, PAM compatibility and DNA specificity.

  20. A Broad-Spectrum Inhibitor of CRISPR-Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Lucas B; Doxzen, Kevin W; Ma, Enbo; Liu, Jun-Jie; Knott, Gavin J; Edraki, Alireza; Garcia, Bianca; Amrani, Nadia; Chen, Janice S; Cofsky, Joshua C; Kranzusch, Philip J; Sontheimer, Erik J; Davidson, Alan R; Maxwell, Karen L; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2017-09-07

    CRISPR-Cas9 proteins function within bacterial immune systems to target and destroy invasive DNA and have been harnessed as a robust technology for genome editing. Small bacteriophage-encoded anti-CRISPR proteins (Acrs) can inactivate Cas9, providing an efficient off switch for Cas9-based applications. Here, we show that two Acrs, AcrIIC1 and AcrIIC3, inhibit Cas9 by distinct strategies. AcrIIC1 is a broad-spectrum Cas9 inhibitor that prevents DNA cutting by multiple divergent Cas9 orthologs through direct binding to the conserved HNH catalytic domain of Cas9. A crystal structure of an AcrIIC1-Cas9 HNH domain complex shows how AcrIIC1 traps Cas9 in a DNA-bound but catalytically inactive state. By contrast, AcrIIC3 blocks activity of a single Cas9 ortholog and induces Cas9 dimerization while preventing binding to the target DNA. These two orthogonal mechanisms allow for separate control of Cas9 target binding and cleavage and suggest applications to allow DNA binding while preventing DNA cutting by Cas9. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Broad-scale patterns of late jurassic dinosaur paleoecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Christopher R; Grossman, Ari

    2010-09-03

    reflects the prevailing climatic and environmental conditions present during fossil deposition, may therefore be used to differentiate Late Jurassic dinosaur fossil assemblages. This method is broadly applicable to different taxa and times, allowing one to address questions of evolutionary, biogeographic, and climatic importance.

  2. Endophytic Paraconiothyrium sp. from Zingiber officinale Rosc. Displays Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity by Production of Danthron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, C; Sachidanandan, P; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2018-03-01

    The bioactivity spectrum of fungal endophytes isolated from Zingiber officinale was analyzed against clinical pathogens and against the phytopathogen Pythium myriotylum, which causes Pythium rot in ginger. One of the isolates GFM13 showed broad bioactivity against various pathogens tested including P. myriotylum. The spore suspension as well as the culture filtrate of the endophytic fungal isolate was found to effectively protect ginger rhizomes from Pythium rot. By molecular identification, the fungal endophyte was identified as Paraconiothyrium sp. The bioactive compound produced by the isolate was separated by bioactivity-guided fractionation and was identified by GC-MS as danthron, an anthraquinone derivative. PCR amplification showed the presence of non-reducing polyketide synthase gene (NR-PKS) in the endophyte GFM13, which is reported to be responsible for the synthesis of anthraquinones in fungi. This is the first report of danthron being produced as the biologically active component of Paraconiothyrium sp. Danthron is reported to have wide pharmaceutical and agronomic applications which include its use as a fungicide in agriculture. The broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of danthron and the endophytic origin of Paraconiothyrium sp. offer immense applications of the study.

  3. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  4. Discovery of potent broad spectrum antivirals derived from marine actinobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Raveh

    Full Text Available Natural products provide a vast array of chemical structures to explore in the discovery of new medicines. Although secondary metabolites produced by microbes have been developed to treat a variety of diseases, including bacterial and fungal infections, to date there has been limited investigation of natural products with antiviral activity. In this report, we used a phenotypic cell-based replicon assay coupled with an iterative biochemical fractionation process to identify, purify, and characterize antiviral compounds produced by marine microbes. We isolated a compound from Streptomyces kaviengensis, a novel actinomycetes isolated from marine sediments obtained off the coast of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, which we identified as antimycin A1a. This compound displays potent activity against western equine encephalitis virus in cultured cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of less than 4 nM and a selectivity index of greater than 550. Our efforts also revealed that several antimycin A analogues display antiviral activity, and mechanism of action studies confirmed that these Streptomyces-derived secondary metabolites function by inhibiting the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain, thereby suppressing de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Furthermore, we found that antimycin A functions as a broad spectrum agent with activity against a wide range of RNA viruses in cultured cells, including members of the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Paramyxoviridae families. Finally, we demonstrate that antimycin A reduces central nervous system viral titers, improves clinical disease severity, and enhances survival in mice given a lethal challenge with western equine encephalitis virus. Our results provide conclusive validation for using natural product resources derived from marine microbes as source material for antiviral drug discovery, and they indicate that host mitochondrial electron transport is a viable

  5. Using New Media to Reach Broad Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, P. L.

    2008-06-01

    The International Year of Astronomy New Media Working Group (IYA NMWG) has a singular mission: To flood the Internet with ways to learn about astronomy, interact with astronomers and astronomy content, and socially network with astronomy. Within each of these areas, we seek to build lasting programs and partnerships that will continue beyond 2009. Our weapon of choice is New Media. It is often easiest to define New Media by what it is not. Television, radio, print and their online redistribution of content are not New Media. Many forms of New Media start as user provided content and content infrastructures that answer that individual's creative whim in a way that is adopted by a broader audience. Classic examples include Blogs and Podcasts. This media is typically distributed through content specific websites and RSS feeds, which allow syndication. RSS aggregators (iTunes has audio and video aggregation abilities) allow subscribers to have content delivered to their computers automatically when they connect to the Internet. RSS technology is also being used in such creative ways as allowing automatically updating Google-maps that show the location of someone with an intelligent GPS system, and in sharing 100 word microblogs from anyone (Twitters) through a single feed. In this poster, we outline how the IYA NMWG plans to use New Media to reach target primary audiences of astronomy enthusiasts, image lovers, and amateur astronomers, as well as secondary audiences, including: science fiction fans, online gamers, and skeptics.

  6. Potential Adverse Effects of Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Exposure in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Jenna; Snyder, Graham M; Finlayson, Samuel; Mahoney, Monica V; Celi, Leo Anthony

    2018-02-01

    The potential adverse effects of empiric broad-spectrum antimicrobial use among patients with suspected but subsequently excluded infection have not been fully characterized. We sought novel methods to quantify the risk of adverse effects of broad-spectrum antimicrobial exposure among patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Among all adult patients admitted to ICUs at a single institution, we selected patients with negative blood cultures who also received ≥1 broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Broad-spectrum antimicrobials were categorized in ≥1 of 5 categories based on their spectrum of activity against potential pathogens. We performed, in serial, 5 cohort studies to measure the effect of each broad-spectrum category on patient outcomes. Exposed patients were defined as those receiving a specific category of broad-spectrum antimicrobial; nonexposed were all other patients in the cohort. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included length of hospital and ICU stay and nosocomial acquisition of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) or Clostridium difficile within 30 days of admission. Among the study cohort of 1918 patients, 316 (16.5%) died within 30 days, 821 (42.8%) had either a length of hospital stay >7 days or an ICU length of stay >3 days, and 106 (5.5%) acquired either a nosocomial ARB or C. difficile . The short-term use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials in any of the defined broad-spectrum categories was not significantly associated with either primary or secondary outcomes. The prompt and brief empiric use of defined categories of broad-spectrum antimicrobials could not be associated with additional patient harm.

  7. Energy determines broad pattern of plant distribution in Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rajendra M; Behera, Mukunda Dev; Roy, Partha S; Biradar, Chandrashekhar

    2017-12-01

    Several factors describe the broad pattern of diversity in plant species distribution. We explore these determinants of species richness in Western Himalayas using high-resolution species data available for the area to energy, water, physiography and anthropogenic disturbance. The floral data involves 1279 species from 1178 spatial locations and 738 sample plots of a national database. We evaluated their correlation with 8-environmental variables, selected on the basis of correlation coefficients and principal component loadings, using both linear (structural equation model) and nonlinear (generalised additive model) techniques. There were 645 genera and 176 families including 815 herbs, 213 shrubs, 190 trees, and 61 lianas. The nonlinear model explained the maximum deviance of 67.4% and showed the dominant contribution of climate on species richness with a 59% share. Energy variables (potential evapotranspiration and temperature seasonality) explained the deviance better than did water variables (aridity index and precipitation of the driest quarter). Temperature seasonality had the maximum impact on the species richness. The structural equation model confirmed the results of the nonlinear model but less efficiently. The mutual influences of the climatic variables were found to affect the predictions of the model significantly. To our knowledge, the 67.4% deviance found in the species richness pattern is one of the highest values reported in mountain studies. Broadly, climate described by water-energy dynamics provides the best explanation for the species richness pattern. Both modeling approaches supported the same conclusion that energy is the best predictor of species richness. The dry and cold conditions of the region account for the dominant contribution of energy on species richness.

  8. Broad targeting of resistance to apoptosis in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Ramzi M.; Muqbil, Irfana; Lowe, Leroy; Yedjou, Clement; Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Siegelin, Markus David; Fimognari, Carmela; Kumar, Nagi B.; Dou, Q. Ping; Yang, Huanjie; Samadi, Abbas K.; Russo, Gian Luigi; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Ray, Swapan K.; Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Morre, James D.; Coley, Helen M.; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Amedei, Amedeo; Niccolai, Elena; Amin, Amr; Ashraf, S. Salman; Helferich, William G.; Yang, Xujuan; Boosani, Chandra S.; Guha, Gunjan; Bhakta, Dipita; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Aquilano, Katia; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I.; Keith, W. Nicol; Bilsland, Alan; Halicka, Dorota; Nowsheen, Somaira; Azmi, Asfar S.

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is natural way of removing aged cells from the body. Most of the anti-cancer therapies trigger apoptosis induction and related cell death networks to eliminate malignant cells. However, in cancer, de-regulated apoptotic signaling, particularly the activation of an anti-apoptotic systems, allows cancer cells to escape this program leading to uncontrolled proliferation resulting in tumor survival, therapeutic resistance and recurrence of cancer. This resistance is a complicated phenomenon that emanates from the interactions of various molecules and signaling pathways. In this comprehensive review we discuss the various factors contributing to apoptosis resistance in cancers. The key resistance targets that are discussed include (1) Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 proteins; (2) autophagy processes; (3) necrosis and necroptosis; (4) heat shock protein signaling; (5) the proteasome pathway; (6) epigenetic mechanisms; and (7) aberrant nuclear export signaling. The shortcomings of current therapeutic modalities are highlighted and a broad spectrum strategy using approaches including (a) gossypol; (b) epigallocatechin-3-gallate; (c) UMI-77 (d) triptolide and (e) selinexor that can be used to overcome cell death resistance is presented. This review provides a roadmap for the design of successful anti-cancer strategies that overcome resistance to apoptosis for better therapeutic outcome in patients with cancer. PMID:25936818

  9. The Response Strategy of Maize, Pea and Broad Bean Plants to Different Osmotic Potential Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to study the tolerance strategy of maize, broad bean and pea plants to salinity stress with exogenous applications of proline or phenylalanine on seed germination and seedlings growth. From the results obtained, it can be observed that osmotic stress affected adversely the rate of germination in maize, broad bean and pea plants. The excessive inhibition was more prominent at higher concentration of NaCl. The seeds and grains tested were exhibited some differential responses to salinity, in a manner that the inhibitory effect of salinity on seed germination ran in the order, maize higher than broad bean and the later was higher than pea plant. Treatment with proline or phenylalanine (100 ppm significantly increased these seed germination and seedlings growth characteristics even at lowest salinity level tested.

  10. Broad-beam, high current, metal ion implantation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Galvin, J.E.; Godechot, X.; MacGill, R.A.

    1990-07-01

    We have developed a high current metal ion implantation facility with which high current beams of virtually all the solid metals of the Periodic Table can be produced. The facility makes use of a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source which is operated in a pulsed mode, with pulse width 0.25 ms and repetition rate up to 100 pps. Beam extraction voltage is up to 100 kV, corresponding to an ion energy of up to several hundred keV because of the ion charge state multiplicity; beam current is up to several Amperes peak and around 10 mA time averaged delivered onto target. Implantation is done in a broad-beam mode, with a direct line-of-sight from ion source to target. Here we describe the facility and some of the implants that have been carried out using it, including the 'seeding' of silicon wafers prior to CVD with titanium, palladium or tungsten, the formation of buried iridium silicide layers, and actinide (uranium and thorium) doping of III-V compounds. 16 refs., 6 figs

  11. Broad-Band Variability in Accreting Compact Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Scaringi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cataclysmic variable stars are in many ways similar to X-ray binaries. Both types of systems possess an accretion disk, which in most cases can reach the surface (or event horizon of the central compact object. The main difference is that the embedded gravitational potential well in X-ray binaries is much deeper than those found in cataclysmic variables. As a result, X-ray binaries emit most of their radiation at X-ray wavelengths, as opposed to cataclysmic variables which emit mostly at optical/ultraviolet wavelengths. Both types of systems display aperiodic broad-band variability which can be associated to the accretion disk. Here, the properties of the observed X-ray variability in XRBs are compared to those observed at optical wavelengths in CVs. In most cases the variability properties of both types of systems are qualitatively similar once the relevant timescales associated with the inner accretion disk regions have been taken into account. The similarities include the observed power spectral density shapes, the rms-flux relation as well as Fourier-dependant time lags. Here a brief overview on these similarities is given, placing them in the context of the fluctuating accretion disk model which seeks to reproduce the observed variability.

  12. SKS splitting observed at Romanian broad-band seismic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Marian; Popa, Mihaela; Ghica, Daniela

    2008-12-01

    Shear-wave splitting results are presented for the broad-band stations of the Romanian seismic network. For stations BUC1 and CRAR (located in Moesian Platform), IAS (in East-European Platform), TIRR and CVD (in Central Dobrudja-Black Sea microplate), TIM and DRGR (in Dacia-Tisza plate, including Apuseni Mts.), BURAR, BZS and GZR (in, or very close to the Carpathian Arc), the fast directions ( φ) are around 135°. The mean delay values ( δt) of the slow wave are slightly greater for the stations placed in platform areas ( δt ~ 1.5 s) than for the stations situated in the (proximity) of Carpathians ( δt ~ 1.2 s). For the MLR station located in the South-Western part of Vrancea area, at the Carpathian Bend, the fast direction is 48°, similar to VOIR station (located in Southern Carpathians, 70 km West of MLR). At VRI and PLOR, located in the North-Eastern part of Vrancea, the fast axis is oriented approximately on North-South direction, with a possible dependence of the splitting parameters with back azimuth. At least for some stations, the splitting results are not consistent with vertical coherent lithospheric anisotropy.

  13. HAMLET - A protein-lipid complex with broad tumoricidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, James C S; Nadeem, Aftab; Svanborg, Catharina

    2017-01-15

    HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) is a tumoricidal protein-lipid complex with broad effects against cancer cells of different origin. The therapeutic potential is emphasized by a high degree of specificity for tumor tissue. Here we review early studies of HAMLET, in collaboration with the Orrenius laboratory, and some key features of the subsequent development of the HAMLET project. The early studies focused on the apoptotic response that accompanies death in HAMLET treated tumor cells and the role of mitochondria in this process. In subsequent studies, we have identified a sequence of interactions that starts with the membrane integration of HAMLET and the activation of ion fluxes followed by HAMLET internalization, progressive inhibition of MAPK kinases and GTPases and sorting of HAMLET to different cellular compartments, including the nuclei. Therapeutic efficacy of HAMLET has been demonstrated in animal models of glioblastoma, bladder cancer and intestinal cancer. In clinical studies, HAMLET has been shown to target skin papillomas and bladder cancers. The findings identify HAMLET as a new drug candidate with promising selectivity for cancer cells and a strong therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic and geological classification wetlands proposed. Application to the spanish wetlands included in the Ramsar convention; Propuesta de clasificacion genetico-geologica de humedales. Aplicacion a los humedales espanoles incluidos en el Convenio de Ramsar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Valsero, J. J.; Garcia de Domingo, A.; Robledo Ardila, P.

    2009-07-01

    The classification represents the first step in the research of the wetlands. There are several types of classifications established according different criteria: geographic, genetic, geologic, functional, hydric, biologic and others. In this work we considered the genetic and geologic classifications criteria are the more suitable because the criteria used are very concrete, descriptive and its application should be easier to put into practice. Every group established in this type of classification determines the develop naturals conditions allowing us to establish the evolution guidelines and same main management lines. The criteria used to develop this classification have been fundamentally: geologic, geomorphologic, tectonics, stratigraphic, and hydrogeologic because these determine greatly the physical wetland characteristics (geometric parameters, hydric nourishment system, hydrochemical characteristics and others). The general characteristics, guidelines behavior of the wetland, and the early evolution of every group of wetland could be essentials to detect and identified those actuations modifying the natural evolution in each concrete wetland. In this work we are applying these classification criteria to the Spanish wetlands included in the Ramsar Convention (until February 2006), defining twelve types of basic wetlands according the geologic and genetic characteristics. (Author) 19 refs.

  15. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  16. The broad line region of AGN: Kinematics and physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović L.Č.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a discussion of kinematics and physics of the Broad Line Region (BLR is given. The possible physical conditions in the BLR and problems in determination of the physical parameters (electron temperature and density are considered. Moreover, one analyses the geometry of the BLR and the probability that (at least a fraction of the radiation in the Broad Emission Lines (BELs originates from a relativistic accretion disk.

  17. An organic dye with very large Stokes-shift and broad tunability of fluorescence: Potential two-photon probe for bioimaging and ultra-sensitive solid-state gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Tingchao; Tian, Xiaoqing; Lin, Xiaodong, E-mail: linxd@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: hdsun@ntu.edu.sg [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Wang, Yue; Zhao, Xin; Sun, Handong, E-mail: linxd@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: hdsun@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, and Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies (CDPT), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Gao, Yang; Grimsdale, Andrew C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-01-04

    Light-emitting nonlinear optical molecules, especially those with large Stokes shifts and broad tunability of their emission wavelength, have attracted considerable attention for various applications including biomedical imaging and fluorescent sensors. However, most fluorescent chromophores have only limited potential for such applications due to small Stokes shifts, narrow tunability of fluorescence emissions, and small optical nonlinearity in highly polar solvents. In this work, we demonstrate that a two-photon absorbing stilbene chromophore exhibits a large two-photon absorption action cross-section (ηδ = 320 GM) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and shows broad fluorescence tunability (125 nm) by manipulating the polarity of the surrounding medium. Importantly, a very large Stokes shift of up to 227 nm is achieved in DMSO. Thanks to these features, this chromophore can be utilized as a two-photon probe for bioimaging applications and in an ultrasensitive solid-state gas detector.

  18. Insight into the Broad Field of Polymer Nanocomposites: From Carbon Nanotubes to Clay Nanoplatelets, via Metal Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Stefanescu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Highly ordered polymer nanocomposites are complex materials that display a rich morphological behavior owing to variations in composition, structure, and properties on a nanometer length scale. Metal-polymer nanocomposite materials are becoming more popular for applications requiring low cost, high metal surface areas. Catalytic systems seem to be the most prevalent application for a wide range of metals used in polymer nanocomposites, particularly for metals like Pt, Ni, Co, and Au, with known catalytic activities. On the other hand, among the most frequently utilized techniques to prepare polymer/CNT and/or polymer/clay nanocomposites are approaches like melt mixing, solution casting, electrospinning and solid-state shear pulverization. Additionally, some of the current and potential applications of polymer/CNT and/or polymer/clay nanocomposites include photovoltaic devices, optical switches, electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding, aerospace and automotive materials, packaging, adhesives and coatings. This extensive review covers a broad range of articles, typically from high impact-factor journals, on most of the polymer-nanocomposites known to date: polymer/carbon nanotubes, polymer/metal nanospheres, and polymer/clay nanoplatelets composites. The various types of nanocomposites are described form the preparation stages to performance and applications. Comparisons of the various types of nanocomposites are conducted and conclusions are formulated.

  19. Dilepton Yields from Brown-Rho Scaled Vector Mesons Including Memory Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenke, Bjoern; Greiner, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Scenarios with dropping vector meson masses, motivated by the work of Brown and Rho, have been strongly discussed after recent NA60 Collaboration data were presented. In this Letter they are investigated within a nonequilibrium field theoretical description that includes quantum mechanical memory. Dimuon yields are calculated by application of a model for the fireball, and strong modifications are found in the comparison to quasiequilibrium calculations, which assume instantaneous adjustment of all meson properties to the surrounding medium. In addition, results for the situation of very broad excitations are presented

  20. Characterization of non-host resistance in broad bean to the wheat stripe rust pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yulin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-host resistance (NHR confers plant species immunity against the majority of microbial pathogens and represents the most robust and durable form of plant resistance in nature. As one of the main genera of rust fungi with economic and biological importance, Puccinia infects almost all cereals but is unable to cause diseases on legumes. Little is known about the mechanism of this kind of effective defense in legumes to these non-host pathogens. Results In this study, the basis of NHR in broad bean (Vicia faba L. against the wheat stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, was characterized. No visible symptoms were observed on broad bean leaves inoculated with Pst. Microscopic observations showed that successful location of stomata and haustoria formation were significantly reduced in Pst infection of broad bean. Attempted infection induced the formation of papillae, cell wall thickening, production of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition and accumulation of phenolic compounds in plant cell walls. The few Pst haustoria that did form in broad bean cells were encased in reactive oxygen and callose materials and those cells elicited cell death. Furthermore, a total of seven defense-related genes were identified and found to be up-regulated during the Pst infection. Conclusions The results indicate that NHR in broad bean against Pst results from a continuum of layered defenses, including basic incompatibility, structural and chemical strengthening of cell wall, posthaustorial hypersensitive response and induction of several defense-related genes, demonstrating the multi-layered feature of NHR. This work also provides useful information for further determination of resistance mechanisms in broad bean to rust fungi, especially the adapted important broad bean rust pathogen, Uromyces viciae-fabae, because of strong similarity and association between NHR of plants to unadapted pathogens and basal

  1. 77 FR 665 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Two Distinct Population Segments of Broad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... threat to the broad-snouted caiman, what regional climate change models are available, and whether they are reliable and credible to use as a step-down model for assessing the effects of climate change on... waterways, including rivers near waterfalls such as Iguaz[uacute], and freshwater creeks with rocky bottoms...

  2. When does biodiversity matter? Assessing ecosystem services across broad regions using forest inventory and analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Christopher W. Woodall; Christopher M. Oswalt; Basil V. III Iannone; Songlin Fei

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity is expected to convey numerous functional benefits to forested ecosystems, including increased productivity and resilience. When assessing biodiversity, however, statistics that account for evolutionary relationships among species may be more ecologically meaningful than traditional measures such as species richness. In three broad-scale studies, we...

  3. Embracing a broad spirituality in end of life discussions and advance care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Larry R

    2015-04-01

    Advance care planning for end of life typically focuses on the mechanics of completing living wills and durable power of attorney documents. Even when spiritual aspects of end of life care are discussed, the dominant assumptions are those of traditional religious systems. A broad view of spirituality is needed, one that may involve traditional religious beliefs but also includes personal understandings of what is holy or sacred. Embracing this broad practice of spirituality will help both familial and professional caregivers honor an essential aspect of end of life discussions and promote greater discernment of the deep meaning in advance care documents.

  4. The credit counterparts of broad money : a structural base for macroeconomic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Tautological structures bring clarity to arguments in macroeconomics: familiar structures relate to the circulation of money, the circular flow of real income, and the balance of international payments. Less familiar is a structure incorporating all aspects of macroeconomic policy interventions. The origins and use of the credit counterparts of broad money are examined in the context of the application of UK monetary policy in the period since 1945.

  5. The oomycete broad-host-range pathogen Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamour, Kurt H; Stam, Remco; Jupe, Julietta; Huitema, Edgar

    2012-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is a highly dynamic and destructive pathogen of vegetables. It attacks all cucurbits, pepper, tomato and eggplant, and, more recently, snap and lima beans. The disease incidence and severity have increased significantly in recent decades and the molecular resources to study this pathogen are growing and now include a reference genome. At the population level, the epidemiology varies according to the geographical location, with populations in South America dominated by clonal reproduction, and populations in the USA and South Africa composed of many unique genotypes in which sexual reproduction is common. Just as the impact of crop loss as a result of P. capsici has increased in recent decades, there has been a similar increase in the development of new tools and resources to study this devastating pathogen. Phytophthora capsici presents an attractive model for understanding broad-host-range oomycetes, the impact of sexual recombination in field populations and the basic mechanisms of Phytophthora virulence. Kingdom Chromista; Phylum Oomycota; Class Oomycetes; Order Peronosporales; Family Peronosporaceae; Genus Phytophthora; Species capsici. Symptoms vary considerably according to the host, plant part infected and environmental conditions. For example, in dry areas (e.g. southwestern USA and southern France), infection on tomato and bell or chilli pepper is generally on the roots and crown, and the infected plants have a distinctive black/brown lesion visible at the soil line (Fig. 1). In areas in which rainfall is more common (e.g. eastern USA), all parts of the plant are infected, including the roots, crown, foliage and fruit (Fig. 1). Root infections cause damping off in seedlings, whereas, in older plants, it is common to see stunted growth, wilting and, eventually, death. For tomatoes, it is common to see significant adventitious root growth just above an infected tap root, and the stunted plants, although severely compromised, may not die

  6. Antiviral Therapy by HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing and Inhibitory Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. In this review, we describe the key epitopes on the HIV-1 Env protein and the reciprocal broadly neutralizing antibodies, and discuss the ongoing clinical trials of broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibody therapy as well as antibody combinations, bispecific antibodies, and methods that improve therapeutic efficacy by combining broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs with latency reversing agents. Compared with ART, HIV-1 therapeutics that incorporate these broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibodies offer the advantage of decreasing virus load and clearing infected cells, which is a promising prospect in HIV-1 prevention and treatment.

  7. The broad spectrum revisited: evidence from plant remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ehud; Wetterstrom, Wilma; Nadel, Dani; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2004-06-29

    The beginning of agriculture is one of the most important developments in human history, with enormous consequences that paved the way for settled life and complex society. Much of the research on the origins of agriculture over the last 40 years has been guided by Flannery's [Flannery, K. V. (1969) in The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, eds. Ucko, P. J. & Dimbleby, G. W. (Duckworth, London), pp. 73-100] "broad spectrum revolution" (BSR) hypothesis, which posits that the transition to farming in southwest Asia entailed a period during which foragers broadened their resource base to encompass a wide array of foods that were previously ignored in an attempt to overcome food shortages. Although these resources undoubtedly included plants, nearly all BSR hypothesis-inspired research has focused on animals because of a dearth of Upper Paleolithic archaeobotanical assemblages. Now, however, a collection of >90,000 plant remains, recently recovered from the Stone Age site Ohalo II (23,000 B.P.), Israel, offers insights into the plant foods of the late Upper Paleolithic. The staple foods of this assemblage were wild grasses, pushing back the dietary shift to grains some 10,000 years earlier than previously recognized. Besides the cereals (wild wheat and barley), small-grained grasses made up a large component of the assemblage, indicating that the BSR in the Levant was even broader than originally conceived, encompassing what would have been low-ranked plant foods. Over the next 15,000 years small-grained grasses were gradually replaced by the cereals and ultimately disappeared from the Levantine diet.

  8. Analytical methodologies for broad metabolite coverage of exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Alexander A; Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Pasamontes, Alberto; Brown, Joshua F; Schivo, Michael; Foutouhi, Soraya; Weimer, Bart C; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Davis, Cristina E

    2017-09-01

    Breath analysis has been gaining popularity as a non-invasive technique that is amenable to a broad range of medical uses. One of the persistent problems hampering the wide application of the breath analysis method is measurement variability of metabolite abundances stemming from differences in both sampling and analysis methodologies used in various studies. Mass spectrometry has been a method of choice for comprehensive metabolomic analysis. For the first time in the present study, we juxtapose the most commonly employed mass spectrometry-based analysis methodologies and directly compare the resultant coverages of detected compounds in exhaled breath condensate in order to guide methodology choices for exhaled breath condensate analysis studies. Four methods were explored to broaden the range of measured compounds across both the volatile and non-volatile domain. Liquid phase sampling with polyacrylate Solid-Phase MicroExtraction fiber, liquid phase extraction with a polydimethylsiloxane patch, and headspace sampling using Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane Solid-Phase MicroExtraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry were tested for the analysis of volatile fraction. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry were used for analysis of non-volatile fraction. We found that liquid phase breath condensate extraction was notably superior compared to headspace extraction and differences in employed sorbents manifested altered metabolite coverages. The most pronounced effect was substantially enhanced metabolite capture for larger, higher-boiling compounds using polyacrylate SPME liquid phase sampling. The analysis of the non-volatile fraction of breath condensate by hydrophilic and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry indicated orthogonal metabolite coverage by these chromatography modes. We found that the metabolite coverage

  9. Industrial applications of sol-gel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuloch, S.M.; Tulloch, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper has been to provide a broad, rather than comprehensive view. We have presented a range of applications and only a selection of involved companies and researchers and have relied to a large extent on published information. Nevertheless, we are sure that our view of the importance of Sol-gel technology as an emerging technology, with enormous impact across a wide range of manufacturing, is demonstrated. Applications which are either in production or have been foreshadowed include four broad categories: coatings, fibres, powders and monoliths

  10. Social Pharmacy Research in Copenhagen—Maintaining a Broad Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Kälvemark Sporrong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social Pharmacy (SP is a multidisciplinary field to promote the adequate use of medicine. The field of SP is increasingly important due to a numbers of new trends all posing challenges to society. The SP group at the University of Copenhagen has for several years used a broad approach to SP teaching and research, often illustrated by the four levels: individual, group, organizational, and societal. In this paper the relevance of maintaining a broad approach to SP research is argued for and examples of the importance of such type of research is presented.

  11. Environmental protection by cost minimization: Least Cost Planning for traffic. Includes a guide for the application in local communities; Umweltentlastung durch Kostenminimierung: Least Cost Planning im Verkehr. Mit Leitfaden fuer die Anwendung in Kommunen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracher, T.; Diegmann, V.; Eckart, C.F.; Liwicki, M.; Lobenberg, G.; Wetzel, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Informatik, Verkehrs- und Umweltplanung mbH (IVU), Berlin (Germany); Bergmann, M.; Uricher, A.; Lueers, A. [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Becker, U.; Karl, G.; Karl, B.; Voellings, A. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verkehrsoekologie

    1999-08-01

    An intermodal approach for the evaluation of transportation services on the municipal level was developed. Both non-motorised and motorised transportation were included. The approach aims at helping communities to provide an economically and ecologically viable transport policy. Least Cost Transportation Planning (LCTP) was developed to transfer the successful concept of Least Cost Planning from the energy sector to transportation. The conclusion from an analysis of LCTP literature and present evaluation methods was that an improved approach should be intermodal and integrate users, public bodies and transport companies as well as all planning sectors. An approach was developed firstly to identify and clarify transportation expenditures and incomes of a city within a year, and secondly for the evaluation of planning alternatives. This was illustrated for the access system of an industrial area with adjacent railway services in the town of Freiburg. Three alternatives were compared: the extension of a tramway line, the upgrading of the present bus system, and the development of a service and bicycle provision concept for rail stations and companies. Besides income and expenditure for each alternative, the effects on transport demand, the impact on air pollution and noise and on space consumption were presented. As a result, the bicycle concept is in most items better than its alternatives. The final report has three volumes and there is an extra guideline for implementing the method within municipalities. It includes a set of excel sheet tables for an easy application (all in German). (orig.) [German] Fuer die Verkehrsplanung wurde ein verkehrstraegeruebergreifendes Bewertungsverfahren fuer Kommunen entwickelt, das motorisierte und nicht motorisierte Verkehrstraeger einbezieht. Das Verfahren soll Gemeinden unterstuetzen, eine oekonomische und oekologisch vertraegliche Verkehrspolitik zu verfolgen. Least Cost Transportation Planning (LCTP) zielt darauf ab, das fuer

  12. Flavor Compounds in Pixian Broad-Bean Paste: Non-Volatile Organic Acids and Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-volatile organic acids and amino acids are important flavor compounds in Pixian broad-bean paste, which is a traditional Chinese seasoning product. In this study, non-volatile organic acids, formed in the broad-bean paste due to the metabolism of large molecular compounds, are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Amino acids, mainly produced by hydrolysis of soybean proteins, were determined by the amino acid automatic analyzer. Results indicated that seven common organic acids and eighteen common amino acids were found in six Pixian broad-bean paste samples. The content of citric acid was found to be the highest in each sample, between 4.1 mg/g to 6.3 mg/g, and malic acid were between 2.1 mg/g to 3.6 mg/g ranked as the second. Moreover, fumaric acid was first detected in fermented bean pastes albeit with a low content. For amino acids, savory with lower sour taste including glutamine (Gln, glutamic acid (Glu, aspartic acid (Asp and asparagines (Asn were the most abundant, noted to be 6.5 mg/g, 4.0 mg/g, 6.4 mg/g, 4.9 mg/g, 6.2 mg/g and 10.2 mg/g, and bitter taste amino acids followed. More importantly, as important flavor materials in Pixian broad-bean paste, these two groups of substances are expected to be used to evaluate and represent the flavor quality of Pixian broad-bean paste. Moreover, the results revealed that citric acid, glutamic acid, methionine and proline were the most important flavor compounds. These findings are agreat contribution for evaluating the quality and further assessment of Pixian broad-bean paste.

  13. Flavor Compounds in Pixian Broad-Bean Paste: Non-Volatile Organic Acids and Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongbin; Yu, Xiaoyu; Fang, Jiaxing; Lu, Yunhao; Liu, Ping; Xing, Yage; Wang, Qin; Che, Zhenming; He, Qiang

    2018-05-29

    Non-volatile organic acids and amino acids are important flavor compounds in Pixian broad-bean paste, which is a traditional Chinese seasoning product. In this study, non-volatile organic acids, formed in the broad-bean paste due to the metabolism of large molecular compounds, are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Amino acids, mainly produced by hydrolysis of soybean proteins, were determined by the amino acid automatic analyzer. Results indicated that seven common organic acids and eighteen common amino acids were found in six Pixian broad-bean paste samples. The content of citric acid was found to be the highest in each sample, between 4.1 mg/g to 6.3 mg/g, and malic acid were between 2.1 mg/g to 3.6 mg/g ranked as the second. Moreover, fumaric acid was first detected in fermented bean pastes albeit with a low content. For amino acids, savory with lower sour taste including glutamine (Gln), glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp) and asparagines (Asn) were the most abundant, noted to be 6.5 mg/g, 4.0 mg/g, 6.4 mg/g, 4.9 mg/g, 6.2 mg/g and 10.2 mg/g, and bitter taste amino acids followed. More importantly, as important flavor materials in Pixian broad-bean paste, these two groups of substances are expected to be used to evaluate and represent the flavor quality of Pixian broad-bean paste. Moreover, the results revealed that citric acid, glutamic acid, methionine and proline were the most important flavor compounds. These findings are agreat contribution for evaluating the quality and further assessment of Pixian broad-bean paste.

  14. 78 FR 67084 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Broad Creek, Laurel, DE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Broad Creek, Laurel, DE AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice....25, both at Laurel, DE. The proposed new rule would change the current regulation by requiring a..., mile 8.2, all at Laurel, shall open on signal if at least 48 hours notice is given. Previous regulation...

  15. Extra Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma in the Broad Ligament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The embryonic remnants of the gonadal ridge and the genital duct apparatus, the Mullerian apparatus, remain atretic throughout the life of a woman. The definitive organs arising from these, the Ovary, Fallopian tubes, Uterus, Cervix and the Broad ligaments share common coelomic origin. Epithelial metaplasia in any of ...

  16. Broad economic benefits of freight transportation infrastructure improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This project strives to introduce a novel way to quantify the broad re-organization benefits associated with an : improvement in the freight infrastructure. Using the approach based on 1) the technique known as Field of Influence, and : 2) RAS adjust...

  17. Three Broad Parental Feeding Styles and Young Children's Snack Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Samantha B.; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify broad overarching feeding styles that parents may use and their effects on pre-school-aged children's healthy and unhealthy snack intake. Design: Cross sectional study Methods: Mothers (n = 611) of children aged 2-7 years (mean age 3.9 years) completed an online survey assessing parent-feeding…

  18. Children and trauma : a broad perspective on exposure and recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisic, E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to generate a broad overview of children’s exposure to and recovery from trauma in order to promote theory building and the design of prevention and intervention activities. First, a general population study was conducted in 1770 primary school children. They

  19. Argument for a non-standard broad-line region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, S.

    1987-01-01

    The region emitting the broad lines (BLR) in quasars and AGN has a ''Standard Status''. It is shown that this status raises strong problems concerning the energetic budget and the thermal state of the BLR. A possible solution is proposed [fr

  20. Socioeconomic evaluation of broad-scale land management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa K. Crone; Richard W. Haynes

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the socioeconomic effects of alternative management strategies for Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management lands in the interior Columbia basin. From a broad-scale perspective, there is little impact or variation between alternatives in terms of changes in total economic activity or social conditions in the region. However, adopting a finer...

  1. Broad-Band Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Fumi; Enoto, Teruaki; Iwakiri, Wataru; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Nagase, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    Hercules X-1 was observed with Suzaku in the main-on state from 2005 to 2010. The 0.4- 100 keV wide-band spectra obtained in four observations showed a broad hump around 4-9 keV in addition to narrow Fe lines at 6.4 and 6.7 keV. The hump was seen in all the four observations regardless of the selection of the continuum models. Thus it is considered a stable and intrinsic spectral feature in Her X-1. The broad hump lacked a sharp structure like an absorption edge. Thus it was represented by two different spectral models: an ionized partial covering or an additional broad line at 6.5 keV. The former required a persistently existing ionized absorber, whose origin was unclear. In the latter case, the Gaussian fitting of the 6.5-keV line needs a large width of sigma = 1.0-1.5 keV and a large equivalent width of 400-900 eV. If the broad line originates from Fe fluorescence of accreting matter, its large width may be explained by the Doppler broadening in the accretion flow. However, the large equivalent width may be inconsistent with a simple accretion geometry.

  2. Document understanding for a broad class of documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Monz, Christof; Todoran, Leon; Worring, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    We present a document analysis system able to assign logical labels and extract the reading order in a broad set of documents. All information sources, from geometric features and spatial relations to the textual features and content are employed in the analysis. To deal effectively with these

  3. Long-throated flumes and broad-crested weirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Vital for water management are structures that can measure the flow in a wide variety of channels. Chapter 1 introduces the long-throated flume and the broad-crested weir; it explains why this family of structures can meet the boundary conditions and hydraulic demands of most measuring

  4. African Journals Online: General Science (broad subject range)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 86 of 86 ... The Journal of Science and Technology (JUST) aims principally at publishing articles ... basic sciences, public health, social medicine and medical politics. .... The SWJ is a peer review on-line international journal of broad ...

  5. Characterization of ten microsatellite loci in the Broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Fike, Jennifer A.; Talley-Farnham, Tiffany; Engelman, Tena; Engelman, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The Broad-tailed Hummingbird (Selaphorus platycercus) breeds at higher elevations in the central and southern Rockies, eastern California, and Mexico and has been studied for 8 years in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Questions regarding the relatedness of Broad-tailed Hummingbirds banded together and then recaptured in close time proximity in later years led us to isolate and develop primers for 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci. In a screen of 25 individuals from a population in Rocky Mountain National Park, the 10 loci were found to have levels of variability ranging from two to 16 alleles. No loci were found to depart from linkage disequilibrium, although two loci revealed significant departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. These 10 microsatellite loci will be applicable for population genetic analyses, investigation of mating systems and relatedness, and may help gain insight into the migration timing and routes for this species.

  6. [Broad ischemic stroke revealing infective endocarditis in a young patient: about a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelosaona, Fanomezantsoa Noella; Razafimahefa, Julien; Randrianasolo, Rahamefy Odilon; Rakotoarimanana, Solofonirina; Tehindrazanarivelo, Djacoba Alain

    2016-01-01

    Broad ischemic stroke is mainly due to a cardiac embolus or to an atheromatous plaque. In young subjects, one of the main causes of ischemic stroke (broad ischemic stroke in particolar) is embolic heart disease including infective endocarditis. Infective endocarditis is a contraindication against the anticoagulant therapy (which is indicated for the treatment of embolic heart disease complicated by ischemic stroke). One neurologic complications of infective endocarditis is ischemic stroke which often occurs in multiple sites. We here report the case of a 44-year old man with afebrile acute onset of severe left hemiplegia associated with a sistolic mitral murmur, who had fever in hospital on day 5 with no other obvious source of infection present. Brain CT scan showed full broad ischaemic stroke of the right middle cerebral artery territory and doppler ultrasound, performed after stroke onset, showed infective endocarditis affecting the small mitral valve. He was treated with 4 weeks of antibiotic therapy without anticoagulant therapy ; evolution was marked by the disappearance of mitral valve vegetations and by movement sequelae involving the left side of the body. In practical terms, our problem was the onset of the fever which didn't accompany or pre-exist patient's deficit, leading us to the misdiagnosis of ischemic stroke of cardioembolic origin. This case study underlines the importance of doppler ultrasound, in the diagnosis of all broad ischemic strokes, especially superficial, before starting anticoagulant therapy.

  7. Quantum optics including noise reduction, trapped ions, quantum trajectories, and decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Orszag, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This new edition gives a unique and broad coverage of basic laser-related phenomena that allow graduate students, scientists and engineers to carry out research in quantum optics and laser physics. It covers quantization of the electromagnetic field, quantum theory of coherence, atom-field interaction models, resonance fluorescence, quantum theory of damping, laser theory using both the master equation and the Langevin theory, the correlated emission laser, input-output theory with applications to non-linear optics, quantum trajectories, quantum non-demolition measurements and generation of non-classical vibrational states of ions in a Paul trap. In this third edition, there is an enlarged chapter on trapped ions, as well as new sections on quantum computing and quantum bits with applications. There is also additional material included for quantum processing and entanglement. These topics are presented in a unified and didactic manner, each chapter is accompanied by specific problems and hints to solutions to...

  8. Acoustic metamaterials: From local resonances to broad horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guancong; Sheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Within a time span of 15 years, acoustic metamaterials have emerged from academic curiosity to become an active field driven by scientific discoveries and diverse application potentials. This review traces the development of acoustic metamaterials from the initial findings of mass density and bulk modulus frequency dispersions in locally resonant structures to the diverse functionalities afforded by the perspective of negative constitutive parameter values, and their implications for acoustic wave behaviors. We survey the more recent developments, which include compact phase manipulation structures, superabsorption, and actively controllable metamaterials as well as the new directions on acoustic wave transport in moving fluid, elastic, and mechanical metamaterials, graphene-inspired metamaterials, and structures whose characteristics are best delineated by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. Many of the novel acoustic metamaterial structures have transcended the original definition of metamaterials as arising from the collective manifestations of constituent resonating units, but they continue to extend wave manipulation functionalities beyond those found in nature. PMID:26933692

  9. Acoustic metamaterials: From local resonances to broad horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guancong; Sheng, Ping

    2016-02-01

    Within a time span of 15 years, acoustic metamaterials have emerged from academic curiosity to become an active field driven by scientific discoveries and diverse application potentials. This review traces the development of acoustic metamaterials from the initial findings of mass density and bulk modulus frequency dispersions in locally resonant structures to the diverse functionalities afforded by the perspective of negative constitutive parameter values, and their implications for acoustic wave behaviors. We survey the more recent developments, which include compact phase manipulation structures, superabsorption, and actively controllable metamaterials as well as the new directions on acoustic wave transport in moving fluid, elastic, and mechanical metamaterials, graphene-inspired metamaterials, and structures whose characteristics are best delineated by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. Many of the novel acoustic metamaterial structures have transcended the original definition of metamaterials as arising from the collective manifestations of constituent resonating units, but they continue to extend wave manipulation functionalities beyond those found in nature.

  10. Visual attention spreads broadly but selects information locally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioiri, Satoshi; Honjyo, Hajime; Kashiwase, Yoshiyuki; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2016-10-19

    Visual attention spreads over a range around the focus as the spotlight metaphor describes. Spatial spread of attentional enhancement and local selection/inhibition are crucial factors determining the profile of the spatial attention. Enhancement and ignorance/suppression are opposite effects of attention, and appeared to be mutually exclusive. Yet, no unified view of the factors has been provided despite their necessity for understanding the functions of spatial attention. This report provides electroencephalographic and behavioral evidence for the attentional spread at an early stage and selection/inhibition at a later stage of visual processing. Steady state visual evoked potential showed broad spatial tuning whereas the P3 component of the event related potential showed local selection or inhibition of the adjacent areas. Based on these results, we propose a two-stage model of spatial attention with broad spread at an early stage and local selection at a later stage.

  11. Flow characteristics at trapezoidal broad-crested side weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Říha Jaromír

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad-crested side weirs have been the subject of numerous hydraulic studies; however, the flow field at the weir crest and in front of the weir in the approach channel still has not been fully described. Also, the discharge coefficient of broad-crested side weirs, whether slightly inclined towards the stream or lateral, still has yet to be clearly determined. Experimental research was carried out to describe the flow characteristics at low Froude numbers in the approach flow channel for various combinations of in- and overflow discharges. Three side weir types with different oblique angles were studied. Their flow characteristics and discharge coefficients were analyzed and assessed based on the results obtained from extensive measurements performed on a hydraulic model. The empirical relation between the angle of side weir obliqueness, Froude numbers in the up- and downstream channels, and the coefficient of obliqueness was derived.

  12. The precipitation synthesis of broad-spectrum UV absorber nanoceria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurhasanah, Iis; Sutanto, Heri; Puspaningrum, Nurul Wahyu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of nanoceria as broad-spectrum UV absorber was evaluated. Nanoceria were synthesized by precipitation process from cerium nitrate solution and ammonium hydroxide as precipitant agent. Isopropanol was mixed with water as solvent to prevent hard agglomeration. The structure of resulting nanoceria was characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD). The transparency in the visible light and efficiency of protection in UV A region were studied using ultraviolet-visible (UV - Vis) spectrophotometer. The results show that nanoceria possess good tranparency in visible light and high UV light absorption. The critical absorption wavelenght of 368 nm was obtained which is desirable for excellent broad-spectrum protection absorbers. Moreover, analysis of photodegradation nanoceria to methylene blue solution shows poor photocatalytic activity. It indicates that nanoceria suitable for used as UV absorber in personal care products

  13. Clues to Quasar Broad Line Region Geometry and Kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.; Barthel, P. D.

    2000-01-01

    width to show significant inverse correlations with the fractional radio core-flux density, R, the radio axis inclination indicator. Highly inclined systems have broader line wings, consistent with a high-velocity field perpendicular to the radio axis. By contrast, the narrow line-core shows...... no such relation with R, so the lowest velocity CIV-emitting gas has an inclination independent velocity field. We propose that this low-velocity gas is located at higher disk-altitudes than the high-velocity gas. A planar origin of the high-velocity CIV-emission is consistent with the current results...... and with an accretion disk-wind emitting the broad lines. A spherical distribution of randomly orbiting broad-line clouds and a polar high-ionization outflow are ruled out....

  14. Stochastic Analysis with Financial Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo; Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic analysis has a variety of applications to biological systems as well as physical and engineering problems, and its applications to finance and insurance have bloomed exponentially in recent times. The goal of this book is to present a broad overview of the range of applications of stochastic analysis and some of its recent theoretical developments. This includes numerical simulation, error analysis, parameter estimation, as well as control and robustness properties for stochastic equations. This book also covers the areas of backward stochastic differential equations via the (non-li

  15. Identifying efficiency trends for Queensland broad-acre beef enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, Daniel; Rolfe, John

    2010-01-01

    Productivity and efficiency improvements in agriculture have recently been targeted as Federal Government priorities in Australia. This research examined a dataset of 116 broad-acre beef enterprises from Queensland who participated in a program, Profit Probe, developed to improve management and profitability of enterprises. The aim of this research was to identify the sources, if any, of productivity growth for this sample of enterprises. Two potential sources of productivity growth were iden...

  16. Flow structure in front of the broad-crested weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachoval Zbyněk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with research focused on description of flow structure in front of broad-crested weir. Based on experimental measurement, the flow structure in front of the weir (the recirculation zone of flow and tornado vortices and flow structure on the weir crest has been described. The determined flow character has been simulated using numerical model and based on comparing results the suitable model of turbulence has been recommended.

  17. Broad Absorption Line Quasar catalogues with Supervised Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaringi, Simone; Knigge, Christian; Cottis, Christopher E.; Goad, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    We have applied a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) algorithm to SDSS DR5 quasar spectra in order to create a large catalogue of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). We first discuss the problems with BALQSO catalogues constructed using the conventional balnicity and/or absorption indices (BI and AI), and then describe the supervised LVQ network we have trained to recognise BALQSOs. The resulting BALQSO catalogue should be substantially more robust and complete than BI-or AI-based ones.

  18. Broad beam X-rays attenuation in silicum glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risticj, Dj.; Vukovicj, S.; Markovicj, P.

    1987-01-01

    Using broad beam geometry the attenuation for domestic silicum glass have been studied for constant X-ray potentials from 50 to 150 kV. The density of the silicium glass was 2,5x10 3 kg/m 3 . From the attenuation curves the half value layers were obtained. The use of this glass as the biological shield is pointed out. (author). 2 refs.; 2 tabs.; 2 figs

  19. V-shaped resonators for addition of broad-area laser diode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Liu, Yun; Braiman, Yehuda Y.

    2012-12-25

    A system and method for addition of broad-area semiconductor laser diode arrays are described. The system can include an array of laser diodes, a V-shaped external cavity, and grating systems to provide feedback for phase-locking of the laser diode array. A V-shaped mirror used to couple the laser diode emissions along two optical paths can be a V-shaped prism mirror, a V-shaped stepped mirror or include multiple V-shaped micro-mirrors. The V-shaped external cavity can be a ring cavity. The system can include an external injection laser to further improve coherence and phase-locking.

  20. Broad Halpha Wing Formation in the Planetary Nebula IC 4997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee; Hyung

    2000-02-10

    The young and compact planetary nebula IC 4997 is known to exhibit very broad wings with a width exceeding 5000 km s-1 around Halpha. We propose that the broad wings are formed through Rayleigh-Raman scattering that involves atomic hydrogen, by which Lybeta photons with a velocity width of a few 102 km s-1 are converted to optical photons and fill the Halpha broad wing region. The conversion efficiency reaches 0.6 near the line center, where the scattering optical depth is much larger than 1, and rapidly decreases in the far wings. Assuming that close to the central star there exists an unresolved inner compact core of high density, nH approximately 109-1010 cm-3, we use the photoionization code "CLOUDY" to show that sufficient Lybeta photons for scattering are produced. Using a top-hat-incident profile for the Lybeta flux and a scattering region with a H i column density NHi=2x1020 cm-2 and a substantial covering factor, we perform a profile-fitting analysis in order to obtain a satisfactory fit to the observed flux. We briefly discuss the astrophysical implications of the Rayleigh-Raman processes in planetary nebulae and other emission objects.

  1. Extreme Variability in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Daniel; Jun, Hyunsung D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Graham, Matthew J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, Ciro; Drake, Andrew J.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Steidel, Charles C. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arav, Nahum; Chamberlain, Carter [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Glikman, Eilat, E-mail: daniel.k.stern@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    CRTS J084133.15+200525.8 is an optically bright quasar at z = 2.345 that has shown extreme spectral variability over the past decade. Photometrically, the source had a visual magnitude of V ∼ 17.3 between 2002 and 2008. Then, over the following five years, the source slowly brightened by approximately one magnitude, to V ∼ 16.2. Only ∼1 in 10,000 quasars show such extreme variability, as quantified by the extreme parameters derived for this quasar assuming a damped random walk model. A combination of archival and newly acquired spectra reveal the source to be an iron low-ionization broad absorption line quasar with extreme changes in its absorption spectrum. Some absorption features completely disappear over the 9 years of optical spectra, while other features remain essentially unchanged. We report the first definitive redshift for this source, based on the detection of broad H α in a Keck/MOSFIRE spectrum. Absorption systems separated by several 1000 km s{sup −1} in velocity show coordinated weakening in the depths of their troughs as the continuum flux increases. We interpret the broad absorption line variability to be due to changes in photoionization, rather than due to motion of material along our line of sight. This source highlights one sort of rare transition object that astronomy will now be finding through dedicated time-domain surveys.

  2. Broad-Band Analysis of Polar Motion Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Earth rotational changes, i.e. polar motion and length-of-day (LOD), are driven by two types of geophysical excitations: 1) mass redistribution within the Earth system, and 2) angular momentum exchange between the solid Earth (more precisely the crust) and other components of the Earth system. Accurate quantification of Earth rotational excitations has been difficult, due to the lack of global-scale observations of mass redistribution and angular momentum exchange. The over 14-years time-variable gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have provided a unique means for quantifying Earth rotational excitations from mass redistribution in different components of the climate system. Comparisons between observed Earth rotational changes and geophysical excitations estimated from GRACE, satellite laser ranging (SLR) and climate models show that GRACE-derived excitations agree remarkably well with polar motion observations over a broad-band of frequencies. GRACE estimates also suggest that accelerated polar region ice melting in recent years and corresponding sea level rise have played an important role in driving long-term polar motion as well. With several estimates of polar motion excitations, it is possible to estimate broad-band noise variance and noise power spectra in each, given reasonable assumptions about noise independence. Results based on GRACE CSR RL05 solutions clearly outperform other estimates with the lowest noise levels over a broad band of frequencies.

  3. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  4. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepares participants to develop test and measurement, da...

  5. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" trainings have been recently changed to include, respectively, an introduction and an expert training on the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to develop expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepare...

  6. Beam, multi-beam and broad beam production with COMIC devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sortais, P.; Lamy, T.; Medard, J.; Angot, J.; Peaucelle, C.

    2012-01-01

    The COMIC discharge cavity is a very versatile technology. We will present new results and devices that match new applications like: molecular beams, ultra compact beam line for detectors calibrations, quartz source for on-line application, high voltage platform source, sputtering /assistance broad beams and finally, a quite new use, high energy multi-beam production for surface material modifications. In more details, we will show that the tiny discharge of COMIC can mainly produce molecular ions (H 3+ ). We will present the preliminary operation of the fully quartz ISOLDE COMIC version, in collaboration with IPN Lyon, we will present a first approach for a slit extraction version of a three cavity device, and after discussing about various extraction systems on the multi discharge device (41 cavities) we will show the low energy broad beam (2 KV) and high energy multi-beams (10 beams up to 30 KV) productions. We will specially present the different extraction systems adapted to each application and the beams characteristics which are strongly dependent on the voltage distribution of an accel-accel two electrodes extraction system. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  7. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... vehicular manslaughter, driving under the influence of drugs or liquor, and hit and run), when unaccompanied by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history records...

  8. Broad neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus from vaccinated healthy donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Mizuta, Hiroyuki [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Oshita, Masatoshi; Ideno, Shoji [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan); Yunoki, Mikihiro [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan); Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kuhara, Motoki [Ina Laboratory, Medical and Biological Laboratories Corporation, Ltd., Ina, Nagano 396-0002 (Japan); Yamamoto, Naomasa [Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ohu University, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8611 (Japan); Okuno, Yoshinobu [Kanonji Institute, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kanonji, Kagawa 768-0061 (Japan); Ikuta, Kazuyoshi, E-mail: ikuta@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-09-11

    Human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) prepared from patients with viral infections could provide information on human epitopes important for the development of vaccines as well as potential therapeutic applications. Through the fusion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a total of five influenza-vaccinated volunteers, with newly developed murine-human chimera fusion partner cells, named SPYMEG, we obtained 10 hybridoma clones stably producing anti-influenza virus antibodies: one for influenza A H1N1, four for influenza A H3N2 and five for influenza B. Surprisingly, most of the HuMAbs showed broad reactivity within subtype and four (two for H3N2 and two for B) showed broad neutralizing ability. Importantly, epitope mapping revealed that the two broad neutralizing antibodies to H3N2 derived from different donors recognized the same epitope located underneath the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin globular region that is highly conserved among H3N2 strains.

  9. Broad neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus from vaccinated healthy donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Mizuta, Hiroyuki; Oshita, Masatoshi; Ideno, Shoji; Yunoki, Mikihiro; Kuhara, Motoki; Yamamoto, Naomasa; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) prepared from patients with viral infections could provide information on human epitopes important for the development of vaccines as well as potential therapeutic applications. Through the fusion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a total of five influenza-vaccinated volunteers, with newly developed murine-human chimera fusion partner cells, named SPYMEG, we obtained 10 hybridoma clones stably producing anti-influenza virus antibodies: one for influenza A H1N1, four for influenza A H3N2 and five for influenza B. Surprisingly, most of the HuMAbs showed broad reactivity within subtype and four (two for H3N2 and two for B) showed broad neutralizing ability. Importantly, epitope mapping revealed that the two broad neutralizing antibodies to H3N2 derived from different donors recognized the same epitope located underneath the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin globular region that is highly conserved among H3N2 strains.

  10. Nuclear physics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lilley, J S

    2001-01-01

    This title provides the latest information on nuclear physics. Based on a course entitled Applications of Nuclear Physics. Written from an experimental point of view this text is broadly divided into two parts, firstly a general introduction to Nuclear Physics and secondly its applications.* Includes chapters on practical examples and problems* Contains hints to solving problems which are included in the appendix* Avoids complex and extensive mathematical treatments* A modern approach to nuclear physics, covering the basic theory, but emphasising the many and important applicat

  11. Applications of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  12. Applications of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  13. A broad band X-ray imaging spectrophotometer for astrophysical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Kenneth S. K.; Lee, Dong Hwan; Ku, William H.-M.

    1988-01-01

    A broadband X-ray imaging spectrophotometer (BBXRIS) has been built for astrophysical studies. The BBXRIS is based on a large-imaging gas scintillation proportional counter (LIGSPC), a combination of a gas scintillation proportional counter and a multiwire proportional counter, which achieves 8 percent (FWHM) energy resolution and 1.5-mm (FWHM) spatial resolution at 5.9 keV. The LIGSPC can be integrated with a grazing incidence mirror and a coded aperture mask to provide imaging over a broad range of X-ray energies. The results of tests involving the LIGSPC and a coded aperture mask are presented, and possible applications of the BBXRIS are discussed.

  14. Reproducing the hierarchy of disorder for Morpho-inspired, broad-angle color reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Bokwang; Johansen, Villads Egede; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    on the positional disorder among the identical, multilayered ridges as the critical factor for producing angular independent color. Realizing such positional disorder of identical nanostructures is difficult, which in turn has limited experimental verification of different physical mechanisms that have been...... proposed. In this paper, we suggest an alternative model of inter-structural disorder that can achieve the same broad-angle color reflection, and is applicable to wafer-scale fabrication using conventional thin film technologies. Fabrication of a thin film that produces pure, stable blue across a viewing...... angle of more than 120 ° is demonstrated, together with a robust, conformal color coating....

  15. Broad scope educational role of a midsize university reactor NAA laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernetson, W.G.

    2000-01-01

    Broad scope educational activities at the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (NAAL) associated with the 100 kW University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR) have been implemented to serve a deserve and multidisciplinary academic clientele to meet a wide spectrum of educational needs for students at all academic levels. Educational usage of the complementary laboratory facilities is described and the importance of such academic experimental experience is emphasized for developing and maintaining a cadre of professionals in the analytical applications of nuclear energy. The synergistic operation of the NAAL and the reactor at the University of Florida to serve as a model worthy of emulation for other similar facilities is emphasized. (author)

  16. Discharge coefficient of a rectangular sharp-edged broad-crested weir

    OpenAIRE

    Zachoval Zbyněk; Knéblová Michaela; Roušar Ladislav; Rumann Ján; Šulc Jan

    2014-01-01

    his paper is concerned with the determination of the relationship for the calculation of the discharge coefficient at free overflow over a rectangular sharp-edged broad-crested weir without lateral contraction. The determination was made on the basis of new measurement in a range of the relative thickness of the weir from 0.12 to 0.30 and newly in a large range of relative height of the weir extremely from 0.24 to 6.8 which greatly expands the application possibilities of low weirs. In additi...

  17. Broad-Band Visually Evoked Potentials: Re(convolution in Brain-Computer Interfacing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordy Thielen

    Full Text Available Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs allow users to control devices and communicate by using brain activity only. BCIs based on broad-band visual stimulation can outperform BCIs using other stimulation paradigms. Visual stimulation with pseudo-random bit-sequences evokes specific Broad-Band Visually Evoked Potentials (BBVEPs that can be reliably used in BCI for high-speed communication in speller applications. In this study, we report a novel paradigm for a BBVEP-based BCI that utilizes a generative framework to predict responses to broad-band stimulation sequences. In this study we designed a BBVEP-based BCI using modulated Gold codes to mark cells in a visual speller BCI. We defined a linear generative model that decomposes full responses into overlapping single-flash responses. These single-flash responses are used to predict responses to novel stimulation sequences, which in turn serve as templates for classification. The linear generative model explains on average 50% and up to 66% of the variance of responses to both seen and unseen sequences. In an online experiment, 12 participants tested a 6 × 6 matrix speller BCI. On average, an online accuracy of 86% was reached with trial lengths of 3.21 seconds. This corresponds to an Information Transfer Rate of 48 bits per minute (approximately 9 symbols per minute. This study indicates the potential to model and predict responses to broad-band stimulation. These predicted responses are proven to be well-suited as templates for a BBVEP-based BCI, thereby enabling communication and control by brain activity only.

  18. The Probiotic Compound VSL#3 Modulates Mucosal, Peripheral, and Systemic Immunity Following Murine Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Ekmekciu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence linking the commensal intestinal microbiota with host health and, in turn, antibiotic induced perturbations of microbiota composition with distinct pathologies. Despite the attractiveness of probiotic therapy as a tool to beneficially alter the intestinal microbiota, its immunological effects are still incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of the probiotic formulation VSL#3 consisting of eight distinct bacterial species (including Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, B. infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. paracasei, and L. delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus in reversing immunological effects of microbiota depletion as compared to reassociation with a complex murine microbiota. To address this, conventional mice were subjected to broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy for 8 weeks and perorally reassociated with either VSL#3 bacteria or a complex murine microbiota. VSL#3 recolonization resulted in restored CD4+ and CD8+ cell numbers in the small and large intestinal lamina propria as well as in B220+ cell numbers in the former, whereas probiotic intervention was not sufficient to reverse the antibiotic induced changes of respective cell populations in the spleen. However, VSL#3 application was as efficient as complex microbiota reassociation to attenuate the frequencies of regulatory T cells, activated dendritic cells and memory/effector T cells in the small intestine, colon, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen. Whereas broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment resulted in decreased production of cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-22, and IL-10 by CD4+ cells in respective immunological compartments, VSL#3 recolonization was sufficient to completely recover the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 without affecting pro-inflammatory mediators. In summary, the probiotic compound VSL#3 has an extensive impact on mucosal, peripheral, and

  19. A "Trojan horse" bispecific-antibody strategy for broad protection against ebolaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wec, Anna Z; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K; Herbert, Andrew S; Howell, Katie A; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Bakken, Russell R; Mittler, Eva; Christin, John R; Shulenin, Sergey; Jangra, Rohit K; Bharrhan, Sushma; Kuehne, Ana I; Bornholdt, Zachary A; Flyak, Andrew I; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Crowe, James E; Aman, M Javad; Dye, John M; Lai, Jonathan R; Chandran, Kartik

    2016-10-21

    There is an urgent need for monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies that broadly protect against Ebola virus and other filoviruses. The conserved, essential interaction between the filovirus glycoprotein, GP, and its entry receptor Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) provides an attractive target for such mAbs but is shielded by multiple mechanisms, including physical sequestration in late endosomes. Here, we describe a bispecific-antibody strategy to target this interaction, in which mAbs specific for NPC1 or the GP receptor-binding site are coupled to a mAb against a conserved, surface-exposed GP epitope. Bispecific antibodies, but not parent mAbs, neutralized all known ebolaviruses by coopting viral particles themselves for endosomal delivery and conferred postexposure protection against multiple ebolaviruses in mice. Such "Trojan horse" bispecific antibodies have potential as broad antifilovirus immunotherapeutics. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Amplifying modeling for broad bandwidth pulse in Nd:glass based on hybrid-broaden mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujingqin; Lanqin, L; Wenyi, W; Feng, J; Xiaofeng, W; Xiaomin, Z; Bin, L

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the cross relaxation time is proposed to combine the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broaden mechanism for broad bandwidth pulse amplification model. The corresponding velocity equation, which can describe the response of inverse population on upper and low energy level of gain media to different frequency of pulse, is also put forward. The gain saturation and energy relaxation effect are also included in the velocity equation. Code named CPAP has been developed to simulate the amplifying process of broad bandwidth pulse in multi-pass laser system. The amplifying capability of multi-pass laser system is evaluated and gain narrowing and temporal shape distortion are also investigated when bandwidth of pulse and cross relaxation time of gain media are different. Results can benefit the design of high-energy PW laser system in LFRC, CAEP

  1. Amplifying modeling for broad bandwidth pulse in Nd:glass based on hybrid-broaden mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujingqin; Lanqin, L; Wenyi, W; Feng, J; Xiaofeng, W; Xiaomin, Z [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P. O. Box 919-988, Mianyang, China, 621900 (China); Bin, L [School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu. China, 610031 (China)], E-mail: sujingqin@tom.com

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, the cross relaxation time is proposed to combine the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broaden mechanism for broad bandwidth pulse amplification model. The corresponding velocity equation, which can describe the response of inverse population on upper and low energy level of gain media to different frequency of pulse, is also put forward. The gain saturation and energy relaxation effect are also included in the velocity equation. Code named CPAP has been developed to simulate the amplifying process of broad bandwidth pulse in multi-pass laser system. The amplifying capability of multi-pass laser system is evaluated and gain narrowing and temporal shape distortion are also investigated when bandwidth of pulse and cross relaxation time of gain media are different. Results can benefit the design of high-energy PW laser system in LFRC, CAEP.

  2. Periodically Collapsing Bubbles in Stock Prices Cointegrated with Broad Dividends and Macroeconomic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Fu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We study fluctuations in stock prices using a framework derived from the present value model augmented with a macroeconomic factor. The fundamental value is derived as the expected present discounted value of broad dividends that include, in addition to traditional cash dividends, other payouts to shareholders. A stochastic discount factor motivated by the consumption-based asset pricing model is utilized. A single macroeconomic factor, namely the output gap determines the non-fundamental component of stock prices. A resulting trivariate Vector Autoregression (TVAR model of stock prices, broad dividends, and the output gap shows evidence of cointegration in the DJIA and S&P 500 index data. Nonetheless, a sup augmented Dickey-Fuller test reveals existence of periodically collapsing bubbles in S&P 500 data during the late 1990s.

  3. Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Treatment and Subsequent Childhood Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine D; Bergholt, Thomas; Bouaziz, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    of childhood type 1 diabetes and the potential effect-modification by mode of delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Danish nationwide cohort study including all singletons born during 1997-2010. End of follow-up by December 2012. Four national registers provided information on antibiotic redemptions, outcome...... and confounders. Redemptions of antibiotic prescriptions during the first two years of life was classified into narrow-spectrum or broad-spectrum antibiotics. Children were followed from age two to fourteen, both inclusive. The risk of type 1 diabetes with onset before the age of 15 years was assessed by Cox...... regression. A total of 858,201 singletons contributed 5,906,069 person-years, during which 1,503 children developed type 1 diabetes. RESULTS: Redemption of broad-spectrum antibiotics during the first two years of life was associated with an increased rate of type 1 diabetes during the following 13 years...

  4. New focal plane detector system for the broad range spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    A focal plane detector system consisting of a vertical drift chamber, parallel plate avalanche counters, and an ionization chamber with segmented anodes has been installed in the Broad Range Spectrometer at the Holifield Facility at Oak Ridge. The system, which has been designed for use with light-heavy ions with energies ranging from 10 to 25 MeV/amu, has a position resolution of approx. 0.1 mm, a scattering angle resolution of approx. 3 mrad, and a mass resolution of approx. 1/60

  5. Essential tension: specialization with broad and general training in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael C

    2006-11-01

    The practice fields of psychology develop through specialization in training and education. The recognized specialties play a major role in developing new opportunities for professional psychology and providing quality services for the public. The essential tension comes from the balance of innovation and tradition and, in professional psychology, from the balance of fragmentation and unification. As an example, specialization in clinical child psychology is integrated within the broad and general traditions. The greater degree of focused science and practice in a specialty is the logical consequence of advances of the discipline and profession of psychology. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36 previou...... makes a recent tentative detection of a scattering feature less likely. Instead, the available spectral measurements of HAT-P-32 b favour a completely flat spectrum from the near-UV to the near-IR. A plausible interpretation is a thick cloud cover at high altitudes....

  7. Report on broad reconsiderations. Part 1. Energy and Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    In twenty policy areas various working groups have studied variants that can lead to a 20% budget cut in the government budgets of the Netherlands, which must be realized in 2015. The aim of the reconsiderations is to use less government means to realize the same results, or even better results if possible. The broad reconsideration in the field of energy and climate focuses on the expenditure for renewable energy and energy efficiency, mitigating (inter)national climate policy and fiscal benefits. This report addresses six policy variants. [nl

  8. Assessment of average of normals (AON) procedure for outlier-free datasets including qualitative values below limit of detection (LoD): an application within tumor markers such as CA 15-3, CA 125, and CA 19-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Murat; Aral, Hale; Mete Çilingirtürk, Ahmet; Kural, Alev; Topaç, Ibrahim; Semerci, Tuna; Hicri Köseoğlu, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    Average of normals (AON) is a quality control procedure that is sensitive only to systematic errors that can occur in an analytical process in which patient test results are used. The aim of this study was to develop an alternative model in order to apply the AON quality control procedure to datasets that include qualitative values below limit of detection (LoD). The reported patient test results for tumor markers, such as CA 15-3, CA 125, and CA 19-9, analyzed by two instruments, were retrieved from the information system over a period of 5 months, using the calibrator and control materials with the same lot numbers. The median as a measure of central tendency and the median absolute deviation (MAD) as a measure of dispersion were used for the complementary model of AON quality control procedure. The u bias values, which were determined for the bias component of the measurement uncertainty, were partially linked to the percentages of the daily median values of the test results that fall within the control limits. The results for these tumor markers, in which lower limits of reference intervals are not medically important for clinical diagnosis and management, showed that the AON quality control procedure, using the MAD around the median, can be applied for datasets including qualitative values below LoD.

  9. Generation of a Broad-Group HTGR Library for Use with SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Ronald James; Lee, Deokjung; Wiarda, Dorothea; Williams, Mark L.; Mertyurek, Ugur

    2012-01-01

    With current and ongoing interest in high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) anticipates the need for nuclear data libraries appropriate for use in applications for modeling, assessing, and analyzing HTGR reactor physics and operating behavior. The objective of this work was to develop a broad-group library suitable for production analyses with SCALE for HTGR applications. Several interim libraries were generated from SCALE fine-group 238- and 999-group libraries, and the final broad-group library was created from Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version ENDF/B-VII Release 0 cross-section evaluations using new ORNL methodologies with AMPX, SCALE, and other codes. Furthermore, intermediate resonance (IR) methods were applied to the HTGR broadgroup library, and lambda factors and f-factors were incorporated into the library s nuclear data files. A new version of the SCALE BONAMI module named BONAMI-IR was developed to process the IR data in the new library and, thus, eliminate the need for the CENTRM/PMC modules for resonance selfshielding. This report documents the development of the HTGR broad-group nuclear data library and the results of test and benchmark calculations using the new library with SCALE. The 81-group library is shown to model HTGR cases with similar accuracy to the SCALE 238-group library but with significantly faster computational times due to the reduced number of energy groups and the use of BONAMI-IR instead of BONAMI/CENTRM/PMC for resonance self-shielding calculations.

  10. Quasar outflow energetics from broad absorption line variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, S. M.; Shields, J. C.; Hamann, F. W.; Capellupo, D. M.; Herbst, H.

    2018-03-01

    Quasar outflows have long been recognized as potential contributors to the co-evolution between supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies. The role of outflows in active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback processes can be better understood by placing observational constraints on wind locations and kinetic energies. We utilize broad absorption line (BAL) variability to investigate the properties of a sample of 71 BAL quasars with P V broad absorption. The presence of P V BALs indicates that other BALs like C IV are saturated, such that variability in those lines favours clouds crossing the line of sight. We use these constraints with measurements of BAL variability to estimate outflow locations and energetics. Our data set consists of multiple-epoch spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and MDM Observatory. We detect significant (4σ) BAL variations from 10 quasars in our sample over rest-frame time-scales between ≤0.2-3.8 yr. Our derived distances for the 10 variable outflows are nominally ≲ 1-10 pc from the SMBH using the transverse-motion scenario, and ≲ 100-1000 pc from the central source using ionization-change considerations. These distances, in combination with the estimated high outflow column densities (i.e. NH ≳ 1022 cm-2), yield outflow kinetic luminosities between ˜ 0.001 and 1 times the bolometric luminosity of the quasar, indicating that many absorber energies within our sample are viable for AGN feedback.

  11. Broad spectrum microarray for fingerprint-based bacterial species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frey Jürg E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are powerful tools for DNA-based molecular diagnostics and identification of pathogens. Most target a limited range of organisms and are based on only one or a very few genes for specific identification. Such microarrays are limited to organisms for which specific probes are available, and often have difficulty discriminating closely related taxa. We have developed an alternative broad-spectrum microarray that employs hybridisation fingerprints generated by high-density anonymous markers distributed over the entire genome for identification based on comparison to a reference database. Results A high-density microarray carrying 95,000 unique 13-mer probes was designed. Optimized methods were developed to deliver reproducible hybridisation patterns that enabled confident discrimination of bacteria at the species, subspecies, and strain levels. High correlation coefficients were achieved between replicates. A sub-selection of 12,071 probes, determined by ANOVA and class prediction analysis, enabled the discrimination of all samples in our panel. Mismatch probe hybridisation was observed but was found to have no effect on the discriminatory capacity of our system. Conclusions These results indicate the potential of our genome chip for reliable identification of a wide range of bacterial taxa at the subspecies level without laborious prior sequencing and probe design. With its high resolution capacity, our proof-of-principle chip demonstrates great potential as a tool for molecular diagnostics of broad taxonomic groups.

  12. [NDVI difference rate recognition model of deciduous broad-leaved forest based on HJ-CCD remote sensing data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Tian, Qing-Jiu; Huang, Yan; Wei, Hong-Wei

    2013-04-01

    The present paper takes Chuzhou in Anhui Province as the research area, and deciduous broad-leaved forest as the research object. Then it constructs the recognition model about deciduous broad-leaved forest was constructed using NDVI difference rate between leaf expansion and flowering and fruit-bearing, and the model was applied to HJ-CCD remote sensing image on April 1, 2012 and May 4, 2012. At last, the spatial distribution map of deciduous broad-leaved forest was extracted effectively, and the results of extraction were verified and evaluated. The result shows the validity of NDVI difference rate extraction method proposed in this paper and also verifies the applicability of using HJ-CCD data for vegetation classification and recognition.

  13. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  14. Electrically-pumped, broad-area, single-mode photonic crystal lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Chak, Philip; Poon, Joyce K S; DeRose, Guy A; Yariv, Amnon; Scherer, Axel

    2007-05-14

    Planar broad-area single-mode lasers, with modal widths of the order of tens of microns, are technologically important for high-power applications and improved coupling efficiency into optical fibers. They may also find new areas of applications in on-chip integration with devices that are of similar size scales, such as for spectroscopy in microfluidic chambers or optical signal processing with micro-electromechanical systems. An outstanding challenge is that broad-area lasers often require external means of control, such as injection-locking or a frequency/spatial filter to obtain single-mode operation. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate effective index-guided, large-area, edge-emitting photonic crystal lasers driven by pulsed electrical current injection at the optical telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. By suitable design of the photonic crystal lattice, our lasers operate in a single mode with a 1/e(2) modal width of 25 microm and a length of 600 microm.

  15. Diferentes diâmetros de gotas e equipamentos para aplicação de inseticida no controle de Pseudoplusia includens Diameter of droplets and different equipments for the application of insecticide to control Pseudoplusia includes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. G. di Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    for the hydraulic nozzle; and two dosages of the insecticide endosulfan (0.5 and 1.0 L pc ha-1, in fully randomized plots, in a factorial scheme 2x2x2 and 1 untreated check. The caterpillars mortality was evaluated until the 6th day after the application of treatments. The spectrum of the droplets was evaluated in a particle size analyzer in real time determining the diameter and spectrum of droplets sprayed through the laser beam of the analyser. It was verified that the spray volume can be reduced by 17 L ha-1 without losses on the P. includens control. The doses of 0.5 L pc ha-1 (recommended for Anticarsia gemmatalis did not satisfactorily control the caterpillar soybean looper. The atomizer produces droplets of higher uniformity (SPAN: 0.52 and lower percentage of droplets susceptible to drift (3.3% compared to hydraulic nozzle (SPAN: 1.34 e % droplets ≤ 100µm: 15.2.

  16. Zγ production at NNLO including anomalous couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John M.; Neumann, Tobias; Williams, Ciaran

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present a next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) QCD calculation of the processes pp → l + l -γ and pp\\to ν \\overline{ν}γ that we have implemented in MCFM. Our calculation includes QCD corrections at NNLO both for the Standard Model (SM) and additionally in the presence of Zγγ and ZZγ anomalous couplings. We compare our implementation, obtained using the jettiness slicing approach, with a previous SM calculation and find broad agreement. Focusing on the sensitivity of our results to the slicing parameter, we show that using our setup we are able to compute NNLO cross sections with numerical uncertainties of about 0.1%, which is small compared to residual scale uncertainties of a few percent. We study potential improvements using two different jettiness definitions and the inclusion of power corrections. At √{s}=13 TeV we present phenomenological results and consider Zγ as a background to H → Zγ production. We find that, with typical cuts, the inclusion of NNLO corrections represents a small effect and loosens the extraction of limits on anomalous couplings by about 10%.

  17. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  18. Characterization of Dosimetry of the BMRR Horizontal Thimble Tubes and Broad Beam Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu,J.P.; Reciniello, R.N.; Holden, N.E.

    2008-05-05

    The Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor was a 5 mega-watt, light-water cooled and heavy-graphite moderated research facility. It has two shutter-equipped treatment rooms, three horizontally extended thimble tubes, and an ex-core broad beam facility. The three experimental thimbles, or activation ports, external to the reactor tank were designed for several uses, including the investigations on diagnostic and therapeutic methods using radioactive isotopes of very short half-life, the analysis of radiation exposure on tissue-equivalent materials using a collimated neutron beam, and the evaluation of dose effects on biological cells to improve medical treatment. At the broad beam facility where the distribution of thermal neutrons was essential uniform, a wide variety of mammalian whole-body exposures were studied using animals such as burros or mice. Also studied at the broad beam were whole-body phantom experiments, involving the use of a neutron or photon beam streaming through a screen to obtain the flux spectrum suitable for dose analysis on the sugar-urea-water mixture, a tissue-equivalent material. Calculations of the flux and the dose at beam ports based on Monte Carlo particle-transport code were performed, and measurements conducted at the same tally locations were made using bare or cadmium-covered gold foils. Analytical results, which show good agreement with measurement data, are presented in the paper.

  19. Flexible Ferroelectric Sensors with Ultrahigh Pressure Sensitivity and Linear Response over Exceptionally Broad Pressure Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngoh; Park, Jonghwa; Cho, Soowon; Shin, Young-Eun; Lee, Hochan; Kim, Jinyoung; Myoung, Jinyoung; Cho, Seungse; Kang, Saewon; Baig, Chunggi; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2018-04-24

    Flexible pressure sensors with a high sensitivity over a broad linear range can simplify wearable sensing systems without additional signal processing for the linear output, enabling device miniaturization and low power consumption. Here, we demonstrate a flexible ferroelectric sensor with ultrahigh pressure sensitivity and linear response over an exceptionally broad pressure range based on the material and structural design of ferroelectric composites with a multilayer interlocked microdome geometry. Due to the stress concentration between interlocked microdome arrays and increased contact area in the multilayer design, the flexible ferroelectric sensors could perceive static/dynamic pressure with high sensitivity (47.7 kPa -1 , 1.3 Pa minimum detection). In addition, efficient stress distribution between stacked multilayers enables linear sensing over exceptionally broad pressure range (0.0013-353 kPa) with fast response time (20 ms) and high reliability over 5000 repetitive cycles even at an extremely high pressure of 272 kPa. Our sensor can be used to monitor diverse stimuli from a low to a high pressure range including weak gas flow, acoustic sound, wrist pulse pressure, respiration, and foot pressure with a single device.

  20. The dark side of going abroad: How broad foreign experiences increase immoral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jackson G; Quoidbach, Jordi; Gino, Francesca; Chakroff, Alek; Maddux, William W; Galinsky, Adam D

    2017-01-01

    Because of the unprecedented pace of globalization, foreign experiences are increasingly common and valued. Past research has focused on the benefits of foreign experiences, including enhanced creativity and reduced intergroup bias. In contrast, the present work uncovers a potential dark side of foreign experiences: increased immoral behavior. We propose that broad foreign experiences (i.e., experiences in multiple foreign countries) foster not only cognitive flexibility but also moral flexibility. Using multiple methods (longitudinal, correlational, and experimental), 8 studies (N > 2,200) establish that broad foreign experiences can lead to immoral behavior by increasing moral relativism-the belief that morality is relative rather than absolute. The relationship between broad foreign experiences and immoral behavior was robust across a variety of cultural populations (anglophone, francophone), life stages (high school students, university students, MBA students, middle-aged adults), and 7 different measures of immorality. As individuals are exposed to diverse cultures, their moral compass may lose some of its precision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouse, C.A.; Simnad, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement is described for nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux. The reactor shielding includes means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron

  2. Self-Consistent Dynamical Model of the Broad Line Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerny, Bozena [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Li, Yan-Rong [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Sredzinska, Justyna; Hryniewicz, Krzysztof [Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Panda, Swayam [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Wildy, Conor [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Karas, Vladimir, E-mail: bcz@cft.edu.pl [Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-06-22

    We develop a self-consistent description of the Broad Line Region based on the concept of a failed wind powered by radiation pressure acting on a dusty accretion disk atmosphere in Keplerian motion. The material raised high above the disk is illuminated, dust evaporates, and the matter falls back toward the disk. This material is the source of emission lines. The model predicts the inner and outer radius of the region, the cloud dynamics under the dust radiation pressure and, subsequently, the gravitational field of the central black hole, which results in asymmetry between the rise and fall. Knowledge of the dynamics allows us to predict the shapes of the emission lines as functions of the basic parameters of an active nucleus: black hole mass, accretion rate, black hole spin (or accretion efficiency) and the viewing angle with respect to the symmetry axis. Here we show preliminary results based on analytical approximations to the cloud motion.

  3. Broad line NMR study of modified polypropylene fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olcak, D.; Sevcovic, L.; Mucha, L.

    1999-01-01

    Study of drawn fibres prepared from an isostatic polypropylene modified by an ethylene aminoalkylacrylate copolymer has been done using the broad line of 1 H NMR. NMR spectra were measured on the set of fibres prepared with a draw ratio λ from 1 to 5.5 at two temperatures, one of them corresponding to the onset of segmental motion and the other one is the minddle of the temperature interval as determined by decrease of the second moment M 2 . Decomposition of the spectra into elementary components related to the amorphous, intermediate and crystalline regions of partially crystalline polymers has been made. The drawing of the fibres was found to enhance the chain mobility in the amorphous region and to restrain the molecular motion in the intermediate region. Such behaviour well supports conclusions predicted in the earlier study based on the spin-lattice relaxation time T 1 and dynamic mechanical data treated using the WLF theory. (Authors)

  4. Triplasmatron sources for broad and reactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejeune, C.; Grandchamp, J.P.; Kessi, O.; Gilles, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Two alternative discharge structures, which are both convenient for the extraction of broad and reactive ion beams, are described. They have been designed in order to overcome both lifetime and beam contamination problems while preserving a high ionization efficiency and a smooth plasma uniformity. They both use a hot cathode duoplasmatron discharge to inject ionizing electrons into the main ionization chamber, according to the triplasmatron concept. The triplasmatron multipolar ion source (TMIS) uses the magnetic multipolar containment of both electrons and ions, whereas the triplasmatron reflex ion source (TRIS) uses the electrostatic and geometric containment of the ionizing electrons. The behaviour and performance of both structures are reported and discussed with a special emphasis to the operation with either oxygen or fluorocarbon gases. (author)

  5. Self-Consistent Dynamical Model of the Broad Line Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozena Czerny

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We develop a self-consistent description of the Broad Line Region based on the concept of a failed wind powered by radiation pressure acting on a dusty accretion disk atmosphere in Keplerian motion. The material raised high above the disk is illuminated, dust evaporates, and the matter falls back toward the disk. This material is the source of emission lines. The model predicts the inner and outer radius of the region, the cloud dynamics under the dust radiation pressure and, subsequently, the gravitational field of the central black hole, which results in asymmetry between the rise and fall. Knowledge of the dynamics allows us to predict the shapes of the emission lines as functions of the basic parameters of an active nucleus: black hole mass, accretion rate, black hole spin (or accretion efficiency and the viewing angle with respect to the symmetry axis. Here we show preliminary results based on analytical approximations to the cloud motion.

  6. Antiproton-neutron annihilations at rest: Search for broad states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalogeropoulos, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The searches so far for meson states produced in p-bar annihilations at rest into π+X have been sensitive to narrow X states. The combinatorial background and the narrow phase space width in missing mass spectra are the main problems. Most of the theoretical models predict broad states. We have measured in a high statistis experiment p-bar(at rest)d→π/sup +- /+Anything inclusive spectra. Using a novel analysis technique the π + π - difference spectra, it is shown that the p-barn annihilation is dominated by two-body cascades. Two new states of opposite G-parity of (mass, width) = (1480, 100) MeV/c 2 are dominant. The G = +1 state has a large decay branching ratio into rho 0 rho 0 . Other features are presented

  7. Streetlights attract a broad array of beetle species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Augusto Souza de Medeiros

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Light pollution on ecosystems is a growing concern, and knowledge about the effects of outdoor lighting on organisms is crucial to understand and mitigate impacts. Here we build up on a previous study to characterize the diversity of all beetles attracted to different commonly used streetlight set ups. We find that lights attract beetles from a broad taxonomic and ecological spectrum. Lights that attract a large number of insect individuals draw an equally high number of insect species. While there is some evidence for heterogeneity in the preference of beetle species to different kinds of light, all species are more attracted to some light radiating ultraviolet. The functional basis of this heterogeneity, however, is not clear. Our results highlight that control of ultraviolet radiation in public lighting is important to reduce the number and diversity of insects attracted to lights. Keywords: Lighting, Coleoptera, Light pollution, Insects, Ultraviolet

  8. Separation of components of a broad 1H-NMR composite signal by means of nutation experiments under low amplitude radiofrequency fields. Application to the water signal in synthetic clays; Developpement et mise en oeuvre d'une nouvelle methode fondee sur le phenomene de nutation pour la decomposition d'un signal composite de resonance magnetique nucleaire. Application au signal 1h de l'eau dans des argiles synthetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trausch, G

    2006-11-15

    Nowadays, geologic nuclear waste storage is envisioned according to a multi-layer model which implies clays. The latter exhibit retention capacities and low permeability to water; that is why they are considered as a good candidate for engineered barriers to radioactive waste disposal. The present work here aims at studying transport phenomena which involve water molecules in three samples of synthetic clays (two of them exhibiting a Pake doublet) by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The first chapter describes structural properties of clays and presents the state-of-art of NMR and other experimental techniques used for such systems. The second chapter deals with the interpretation and the simulation of each conventional proton spectrum. These simulations allow us to evidence and to characterize a chemical exchange phenomenon. The third chapter is dedicated to original nutation experiments performed under low radiofrequency field in the case of broad NMR signal. It is shown that this type of NMR experiment can yield the number and the proportion of each species contributing to the whole signal. These results are exploited in the fourth chapter for processing relaxation and diffusion experiments. Finally, the diffusion coefficients obtained by NMR are divided by a factor 4 with respect to pure water while relaxation rates are two orders of magnitude greater. (author)

  9. Automatic and controlled processing and the Broad Autism Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camodeca, Amy; Voelker, Sylvia

    2016-01-30

    Research related to verbal fluency in the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP) is limited and dated, but generally suggests intact abilities in the context of weaknesses in other areas of executive function (Hughes et al., 1999; Wong et al., 2006; Delorme et al., 2007). Controlled processing, the generation of search strategies after initial, automated responses are exhausted (Spat, 2013), has yet to be investigated in the BAP, and may be evidenced in verbal fluency tasks. One hundred twenty-nine participants completed the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Verbal Fluency test (D-KEFS; Delis et al., 2001) and the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ; Hurley et al., 2007). The BAP group (n=53) produced significantly fewer total words during the 2nd 15" interval compared to the Non-BAP (n=76) group. Partial correlations indicated similar relations between verbal fluency variables for each group. Regression analyses predicting 2nd 15" interval scores suggested differentiation between controlled and automatic processing skills in both groups. Results suggest adequate automatic processing, but slowed development of controlled processing strategies in the BAP, and provide evidence for similar underlying cognitive constructs for both groups. Controlled processing was predictive of Block Design score for Non-BAP participants, and was predictive of Pragmatic Language score on the BAPQ for BAP participants. These results are similar to past research related to strengths and weaknesses in the BAP, respectively, and suggest that controlled processing strategy use may be required in instances of weak lower-level skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation between degradation and broadness of the transition in CICC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai

    2013-01-01

    Cable in conduit conductor (CICC) performance is characterized in terms of relationships involving the electric field (E), voltage (V), temperature (T), current (I), magnetic field (B) and strain. Development of the electrical field in the V–T or V–I transitions in CICCs is exponential. These transitions plotted in the coordinates log E versus T or log E versus I look like straight lines. ITER Nb 3 Sn CICCs show degradation of properties versus load cycles that could be attributed to plastic deformation of the Nb 3 Sn strands or fracture of the superconducting filaments. The degradation is expressed in terms of the reduction of the current sharing temperature T cs or critical current I c , respectively. It was noticed long ago that degradation is accompanied by a significant broadening of the V–T or V–I transition, that looks like a change in the slope in the semi-log coordinate plot. This paper presents some systematic observations of correlations between the critical parameters and broadness of the transition in many CICCs. In most cases, the broadness of the transition seems to be a more sensitive indicator of the conductor damage even in cases where T cs degradation is not clearly seen. T cs degradation typically becomes obvious later in the cycling, especially after warm-up and following cool-down and more cycling. In some cases, a CICC manifests temporary or even a permanent growth of T cs with load cycles, especially in the latest measurements of the CS conductors with short twist pitches. A possible mechanism of degradation that allows qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is discussed and is supported by the voltage measurements on the cable in the TFUS1 sample with the voltage taps penetrating the jacket to the cable. (paper)

  11. Outflow and hot dust emission in broad absorption line quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Zhou, Hongyan [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Shanghai 200136 (China); Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Tinggui; Xing, Feijun; Jiang, Peng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Kai, E-mail: zhangshaohua@pric.gov.cn, E-mail: whywang@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2014-05-01

    We have investigated a sample of 2099 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with z = 1.7-2.2 built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven and the Wide-field Infrared Survey. This sample is collected from two BAL quasar samples in the literature and is refined by our new algorithm. Correlations of outflow velocity and strength with a hot dust indicator (β{sub NIR}) and other quasar physical parameters—such as an Eddington ratio, luminosity, and a UV continuum slope—are explored in order to figure out which parameters drive outflows. Here β{sub NIR} is the near-infrared continuum slope, which is a good indicator of the amount of hot dust emission relative to the accretion disk emission. We confirm previous findings that outflow properties moderately or weakly depend on the Eddington ratio, UV slope, and luminosity. For the first time, we report moderate and significant correlations of outflow strength and velocity with β{sub NIR} in BAL quasars. It is consistent with the behavior of blueshifted broad emission lines in non-BAL quasars. The statistical analysis and composite spectra study both reveal that outflow strength and velocity are more strongly correlated with β{sub NIR} than the Eddington ratio, luminosity, and UV slope. In particular, the composites show that the entire C IV absorption profile shifts blueward and broadens as β{sub NIR} increases, while the Eddington ratio and UV slope only affect the high and low velocity part of outflows, respectively. We discuss several potential processes and suggest that the dusty outflow scenario, i.e., that dust is intrinsic to outflows and may contribute to the outflow acceleration, is most likely.

  12. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  13. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  14. Integrated DNA walking system to characterize a broad spectrum of GMOs in food/feed matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiture, Marie-Alice; Herman, Philippe; Lefèvre, Loic; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc; Deforce, Dieter; Roosens, Nancy H

    2015-08-14

    In order to provide a system fully integrated with qPCR screening, usually used in GMO routine analysis, as well as being able to detect, characterize and identify a broad spectrum of GMOs in food/feed matrices, two bidirectional DNA walking methods targeting p35S or tNOS, the most common transgenic elements found in GM crops, were developed. These newly developed DNA walking methods are completing the previously implemented DNA walking method targeting the t35S pCAMBIA element. Food/feed matrices containing transgenic crops (Bt rice or MON863 maize) were analysed using the integrated DNA walking system. First, the newly developed DNA walking methods, anchored on the sequences used for the p35S or tNOS qPCR screening, were tested on Bt rice that contains these two transgenic elements. Second, the methods were assessed on a maize sample containing a low amount of the GM MON863 event, representing a more complex matrix in terms of genome size and sensitivity. Finally, to illustrate its applicability in GMO routine analysis by enforcement laboratories, the entire workflow of the integrated strategy, including qPCR screening to detect the potential presence of GMOs and the subsequent DNA walking methods to characterize and identify the detected GMOs, was applied on a GeMMA Scheme Proficiency Test matrix. Via the characterization of the transgene flanking region between the transgenic cassette and the plant genome as well as of a part of the transgenic cassette, the presence of GMOs was properly confirmed or infirmed in all tested samples. Due to their simple procedure and their short time-frame to get results, the developed DNA walking methods proposed here can be easily implemented in GMO routine analysis by the enforcement laboratories. In providing crucial information about the transgene flanking regions and/or the transgenic cassettes, this DNA walking strategy is a key molecular tool to prove the presence of GMOs in any given food/feed matrix.

  15. A light-weight compact proton gantry design with a novel dose delivery system for broad-energetic laser-accelerated beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, U; Cowan, T E; Enghardt, W; Hofmann, K M; Karsch, L; Kroll, F; Schramm, U; Wilkens, J J; Pawelke, J

    2017-07-07

    Proton beams may provide superior dose-conformity in radiation therapy. However, the large sizes and costs limit the widespread use of proton therapy (PT). The recent progress in proton acceleration via high-power laser systems has made it a compelling alternative to conventional accelerators, as it could potentially reduce the overall size and cost of the PT facilities. However, the laser-accelerated beams exhibit different characteristics than conventionally accelerated beams, i.e. very intense proton bunches with large divergences and broad-energy spectra. For the application of laser-driven beams in PT, new solutions for beam transport, such as beam capture, integrated energy selection, beam shaping and delivery systems are required due to the specific beam parameters. The generation of these beams are limited by the low repetition rate of high-power lasers and this limitation would require alternative solutions for tumour irradiation which can efficiently utilize the available high proton fluence and broad-energy spectra per proton bunch to keep treatment times short. This demands new dose delivery system and irradiation field formation schemes. In this paper, we present a multi-functional light-weight and compact proton gantry design for laser-driven sources based on iron-less pulsed high-field magnets. This achromatic design includes improved beam capturing and energy selection systems, with a novel beam shaping and dose delivery system, so-called ELPIS. ELPIS system utilizes magnetic fields, instead of physical scatterers, for broadening the spot-size of broad-energetic beams while capable of simultaneously scanning them in lateral directions. To investigate the clinical feasibility of this gantry design, we conducted a treatment planning study with a 3D treatment planning system augmented for the pulsed beams with optimizable broad-energetic widths and selectable beam spot sizes. High quality treatment plans could be achieved with such unconventional beam

  16. A light-weight compact proton gantry design with a novel dose delivery system for broad-energetic laser-accelerated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, U.; Cowan, T. E.; Enghardt, W.; Hofmann, K. M.; Karsch, L.; Kroll, F.; Schramm, U.; Wilkens, J. J.; Pawelke, J.

    2017-07-01

    Proton beams may provide superior dose-conformity in radiation therapy. However, the large sizes and costs limit the widespread use of proton therapy (PT). The recent progress in proton acceleration via high-power laser systems has made it a compelling alternative to conventional accelerators, as it could potentially reduce the overall size and cost of the PT facilities. However, the laser-accelerated beams exhibit different characteristics than conventionally accelerated beams, i.e. very intense proton bunches with large divergences and broad-energy spectra. For the application of laser-driven beams in PT, new solutions for beam transport, such as beam capture, integrated energy selection, beam shaping and delivery systems are required due to the specific beam parameters. The generation of these beams are limited by the low repetition rate of high-power lasers and this limitation would require alternative solutions for tumour irradiation which can efficiently utilize the available high proton fluence and broad-energy spectra per proton bunch to keep treatment times short. This demands new dose delivery system and irradiation field formation schemes. In this paper, we present a multi-functional light-weight and compact proton gantry design for laser-driven sources based on iron-less pulsed high-field magnets. This achromatic design includes improved beam capturing and energy selection systems, with a novel beam shaping and dose delivery system, so-called ELPIS. ELPIS system utilizes magnetic fields, instead of physical scatterers, for broadening the spot-size of broad-energetic beams while capable of simultaneously scanning them in lateral directions. To investigate the clinical feasibility of this gantry design, we conducted a treatment planning study with a 3D treatment planning system augmented for the pulsed beams with optimizable broad-energetic widths and selectable beam spot sizes. High quality treatment plans could be achieved with such unconventional beam

  17. Standarized radiological hazard analysis for a broad based operational safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadman, W.W. III; Andrews, L.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Radiological hazard Analysis (RHA) Manual provides a methodology and detailed guidance for systematic analysis of radiological hazards over a broad spectrum of program functions, housed in a wide variety of facilities. Radiological programs at LANL include: research and experimentation; routine materials operations; production; non-destructive examination or testing; isotope and machine produced radiations; chemistry; and metallurgy. The RHA permits uniform evaluation of hazard types over a range of several orders of magnitude of hazard severity. The results are used to estimate risk, evaluate types and level or resource allocations, identify deficiencies, and plan corrective actions for safe working environments. 2 refs

  18. Asialoerythropoietin is a nonerythropoietic cytokine with broad neuroprotective activity in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbayraktar, Serhat; Grasso, Giovanni; Sfacteria, Alessandra

    2003-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a tissue-protective cytokine preventing vascular spasm, apoptosis, and inflammatory responses. Although best known for its role in hematopoietic lineages, EPO also affects other tissues, including those of the nervous system. Enthusiasm for recombinant human erythropoietin...... importantly, asialoEPO exhibits a broad spectrum of neuroprotective activities, as demonstrated in models of cerebral ischemia, spinal cord compression, and sciatic nerve crush. These data suggest that nonerythropoietic variants of rhEPO can cross the blood-brain barrier and provide neuroprotection....

  19. Standardized radiological hazard analysis for a broad based operational safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadman, W. III; Andrews, L.

    1992-01-01

    The Radiological Hazard Analysis (RHA) Manual provides a methodology and detailed guidance for systematic analysis of radiological hazards over a broad spectrum of program functions, housed in a wide variety of facilities. Radiological programs at LANL include: research and experimentation routine materials operations; production; non-destructive examination or testing; isotope and machine produced radiations; chemistry; and metallurgy. The RHA permits uniform evaluation of hazard types over a range of several orders of magnitude of hazard severity. The results are used to estimate risk, evaluate types and level of resource allocations, identify deficiencies, and plan corrective actions for safe working environments. (author)

  20. Variable epitope libraries: new vaccine immunogens capable of inducing broad human immunodeficiency virus type 1-neutralizing antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles-Niño, Claudia; Pedroza-Roldan, Cesar; Viveros, Monica; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen

    2011-07-18

    The extreme antigenic variability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to immune escape of the virus, representing a major challenge in the design of effective vaccine. We have developed a novel concept for immunogen construction based on introduction of massive mutations within the epitopes targeting antigenically variable pathogens and diseases. Previously, we showed that these immunogens carrying large combinatorial libraries of mutated epitope variants, termed as variable epitope libraries (VELs), induce potent, broad and long lasting CD8+IFN-γ+ T-cell response. Moreover, we demonstrated that these T cells recognize more than 50% of heavily mutated variants (5 out of 10 amino acid positions were mutated in each epitope variant) of HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop-derived cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope (RGPGRAFVTI) in mice. The constructed VELs had complexities of 10000 and 12500 individual members, generated as plasmid DNA or as M13 phage display combinatorial libraries, respectively, and with structural composition RGPGXAXXXX or XGXGXAXVXI, where X is any of 20 natural amino acids. Here, we demonstrated that sera from mice immunized with these VELs are capable of neutralizing 5 out of 10 viral isolates from Tier 2 reference panel of subtype B envelope clones, including HIV-1 isolates which are known to be resistant to neutralization by several potent monoclonal antibodies, described previously. These data indicate the feasibility of the application of immunogens based on VEL concept as an alternative approach for the development of molecular vaccines against antigenically variable pathogens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preliminary results of a broad beam RF ion source with electron plasma interaction. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, M E; Zakhary, S G; Ghanem, A A; Abdel-Ghaffar, A M [Ion Sources and Accelerators Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    A new design of a broad beam RF ion source is made to be capable to deliver wide and uniform beam with currents reaching (100 {mu} A up to 30 mA) at extraction voltages (200 V up to 2 kV). Its plasma intensifying system is made with the addition of electrons from an immersed filament in the discharge and axial magnetic field (70 up to 300 G). A uniform beam distribution is made with a planner graphite cathode which has a number of holes arranged to produce perveance matching with the normal Gaussian distribution of the beam density. These holes are arranged in a consequent orbits with equal distance between the adjacent holes in each orbit. These holes increase in diameter with increasing the orbit radius. This allows increasing the extracted ion currents at the source outer edges and decreases its value at the source inner region; producing wide and uniform beam which is suitable for material modifications. The beam profiles are traced with electromechanical scanner and X-Y recorder. The perveance matching is found to produce a beam uniformity of =66% of its width which reaches =6 cm. The variation of the output currents are with the variation of extraction voltages, magnetic field, discharge pressure and electron injection into the plasma. The extracted current increases with the increase of the discharge pressure, RF power and magnetic field intensity. The influence of electron plasma interaction is found to have a great effect on increasing the ion currents to about four times its value without electron interaction, however, this increase is limited due to presence of breakdown at V{sub ex} > 2 kV. The simple design of this source, its cleanness due to the use of pyrex discharge bottle, easy operation and maintenance adds other features to this broad beam type ion source which makes it suitable for metallurgical applications in broad beam accelerators. 6 figs.

  2. Broad temperature adaptability of vanadium redox flow battery—Part 2: Cell research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Jingyu; Xiao, Shuibo; Yu, Lihong; Wu, Lantao; Liu, Le; Qiu, Xinping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • VRFB can operate in a broad temperature range from −20 °C to 50 °C with high efficiency. • High temperatures reduce the ohmic and polarization resistances of VRFB. • The CE and capacity retention drop with temperature rising. • Operating at alternate temperatures gives extra damage to the VRFB. - Abstract: The operating temperature of vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) will change with seasons and places. Hence, the broad temperature adaptability of VRFB is one of the key issues which affect its large-scale practical application. In our previous work, we have reported the impact of temperature (−35 °C–50 °C) on the static stability, physicochemical and electrochemical properties of five typical vanadium electrolytes (Electrochim. Acta, 2016, 187, 525). As a follow-up study, VRFB single cells are evaluated in this paper at a broad temperature range under current density of 40–200 mA cm −2 . The results show that VRFB can operate from −20 °C to 50 °C with acceptable energy efficiency under appropriate current densities (e.g. 65%–78% at 100 mA cm −2 ). Ohmic and polarization resistances of VRFB decrease with temperature while the voltage efficiency and electrolyte utilization present the opposite tendency. The fast crossover of the vanadium ions at high temperatures aggravates the capacity fading of the cell. Notably, VRFB suffers much more damage during alternate temperatures operation between moderate temperature and high temperature, which should be given special attention.

  3. Studies on broad spectrum corrosion resistant oxide coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Corrosion resistant coating materials and their application ... technology demand such corrosion resistant coatings having a ... mill additives used are as follows: China clay, 3⋅0–10⋅0; .... stage involves modification in processing of the deve-.

  4. Practical applications of phosphors

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, William M; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Drawn from the second edition of the best-selling Phosphor Handbook, Practical Applications of Phosphors outlines methods for the production of various phosphors and discusses a broad spectrum of applications. Beginning with methods for synthesis and related technologies, the book sets the stage by classifying and then explaining practical phosphors according to usage. It describes the operating principle and structure of phosphor devices and the phosphor characteristics required for a given device, then covers the manufacturing processes and characteristics of phosphors. The book discusses research and development currently under way on phosphors with potential for practical usage and touches briefly on phosphors that have played a historical role, but are no longer of practical use. It provides a comprehensive treatment of applications including lamps and cathode-ray tubes, x-ray and ionizing radiation, and for vacuum fluorescent and field emission displays and covers inorganic and organic electroluminescen...

  5. Optimized packings with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pintér, János

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of case studies that address a substantial range of optimized object packings (OOP) and their applications. The contributing authors are well-recognized researchers and practitioners. The mathematical modelling and numerical solution aspects of each application case study are presented in sufficient detail. A broad range of OOP problems are discussed: these include various specific and non-standard container loading and object packing problems, as well as the stowing of hazardous and other materials on container ships, data centre resource management, automotive engineering design, space station logistic support, cutting and packing problems with placement constraints, the optimal design of LED street lighting, robust sensor deployment strategies, spatial scheduling problems, and graph coloring models and metaheuristics for packing applications. Novel points of view related to model development and to computational nonlinear, global, mixed integer optimization and heuristic st...

  6. Manufacturing technologies for ultrasonic transducers in a broad frequency range

    OpenAIRE

    Gebhardt, Sylvia; Hohlfeld, Kai; Günther, Paul; Neubert, Holger

    2018-01-01

    According to the application field, working frequency of ultrasonic transducers needs to be tailored to a certain value. Low frequency ultrasonic transducers with working frequencies of 1 kHz to 1 MHz are especially interesting for sonar applications, whereas high frequency ultrasonic transducers with working frequencies higher than 15 MHz are favorable for high-resolution imaging in biomedical and non-destructive evaluation. Conventional non-destructive testing devices and clinical ultrasoun...

  7. Brevibacillus laterosporus, a Pathogen of Invertebrates and a Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ruiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Brevibacillus laterosporus, a bacterium characterized by the production of a unique canoe-shaped lamellar body attached to one side of the spore, is a natural inhabitant of water, soil and insects. Its biopesticidal potential has been reported against insects in different orders including Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and against nematodes and mollusks. In addition to its pathogenicity against invertebrates, different B. laterosporus strains show a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity including activity against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi. A wide variety of molecules, including proteins and antibiotics, have been associated with the observed pathogenicity and mode of action. Before being considered as a biological control agent against plant pathogens, the antifungal and antibacterial properties of certain B. laterosporus strains have found medical interest, associated with the production of antibiotics with therapeutic effects. The recent whole genome sequencing of this species revealed its potential to produce polyketides, nonribosomal peptides, and toxins. Another field of growing interest is the use of this bacterium for bioremediation of contaminated sites by exploiting its biodegradation properties. The aim of the present review is to gather and discuss all recent findings on this emerging entomopathogen, giving a wider picture of its complex and broad-spectrum biocontrol activity.

  8. The case for expanding the definition of 'key populations' to include ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case for expanding the definition of 'key populations' to include high-risk groups in the general population ... South African Medical Journal ... to formal housing and services, access to higher education, and broad economic transformation.

  9. Your solar energy home: including wind and methane applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howell, Derek

    1979-01-01

    .... When a particular title is adopted or recommended for adoption for class use and the recommendation results in a sale of 12 or more copies, the inspection copy may be retained with our compliments. The Publishers will be pleased to receive suggestions for revised editions and new titles to be published in this important International Library.Other Pergamon ...

  10. Younger Adults Show Long-Term Effects of Cognitive Training on Broad Cognitive Abilities over 2 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedek, Florian; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    In the COGITO study (Schmiedek, Lövdén, & Lindenberger, 2010), 101 younger adults practiced 12 tests of perceptual speed, working memory, and episodic memory for over 100 daily 1-hr sessions. The intervention resulted in positive transfer to broad cognitive abilities, including reasoning and episodic memory. Here, we examine whether these…

  11. Effect of urbanization on the structure and functional traits of remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liujing Huang; Hongfeng Chen; Hai Ren; Jun Wang; Qinfeng Guo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of major environmental drivers associated with urbanization on species diversity and plant functional traits (PFTs) in the remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in Metropolitan Guangzhou (Guangdong, China). Twenty environmental factors including topography, light, and soil properties were used to quantify the effects of...

  12. Characterisation of the Broadly-Specific O-Methyl-transferase JerF from the Late Stages of Jerangolid Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Friedrich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the characterisation of the O-methyltransferase JerF from the late stages of jerangolid biosynthesis. JerF is the first known example of an enzyme that catalyses the formation of a non-aromatic, cyclic methylenolether. The enzyme was overexpressed in E. coli and the cell-free extracts were used in bioconversion experiments. Chemical synthesis gave access to a series of substrate surrogates that covered a broad structural space. Enzymatic assays revealed a broad substrate tolerance and high regioselectivity of JerF, which makes it an attractive candidate for an application in chemoenzymatic synthesis with particular usefulness for late stage application on 4-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one-containing natural products.

  13. Bio-Inspired Wide-Angle Broad-Spectrum Cylindrical Lens Based on Reflections from Micro-Mirror Array on a Cylindrical Elastomeric Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chieh Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a wide-angle, broad-spectrum cylindrical lens based on reflections from an array of three-dimensional, high-aspect-ratio micro-mirrors fabricated on a cylindrical elastomeric substrate, functionally inspired by natural reflecting superposition compound eyes. Our device can perform one-dimensional focusing and beam-shaping comparable to conventional refraction-based cylindrical lenses, while avoiding chromatic aberration. The focal length of our cylindrical lens is 1.035 mm, suitable for micro-optical systems. Moreover, it demonstrates a wide field of view of 152° without distortion, as well as modest spherical aberrations. Our work could be applied to diverse applications including laser diode collimation, barcode scanning, holography, digital projection display, microlens arrays, and optical microscopy.

  14. Broad-band near-field ground motion simulations in 3-dimensional scattering media

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.

    2012-12-06

    The heterogeneous nature of Earth\\'s crust is manifested in the scattering of propagating seismic waves. In recent years, different techniques have been developed to include such phenomenon in broad-band ground-motion calculations, either considering scattering as a semi-stochastic or purely stochastic process. In this study, we simulate broad-band (0–10 Hz) ground motions with a 3-D finite-difference wave propagation solver using several 3-D media characterized by von Karman correlation functions with different correlation lengths and standard deviation values. Our goal is to investigate scattering characteristics and its influence on the seismic wavefield at short and intermediate distances from the source in terms of ground motion parameters. We also examine scattering phenomena, related to the loss of radiation pattern and the directivity breakdown. We first simulate broad-band ground motions for a point-source characterized by a classic ω2 spectrum model. Fault finiteness is then introduced by means of a Haskell-type source model presenting both subshear and super-shear rupture speed. Results indicate that scattering plays an important role in ground motion even at short distances from the source, where source effects are thought to be dominating. In particular, peak ground motion parameters can be affected even at relatively low frequencies, implying that earthquake ground-motion simulations should include scattering also for peak ground velocity (PGV) calculations. At the same time, we find a gradual loss of the source signature in the 2–5 Hz frequency range, together with a distortion of the Mach cones in case of super-shear rupture. For more complex source models and truly heterogeneous Earth, these effects may occur even at lower frequencies. Our simulations suggests that von Karman correlation functions with correlation length between several hundred metres and few kilometres, Hurst exponent around 0.3 and standard deviation in the 5–10 per cent

  15. A tunable, linac based, intense, broad-band THz source forpump-probe experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmerge, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Adolphsen, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Corbett, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dolgashev, V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Durr, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fazio, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fisher, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Frisch, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gaffney, K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Guehr, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hastings, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hettel, B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hoffmann, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hogan, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Holtkamp, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, X. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kirchmann, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); LaRue, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Limborg, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lindenberg, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Loos, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Maxwell, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nilsson, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Raubenheimer, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Reis, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ross, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Shen, Z. -X. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stupakov, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tantawi, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tian, K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wu, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Xiang, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yakimenko, V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-02-02

    We propose an intense THz source with tunable frequency and bandwidth that can directly interact with the degrees of freedom that determine the properties of materials and thus provides a new tool for controlling and directing these ultrafast processes as well as aiding synthesis of new materials with new functional properties. This THz source will broadly impact our understanding of dynamical processes in matter at the atomic-scale and in real time. Established optical pumping schemes using femtosecond visible frequency laser pulses for excitation are extended into the THz frequency regime thereby enabling resonant excitation of bonds in correlated solid state materials (phonon pumping), to drive low energy electronic excitations, to trigger surface chemistry reactions, and to all-optically bias a material with ultrashort electric fields or magnetic fields. A linac-based THz source can supply stand-alone experiments with peak intensities two orders of magnitude stronger than existing laser-based sources, but when coupled with atomic-scale sensitive femtosecond x-ray probes it opens a new frontier in ultrafast science with broad applications to correlated materials, interfacial and liquid phase chemistry, and materials in extreme conditions.

  16. Testing Event Discrimination over Broad Regions using the Historical Borovoye Observatory Explosion Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasyanos, Michael E.; Ford, Sean R.; Walter, William R.

    2014-03-01

    We test the performance of high-frequency regional P/S discriminants to differentiate between earthquakes and explosions at test sites and over broad regions using a historical dataset of explosions recorded at the Borovoye Observatory in Kazakhstan. We compare these explosions to modern recordings of earthquakes at the same location. We then evaluate the separation of the two types of events using the raw measurements and those where the amplitudes are corrected for 1-D and 2-D attenuation structure. We find that high-frequency P/S amplitudes can reliably identify earthquakes and explosions, and that the discriminant is applicable over broad regions as long as propagation effects are properly accounted for. Lateral attenuation corrections provide the largest improvement in the 2-4 Hz band, the use of which may successfully enable the identification of smaller, distant events that have lower signal-to-noise at higher frequencies. We also find variations in P/S ratios among the three main nuclear testing locations within the Semipalatinsk Test Site which, due to their nearly identical paths to BRVK, must be a function of differing geology and emplacement conditions.

  17. Narrow and broad solitons in the antiferromagnetic chains of CsCoCl3 and TMMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, J.P.; Regnault, L.P.; Pires, A.; Rossat-Mignod, J.; Henry, Y.; Bouillot, J.; Stirling, W.G.; Renard, J.P.

    1984-06-01

    The two quasi one-dimensional (1D) compounds CsCoCl 3 and (CH 3 ) 4 NMnCl 3 (TMMC) are almost ideal systems in which to study soliton excitations. Both they have antiferromagnetic (AF) couplings in the chains and at low temperature they exhibit an Ising symmetry favourable for the occurence of solitons. This symmetry is an intrinsic property of CsCoCl 3 while in TMMC it is only achieved by the application of an external magnetic field H perpendicular to the chains. In the lD short range order regime two energetically equivalent configurations are expected for the spins. Solitons can be seen as Bloch walls separating ordered domains and allowing the spins to pass from one configuration to the other. In the case of a ''strong'' Ising symmetry (CsCoCl 3 ) the walls are reduced to one lattice unit (''narrow'' solitons) while in the case of a ''weak'' Ising symmetry (TMMC) the walls extend over several lattice units (10 to 30) (''broad'' solitons). To maintain a paramagnetic state, these walls move rapidly along the chains inducing characteristic fluctuations. The investigation of these two compounds, CsCoCl 3 and TMMC illustrates the advantage of antiferromagnets as the AF mode yields an accurate determination of the soliton regime. Narrow and broad solitons are observed to behave very similarly

  18. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dixit

    Full Text Available Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly, respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  19. Broad-lined Supernova 2016coi with a Helium Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Masayuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Kawabata, Miho [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaomi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Maeda, Keiichi [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Honda, Satoshi; Hosoya, Kensuke; Karita, Mayu; Morihana, Kumiko [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Hanayama, Hidekazu [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 1024-1 Arakawa, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Morokuma, Tomoki [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Imai, Masataka [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Kita 10 Nishi8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Kinugasa, Kenzo [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 462-2 Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Murata, Katsuhiro L. [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Nishimori, Takefumi; Gima, Hirotaka; Ito, Ayano; Morikawa, Yuto; Murakami, Kotone [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hashimoto, Osamu, E-mail: yamanaka@center.konan-u.ac.jp [Gunma Astronomical Observatory, Takayama, Gunma 377-0702 (Japan); and others

    2017-03-01

    We present the early-phase spectra and the light curves of the broad-lined (BL) supernova (SN) 2016coi from t = 7 to 67 days after the estimated explosion date. This SN was initially reported as a BL Type SN Ic (SN Ic-BL). However, we found that spectra up to t = 12 days exhibited the He i λ 5876, λ 6678, and λ 7065 absorption lines. We show that the smoothed and blueshifted spectra of normal SNe Ib are remarkably similar to the observed spectrum of SN 2016coi. The line velocities of SN 2016coi were similar to those of SNe Ic-BL and significantly faster than those of SNe Ib. Analyses of the line velocity and light curve suggest that the kinetic energy and the total ejecta mass of SN 2016coi are similar to those of SNe Ic-BL. Together with BL SNe 2009bb and 2012ap, for which the detection of He i was also reported, these SNe could be transitional objects between SNe Ic-BL and SNe Ib, and be classified as BL Type “Ib” SNe (SNe “Ib”-BL). Our work demonstrates the diversity of the outermost layer in BL SNe, which should be related to the variety of the evolutionary paths.

  20. Isotope incorporation in broad-snouted caimans (crocodilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Caut

    2013-05-01

    The trophic ecology and migration of vertebrate species have been increasingly studied using stable isotope analysis. However, this approach requires knowledge on how dietary isotopic values are reflected in consumers' tissues. To date, this information has only been obtained for a handful of ectotherms; in particular, little is known about crocodilians. In this study, diet-tissue discrimination factors (DTDFs and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope turnover rates were estimated for plasma, red blood cells (RBCs, and muscle obtained from broad-snouted caimans (Caiman latirostris. Individuals were fed two different control diets for 189 days. DTDFs for δ15N (Δ15N and δ13C (Δ13C ranged from −2.24‰ to 0.39‰ and from −0.52‰ to 1.06‰, respectively. Isotope turnover rates in tissues, expressed as half-lives, ranged from 11 to 71 days, with plasma

  1. Clustering Measurements of broad-line AGNs: Review and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Krumpe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial effort, the precise physical processes that lead to the growth of super-massive black holes in the centers of galaxies are still not well understood. These phases of black hole growth are thought to be of key importance in understanding galaxy evolution. Forthcoming missions such as eROSITA, HETDEX, eBOSS, BigBOSS, LSST, and Pan-STARRS will compile by far the largest ever Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs catalogs which will allow us to measure the spatial distribution of AGNs in the universe with unprecedented accuracy. For the first time, AGN clustering measurements will reach a level of precision that will not only allow for an alternative approach to answering open questions in AGN and galaxy co-evolution but will open a new frontier, allowing us to precisely determine cosmological parameters. This paper reviews large-scale clustering measurements of broad line AGNs. We summarize how clustering is measured and which constraints can be derived from AGN clustering measurements, we discuss recent developments, and we briefly describe future projects that will deliver extremely large AGN samples which will enable AGN clustering measurements of unprecedented accuracy. In order to maximize the scientific return on the research fields of AGN and galaxy evolution and cosmology, we advise that the community develops a full understanding of the systematic uncertainties which will, in contrast to today’s measurement, be the dominant source of uncertainty.

  2. Enhanced Methanol Production in Plants Provides Broad Spectrum Insect Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants. PMID:24223989

  3. Effect of regulatory architecture on broad versus narrow sense heritability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Wang

    Full Text Available Additive genetic variance (VA and total genetic variance (VG are core concepts in biomedical, evolutionary and production-biology genetics. What determines the large variation in reported VA /VG ratios from line-cross experiments is not well understood. Here we report how the VA /VG ratio, and thus the ratio between narrow and broad sense heritability (h(2 /H(2 , varies as a function of the regulatory architecture underlying genotype-to-phenotype (GP maps. We studied five dynamic models (of the cAMP pathway, the glycolysis, the circadian rhythms, the cell cycle, and heart cell dynamics. We assumed genetic variation to be reflected in model parameters and extracted phenotypes summarizing the system dynamics. Even when imposing purely linear genotype to parameter maps and no environmental variation, we observed quite low VA /VG ratios. In particular, systems with positive feedback and cyclic dynamics gave more non-monotone genotype-phenotype maps and much lower VA /VG ratios than those without. The results show that some regulatory architectures consistently maintain a transparent genotype-to-phenotype relationship, whereas other architectures generate more subtle patterns. Our approach can be used to elucidate these relationships across a whole range of biological systems in a systematic fashion.

  4. A study of tachyon dynamics for broad classes of potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros, Israel [Division de Ciencias e Ingenieria de la Universidad de Guanajuato, AP 150, 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Gonzalez, Tame [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Central de Las Villas, 54830 Santa Clara (Cuba); Gonzalez, Dania; Napoles, Yunelsy [Departamento de Matematica, Universidad Central de Las Villas, 54830 Santa Clara (Cuba); GarcIa-Salcedo, Ricardo [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Legaria del IPN, Mexico DF (Mexico); Moreno, Claudia, E-mail: iquiros@Fisica.ugto.m, E-mail: tame@uclv.edu.c, E-mail: dgm@uclv.edu.c, E-mail: yna@uclv.edu.c, E-mail: rigarcias@ipn.m, E-mail: claudia.moreno@cucei.udg.m [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e IngenierIas, Av. Revolucion 1500 SR, Universidad de Guadalajara, 44430 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2010-11-07

    We investigate in detail the asymptotic properties of tachyon cosmology for a broad class of self-interaction potentials. The present approach relies on an appropriate re-definition of the tachyon field, which, in conjunction with a method formerly applied in the bibliography in a different context allows us to generalize the dynamical systems study of tachyon cosmology to a wider class of self-interaction potentials beyond the (inverse) square-law one. It is revealed that independent of the functional form of the potential, the matter-dominated solution and the ultra-relativistic (also matter-dominated) solution are always associated with equilibrium points in the phase space of the tachyon models. The latter is always the past attractor, while the former is a saddle critical point. For inverse power-law potentials V{proportional_to}{phi}{sup -2{lambda}} the late-time attractor is always the de Sitter solution, while for sinh-like potentials V{proportional_to}sinh {sup -{alpha}}({lambda}{sup {phi}}), depending on the region of parameter space, the late-time attractor can be either the inflationary tachyon-dominated solution or the matter-scaling (also inflationary) phase. In general, for most part of known quintessential potentials, the late-time dynamics will be associated either with de Sitter inflation, or with matter-scaling, or with scalar field-dominated solutions.

  5. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.

    2017-05-09

    Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

  6. Microwave RF antennas and circuits nonlinearity applications in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Aluf, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a new concept for analyzing RF/microwave circuits, which includes RF/microwave antennas. The book is unique in its emphasis on practical and innovative microwave RF engineering applications. The analysis is based on nonlinear dynamics and chaos models and shows comprehensive benefits and results. All conceptual RF microwave circuits and antennas are innovative and can be broadly implemented in engineering applications. Given the dynamics of RF microwave circuits and antennas, they are suitable for use in a broad range of applications. The book presents analytical methods for microwave RF antennas and circuit analysis, concrete examples, and geometric examples. The analysis is developed systematically, starting with basic differential equations and their bifurcations, and subsequently moving on to fixed point analysis, limit cycles and their bifurcations. Engineering applications include microwave RF circuits and antennas in a variety of topological structures, RFID ICs and antennas, micros...

  7. Indoles induce metamorphosis in a broad diversity of jellyfish, but not in a crown jelly (Coronatae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Rebecca R; Dunn, Casey W

    2017-01-01

    Many animals go through one or more metamorphoses during their lives, however, the molecular underpinnings of metamorphosis across diverse species are not well understood. Medusozoa (Cnidaria) is a clade of animals with complex life cycles, these life cycles can include a polyp stage that metamorphoses into a medusa (jellyfish). Medusae are produced through a variety of different developmental mechanisms-in some species polyps bud medusae (Hydrozoa), in others medusae are formed through polyp fission (Scyphozoa), while in others medusae are formed through direct transformation of the polyp (Cubozoa). To better understand the molecular mechanisms that may coordinate these different forms of metamorphosis, we tested two compounds first identified to induce metamorphosis in the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita (indomethacin and 5-methoxy-2-methylindole) on a broad diversity of medusozoan polyps. We discovered that indole-containing compounds trigger metamorphosis across a broad diversity of species. All tested discomedusan polyps metamorphosed in the presence of both compounds, including species representatives of several major lineages within the clade (Pelagiidae, Cyaneidae, both clades of Rhizostomeae). In a cubozoan, low levels of 5-methoxy-2-methylindole reliably induced complete and healthy metamorphosis. In contrast, neither compound induced medusa metamorphosis in a coronate scyphozoan, or medusa production in either hydrozoan tested. Our results support the hypothesis that metamorphosis is mediated by a conserved induction pathway within discomedusan scyphozoans, and possibly cubozoans. However, failure of these compounds to induce metamorphosis in a coronate suggests this induction mechanism may have been lost in this clade, or is convergent between Scyphozoa and Cubozoa.

  8. Development of potent in vivo mutagenesis plasmids with broad mutational spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Ahmed H; Liu, David R

    2015-10-07

    Methods to enhance random mutagenesis in cells offer advantages over in vitro mutagenesis, but current in vivo methods suffer from a lack of control, genomic instability, low efficiency and narrow mutational spectra. Using a mechanism-driven approach, we created a potent, inducible, broad-spectrum and vector-based mutagenesis system in E. coli that enhances mutation 322,000-fold over basal levels, surpassing the mutational efficiency and spectra of widely used in vivo and in vitro methods. We demonstrate that this system can be used to evolve antibiotic resistance in wild-type E. coli in mutagenesis of chromosomes, episomes and viruses in vivo, and are applicable to both bacterial and bacteriophage-mediated laboratory evolution platforms.

  9. Discharge coefficient of a rectangular sharp-edged broad-crested weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachoval Zbyněk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the determination of the relationship for the calculation of the discharge coefficient at free overflow over a rectangular sharp-edged broad-crested weir without lateral contraction. The determination was made on the basis of new measurement in a range of the relative thickness of the weir from 0.12 to 0.30 and newly in a large range of relative height of the weir extremely from 0.24 to 6.8 which greatly expands the application possibilities of low weirs. In addition, the effects of friction and surface tension on the value of the discharge coefficient were evaluated as well as the effect of the relative thickness of the weir. The new equation for discharge coefficient, expressed using the relative height of the weir, was subjected to verification made by an independent laboratory which confirmed its accuracy.

  10. Partially ionized plasmas including the third symposium on uranium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [ed.

    1976-09-01

    Separate abstracts are included for 28 papers on electrically generated plasmas, fission generated plasmas, nuclear pumped lasers, gaseous fuel reactor research, and applications. Five papers have been previously abstracted and included in ERA.

  11. Spatiotemporal exploratory models for broad-scale survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Daniel; Hochachka, Wesley M; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Winkler, David W; Shaby, Ben; Munson, M Arthur; Hooker, Giles; Riedewald, Mirek; Sheldon, Daniel; Kelling, Steve

    2010-12-01

    The distributions of animal populations change and evolve through time. Migratory species exploit different habitats at different times of the year. Biotic and abiotic features that determine where a species lives vary due to natural and anthropogenic factors. This spatiotemporal variation needs to be accounted for in any modeling of species' distributions. In this paper we introduce a semiparametric model that provides a flexible framework for analyzing dynamic patterns of species occurrence and abundance from broad-scale survey data. The spatiotemporal exploratory model (STEM) adds essential spatiotemporal structure to existing techniques for developing species distribution models through a simple parametric structure without requiring a detailed understanding of the underlying dynamic processes. STEMs use a multi-scale strategy to differentiate between local and global-scale spatiotemporal structure. A user-specified species distribution model accounts for spatial and temporal patterning at the local level. These local patterns are then allowed to "scale up" via ensemble averaging to larger scales. This makes STEMs especially well suited for exploring distributional dynamics arising from a variety of processes. Using data from eBird, an online citizen science bird-monitoring project, we demonstrate that monthly changes in distribution of a migratory species, the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), can be more accurately described with a STEM than a conventional bagged decision tree model in which spatiotemporal structure has not been imposed. We also demonstrate that there is no loss of model predictive power when a STEM is used to describe a spatiotemporal distribution with very little spatiotemporal variation; the distribution of a nonmigratory species, the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis).

  12. Physical processes and sedimentation on a broad, shallow bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. P.; Hsu, S. A.; Roberts, H. H.; Owens, E. H.; Crout, R. L.

    1982-02-01

    An integrated study of the meteorology, physical oceanography, sedimentationand coastal morphology on the broad, shallow Miskito Bank off the eastern coast of Nicaragua has uncovered systematic interrelationships between driving forces. Bank geometry and sedimentologic environments on the Bank. Extremely high rainfall results from an interaction between meteorological processes over the Bank and topographic effects along the coast. Both acoustic and radio sounding of the lower atmosphere have documented the feedback between convective plumes, inversion layers and the incessant rainfall, which brings three times more freshwater and 15 times more sediment down to a unit length of coast than on the U.S. Atlantic shore. The resultant brackish, turbid coastal water moves as a highly organized band of water parallel to the coast. Seaward of this coastal boundary layer, offshore water from the Caribbean Current rides up on the Bank and provides an environment ideal for carbonate production. A zone of fine-grained terrigenous sediment underlying the coastal boundary current merges abruptly into a smooth carbonate plain covering most of the surface of the Bank. These central Bank carbonates are composed primarily of the disintegration products of prolific calcareous green algae. A trend of high relief, luxuriant coral reef growth is aligned along the steep dropoff at the Bank edge, a zone of observed upwelling of cooler and saltier basin water. A threefold southerly increase in wave energy at the shoreline due to the decreasing width of the shallow shelf results in wave-dominated coastal morphologies in the south compared to fluvial domination in the north and a systematic change from straight, linear bars and beaches in the north to rhythmic topography in the south.

  13. Constructing Repairable Meta-Structures of Ultra-Broad-Band Electromagnetic Absorption from Three-Dimensional Printed Patterned Shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei-Li; Zhou, Zhili; Wang, Li-Chen; Cheng, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Mingji; He, Rujie; Chen, Haosen; Yang, Yazheng; Fang, Daining

    2017-12-13

    Ultra-broad-band electromagnetic absorption materials and structures are increasingly attractive for their critical role in competing with the advanced broad-band electromagnetic detection systems. Mechanically soft and weak wax-based materials composites are known to be insufficient to serve in practical electromagnetic absorption applications. To break through such barriers, here we developed an innovative strategy to enable the wax-based composites to be robust and repairable meta-structures by employing a three-dimensional (3D) printed polymeric patterned shell. Because of the integrated merits from both the dielectric loss wax-based composites and mechanically robust 3D printed shells, the as-fabricated meta-structures enable bear mechanical collision and compression, coupled with ultra-broad-band absorption (7-40 and 75-110 GHz, reflection loss  smaller than -10 dB) approaching state-of-the-art electromagnetic absorption materials. With the assistance of experiment and simulation methods, the design advantages and mechanism of employing such 3D printed shells for substantially promoting the electromagnetic absorption performance have been demonstrated. Therefore, such universal strategy that could be widely extended to other categories of wax-based composites highlights a smart stage on which high-performance practical multifunction meta-structures with ultra-broad-band electromagnetic absorption could be envisaged.

  14. Spraying Brassinolide improves Sigma Broad tolerance in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) through modulation of antioxidant activity and photosynthetic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Li-Guang; Huang, Lei; Yang, Hui-Jie; Zhong, Yan-Ting; Ning, Na; Wen, Yin-Yuan; Dong, Shu-Qi; Song, Xi-E; Wang, Hong-Fu; Guo, Ping-Yi

    2017-09-11

    To explore the role of Brassinolide (BR) in improving the tolerance of Sigma Broad in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.), effects of 0.1 mg/L of BR foliar application 24 h before 3.37 g/ha of Sigma Broad treatment at five-leaf stage of foxtail millet on growth parameters, antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde (MDA), chlorophyll, net photosynthetic rate (P N ), chlorophyll fluorescence and P 700 parameters were studied 7 and 15 d after herbicide treatment, respectively. Results showed that Sigma Broad significantly decreased plant height, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), chlorophyll content, P N , PS II effective quantum yield (Y (II)), PS II electron transport rate (ETR (II)), photochemical quantum yield of PSI(Y (I)) and PS I electron transport rate ETR (I), but significantly increased MDA. Compared to herbicide treatment, BR dramatically increased plant height, activities of SOD, Y (II), ETR (II), Y (I) and ETR (I). This study showed BR pretreatment could improve the tolerance of Sigma Broad in foxtail millet through improving the activity of antioxidant enzymes, keeping electron transport smooth, and enhancing actual photochemical efficiency of PS II and PSI.

  15. High-performance broad-band spectroscopy for breast cancer risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Blackmore, Kristina; Dick, Samantha; Lilge, Lothar

    2005-09-01

    Medical diagnostics and screening are becoming increasingly demanding applications for spectroscopy. Although for many years the demand was satisfied with traditional spectrometers, analysis of complex biological samples has created a need for instruments capable of detecting small differences between samples. One such application is the measurement of absorbance of broad spectrum illumination by breast tissue, in order to quantify the breast tissue density. Studies have shown that breast cancer risk is closely associated with the measurement of radiographic breast density measurement. Using signal attenuation in transillumination spectroscopy in the 550-1100nm spectral range to measure breast density, has the potential to reduce the frequency of ionizing radiation, or making the test accessible to younger women; lower the cost and make the procedure more comfortable for the patient. In order to determine breast density, small spectral variances over a total attenuation of up to 8 OD have to be detected with the spectrophotometer. For this, a high performance system has been developed. The system uses Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) transmission grating, a 2D detector array for simultaneous registration of the whole spectrum with high signal to noise ratio, dedicated optical system specifically optimized for spectroscopic applications and many other improvements. The signal to noise ratio exceeding 50,000 for a single data acquisition eliminates the need for nitrogen cooled detectors and provides sufficient information to predict breast tissue density. Current studies employing transillumination breast spectroscopy (TIBS) relating to breast cancer risk assessment and monitoring are described.

  16. Broad-spectrum antibacterial properties of metal-ion doped borate bioactive glasses for clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottomeyer, Megan

    Bioactive glasses with antimicrobial properties can be implemented as coatings on medical devices and implants, as well as a treatment for tissue repair and prevention of common hospital-acquired infections such as MRSA. A borate-containing glass, B3, is also undergoing clinical trials to assess wound-healing properties. The sensitivities of various bacteria to B3, B3-Ag, B3-Ga, and B3-I bioactive glasses were tested. In addition, the mechanism of action for the glasses was studied by spectroscopic enzyme kinetics experiments, Live-Dead staining fluorescence microscopy, and luminescence assays using two gene fusion strains of Escherichia coli. It was found that gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to all four glasses than gram negative bacteria, and that a single mechanism of action for the glasses is unlikely, as the rates of catalysis for metabolic enzymes as well as membrane permeability were altered after glass exposure.

  17. Impact of spinal cord injury on sexuality: Broad-based clinical practice intervention and practical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Marika J.; Hough, Sigmund

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the impact a spinal cord injury may have on achieving physical and emotional intimacy, and potential to maximize sexual ability and quality of life. Spinal cord injury is a traumatic, life-altering event that is usually associated with loss of motor and sensory function, as well as sexual impairment. At the time of injury, the individual is faced with devastating loss and an abundance of new information in a setting of extreme stress and challenge. In the acute rehabilitation setting, there is often a considerable void in providing education and resources regarding sexual concerns and needs. There is a positive relationship between sexual education and sexual activity. The impact of inadequate sexual counseling and education as a part of rehabilitation can be deleterious. PMID:22925747

  18. 76 FR 9777 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Determination to 40 CFR part in lieu of of Nitrogen 60, subpart G, Method 7 with Oxide Emissions Standards of... test Standards of 30-day as specified in Performance for compliance test 60.46b(e). Industrial... Fiberglass Mat Industries. Production. [[Page 9780

  19. 75 FR 7593 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... quality Isokinetic Method. Pollutants for assurance; Prepare Hazardous Waste calibration standards... flow meter of Stack Gas Velocity 60.18(f)(4). in lieu of Method 2. and Volumetric Flow Rate (Type S Pitot Tube). ALT-055 Method 2A--Direct Flares subject to Use a mass flow meter Measurement of Gas 60.18...

  20. Broad-scale assessments of ecological landscapes: developing methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Wood, David J. A.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Haby, Travis S.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Landscape Approach for managing multiple uses of public lands by incorporating multiscale information to quantify the effects of natural and human influences on natural resource conditions and trends. A primary goal of the approach is to identify opportunities for resource conservation, restoration, and development. The BLM Landscape Approach is developing assessment methods that promote consistency in management decisions, identify ecological characteristics that promote ecosystem resilience under rapidly changing environmental conditions, and foster collaboration among land management agencies. The BLM Landscape Approach is closely aligned with the DOI’s “A Strategy for Improving the Mitigation Policies and Practices of The Department of the Interior.”

  1. Unlearned History: The Ineffectual Application of U.S. Broad Economic Sanctions Against Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    17 Dursun Peksen and A. Cooper Drury , “Coercive or Corrosive: The Negative Impact of Economic Sanctions on Democracy,” International...20 Peksen and Drury , “Coercive or Corrosive,” 244. 21 Hufbauer et all, Economic Sanctions Reconsidered, 67...Summary_Killings.pdf. 28 Dursun Peksen and A. Cooper Drury , "Economic Sanctions and Political Repression: Assessing the Impact of Coercive Diplomacy on

  2. Stable material modication with polymers incorporation for broad application in microfabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mednova, Olga

    The aim of this thesis is to improve SU-8 fracture resistance in order to eliminate micro crack formation during fabrication of microelectromechanical system (MEMS). An amphiphilic block copolymer incorporation, as an efficient method of material toughening without changing its original properties...... analytical techniques. The second part of the thesis describes modified SU-8 blends. Thermal stability, structural organization, components interaction, hardness and brittleness of the composites are described. Finally, lithographic properties of modified SU-8 blends have been tested. Commercial SU-8...... and the modified blends demonstrate identically patternability and high aspect ratio structures can be obtained regardless of PEE-b-P2VP content. In conclusion, a recommendation of SU-8 modification with as little as 5 wt.% of PEE30-b-P2VP69 is made in order to avoid micro crack formation and its growth during...

  3. The soil health tool - theory and initial broad-scale application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil health has traditionally been judged in terms of production; however, it recently has gained a wider focus with a global audience, as soil condition is becoming an environmental quality, human health, and political issue. A crucial initial step in evaluating soil health is properly assessing t...

  4. Mutations in STRA6 cause a broad spectrum of malformations including anophthalmia, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, alveolar capillary dysplasia, lung hypoplasia, and mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasutto, Francesca; Sticht, Heinrich; Hammersen, Gerhard; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Fitzpatrick, David R.; Nuernberg, Gudrun; Brasch, Frank; Schirmer-Zimmermann, Heidemarie; Tolmie, John L.; Chitayat, David; Houge, Gunnar; Fernandez-Martinez, Lorena; Keating, Sarah; Mortier, Geert; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; von der Wense, Axel; Slavotinek, Anne; Meinecke, Peter; Bitoun, Pierre; Becker, Christian; Nuernberg, Peter; Reis, Andre; Rauch, Anita

    2007-01-01

    We observed two unrelated consanguineous families with malformation syndromes sharing anophthalmia and distinct eyebrows as common signs, but differing for alveolar capillary dysplasia or complex congenital heart defect in one and diaphragmatic hernia in the other family. Homozygosity mapping

  5. Whole-genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens EK007-RG4, a promising biocontrol agent against a broad range of bacteria, including the fire blight bacterium Erwinia amylovora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habibi, Roghayeh; Tarighi, Saeed; Behravan, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report the first draft whole-genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain EK007-RG4, which was isolated from the phylloplane of a pear tree. P. fluorescens EK007-RG4 displays strong antagonism against Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent for fire blight disease, in addition to several...

  6. Broad-scale Population Genetics of the Host Sea Anemone, Heteractis magnifica

    KAUST Repository

    Emms, Madeleine

    2015-12-01

    Broad-scale population genetics can reveal population structure across an organism’s entire range, which can enable us to determine the most efficient population-wide management strategy depending on levels of connectivity. Genetic variation and differences in genetic diversity on small-scales have been reported in anemones, but nothing is known about their broad-scale population structure, including that of “host” anemone species, which are increasingly being targeted in the aquarium trade. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as a tool to determine the population structure of a sessile, host anemone species, Heteractis magnifica, across the Indo-Pacific region. In addition, two rDNA markers were used to identify Symbiodinium from the samples, and phylogenetic analyses were used to measure diversity and geographic distribution of Symbiodinium across the region. Significant population structure was identified in H. magnifica across the Indo-Pacific, with at least three genetic breaks, possibly the result of factors such as geographic distance, geographic isolation and environmental variation. Symbiodinium associations were also affected by environmental variation and supported the geographic isolation of some regions. These results suggests that management of H. magnifica must be implemented on a local scale, due to the lack of connectivity between clusters. This study also provides further evidence for the combined effects of geographic distance and environmental distance in explaining genetic variance.

  7. Development of broad-spectrum human monoclonal antibodies for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedictis, P. de; Minola, A.; Rota, E.; Aiello, R.; Zecchin, B.; Salomoni, A.; Foglierini, M.; Agatic, G.; Vanzetta, F.; Lavenir, R.; Lepelletier, A.; Bentley, E.; Weiss, R.; Cattoli, G.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Currently available rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for use in humans includes equine or human rabies immunoglobulins (RIG). The replacement of RIG with an equally or more potent and safer product is strongly encouraged due to the high costs and limited availability of existing RIG. In this study, we identified two broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies that represent a valid and affordable alternative to RIG in rabies PEP. Memory B cells from four selected vaccinated donors were immortalized and monoclonal antibodies were tested for neutralizing activity and epitope specificity. Two antibodies, identified as RVC20 and RVC58 (binding to antigenic site I and III, respectively), were selected for their potency and broad-spectrum reactivity. In vitro, RVC20 and RVC58 were able to neutralize all 35 rabies virus (RABV) and 25 non-RABV lyssaviruses. They showed higher potency and breath compared to antibodies under clinical development (namely CR57, CR4098, and RAB1) and commercially available human RIG. In vivo, the RVC20–RVC58 cocktail protected Syrian hamsters from a lethal RABV challenge and did not affect the endogenous hamster post-vaccination antibody response. (author)

  8. Using the Properties of Broad Absorption Line Quasars to Illuminate Quasar Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Suk Yee; King, Anthea L.; Webster, Rachel L.; Bate, Nicholas F.; O'Dowd, Matthew J.; Labrie, Kathleen

    2018-06-01

    A key to understanding quasar unification paradigms is the emission properties of broad absorption line quasars (BALQs). The fact that only a small fraction of quasar spectra exhibit deep absorption troughs blueward of the broad permitted emission lines provides a crucial clue to the structure of quasar emitting regions. To learn whether it is possible to discriminate between the BALQ and non-BALQ populations given the observed spectral properties of a quasar, we employ two approaches: one based on statistical methods and the other supervised machine learning classification, applied to quasar samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The features explored include continuum and emission line properties, in particular the absolute magnitude, redshift, spectral index, line width, asymmetry, strength, and relative velocity offsets of high-ionisation C IV λ1549 and low-ionisation Mg II λ2798 lines. We consider a complete population of quasars, and assume that the statistical distributions of properties represent all angles where the quasar is viewed without obscuration. The distributions of the BALQ and non-BALQ sample properties show few significant differences. None of the observed continuum and emission line features are capable of differentiating between the two samples. Most published narrow disk-wind models are inconsistent with these observations, and an alternative disk-wind model is proposed. The key feature of the proposed model is a disk-wind filling a wide opening angle with multiple radial streams of dense clumps.

  9. The catholic taste of broad tapeworms - multiple routes to human infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeschenbach, Andrea; Brabec, Jan; Scholz, Tomáš; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Kuchta, Roman

    2017-11-01

    Broad tapeworms (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea) are the principal agents of widespread food-borne cestodosis. Diphyllobothriosis and diplogonoporosis, caused by members of the genera Diphyllobothrium, Diplogonoporus and Adenocephalus, are the most common fish cestodoses with an estimated 20million people infected worldwide, and has seen recent (re)emergences in Europe due to the increasing popularity of eating raw or undercooked fish. Sparganosis is a debilitating and potentially lethal disease caused by the larvae of the genus Spirometra, which occurs throughout much of the (sub)tropics and is caused by the consumption of raw snakes and frogs, and drinking water contaminated by infected copepods. Both diseases are caused by several species, but the frequency by which the transition to humans has occurred has never been studied. Using a phylogenetic framework of 30 species based on large and small nuclear ribosomal RNA subunits (ssrDNA, lsrDNA), large subunit mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnL) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1), we hypothesize that humans have been acquired asaccidental hosts four times across the tree of life of diphyllobothriideans. However, polytomies prevent an unambiguous reconstruction of the evolution of intermediate and definitive host use. The broad host spectrum and the frequency with which switching between major host groups appears to have occurred, may hold the answer as to why accidental human infection occurred multiple times across the phylogeny of diphyllobothriideans. In this study Diplogonoporus is determined to be the junior synonym of Diphyllobothrium. Furthermore, we divide the latter polyphyletic genus into (i) the resurrected genus Dibothriocephalus to include freshwater and terrestrial species including Dibothriocephalus dendriticus, Dibothriocephalus latus and Dibothriocephalus nihonkaiensis as the most common parasites of humans, and (ii) the genus Diphyllobothrium to accommodate parasites from cetaceans including

  10. Broad-spectrum enhanced absorption of graphene-molybdenum disulfide photovoltaic cells in metal-mirror microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang-Tao, Liu; Yun-Kai, Cao; Hong, Tong; Dai-Qiang, Wang; Zhen-Hua, Wu

    2018-04-01

    The optical absorption of graphene-molybdenum disulfide photovoltaic cells (GM-PVc) in wedge-shaped metal-mirror microcavities (w-MMCs) combined with a spectrum-splitting structure was studied. Results showed that the combination of spectrum-splitting structure and w-MMC can enable the light absorption of GM-PVcs to reach about 65% in the broad spectrum. The influence of processing errors on the absorption of GM-PVcs in w-MMCs was 3-14 times lower than that of GM-PVcs in wedge photonic crystal microcavities. The light absorption of GM-PVcs reached 60% in the broad spectrum, even with the processing errors. The proposed structure is easy to implement and may have potentially important applications in the development of ultra-thin and high-efficiency solar cells and optoelectronic devices.

  11. Broad substrate tolerance of tubulin tyrosine ligase enables one-step site-specific enzymatic protein labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Dominik; Lemke, Oliver; Helma, Jonas; Gerszonowicz, Lena; Waller, Verena; Stoschek, Tina; Durkin, Patrick M; Budisa, Nediljko; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Keller, Bettina G; Hackenberger, Christian P R

    2017-05-01

    The broad substrate tolerance of tubulin tyrosine ligase is the basic rationale behind its wide applicability for chemoenzymatic protein functionalization. In this context, we report that the wild-type enzyme enables ligation of various unnatural amino acids that are substantially bigger than and structurally unrelated to the natural substrate, tyrosine, without the need for extensive protein engineering. This unusual substrate flexibility is due to the fact that the enzyme's catalytic pocket forms an extended cavity during ligation, as confirmed by docking experiments and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. This feature enabled one-step C-terminal biotinylation and fluorescent coumarin labeling of various functional proteins as demonstrated with ubiquitin, an antigen binding nanobody, and the apoptosis marker Annexin V. Its broad substrate tolerance establishes tubulin tyrosine ligase as a powerful tool for in vitro enzyme-mediated protein modification with single functional amino acids in a specific structural context.

  12. 24th International Workshop in Operator Theory and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dritschel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This volume gathers contributions from the International Workshop on Operator Theory and Its Applications (IWOTA) held in Bangalore, India, in December 2013. All articles were written by experts and cover a broad range of original material at the cutting edge of operator theory and its applications. Topics include multivariable operator theory, operator theory on indefinite metric spaces (Krein and Pontryagin spaces) and its applications, spectral theory with applications to differential operators, the geometry of Banach spaces, scattering and time varying linear systems, and wavelets and coherent states.

  13. Economic analysis in support of broad scale land management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard. Haynes

    2003-01-01

    The US has a century of experience with the development of forest policies that have benefited from or been influenced by economic research activities in the forest sector. At the same time, increasing rigor in policy debates stimulated economics research. During the past four decades economic research has evolved to include increased understanding of consumer demands...

  14. Captivating Broad Audiences with an Internet-connected Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, K.; Elliott, L.; Gervais, F.; Juniper, K.; Owens, D.; Pirenne, B.

    2012-12-01

    NEPTUNE Canada, a network of Ocean Networks Canada and the first deep water cabled ocean observatory, began operations in December 2009. Located offshore Canada's west coast, the network streams data from passive, active, and interactive sensors positioned at five nodes along its 800 km long looped cable to the Internet. This technically advanced system includes a sophisticated data management and archiving system, which enables the collection of real-time physical, chemical, geological, and biological oceanographic data, including video, at resolutions relevant for furthering our understanding of the dynamics of the earth-ocean system. Scientists in Canada and around the world comprise the primary audience for these data, but NEPTUNE Canada is also serving these data to broader audiences including K-16 students and teachers, informal educators, citizen scientists, the press, and the public. Here we present our engagement tools, approaches, and experiences including electronic books, personal phone apps, Internet-served video, social media, mini-observatory systems, print media, live broadcasting from sea, and a citizen scientist portal.NEPTUNE Canada's ibook available on Apple's iBook store.

  15. Infants' Perception of the Intonation of Broad and Narrow Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Joseph; Vigário, Marina; Frota, Sónia

    2016-01-01

    Infants perceive intonation contrasts early in development in contrast to lexical stress but similarly to lexical pitch accent. Previous studies have mostly focused on pitch height/direction contrasts; however, languages use a variety of pitch features to signal meaning, including differences in pitch timing. In this study, we investigate infants'…

  16. Broad Spectrum Photoelectrochemical Diodes for Solar Hydrogen Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Craig A.

    2014-11-26

    Under program auspices we have investigated material chemistries suitable for the solar generation of hydrogen by water photoelectrolysis. We have built upon, and extended, our knowledge base on the synthesis and application of TiO2 nanotube arrays, a material architecture that appears ideal for water photoelectrolysis. To date we have optimized, refined, and greatly extended synthesis techniques suitable for achieving highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays of given length, wall thickness, pore diameter, and tube-to-tube spacing for use in water photoelectrolysis. We have built upon this knowledge based to achieve visible light responsive, photocorrosion stable n-type and p-type ternary oxide nanotube arrays for use in photoelectrochemical diodes.

  17. Thiamin and Salicylic Acid as Biological Alternatives for Controlling Broad Bean Rot Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlHakimi, A.M.A; Alghalibi, Saeed M.S

    2007-01-01

    The interactive effects of fungi (Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani) infection and thiamin or salicylic acid on growth rate, membrane stability, K+ efflux, UV-absorbing metabolites, photosynthetic pigments, cell wall components and lipid fractions of broad bean plants (30-day-old) were studied. Fungal infection induced a reduction in growth rate, membrane stability and content of photosynthetic pigments. Application of thiamin or salicylic acid increased growth rate, membrane stability and content of photosynthetic pigments. The K+ efflux and the leakage of UV-absorbing metabolites were stimulated with fungal infection. However, thiamin and salicylic acid treatment partially retarded the stimulatory effect on leakage of K+ and UV-absorbing metabolites of fungal infected plants. Fungal infection produced a reduction in the content of pectin and cellulose, total lipid, glycolipids and sterols fraction of shoots and roots and phospholipids of roots. On the other hand, the contents of hemicellulose and lignin of shoots and roots and phospholipids of shoots were stimulated by fungal infection. Soaking seeds in thiamin or salicylic acid counteracts partially or completely the adverse effect of fungal infection on pectin and cellulose composition, total lipid, glycolipids and sterols of either shoots or roots. On the other side, thiamin or salicylic acid treatments retarded the phospholipids accumulation in shoots of infected plants, and in roots the phospholipids accumulation was partially or completely alleviated. The content of hemicellulose and lignin of shoots and roots were antagonistically lowered by the application of thiamin or salicylic acid. (author)

  18. Leapfrog diagnostics: Demonstration of a broad spectrum pathogen identification platform in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leski Tomasz A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resource-limited tropical countries are home to numerous infectious pathogens of both human and zoonotic origin. A capability for early detection to allow rapid outbreak containment and prevent spread to non-endemic regions is severely impaired by inadequate diagnostic laboratory capacity, the absence of a “cold chain” and the lack of highly trained personnel. Building up detection capacity in these countries by direct replication of the systems existing in developed countries is not a feasible approach and instead requires “leapfrogging” to the deployment of the newest diagnostic systems that do not have the infrastructure requirements of systems used in developed countries. Methods A laboratory for molecular diagnostics of infectious agents was established in Bo, Sierra Leone with a hybrid solar/diesel/battery system to ensure stable power supply and a satellite modem to enable efficient communication. An array of room temperature stabilization and refrigeration technologies for reliable transport and storage of reagents and biological samples were also tested to ensure sustainable laboratory supplies for diagnostic assays. Results The laboratory demonstrated its operational proficiency by conducting an investigation of a suspected avian influenza outbreak at a commercial poultry farm at Bo using broad range resequencing microarrays and real time RT-PCR. The results of the investigation excluded influenza viruses as a possible cause of the outbreak and indicated a link between the outbreak and the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions This study demonstrated that by application of a carefully selected set of technologies and sufficient personnel training, it is feasible to deploy and effectively use a broad-range infectious pathogen detection technology in a severely resource-limited setting.

  19. Broad temperature adaptability of vanadium redox flow battery—Part 1: Electrolyte research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Shuibo; Yu, Lihong; Wu, Lantao; Liu, Le; Qiu, Xinping; Xi, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact of temperature (-35 °C-50 °C) on properties of VRFB electrolyte is studied. • V 2+ , V 3+ , V 3.5+ , V 4+ (VO 2+ ) and V 5+ (VO 2 + ) electrolytes are tested respectively. • V 2+ , V 3+ and V 3.5+ precipitates at low temperature can redissolve when temperature increases. • V 5+ precipitates at high temperature cannot redissolve when temperature decreases. • Conductivity and viscosity of the electrolytes are greatly affected by temperature. - Abstract: The broad temperature adaptability of vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is one of the key issues which affects the large-scale and safety application of VRFB. Typically, five types of vanadium electrolytes, namely V 2+ , V 3+ , V 3.5+ (V 3+ :VO 2+ = 1:1), V 4+ (VO 2+ ) and V 5+ (VO 2 + ), are the most common electrolytes' status existing in VRFB system. In this work, the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of these vanadium electrolytes are studied in detail at a broad temperature range (-35 °C–50 °C). The results show that all types of vanadium electrolytes are stable between -25 °C–30 °C. The temperature fluctuation will largely influence the conductivity and viscosity of the electrolytes. Besides, the electrochemical properties of the positive (VO 2+ ) and negative (V 3+ ) electrolytes are greatly affected by the temperature; and the charge transfer process fluctuates more greatly with the temperature variation than the charge diffusion process does. These results enable us to better and more comprehensively evaluate the performance of the electrolyte changing with the temperature, which will be beneficial for the rational choice of electrolyte for VRFB operation under various conditions.

  20. Development of a broad-spectrum antiviral with activity against Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, M Javad; Kinch, Michael S; Warfield, Kelly; Warren, Travis; Yunus, Abdul; Enterlein, Sven; Stavale, Eric; Wang, Peifang; Chang, Shaojing; Tang, Qingsong; Porter, Kevin; Goldblatt, Michael; Bavari, Sina

    2009-09-01

    We report herein the identification of a small molecule therapeutic, FGI-106, which displays potent and broad-spectrum inhibition of lethal viral hemorrhagic fevers pathogens, including Ebola, Rift Valley and Dengue Fever viruses, in cell-based assays. Using mouse models of Ebola virus, we further demonstrate that FGI-106 can protect animals from an otherwise lethal infection when used either in a prophylactic or therapeutic setting. A single treatment, administered 1 day after infection, is sufficient to protect animals from lethal Ebola virus challenge. Cell-based assays also identified inhibitory activity against divergent virus families, which supports a hypothesis that FGI-106 interferes with a common pathway utilized by different viruses. These findings suggest FGI-106 may provide an opportunity for targeting viral diseases.

  1. Broad Substrate Specificity of the Loading Didomain of the Lipomycin Polyketide Synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuzawa, S; Eng, CH; Katz, L; Keasling, JD

    2013-06-04

    LipPks1, a polyketide synthase subunit of the lipomycin synthase, is believed to catalyze the polyketide chain initiation reaction using isobutyryl-CoA as a substrate, followed by an elongation reaction with methylmalonyl-CoA to start the biosynthesis of antibiotic alpha-lipomycin in Streptomyces aureofaciens Tu117. Recombinant LipPks1, containing the thioesterase domain from the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase, was produced in Escherichia coli, and its substrate specificity was investigated in vitro. Surprisingly, several different acyl-CoAs, including isobutyryl-CoA, were accepted as the starter substrates, while no product was observed with acetyl-CoA. These results demonstrate the broad substrate specificity of LipPks1 and may be applied to producing new antibiotics.

  2. Analog circuit design a tutorial guide to applications and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    2011-01-01

    * Covers the fundamentals of linear/analog circuit and system design to guide engineers with their design challenges. * Based on the Application Notes of Linear Technology, the foremost designer of high performance analog products, readers will gain practical insights into design techniques and practice. * Broad range of topics, including power management tutorials, switching regulator design, linear regulator design, data conversion, signal conditioning, and high frequency/RF design. * Contributors include the leading lights in analog design, Robert Dobkin, Jim Willia

  3. Broad specificity dioxygenase enzymes and the bioremediation of hazardous aromatic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonus, P.A.; Nies, L.

    1996-01-01

    The release of aromatic compounds to the environment is a major source of global pollution. In particular, the contamination of soil and groundwater with benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) is the most ubiquitous form of aromatic pollution. The major source of BTX contamination is the release of gasoline and other petroleum products. This research focused on the improvement of bioremediation of BTX through a better understanding of broad specificity dioxygenase enzymes produced by soil and sediment bacteria. The investigation utilized pure bacterial strains isolated on biphenyl, naphthalene, or toluene. These isolated aerobic bacteria were then used to investigate the specificity of the initial enzymatic attack on aromatic compounds including BTX and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The enzymatic specificity and competency of the five isolates selected for study were determined through the use of growth tests and two rapid assay techniques. The growth tests were conducted on mineral agar plates or in liquid cultures, and they were used to determine substrate specificity. In addition, rapid assays for both BTX and PCBs were carried out using various growth substrates. These assays allowed further clarification of the specificity of the dioxygenase enzymes involved in aromatic degradation. Preliminary results of the PCB assay show that biphenyl and naphthalene isolated organisms grown on biphenyl, benzoate, naphthalene, and succinate maintain production of broad specificity dioxygenase enzymes able to degrade PCBs. Likewise, the BTX assay confirms that biphenyl and naphthalene selected organisms grown on their respective selection substrates completely degrade BTX including all three xylene isomers. In comparison, the toluene selected organism that was studied was unable to degrade PCBs, but it was able to degrade all BTX constituents

  4. Silver nanoparticles are broad-spectrum bactericidal and virucidal compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixtepan-Turrent Liliana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The advance in nanotechnology has enabled us to utilize particles in the size of the nanoscale. This has created new therapeutic horizons, and in the case of silver, the currently available data only reveals the surface of the potential benefits and the wide range of applications. Interactions between viral biomolecules and silver nanoparticles suggest that the use of nanosystems may contribute importantly for the enhancement of current prevention of infection and antiviral therapies. Recently, it has been suggested that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs bind with external membrane of lipid enveloped virus to prevent the infection. Nevertheless, the interaction of AgNPs with viruses is a largely unexplored field. AgNPs has been studied particularly on HIV where it was demonstrated the mechanism of antiviral action of the nanoparticles as well as the inhibition the transmission of HIV-1 infection in human cervix organ culture. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the biocidal mechanisms of action of silver Nanoparticles.

  5. Molecular Electronic Angular Motion Transducer Broad Band Self-Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Dmitry; Agafonov, Vadim; Egorov, Egor; Antonov, Alexander; Shabalina, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Modern molecular electronic transfer (MET) angular motion sensors combine high technical characteristics with low cost. Self-noise is one of the key characteristics which determine applications for MET sensors. However, until the present there has not been a model describing the sensor noise in the complete operating frequency range. The present work reports the results of an experimental study of the self-noise level of such sensors in the frequency range of 0.01–200 Hz. Based on the experimental data, a theoretical model is developed. According to the model, self-noise is conditioned by thermal hydrodynamic fluctuations of the operating fluid flow in the frequency range of 0.01–2 Hz. At the frequency range of 2–100 Hz, the noise power spectral density has a specific inversely proportional dependence of the power spectral density on the frequency that could be attributed to convective processes. In the high frequency range of 100–200 Hz, the noise is conditioned by the voltage noise of the electronics module input stage operational amplifiers and is heavily reliant to the sensor electrical impedance. The presented results allow a deeper understanding of the molecular electronic sensor noise nature to suggest the ways to reduce it. PMID:26610502

  6. Volatile aldehydes are promising broad-spectrum postharvest insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, D G; Rangel, S; Kubo, I

    2000-09-01

    A variety of naturally occurring aldehydes common in plants have been evaluated for their insecticidal activity and for phytotoxicity to postharvest fruits, vegetables, and grains. Twenty-nine compounds were initially screened for their activity against aphids on fava bean leaf disks. Application under reduced pressure (partial vacuum) for the first quarter of fumigation increased insecticidal activity severalfold. The 11 best aldehydes were assayed against aphids placed under the third leaf of whole heads of iceberg lettuce using the same two-tier reduced-pressure regime, which caused no additional detriment to the commodity over fumigation at atmospheric pressure. Phytotoxicity to naked and wrapped iceburg lettuce, green and red table grapes, lemon, grapefruit, orange, broccoli, avocado, cabbage, pinto bean, and rice at doses that killed 100% of aphids was recorded for three promising fumigants: propanal, (E)-2-pentenal, and 2-methyl-(E)-2-butenal. These three compounds have excellent potential as affordable postharvest insect control agents, killing 100% of the aphids with little or no detectable harm to a majority of the commodities tested. Preliminary assays indicate that similar doses are also effective against mealybugs, thrips, and whitefly.

  7. Broad electrical tuning of plasmonic nanoantennas at visible frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Thang B. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Mikkelsen, Maiken H., E-mail: m.mikkelsen@duke.edu [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2016-05-02

    We report an experimental demonstration of electrical tuning of plasmon resonances of optical nanopatch antennas over a wide wavelength range. The antennas consist of silver nanocubes separated from a gold film by a thin 8 nm polyelectrolyte spacer layer. By using ionic liquid and indium tin oxide coated glass as a top electrode, we demonstrate dynamic and reversible tuning of the plasmon resonance over 100 nm in the visible wavelength range using low applied voltages between −3.0 V and 2.8 V. The electrical potential is applied across the nanoscale gap causing changes in the gap thickness and dielectric environment which, in turn, modifies the plasmon resonance. The observed tuning range is greater than the full-width-at-half-maximum of the plasmon resonance, resulting in a tuning figure of merit of 1.05 and a tuning contrast greater than 50%. Our results provide an avenue to create active and reconfigurable integrated nanophotonic components for applications in optoelectronics and sensing.

  8. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...

  9. Modified lysozymes as novel broad spectrum natural antimicrobial agents in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminlari, Ladan; Hashemi, Marjan Mohammadi; Aminlari, Mahmoud

    2014-06-01

    In recent years much attention and interest have been directed toward application of natural antimicrobial agents in foods. Some naturally occurring proteins such as lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, and lysozyme have received considerable attention and are being considered as potential antimicrobial agents in foods. Lysozyme kills bacteria by hydrolyzing the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall of certain bacterial species, hence its application as a natural antimicrobial agent has been suggested. However, limitations in the action of lysozyme against only Gram-positive bacteria have prompted scientists to extend the antimicrobial effects of lysozyme by several types of chemical modifications. During the last 2 decades extensive research has been directed toward modification of lysozyme in order to improve its antimicrobial properties. This review will report on the latest information available on lysozyme modifications and examine the applicability of the modified lysozymes in controlling growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in foods. The results of modifications of lysozyme using its conjugation with different small molecule, polysaccharides, as well as modifications using proteolytic enzymes will be reviewed. These types of modifications have not only increased the functional properties of lysozyme (such as solubility and heat stability) but also extended the antimicrobial activity of lysozyme. Many examples will be given to show that modification can decrease the count of Gram-negative bacteria in bacterial culture and in foods by as much as 5 log CFU/mL and in some cases essentially eliminated Escherichia coli. In conclusion this review demonstrates that modified lysozymes are excellent natural food preservatives, which can be used in food industry. The subject described in this review article can lead to the development of methods to produce new broad-spectrum natural antimicrobial agents, based on modification of chicken egg white lysozyme, which

  10. Development of the Digital Health Literacy Instrument : Measuring a Broad Spectrum of Health 1.0 and Health 2.0 Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, Rosalie; Drossaert, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Background: With the digitization of health care and the wide availability of Web-based applications, a broad set of skills is essential to properly use such facilities; these skills are called digital health literacy or eHealth literacy. Current instruments to measure digital health literacy focus

  11. Our messages for a broadly acceptable national nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela; Bilegan, Iosif Constantin

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Romania started the nuclear power program some 20 years ago by a high level Government decision. During that time no one asked and nobody explained to the people why a NPP is so much required. Before revolution was forbidden to talk or to write about nuclear matters. After the revolution many changes have occurred even in this field. The former ministry of electrical power was transformed into a state owned company 'RENEL' in which were also included the nuclear activities. RENEL was a monopoly responsible for production, transportation and distribution of electricity in Romania. The restructuring process in the energy field was many times asked by the World Bank and International monetary Fund - to split this monopoly system in separately activities: Production, Transportation and Distribution. The first step happened in July 1998, when the nuclear activities were externalised from RENEL, and two new entities were created: 'Nuclearelectrica' National Company - a state own company which includes three branches: - Nuclear Power Production - Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1; - Nuclear Fuel Plant - Pitesti; - Project Development Branch - Cernavoda - Unit 2-5. The second entity is so-called Autonomous Reggie for Nuclear Activities including the Heavy Water production, Nuclear Research Institute and the nuclear engineering activities - CITON. The restructuring process continued and in August 2000, By a Government Ordinance the rest of RENEL was split in more companies: - one for Hydropower production; - one for thermal power production; - one for transport; - one for distribution. The goal of a third step of restructuring process is the privatisation in the power field. Since 1991 a Public Information program has been established and it followed the usual steps. Depending on the evolution of the construction of the first Romanian nuclear power during the years the messages changed. Everybody working in the nuclear field knows now how difficult is to build the

  12. The effects of video-game training on broad cognitive transfer in multiple sclerosis: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Alisha; Boster, Aaron; Lee, HyunKyu; Patterson, Beth; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system that results in diffuse nerve damage and associated physical and cognitive impairments. Of the few comprehensive rehabilitation options that exist for populations with lower baseline cognitive functioning, those that have been successful at eliciting broad cognitive improvements have focused on a multimodal training approach, emphasizing complex cognitive processing that utilizes multiple domains simultaneously. The current study sought to determine the feasibility of an 8-week, hybrid-variable priority training (HVT) program, with a secondary aim to assess the success of this training paradigm at eliciting broad cognitive transfer effects. Capitalizing on the multimodal training modalities offered by the Space Fortress platform, we compared the HVT strategy-based intervention with a waitlist control group, to primarily assess skill acquisition and secondarily determine presence of cognitive transfer. Twenty-eight participants met inclusionary criteria for the study and were randomized to either training or waitlist control groups. To assess broad transfer effects, a battery of neuropsychological tests was administered pre- and post-intervention. The results indicated an overall improvement in skill acquisition and evidence for the feasibility of the intervention, but a lack of broad transfer to tasks of cognitive functioning. Participants in the training group, however, did show improvements on a measure of spatial short-term memory. The current investigation provided support for the feasibility of a multimodal training approach, using the HVT strategy, within the MS population, but lacked broad transfer to multiple domains of cognitive functioning. Future improvements to obtain greater cognitive transfer efficacy would include a larger sample size, a longer course of training to evoke greater game score improvement, the inclusion of only cognitively impaired individuals, and

  13. Inferring time derivatives including cell growth rates using Gaussian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Peter S.; Stevenson, Keiran; Leary, Allen; Montano-Gutierrez, Luis F.; Clark, Ivan B. N.; Vogel, Jackie; Pilizota, Teuta

    2016-12-01

    Often the time derivative of a measured variable is of as much interest as the variable itself. For a growing population of biological cells, for example, the population's growth rate is typically more important than its size. Here we introduce a non-parametric method to infer first and second time derivatives as a function of time from time-series data. Our approach is based on Gaussian processes and applies to a wide range of data. In tests, the method is at least as accurate as others, but has several advantages: it estimates errors both in the inference and in any summary statistics, such as lag times, and allows interpolation with the corresponding error estimation. As illustrations, we infer growth rates of microbial cells, the rate of assembly of an amyloid fibril and both the speed and acceleration of two separating spindle pole bodies. Our algorithm should thus be broadly applicable.

  14. A Broad Coverage Neutron Source For Security Inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Robert, Stubbers; Linchun, Wu; George, Miley

    2004-05-01

    To meet the increasing demanding requirements for security safety inspections, a line-type neutron source employing a cylindrical IEC (RC-IEC) is proposed for non-destructive "in situ" security inspections. The advantages of such a neutron source include line geometry, modularity, swithcability, variable source strength, low cost with minimum maintenance. Detailed description of a 1/3 scale cylindrical device is presented, which might demonstrate that a reasonably long RC-IEC produces a stable discharge with reasonably uniform neutron production along the cylindrical axis. Aiming at the neutron production efficiency at the order of 106 n/J, several methods to maximize neutron production efficiency are discussed. The results of a two-dimensional computer code(MCP) using a Monte Carlo numerical approach for the RC-IEC device are presented together with an analysis of neutron yield vs. different operation parameters.

  15. Frankfurter Frauenzimmer um 1800 Frankfurter Broads around 1800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Engel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Der von Ursula Kern herausgegebene Sammelband dokumentiert mit acht wissenschaftlichen Essays und einem ausführlichen Katalogteil den gegenwärtigen Stand der Forschung zu bürgerlichen Frauen in Frankfurt am Main zwischen 1750 und 1820. Der Band veranschaulicht die kulturellen, sozialen und ökonomischen Handlungsspielräume von bürgerlichen Frauen innerhalb einer städtischen Kultur, die ihnen den Zugang zur politischen Macht verwehrte.The collected volume published by Usula Kern, which includes eight scholarly essays and an extensive catalogue, documents the current state of research on bourgeois women living in Frankfurt am Main between 1750 and 1820. The volume demonstrates the cultural, social, and economic latitude of bourgeois women in an urban culture that refuses them access to political power.

  16. Computer-aided design of broad band reflection type amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershaimb, Edgar; Jeppesen, Palle; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Microwave negative resistance reflection type amplifiers using stable transferred electron devices (TED's) are optimized by numerical optimization techniques programmed for an interactive graphic datascreen. The small signal impedance of packaged TED's is measured on an automatic network analyzer....... At the same time the impedance of unpackaged devices are obtained by on-line correction for the package parasitics. The microwave circuit chosen is a multiple slug coaxial cavity, that is modelled by sections of lossy transmission lines including step susceptances. The measured small signal impedance...... of the packaged TED's and the cavity model are used in a direct optimization procedure, in which the calculated minimum gain in the prescribed frequency range is progressively maximized by adjusting the lengths, characteristic impedances and positions of the slugs. The computed results are displayed...

  17. A broad survey of cathepsin K immunoreactivity in human neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Martignoni, Guido; Antonescu, Cristina; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Eberhart, Charles; Netto, George; Taube, Janis; Westra, William; Epstein, Jonathan I; Lotan, Tamara; Maitra, Anirban; Gabrielson, Edward; Torbenson, Michael; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Demarzo, Angelo; Shih, Ie Ming; Illei, Peter; Wu, T C; Argani, Pedram

    2013-02-01

    Cathepsin K is consistently and diffusely expressed in alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) and a subset of translocation renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). However, cathepsin K expression in human neoplasms has not been systematically analyzed. We constructed tissue microarrays (TMA) from a wide variety of human neoplasms, and performed cathepsin K immunohistochemistry (IHC). Only 2.7% of 1,140 carcinomas from various sites exhibited cathepsin K labeling, thus suggesting that among carcinomas, cathepsin K labeling is highly specific for translocation RCC. In contrast to carcinomas, cathepsin K labeling was relatively common (54.6%) in the 414 mesenchymal lesions studied, including granular cell tumor, melanoma, and histiocytic lesions, but not paraganglioma, all of which are in the morphologic differential diagnosis of ASPS. Cathepsin K IHC can be helpful in distinguishing ASPS and translocation RCC from some but not all of the lesions in their differential diagnosis.

  18. Broad-spectrum physical fitness benefits of recreational football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Čović, Nedim

    2018-01-01

    , narrative reviews have demonstrated beneficial effects of recreational football on physical fitness and health status. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the magnitude of effects of recreational football on blood pressure, body composition, lipid profile...... and muscular fitness with reference to age, gender and health status. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Google Scholar were searched prior to 1 February 2017. In addition...... to a recreational football group or any other type of exercises or passive control group were included. Training programmes had to last at least 2 weeks to meet the inclusion criteria. The primary outcome measures were blood pressure, resting heart rate, body composition, muscular fitness, and blood lipids...

  19. Risk Factors for Emergence of Resistance to Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporins among Enterobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Keith S.; Cosgrove, Sara; Harris, Anthony; Eliopoulos, George M.; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2001-01-01

    Among 477 patients with susceptible Enterobacter spp., 49 subsequently harbored third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter spp. Broad-spectrum cephalosporins were independent risk factors for resistance (relative risk [OR] = 2.3, P = 0.01); quinolone therapy was protective (OR = 0.4, P = 0.03). There were trends toward decreased risk for resistance among patients receiving broad-spectrum cephalosporins and either aminoglycosides or imipenem. Of the patients receiving broad-spectrum cephalosporins, 19% developed resistance. PMID:11502540

  20. Test Automation Process Improvement A case study of BroadSoft

    OpenAIRE

    Gummadi, Jalendar

    2016-01-01

    This master thesis research is about improvement of test automation process at BroadSoft Finland as a case study. Test automation project recently started at BroadSoft but the project is not properly integrated in to existing process. Project is about converting manual test cases to automation test cases. The aim of this thesis is about studying existing BroadSoft test process and studying different test automation frameworks. In this thesis different test automation process are studied ...

  1. 76 FR 61741 - Bmc Software, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From COMSYS ITS Including Remote Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,540] Bmc Software, Inc... November 23, 2010, applicable to workers of BMC Software, Inc., including on-site leased workers from... BMC Software, inc., including on-site leased workers from Comsys ITS, and including remote workers...

  2. Genome-Wide Association Studies of a Broad Spectrum of Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielbeek, Jorim J; Johansson, Ada; Polderman, Tinca J C; Rautiainen, Marja-Riitta; Jansen, Philip; Taylor, Michelle; Tong, Xiaoran; Lu, Qing; Burt, Alexandra S; Tiemeier, Henning; Viding, Essi; Plomin, Robert; Martin, Nicholas G; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Montgomery, Grant; Beaver, Kevin M; Waldman, Irwin; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R; Farrer, Lindsay A; Perry, John R B; Munafò, Marcus; LoParo, Devon; Paunio, Tiina; Tiihonen, Jari; Mous, Sabine E; Pappa, Irene; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Watanabe, Kyoko; Hammerschlag, Anke R; Salvatore, Jessica E; Aliev, Fazil; Bigdeli, Tim B; Dick, Danielle; Faraone, Stephen V; Popma, Arne; Medland, Sarah E; Posthuma, Danielle

    2017-12-01

    Antisocial behavior (ASB) places a large burden on perpetrators, survivors, and society. Twin studies indicate that half of the variation in this trait is genetic. Specific causal genetic variants have, however, not been identified. To estimate the single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability of ASB; to identify novel genetic risk variants, genes, or biological pathways; to test for pleiotropic associations with other psychiatric traits; and to reevaluate the candidate gene era data through the Broad Antisocial Behavior Consortium. Genome-wide association data from 5 large population-based cohorts and 3 target samples with genome-wide genotype and ASB data were used for meta-analysis from March 1, 2014, to May 1, 2016. All data sets used quantitative phenotypes, except for the Finnish Crime Study, which applied a case-control design (370 patients and 5850 control individuals). This study adopted relatively broad inclusion criteria to achieve a quantitative measure of ASB derived from multiple measures, maximizing the sample size over different age ranges. The discovery samples comprised 16 400 individuals, whereas the target samples consisted of 9381 individuals (all individuals were of European descent), including child and adult samples (mean age range, 6.7-56.1 years). Three promising loci with sex-discordant associations were found (8535 female individuals, chromosome 1: rs2764450, chromosome 11: rs11215217; 7772 male individuals, chromosome X, rs41456347). Polygenic risk score analyses showed prognostication of antisocial phenotypes in an independent Finnish Crime Study (2536 male individuals and 3684 female individuals) and shared genetic origin with conduct problems in a population-based sample (394 male individuals and 431 female individuals) but not with conduct disorder in a substance-dependent sample (950 male individuals and 1386 female individuals) (R2 = 0.0017 in the most optimal model, P = 0.03). Significant inverse genetic correlation

  3. The Global Evidence Mapping Initiative: Scoping research in broad topic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavender Emma

    2011-06-01

    questions. Conclusions GEM Initiative evidence maps have a broad range of potential end-users including funding agencies, researchers and clinicians. Evidence mapping is at least as resource-intensive as systematic reviewing. The GEM Initiative has made advancements in evidence mapping, most notably in the area of question development and prioritisation. Evidence mapping complements other review methods for describing existing research, informing future research efforts, and addressing evidence gaps.

  4. The Global Evidence Mapping Initiative: scoping research in broad topic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragge, Peter; Clavisi, Ornella; Turner, Tari; Tavender, Emma; Collie, Alex; Gruen, Russell L

    2011-06-17

    Evidence mapping describes the quantity, design and characteristics of research in broad topic areas, in contrast to systematic reviews, which usually address narrowly-focused research questions. The breadth of evidence mapping helps to identify evidence gaps, and may guide future research efforts. The Global Evidence Mapping (GEM) Initiative was established in 2007 to create evidence maps providing an overview of existing research in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). The GEM evidence mapping method involved three core tasks:1. Setting the boundaries and context of the map: Definitions for the fields of TBI and SCI were clarified, the prehospital, acute inhospital and rehabilitation phases of care were delineated and relevant stakeholders (patients, carers, clinicians, researchers and policymakers) who could contribute to the mapping were identified. Researchable clinical questions were developed through consultation with key stakeholders and a broad literature search. 2. Searching for and selection of relevant studies: Evidence search and selection involved development of specific search strategies, development of inclusion and exclusion criteria, searching of relevant databases and independent screening and selection by two researchers. 3. Reporting on yield and study characteristics: Data extraction was performed at two levels - 'interventions and study design' and 'detailed study characteristics'. The evidence map and commentary reflected the depth of data extraction. One hundred and twenty-nine researchable clinical questions in TBI and SCI were identified. These questions were then prioritised into high (n = 60) and low (n = 69) importance by the stakeholders involved in question development. Since 2007, 58 263 abstracts have been screened, 3 731 full text articles have been reviewed and 1 644 relevant neurotrauma publications have been mapped, covering fifty-three high priority questions. GEM Initiative evidence maps have a broad

  5. Genetic signatures in the envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1 that associate with broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gnanakaran

    Full Text Available A steady increase in knowledge of the molecular and antigenic structure of the gp120 and gp41 HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env is yielding important new insights for vaccine design, but it has been difficult to translate this information to an immunogen that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies. To help bridge this gap, we used phylogenetically corrected statistical methods to identify amino acid signature patterns in Envs derived from people who have made potently neutralizing antibodies, with the hypothesis that these Envs may share common features that would be useful for incorporation in a vaccine immunogen. Before attempting this, essentially as a control, we explored the utility of our computational methods for defining signatures of complex neutralization phenotypes by analyzing Env sequences from 251 clonal viruses that were differentially sensitive to neutralization by the well-characterized gp120-specific monoclonal antibody, b12. We identified ten b12-neutralization signatures, including seven either in the b12-binding surface of gp120 or in the V2 region of gp120 that have been previously shown to impact b12 sensitivity. A simple algorithm based on the b12 signature pattern was predictive of b12 sensitivity/resistance in an additional blinded panel of 57 viruses. Upon obtaining these reassuring outcomes, we went on to apply these same computational methods to define signature patterns in Env from HIV-1 infected individuals who had potent, broadly neutralizing responses. We analyzed a checkerboard-style neutralization dataset with sera from 69 HIV-1-infected individuals tested against a panel of 25 different Envs. Distinct clusters of sera with high and low neutralization potencies were identified. Six signature positions in Env sequences obtained from the 69 samples were found to be strongly associated with either the high or low potency responses. Five sites were in the CD4-induced coreceptor binding site of gp120, suggesting an

  6. Random measures, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kallenberg, Olav

    2017-01-01

    Offering the first comprehensive treatment of the theory of random measures, this book has a very broad scope, ranging from basic properties of Poisson and related processes to the modern theories of convergence, stationarity, Palm measures, conditioning, and compensation. The three large final chapters focus on applications within the areas of stochastic geometry, excursion theory, and branching processes. Although this theory plays a fundamental role in most areas of modern probability, much of it, including the most basic material, has previously been available only in scores of journal articles. The book is primarily directed towards researchers and advanced graduate students in stochastic processes and related areas.

  7. 'Nuclearelectrica' Company messages for a broadly acceptable nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela; Bilegan, C. Iosif

    2001-01-01

    Romania started the nuclear power program about 20 years ago, by a high level Government decision. After 1989 the former Ministry of Electrical Power was transformed into a state owned company, RENEL, in which nuclear activities were also included. RENEL was a monopoly system responsible for production, transport and distribution of electricity in Romania. The deregulation process in the power sector was many times asked by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, to split this monopoly system in separately activities: Production, Transport and Distribution. The first step occurred in July 1998, when the nuclear activities were externalized from RENEL. In nuclear sector two new entities were created: SN 'Nuclearelectrica' SA, a state own company that includes three branches: - Nuclear Power Production - Cernavoda NPP Unit 1; - Nuclear Fuel Plant-Pitesti; - Project Development Branch - Cernavoda Units 2-5. The second entity is the so-called Romanian Authority (Autonomous Reggie) for Nuclear Activities (RAAN), including as branches the heavy water fabrication plant 'ROMAG PROD', the Nuclear Research Institute (ICN) Pitesti and the Nuclear Engineering and Design Institute (CITON) Bucharest. The rest of conventional power sector was renamed, namely, CONEL. The organization process continued and in August 2000, by a Government Ordinance the CONEL was split into the following companies: - one for hydropower production 'HIDROELECTRICA'; - one for thermal power production 'TERMOELECTRICA'; - one for transport 'TRANSELECTRICA'; - one for distribution 'ELECTRICA'. The goal of a third step of restructuring process is the privatization in the power field. The steps of Romanian Power Sector Restructuring are presented. Since 1991 a Public Information program has been established. Depending on the evolution of the construction of the first Romanian nuclear power station, during the years, the messages changed. Everybody working in the nuclear field knows how difficult is

  8. Technology survey of computer software as applicable to the MIUS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    Existing computer software, available from either governmental or private sources, applicable to modular integrated utility system program simulation is surveyed. Several programs and subprograms are described to provide a consolidated reference, and a bibliography is included. The report covers the two broad areas of design simulation and system simulation.

  9. Applications of Adaptive Quantum Control to Research Questions in Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damrauer, Niels [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This award supported a broad research effort at the University of Colorado at Boulder comprising synthesis, applications of computational chemistry, development of theory, exploration of material properties, and advancement of spectroscopic tools including femtosecond pulse shaping techniques. It funded six graduate students and two postdoctoral researchers.

  10. Highly Oriented Growth of Catalytically Active Zeolite ZSM‐5 Films with a Broad Range of Si/Al Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Donglong; Schmidt, Joel E.; Ristanović, Zoran; Chowdhury, Abhishek Dutta; Meirer, Florian; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Highly b‐oriented zeolite ZSM‐5 films are critical for applications in catalysis and separations and may serve as models to study diffusion and catalytic properties in single zeolite channels. However, the introduction of catalytically active Al3+ usually disrupts the orientation of zeolite films. Herein, using structure‐directing agents with hydroxy groups, we demonstrate a new method to prepare highly b‐oriented zeolite ZSM‐5 films with a broad range of Si/Al ratios (Si/Al=45 to ∞)...

  11. Broad Considerations Concerning Electrochemical Electrodes in Primarily Fluid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G. Jesudason

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This review is variously a presentation, reflection, synthesis and report with reference to more recent developments of an article – in a journal which has ceased publication – entitled “Some Electrode Theorems with Experimental Corroboration, Inclusive of the Ag/AgCl System” Internet Journal of Chemistry, (http://www.ijc.com, Special Issues: Vol. 2 Article 24 (1999. The results from new lemmas relating charge densities and capacitance in a metallic electrode in equilibrium with an ionic solution are used to explain the data and observed effects due to Esin, Markov, Grahame, Lang and Kohn. Size effects that vary the measured e.m.f. of electrodes due to changes in the electronic chemical potential are demonstrated in experiment and theory implying the need for standardization of electrodes with respect to geometry and size. The widely used Stern modification of the Gouy-Chapman theory is shown to be mostly inapplicable for many of the problems where it is employed. Practical consequences of the current development include the possibility of determining the elusive single-ion activity coefficients of solution ions directly from the expression given by a simplified capacitance theorem, the potential of zero charge and the determination of single ion concentrations of active species in the electrode reactions from cell e.m.f. measurements.

  12. Broad survey of radioactive waste transports and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    This survey reviews Radioactive Waste (RW) transports in different countries, giving the origins, amounts, distances and modes of transport for the different RW categories currently moved. It appears that: present transport experience concerns mainly Low and Medium level Wastes (LMW) and Spent nuclear Fuel (SF); RW transports are implemented in compliance with IAEA recommendations which proved particularly helpful to gain public acceptance; the bulk of LMW is transported as Low Specific Activity (LSA) materials (i.e. with packaging requirements just equivalent to those needed for their disposal) and SF as well as liquid RW are transported in 'type B' packagings which withstand severe accident conditions; records indicate that transport worker irradiation is kept much below allowable limits and that accidents during RW transports did not cause significant release of activity to environment; and the cost of RW transports including insurances, is small compared to that of RW processing and disposal. Therefore, one may comment that RW movements are by no means slowed down by transport problems and just follow the demand which in some countries may be delayed by reasons linked to RW disposal strategy or its public acceptance. This survey presents also an assessment of RW transports until the end of this century

  13. How Collecting and Freely Sharing Geophysical Data Broadly Benefits Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, A.; Woodward, R.; Detrick, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Valuable but often unintended observations of environmental and human-related processes have resulted from open sharing of multidisciplinary geophysical observations collected over the past 33 years. These data, intended to fuel fundamental academic research, are part of the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), which is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and has provided a community science facility supporting earthquake science and related disciplines since 1984. These community facilities have included arrays of geophysical instruments operated for EarthScope, an NSF-sponsored science initiative designed to understand the architecture and evolution of the North American continent, as well as the Global Seismographic Network, Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network, a repository of data collected around the world, and other community assets. All data resulting from this facility have been made openly available to support researchers across any field of study and this has expanded the impact of these data beyond disciplinary boundaries. This presentation highlights vivid examples of how basic research activities using open data, collected as part of a community facility, can inform our understanding of manmade earthquakes, geomagnetic hazards, climate change, and illicit testing of nuclear weapons.

  14. A perspective of nanotechnology in hypersensitivity reactions including drug allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montañez, Maria Isabel; Ruiz-Sanchez, Antonio J; Perez-Inestrosa, Ezequiel

    2010-08-01

    We provide an overview of the application of the concepts of nanoscience and nanotechnology as a novel scientific approach to the area of nanomedicine related to the domain of the immune system. Particular emphasis will be paid to studies on drug allergy reactions. Several well defined chemical structures arranged in the dimension of the nanoscale are currently being studied for biomedical purposes. By interacting with the immune system, some of these show promising applications as vaccines, diagnostic tools and activators/effectors of the immune response. Even a brief listing of some key applications of nanostructured materials shows how broad and intense this area of nanomedicine is. As a result of the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology applied to medicine, new approaches can be envisioned for problems related to the modulation of the immune response, as well as in immunodiagnosis, and to design new tools to solve related medical challenges. Nanoparticles offer unique advantages with which to exploit new properties and for materials to play a major role in new diagnostic techniques and therapies. Fullerene-C60 and multivalent functionalized gold nanoparticles of various sizes have led to new tools and opened up new ways to study and interact with the immune system. Some of the most versatile nanostructures are dendrimers. In their interaction with the immune system they can naturally occurring macromolecules, taking advantage of the fact that dendrimers can be synthesized into nanosized structures. Their multivalence can be successfully exploited in vaccines and diagnostic tests for allergic reactions.

  15. Batch-batch stable microbial community in the traditional fermentation process of huyumei broad bean pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Fan, Zihao; Kuai, Hui; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    During natural fermentation processes, a characteristic microbial community structure (MCS) is naturally formed, and it is interesting to know about its batch-batch stability. This issue was explored in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation process of huyumei, a Chinese broad bean paste product. The results showed that this MCS mainly contained four aerobic Bacillus species (8 log CFU per g), including B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. methylotrophicus, and B. tequilensis, and the facultative anaerobe B. cereus with a low concentration (4 log CFU per g), besides a very small amount of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (2 log CFU per g). The dynamic change of the MCS in the brine fermentation process showed that the abundance of dominant species varied within a small range, and in the beginning of process the growth of lactic acid bacteria was inhibited and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability. Also, the MCS and its dynamic change were proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches of fermentation. Therefore, the MCS naturally and stably forms between different batches of the traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei. Revealing microbial community structure and its batch-batch stability is helpful for understanding the mechanisms of community formation and flavour production in a traditional fermentation. This issue in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei broad bean paste was firstly explored. This fermentation process was revealed to be dominated by a high concentration of four aerobic species of Bacillus, a low concentration of B. cereus and a small amount of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Lactic acid bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability at the beginning of fermentation. Such the community structure was proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Impact of broad-spectrum antimicrobial treatment on the ecology of intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jen-Jia; Wang, Jann-Tay; Cheng, Aristine; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Sheng, Wang-Huei

    2017-06-28

    Suppression of intestinal flora by broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents facilitated risk of colonization or infection with resistant pathogen. We aimed to investigate the changes in bowel carriage of target resistant microorganisms (TRO) among patients treated with three different classes of Pseudomonas-sparing broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents (ertapenem, moxifloxacin and flomoxef) with anaerobic coverage. Risk factors for developing colonization of TRO were also analyzed. We prospectively enrolled the adult hospitalized patients (>20 years old) who were indicated for at least 7-day course with either of ertapenem, moxifloxacin or flomoxef. Rectal swabs were performed for the patients who received at least 1-day course of study antibiotics during the treatment duration. The TROs included Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter baumannii. MacConkey agars with study antibiotics were used to isolate the TROs and evaluate the antimicrobial resistance. The mean age of our study population was 61.6 years, and 58.8% were males. The rates of rectal colonization for Pseudomonas aeruginosa was similar among the study medications (ertapenem 13.2%, flomoxef 20%, moxifloxacin 14.3%, p = 0.809). Compared with ertapenem, flomoxef (odds ratio [OR], 4.30; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.28-14.48, p = 0.019) and moxifloxacin (OR, 6.95; 95% CI, 1.36-35.52, p = 0.019) had higher risk for colonization of ertapenem-resistant Escherichiacoli colonization. The patients who received treatment of ertapenem may have a lower risk of rectal colonization for ertapenem resistant Escherichia coli than those who received flomoxef or moxifloxacin. The rate of Pseudomonas colonization did not differ between the three study Pseudomonas-sparing agents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Broad spectrum antibiotic enrofloxacin modulates contact sensitivity through gut microbiota in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzępa, Anna; Majewska-Szczepanik, Monika; Lobo, Francis M; Wen, Li; Szczepanik, Marian

    2017-07-01

    Medical advances in the field of infection therapy have led to an increasing use of antibiotics, which, apart from eliminating pathogens, also partially eliminate naturally existing commensal bacteria. It has become increasingly clear that less exposure to microbiota early in life may contribute to the observed rise in "immune-mediated" diseases, including autoimmunity and allergy. We sought to test whether the change of gut microbiota with the broad spectrum antibiotic enrofloxacin will modulate contact sensitivity (CS) in mice. Natural gut microbiota were modified by oral treatment with enrofloxacin prior to sensitization with trinitrophenyl chloride followed by CS testing. Finally, adoptive cell transfers were performed to characterize the regulatory cells that are induced by microbiota modification. Oral treatment with enrofloxacin suppresses CS and production of anti-trinitrophenyl chloride IgG1 antibodies. Adoptive transfer experiments show that antibiotic administration favors induction of regulatory cells that suppress CS. Flow cytometry and adoptive transfer of purified cells show that antibiotic-induced suppression of CS is mediated by TCR αβ + CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3 + Treg, CD19 + B220 + CD5 + IL-10 + , IL-10 + Tr1, and IL-10 + TCR γδ + cells. Treatment with the antibiotic induces dysbiosis characterized by increased proportion of Clostridium coccoides (cluster XIVa), C coccoides-Eubacterium rectale (cluster XIVab), Bacteroidetes, and Bifidobacterium spp, but decreased segmented filamentous bacteria. Transfer of antibiotic-modified gut microbiota inhibits CS, but this response can be restored through oral transfer of control gut bacteria to antibiotic-treated animals. Oral treatment with a broad spectrum antibiotic modifies gut microbiota composition and promotes anti-inflammatory response, suggesting that manipulation of gut microbiota can be a powerful tool to modulate the course of CS. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  18. Evolving paradigms for desensitization in managing broadly HLA sensitized transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsmoen, Nancy L; Lai, Chi-Hung; Vo, Ashley; Jordan, Stanley C

    2012-04-01

    The broadly human leukocyte antigen (HLA) sensitized patient awaiting organ transplantation remains a persistent and significant problem for transplant medicine. Sensitization occurs as a consequence of exposure to HLA antigens through pregnancy, blood and platelet transfusions, and previous transplants. Early experience with desensitization protocols coupled with improved diagnostics for donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) and renal pathology have greatly improved transplant rates and outcomes for patients once considered un-transplantable or at high risk for poor outcomes. More recent advances have occurred through implementation of a national allocation system requiring the entering of unacceptable antigens that reduces the rate of crossmatch positivity. Current desensitization therapies include high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), plasma exchange (PLEX) with low-dose IVIG, and IVIG combined with rituximab. Developing therapies include proteasome inhibitors aimed at plasma cells and modifiers of complement-mediated injury. Here we discuss the important advancements in desensitization including defining the risk for antibody-mediated rejection prior to transplantation and the evolution of therapies aimed at reducing the impact of antibody injury on allografts.

  19. Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Tuan H.; Coquoz, Olivier; Fishkin, Joshua B.; Anderson, Eric; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) optical properties of turbid media, e.g., tissue, can be accurately quantified noninvasively using methods based on diffuse reflectance or transmittance, such as frequency domain photon migration (FDPM). Factors which govern the accuracy and sensitivity of FDPM-measured optical properties include instrument performance, the light propagation model, and fitting algorithms used to calculate optical properties from measured data. In this article, we characterize instrument, model, and fitting uncertaintics of an FDPM system designed for clinical use and investigate how each of these factors affects the quantification of NIR absorption (μ a ) and reduced scattering (μ s ' ) parameters in tissue phantoms. The instrument is based on a 500 MHz, multiwavelength platform that sweeps through 201 discrete frequencies in as little as 675 ms. Phase and amplitude of intensity modulated light launched into tissue, i.e., diffuse photon density waves (PDW), are measured with an accuracy of ±0.30 degree sign and ±3.5%, while phase and amplitude precision are ±0.025 degree sign and ±0.20%, respectively. At this level of instrument uncertainty, simultaneous fitting of frequency-dependent phase and amplitude nonlinear model functions derived from a photon diffusion approximation provides an accurate and robust strategy for determining optical properties from FDPM data, especially for media with high absorption. In an optical property range that is characteristic of most human tissues in the NIR (5x10 -3 a -2 mm -1 , 0.5 s ' -1 ), we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that the multifrequency, simultaneous-fit approach allows μ a and μ s ' to be quantified with an accuracy of ±5% and ±3%, respectively. Although exceptionally high levels of precision can be obtained using this approach ( a and μ s ' . (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  20. Biocatalysts: application and engineering for industrial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemli, Sonia; Ayadi-Zouari, Dorra; Hlima, Hajer Ben; Bejar, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes are widely applied in various industrial applications and processes, including the food and beverage, animal feed, textile, detergent and medical industries. Enzymes screened from natural origins are often engineered before entering the market place because their native forms do not meet the requirements for industrial application. Protein engineering is concerned with the design and construction of novel enzymes with tailored functional properties, including stability, catalytic activity, reaction product inhibition and substrate specificity. Two broad approaches have been used for enzyme engineering, namely, rational design and directed evolution. The powerful and revolutionary techniques so far developed for protein engineering provide excellent opportunities for the design of industrial enzymes with specific properties and production of high-value products at lower production costs. The present review seeks to highlight the major fields of enzyme application and to provide an updated overview on previous protein engineering studies wherein natural enzymes were modified to meet the operational conditions required for industrial application.

  1. Electrostatic accelerators fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Electrostatic accelerators are an important and widespread subgroup within the broad spectrum of modern, large particle acceleration devices. They are specifically designed for applications that require high-quality ion beams in terms of energy stability and emittance at comparatively low energies (a few MeV). Their ability to accelerate virtually any kind of ion over a continuously tunable range of energies make them a highly versatile tool for investigations in many research fields including, but not limited to, atomic and nuclear spectroscopy, heavy ion reactions, accelerator mass spectroscopy as well as ion-beam analysis and modification. The book is divided into three parts. The first part concisely introduces the field of accelerator technology and techniques that emphasize their major modern applications. The second part treats the electrostatic accelerator per se: its construction and operational principles as well as its maintenance. The third part covers all relevant applications in which electrosta...

  2. Production and Testing of the VITAMIN-B7 Fine-Group and BUGLE-B7 Broad-Group Coupled Neutron/Gamma Cross-Section Libraries Derived from ENDF/B-VII.0 Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risner, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wiarda, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, M. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, T. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peplow, D. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, B. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-09-30

    New coupled neutron-gamma cross-section libraries have been developed for use in light water reactor (LWR) shielding applications, including pressure vessel dosimetry calculations. The libraries, which were generated using Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version VII Release 0 (ENDF/B-VII.0), use the same fine-group and broad-group energy structures as the VITAMIN-B6 and BUGLE-96 libraries. The processing methodology used to generate both libraries is based on the methods used to develop VITAMIN-B6 and BUGLE-96 and is consistent with ANSI/ANS 6.1.2. The ENDF data were first processed into the fine-group pseudo-problem-independent VITAMIN-B7 library and then collapsed into the broad-group BUGLE-B7 library. The VITAMIN-B7 library contains data for 391 nuclides. This represents a significant increase compared to the VITAMIN-B6 library, which contained data for 120 nuclides. The BUGLE-B7 library contains data for the same nuclides as BUGLE-96, and maintains the same numeric IDs for those nuclides. The broad-group data includes nuclides which are infinitely dilute and group collapsed using a concrete weighting spectrum, as well as nuclides which are self-shielded and group collapsed using weighting spectra representative of important regions of LWRs. The verification and validation of the new libraries includes a set of critical benchmark experiments, a set of regression tests that are used to evaluate multigroup crosssection libraries in the SCALE code system, and three pressure vessel dosimetry benchmarks. Results of these tests confirm that the new libraries are appropriate for use in LWR shielding analyses and meet the requirements of Regulatory Guide 1.190.

  3. Mass spectrometry in identification of ecotoxicants including chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Albert T.

    2005-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is a unique tool to detect and identify trace levels of organic and bioorganic compounds as well as microorganisms in the environment. The range of potential chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents is very broad. An important advantage of mass spectrometry over other techniques involves potential for full spectrum detection of chemical and biological agents including mid-spectrum materials (i.e. bioactive peptides, toxins, etc.) for which biological approaches are inadequate. Being very fast (seconds and minutes), extremely sensitive (zeptomoles 10 -21 ), and informative (detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of mixtures containing hundreds of chemicals), mass spectrometry is a principal analytical tool at the sites of destruction of CW. Due to its unique features, mass spectrometry is applied not only for the detection of CW agents, but for the analysis of products of metabolism and degradation of these agents in organisms or environment as well. The present paper deals with some examples of successful application of mass spectrometry for the analyses of ecotoxicants, chemical warfare agents, explosives, and microorganisms including biology warfare agents

  4. Screening of recombinant glycosyltransferases reveals the broad acceptor specificity of stevia UGT-76G1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Griet; Walmagh, Maarten; Diricks, Margo; Lepak, Alexander; Gutmann, Alexander; Nidetzky, Bernd; Desmet, Tom

    2016-09-10

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are a promising class of biocatalysts that offer a sustainable alternative for chemical glycosylation of natural products. In this study, we aimed to characterize plant-derived UGTs from the GT-1 family with an emphasis on their acceptor promiscuity and their potential application in glycosylation processes. Recombinant expression in E. coli provided sufficient amounts of enzyme for the in-depth characterization of the salicylic acid UGT from Capsella rubella (UGT-SACr) and the stevia UGT from Stevia rebaudiana (UGT-76G1Sr). The latter was found to have a remarkably broad specificity with activities on a wide diversity of structures, from aliphatic and branched alcohols, over small phenolics to larger flavonoids, terpenoids and even higher glycoside compounds. As an example for its industrial potential, the glycosylation of curcumin was thoroughly evaluated. Under optimized conditions, 96% of curcumin was converted within 24h into the corresponding curcumin β-glycosides. In addition, the reaction was performed in a coupled system with sucrose synthase from Glycine max, to enable the cost-efficient (re)generation of UDP-Glc from sucrose as abundant and renewable resource. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An intellectual property sharing initiative in agricultural biotechnology: development of broadly accessible technologies for plant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Ham, Cecilia L; Boettiger, Sara; Figueroa-Balderas, Rosa; Bird, Sara; Geoola, Josef N; Zamora, Pablo; Alandete-Saez, Monica; Bennett, Alan B

    2012-06-01

    The Public Intellectual Property Resource for Agriculture (PIPRA) was founded in 2004 by the Rockefeller Foundation in response to concerns that public investments in agricultural biotechnology benefiting developing countries were facing delays, high transaction costs and lack of access to important technologies due to intellectual property right (IPR) issues. From its inception, PIPRA has worked broadly to support a wide range of research in the public sector, in specialty and minor acreage crops as well as crops important to food security in developing countries. In this paper, we review PIPRA's work, discussing the failures, successes, and lessons learned during its years of operation. To address public sector's limited freedom-to-operate, or legal access to third-party rights, in the area of plant transformation, we describe PIPRA's patent 'pool' approach to develop open-access technologies for plant transformation which consolidate patent and tangible property rights in marker-free vector systems. The plant transformation system has been licensed and deployed for both commercial and humanitarian applications in the United States (US) and Africa, respectively. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Endovascular Broad-Neck Aneurysm Creation in a Porcine Model Using a Vascular Plug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlenbruch, Georg, E-mail: gmuehlenbruch@ukaachen.de; Nikoubashman, Omid; Steffen, Bjoern; Dadak, Mete [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital (Germany); Palmowski, Moritz [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital (Germany); Wiesmann, Martin [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Ruptured cerebral arterial aneurysms require prompt treatment by either surgical clipping or endovascular coiling. Training for these sophisticated endovascular procedures is essential and ideally performed in animals before their use in humans. Simulators and established animal models have shown drawbacks with respect to degree of reality, size of the animal model and aneurysm, or time and effort needed for aneurysm creation. We therefore aimed to establish a realistic and readily available aneurysm model. Five anticoagulated domestic pigs underwent endovascular intervention through right femoral access. A total of 12 broad-neck aneurysms were created in the carotid, subclavian, and renal arteries using the Amplatzer vascular plug. With dedicated vessel selection, cubic, tubular, and side-branch aneurysms could be created. Three of the 12 implanted occluders, two of them implanted over a side branch of the main vessel, did not induce complete vessel occlusion. However, all aneurysms remained free of intraluminal thrombus formation and were available for embolization training during a surveillance period of 6 h. Two aneurysms underwent successful exemplary treatment: one was stent-assisted, and one was performed with conventional endovascular coil embolization. The new porcine aneurysm model proved to be a straightforward approach that offers a wide range of training and scientific applications that might help further improve endovascular coil embolization therapy in patients with cerebral aneurysms.

  7. Endovascular Broad-Neck Aneurysm Creation in a Porcine Model Using a Vascular Plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mühlenbruch, Georg; Nikoubashman, Omid; Steffen, Björn; Dadak, Mete; Palmowski, Moritz; Wiesmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Ruptured cerebral arterial aneurysms require prompt treatment by either surgical clipping or endovascular coiling. Training for these sophisticated endovascular procedures is essential and ideally performed in animals before their use in humans. Simulators and established animal models have shown drawbacks with respect to degree of reality, size of the animal model and aneurysm, or time and effort needed for aneurysm creation. We therefore aimed to establish a realistic and readily available aneurysm model. Five anticoagulated domestic pigs underwent endovascular intervention through right femoral access. A total of 12 broad-neck aneurysms were created in the carotid, subclavian, and renal arteries using the Amplatzer vascular plug. With dedicated vessel selection, cubic, tubular, and side-branch aneurysms could be created. Three of the 12 implanted occluders, two of them implanted over a side branch of the main vessel, did not induce complete vessel occlusion. However, all aneurysms remained free of intraluminal thrombus formation and were available for embolization training during a surveillance period of 6 h. Two aneurysms underwent successful exemplary treatment: one was stent-assisted, and one was performed with conventional endovascular coil embolization. The new porcine aneurysm model proved to be a straightforward approach that offers a wide range of training and scientific applications that might help further improve endovascular coil embolization therapy in patients with cerebral aneurysms.

  8. Anisotropic damage model for concrete including unilateral effects: application to numerical simulation of confinement vessels; Modelisation de l'endommagement anisotrope du beton avec prise en compte de l'effet unilateral: application a la simulation des enceintes de confinement nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godard, V

    2005-01-15

    The behaviour of concrete, considered as isotropic for a sound material, becomes anisotropic and unilateral as soon as microcracks are initiated. Concrete also shows a different behaviour in tension than in compression. However, isotropic models, which are more simple and time costless, are still widely used for industrial applications. An anisotropic and unilateral model, with few parameters, is thus proposed in the present work, which enhances the accuracy of the description of concrete's behaviour, while remaining suitable for industrial studies. The validation of the model is based on experimental results. Numerical simulations of structures are also proposed, among which one concerns a representative volume of a confinement vessel. Finally, a non local theory is investigated to overcome the problems induced by strain localisation. (author)

  9. Harvesting Broad Frequency Band Blue Energy by a Triboelectric-Electromagnetic Hybrid Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhen; Guo, Hengyu; Zi, Yunlong; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Wang, Xin; Deng, Jianan; Wang, Jie; Li, Shengming; Hu, Chenguo; Zhu, Liping; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-07-26

    Ocean wave associated energy is huge, but it has little use toward world energy. Although such blue energy is capable of meeting all of our energy needs, there is no effective way to harvest it due to its low frequency and irregular amplitude, which may restrict the application of traditional power generators. In this work, we report a hybrid nanogenerator that consists of a spiral-interdigitated-electrode triboelectric nanogenerator (S-TENG) and a wrap-around electromagnetic generator (W-EMG) for harvesting ocean energy. In this design, the S-TENG can be fully isolated from the external environment through packaging and indirectly driven by the noncontact attractive forces between pairs of magnets, and W-EMG can be easily hybridized. Notably, the hybrid nanogenerator could generate electricity under either rotation mode or fluctuation mode to collect energy in ocean tide, current, and wave energy due to the unique structural design. In addition, the characteristics and advantages of outputs indicate that the S-TENG is irreplaceable for harvesting low rotation speeds (10 Hz). The complementary output can be maximized and hybridized for harvesting energy in a broad frequency range. Finally, a single hybrid nanogenerator unit was demonstrated to harvest blue energy as a practical power source to drive several LEDs under different simulated water wave conditions. We also proposed a blue energy harvesting system floating on the ocean surface that could simultaneously harvest wind, solar, and wave energy. The proposed hybrid nanogenerator renders an effective and sustainable progress in practical applications of the hybrid nanogenerator toward harvesting water wave energy offered by nature.

  10. Expression of the Broad Autism Phenotype in Simplex Autism Families from the Simons Simplex Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Julie; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.; Green-Snyder, Lee Anne; Hundley, Rachel J.; Warren, Zachary; Peters, Sarika U.

    2014-01-01

    The broad autism phenotype (BAP) refers to the phenotypic expression of an underlying genetic liability to autism, manifest in non-autistic relatives. This study examined the relationship among the "Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire" (BAPQ), "Social Responsiveness Scale: Adult Research Version" (SRS:ARV), and "Family…

  11. Extrusion-cooking to improve the animal feed quality of broad beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscicki, L.; Wojcik, S.; Plaur, K.; Zuilichem, van D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Extrusion-cooking of broad beans with a single-screw extruder has been investigated. Attention was focused on process requirements as well as on the nutritional effects of extrusion-cooked broad beans in a chicken feed formulation. The optimal thermal process conditions required for a product of

  12. Sex Differences and Within-Family Associations in the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusek, Jessica; Losh, Molly; Martin, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    While there is a strong sex bias in the presentation of autism, it is unknown whether this bias is also present in subclinical manifestations of autism among relatives, or the broad autism phenotype. This study examined this question and investigated patterns of co-occurrence of broad autism phenotype traits within families of individuals with…

  13. Weaknesses in Awarding Fees for the Broad Area Maritime Surveillance Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    Table of Contents Introduction 1 Audit Objectives 1 Background on Broad Area Maritime Surveillance 1...24 Mangement Comments The Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development, and Acquisition 25... Introduction Audit Objectives This is the first in a series of reports on the contract supporting the Broad Area Maritime

  14. 33 CFR 110.27 - Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. 110.27 Section 110.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.27 Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. North of...

  15. Development of a freshwater lens in the inverted Broad Fourteens Basin, Netherlands offshore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouw, Laurien; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2003-01-01

    The Mesozoic Broad Fourteens Basin is a northwest-southeast trending structural element, situated in the southern North-Sea,Netherlands offshore. Biodegraded and water-washed oils in the southern Broad Fourteens Basin indicate topography-driven meteoric water flow during Late Cretaceous inversion.

  16. 78 FR 38162 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing One Distinct Population Segment of Broad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Management of Brazilian Crocodilians (Coutinho and Luz 2008 in Velasco et al. 2008 p. 80). The broad-snouted... from the Brazilian List of Endangered Fauna (The Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable... agriculture and river pollution have reduced the availability of broad-snouted caiman habitat in Brazil...

  17. The Broad Challenge to Democratic Leadership: The Other Crisis in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Vachel W.

    2012-01-01

    This article interrogates the workings of the Broad Superintendents Academy, as a specific illustration of the influence of venture philanthropy in American public education. It introduces the Broad Foundation's agenda for educational leadership training, foregrounding how it frames the problem of leadership and the implications of such training…

  18. Theoretical Study of Phosphoethanolamine: A Synthetic Anticancer Agent with Broad Antitumor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Prates Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major public health problem with limited success of available treatments, pointing to the need for new strategies to be developed. Phosphoethanolamine exhibits broad antitumor activity in a variety of tumor cells and potent inhibitor effects on tumor progress in vivo. Once-used organophosphates inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE, resulting in toxic effects to the user. As this group is present in phosphoethanolamine, we perform prediction of the in silico metabolism of phosphoethanolamine and submit this series to a docking study on AChE. A total of 10 metabolites were indicated by the prediction, including ammonia and hydroxylamine, which were not included in the study. Using a group of 8 organophosphorus whose pIC50 values ranged from 5.92 to 9.47 as template, we observed that no compound present in the phosphoethanolamine series had a binding energy lower than that of organophosphorus, suggesting that the series has low inhibitory power on AChE. In light of this, we conclude that phosphoethanolamine and its predicted metabolites do not significantly inhibit AChE to cause a cholinergic crisis. This finding highlights the importance of investigating this compound as lead for potential anticancer agents.

  19. Ceftiofur sodium, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin: evaluation in vitro and in vivo in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, R J; Kinney, M L; Roberts, B J; Goodenough, K R; Hamel, J C; Ford, C W

    1987-07-01

    Ceftiofur sodium, a broad-spectrum beta-lactamase-resistant cephalosporin, was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in mice. Ceftiofur is the sodium salt of (6R, 7R)-7[( 2-amino-4-thiazolyl)-Z- (methoxyimino)acetyl]amino)-3-[( (2-furanylcarbonyl)thio]methyl)-8-oxo-5- thia-1-azabicyclo-[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate. Minimal inhibitory concentration values were obtained with 264 strains representing 9 genera and 17 species of bacterial pathogens from cattle, swine, sheep, horses, poultry, dogs, cats, and human beings. Ceftiofur was more active than was ampicillin against all strains tested including beta-lactamase-producing organisms. In mice with systemic infections, ceftiofur was more active than or equivalent to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefamandole, cloxacillin, cefoperazone, or pirlimycin. These protection tests included infections with Escherichia coli, Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae, H somnus, Pasteurella haemolytica, P multocida, Salmonella typhimurium, or Staphylococcus aureus. In infant mice with E coli-induced lethal diarrhea and in mice with S aureus and E coli-induced mastitis, ceftiofur was comparable or more active than was ampicillin.

  20. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  1. An aggregated perylene-based broad-spectrum, efficient and label-free quencher for multiplexed fluorescent bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Hu, Rong; Lv, Yi-Fan; Wu, Yuan; Liang, Hao; Huan, Shuang-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Tan, Weihong; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2014-08-15

    Fluorescent sensing systems based on the quenching of fluorophores have found wide applications in bioassays. An efficient quencher will endow the sensing system a high sensitivity. The frequently used quenchers are based on organic molecules or nanomaterials, which usually need tedious synthesizing and modifying steps, and exhibit different quenching efficiencies to different fluorophores. In this work, we for the first time report that aggregated perylene derivative can serve as a broad-spectrum and label-free quencher that is able to efficiently quench a variety of fluorophores, such as green, red and far red dyes labeled on DNA. By choosing nucleases as model biomolecules, such a broad-spectrum quencher was then employed to construct a multiplexed bioassay platform through a label-free manner. Due to the high quenching efficiency of the aggregated perylene, the proposed platform could detect nuclease with high sensitivity, with a detection limit of 0.03U/mL for EcoRV, and 0.05U/mL for EcoRI. The perylene quencher does not affect the activity of nuclease, which makes it possible to design post-addition type bioassay platform. Moreover, the proposed platform allows simultaneous and multicolor analysis of nucleases in homogeneous solution, demonstrating its value of potential application in rapid screening of multiple bio-targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. DFB laser diodes for sensing applications using photoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeth, J; Fischer, M; Legge, M; Seufert, J; Roessner, K; Groninga, H

    2010-01-01

    We present typical device characteristics of novel DFB laser diodes which are employed in various sensing applications including high resolution photoacoustic spectroscopy. The laser diodes discussed are based on a genuine fabrication technology which allows for the production of ultra stable devices within a broad spectral range from 760 nm up to 3000 nm wavelength. The devices exhibit narrow linewidths down to <1 MHz which makes them ideally suited for all photoacoustic sensing applications where a high spectral purity is required. As an example we will focus on a typical medical application where these diodes are used for breath analysis using photoacoustic spectroscopy.

  3. Explicitly-correlated ring-coupled-cluster-doubles theory: Including exchange for computations on closed-shell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehn, Anna-Sophia; Holzer, Christof; Klopper, Wim, E-mail: klopper@kit.edu

    2016-11-10

    Highlights: • Ring-coupled-cluster-doubles approach now implemented with exchange terms. • Ring-coupled-cluster-doubles approach now implemented with F12 functions. • Szabo–Ostlund scheme (SO2) implemented for use in SAPT. • Fast convergence to the limit of a complete basis. • Implementation in the TURBOMOLE program system. - Abstract: Random-phase-approximation (RPA) methods have proven to be powerful tools in electronic-structure theory, being non-empirical, computationally efficient and broadly applicable to a variety of molecular systems including small-gap systems, transition-metal compounds and dispersion-dominated complexes. Applications are however hindered due to the slow basis-set convergence of the electron-correlation energy with the one-electron basis. As a remedy, we present approximate explicitly-correlated RPA approaches based on the ring-coupled-cluster-doubles formulation including exchange contributions. Test calculations demonstrate that the basis-set convergence of correlation energies is drastically accelerated through the explicitly-correlated approach, reaching 99% of the basis-set limit with triple-zeta basis sets. When implemented in close analogy to early work by Szabo and Ostlund [36], the new explicitly-correlated ring-coupled-cluster-doubles approach including exchange has the perspective to become a valuable tool in the framework of symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) for the computation of dispersion energies of molecular complexes of weakly interacting closed-shell systems.

  4. Changes in Consumer Attitudes toward Broad-Based and Environment-Specific Sodium Policies—SummerStyles 2012 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Erika C.; Whittick, Corine; Tong, Xin; Cogswell, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    We examined temporal changes in consumer attitudes toward broad-based actions and environment-specific policies to limit sodium in restaurants, manufactured foods, and school and workplace cafeterias from the 2012 and 2015 SummerStyle surveys. We used two online, national research panel surveys to conduct a cross-sectional analysis of 7845 U.S. adults. Measures included self-reported agreement with broad-based actions and environment-specific policies to limit sodium in restaurants, manufactured foods, school cafeterias, workplace cafeterias, and quick-serve restaurants. Wald Chi-square tests were used to examine the difference between the two survey years and multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios. Agreement with broad-based actions to limit sodium in restaurants (45.9% agreed in 2015) and manufactured foods (56.5% agreed in 2015) did not change between 2012 and 2015. From 2012 to 2015, there was a significant increase in respondents that supported environment-specific policies to lower sodium in school cafeterias (80.0% to 84.9%; p < 0.0001), workplace cafeterias (71.2% to 76.6%; p < 0.0001), and quick-serve restaurants (70.8% to 76.7%; p < 0.0001). Results suggest substantial agreement and support for actions to limit sodium in commercially-processed and prepared foods since 2012, with most consumers ready for actions to lower sodium in foods served in schools, workplaces, and quick-serve restaurants. PMID:28777339

  5. Changes in Consumer Attitudes toward Broad-Based and Environment-Specific Sodium Policies-SummerStyles 2012 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Erika C; Whittick, Corine; Tong, Xin; John, Katherine A; Cogswell, Mary E

    2017-08-04

    We examined temporal changes in consumer attitudes toward broad-based actions and environment-specific policies to limit sodium in restaurants, manufactured foods, and school and workplace cafeterias from the 2012 and 2015 SummerStyle surveys. We used two online, national research panel surveys to conduct a cross-sectional analysis of 7845 U.S. adults. Measures included self-reported agreement with broad-based actions and environment-specific policies to limit sodium in restaurants, manufactured foods, school cafeterias, workplace cafeterias, and quick-serve restaurants. Wald Chi-square tests were used to examine the difference between the two survey years and multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios. Agreement with broad-based actions to limit sodium in restaurants (45.9% agreed in 2015) and manufactured foods (56.5% agreed in 2015) did not change between 2012 and 2015. From 2012 to 2015, there was a significant increase in respondents that supported environment-specific policies to lower sodium in school cafeterias (80.0% to 84.9%; p consumers ready for actions to lower sodium in foods served in schools, workplaces, and quick-serve restaurants.

  6. Using the written description requirement to limit broad patent scope, allow competition, and encourage innovation in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, William C

    2004-01-01

    The biotechnology research and development process is extremely expensive and companies must attract investors to this high-risk industry to pay for these costs. Biotechnology companies rely on their ability to exclude others from exploiting the benefits of their research through patent protection to attract these investors. Consequently, they seek strong patent protection for their inventions by claiming a broad scope of patent protection for their inventions. Biotechnology is an industry where the scope of protection should be limited. Science-based technologies exploit the perceived technological opportunities from recent scientific developments, concentrating the attention of many inventors on the same areas. This poses several unique problems. First, only the first of several inventors will receive a patent to the invention. Second, due to publicly available, basic techniques, the actual contribution made by the inventor may be relatively small. Finally, there is a significant risk that permitting an overbroad patent scope may permit original patentees to control a variety of improvements and a number of applications. Additionally, a broad scope of protection for an invention tends to cause underutilization of many potential inventions or improvements. By limiting the scope of protection, one allows competitors to utilize these potential inventions or improvements and encourages the advancement of the technology. Traditionally, courts have used the scope of the disclosure to limit a patent with an overly broad scope of protection. The Federal Circuit is correctly applying the written description requirement as part of the disclosure to limit broad claim scope in biotechnology patents. The written description requirement is separate from the enablement requirement and applies to all claims. By requiring a written description to allow a PHOSITA to determine the structural characteristics of the claimed invention, the Federal Circuit is able limit biotechnology

  7. Applications of Oregon State University's TRIGA reactor in health physics education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Oregon State University TRIGA reactor (OSTR) is used to support a broad range of traditional academic disciplines, including anthropology, oceanography, geology, physics, nuclear chemistry, and nuclear engineering. However, it also finds extensive application in the somewhat more unique area of health physics education and research. This paper summarizes these health physics applications and briefly describes how the OSTR makes important educational contributions to the field of health physics

  8. Characterization of broadly neutralizing antibody responses to HIV-1 in a cohort of long term non-progressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Nuria; McKee, Krisha; Lynch, Rebecca M; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Jimenez, Laura; Grau, Eulalia; Yuste, Eloísa; Kwong, Peter D; Mascola, John R; Alcamí, José

    2018-01-01

    Only a small fraction of HIV-1-infected patients develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), a process generally associated to chronic antigen stimulation. It has been described that rare aviremic HIV-1-infected patients can generate bNAbs but this issue remains controversial. To address this matter we have assessed bNAb responses in a large cohort of long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) with low or undetectable viremia. Samples from the LTNP cohort of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (87 elite and 42 viremic controllers) and a control population of 176 viremic typical-progressors (TPs) were screened for bNAbs using Env-recombinant viruses. bNAb specificities were studied by ELISA using mutated gp120, neutralization assays with mutated viruses, and peptide competition. Epitope specificities were also elucidated from the serum pattern of neutralization against a panel of diverse HIV-1 isolates. Broadly neutralizing sera were found among 9.3% LTNPs, both elite (7%) and viremic controllers (14%). Within the broadly neutralizing sera, CD4 binding site antibodies were detected by ELISA in 4/12 LTNPs (33%), and 16/33 of TPs (48%). Anti-MPER antibodies were detected in 6/12 LTNPs (50%) and 14/33 TPs (42%) whereas glycan-dependent HIV-1 bNAbs were more frequent in LTNPs (11/12, 92%) as compared to TPs (12/33, 36%). A good concordance between standard serum mapping and neutralization-based mapping was observed. LTNPs, both viremic and elite controllers, showed broad humoral immune responses against HIV-1, including activity against many major epitopes involved in bNAbs-mediated protection.

  9. Detection of broad ultraviolet Fe II lines in the spectrum of NGC 1068

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snijders, M.A.J.; Netzer, Hagai; Boksenberg, A.

    1986-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of the nucleus of NGC 1068, obtained by the IUE over a period of 5 yr, are combined to give a high signal-to-noise spectrum of this source. The ultraviolet stellar continuum, obtained by comparison with ground-based data, is subtracted to show the nuclear non-stellar component. The resulting spectrum shows clearly the presence of strong broad FeII emission bands similar to those observed in many broad-line objects. Broad profiles are also seen in other strong emission lines. These observations confirm the recent discovery of an optical Seyfert type 1 spectrum in NGC 1068. (author)

  10. MN15-L: A New Local Exchange-Correlation Functional for Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory with Broad Accuracy for Atoms, Molecules, and Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haoyu S; He, Xiao; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-08

    Kohn-Sham density functional theory is widely used for applications of electronic structure theory in chemistry, materials science, and condensed-matter physics, but the accuracy depends on the quality of the exchange-correlation functional. Here, we present a new local exchange-correlation functional called MN15-L that predicts accurate results for a broad range of molecular and solid-state properties including main-group bond energies, transition metal bond energies, reaction barrier heights, noncovalent interactions, atomic excitation energies, ionization potentials, electron affinities, total atomic energies, hydrocarbon thermochemistry, and lattice constants of solids. The MN15-L functional has the same mathematical form as a previous meta-nonseparable gradient approximation exchange-correlation functional, MN12-L, but it is improved because we optimized it against a larger database, designated 2015A, and included smoothness restraints; the optimization has a much better representation of transition metals. The mean unsigned error on 422 chemical energies is 2.32 kcal/mol, which is the best among all tested functionals, with or without nonlocal exchange. The MN15-L functional also provides good results for test sets that are outside the training set. A key issue is that the functional is local (no nonlocal exchange or nonlocal correlation), which makes it relatively economical for treating large and complex systems and solids. Another key advantage is that medium-range correlation energy is built in so that one does not need to add damped dispersion by molecular mechanics in order to predict accurate noncovalent binding energies. We believe that the MN15-L functional should be useful for a wide variety of applications in chemistry, physics, materials science, and molecular biology.

  11. Applications of inventory difference tool at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hench, K.W.; Longmire, V.; Yarbro, T.F.; Zardecki, A.

    1998-01-01

    A prototype computer program reads the inventory entries directly from the Microsoft Access database. Based on historical data, the program then displays temporal trends and constructs a library of rules that encapsulate the system behavior. The analysis of inventory data is illustrated using a combination of realistic and simulated facility examples. Potential payoffs of this methodology include a reduction in time and resources needed to perform statistical tests and a broad applicability to DOE needs such as treaty verification

  12. Overview of Accelerator Applications for Security and Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolak, Arlyn J.

    Particle accelerators play a key role in a broad set of defense and security applications, including war-fighter and asset protection, cargo inspection, nonproliferation, materials characterization, and stockpile stewardship. Accelerators can replace the high activity radioactive sources that pose a security threat to developing a radiological dispersal device, and, can be used to produce isotopes for medical, industrial, and research purposes. An overview of current and emerging accelerator technologies relevant to addressing the needs of defense and security is presented.

  13. Broad-based visual benefits from training with an integrated perceptual-learning video game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveau, Jenni; Lovcik, Gary; Seitz, Aaron R

    2014-06-01

    Perception is the window through which we understand all information about our environment, and therefore deficits in perception due to disease, injury, stroke or aging can have significant negative impacts on individuals' lives. Research in the field of perceptual learning has demonstrated that vision can be improved in both normally seeing and visually impaired individuals, however, a limitation of most perceptual learning approaches is their emphasis on isolating particular mechanisms. In the current study, we adopted an integrative approach where the goal is not to achieve highly specific learning but instead to achieve general improvements to vision. We combined multiple perceptual learning approaches that have individually contributed to increasing the speed, magnitude and generality of learning into a perceptual-learning based video-game. Our results demonstrate broad-based benefits of vision in a healthy adult population. Transfer from the game includes; improvements in acuity (measured with self-paced standard eye-charts), improvement along the full contrast sensitivity function, and improvements in peripheral acuity and contrast thresholds. The use of this type of this custom video game framework built up from psychophysical approaches takes advantage of the benefits found from video game training while maintaining a tight link to psychophysical designs that enable understanding of mechanisms of perceptual learning and has great potential both as a scientific tool and as therapy to help improve vision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dissecting disease entities out of the broad spectrum of bipolar-disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joseph; Toker, Lilach; Agam, Galila

    2018-01-01

    The etiopathology of bipolar disorders is yet unraveled and new avenues should be pursued. One such avenue may be based on the assumption that the bipolar broad spectrum includes, among others, an array of rare medical disease entities. Towards this aim we propose a dissecting approach based on a search for rare medical diseases with known etiopathology which also exhibit bipolar disorders symptomatology. We further suggest that the etiopathologic mechanisms underlying such rare medical diseases may also underlie a rare variant of bipolar disorder. Such an assumption may be further reinforced if both the rare medical disease and its bipolar clinical phenotype demonstrate a] a similar mode of inheritance (i.e, autosomal dominant); b] brain involvement; and c] data implicating that the etiopathological mechanisms underlying the rare diseases affect biological processes reported to be associated with bipolar disorders and their treatment. We exemplify our suggested approach by a rare case of autosomal dominant leucodystrophy, a disease entity exhibiting nuclear lamin B1 pathology also presenting bipolar symptomatology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mednet: the very broad-band seismic network for the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi, E.; Giardini, D.; Morelli, A.

    1991-01-01

    Mednet is the very broad-band seismic network installed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING) in countries of the mediterranean area, with a final goal of 12-15 stations and a spacing of about 1000 km between stations. The project started in 1987 and will be completed within 1992. Mednet is motivated both by research interest and by seismic hazard monitoring; it will allow to define the structure of the mediterranean region to a high detail, to study properties of the seismic source for intermediate and large events, and to apply this knowledge to procedures of civil protection. To reach its goals, the network has been designed following the highest technical standards: STS-1/VBB sensors, Quanterra 24 bits A/D converters with 140 dB dynamic range, real-time telemetry. Five sites are now operational in Italy (L'Aquila, Bardonecchia and Villasalto) and in northern african countries (Midelt, Morocco; Gafsa, Tunisia); other sites are under construction in Pakistan (Islamabad), Irak (Rutba) and Egypt (Kottamya), while locations are examined for stations in Greece, Jugoslavia and Algeria. The centre of the mednet network is the data center (MDC) in Rome; its tasks include data collection, verification, quality control, archivial and dissemination, monitoring of station performance, event detection, routine determination of source parameters. Data distribution will follow the guidelines set by FDSN, and will be coordinated with other international network projects

  16. Predictors of Broad Dimensions of Psychopathology among Patients with Panic Disorder after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Masaki; Ino, Keiko; Imai, Risa; Ii, Toshitaka; Furukawa, Toshi A.; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2018-01-01

    Background Many patients with panic disorder meet criteria for at least one other diagnosis, most commonly other anxiety or mood disorders. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the best empirically supported psychotherapy for panic disorder. There is now evidence indicating that cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder yields positive benefits upon comorbid disorders. Objectives The present study aimed to examine the predictors of broad dimensions of psychopathology in panic disorder after cognitive-behavioral therapy. Methods Two hundred patients affected by panic disorder were treated with manualized group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We examined if the baseline personality dimensions of NEO Five Factor Index predicted the subscales of Symptom Checklist-90 Revised at endpoint using multiple regression analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Results Conscientiousness score of NEO Five Factor Index at baseline was a predictor of four Symptom Checklist-90 Revised subscales including obsessive-compulsive (β = −0.15, P cognitive-behavioral therapy. For the purpose of improving a wide range of psychiatric symptoms with patients affected by panic disorder, it may be useful to pay more attention to this personal trait at baseline. PMID:29721499

  17. Agricultural Set-aside Programs and Grassland Birds: Insights from Broad-scale Population Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riffell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP is a voluntary set-aside program in the United States designed to amelioratesoil erosion, control crop overproduction, enhance water quality, and provide wildlife habitat by replacing crops with other forms of land cover. Because CRP includes primarily grass habitats, it has great potential to benefitdeclining North American grassland bird populations. We looked at the change in national and state population trends of grassland birds and related changes to cover-specific CRP variables (previous research grouped all CRP practices. Changes in national trends after the initiation of the CRP were inconclusive, but we observed signficant bird-CRP relations at the state level. Most bird-CRP relations were positive, except for some species associated with habitats that CRP replaced. Practice- and configuration-specific CRP variables were related to grassland bird trends, rather than a generic measure of all CRP types combined. Considering all CRP land as a single, distinct habitat type may obscure actual relations between birds and set-aside characteristics. Understanding and predictingthe effects of set-aside programs (like CRP or agri-environment schemes on grassland birds is complex and difficult. Because available broad-scale datasets are less than adequate, studies should be conducted at a variety of spatial and temporal scales.

  18. Implementation of broad screening with Ebola rapid diagnostic tests in Forécariah, Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantz Jean Louis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory-enhanced surveillance is critical for rapidly detecting the potential re-emergence of Ebola virus disease. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for Ebola antigens could expand diagnostic capacity for Ebola virus disease. Objectives: The Guinean National Coordination for Ebola Response conducted a pilot implementation to determine the feasibility of broad screening of patients and corpses with the OraQuick® Ebola RDT. Methods: The implementation team developed protocols and trained healthcare workers to screen patients and corpses in Forécariah prefecture, Guinea, from 15 October to 30 November 2015. Data collected included number of consultations, number of fevers reported or measured, number of tests performed for patients or corpses and results of confirmatory RT-PCR testing. Data on malaria RDT results were collected for comparison. Feedback from Ebola RDT users was collected informally during supervision visits and forums. Results: There were 3738 consultations at the 15 selected healthcare facilities; 74.6% of consultations were for febrile illness. Among 2787 eligible febrile patients, 2633 were tested for malaria and 1628 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were performed. A total of 322 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were conducted on corpses. All Ebola tests on eligible patients were negative. Conclusions: Access to Ebola testing was expanded by the implementation of RDTs in an emergency situation. Feedback from Ebola RDT users and lessons learned will contribute to improving quality for RDT expansion.

  19. Relational values resonate broadly and differently than intrinsic or instrumental values, or the New Ecological Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klain, Sarah C; Olmsted, Paige; Chan, Kai M A; Satterfield, Terre

    2017-01-01

    Value orientations used to explain or justify conservation have been rooted in arguments about how much and in what context to emphasize the intrinsic versus instrumental value of nature. Equally prominent are characterizations of beliefs known as the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP), often used to help explain pro-environmental behaviour. A recent alternative to these positions has been identified as 'relational value'-broadly, values linking people and ecosystems via tangible and intangible relationships to nature as well as the principles, virtues and notions of a good life that may accompany these. This paper examines whether relational values are distinct from other value orientation and have potential to alleviate the intrinsic-instrumental debate. To test this possibility, we sought to operationalize the construct-relational values-by developing six relational statements. We ask: 1) Do the individual statements used to characterize relational values demonstrate internal coherence as either a single or multi-dimensional construct? 2) Do relational value statements (including those strongly stated) resonate with diverse populations? 3) Do people respond to relational value statements in a consistently different way than NEP scale statements? Data for this work is drawn from an online panel of residents of northeastern US (n = 400), as well as a sample of Costa Rican farmers (n = 253) and tourists in Costa Rica (n = 260). Results indicate relational values are distinct as a construct when compared to the NEP.

  20. Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad energy Germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fujikawa, Brian; Fuller, Erin S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Qian, J.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof P.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.; Zimmerman, S.

    2011-10-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is building the Majorana Demonstrator, a 60 kg array of high purity germanium detectors housed in an ultra-low background shield at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The Majorana Demonstrator will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge while demonstrating the feasibility of a tonne-scale experiment. It may also carry out a dark matter search in the 1-10 GeV/c² mass range. We have found that customized Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors produced by Canberra have several desirable features for a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment, including low electronic noise, excellent pulse shape analysis capabilities, and simple fabrication. We have deployed a customized BEGe, the Majorana Low-Background BEGe at Kimballton (MALBEK), in a low-background cryostat and shield at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility in Virginia. This paper will focus on the detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a radiation detector in a low-background environment.